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Sample records for section coating life

  1. Degradation of gas turbine coatings and life assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheruvu, N.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31

    MCrAlY coatings are widely used on hot section components of gas turbines to provide hot corrosion and/or oxidation protection by formation of an oxide layer on the surface. As the protective oxide scale exfoliates during service, aluminum from the coating diffuses outward for reformation of the protective scale. Aluminum may also diffuse inward due to the differences in composition between the coating and the substrate. Thus, the coatings degrade due to oxidation, oxide scale spallation, and inward and outward diffusion of aluminum. Service life of these coatings is controlled by the aluminum content in the coating, operating temperature and start- shutdown cycles. In-service degradation of CoCrAlY and CoNiCrAlY coatings is presented. A procedure to predict the remaining service life of coatings under oxidizing conditions is discussed. (orig.) 12 refs.

  2. Degradation of gas turbine coatings and life assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheruvu, N S [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1999-12-31

    MCrAlY coatings are widely used on hot section components of gas turbines to provide hot corrosion and/or oxidation protection by formation of an oxide layer on the surface. As the protective oxide scale exfoliates during service, aluminum from the coating diffuses outward for reformation of the protective scale. Aluminum may also diffuse inward due to the differences in composition between the coating and the substrate. Thus, the coatings degrade due to oxidation, oxide scale spallation, and inward and outward diffusion of aluminum. Service life of these coatings is controlled by the aluminum content in the coating, operating temperature and start- shutdown cycles. In-service degradation of CoCrAlY and CoNiCrAlY coatings is presented. A procedure to predict the remaining service life of coatings under oxidizing conditions is discussed. (orig.) 12 refs.

  3. Leading edge erosion of coated wind turbine blades: Review of coating life models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, H.M.; Gelinck, E.R.M.; Rentrop, A.; van der Heide, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Erosion of the leading edge of wind turbine blades by droplet impingement wear, reduces blade aerodynamic efficiency and power output. Eventually, it compromises the integrity of blade surfaces. Elastomeric coatings are currently used for erosion resistance, yet the life of such coatings cannot be

  4. Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  5. Adhesive Bioactive Coatings Inspired by Sea Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Sónia J; Vale, Ana C; Luz, Gisela M; Mano, João F; Alves, Natália M

    2016-01-19

    Inspired by nature, in particular by the marine mussels adhesive proteins (MAPs) and by the tough brick-and-mortar nacre-like structure, novel multilayered films are prepared in the present work. Organic-inorganic multilayered films, with an architecture similar to nacre based on bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG), chitosan, and hyaluronic acid modified with catechol groups, which are the main components responsible for the outstanding adhesion in MAPs, are developed for the first time. The biomimetic conjugate is prepared by carbodiimide chemistry and analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The buildup of the multilayered films is monitored with a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, and their topography is characterized by atomic force microscopy. The mechanical properties reveal that the films containing catechol groups and BG present an enhanced adhesion. Moreover, the bioactivity of the films upon immersion in a simulated body fluid solution is evaluated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the constructed films promote the formation of bonelike apatite in vitro. Such multifunctional mussel inspired LbL films, which combine enhanced adhesion and bioactivity, could be potentially used as coatings of a variety of implants for orthopedic applications.

  6. Influence of coating quality on the service life of land-based gas turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheruvu, N.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio (United States)

    2007-06-15

    The land-based gas turbine blades operate at severe operating conditions: higher metal temperatures and stresses, and severe duty cycles. Metallic coatings with or without a top ceramic coating have been used to protect the turbine blades. The durability of the coating system is one of the prime life-limiting factors of modem gas turbine blades. The quality of the coating plays a critical role on the coating life. This paper discusses the failure mechanisms of the coatings and describes how the quality of the coating affects the service life of a gas turbine blade. A few case studies are presented in the paper. (orig.)

  7. Aspects of fatigue life in thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, H.

    2001-08-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are applied on hot components in airborne and land based gas turbines when higher turbine inlet temperature, meaning better thermal efficiency, is desired. The TBC is mainly applied to protect underlying material from high temperatures, but also serves as a protection from the aggressive corrosive environment. Plasma sprayed coatings are often duplex TBC's with an outer ceramic top coat (TC) made from partially stabilised zirconia - ZrO{sub 2} + 6-8% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Below the top coat there is a metallic bond coat (BC). The BC is normally a MCrAlX coating (M=Ni, Co, Fe... and X=Y, Hf, Si ... ). In gas turbine components exposed to elevated temperatures nickel-based superalloys are commonly adopted as load carrying components. In the investigations performed here a commercial wrought Ni-base alloy Haynes 230 has been used as substrate for the TBC. As BC a NiCoCrAlY serves as a reference material and in all cases 7% Yttria PS zirconia has been used. Phase development and failure mechanisms in APS TBC during service-like conditions, have been evaluated in the present study. This is done by combinations of thermal cycling and low cycle fatigue tests. The aim is to achieve better knowledge regarding how, when and why thermal barrier coatings fail. As a final outcome of the project a model capable of predicting fatigue life of a given component will help engineers and designers of land based gas turbines for power generation to better optimise TBC's. In the investigations it is seen that TBC life is strongly influenced by oxidation of the BC and interdiffusion between BC and the substrate. The bond coat is known to oxidise with time at high temperature. The initial oxide found during testing is alumina. With increased time at high temperature Al is depleted from the bond coat due to inter-diffusion and oxidation. Oxides others than alumina start to form when the Al content is reduced below a critical limit. It is here believed

  8. Development of Reliability Based Life Prediction Methods for Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashwin

    2001-01-01

    Literature survey related to the EBC/TBC (environmental barrier coating/thermal barrier coating) fife models, failure mechanisms in EBC/TBC and the initial work plan for the proposed EBC/TBC life prediction methods development was developed as well as the finite element model for the thermal/stress analysis of the GRC-developed EBC system was prepared. Technical report for these activities is given in the subsequent sections.

  9. A Cross Sectional Study of Microbial Contamination of Medical Students’ White Coat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhadi, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of microbial contamination on medical students’ white coats, the way they handle and clean their white coats and their perception towards contamination. For this purpose, cross sectional survey of the bacterial contamination of white coats in a medical college has been carried out in 3 different locations; Royal College of Medicine, Perak, University of Kuala Lumpur and a private college attached to Ipoh General Hospital. It was found that the incidence of Staphylococus aureus, was 32% on short-sleeved and 54% on long-sleeved white coats. Bacillus species was the second most common type of bacteria found. Male collars and female pockets had higher microbial contaminations (p=0.01, 0.03 respectively. Clinical students’ white coats were significantly less contaminated than non-clinical students (p=0.001 although they tend to wear it for a longer period (5.75 ± 2.19 h vs. 2.32 ± 0.81 h (p=0.001. Clinical students owned more short-sleeved coats (p=0.001 and washed their coats more often (p=0.01 than non-clinical ones. More than eighty one percent of clinical students wear their white coats in the college the majority of whom were females (p=0.005. Perception of clinical and non-clinical students towards white coat contamination was similar. Medical students’ white coats are contaminated with bacteria and they are potentially source of cross infection. Student’s way of handling and washing white coats should be corrected by issuing and following standard guidelines. Students should be bared from wearing white coats in non-clinical areas. Washing hands and using plastic aprons is highly recommended before examining wounds.

  10. Characterization of industrially produced galvannealed coating using cross-sectional specimen in TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Saha, R.; Ray, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Galvannealed coated sheet steels are extensively used in the automotive industry due to their inherent advantages, as compared to other zinc based coating, such as excellent spot weldability, good corrosion resistance and better paintability. Despite the above advantages, galvannealed coating suffers from poor formability due to the presence of hard and brittle Fe-Zn intermetallic phases. The formability of the coating depends on the amount and orientation of different Fe-Zn intermetallic phases. The present study deals with the characterization of an industrially produced galvannealed coating using cross-sectional specimen in a Transmission Electron Microscope. From the selected area diffraction patterns obtained in Transmission Electron Microscope, the orientations of the delta phase were calculated.

  11. Effects of sunflower wax coating on physicochemical changes of mangifera indica L. in storage life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, R.K.; Sherazi, S.T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit has a relatively short storage life due to perishable nature. In order to increases the storage life of langra mangoes, fruits were coated with sunflower wax. Mangoes were stored at room and refrigerated temperature. Sunflower wax coating protects the mangoes in greater proportion to change their color, weight loss, moisture loss, pH and total soluble solids content. The sensorial panel also favors the grander role of sunflower wax coating. Application of sunflower wax coatings had no effect on vitamin C content of mangoes variety and could increases mango storage time around 30 days under regular storage conditions. Sunflower wax coating also inhibited the growth of micro-organisms. The data reveal that by applying a sunflower wax coating effectively prolongs the quality which attributes and extends the shelf life of mango. (author)

  12. THE USE OF COATINGS FOR HOT CORROSION AND EROSION PROTECTION IN TURBINE HOT SECTION COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin AHLATCI

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available High pressure turbine components are subjected to a wide variety of thermal and mechanical loading during service. In addition, the components are exposed to a highly oxidizing atmosphere which may contain contaminants such as sulphates, chlorides and sulphuorous gases along with erosive media. So the variety of surface coatings and deposition processes available for the protection of blade and vane components in gas turbines are summarised in this study. Coating types range from simple diffusion aluminides to modified aluminides and a CoCrAlY overlayer. The recommendations for corrosion-resistant coatings (for low temperature and high temperature hot corrosion environments are as follows: silicon aluminide and platinumchromium aluminide for different gas turbine section superalloys substrates. Platinum metal additions are used to improve the properties of coatings on turbine components. Inorganic coatings based on ceramic films which contain aluminium or aluminium and silicon are very effective in engines and gas turbines. Diffusion, overlayer and thermal barrier coatings which are deposited on superalloys gas turbine components by pack cementation, plasma spraying processes and a number of chemical vapour deposition, physical vapour deposition processes (such as electron beam, sputtering, ion plating are described. The principles underlying the development of protective coatings serve as a useful guide in the choice of coatings for other high temperature applications.

  13. Development and Life Prediction of Erosion Resistant Turbine Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Future rotorcraft propulsion systems are required to operate under highly-loaded conditions and in harsh sand erosion environments, thereby imposing significant material design and durability issues. The incorporation of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in high pressure turbine systems enables engine designs with higher inlet temperatures, thus improving the engine efficiency, power density and reliability. The impact and erosion resistance of turbine thermal barrier coating systems are crucial to the turbine coating technology application, because a robust turbine blade TBC system is a prerequisite for fully utilizing the potential coating technology benefit in the rotorcraft propulsion. This paper describes the turbine blade TBC development in addressing the coating impact and erosion resistance. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems with improved performance have also been validated in laboratory simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments. A preliminary life prediction modeling approach to emphasize the turbine blade coating erosion is also presented.

  14. Fracture toughness of esthetic dental coating systems by nanoindentation and FIB sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecnik, Christina Martina; Courty, Diana; Muff, Daniel; Spolenak, Ralph

    2015-07-01

    Improving the esthetics of Ti-based dental implants is the last challenge remaining in the optimization process. The optical issues were recently solved by the application of highly and selectively reflective coatings on Ti implants. This work focuses on the mechanical durability of these esthetic ceramic based coating systems (with and without adhesion layers). The coating systems (Ti-ZrO2, Ti-Al-ZrO2, Ti-Ti-Al-ZrO2, Ti-Ag-ZrO2, Ti-Ti-Ag-ZrO2, Ti-Bragg and Ti-TiO2-Bragg) were subjected to nanoindentation experiments and examined using scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam cross sectional analysis. Three coating systems contained adhesion layers (10nm of Ti or 60nm of TiO2 layers). The fracture toughness of selected samples was assessed applying two different models from literature, a classical for bulk materials and an energy-based model, which was further developed and adjusted. The ZrO2 based coating systems (total film thickness<200nm) followed a circumferential cracking behavior in contrast to Bragg coated samples (total film thickness around 1.5μm), which showed radial cracking emanating from the indent corners. For Ti-ZrO2 samples, a fracture toughness between 2.70 and 3.70MPam(1/2) was calculated using an energy-based model. The classical model was applied to Bragg coated samples and their fracture toughness ranged between 0.70 and 0.80MPam(1/2). Furthermore, coating systems containing an additional layer (Ti-Ti-Al-ZrO2, Ti-Ti-Ag-ZrO2 and Ti-TiO2-Bragg) showed an improved adhesion between the substrate and the coating. The addition of a Ti or TiO2 layer improved the adhesion between substrate and coating. The validity of the models for the assessment of the fracture toughness depended on the layer structure and fracture profile of the samples investigated here (classical model for thick coatings and energy-based model for thin coatings). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Hf Additions to Pt Aluminide Bond Coats on EB-PVD TBC Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, James; Nagaraj, Ben; Williams, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    Small Hf additions were incorporated into a Pt aluminide coating during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on single crystal RENE N5 substrates. Standard yttria-stabilized zirconia top coats were subsequently deposited onto the coated substrates by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The coated substrates underwent accelerated thermal cycle testing in a furnace at a temperature in excess of 1121 C (2050 F) (45 minute hot exposure, 15 minute cool to approximately 121 C (250 F)) until the thermal barrier coating (TBC) failed by spallation. Incorporating Hf in the bond coat increased the TBC life by slightly more than three times that of a baseline coating without added Hf. Scanning electron microscopy of the spalled surfaces indicated that the presence of the Hf increased the adherence of the thermally grown alumina to the Pt aluminide bond coat. The presence of oxide pegs growing into the coating from the thermally grown alumina may also partially account for the improved TBC life by creating a near-surface layer with a graded coefficient of thermal expansion.

  16. Accelerated life assessment of coating on the radar structure components in coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Ming, ZhiMao

    2016-07-04

    This paper aimed to build an accelerated life test scheme and carry out quantitative analysis between accelerated life test in the laboratory and actual service for the coating composed of epoxy primer and polyurethane paint on structure components of some kind of radar served in the coastal environment of South China Sea. The accelerated life test scheme was built based on the service environment and failure analysis of the coating. The quantitative analysis between accelerated life test and actual service was conducted by comparing the gloss loss, discoloration, chalking, blistering, cracking and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the coating. The main factors leading to the coating failure were ultraviolet radiation, temperature, moisture, salt fog and loads, the accelerated life test included ultraviolet radiation, damp heat, thermal shock, fatigue and salt spray. The quantitative relationship was that one cycle of the accelerated life test was equal to actual service for one year. It was established that one cycle of the accelerated life test was equal to actual service for one year. It provided a precise way to predict actual service life of newly developed coatings for the manufacturer.

  17. Deposition stress effects on the life of thermal barrier coatings on burner rigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  18. Edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropyl...

  19. Sectioning studies of biomimetic collagen-hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti-6Al-4V substrates using focused ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changmin; Yu, Le; Wei, Mei

    2018-06-01

    A biomimetic bone-like collagen-hydroxyapatite (Col-HA) composite coating was formed on a surface-treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate via simultaneous collagen self-assembly and hydroxyapatite nucleation. The coating process has been carried out by immersing sand-blasted, acid-etched and UV irradiated Ti-6Al-4V alloy in type I collagen-containing modified simulated body fluid (m-SBF). The surface morphology and phase composition of the coating were characterized using various techniques. More importantly, dual-beam FIB/SEMs with either gallium ion source (GFIB) or xenon plasma ion source (PFIB) were used to investigate the cross-sectional features of the biomimetic Col-HA composite coating in great details. As a result, the cross-sectional images and thin transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens were successfully obtained from the composite coating with no obvious damages or milling ion implantations. Both the cross-sectional SEM and TEM results have confirmed that the Col-HA coating demonstrates a similar microstructure to that of pure HA coating with homogeneously distributed elements across the whole cross section. Both coatings consist of a uniform, crack-free gradient structure with a dense layer adjacent to the interface between the Ti-6Al-4V substrate and the coating facilitating a strong bonding, while a porous structure at the coating surface aiding cell attachment.

  20. Preparation and properties of silicone fouling release coatings with long-life afterglow fluorescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhanping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on polydimethylsiloxane, three-component coatings were prepared with different content of luminescence powder. The results showed that the illuminance of coatings increases with the content of luminescence powder, decays exponentially with the afterglow time, increases exponentially with the increase of exposure time. The afterglow illuminance augments with irradiated light illuminance. All coatings are hydrophobic and oleophilic. Surface free energy decreases with the increase of luminescence powder. They have highest impact-resistance and bend flexibility. The luminescence powder does not change obviously the shore hardness, tensile breaking strength, breaking elongation rate, elastic modular and roughness of coatings. The static test panels in sea generally could be covered obviously by biofouling including sponges, bryophytes and mussels, hydra, kelp, green algae after 2 months of immersion during growing season. But it never found that the barnacle attached on the coating surface during 4 years of immersion test. The static anti-fouling ability of the coatings is very limited. In addition, the sea creatures attached on the coating surface can be easily removed; even attached organisms will fall off and expose again the smooth coating surface. Consequently, all coatings with long-life afterglow fluorescent have a significant effect on preventing adhesion of barnacle and fouling-release performance.

  1. Life cycle assessment of the application of nanoclays in wire coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellaetxe, A; Blázquez, M; Unzueta, I; Arteche, A; Egizabal, A; Ermini, V; Rose, J; Chaurand, P

    2012-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out to compare nanoclay-reinforced polymer wire coatings with conventional ones. While the conventional wire coatings contain standard halogen free retardants, in reinforced coatings, montmorillonite (nanoclay) is incorporated into electric cable linings as a rheological agent for an increased resistance to fire. In addition, a reduced load of standard halogen free retardants is obtained. The synergistic effect of the montmorillonite on traditional flame retardant additives (by the formation of a three-dimensional char network) can lead to a revolution in wire production. The application of nanoclays contributes also to anti-dripping effect and flexibility increase. Some producers have already started commercializing wire with nanotechnology-based coating; in the short term the use of nanoclay in wire coating production will probably reach a significant market share replacing traditional formulations. The main aim of this study is to compare the environmental impacts along the life cycle of a traditional wire coating (mineral flame retardants like ATH or MDH in a polymer matrix) with the nanoclay-reinforced wire coating, where the montmorillonite replaces a low percentage of the mineral flame retardant. The system boundaries of the study include the following unit processes: nanoclay production, thermoplastic material and mineral flame retardants production, cable coating manufacturing by extrusion and different end of life scenarios (recycling, incineration and landfill disposal). Whereas nanoreinforced composites have shown and increased fire retardance, the addition of nanomaterials seems to have no significant relevance in the environmental assessment. However, the lack of nano-specific characterization factors for nanomaterials and emission rates associated to the different life cycle stages -mainly in the extrusion and use phase, where accidental combustions can take place- still remains a challenge for realistic life

  2. Improvement of Shelf Life and Sensory Quality of Pears Using a Specialized Edible Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An edible coating functionalized with pomegranate polyphenols was designed. Different blends of candelilla wax, gum arabic, jojoba oil, and pomegranate polyphenols were formulated in order to improve the shelf life quality of pears (variety Bartlett, and all formulations were applied by immersion onto the fruit surface. Coated pears with and without polyphenols and uncoated pears (control were stored under the same conditions. Fruits were analyzed to evaluate changes in their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties during 30 days of storage at room temperature. Coated pears coded as T13 (candelilla wax 3%, gum arabic 4%, jojoba oil 0.15%, and pomegranate polyphenols 0.015% extended and improved their shelf life quality due to the minimization of the physic-chemical changes and sensorial properties. Therefore, the results indicated that the formulated edible coating has potential to extend the shelf life and maintain quality of pears. It was probed that coated pears were accepted for consumers as a good product. Edible coating application represents a good alternative to keep pears freshness for longer periods.

  3. IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ochoa-Reyes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums were evaluated in mixtures with candelilla wax as hydrophobic phase, jojoba oil as plasticizer and a crude extract of polyphenols as source of bioactive compounds. Green bell peppers were immersion-treated and then stored at room temperature. Response variables were: weight loss, color, appearance, pH, total soluble solids and firmness changes which were kinetically determined. All peppers treated with edible-coating showed a significant difference (Tukey, p≤0.05 in weight loss compared to control treatment (without edible coating, while a lower level of deterioration was observed in fruits treated with edible coating formulated with arabic gum, but appearance remained similar among fruits treated with different edible coatings. Use of mixtures of biopolymers, candelilla wax, jojoba oil and polyphenols to develop edible and functionalized coatings significantly extended shelf life of green bell pepper.

  4. Life Prediction Issues in Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coatings in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Brewer, David N.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    2001-01-01

    Issues and design requirements for the environmental barrier coating (EBC)/thermal barrier coating (TBC) life that are general and those specific to the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) development program have been described. The current state and trend of the research, methods in vogue related to the failure analysis, and long-term behavior and life prediction of EBCITBC systems are reported. Also, the perceived failure mechanisms, variables, and related uncertainties governing the EBCITBC system life are summarized. A combined heat transfer and structural analysis approach based on the oxidation kinetics using the Arrhenius theory is proposed to develop a life prediction model for the EBC/TBC systems. Stochastic process-based reliability approach that includes the physical variables such as gas pressure, temperature, velocity, moisture content, crack density, oxygen content, etc., is suggested. Benefits of the reliability-based approach are also discussed in the report.

  5. Efficacy of antimicrobial pullulan-based coating to improve internal quality and shelf-life of chicken eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Sharoba, Ashraf M; Khalaf, Hassan H; El-Tanahy, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of natural materials as a delivery mechanism for antimicrobials and coatings in foods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan coatings to improve internal quality and shelf-life of fresh eggs during 10 wk of storage at 25 and 4 °C. Three treatments of eggs were evaluated as follows; non-coated (control; C), coated with pullulan (P), and coated with pullulan containing nisin (N). The effects of the pullulan coatings on microbiological qualities, physical properties, and freshness parameters were investigated and compared with non-coated eggs. For non-coated eggs, as storage time increased, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh unit value decreased and weight loss increased. However, pullulan coatings (P or N) minimized weight loss (eggs (with a final B grade) 3 wk longer than non-coated eggs at 25 °C. At 4 °C, both P- and N-coated eggs went from AA to A grade after 9 wk and maintained the grade for 10 wk (4 wk longer than that of non-coated eggs). This study is the first to demonstrate that pullulan coatings can preserve the internal quality, prolong the shelf-life, and minimize weight loss of fresh eggs. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Pesticidal seed coats based on azadirachtin-A: release kinetics, storage life and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Keyath; Kumar, Jitendra; Arun Kumar, M B; Walia, Suresh; Shakil, Najam A; Parsad, Rajender; Parmar, Balraj S

    2009-02-01

    Infestation of seeds by pests during storage leads to deterioration in quality. Seed coating is an effective option to overcome the menace. Unlike synthetic fungicidal seed coats, little is known of those based on botanicals. This study aims at developing azadirachtin-A-based pesticidal seed coats to maintain seed quality during storage. Polymer- and clay-based coats containing azadirachtin-A were prepared and evaluated for quality maintenance of soybean seed during storage. Gum acacia, gum tragacanth, rosin, ethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, polyethyl methacrylate, methyl cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and Agrimer VA 6 polymers and the clay bentonite were used as carriers. The time for 50% release (t(1/2)) of azadirachtin-A into water from the seeds coated with the different coats ranged from 8.02 to 21.36 h. The half-life (T(1/2)) of azadirachtin-A in the coats on seed ranged from 4.37 to 11.22 months, as compared with 3.45 months in azadirachtin-A WP, showing an increase by a factor of nearly 1.3-3.3 over the latter. The coats apparently acted as a barrier to moisture to reduce azadirachtin-A degradation and prevented proliferation of storage fungi. Polyethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl acetate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone were significantly superior to the other polymers. Azadirachtin-A showed a significant positive correlation with seed germination and vigour, and negative correlation with moisture content. Effective polymeric carriers for seed coats based on azadirachtin-A are reported. These checked seed deterioration during storage by acting as a barrier to moisture and reduced the degradation of azadirachtin-A.

  7. Fatigue life of layered metallic and ceramic plasma sprayed coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářík, O.; Haušild, P.; Siegl, J.; Matějíček, Jiří; Davydov, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3, July (2014), s. 586-591 ISSN 2211-8128. [European Conference on Fracture (ECF20)/20./. Trondheim, 30.06.2014-04.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : functionally graded materials * fatigue life * neutron diffraction * grit blasting Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211812814000984#

  8. How does substrate roughness affect the service life of a superhydrophobic coating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Mo, Jiliang; Si, Yifan; Guo, Zhiguang

    2018-05-01

    Although the development of superhydrophobic coatings is rapidly maturing, issues related to their low mechanical durability persist. In this context, the effect of substrate roughness on the service life of superhydrophobic coatings was studied. In this study, superhydrophobic coatings were fabricated on sandpapers of different roughness and reciprocating wear tests were conducted. The wear-resistance number of the superhydrophobic coating, defined as the maximum number of friction cycles after which the superhydrophobic surface started to lose its superhydrophobicity, increased from 50 to 24,000 with an increase in the substrate roughness from 2000 CW to 240 CW (CW is defined as the number of particles arranged in an inch), while it decreased from 24,000 to 17,000 with a further increase in the substrate roughness from 240 CW to 60 CW. Observations of the surface structure and wear analyses indicated that the superhydrophobic material infiltrated the spaces between the sand grains, and the rough peaks could consequently protect the superhydrophobic material during the wear tests. However, this protection weakens when the substrate roughness increases or decreases beyond certain values. Furthermore, these phenomena and results were also verified by applying the superhydrophobic coatings to different types of common substrates.

  9. Multiscale design and life-cycle based sustainability assessment of polymer nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttarwar, Rohan G.

    In recent years, nanocoatings with exceptionally improved and new performance properties have found numerous applications in the automotive, aerospace, ship-making, chemical, electronics, steel, construction, and many other industries. Especially the formulations providing multiple functionalities to cured paint films are believed to dominate the coatings market in the near future. It has shifted the focus of research towards building sustainable coating recipes which can deliver multiple functionalities through applied films. The challenge to this exciting area of research arrives from the insufficient knowledge about structure-property correlations of nanocoating materials and their design complexity. Experimental efforts have been successful in developing certain types of nanopaints exhibiting improved properties. However, multifunctional nanopaint design optimality is extremely difficult to address if not impossible solely through experiments. In addition to this, the environmental implications and societal risks associated with this growing field of nanotechnology raise several questions related to its sustainable development. This research focuses on the study of a multiscale sustainable nanocoating design which can have the application from novel function envisioning and idea refinement point of view, to knowledge discovery and design solution derivation, and further to performance testing in industrial applications. The nanocoating design is studied using computational simulations of nano- to macro- scale models and sustainability assessment study over the life-cycle. Computational simulations aim at integrating top-down, goals/means, inductive systems engineering and bottom-up, cause and effect, deductive systems engineering approaches for material development. The in-silico paint resin system is a water-dispersible acrylic polymer with hydrophilic nanoparticles incorporated into it. The nano-scale atomistic and micro-scale coarse-grained (CG) level

  10. Effects of Edible Chitosan Coating on Quality and Increasing Storage Life of Cucumber cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemi Tavallaiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, is non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible material, which can be used as edible coatings to maintain quality and enhance postharvest life of fruits and vegetables. In this study, the effect of chitosan at 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations on storage life of cucumber cv. "Zomorod" was investigated. After treatment and keeping in an incubator at 12 °C and 90% relative humidity, the fruits were assessed in 5-days intervals to determine parameters such as firmness, weight loss, vitamin C, titratable acidity, soluble solids and chlorophyll content. Experiment was performed as a split-plot design in time in a completely randomized design with three replications. The results of the experiment showed that chitosan coating, had a significant effect on all traits except titrable acidity. The lowest weight loss and the highest firmness were recorded with 1% chitosan treatment which significantly differed from the control. It is appeared that chitosan coatings could be used to increase the storage life of cucumber fruit and to maintain its quality for a longer period.

  11. Life cycle assessment for spray coatings applied to the heating tubes of PFBC boiler; Kaatsu ryudoso boiler sonai kan e tekiyosareru yosha coating no life cycle assessment (LCA hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoya, K; Kihara, S [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-25

    LCA (Life cycle assessment) is a systematic process used to calculate and evaluate the environmental impacts of products. Because boiler components are now exposed a more severe erosion/corrosion environment by, improving efficiency of thermal power plant, it is expected that the use of thermal spray coatings will increase. The LCA method was attempted to apply to various thermal spray coatings for PFBC (Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion) and evaluate the eco-friendly, coatings. The result was gained that all the alumina coatings have good characteristics. In fact the Al2O3-40%ZrO2 coating by APS has the lowest environmental impact and the best erosion resistance, it may be considered the most effective coating. 4 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Development of a Long-Life-Cycle, Highly Water-Resistant Solar Reflective Retrofit Roof Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL; Sharma, Jaswinder K [ORNL; Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL; Chen, Sharon S [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Demarest, Victoria [Dow Chemical Company; Fabiny, William [Dow Chemical Company; Destaillats, Hugo [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2016-03-04

    Highly water-resistant and solar-reflective coatings for low-slope roofs are potentially among the most economical retrofit approaches to thermal management of the building envelope. Therefore, they represent a key building technology research program within the Department of Energy. Research efforts in industry and the Department of Energy are currently under way to increase long-term solar reflectance on a number of fronts. These include new polymer coatings technologies to provide longer-lasting solar reflectivity and improved test methodologies to predict long-term soiling and microbial performance. The focus on long-term improvements in soiling and microbial resistance for maximum reflectance does not address the single most important factor impacting the long-term sustainability of low-slope roof coatings: excellent water resistance. The hydrophobic character of asphaltic roof products makes them uniquely suitable for water resistance, but their low albedo and poor exterior durability are disadvantages. A reflective coating that maintains very high water resistance with increased long-term resistance to soiling and microbial activity would provide additional energy savings and extend roof service life.

  13. The shelf life extension of refrigerated grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets by chitosan coating combined with glycerol monolaurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dawei; Jiang, Qixing; Xu, Yanshun; Xia, Wenshui

    2017-08-01

    A novel chitosan-based coating solution was prepared by combining glycerol monolaurate (GML) for shelf life extension of refrigerated grass carp fillets. The control and coated fillets were analyzed periodically for physicochemical (pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value, K value, and shear force), microbiological (total viable counts (TVC), psychrophilic bacteria counts (PTC), Pseudomonads and H 2 S-producing bacteria) and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that chitosan-GML coated samples presented better quality preservation effects than chitosan coating alone. In addition, 2% chitosan enriched with 0.3% GML showed the significant (Pchitosan coating enriched with GML was a promising method to extend the shelf life of refrigerated fillets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Effect of work material composition on the wear life of TiN-coated tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harju, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technol., Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Korhonen, A.S. [Helsinki Univ. of Technol., Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Jiang Laizhu [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Ristolainen, E. [Centre for Chemical Analysis, Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-11-15

    Three commercially available quenched and tempered steels corresponding approximately to AISI 4140 were compared in dry turning using both uncoated and TiN-coated high-speed steel (HSS) inserts. Of three steels A, B and C, steel A did not contain added calcium, while both B and C were calcium-treated. In dry turning with uncoated HSS inserts steel B was best. It gave over 2 times longer wear life than steel A and 1 1/2 times longer than steel C. When the inserts were coated with TiN, the cutting speed could be increased and the order of performance changed dramatically. Steel C was then best, giving nearly 26 times longer wear life than steel A and 9 times longer wear life than steel B. Based on secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements, the enrichment of alloying elements was studied on the tool surface. The formation of an adherent protective layer on the rake face during turning of steel C is proposed as a mechanism explaining the observed differences in wear lives. (orig.)

  15. Effect of work material composition on the wear life of TiN-coated tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harju, E.; Ristolainen, E.

    1996-01-01

    Three commercially available quenched and tempered steels corresponding approximately to AISI 4140 were compared in dry turning using both uncoated and TiN-coated high-speed steel (HSS) inserts. Of three steels A, B and C, steel A did not contain added calcium, while both B and C were calcium-treated. In dry turning with uncoated HSS inserts steel B was best. It gave over 2 times longer wear life than steel A and 1 1/2 times longer than steel C. When the inserts were coated with TiN, the cutting speed could be increased and the order of performance changed dramatically. Steel C was then best, giving nearly 26 times longer wear life than steel A and 9 times longer wear life than steel B. Based on secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements, the enrichment of alloying elements was studied on the tool surface. The formation of an adherent protective layer on the rake face during turning of steel C is proposed as a mechanism explaining the observed differences in wear lives. (orig.)

  16. Effect of Chitosan Coating Treatments and Calcium Dips on Quality and Shelf-life of Strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailam, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Strawberries are a highly perishable fruit and storage life may be less than a week. In these investigations strawberries were treated with one of the following treatments: I) 1 % calcium chloride dips (1 % CaCl 2 ), II) 2 % irradiated (150 kGy in the solid state) chitosan (CS) (2 % Irr. CS) and III) with a coating formulation containing 2 % Irr. CS + 1 % CaCl 2 . They were then stored at 6 degree C for up to 24 days. The effectiveness of the different treatments was assessed by evaluating the microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberries during the storage period. Results indicated that no sign of strawberries decay were observed in the fruits treated with CS formulation containing 2 % Irr. CS + 1 % CaCl 2 up to 20 days, where 6.1 % wt loss was detected. This treatment slowed the ripening of strawberries as shown by their retention of firmness and delayed changes in their external colour anthocyanin. To a lesser extent titratable acidity and ph were also affected by coatings. This treatment decreased the initial log counts of total aerobic bacteria, mould and yeast, coliform and E. coli. After 20 days of cold storage, the log counts of these micro organisms were lower than the log count of uncoated strawberries. Thus, CS can be used as a natural antimicrobial coating on fresh strawberries to improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life. CS formulation contains 2 % Irr. CS + 1 % CaCl 2 extended the shelf-life of strawberries to 20 days in cold storage at 6 degree C with acceptable appearance, firmness, flavour and colour, while uncoated strawberries only lasted for 4 days as a result of mould growth and loss of surface appearance

  17. Use of edible films and coatings to extend the shelf life of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftoonazad, Neda; Badii, Fojan

    2009-06-01

    The increased consumer demand for high quality, extended shelf life, ready to eat foods has initiated the development of several innovative techniques to keep their natural and fresh appearance as long as possible and at the same time render them safe. Packaging has been an important element in these preservation concepts for providing the appropriate (mechanical and functional) protection to the commodity. Since synthetic packaging materials contribute to the environmental pollution, edible coatings and packages have been proposed to replace or complement conventional packaging. Biodegradable and edible films and coatings are made from naturally occurring polymers and functional ingredients, and formed on the surface of food products. Edible films and coating have long been known to protect perishable food products from deterioration and reduce quality loss. These films should have acceptable sensory characteristics, appropriate barrier properties (CO(2), O(2), water, oil), microbial, biochemical and physicochemical stability, they should be safe, and be produced by simple technology in low cost. Also they can act as effective carrier for antioxidant, flavor, color, nutritional or anti-microbial additives. Patents on edible films and food products are also discussed in this article.

  18. Truncated cross-sectional average length of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Guillot, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Period life expectancies are commonly used to compare populations, but these correspond to simple juxtapositions of current mortality levels. In order to construct life expectancies for cohorts, a complete historical series of mortality rates is needed, and these are available for only a subset o...... for most of the disparity in mortality between the populations are identified. Supplementary material for this article is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00324728.2015.1019955....

  19. Shelf-life of fresh blueberries coated with quinoa protein/chitosan/sunflower oil edible film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian; Tapia, Cristián; Plasencia, Dora; Pastor, Ana; Castro-Mandujano, Olivio; López, Luis; Escalona, Victor H

    2016-01-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quinoa protein (Q), chitosan (CH) and sunflower oil (SO) as edible film material as well as the influence of this coating in extending the shelf-life of fresh blueberries stored at 4 °C and 75% relative humidity. These conditions were used to simulate the storage conditions in supermarkets and represent adverse conditions for testing the effects of the coating. The mechanical, barrier, and structural properties of the film were measured. The effectiveness of the coating in fresh blueberries (CB) was evaluated by changes in weight loss, firmness, color, molds and yeast count, pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids content. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the edible film were 0.45 ± 0.29 MPa and 117.2% ± 7%, respectively. The water vapor permeability was 3.3 × 10(-12) ± 4.0 × 10(-13) g s(-1) m(-1) Pa(-1). In all of the color parameters CB presented significant differences. CB had slight delayed fruit ripening as evidenced by higher titratable acidity (0.3-0.5 g citric acid 100 g(-1)) and lower pH (3.4-3.6) than control during storage; however, it showed reduced firmness (up to 38%). The use of Q/CH/SO as a coating in fresh blueberries was able to control the growth of molds and yeasts during 32 days of storage, whereas the control showed an increasing of molds and yeast, between 1.8 and 3.1 log cycles (between 20 and 35 days). © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Influence of gamma-irradiation, growth retardants and coatings on the shelf life of winter guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.K.; Joshua, Jean E.; Bisen; Abhav

    2010-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma irradiation, growth retardants and coatings (coconut oil, mustard oil and liquid paraffin) on shelf life of winter guava fruits during storage. The results revealed that the superiority of coconut oil coating over other post harvest treatments. Physiological loss in weight (7.1%), marketable fruits retained over control (86.7%), total soluble solid (16.1%), ascorbic acid (195 mg/100 g pulp) and total sugar (10%) of fruit were positively influenced by coconut oil coating up to 12 days of storage. The treatment was found significantly effective in increasing the post harvest life of fruits for 12 days over control without adversely affecting the fruit quality. Coconut oil coating gave highest consumer acceptability while, maintaining sufficient level of total soluble solids and sugar content in fruits. (author)

  1. Effects of Coatings on the High-Cycle Fatigue Life of Threaded Steel Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, M. A.; Haselbach, P. U.; Mishin, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, high-cycle fatigue is studied for threaded cylindrical high-strength steel samples coated using three different industrial processes: black oxidation, normal-temperature galvanization and high-temperature galvanization. The fatigue performance in air is compared with that of uncoated samples. Microstructural characterization revealed the abundant presence of small cracks in the zinc coating partially penetrating into the steel. This is consistent with the observation of multiple crack initiation sites along the thread in the galvanized samples, which led to crescent type fracture surfaces governed by circumferential growth. In contrast, the black oxidized and uncoated samples exhibited a semicircular segment type fracture surface governed by single-sided growth with a significantly longer fatigue life. Numerical fatigue life prediction based on an extended Paris-law formulation has been conducted on two different fracture cases: 2D axisymmetric multisided crack growth and 3D single-sided crack growth. The results of this upper-bound and lower-bound approach are in good agreement with experimental data and can potentially be used to predict the lifetime of bolted components.

  2. The fabrication of a vanadium-stainless steel test section for MHD testing of insulator coatings in flowing lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, C.B.; Mattas, R.F.; Smith, D.L.; Chung, H.; Tsai, H.-C.; Morgan, G.D.; Wille, G.W.; Young, C.

    1996-01-01

    To test the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop reduction performance of candidate insulator coatings for the ITER Vanadium/Lithium Breeding Blanket, a test section comprised of a V- 4Cr-4Ti liner inside a stainless steel pipe was designed and fabricated. Theoretically, the MHD pressure drop reduction benefit resulting, from an electrically insulating coating on a vanadium- lined pipe is identical to the benefit derived from an insulated pipe fabricated of vanadium alone. A duplex test section design consisting of a V alloy liner encased in a SS pressure boundary provided protection for vanadium from atmospheric contamination during operation at high temperature and obviated any potential problems with vanadium welding while also minimizing the amount of V alloy material required. From the MHD and insulator coating- point of view, the test section outer SS wall and inner V alloy liner can be modeled simply as a wall having a sandwich construction. Two 52.3 mm OD x 2.9 m long V-alloy tubes were fabricated by Century Tubes from 64 mm x 200 mm x 1245 mm extrusions produced by Teledyne Wah Chang. The test section's duplex structure was subsequently fabricated at Century Tubes by drawing down a SS pipe (2 inch schedule 10) over one of the 53.2 mm diameter V tubes

  3. Tribochemistry and Wear Life Improvement in Liquid-Lubricated H-DLC-Coated Bearings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lince, J. R; Kim, H. I; Bertrand, P. A; Eryilmaz, O. L; Erdemir, A

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to typical DLC coatings, hydrogenated DLC (H-DLC) coatings exhibit extremely low friction in vacuum and dry atmospheres, suggesting their potential importance for spacecraft applications...

  4. THE USE OF COATINGS FOR HOT CORROSION AND EROSION PROTECTION IN TURBINE HOT SECTION COMPONENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hayrettin AHLATCI

    1999-01-01

    High pressure turbine components are subjected to a wide variety of thermal and mechanical loading during service. In addition, the components are exposed to a highly oxidizing atmosphere which may contain contaminants such as sulphates, chlorides and sulphuorous gases along with erosive media. So the variety of surface coatings and deposition processes available for the protection of blade and vane components in gas turbines are summarised in this study. Coating types range from simple diff...

  5. Tool life of the edges coated with the c-BN+h-BN coatings with different structures during hard machinable steel machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupczyk, M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper the experimental results concerning the functional quality (durability during steel machining of thin, superhard coatings produced on the cutting edges are described. Differences among mentioned properties of coatings mainly result from a coating structure. But the structure of coatings results from deposition parameters Superhard boron nitride coatings were deposited on insert cutting edges made of cemented carbides by the pulse-plasma method applying different values of the discharge voltage. The comparative investigations of mentioned coatings have been concerned of tool life of edges during hard machinable material machining (nitriding steel hardened in oil. In these investigations for the purpose of additional increase of coatings adhesion to substrates an interfacial layers were applied.

    En este trabajo se describen los resultados experimentales referentes a la calidad funcional (durabilidad durante el mecanizado del acero de recubrimientos delgados, de elevada dureza del filo de corte. Las diferencias en las propiedades de los recubrimientos se deben, principalmente, a la estructura del recubrimiento. No obstante, la estructura del recubrimiento está relacionada con los parámetros de la deposición. Recubrimientos de nitruro de boro de elevada dureza se depositaron sobre filos de corte insertados, fabricados con carburos cementados mediante el método de pulsos de plasma aplicando diferentes valores de voltaje de descarga. Las investigaciones comparativas de los mencionados recubrimientos han relacionado la vida del filo de la herramienta durante el mecanizado del material (acero nitrurado endurecido en aceite. En estas investigaciones se aplicaron capas interfaciales para aumentar la adherencia del recubrimiento.

  6. Combined effect of antimicrobial coating and gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension of pre-cooked shrimp (Penaeus spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouattara, B.; Sabato, S.F.; Lacroix, M.

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of low-dose gamma irradiation and antimicrobial coating on the shelf life of pre-cooked shrimp (Penaeus spp.). Antimicrobial coatings were obtained by incorporating various concentrations of thyme oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde in coating formulations prepared from soy or whey protein isolates. Coated shrimps were stored at 4±1°C under aerobic conditions and were periodically evaluated for aerobic plate counts (APCs) and Pseudomonas putida. Sensory evaluations were performed for appearance, odor, and taste using a hedonic test. Results showed that gamma irradiation and coating treatments had synergistic effects (p < = 0.05) in reducing the APCs and P. putida with at least a 12-day extension of shelf life. Without irradiation, the inhibitory effects of the coating solutions were closely related to the concentration of thyme oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde. No detrimental effects of gamma irradiation on organoleptic parameters (appearance, odor, and taste) were observed. However, incorporation of thyme oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde reduced the acceptability scores for taste and odor

  7. Postharvest shelf-life extension of pink guavas (Psidium guajava L.) using HPMC-based edible surface coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwasrao, Chandrahas; Ananthanarayan, Laxmi

    2016-04-01

    Psidium guajava L. var. 'Lalit' is a perishable fruit with delicate skin which is prone to damage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of edible coating made up of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and palm oil on ripening of guava. Coating solution was applied over fruits and coated fruits were stored at 24 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 5%RH. Changes in fruit colour, texture softening, respiration rate, weight loss, ascorbic acid content, soluble solids, titrable acidity, chlorophyll content, total reducing sugars, total phenolic content were studied during post-harvest ripening. Fruits coated with 1 % of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and 0.3 % of palm oil showed significant delay in weight loss, fruit firmness as well as colour change (p < 0.05). Coating delayed the enzyme activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase of the fruit. Results suggest that overall quality of coated fruit was maintained by edible coating formulation extending the shelf life of fruit up to 12 days with appreciable retention of all quality parameters tested.

  8. The role of microstructure and phase distribution in the failure mechanisms and life prediction model for PSZ coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, R. D., Jr.; Sone, Ichiro; Biederman, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ) may become widely used for Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC). Failure of these coatings can occur due to thermal fatigue in oxidizing atmospheres. The failure is due to the strains that develop due to thermal gradients, differences in thermal expansion coefficients, and oxidation of the bond coating. The role of microstructure and the cubic, tetragonal, and monoclinic phase distribution in the strain development and subsequent failure will be discussed. An X-ray diffraction technique for accurate determination of the fraction of each phase in PSZ will be applied to understanding the phase transformations and strain development. These results will be discussed in terms of developing a model for life prediction in PSZ coatings during thermal cycling.

  9. Life cycle assessment of façade coating systems containing manufactured nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hischier, Roland, E-mail: roland.hischier@empa.ch; Nowack, Bernd [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Technology and Society Lab (TSL) (Switzerland); Gottschalk, Fadri [ETSS (Switzerland); Hincapie, Ingrid [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Technology and Society Lab (TSL) (Switzerland); Steinfeldt, Michael [University of Bremen FB 4/FG 10 Technological Design and Development (Germany); Som, Claudia [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Technology and Society Lab (TSL) (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    Nanotechnologies are expected to hold considerable potential for the development of new materials in the construction sector. Up to now the environmental benefits and risks of products containing manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) have been quantified only to a limited extent. This study aims to assess the potential environmental, health and safety impacts of coatings containing MNM using Life-cycle assessment: Do paints containing MNM result in a better environmental performance than paints not containing MNM? The study shows that the results depend on a number of factors: (i) The MNM have to substitute an (active) ingredient of the initial paint composition and not simply be an additional ingredient. (ii) The new composition has to extend the lifetime of the paint for such a time period that the consumption of paint along the life cycle of a building is reduced. (iii) Releases of MNM have to be reduced to the lowest level possible (in particular by dumping unused paint together with the packaging). Only when all these boundary conditions are fulfilled, which is the case only for one of the three paint systems examined, is an improved environmental performance of the MNM-containing paint possible for the paint compositions examined in this study.

  10. The Effect of Substrate Contaminates on the Life of Epoxy Coatings Submerged in Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    contaminants: coal tar, SovaPon, Mare Island and Aquapon . Aquapon is a clear (unpigmented) polyamide epoxy coating. While Aquapon is not normally used for...pigmented coatings. It was found that the Aquapon and coal tar coatings performed similarly, and blistered to the same extent, at the contamination levels...used in the test program. The Sovapon and Mare Island coatings were slightly more resistive to blistering when compared to Aquapon or coal tar but they

  11. Effect of functional chitosan coating and gamma irradiation on the shelf-life of chicken meat during refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Parviz; Tajik, Hossein; Rohani, Seyed Mehdi Razavi; Moradi, Mehran; Hashemi, Mohammad; Aliakbarlu, Javad

    2017-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of low-dose gamma irradiation (2.5 kGy) and chitosan edible coating (2%) containing grape seed extract (GSE) (0.1%) on the microbial, chemical and sensorial quality of chicken breast meat during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. The samples were periodically analyzed for microbiological (aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts), chemical (TBA, pH, aw) and sensorial (odor, appearance, and overall acceptability) characteristics. Results indicated that irradiation and the active coating had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on reduction of bacterial growth with at least a 14-day extension of shelf life. Results represented the protective effect of chitosan coating containing GSE against induced lipid oxidation by irradiation. All chitosan-coated samples showed lower TBA and pH values than other treatments during storage, and no significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed due to irradiation in TBA values. Results also indicated that the application of chitosan coating significantly improved the sensorial quality of the samples, and none of the evaluated sensorial attributes was significantly affected by irradiation. Based on the results obtained in this study, the application of low-dose gamma irradiation and chitosan coating containing GSE was effective in preserving the quality of fresh chicken meats and is recommended in meat products.

  12. Effect of pectin edible coating enriched with essential oils of citrus on strawberry quality during refrigerated storage and shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Abdi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest life of strawberry fruit is very short due to humidity and high metabolic activity. In order to extend the shelf life and quality of strawberry (cv. parous, effects of pectin coating enriched with different concentrations of lemon and orange peel essential oil were assessed at 20˚C for 6 days or 5˚C to 12 days. The experiment conducted based on a complete randomized design (CDR in 3 replications with 6 treatments including control (distilled water, pectin (1%, pectin enriched with orange peel essential oil (0.5 and 1% and pectin containing lemon peel essential oil (0.5 and 1%. Fruit quality was evaluated by marketing, weight loss, anthocyanin content, ascorbic acid content, total protein and chlorophyll of calyx every 3 days. Based on results coating fruits with citrus essential oil carried by pectin delayed the change in weight loss, total protein, anthocyanin content, maintained ascorbic acid content of fruits and also reduced chlorophyll destruction of calyx. The results showed that pectin coating containing lemon essential oil had a significant effect on the maintaining the visual quality of the fruit during the storage, delayed the weight loss and showed better results compared to the other coatings and to the control fruit. In addition, the maximum content of ascorbic acid and anthocyanin were obtained for strawberries coated with pectin containing lemon essential oil 1% after 12 days storage of fruits at 5˚C. All coatings significantly reduced weight loss of fresh strawberries during storage at 5˚C and 20˚C compared to the uncoated fruits. Results indicated that adding high concentrations (1% of orange peel essential oil into pectin coatings did not improve quality of fruits. In addition, it was found that adding orange peel essential oil to pectin coating accelerate decay of fruits. Based on results, pectin coating containing 1% lemon essential oil considered an appropriate treatment to improve shelf life and storage

  13. Flexural fatigue life prediction of closed hat-section using materially nonlinear axial fatigue characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaq, Zia

    1989-01-01

    Straight or curved hat-section members are often used as structural stiffeners in aircraft. For instance, they are employed as stiffeners for the dorsal skin as well as in the aerial refueling adjacent area structure in F-106 aircraft. The flanges of the hat-section are connected to the aircraft skin. Thus, the portion of the skin closing the hat-section interacts with the section itself when resisting the stresses due to service loads. The flexural fatigue life of such a closed section is estimated using materially nonlinear axial fatigue characteristics. It should be recognized that when a structural shape is subjected to bending, the fatigue life at the neutral axis is infinity since the normal stresses are zero at that location. Conversely, the fatigue life at the extreme fibers where the normal bending stresses are maximum can be expected to be finite. Thus, different fatigue life estimates can be visualized at various distances from the neural axis. The problem becomes compounded further when significant portions away from the neutral axis are stressed into plastic range. A theoretical analysis of the closed hat-section subjected to flexural cyclic loading is first conducted. The axial fatigue characteristics together with the related axial fatigue life formula and its inverted form given by Manson and Muralidharan are adopted for an aluminum alloy used in aircraft construction. A closed-form expression for predicting the flexural fatigue life is then derived for the closed hat-section including materially nonlinear action. A computer program is written to conduct a study of the variables such as the thicknesses of the hat-section and the skin, and the type of alloy used. The study has provided a fundamental understanding of the flexural fatigue life characteristics of a practical structural component used in aircraft when materially nonlinear action is present.

  14. The ASME Section 11 Special Working Group On Plant Life Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The codes and standards applicable to plant life extension have not been identified in the U.S. at this time. However, several initiatives have been taken to establish specific codes and standards pertaining to nuclear plant life extension (PLEX). One of these initiatives, sponsored by ASME, is the Section XI Special Working Group on Plant Life Extension (SWG-PLEX). The SWG-PLEX reports to the ASME Section XI Subcommittee and is responsible for recommending or drafting rules and requirements for modifying Section XI to accommodate age-related degradation to support nuclear plant life extension. This paper summarizes the results and reports the activities of the SWG-PLEX during the 1989/1990 period

  15. Effect of chitosan coating and bamboo FSC (fruit storage chamber) to expand banana shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Larasati, Dwinita; Islamia, Hana Cahya; Martien, Ronny

    2015-09-01

    Chitosan has been widely used as fruit preserver and proven to extend the shelf life of many fruits, such as banana. However, banana producers and many industries in Indonesia still facing storage problems which may lead to mechanical damage of the fruits and ripening acceleration. Therefore, we have designed food storage chamber (FSC) based on bamboo material. Bamboo was selected because of material abundance in Indonesia, economically effective, and not causing an autocatalytic reaction to the ethylene gas produced by the banana. In this research, Cavendish banana that has reached the maturity level of mature green were coated with 1% chitosan and placed inside the FSC. As control treatments, uncoated banana was also placed inside the FSC as well as uncoated banana that were placed at open space. All of the treatments were placed at 25°C temperature and observed for 9 days. Water produced by respiration was reduced by the addition of charcoal inside a fabric pouch. The result showed that treatment using FSC and chitosan can delay ripening process.

  16. Life assessment of PVD based hard coatings by linear sweep voltammetry for high performance industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.; Alam, S.; Irfan, M.; Hassan, Z.

    2006-01-01

    PVD based hard coatings have remarkable achievements in order to improve Tribological and surface properties of coating tools and dies. As PVD based hard coatings have a wide range of industrial applications especially in aerospace and automobile parts where they met different chemical attacks and in order to improve industrial performance these coatings must provide an excellent resistance against corrosion, high temperature oxidation and chemical reaction. This paper focuses on study of behaviour of PVD based hard coatings under different corrosive environments like as H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, HCl, NaCl, KCl, NaOH etc. Corrosion rate was calculate under linear sweep voltammetry method where the Tafel extrapolation curves used for continuously monitoring the corrosion rate. The results show that these coatings have an excellent resistance against chemical attack. (author)

  17. Factors related to quality of life among older adults in Bangladesh: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammad Abbas; Soivong, Pratum; Lasuka, Duangruedee; Juntasopeepun, Phanida

    2017-12-01

    This cross-sectional design study aimed to describe quality of life and examine factors related to quality of life among older adults in Bangladesh. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 280 older adults from ten villages in two southern districts. The results demonstrate that the majority of the participants reported an overall moderate score of quality of life. Moreover, participants' sleep problems, depression, religiosity, and activities of daily living were negatively correlated with quality of life whereas social support and health service availability were positively correlated with quality of life. Implementing intervention programs upon the significant related factors to improve older adults' quality of life is recommended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Enamel coated steel reinforcement for improved durability and life-cycle performance of concrete structures: microstructure, corrosion, and deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fujian

    This study is aimed (a) to statistically characterize the corrosion-induced deterioration process of reinforced concrete structures (concrete cracking, steel mass loss, and rebar-concrete bond degradation), and (b) to develop and apply three types of enamel-coated steel bars for improved corrosion resistance of the structures. Commercially available pure enamel, mixed enamel with 50% calcium silicate, and double enamel with an inner layer of pure enamel and an outer layer of mixed enamel were considered as various steel coatings. Electrochemical tests were respectively conducted on steel plates, smooth bars embedded in concrete, and deformed bars with/without concrete cover in 3.5 wt.% NaCl or saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. The effects of enamel microstructure, coating thickness variation, potential damage, mortar protection, and corrosion environment on corrosion resistance of the steel members were investigated. Extensive test results indicated that corrosion-induced concrete cracking can be divided into four stages that gradually become less correlated with corrosion process over time. The coefficient of variation of crack width increases with the increasing level of corrosion. Corrosion changed the cross section area instead of mechanical properties of steel bars. The bond-slip behavior between the corroded bars and concrete depends on the corrosion level and distribution of corrosion pits. Although it can improve the chemical bond with concrete and steel, the mixed enamel coating is the least corrosion resistant. The double enamel coating provides the most consistent corrosion performance and is thus recommended to coat reinforcing steel bars for concrete structures applied in corrosive environments. Corrosion pits in enamel-coated bars are limited around damage locations.

  19. Microfilms packaging and coating: effects on shelf life and quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on storage potential of African pear fruits (APFs) were conducted using three packaging microfilms (low density polyethylene, low density polypropylene and highdensity polypropylene) and three coating materials (sheanut butter, palm oil and paraffin wax). The packaged and coated APFs were separately stored at ...

  20. Comparing Quality of Life in Women after Vaginal Delivery and Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Majzoobi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Postpartum period is accompanied by significant changes in women’s quality of life. These alterations can affect the health of mothers and children. Considering the importance of postnatal quality of life and its different contributing factors, this study aimed to compare women’s quality of life after vaginal delivery and cesarean section. Methods:This retrospective cohort study included a random sample of 2100 women, referring to Hamadan health care centers for congenital hypothyroidism screening or infant vaccination. The participants’ quality of life was examined, using Short Form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire, evaluating five periods of time including one week, two months, four months, six months, and one year after delivery (either vaginal or cesarean delivery. Data were analyzed using t-test. Results: Quality of life was significantly higher in women with vaginal delivery, compared to women with cesarean section in all periods including one week (68.77 vs. 42.44, two months (69.11 vs. 54.76, four months (78.19 vs. 53.02, six months (75.62 vs. 54.94,and one year(78.43 vs. 53.77 after delivery. Conclusion: Considering women’s higher quality of life after vaginal delivery, compared to cesarean section, it seems that vaginal delivery is a safer and less expensive option, which is recommended for all pregnant women.

  1. Study on the method of predicting service life of coated steel sheets, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshima, Eiki; Kawano, Toshinori; Takamura, Hisao; Awa, Katsumasa

    1983-01-01

    Study was made of the coating effect of chrome yellow when applied as a coloring pigment for a polyvinyl chloride resin film and also of the applicability of an X-ray radiation test as an accelerated deterioration test of polyvinyl chloride resin. The results show that: (1) As compared with the non-coating chrome yellow not subjected to coating treatment, the heavy-coating chrome yellow with the surface coated with alumina and silica is chemically stable. The coating effect is evaluated by the generation of coating crack, discoloring, decomposition of the chrome yellow and generation of lead chloride in the X-ray radiation test and the dew cycle weatherometer test. (2) In the X-ray radiation test, dew cycle weatherometer test and outdoor weathering test, the decomposition of polyvinyl chloride resing changed with time exponentially, indicating a correlation among them. In the X-ray radiation test, the polyvinyl chloride resin decomposed at a rate 10 4 times higher than in the outdoor weathering test, which indicates that it is possible by the X-ray radiation test of a very short time to estimate the decomposition rate of polyvinyl chloride resin in the dew cycle weatherometer test or outdoor weathering test. (author)

  2. A cross-sectional study on the quality of life of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study on the quality of life of patients with peripheral diabetic neuropathy pain in Hospital Tegku Ampaun Afzan, Kuantan, Malaysia. Sinan Mohammed Abdullah AL-Mahmood, Tariq Abdul Razak, Nik Nur Fatnoon Nik Ahmad, Abdul Hadi Bin Mohamed, Shahrin Tarmizi Bin Che Abdullah ...

  3. Older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bynum Debra L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of life expectancy assist physicians and patients in medical decision-making. The time-delayed benefits for many medical treatments make an older adult's life expectancy estimate particularly important for physicians. The purpose of this study is to assess older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy. Methods We performed a mixed qualitative-quantitative cross-sectional study in which 116 healthy adults aged 70+ were recruited from two local retirement communities. We interviewed them regarding their beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy in the context of a larger study on cancer screening beliefs. Semi-structured interviews of 80 minutes average duration were performed in private locations convenient to participants. Demographic characteristics as well as cancer screening beliefs and beliefs about life expectancy were measured. Two independent researchers reviewed the open-ended responses and recorded the most common themes. The research team resolved disagreements by consensus. Results This article reports the life-expectancy results portion of the larger study. The study group (n = 116 was comprised of healthy, well-educated older adults, with almost a third over 85 years old, and none meeting criteria for dementia. Sixty-four percent (n = 73 felt that their physicians could not correctly estimate their life expectancy. Sixty-six percent (n = 75 wanted their physicians to talk with them about their life expectancy. The themes that emerged from our study indicate that discussions of life expectancy could help older adults plan for the future, maintain open communication with their physicians, and provide them knowledge about their medical conditions. Conclusion The majority of the healthy older adults in this study were open to discussions about life expectancy in the context of discussing cancer screening tests, despite awareness that their physicians' estimates could be inaccurate

  4. Anxiety, stress, and quality of life among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Alshraifeen, Ali; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify the predictors, levels, and prevalence of anxiety and stress and to assess the relationship between these factors and quality of life in recently displaced Iraqis. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 171 Iraqi refugees was recruited. The results indicated that more than half of the sample suffered from high anxiety levels, while 42.8% reported high stress. The regression model explained 46.3% of the variance in levels of quality of life. Unemployment, fewer than three family members, and high anxiety significantly predicted low-level quality of life. These three predictors need to be taken into consideration when developing health-related interventions to improve the quality of life of Iraqi refugees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Life-history consequences of investment in free-spawned eggs and their accessory coats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolsky, Robert D

    2004-05-01

    The optimal trade-off between offspring size and number can depend on details of the mode of reproduction or development. In marine organisms, broadcast spawning is widespread, and external coats are a common feature of spawned eggs. Egg jelly coats are thought to influence several aspects of fertilization and early development, including the size of the target for sperm, fertilization efficiency, egg suspension time, polyspermy, embryo survival, and fecundity. These costs and benefits of investment in jelly result in trade-offs that can influence optimal reproductive allocation and the evolution of egg size. I develop an optimization model that sequentially incorporates assumptions about the function of egg coats in fertilization. The model predicts large variation in coat size and limited variation in ovum size under a broad range of conditions. Heterogeneity among spawning events further limits the range of ovum sizes predicted to evolve under sperm limitation. In contrast, variation in larval mortality predicts a broad range of optimal ovum sizes that more closely reflects natural variation among broadcast-spawning invertebrates. By decoupling physical and energetic size, egg coats can enhance fertilization, maintain high fecundity, and buffer the evolution of ovum size from variation in spawning conditions.

  6. X-ray analysis of residual stress gradients in TiN coatings by a Laplace space approach and cross-sectional nanodiffraction: a critical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefenelli, Mario; Todt, Juraj; Riedl, Angelika; Ecker, Werner; Müller, Thomas; Daniel, Rostislav; Burghammer, Manfred; Keckes, Jozef

    2013-10-01

    Novel scanning synchrotron cross-sectional nanobeam and conventional laboratory as well as synchrotron Laplace X-ray diffraction methods are used to characterize residual stresses in exemplary 11.5 µm-thick TiN coatings. Both real and Laplace space approaches reveal a homogeneous tensile stress state and a very pronounced compressive stress gradient in as-deposited and blasted coatings, respectively. The unique capabilities of the cross-sectional approach operating with a beam size of 100 nm in diameter allow the analysis of stress variation with sub-micrometre resolution at arbitrary depths and the correlation of the stress evolution with the local coating microstructure. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are extensively discussed.

  7. Inorganic-Organic Coating via Molecular Layer Deposition Enables Long Life Sodium Metal Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Goncharova, Lyudmila V; Zhang, Qian; Kaghazchi, Payam; Sun, Qian; Lushington, Andrew; Wang, Biqiong; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2017-09-13

    Metallic Na anode is considered as a promising alternative candidate for Na ion batteries (NIBs) and Na metal batteries (NMBs) due to its high specific capacity, and low potential. However, the unstable solid electrolyte interphase layer caused by serious corrosion and reaction in electrolyte will lead to big challenges, including dendrite growth, low Coulombic efficiency and even safety issues. In this paper, we first demonstrate the inorganic-organic coating via advanced molecular layer deposition (alucone) as a protective layer for metallic Na anode. By protecting Na anode with controllable alucone layer, the dendrites and mossy Na formation have been effectively suppressed and the lifetime has been significantly improved. Moreover, the molecular layer deposition alucone coating shows better performances than the atomic layer deposition Al 2 O 3 coating. The novel design of molecular layer deposition protected Na metal anode may bring in new opportunities to the realization of the next-generation high energy-density NIBs and NMBs.

  8. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; e Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health...

  9. Quality of life of Chinese urologists: a cross-sectional study using WHOQOL-BREF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y B; Yin, Z; Gao, Y L; Yan, B; Wang, Z; Yang, J R

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, Chinese hospital settings are under violent threats. The exact status of quality of life of Chinese doctors under these disastrous situations remains obscure. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life of Chinese urologists and analyse its potential affecting factors. Cross-sectional survey. Beijing, China. Overall, 1000 participants from more than 30 areas of China, who participated in the 20th National Urology Conference in Beijing in 2013, were surveyed. The brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) Chinese version was used to assess the quality of life among these urologists. The relationship between quality of life and the affecting factors was analysed. Of the 1000 questionnaires, 856 were completed and returned, and 708 questionnaires were valid for analysis. Approximately 46% of the respondents came from provincial capitals, 54.2% of them felt stress from medical environment, while 76.0% felt stress from research work, and 85.3% from promotion. Cronbach's α coefficient of the instrument was 0.825, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure was 0.841, and P value of Bartlett's sphericity was <0.001. The results of binary logistic regression indicated gender, work years, and medical environment as potential affecting factors of quality of life only influenced one domain. In contrast, research work and promotion influenced three domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. The study indicated that the WHOQOL-BREF may be a reliable and valid tool to assess quality of life of Chinese urologists. In China it is true that the deteriorative medical environment negatively affects medical practice according to previous studies, and policies are recommended to improve the situation. Nevertheless, we should not be too pessimistic about it, as in today's context research work and promotion may be the most extensive and significant affecting factors on doctors' quality of life.

  10. FIB-SEM Sectioning Study of Decarburization Products in the Microstructure of HVOF-Sprayed WC-Co Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katranidis, Vasileios; Gu, Sai; Cox, David C.; Whiting, Mark J.; Kamnis, Spyros

    2018-05-01

    The thermal dissolution and decarburization of WC-based powders that occur in various spray processes are a widely studied phenomenon, and mechanisms that describe its development have been proposed. However, the exact formation mechanism of decarburization products such as metallic W is not yet established. A WC-17Co coating is sprayed intentionally at an exceedingly long spray distance to exaggerate the decarburization effects. Progressive xenon plasma ion milling of the examined surface has revealed microstructural features that would have been smeared away by conventional polishing. Serial sectioning provided insights on the three-dimensional structure of the decarburization products. Metallic W has been found to form a shell around small splats that did not deform significantly upon impact, suggesting that its crystallization occurs during the in-flight stage of the particles. W2C crystals are more prominent on WC faces that are in close proximity with splat boundaries indicating an accelerated decarburization in such sites. Porosity can be clearly categorized in imperfect intersplat contact and oxidation-generated gases via its shape.

  11. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Results Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. Conclusions There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among

  12. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    2014-05-15

    Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers.

  13. Microencapsulation of Biocides for Reduced Copper, Long-life Antifouling Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    NEHC - Naval Environmental Health Center ONR – Office of Naval Research PVA – polyvinyl alcohol QPL – qualified products list TBT – tributyltin ...also organotin) TSCA - Toxic Substance Control Act UNDS - Uniform National Discharge Standards US – United States VOC – volatile organic content...mechanisms, and are designed to erode or polish with time to ensure long service lives (Yebra et. al., 2004). Fouling release coatings are a non- toxic

  14. Development of the rectal dosage form with silver-coated glass beads for local-action applications in lower sections of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siczek, Krzysztof; Fichna, Jakub; Zatorski, Hubert; Karolewicz, Bożena; Klimek, Leszek; Owczarek, Artur

    2018-03-01

    Recent findings indicating the anti-inflammatory action of silver preparations through modulation of the gut microbiota and apoptosis of inflammatory cells predestine silver use in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of our study was to validate the possibility of effective silver release from silver-coated glass beads for anti-inflammatory local application in the lower sections of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Silver-coated glass beads were prepared using magnetron method. Release of silver from the silver-coated glass bead surface was carried out in BIO-DIS reciprocating cylinder apparatus. Erosion of silver coating and indirect estimation of the silver release dynamics was assessed using scanning electron microscope. Rectal suppositories containing silver-coated glass beads were prepared using five different methods (M1-M5) and X-ray scanned for their composition. The XR microanalysis and the chemical composition analysis evidenced for a rapid (within 30 min) release of nearly 50% of silver from the coating of the glass beads, which remained stable up to 24 h of incubation. The most homogeneous distribution of beads in the entire volume of the suppository was obtained for formulation M5, where the molten base was poured into mold placed in an ice bath, and the beads were added after 10 s. Our study is the first to present the concept of enclosing silver-coated glass beads in the lipophilic suppository base to attenuate inflammation in the lower GI tract and promises efficient treatment with reduced side effects.

  15. Elite Dental Students: a Cross-Sectional Study on Different Aspects of Their Life-Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarmand, Abdolhamid; Asvar, Maryam

    2017-12-01

    Lifestyle has a key role in having a life with quality. This is much more critical in academic community. Elite students are the scientific capital of each community; therefore, improvement of their life-style is a very crucial issue and is a way of esteeming them. This study was aimed to scrutinize the life-style of elite dental students to provide a guideline for healthy life-style for their own and for other students, as well. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out on 115 Elite dental students, from a list 175 students, based upon their interest. The HPLP-II questionnaire was used which focuses on 6 behavioral fields: Spiritual Growth, Interpersonal Relations, Nutrition, Physical Activity, Health Responsibility, and Stress Management. The results also compared genders and marital status within the study group. The elite dental students were categorized in 3 age groups as 19≥ yrs (Group I), 20-22 yrs (Group II), and 23≤ yrs. (Group III) for comparison. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey's test. The mean score of the HPLP-II questionnaire was 2.51±0.27 (out of score 4). Spiritual growth (2.85±0.42) and physical activity (2.16±0.58) were the highest and the lowest scores, respectively. Physical activity was the only subscale different between genders ( p = 0.000). Marital status had not effect on life-style of students. Between the age groups, the physical activity was significantly different between group I and II (0.002). Elite dental students' life-style is most prominent in spiritual growth and interpersonal relationships dimensions, but is the weakest in physical activity and health responsibility behavioral attitudes. To improve the talent of all students, interventional workshops/courses aiming at modification and promotion of students' lifestyle is recommendable in the curriculum.

  16. Quality Of Life in Children with Celiac Disease: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Jafari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Celiac disease (CD is a systemic autoimmune disorder due to immune response triggered by ingestion of gluten in the diet. Treatment with lifelong gluten-free diet may impact negatively on the health-related quality of life and may lead to psychological disturbances. The purpose of study was to evaluate quality of life, depression and anxiety in children with celiac disease. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study was done between 2013 and 2014 at the Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic (Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad- Iran, patients with serology and biopsy-proven CD, on a gluten-free diet for at least one year, were included in this study and compared with non-celiac healthy children as controls. We used the questionnaire to investigate quality of life, anxiety and depression. Results There were statistically significant differences between the mean total anxiety (state, trait scores and depression score in the celiac patients and control group. Correlations between state and trait anxiety and depression were statistically significant (P= 0.01, r= 0.35 and (P= 0.001, r= 0.52. Reverse correlations between quality of life of CD children and anxiety (state, trait were statistically significant (P= 0.001, r= 0.51 and P= 0.02, r= 0.32. Mean total score of quality of life was not different in the two groups, but in the physical activity component, quality of life was better in CD patients (P=0.008. Conclusion In current study, anxiety and depression had a significant impact on the course of celiac disease.

  17. Quality of Life for Saudi Patients With Heart Failure: A Cross-Sectional Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuRuz, Mohannad Eid; Alaloul, Fawwaz; Saifan, Ahmed; Masa'deh, Rami; Abusalem, Said

    2015-06-25

    Heart failure is a major public health issue and a growing concern in developing countries, including Saudi Arabia. Most related research was conducted in Western cultures and may have limited applicability for individuals in Saudi Arabia. Thus, this study assesses the quality of life of Saudi patients with heart failure. A cross-sectional correlational design was used on a convenient sample of 103 patients with heart failure. Data were collected using the Short Form-36 and the Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Survey. Overall, the patients' scores were low for all domains of Quality of Life. The Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary mean scores and SDs were (36.7±12.4, 48.8±6.5) respectively, indicating poor Quality of Life. Left ventricular ejection fraction was the strongest predictor of both physical and mental summaries. Identifying factors that impact quality of life for Saudi heart failure patients is important in identifying and meeting their physical and psychosocial needs.

  18. Foot health and quality of life among university students: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodríguez-Sanz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Foot problems are believed to reduce quality of life and are increasingly present. Even among young adults of university age, untreated foot problems can lead to postural and mobility problems. Accordingly, our aim here was to determine the relationship between foot health and quality of life and general health among male and female university students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional quantitative study conducted at the Podiatric Medicine and Surgery Clinic of the University of Coruña, Ferrol, Spain. METHODS: A sample of 112 participants of median age 22 years came to a health center, where self-reported data were registered, including professional activity, and scores obtained through the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ were compared. RESULTS: In Section One of the FHSQ, the university students recorded lower scores of 66.66 in the footwear domain and 60 in the general foot health domain and higher scores of 84.37 in the foot pain domain and 93.75 in the foot function domain. In Section Two, they obtained lower scores of 60 in the overall health domain and 62.50 in the vigor domain and higher scores of 100 in the physical activity and 87.50 in the social capacity domain. Differences between males and females were evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, which showing statistical significance (P < 0.05 regarding the dimensions of footwear and general foot health. CONCLUSIONS: These university students’ quality of life relating to foot health was poor. This appears to be associated with the university period, regardless of gender.

  19. A cross-sectional survey of quality of life in colostomates: a report from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahjoubi Bahar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the complications that colostomies may cause, patient self-assessments of their social, emotional, physical, sexual and functional conditions may help their surgeons to evaluate the impact of their interventions or use supplementary methods to maintain patient functional status or decrease its loss to the minimum level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Quality of Life in Iranian patients with colostomies and to compare the age and gender differences among them. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2009 to 2010 to evaluate the quality of life of 96 patients who had undergone surgery for rectal cancer and had permanent colostomies. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancers Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30 and the EORTC QLQ-CR38 were used to assess patient Quality of Life. Results The mean scores for the functional subscales were as follows: Physical Function, 70.9 (±2.2; Role Function, 68.4 (±2.6; Emotional Function, 56.9 (±2.7; Cognitive Function, 68.7 (± 2.6; and Social Function, 64.2 (±3.3. The EORTC questionnaires showed significant differences between males and females. Males had better body image scores. Sexual Function and Sexual Enjoyment were impaired in both males and females, but males had significantly higher scores and better roles in Physical and Sexual Functions. More sexual enjoyment problems in older ages were observed in both males and females. Conclusion Having a colostomy was associated with a high level of emotional and sexual function impairment. The differing challenges between males and females should encourage us to design sex-specific interventions that improve the quality of life in this group of patients.

  20. A cross-sectional assessment of quality of life of breast cancer patients in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, K M; Mansour, E A; Vinluan, J M

    2016-07-01

    This aim of this study was to assess the quality of life of Saudi female breast cancer patients and determine the effects of the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on the quality of life of those patients. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. The data were collected from 145 female cancer patients who were recruited from outpatient units in different clinical settings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from September 2014 to February 2015. Questionnaires were distributed to the patients during their visits to the outpatient clinics after obtaining informed consent. Quality of life was assessed using a validated Arabic version of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life. Among functional scales, emotional functioning scored the highest (83.25 [95% CI 79.53-86.98]). The most distressing symptom on the symptom scale was insomnia (mean 84.14 [95% CI 79.95-88.32]), followed by appetite loss (mean 80.92 [95% CI 76.51-85.33]) and dyspnoea (mean 80.00 [95% CI 75.51-84.49]). Poor functioning was found in sexual enjoyment (mean 22.52 [95% CI 17.97-27.08]) while future perspective scored the highest (mean 76.32 [95% CI 70.52-82.12]). This study shows breast cancer survivors in Saudi had a low overall global quality of life. Saudi women showed average scores on all the functional scales but the emotional ones scored the highest. Insomnia, appetite loss, and dyspnoea were the distressing symptoms on symptom scales while future perspective domain scored the highest in item of QLQ-BR23. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Influence of Cobalt and Rhenium on the Behaviour of MCrAlY Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Täck, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Superalloys are widely applied as materials for components in the hot section of gas turbines. As superalloys have a limited oxidation life, the application of a coating is vital. The most commonly applied coatings in stationary gas turbines are MCrAlY coatings. Since the turbine components are exposed to high cyclic thermal stresses, MCrAlY coatings must also show a high thermal fatigue resistance. In this thesis, the effect of Cobalt and Rhenium on microstructure, oxidation and thermal fati...

  2. Effect of edible coatings with essential oils on the quality of red raspberries over shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos de Souza; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Guimarães, Ana Clara Garcia; Guerreiro, Adriana Cavaco; Gago, Custódia Maria Luís; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Dias, Cristina Maria Barrocas; Manhita, Ana Cristina Cabaça; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Miguel, Maria Graça Costa; Antunes, Maria Dulce Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop strategies for increasing the shelf-life of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), by preventing microorganism growth. Fruits coated with alginate plus lemon essential oil (0.2%) or orange essential oil (0.1%) after 15 days of storage had less red skin than the remaining samples. The less red color verified in these samples was also coincident with the lower concentration of anthocyanins at the end of the experiment as well as the lower capacity for scavenging ABTS free radicals or quenching singlet oxygen. Cyanidin and pelargonidin glucosides were found in raspberries fruits. The edible coatings supplemented with the essential oil of orange either at 0.1% or 0.2% were very efficient for controlling yeast and mold growth after 15 days of storage. To control the development of aerobic mesophilic bacteria the use of essential oil of lemon 0.2% and essential oil of orange 0.1% were the most efficient. The application of the film improved post-harvest quality of raspberry, since the addition of essential oils of citrus films promoted to the inhibitory effect of fungi and bacteria growth after 15 days of storage, without changing quality parameters. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The effect of various concentration of tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) surimi for edible coating on the shelf-life of Pangasius sp. fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnama, M. A. P.; Agustono; Sahidu, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Pangasius sp. fillets prone to deterioration the quality that will affect the appearance and the shelf life of fillets. The effort to extend the shelf life of fish fillet that is by using an edible coating. Surimi can be used as a protein-based edible coating because they have superior inhibitory and mechanical properties compared to the polysaccharides based material. Surimi can be made from freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fish. The experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments of surimi (0 gr, 2 gr, 4 gr, 6 gr, 8 gr) with four replications. The results showed that Pangasius sp. fillets with an edible coating 8 gr surimi have the highest value in the organoleptic test. The pH testing on Pangasius sp. fillets with edible coating 2 gr, 4 gr, 6 gr, and 8 gr surimi from the 0th hour to 18th hour have increased but slower than Pangasius sp. fillets without edible coating surimi. The best value of Total Plate Count (TPC) test is in edible coating 6 gr and 8 gr surimi as it is in accordance with SNI 2696:2013 at room temperature storage until the 18th hours.

  4. Quality of life of Bahraini women with breast cancer: a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer can impact survivors in many aspects of their life. Scarce information is currently available on the quality of life of cancer survivors in Bahrain. The objective of this study is to describe the quality of life of Bahraini women with breast cancer and its association with their sociodemographic and clinical data. Methods This is a cross sectional study in which the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Cancer Specific version translated into Arabic was administered to a random sample of 337 Bahraini women with breast cancer. Relevant descriptive statistics were computed for all items. The equality of means across the categories of each categorical independent variable was tested using parametric tests (ANOVA and independent t-test) or non-parametric tests (Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests) of association where appropriate. Results Of the total sample, 239 consented to participation. The mean and median age of participants were 50.2 (SD ± 11.1) and 48.0 respectively. Participants had a mean score for global health of 63.9 (95% CI 61.21-66.66). Among functional scales, social functioning scored the highest (Mean 77.5 [95% CI 73.65-81.38]) whereas emotional functioning scored the lowest (63.4 [95% CI 59.12-67.71]). The most distressing symptom on the symptom scales was fatigability (Mean 35.2 [95% CI 31.38-39.18]). Using the disease specific tool it was found that sexual functioning scored the lowest (Mean 25.9 [95% CI 70.23-77.90]). On the symptom scale, upset due to hair loss scored the highest (Mean 46.3 [95% CI 37.82-54.84]). Significant mean differences were noted for many functional and symptom scales. Conclusion Bahraini breast cancer survivors reported favorable overall global quality of life. Factors associated with a major reduction in all domains of quality of life included the presence of metastases, having had a mastectomy as opposed to a lumpectomy and a shorter time elapsed since

  5. Quality of Life in Ecuadorian Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Castillo, Yessenia; Montero, Nadia; Salazar-Ponce, Rosa; Villacís-Tamayo, Rómulo

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and associated clinical, demographic and socioeconomic factors in a cohort of Ecuadorian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cross-sectional descriptive study evaluating (HRQoL) with the Spanish version of the Quality of Life Rheumatoid Arthritis (QoL-RA) instrument in patients diagnosed with RA according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism. In addition, the following data were obtained: age, sex, marital status, socioeconomic stratum, comorbidities, disease duration, medication, rheumatoid factor positivity, disease activity using the simplified disease activity index and physical functionality measured with the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ). A total of 163 patients were assessed, the mean score of the QoL-RA scale was 6.84±1.5 points. The highest measurements were obtained in the domains of interaction (8.04±1.9) and support (8.01±2). The factors that were associated with the overall quality of life assessment were: functionality measured with MHAQ (r=-0.70; P<.001); disease duration in years (r=-0.178; P<.05); and disease activity (mean difference of 1.5; 95%CI: 1.09 to 1.91). The patients evaluated had a good to moderate HRQoL. The domains related to support and social life were those with the highest scores and the lowest scores were related to pain and nervous tension. Functionality, duration, and disease activity were statistically associated with HRQoL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality of Life in Chinese Persons Living With an Ostomy: A Multisite Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhaohui; Howell, Doris; Xu, Honglian; Yuan, Changrong

    The aim of the study was to describe health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in persons with ostomies and to explore influencing factors. Secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional survey. Eight hundred twenty-seven persons living with an ostomy were enrolled from 5 provinces and cities in China from October 2010 to November 2012; the final sample comprises 729 individuals who completed data collection. Their mean ± SD age was 62.59 ± 12.40 years (range 26-93 years). Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Chinese language version of the City of Hope-Quality of Life-Ostomy Questionnaire-Chinese Version. Sociodemographic data, clinical characteristics, self-efficacy, adjustment to an ostomy, social support, and psychological state of patients were measured by a general information questionnaire. We also administered the Stoma Self-Efficacy Scale, Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-Chinese Version, the Social Support Revalued Scale, and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. Of the 729 ostomy patients, the overall HRQOL in ostomy patients was in the moderate range (mean score 5.19 ± 1.29); scores of physical domain, psychological domain, social domain, and spiritual domains also in the moderate range (5.00 ± 1.73, 5.97 ± 1.59, 4.86 ± 2.31, and 4.93 ± 2.08 respectively). Multivariate analysis found that multiple factors influenced HRQOL in persons with an ostomy; they were gender, religious belief, and marital status, psychological factors depression and anxiety, and specific components related to social support, self-efficacy in ostomy care, and adjustment to an ostomy. Health-related quality of life among Chinese patients with fecal ostomies was less than optimal and influenced by multiple demographic and psychosocial factors. Additional research is needed to design strategies to improve HRQOL in this population.

  7. The neonate cry after cesarean section and vaginal delivery during the first minutes of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Anete; Behlau, Mara; Rehder, Maria Inês

    2005-05-01

    Although the option for vaginal delivery is most physiological, the achievement of cesarean section is very common in Brazil. The neonate cry represents the beginning of both processes, physiological adaptation and human vocal communication. The cry emission depends on the functioning of respiratory and laryngeal muscles, which are controlled by the nervous system. The acoustic analysis of neonate cry is useful in the assessment of healthy babies and can be used to characterize the signals of diseases through a previously multidisciplinary diagnosis, with immediate medical intervention. The present study compared the acoustic cry characteristics of 30 healthy newborn after a cesarean section and 30 healthy newborn after a vaginal delivery, of both genders, from the exact moment of birth until the first 5 min of life. Using the softwares VOXMETRIA and GRAM, it was possible to analyze the duration, frequency, intensity, occurrence, localization and inspiratory phonation, besides the type of spectrographic tracings. The acoustic cry characteristics of newborns after a C section and a vaginal delivery could evidence not only harmonic, expiratory, acute and strong emissions, but also emissions rich in sounds and varied in types of melody. The differences found can be related to the physiology of birth.

  8. Relation of n-value to critical current for local sections and overall sample in a SmBCO coated conductor pulled in tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Shojiro; Okuda, Hiroshi; Nagano, Shinji; Sugano, Michinaka; Oh, Sang-Song; Ha, Hong-Soo; Osamura, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    Under application of tensile stress to a SmBCO (SmBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ ) coated conductor sample consisting of series electric circuit of local sections, the relation of voltage-current curve, critical current and n-value of the sections to those of overall sample was studied. The change in critical current and n-value with increasing applied stress was different from section to section due to the difference in damage behavior of the SmBCO layer among the sections. When the difference in extent of damage among the sections was small, the voltages developed in all sections contributed to the voltage of overall sample. In this case, the critical current and n-value of overall sample were within the range of the highest and lowest values among the sections. On the other hand, when the damage in one section was far severer than that of other sections, the voltage developed in the most severely damaged section largely contributed to the overall voltage, and hence the voltage-current curves of the most severely damaged section were almost the same as those of overall sample. In this case, critical current of the overall sample was slightly higher and n-value of the overall sample was lower than the critical current and n-value of the most severely damaged section. Accordingly, the decrease in n-value with decreasing critical current in overall sample was sharper than that in sections. This phenomenon was accounted for by the increase in shunting current at cracked part at higher voltage in the most severely damaged section. (author)

  9. Suicide Risk, Meaning in Life, and Need for Life Respect in Adults and Elderly Among Public Hospital Outpatients in South Korea: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kim Ellis, Hyon

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the differences in suicide risk, meaning in life, and need for life respect among three age groups (young adults, the middle aged, and the elderly) of 540 public hospital outpatients in South Korea. This was a cross-sectional study. Among these 3 age groups, we observed significant differences in suicide risk, meaning in life, and need for life respect according to education level, marital status, living arrangements, type of disease, gender, and monthly income. These findings might contribute to the prevention of suicide in the future and the implementation of better community-based nursing care.

  10. Effect of cassava starch coating on quality and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril cv "Pérola").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierhals, Vânia S; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2011-01-01

    This research studied the influence of treatment with ascorbic acid, citric acid, and calcium lactate dipping and cassava starch edible coatings on quality parameters and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple in slices during 12 d at 5 °C. After previous tests, the treatments selected for this study were samples dipped into antibrowning solution with 0.5% of ascorbic acid and 1% of citric acid, with and without 2% of calcium lactate and coated with 2% of cassava starch suspensions. Changes in weight loss, juice leakage, mechanical properties (stress at failure), color parameters (L* and H*), ascorbic acid content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated. Samples only treated with antibrowning agents were used as control. Edible coatings with and without calcium lactate were efficient in reducing weight loss, juice leakage, and maintaining firmness during storage. However, these samples showed more browning and the ascorbic acid content was reduced. All treatments presented good sensory acceptance (scores above 6). The determining factor of shelf life of pineapple slices was the microbial spoilage. A shelf life of 8 d was obtained for pineapple slices only treated with antibrowning agents. On the other hand, coated samples showed a reduced shelf life of 7 d and higher yeast and mold growth. Thus, although cassava starch coatings were efficient in reducing respiration rate, weight loss, and juice leakage and maintained mechanical properties, these treatments were not able to increase the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple. Practical Application: Pineapple fruit is highly appreciated for its aroma, flavor, and juiciness, but its immediate consumption is difficult. Therefore, pineapple is a potential fruit for minimal processing. However, shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple is very limited by changes in color, texture, appearance, off-flavors, and microbial growth. The use of edible coatings as gas and water vapor barrier and antibrowning

  11. Cross-sectional study on the relationship between life events and mental health of secondary school students in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Linlin; Fan, Juan; Du, Yasong

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationship of demographic factors and negative life events to the mental health of mainland Chinese school students has not been fully explored. Aim Assess the prevalence of different types of life stressors among secondary school students and identify the demographic characteristics and types of life events that are most closely associated with perceived psychological difficulties in these students. Methods This cross-sectional study administered two self-completion question...

  12. Bridging Redox Species-Coated Graphene Oxide Sheets to Electrode for Extending Battery Life Using Nanocomposite Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi Fu; Ruan, Wen Hong; Lin, Dong Ling; Zhang, Ming Qiu

    2017-01-11

    Substituting conventional electrolyte for redox electrolyte has provided a new intriguing method for extending battery life. The efficiency of utilizing the contained redox species (RS) in the redox electrolyte can benefit from increasing the specific surface area of battery electrodes from the electrode side of the electrode-electrolyte interface, but is not limited to that. Herein, a new strategy using nanocomposite electrolyte is proposed to enlarge the interface with the aid of nanoinclusions from the electrolyte side. To do this, graphene oxide (GO) sheets are first dispersed in the electrolyte solution of tungstosilicic salt/lithium sulfate/poly(vinyl alcohol) (SiWLi/Li 2 SO 4 /PVA), and then the sheets are bridged to electrode, after casting and evaporating the solution on the electrode surface. By applying in situ conductive atomic force microscopy and Raman spectra, it is confirmed that the GO sheets doped with RS of SiWLi/Li 2 SO 4 can be bridged and electrically reduced as an extended electrode-electrolyte interface. As a result, the RS-coated GO sheets bridged to LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 //LiMn 2 O 4 battery electrodes are found to deliver extra energy capacity (∼30 mAh/g) with excellent electrochemical cycling stability, which successfully extends the battery life by over 50%.

  13. Perceived Health-Related Quality of Life in Women With Vulvar Neoplasia: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobleder, Andrea; Nikolic, Nataša; Hechinger, Mareike; Denhaerynck, Kris; Hampl, Monika; Mueller, Michael D; Senn, Beate

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of women with surgically treated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and vulvar cancer (VC) during the first week after hospital discharge. Further objectives were to investigate differences between women with VIN and VC as well as to examine whether correlations exist between women's symptom experience and HRQoL. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 hospitals in Germany and Switzerland. Women with VIN and VC rated HRQoL with the validated German Short-Form 36. Differences between HRQoL in women with VIN and VC were tested with Wilcoxon rank-sum score. The WOMen with vulvAr Neoplasia (WOMAN) - Patient reported Outcome (PRO) self-report instrument was used to measure women's symptom experience. Correlations between symptoms and HRQoL were calculated using Spearman correlation coefficient. Women with VIN and VC (n = 65) reported lower HRQoL in physical aspects (Physical Component Summary [PCS], 34.9) than that in mental aspects (Mental Component Summary, 40.5). Women with VC had lower HRQoL than women with VIN, as manifested by significant differences concerning the dimensions of "physical functioning" and "role-physical." "Difficulties in daily life" as a distressing symptom correlated with MCS and PCS. Wound-related symptoms correlated with PCS and psychosocial symptoms/issues with MCS. Analysis showed that women with vulvar neoplasia reported lower HRQoL in the physical and mental dimensions 1 week after discharge than comparable studies referring to months or years after surgery. Health-related quality of life is influenced by physical impairment because physical symptoms are prevalent 1 week after discharge. Patient education should focus on symptom management in an early postsurgical phase to enhance women's HRQoL.

  14. Application of Tragacanth gum impregnated with Satureja khuzistanica essential oil as a natural coating for enhancement of postharvest quality and shelf life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, M; Barzegar, M; Sahari, M A; Niakousari, M

    2018-01-01

    The effect of Tragacanth gum (TG) coating incorporated with 100, 500 and 1000ppm Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SEO) on the postharvest quality and shelf life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stored at 4±1°C for 16days was investigated. Weight loss, firmness, browning index (BI), total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial and sensory quality were measured. The results indicated that treatment with TG containing SEO (TGSEO) maintained 92.4% tissue firmness, and reduced microorganism counts, such as yeasts and molds and Pseudomonas, compared to uncoated samples. Furthermore, mushrooms treated with TGSEO coating exhibited up to 57.1% decreased in BI, significantly higher levels of total phenolics (85.6%) and ascorbic acid accumulation (71.8%) than control and its efficiency was better than that TG coating alone. Sensory evaluation demonstrated the capability of TGSEO coating for preserving the quality of mushroom during the storage. The results obtained endorse that application of TGSEO coating might be a simple and effective technique for prolonging their postharvest shelf life of mushroom by up to 16days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Gelatin-Based Edible Coatings Incorporated with Aloe vera and Black and Green Tea Extracts on the Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Radi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gelatin coating incorporated with Aloe vera gel (50,100% and green and black tea extracts (5,10% on physicochemical, microbial, and sensorial properties of fresh-cut oranges at 4°C for 17 days. Significant differences in terms of quality parameters were observed between the control and coated fresh-cut oranges. The highest variation of quality parameters was observed in control, while the least variations were observed in coated slices with 100% Aloe vera and 10% green tea extract. The weight loss was increased with time, but the coating treatment especially with 100% Aloe vera had significant effect on the prevention of weight loss. Also, Aloe vera coated samples obtained the highest score in sensory evaluation. Coating with gelatin incorporated with Aloe vera and green tea extracts successfully retarded the microbial growth and therefore extended the shelf life of fresh-cut oranges during cold storage.

  16. The inhibitory effect of the various seed coating substances against rice seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    Presently, chemical seed treatments are in discussion due to their directly or indirectly impacts on human health or other living organisms. They may also negatively affect the ecosystem and the food chain. In rice seeds, chemicals may cause phytotoxic effects including seed degradation. Eugenol is the main component of clove (Eugenia caryophillis) oil, which was proved to act simultaneously as bactericide, virocide and especially fungicide. The in vitro study was aimed to compare the inhibitory effect of the following seed treatment substances against seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during 12 months of storage; conventional captan (CA), chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL), eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL) and control (CO). The obtained results of fungi inhibition were classified in three groups, which showed at first that CA treatment led to a better, i.e., longer, inhibitory effect on Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger than E+CL. Secondly, E+CL coating polymer showed the longest inhibitory effect against Bipolaris oryzae and Nigrospora oryzae compared to CA and CL coating polymer. Finally, both CA and E+CL coating polymer had non-significant difference inhibitory effect on Fusarium moniliforme. The variant of CL coating polymer for seed coating was only during the first 6 months of storage able to inhibit all species of the observed seed borne fungi, whereas CA and E+CL coating polymer were capable to inhibit most of the fungi until 9 months of storage.

  17. Influence of Thickness of Multilayered Nano-Structured Coatings Ti-TiN-(TiCrAlN and Zr-ZrN-(ZrCrNbAlN on Tool Life of Metal Cutting Tools at Various Cutting Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Vereschaka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the influence of thickness of multilayered nano-structured coatings Ti-TiN-(TiCrAlN and Zr-ZrN-(ZrCrNbAlN on tool life of metal cutting tools at various cutting speeds (vc = 250, 300, 350 and 400 m·min−1. The paper investigates the basic mechanical parameters of coatings and the mechanism of coating failure in scratch testing depending on thickness of coating. Cutting tests were conducted in longitudinal turning of steel C45 with tools with the coatings under study of various thicknesses (3, 5, and 7 µm, with an uncoated tool and with a tool with a “reference” coating of TiAlN. The relationship of “cutting speed vc—tool life T” was built and investigated; and the mechanisms were found to determine the selection of the optimum coating thickness at various cutting speeds. Advantages of cutting tools with these coatings are especially obvious at high cutting speeds (in particular, vc = 400 m·min−1. If at lower cutting speeds, the longest tool life is shown by tools with thicker coatings (of about 7 μm, then with an increase in cutting speed (especially at vc = 400 m·min−1 the longest tool life is shown by tools with thinner coating (of about 3 μm.

  18. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Anshul Kumar; Abraham, Robinson J J; Appa Rao, V; Babu, R Narendra

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), tyrosine value (TV), extract release volume (ERV), Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV), instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV) and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application.

  19. Quality of life among healthcare workers: a multicentre cross-sectional study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheiraoui, F; Gualano, M R; Mannocci, A; Boccia, A; La Torre, G

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the quality of life among doctors, nurses, and occupational safety and health technologists (OSHT). Cross-sectional study was undertaken in a population of healthcare workers in 10 Italian regions. The Italian version of short form-36 (SF-36) was anonymously and voluntarily self-administered by participants to assess the perceived health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The HRQOL scores for the sample and the Italian population were compared. A multiple linear regression was performed to assess the influence of age, gender, role, socializing time, working time, years spent in healthcare and years spent in the specific department on the SF-36 score. The sample included 324 healthcare workers [57.1% women, mean age 39.0 (standard deviation 10.2) years]: 52.6% were medical doctors, 36.8% were nurses and 10.5% were OSHTs. Workers with a career of >15 years achieved a general health score lower than that of workers with a shorter career, while those who spent more time in socializing activities achieved a higher mental health score. The multivariate analysis showed that increasing age is positively related to role emotional levels (β = 0.243; P = 0.002), while it appears to be inversely related to general health (β = -0.218; P = 0.007) and physical function (β = -0.246; P = 0.001). Nurses had lower scores for bodily pain (β = -0.214; P social function (β = -0.242; P = 0.001) and role emotional (β = -0.211; P = 0.006) compared with doctors. Compared with the general Italian population, healthcare workers had higher scores for general health, physical function, role physical, bodily pain and mental health, and lower scores for vitality, social function and role emotional. Healthcare workers have different levels of HRQOL related to their professional role. In particular, nurses have lower quality of life. These results may help to identify the main roles and attitudes that could cause frustration, dissatisfaction and emotional stress in healthcare

  20. Effects of MAR-M247 substrate (modified) composition on coating oxidation coating/substrate interdiffusion. M.S. Thesis. Final Report; [protective coatings for hot section components of gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilsner, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of gamma+gamma' Mar-M247 substrate composition on gamma+beta Ni-Cr-Al-Zr coating oxidation and coating/substrate interdiffusion were evaluated. These results were also compared to a prior study for a Ni-Cr-Al-Zr coated gamma Ni-Cr-Al substrate with equivalent Al and Cr atomic percentages. Cyclic oxidation behavior at 1130 C was investigated using change in weight curves. Concentration/distance profiles were measured for Al, Cr, Co, W, and Ta. The surface oxides were examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that variations of Ta and C concentrations in the substrate do not affect oxidation resistance, while additions of grain boundary strengthening elements (Zr, Hf, B) increase oxidation resistance. In addition, the results indicate that oxidation phenomena in gamma+beta/gamma+gamma' Mar-M247 systems have similar characteristics to the l gamma+beta/gamma Ni-Cr-Al system.

  1. Health-related quality of life in dialysis patients with constipation: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang JS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available JiSheng Zhang,1,* CongYang Huang,1,* YanLi Li,1 Jun Chen,2 FangYuan Shen,1 Qiang Yao,3 JiaQi Qian,4 BeiYan Bao,1 XuPing Yao51Division of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Ningbo Urology and Nephrology Hospital, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China; 2Blood Purification Center, School of Medicine, Ningbo Urology and Nephrology Hospital, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China; 3Baxter Healthcare Pty Ltd, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 4Division of Nephrology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 5Division of Urology, School of Medicine, Ningbo Urology and Nephrology Hospital, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workObjectives: To evaluate differences in the health-related quality of life (HRQoL between patients with constipation receiving hemodialysis (HD and those receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 605 dialysis patients (478 HD cases and 127 PD cases; all patients were older than 18 years from our hospital were included. A questionnaire was used to evaluate their constipation statuses. The effect of constipation on HRQoL was assessed, using the Chinese version of the 12-item short-form (SF-12 general health survey. Karnofsky score, sociodemographic, and clinical data were also collected. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to define independent risk factors for constipation and impaired HRQoL.Results: A total of 605 participants (326 men [53.9%] and 279 women [46.1%] were surveyed. The incidence of constipation was 71.7% in HD patients and 14.2% in PD patients. Dialysis patients with constipation had significantly lower mean SF-12 Physical Component Summary scale and Mental Component Summary scale scores than the nonconstipation group (P < 0.05, whereas HD patients had better SF-12 Physical Component

  2. Quality of Life among Persons with Physical Disability in Udupi Taluk: A Cross Sectional Study.

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    Kuvalekar, Kunal; Kamath, Ramachandra; Ashok, Lena; Shetty, Bhartesh; Mayya, Shreemathi; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Disability is not just a health problem or attribute of individuals, but it reflects the problems individuals experience in their interaction with society and physical movements. Disabled persons remain neglected part of society and they also experience various barriers due to restriction of participation. The aim was to assess the quality of life (QOL) of physically disabled persons, the impact of physical disability on activities of daily living (ADL) and to study the awareness about laws and facilities available for disabled persons. A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 130 physical disabled persons who were selected using convenience sampling technique. The WHO BREF scale was used to assess QOL, while assessment of ADL was done using Barthel Index. Socio-demographic assessment was done using Udai Pareek scale. SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze data. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. As per guidelines physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain scores for WHO BREF scale were calculated. Among the study participants, 36.2% had a disability from birth that is, congenital. The second common cause of disability was found to be postpolio residual paralysis as it was found among 26.2% respondents. Other causes found were stroke/paralysis and accidents, in 19.2% and 18.5% respondents, respectively. Activities such as transfer, mobility, and stair climbing showed greater impact of physical disability. It was found that 11.5% respondents required help in one of the ADL. QOL score was found to be low under the psychological domain reflecting on negative feelings, bodily image, appearance, spirituality, and self-esteem of respondents. Physical disability had affected social participation as well as marriage of the respondents. However, it was found that very few of them are aware about facilities provided under persons with disability act.

  3. Quality of life among persons with physical disability in udupi taluk: A cross sectional study

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    Kunal Kuvalekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disability is not just a health problem or attribute of individuals, but it reflects the problems individuals experience in their interaction with society and physical movements. Disabled persons remain neglected part of society and they also experience various barriers due to restriction of participation. Objectives: The aim was to assess the quality of life (QOL of physically disabled persons, the impact of physical disability on activities of daily living (ADL and to study the awareness about laws and facilities available for disabled persons. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 130 physical disabled persons who were selected using convenience sampling technique. The WHO BREF scale was used to assess QOL, while assessment of ADL was done using Barthel Index. Socio-demographic assessment was done using Udai Pareek scale. SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze data. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. As per guidelines physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain scores for WHO BREF scale were calculated. Results: Among the study participants, 36.2% had a disability from birth that is, congenital. The second common cause of disability was found to be postpolio residual paralysis as it was found among 26.2% respondents. Other causes found were stroke/paralysis and accidents, in 19.2% and 18.5% respondents, respectively. Activities such as transfer, mobility, and stair climbing showed greater impact of physical disability. It was found that 11.5% respondents required help in one of the ADL. QOL score was found to be low under the psychological domain reflecting on negative feelings, bodily image, appearance, spirituality, and self-esteem of respondents. Conclusion: Physical disability had affected social participation as well as marriage of the respondents. However, it was found that very few of them are aware about facilities provided under

  4. Lumbar spondylolysis: a life long dynamic condition? A cross sectional survey of 4.151 adults

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    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Rovsing, H. C.; Monrad, Henrik; Gebuhr, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis (LS) has been the subject of several studies focusing on adolescent athletes. Few, if any, studies have examined LS in the general population. Lysis of the pars interarticularis of the vertebra may be associated with slipping (olisthesis), or it may be stable. In the present survey of lumbar radiographs and general epidemiological data recorded from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study cohort of 4.151 subjects (age range, 22–93 years), we identified the distribution and individual risk factors for LS-development. Men were significantly more at risk of L5 spondylolysis (P = 0.002). There were no sex-specific significant differences regarding LS-incidence at the L4 level. We found no significant differences of risk of LS between nulliparous or multiparous women (L4 P = 0.54/L5 P = 0.35). Furthermore, we found no significant relationship between age at menopause and LS-development. Increased lumbar lordosis was associated to L4/L5 spondylolysis in men (L4 P spondylolysis (P spondylolysis in both men and women (P spondylolysis. The prevalence of LS increases throughout life and is apparently not a condition restricted to adolescence. Although the cross-sectional nature of the present study prevents an exact estimate of the age at onset; future, sequential studies of the cohort may provide us with some important answers on this topic. Apart from aging–obesity, lordotic angle and pelvic inclination were found to be individual risk factors for LS. PMID:17120072

  5. Interpersonal trust and quality-of-life: a cross-sectional study in Japan.

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    Yasuharu Tokuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in psychosocial factors with positive attitudes, such as interpersonal trust, as determinants for Quality-of-life (QOL or subjective well-being. Despite their longevity, Japanese people report a relatively poor subjective well-being, as well as lower interpersonal trust. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal trust and QOL among Japanese people. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on the cross-sectional data for Japanese adults (2008, we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal trust and each of four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. Interpersonal trust was assessed using three scales for trust in people, in human fairness and in human nature. In a total of 1000 participants (mean age: 45 years; 49% women, greater trust was recognized among women (vs. men, those aged 60-69 (vs. 20-29, or the high-income group (vs. low-income. Each of three trust scales was positively correlated with all domains of QOL. Multiple linear-regression models were constructed for each of QOL and the principal component score of the trust scales, adjusted for age, gender, area size of residence, income, education, and occupation. For all QOL domains, interpersonal trust was significantly and positively associated with better QOL with p<0.001 for all four domains including physical, psychological, social, and environmental QOL. Other factors associated with QOL included gender, age class, area size of residence, and income. Education and occupation were not associated with QOL. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Greater interpersonal trust is strongly associated with a better QOL among Japanese adults. If a causal relationship is demonstrated in a controlled interventional study, social and political measures should be advocated to increase interpersonal trust for achieving better QOL.

  6. Decreased health-related quality of life in angiodysplasia patients: A cross-sectional cohort.

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    Karina V Grooteman

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias may cause anemia. Quality of life (QoL is a valid patient reported outcome and improvement of QoL represents an important treatment goal. There is a paucity of data on the effect of angiodysplasias on QoL. Therefore, we aim to evaluate QoL and fatigue in angiodysplasia patients. We performed a cross-sectional patient-reported outcome study. We included patients with endoscopy proven angiodysplasias and measured QoL with Short Form-36 and level of fatigue using Multi Fatigue Inventory-20. We distinguished three subgroups of patients according to disease severity: 1 with treatment for angiodysplasias, 2 without treatment for angiodysplasias and 3 without recent hospital visits. The primary outcome was the physical component summary (PCS score on the SF-36. Multivariate regression analysis were performed to correct for differences at baseline. A total of 144 patients completed the questionnaires (response rate = 62%; mean age 68 years; 65% men. Angiodysplasia patients have a significant lower PCS compared to the age-matched general population (respectively 41.0 vs. 43.3, p = 0.01. Disease severity is independently associated with a negative outcome on QoL (ß -4.6, 95% CI -7.8--1.3. Similarly patients score lower on multiple QoL subdomains, i.e. role limitations due to physical health problems (40.8 vs. 44.0, p<0.01, general health (39.7 vs. 47.3, p<0.01. Angiodysplasia patients are more fatigued compared to the general population (male 56.1 vs. 48.5, p<0.01, female 59.2 vs. 51.5, p = 0.01. In conclusion, angiodysplasias are independently associated with clinically significant impairments in multiple domains of health-related QoL, especially in measures of functional limitation.

  7. The influence of personality traits and social support on male nursing student life stress: a cross-sectional research design.

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    Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Li, Ren-Hau; Yang, Cheng-I; Eng, Cheng-Joo

    2010-06-01

    Understanding how male nursing students alleviate life stress during their academic career is conducive to their development as successful nursing professionals. This study was designed to understand the personality traits, social support, and life stresses of male nursing students. The respective influences of personality traits and social support on life stress were also explored. The study used a cross-sectional research design. A college in central Taiwan was targeted as the site for data collection. A total of 158 questionnaires were dispatched, with 145 valid copies returned (valid response rate = 91.7%). Structured questionnaires were designed to collect data on participant demographics, personality traits, social support, and life stress. Statistical methods such as descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis were applied to data analysis. Major findings of this study revealed that (a) in general, the personality traits, social support, and life stress of male nursing students scored in the medium to high range. Participants reported encountering more stress from learning and life goals than from interpersonal stress. (b) Male nursing student demographic variables (e.g., parent [father and mother considered separately] education level) and the personality traits of conscientiousness and family support, respectively, were found to impact significantly on participant life stress perceptions. And (c) the only significant predictors of life stress were support from family and education level of participant fathers and mothers, accounting for about 23.7% of variability. It is suggested that nursing students in each year of their academic career should be exposed to courses geared to reduce the life stress perceptions (especially in the areas of learning and career development) of male nursing students. Increased family support is an effective way to decrease male nursing student life stress. This study could be a

  8. Health-related life satisfaction and its influencing factors: A cross-sectional study in China.

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    Wang, Shou-Qi; Ying, Jie; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Shi, Ying; Li, Yuan; Xing, Zhuang-Jie; Li, Huan-Huan; Sun, Jiao

    2018-01-24

    With the rapid development of science and technology, the pace of life has accelerated. Health and life satisfaction issues of persons are gaining more attention. China, Japan, Malaysia, and Taiwan conducted international cooperative research on health of four regional populations. This research was a part of the study in mainland China, which aimed to explore health-related life satisfaction and its influencing factors on large samples in mainland China. A random group of 1404 persons from universities, factories, companies, and elderly centers in Changchun completed a structured questionnaire. This study centered on life satisfaction indicators, which included the current whole life, income, family relationships, peer relationships, relationships with the neighbors, living environment, personal health, family health, spare time, and housework share. Other collected data included the Body Mass Index, blood pressure, self-rated health, Breslow's seven health practices, medical treatment within the past 6 months, physical examinations, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 Scale, social activities, networking relationships with persons around the community, social support, and sociodemographic variables. Associations between life satisfaction, demographics, and health-related variables were analyzed through a multiway ANOVA. The living environment and income of Chinese persons were related to their low life satisfaction. The multiway ANOVA showed that the independent relationship of self-rated health, regular physical examinations, GHQ-12 Scale, trust in the community, communication with the neighbors, education, and age related with life satisfaction accounting for 20.3% of the variance. Education and age showed interactive effects on life satisfaction. This study identified seven factors that influenced the life satisfaction of persons in mainland China. Life satisfaction can be enhanced through interventions to improve self-rated health, regular physical

  9. Efficacy of various protein-based coating on enhancing the shelf life of fresh eggs during storage.

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    Caner, Cengiz; Yüceer, Muhammed

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of various coatings (whey protein isolate [WPI], whey protein concentrate [WPC], zein, and shellac) on functional properties, interior quality, and eggshell breaking strength of fresh eggs were evaluated during storage at 24 °: C for 6 weeks. Coatings and storage time had significant effects on Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, dry matter (DMA), relative whipping capacity (RWC), and albumen viscosity. Uncoated eggs had higher albumen pH (9.56) and weight loss, and lower albumen viscosity (5.73), Haugh unit (HU), and yolk index (YI) during storage. Among the coated eggs, the shellac and zein coated eggs had the highest value of albumen viscosity (27.26 to 26.90), HU (74.10 to 73.61), and YI (44.84 to 44.63) after storage. Shellac (1.44%) was more effective in preventing weight loss than WPC (4.59%), WPI (4.60%), and zein (2.13%) coatings. Uncoated eggs had the higest value (6.71%) of weight lost. All coatings increased shell strength (5.18 to 5.73 for top and 3.58 to 4.71 for bottom) significantly (P eggs (4.70 for top and 3.15 for bottom). The functional properties such as albumen DMA (14.50 to 16.66 and 18.97 for uncoated) and albumen RWC (841 to 891 and 475 for uncoated) of fresh eggs can be preserved during storage when they are coated. The shellac and zein coatings were more effective for maintaining the internal quality of fresh eggs during storage. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) in the 800 to 2500 nm reflection spectra were used to quantify the contents of the fresh eggs at the end of storage. Eggs coated with shellac or zein displayed a higher absorbance at 970 and 1,197 nm respectively (OH vibration of water) compared with those coated with WPI or WPC and the uncoated group at the end of storage. The coatings improved functional properties and also shell strength and could be a viable alternative technology for maintaining the internal quality of eggs during long-term storage. This study highlights the promising use of

  10. Health-related quality of life in paediatric arterial hypertension: a cross-sectional study.

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    Petek, Tadej; Hertiš, Tjaša; Marčun Varda, Nataša

    2018-05-01

    The prevalence of paediatric hypertension is increasing worldwide, especially due to the childhood obesity epidemic, and is an important public-health concern. While the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) was already shown to be impaired in the adult hypertensive population, a scarcity of data still exists on HRQoL in paediatric hypertensive patients. Our purpose was thus to assess the HRQoL of children and adolescents with arterial hypertension, using self- and proxy-reports, and to determine the correlations between child and parent questionnaire scores. The Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales were administered via post to children and adolescents, aged 5-18 years, with primary or secondary arterial hypertension and parents as proxy-reports. Patients were recruited from a paediatric nephrology unit in a tertiary hospital, using an out-patient clinic visit registry. Healthy school children and adolescents from a local primary school, aged 6 to 15 years, and their parents formed the control group. HRQoL group comparisons were calculated with independent samples t-test and child-parent correlations with the Pearson's r correlation coefficient. In total we recruited 139 patient and 199 control group participants as self- and proxy-reports. Scores from self- as well as proxy-reports indicated a significantly lower overall HRQoL in the paediatric hypertensive population (95% CI for mean score difference: - 11.02, - 2.86 for self- and - 10.28, - 2.67 for proxy-reports; p = .001). In self-reports, lower physical (95% CI: -13.95, - 4.89; p = <.001), emotional (95% CI: -12.96, - 2.38; p = .005), school (95% CI: -11.30, - 0.42; p = .035), and psychosocial functioning scores were observed (95% CI: -10.34, - 1.89; p = .005). Parent proxy-reports were lower in physical (95% CI: -14.31, - 5.39; p = <.001), emotional (95% CI: -12.39, - 2.60; p = .003) and psychosocial scores (95% CI: -9.36, - 1

  11. Is hormonal therapy associated with better quality of life in transsexuals? A cross-sectional study.

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    Gorin-Lazard, Audrey; Baumstarck, Karine; Boyer, Laurent; Maquigneau, Aurélie; Gebleux, Stéphanie; Penochet, Jean-Claude; Pringuey, Dominique; Albarel, Frédérique; Morange, Isabelle; Loundou, Anderson; Berbis, Julie; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe; Bonierbale, Mireille

    2012-02-01

    Although the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the self-reported outcomes of transsexuals has been largely described, the data available regarding the impact of hormone therapy on the daily lives of these individuals are scarce. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between hormonal therapy and the self-reported quality of life (QoL) in transsexuals while taking into account the key confounding factors and to compare the QoL levels between transsexuals who have, vs. those who have not, undergone cross-sex hormone therapy as well as between transsexuals and the general population (French age- and sex-matched controls). This study incorporated a cross-sectional design that was conducted in three psychiatric departments of public university teaching hospitals in France. The inclusion criteria were as follows: 18 years or older, diagnosis of gender identity disorder (302.85) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition text revision (DSM-IV TR), inclusion in a standardized sex reassignment procedure following the agreement of a multidisciplinary team, and pre-sex reassignment surgery. QoL was assessed using the Short Form 36 (SF-36). The mean age of the total sample was 34.7 years, and the sex ratio was 1:1. Forty-four (72.1%) of the participants received hormonal therapy. Hormonal therapy and depression were independent predictive factors of the SF-36 mental composite score. Hormonal therapy was significantly associated with a higher QoL, while depression was significantly associated with a lower QoL. Transsexuals' QoL, independently of hormonal status, did not differ from the French age- and sex-matched controls except for two subscales of the SF-36 questionnaire: role physical (lower scores in transsexuals) and general health (lower scores in controls). The present study suggests a positive effect of hormone therapy on transsexuals' QoL after accounting for confounding factors. These results will be useful for

  12. Risk factors and quality of life of dyslipidemic patients in Lebanon: A cross-sectional study

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    Akram Farhat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors of dyslipidemia and measure its impact on patients’ quality of life (QOL. Secondary objectives were to determine the percentage of dyslipidemia and assess the predictive factors affecting patients’ QOL. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of Lebanese population. A standardized questionnaire was developed to assess the QOL using the Short form-36 (SF-36 score. A total of 452 individuals were interviewed, of which 59.5% were females. The mean age was 43.3 ± 15.6 years, and 24.8% had dyslipidemia. The results show a lower overall QOL score among dyslipidemic patients compared with controls (57.9% and 76.5%, respectively; p < 0.001. Waterpipe smoking [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 4.113, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.696–9.971, p = 0.002], hypertension (ORa = 3.597, 95% CI: 1.818–7.116, p < 0.001, diabetes (ORa = 3.441, 95% CI: 1.587–7.462, p = 0.002, cigarette smoking (ORa = 2.966, 95% CI: 1.516–5.804, p = 0.001, and passive smoking (ORa = 2.716, 95% CI: 1.376–5.358, p = 0.004 were significantly associated with dyslipidemia in individuals older than 30 years. A higher overall QOL score (p = 0.013 was observed in patients treated with statins in comparison with other lipid-lowering medications. In addition to clinical and economical consequences, dyslipidemia may have a significant impact on patients’ QOL. Further research is needed to confirm the impact of treatment on dyslipidemic patients’ QOL in order to maximize the overall benefits of therapy.

  13. Quality of life and costs in Parkinson's disease: a cross sectional study in Hungary.

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    Tamás, Gertrúd; Gulácsi, László; Bereczki, Dániel; Baji, Petra; Takáts, Annamária; Brodszky, Valentin; Péntek, Márta

    2014-01-01

    Patient reported outcomes and costs of illness are useful to capture some of the multiple effects of a disease and its treatments. Our aim was to assess quality of life (QoL) and costs of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Hungary, and to analyze their associations. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in one neurology university clinic. Clinical characteristics, PD related resource utilizations and productivity loss in the past 12 months were recorded; the Hoehn&Yahr (HY) scale, PDQ-39 and EQ-5D questionnaires were applied. Cost calculation was performed from the societal perspective. 110 patients (34.5% female) were involved with mean age of 63.3 (SD=11.3) and disease duration of 8.2 (SD=5.8) years. PDQ-39 summary score was 48.1 (SD=13.4). The average EQ-5D score was 0.59 (SD=0.28), and was significantly lower than the population norm in age-groups 45-74. The correlation was significant between EQ-5D and PDQ-39 (-0.47, p=0.000), the HY scale and EQ-5D (-0.3416, p=0.0008) and PDQ-39 (0.3419, p=0.0006) scores. The total mean cost was €6030.2 (SD=6163.0)/patient/year (direct medical 35.7%, direct non-medical 29.4%, indirect cost 34.9%). A one year increase in disease duration and 0.1 decrease of the EQ-5D utility score increase the yearly costs by 8 to 10%, and 7.8%, respectively. The effect of the PDQ-39 score on total cost was not significant. Disease severity and public health importance of PD are clearly demonstrated by the magnitude of QoL loss. PD-related costs are substantial, but are much lower in Hungary than in Western European countries. Disease duration and EQ-5D score are significant proxy of costs.

  14. Quality of life and costs in Parkinson's disease: a cross sectional study in Hungary.

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    Gertrúd Tamás

    Full Text Available Patient reported outcomes and costs of illness are useful to capture some of the multiple effects of a disease and its treatments. Our aim was to assess quality of life (QoL and costs of Parkinson's disease (PD in Hungary, and to analyze their associations.A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in one neurology university clinic. Clinical characteristics, PD related resource utilizations and productivity loss in the past 12 months were recorded; the Hoehn&Yahr (HY scale, PDQ-39 and EQ-5D questionnaires were applied. Cost calculation was performed from the societal perspective.110 patients (34.5% female were involved with mean age of 63.3 (SD=11.3 and disease duration of 8.2 (SD=5.8 years. PDQ-39 summary score was 48.1 (SD=13.4. The average EQ-5D score was 0.59 (SD=0.28, and was significantly lower than the population norm in age-groups 45-74. The correlation was significant between EQ-5D and PDQ-39 (-0.47, p=0.000, the HY scale and EQ-5D (-0.3416, p=0.0008 and PDQ-39 (0.3419, p=0.0006 scores. The total mean cost was €6030.2 (SD=6163.0/patient/year (direct medical 35.7%, direct non-medical 29.4%, indirect cost 34.9%. A one year increase in disease duration and 0.1 decrease of the EQ-5D utility score increase the yearly costs by 8 to 10%, and 7.8%, respectively. The effect of the PDQ-39 score on total cost was not significant.Disease severity and public health importance of PD are clearly demonstrated by the magnitude of QoL loss. PD-related costs are substantial, but are much lower in Hungary than in Western European countries. Disease duration and EQ-5D score are significant proxy of costs.

  15. Quality of Life of Transgender Women From China and Associated Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Yang, Xiaoshi; Zhao, Lina; Wang, Lie; Hao, Chun; Gu, Yuan; Song, Wei; Zhao, Qun; Wang, Xiaoli

    2016-06-01

    Transgender women are exposed to stressful situations such as gender transition and transition-related discrimination because of their limited acceptance by the general population and inadequate government-supplied resources, which can compromise their quality of life (QOL). However, there is a paucity of research on the QOL of transgender women from China. To assess the QOL of transgender women from China and explore its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed by convenience sampling in Shenyang, China from January 2014 to July 2014. This sample consisted of 209 transgender women. The women were interviewed face-to-face to assess their QOL and related factors using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, the Adult Dispositional (Trait) Hope Scale, and the EGO Resilience Scale. Response scores were calculated based on a questionnaire design. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore factors associated with QOL. Transgender women who used hormone therapy reported significantly lower levels of the physical component summary (PCS) and the mental component summary (MCS) compared with those who did not (P discrimination from friends, knowledge of HIV prevention, hope, and resilience. Educational level and being chased or insulted by law enforcement officials were negatively associated with the MCS, whereas not using hormone therapy, having no regular partners or casual partners, less discrimination from friends, less social discrimination, knowledge of HIV prevention, and hope were positively associated with the MCS. Chinese transgender women reported high levels of physical QOL but low levels of mental QOL. Their mental QOL was more pronounced than their physical QOL. Transition status and sexual partnership played the most important roles in physical and mental health. Furthermore, mental QOL was best predicted by assessing positive capabilities, such as levels of hope. Future interventions should focus on recognizing

  16. Quality of life and functional capacity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - Cross-sectional study.

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    Rosa-Gonçalves, Diana; Bernardes, Miguel; Costa, Lúcia

    2017-04-08

    To analyze the Health related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and physical function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and compare it with the general population. We also intended to analyze about disease activity influence in HRQoL and functional capacity, as well as determine potential determinants for these outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in RA patients from a university hospital of Portugal. We obtained Short Form 36, EuroQoL 5D, health assessment questionnaire, visual analog scale for pain and patient's assessment of disease activity. Comparisons between SF-36 and EQ-5D values with our population reference values were conducted using the Mann-Whitney test. Data were compared in different levels of disease activity, using Kruskal Wallis test and Fisher's exact test. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify the potential determinants of outcomes. RA sample showed significantly lower values than the portuguese general population on physical summary measure of SF-36 (median=32 vs. 50, p<0.001) and EQ-5D (median=0.620 vs. 0.758 respectively; p<0.001). Lower disease activity levels had better PROs and this was true even when compared patients achieving remission with those in low disease activity. The HAQ (r 2 =67%), VAS-P (r 2 =62%) and VAS-DA (r 2 =58%) were the variables that strongly related to SF-36. Considering HAQ, the strongest relation was found with VAS-P, VAS-DA and age (r 2 =60%, 61% and 33%, respectively). Multiple regression analysis identified HAQ, VAS-P and educational status as determinants of the HRQoL; age, female gender, employment, VAS-P and VAS-DA as determinants of physical function. Impairment of HRQoL in RA patients is enormous. We found significant differences between different levels of disease activity, showing higher HRQoL and functional capacity at lower disease activity levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights

  17. Quality of life among immigrants in Swedish immigration detention centres: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

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    Soorej J. Puthoopparambil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detention of immigrants negatively affects their health and well-being. Quality of life (QOL is a broad concept incorporating the self-evaluation of one's own health and well-being that can provide an understanding of the health and well-being of immigrant detainees. The aim of this study was to estimate QOL among immigrant detainees in Sweden and to assess its relationship with the services provided in detention centres and with the duration of detention. Design: All immigrants in all five existing Swedish detention centres (N=193 were invited to participate in the study (n=127. In this cross-sectional study, QOL was measured using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, which was administered by the first author. The questionnaire contained four additional questions measuring participants’ satisfaction with the services provided in detention. Associations between QOL domain scores and service satisfaction scores were assessed using regression analysis. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated to measure the degree of association between the duration of detention and QOL scores. Results: The mean QOL domain scores (out of 100 were 47.0, 57.5, 41.9, and 60.5 for the environmental, physical, psychological, and social domains, respectively. The level of support detainees received from detention staff was significantly positively associated with detainees’ physical (βadjusted 3.93, confidence interval [CI] 0.06–7.80 and psychological (βadjusted 5.72, CI 1.77–9.66 domain scores. There was also significant positive association between detainees’ satisfaction with the care they received from detention staff and the domain scores. The general health score in the WHOQOL-BREF was significantly associated with the detainees’ ability to understand the Swedish or English languages. Although not statistically significant, a longer duration of detention was negatively correlated with QOL scores. Conclusion: Immigrant

  18. Gender differences in positive life orientation among the nursing home elders in China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Zheng, Zhibo; Xian, Wei; Bai, Ming; Jin, Liying; Li, Yuting; Yang, Xiufei; Sheng, Yang; Ai, Wensi; Liu, Hongbo

    2017-09-01

    Life orientation among the nursing home elders would differ from those of community-dwelling elders due to the different living environment, but may have greater differences in gender. This study was designed to investigate the positive life orientation and explore the potential risk factors including gender disparities among nursing home elders in China. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Northeast China. Two steps cluster sampling procedure were chosen. Basic activities of daily living (BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) systems were used to estimate the functional status. Positive life orientation was measured using the six-question life orientation scale (LOS). 2512 nursing home elders were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the participants was 73.14±6.746years. Of the 1308 men and 1204 women, 14.9% had a positive life orientation in women and 16.1% in men. Higher level of education, independent in BADL and IADL were related to positive life orientation both in men and women. Age and BMI were also found to be significantly associated with positive life orientation in men (OR=0.587, 1.132, respectively). For women, the influence of income and vision on positive life orientation was also significant (OR=1.967, 1.926, respectively). The positive life orientation was higher in men than women. The gender-specific differences contribute to take more effective measures to improve the positive life orientation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Positive factors associated with quality of life among Chinese patients with renal carcinoma: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiao; Gong, Da-Xin; Zeng, Yu; Li, Zhen-Hua; Kong, Chui-Ze

    2018-01-01

    Quality of life and positive psychological variables has become a focus of concern in patients with renal carcinoma. However, the integrative effects of positive psychological variables on the illness have seldom been reported. The aims of this study were to evaluate the quality of life and the integrative effects of hope, resilience and optimism on the quality of life among Chinese renal carcinoma patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the First Hospital of China Medical University. 284 participants completed questionnaires consisting of demographic and clinical characteristics, EORTC QLQ-C30, Adult Hope Scale, Resilience Scale-14 and Life Orientation Scale-Revised from July 2013 to July 2014. Pearson's correlation and hierarchical regression analyses were performed to explore the effects of related factors. Hope, resilience and optimism were significantly associated with quality of life. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that hope, resilience and optimism as a whole accounted for 9.8, 24.4 and 21.9% of the variance in the global health status, functioning status and symptom status, respectively. The low level of quality of life for Chinese renal carcinoma patients should receive more attention from Chinese medical institutions. Psychological interventions to increase hope, resilience and optimism may be essential to enhancing the quality of life of Chinese cancer patients.

  20. Diet Quality and Satisfaction with Life, Family Life, and Food-Related Life across Families: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Lobos, Germán; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Ares, Gastón; Hueche, Clementina

    2017-10-29

    Family is a major determinant of children's and adolescents' eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother-father-adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members' diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile), including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL) scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL) scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: "families with an unhealthy diet" (39.3%), "families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers' diets require changes" (14.3%), and "families that require changes in their diet" (46.4%). These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life.

  1. Diet Quality and Satisfaction with Life, Family Life, and Food-Related Life across Families: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Family is a major determinant of children’s and adolescents’ eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother–father–adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members’ diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile, including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: “families with an unhealthy diet” (39.3%, “families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers’ diets require changes” (14.3%, and “families that require changes in their diet” (46.4%. These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life.

  2. Diet Quality and Satisfaction with Life, Family Life, and Food-Related Life across Families: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, Germán; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Ares, Gastón; Hueche, Clementina

    2017-01-01

    Family is a major determinant of children’s and adolescents’ eating behavior. The objectives of the present study were to assess diet quality, eating habits, satisfaction with life, family life, and food-related life in mother–father–adolescent triads, and to identify profiles of families according to family members’ diet quality. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 two-parent families with one child over the age of 10 in the city of Temuco (Chile), including the Adapted Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFoL) scale, Satisfaction with Family Life (SWFaL) scales, and questions relating to their eating habits. Positive relationships were found between the diet quality of the family members, particularly between mothers and adolescents. Three family profiles with different diet qualities were identified: “families with an unhealthy diet” (39.3%), “families in which mothers and adolescents have healthy diets, but the fathers’ diets require changes” (14.3%), and “families that require changes in their diet” (46.4%). These findings stress the key role of mothers in determining family diet quality and suggest a positive relationship between diet quality and satisfaction with life. PMID:29109387

  3. Determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life in patients with temporary enterostomy: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xi; Zhen, Li; Zhu, Mulan; Kuang, Yinyi; Qin, Fang; Ye, Xinmei; Yin, Xuexia; Wang, Huizhen

    2017-02-01

    To identify determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life in patients with temporary enterostomy. Anterior resection with temporary enterostomy is the preferred treatment for patients with rectal cancer, which may impair patients' quality of life. So far, most studies have focused on quality of life in patients with permanent enterostomy, but few studies have looked at that in those with temporary enterostomy. Self-efficacy may determine quality of life in these patients, but few studies have identified determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life. Multicentre, cross-sectional survey and regression analysis to identify determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life. A convenience sample of patients undergoing temporary enterostomy at five hospitals in Guangdong Province (China) were surveyed at least four weeks after stoma surgery using validated Chinese versions of internationally recognised questionnaires, including a Stoma Self-Efficacy Scale and the City of Hope Quality of Life-Ostomy Questionnaire. Backward multiple regression analysis was performed to identify whether quality of life was determined by self-efficacy and other clinico-demographic characteristics. Of the 180 questionnaires distributed, 149 (82·8%) were returned, and 135 (75%) were used in the final analysis. Mean global quality of life was 5·40 ± 1·58, and mean global self-efficacy was 79·59 ± 20·21. Significant determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life were identified (β = 0·62, p < 0·01). Quality of life was determined by type of enterostomy (β = 0·18, p = 0·01) and payment method (β = 0·14, p = 0·03). Quality of life may be determined by self-efficacy, type of enterostomy and payment method, after temporary enterostomy. Promoting stoma-related self-efficacy in patients with temporary enterostomy may improve their quality of life. Healthcare providers should focus on quality of life in those either with temporary loop ileostomy or entirely

  4. Depression, quality of life and primary care: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Andriopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of both depressive symptomatology and impairment of quality of life is significant and primary care with simple, validated tools can be the setting for identifying and helping such patients.

  5. A Cross- Sectional Study on the Quality of Life of Healthcare Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkadir Ergen; Özgür Tanr›verdi; Evflan Arslan

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Today, the work environment is one of the factors affecting the quality of life. Indeed, in a stressful environment, health care providers must work carefully and diligently. In this study, we aimed to determine health workers’ perception towards quality of life and to explore its influential factors. Methods: A total of 110 health personnel who have been actively working within the last 6 months in our hospital were included in this study. The study was completed wi...

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life after Restorative Proctocolectomy: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helavirta, I; Hyöty, M; Oksanen, P; Huhtala, H; Haapamäki, J; Aitola, P

    2018-05-01

    Patients undergoing restorative proctocolectomy have often suffered from active ulcerative colitis which should be remembered when assessing quality of life after operation. The aim of this study was to explore health-related quality of life after restorative proctocolectomy in those with poor or good pouch function and to compare that to patients with active or inactive ulcerative colitis and to the general population. Altogether, 282 restorative proctocolectomy patients were investigated. The control group comprised 408 ulcerative colitis patients from the local register. Generic 15D and disease-specific inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire health-related quality of life instruments were used. Population-based data were available for 15D. Pouch function was evaluated with Öresland score and colitis activity with simple clinical colitis activity index. 15D results showed that patients with good pouch function had health-related quality of life similar to that of the general population. Health-related quality of life with inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire was equally good in patients with good pouch function (n = 131; 70%) and inactive colitis (n = 95; 63%), and equally impaired in patients with poor pouch function (n = 56; 30%) and active colitis (n = 18; 12%). The majority of patients had health-related quality of life comparable to that in general population. Most patients with active ulcerative colitis are likely to improve their health-related quality of life after successful surgery. These findings are important when informing colitis patients about life after surgery.

  7. Quality of life and psychosocial aspects in Greek patients with psoriasis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Christodoulou, Christos; Stefanaki, Christina; Livaditis, Miltiadis; Tsatovidou, Revekka; Kouskoukis, Constantinos; Petridis, Athanasios; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, long-term skin disease associated with high levels of psychological distress and a considerable adverse impact on life. The effects of psoriasis, beyond skin affliction, are seldom recognized and often undertreated. The aim of the study is to evaluate the quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem and loneliness in patients with psoriasis. Eighty-four patients with psoriasis were enrolled in the study. The quality of life, depression and anxiety, loneliness and self-esteem of the patient were assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the UCLA loneliness Scale (UCLA-Version 3) and Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, respectively. The Dermatology Quality of Life Index score among psoriasis patients was 12.61 ± 4.88. They had statistically significantly higher scores according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale -anxiety subscale (p=0.032)-compared with healthy volunteers. Moreover, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the UCLA-scale (p=0.033) and RSES-scale (pself-esteem than male patients. Psoriasis is a distressing, recurrent disorder that significantly impairs quality of life. Therefore, the recognition and future management of psoriasis may require the involvement of multi-disciplinary teams to manage the physical, psychological and social aspects of the condition, as is the case for systemic, long-term conditions.

  8. Resilience as a mediator between cardiorespiratory fitness and mental health-related quality of life: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozuelo-Carrascosa, Diana P; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Bartolomé-Gutiérrez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca

    2017-09-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the relationship between resilience, cardiorespiratory fitness, and mental health-related quality of life, and examined whether resilience acts as a mediator between the latter two. The study included 770 university students, aged 18-30 years, from Cuenca, Spain. Anthropometric, sociodemographic, cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run test), biochemical parameters, resilience, and mental health-related quality of life measurements were analyzed. The results showed that mental health-related quality-of-life values were significantly higher in students who had good cardiorespiratory fitness and a high level of resilience. Moreover, resilience acted as a partial mediator between cardiorespiratory fitness and mental health-related quality of life at 33.79%. Therefore, in young adults, resilience mediates the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and mental health-related quality of life. These findings should be taken into account by nurses and other public health professionals, because in addition to the development of physical activity interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life, it is necessary to implement measures that increase resilience to achieve mental wellness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Potential of carboxymethyl cellulose coating and low dose gamma irradiation to maintain storage quality, inhibit fungal growth and extend shelf-life of cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, P R; Rather, S A; Suradkar, P; Parveen, S; Mir, M A; Shafi, F

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality, inhibiting fungal incidence and extending shelf-life of cherry fruit. Two commercial cherry varieties viz. Misri and Double after harvest at commercial maturity were coated with CMC at levels 0.5-1.0 % w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.2 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 %) and refrigerated (temperature 3 ± 1 °C, RH 80 %) conditions for evaluation of various physico-chemical parameters. Fruits were evaluated after every 3 and 7 days under ambient and refrigerated conditions. CMC coating alone at levels 0.5 and 0.75 % w/v was not found effective with respect to mold growth inhibition under either of the two conditions. Individual treatment of CMC coating at 1.0 % w/v and 1.2 kGy irradiation proved helpful in delaying the onset of mold growth up to 5 and 8 days of ambient storage. During post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 %, irradiation alone at 1.2 kGy gave further 4 days extension in shelf-life of cherry varieties following 28 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of cherry fruit during post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 % but, combination of CMC at 1.0 % w/v and 1.2 kGy irradiation was found significantly ( p  ≤ 0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of cherry fruit. The above combinatory treatment besides maintaining storage quality resulted in extension of 6 days in shelf life of cherry varieties during post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 80 % following 28 days of refrigeration. Above Combination treatment gave a maximum of 2.3 and 1.5 log reduction in yeast and mold count of cherry fruits after 9 and 28

  10. Facebook intrusion, fear of missing out, narcissism, and life satisfaction: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiórka, Aneta

    2018-01-01

    Facebook is one of the most popular social networking sites. The present paper examines the relations between fear of missing out, narcissism, Facebook intrusion, and life satisfaction. We hypothesized that the fear of missing out and narcissism would play a significant role in Facebook intrusion. The participants in the study were 360 Polish users of Facebook. We administered the Facebook Intrusion Scale, the Fear of Missing Out Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. The results showed that a high level of fear of missing out and high narcissism are predictors of Facebook intrusion, while a low level of fear of missing out and high narcissism are related to satisfaction with life. Our findings provide a more comprehensive picture of the predictors of Facebook intrusion and reveal interesting patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of satisfaction with work-life balance among U.S. Gynecologic Oncology fellows: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szender, J Brian; Grzankowski, Kassondra S; Eng, Kevin H; Odunsi, Kunle; Frederick, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    To characterize the state of satisfaction with work-life balance (WLB) among gynecologic oncology fellows in training, risk factors for dissatisfaction, and the impact of dissatisfaction on career plans. A cross-sectional evaluation of gynecologic oncology fellows was performed using a web-based survey. Demographic data, fellowship characteristics, and career plans were surveyed. The primary outcomes were satisfaction with WLB and career choices. p balance.

  12. Quality of life and well-being of people receiving haemodialysis treatment in Scotland: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshraifeen, Ali; McCreaddie, May; Evans, Josie M M

    2014-10-01

    End-stage renal disease is a complex, progressive and debilitating illness that affects patients' quality of life, physical and mental health, well-being, social functioning and emotional health. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in renal dialysis centres in Scotland to assess patients' health status and the impact of haemodialysis treatment on quality of life and well-being. Participants scored considerably lower than the UK general population in all domains of health-related quality of life, although mental health components were nearer to general population norms than physical health components. However, nearly half of the participants achieved a score on a general well-being questionnaire that was indicative of stress and anxiety. Increasing age was associated with better overall mental health but worse physical functioning. Increasing levels of hope and support were associated with improved general well-being. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Health-related quality of life in the Brazilian Amazon: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Caicedo Roa, Monica; Galvao, Tais Freire

    2017-08-14

    To analyze perceptions of health-related quality of life and associated factors in populations from the Manaus Metropolitan Region. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study from May to August 2015. Adults aged 18 years and older were selected using probabilistic three-phase cluster sampling and stratified by sex and age, based on official estimates. Quality of life data were collected using the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions 3-Levels (EQ-5D-3L) along with socioeconomic, demographic, and health perception data. Utility scores were calculated using the Brazilian version of the EQ-5D-3L. Descriptive statistics were derived, and a multivariate Tobit regression model with correction for complex sampling was performed to identify the variables that influence utility levels. A total of 4001 participants were included. The average utility score was 0.886 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.881-0.890) with significant differences according to living area (the capital (0.882 ± 0.144) or inner cities (0.908 ± 0.122; p quality of life than women (β = 0.041, p quality of life compared with being formally employed (β = 0.031, p = 0.037). The poorest people had a lower quality of life than the richest people (β = -0.118, p quality of life in the Manaus Metropolitan Region was high, as expected for the general population, and was higher among individuals who lived in the inner cities, men and those in higher social classes. Gender discrepancies and differences in quality of life between the capital and inner cities should be further investigated.

  14. Quality of life, self-stigma, and hope in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbova, Kristyna; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Kamaradova, Dana; Marackova, Marketa; Holubova, Michaela; Grambal, Ales; Slepecky, Milos; Latalova, Klara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the quality of life, self-stigma, personality traits, and hope in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A total of 52 outpatients participated in this cross-sectional study. The attending psychiatrist assessed each patient with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The patients then completed Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised (TCI-R), Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS), Drug Attitude Inventory 10 (DAI-10), and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS)-Self-report. The psychiatrist evaluated Clinical Global Impression Severity - the objective version (objCGI-S), and the patients completed the Clinical Global Impression Severity - the subjective version (subjCGI-S). Each participant also completed Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The quality of life was significantly higher in employed patients and individuals with higher hope, self-directedness (SD), and persistence (PS). The quality of life was lower among patients with higher number of psychiatric hospitalizations, those with higher severity of the disorder, and individuals who were taking higher doses of antipsychotics. Patients with more pronounced symptoms of depression, anxiety, and social anxiety had a lower quality of life. Finally, the quality of life was lower among individuals with higher harm avoidance (HA) and self-stigmatization (ISMI). Backward stepwise regression was applied to identify the most significant factors connected to self-stigma. The regression analysis showed that occupation, level of depression (BDI-II), attitude to using medication (DAI-10), social anxiety (LSAS), and antipsychotic index were the most relevant factors associated with lower quality of life. Detection of the quality of life in the context of personality traits, hope, self-stigma, and

  15. Comparing health-related quality of life of employed women and housewives: a cross sectional study from southeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravi Fatihe Kerman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life differs for different people in different situations and is related to one's self-satisfaction with life. Considering the role of women in family and social health and the specific cultural characteristics of our province, we aimed to compare the quality of life of employed women with housewives in Zahedan, Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out during 2009–2010 in Zahedan, Iran. The sample consisted of 110 housewives and 110 employed women selected randomly from ten health care centers. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the SF-36. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare quality of life in housewives and employed women while controlling for age, education and income. Results The mean (±SD age of participants was 33.87± 8.95 years. Eighty-eight women (40% had a university degree with a mean (±SD official education of 10.8 (±4.9 years. The results indicated that employed women scored higher than housewives in all measures except for physical functioning. The differences were found to be remarkable for vitality, mental health and role emotional. However, after controlling for age, education and family income, none of differences reached significant level. Conclusion After controlling for potential confounders, the findings from this study indicated that there were no significant differences in quality of life between employed women and housewives. However, employed women scored higher on the SF-36, especially on the role emotional, vitality, and mental health. The findings suggest that associations exist between some aspects of health-related quality of life and employment. Indeed improving health-related quality of life among housewives seems essential.

  16. A Cross- Sectional Study on the Quality of Life of Healthcare Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Ergen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Today, the work environment is one of the factors affecting the quality of life. Indeed, in a stressful environment, health care providers must work carefully and diligently. In this study, we aimed to determine health workers’ perception towards quality of life and to explore its influential factors. Methods: A total of 110 health personnel who have been actively working within the last 6 months in our hospital were included in this study. The study was completed within one month period encompassing the months of June and July of 2010. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL- BREF was administered in a face-to-face basis. The T test, ANOVA test and the Tukey’s multiple comparison test were used for analysis. Results: No significant conclusion could be drawn from the results for gender, educational level, smoking, number of children, living area, number of years of service, annual leave time, holiday status, frequency of reading, daily news resources, courses, movies, theater, concert, exhibition, surgery undertaken, and presence of chronic disease. In the WHOQOL- BREF domains, such as occupational group, alcohol use, monthly income level, working status, sports habits, psychological status, and chronic diseases, the results were significant. Conclusion: Factors negatively affecting the quality of life have adverse impact on work environment and productivity at work. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2011; 49: 14-9

  17. The Development of Attentional Networks: Cross-Sectional Findings from a Life Span Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Florian; Li, Shu-Chen; Hommel, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Using a population-based sample of 263 individuals ranging from 6 to 89 years of age, we investigated the gains and losses in the abilities to (a) use exogenous cues to shift attention covertly and (b) ignore conflicting information across the life span. The participants' ability to shift visual attention was tested by a typical Posner-type…

  18. Quality of life in patients with vitiligo: a cross-sectional study based on Vitiligo Quality of Life index (VitiQoL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, Kosar; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Ghiasi, Maryam; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Fakour, Yousef; Akbari, Zahra; Ghayoumi, Afsaneh; Ghandi, Narges

    2016-06-07

    Vitiligo is a multi-factorial pigmentary skin disorder. Recently, the importance of emotional and psychological issues is proposed in incidence, progression, relapse and remission of vitiligo. There are limited studies conducted in developing countries, which assess life quality of patients with vitiligo. The aim of this study was the application and evaluation of a disease-specific quality of life index in Iranian patients, for the first time. This cross-sectional biphasic study was conducted on 25 patients as a pilot and another 173 patients as the main study group, in Razi Hospital, Tehran, Iran, 2013-2014. Persian version of Vitiligo Quality of Life index (VitiQoL) was developed with backward-forward method. Based on the pilot study, the validity and reliability were assessed. The Vitiligo Area and Score Index (VASI), VitiQoL, and their relationship, demographic and clinical characteristic of patients were measured. The Mean and standard deviation of the VitiQoL score was 30.5 ± 14.5 (range 0-60 in Persian version). There was a significant relationship between VASI score and VitiQoL (p = 0.015, r = 0.187). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed three important factors within VitiQoL: participation limitation, stigma, and behavior. In subscale analysis based on behavior factor, female patients had poorer quality of life (p = 0.02). Concomitant psychiatric problems, e.g. anxiety and depression, were not associated with QOL; however, they were near to being meaningful (p = 0.06, r = 0.14). VitiQoL is a valid index in estimating life quality of vitiligo patients and has proper relation to disease severity. Focusing on patient's life quality is an important entity in the management of vitiligo patients; relevant supportive group-based consultations and therapies are also important arms when approaching vitiligo.

  19. Health and quality of life outcomes impairment of quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita-Cruz, Jessie N; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Arellano-Flores, María Luisa; Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Najera-Ahumada, Alma Gloria; Cisneros-González, Nelly

    2018-05-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a chronic disease, and for treatment to succeed, it is necessary to harmonize the mental health of the patient with the environment, which impacts quality of life and adherence to medical regimens. The objetive of this study is describe the quality of life of patients with DM2 and the factors relates to its modification. This investigation was a cross-sectional study. Patients over 18 years of age with DM2 were selected. The following variables related to quality of life were studied: age, sex, occupation, marital status, years of DM2 evolution, comorbidities and presence of depression (Beck Depression Inventory). Perceived quality of life was measured with a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scale, the 36-Item Short-Form Survey (SF-36). Patients were classified according to SF-36 HRQoL score ( 76 points). Among the 1394 patients included, the median age was 62 years. Global HRQoL had a median of 50.1 points. Bivariate analysis showed that age, marital status, sex, occupation, comorbidities, duration of DM2 and comorbidities had impacts on HRQoL. The logistic regression model identified age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04) and depression (OR 4.4) as independent factors that influenced overall quality of life. Patients with DM2 have poor HRQoL, which is associated with a high frequency of depression. Older age and the presence of depression impair patient HRQoL. R-2013-781-052. Registered 20 December 2014.

  20. Teaching surgical skills in obstetrics using a cesarean section simulator – bringing simulation to life

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    Venkata Sujatha Vellanki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Venkata Sujatha Vellanki1, Sarath Babu Gillellamudi21Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2Department of General Surgery Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Sreepuram, Narketpally, Nalgonda, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaPurpose: Cesarean section is the most common surgery performed in obstetrics. Incorporating a simulation model into training provides a safe, low-stress environment in which students can gain skills and receive feedback. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of obstetrics simulator training for medical students doing their internship.Methods: Twenty-five students posted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology received a formal lecture on cesarean section and demonstration of the procedure on a mannequin in the first week of their internship, The study group (n = 12 practiced their skills on an obstetrics simulator under the direct supervision of a faculty member. The control group received no simulator-based training (n = 13 or further instruction. All students were asked to complete a prevalidated questionnaire to assess their level of confidence in performing the procedure after the educational session.Results: Compared with their peers in the study, students in the simulator group were significantly more likely to define the steps of cesarean section (91% vs 61.5%, and were comfortable in assisting cesarean section (100% vs 46.15% as they were able to identify the layers of abdomen opened during cesarean section. All 12 students reported this as an excellent experience.Conclusion: We were able to construct an inexpensive cesarean section trainer that facilitates instruction in cesarean section technique in a low-stress environment.Keywords: simulation, obstetrics, medical students

  1. A Cross Sectional Study Evaluating Perceived Impact of Epilepsy on Aspects of Life

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    Mahmoud Motamedi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unpredictable spells of epileptic seizures would result in embarrassment in society and have some negative impact on the patients’ social activities. The aim of this study was to show the perceived impact of epilepsy by patients on different aspect of their social activities including occupation, marriage and education.Materials and Methods: We studied 179 epileptic patients age 16 years and over with face to face interview. Nine domains including relation to spouses, relation to family members, social life, general health, interpersonal communications and friendships, feelings about success, hope for future, ordinary life and cope with others were considered.Results: One hundred and seven men and 72 women were studied. Nearly 78% of the patients had generalized tonic-clonic seizures. More than half of the patients believed that epilepsy had affected their social life and activities. General health was negatively affected by this disease more than any other item; this may be due to uncontrolled spells or taking medications. About 15.5% of married and 39% of the single patients considered epilepsy as an obstacle to marry with their ideal spouses and more than half of the employed persons considered epilepsy as an obstacle for their job promotions.Conclusion: Epilepsy frequently impact on several aspects of life. The disease negatively affects social lives and activities, overall health, feelings about self, ability to work in paid employments, relationship with spouses, friends, and other family members, future plans, standards of living and ambitions of epileptic patients. Decreasing such impacts should be considered as an important part of treatment and proper management can certainly increase various aspects of life in these patients.

  2. Cross-sectional study on the relationship between life events and mental health of secondary school students in Shanghai, China.

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    Zhou, Linlin; Fan, Juan; Du, Yasong

    2012-06-01

    The relationship of demographic factors and negative life events to the mental health of mainland Chinese school students has not been fully explored. Assess the prevalence of different types of life stressors among secondary school students and identify the demographic characteristics and types of life events that are most closely associated with perceived psychological difficulties in these students. This cross-sectional study administered two self-completion questionnaires to a stratified random cluster sample of 1818 students from four secondary schools in two districts of Shanghai: the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and an abbreviated version of the Adolescent Self-rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC) that assesses 11 negative life events. Academic stress (74%), criticism from others (66%), family conflict (29%) and peer bullying & discrimination or interpersonal conflict (26%) were the most frequently reported negative life events, but their prevalence varied significantly by gender, type of school and urban versus rural residence. Similarly the level of reported psychological stress associated with life events, the total perceived psychological difficulty, and the level of pro-social behavior in the students varied significantly between different groups of students. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of high perceived psychological difficulty in the prior 6 months (in order of importance): high total stress score from negative life events in the prior year, experiencing peer bullying & discrimination or interpersonal conflict, not experiencing the death of a family member, male gender, attending a school in a rural district, and not suffering from a major disease or physical impairment. The independent predictors of a high level of pro-social behavior were high total stress score from negative life events, attending an urban school, female gender, attending a regular-tier school (vs. a high

  3. General Practitioners' Attitudes towards Essential Competencies in End-of-Life Care: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezendanner, Stéphanie; Jung, Corinna; Banderet, Hans-Ruedi; Otte, Ina Carola; Gudat, Heike; Haller, Dagmar M; Elger, Bernice S; Zemp, Elisabeth; Bally, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Identifying essential competencies in end-of-life care, as well as general practitioners' (GPs) confidence in these competencies, is essential to guide training and quality improvement efforts in this domain. To determine which competencies in end-of-life care are considered important by GPs, to assess GPs' confidence in these competencies in a European context and their reasons to refer terminally ill patients to a specialist. Cross-sectional postal survey involving a stratified random sample of 2000 GPs in Switzerland in 2014. Survey development was informed by a previous qualitative exploration of relevant end-of-life GP competencies. Main outcome measures were GPs' assessment of the importance of and confidence in 18 attributes of end-of-life care competencies, and reasons for transferring care of terminally-ill patients to a specialist. GP characteristics associated with main outcome measures were tested using multivariate regression models. The response rate was 31%. Ninety-nine percent of GPs considered the recognition and treatment of pain as important, 86% felt confident about it. Few GPs felt confident in cultural (16%), spiritual (38%) and legal end-of-life competencies such as responding to patients seeking assisted suicide (35%) although more than half of the respondents regarded these competencies as important. Most frequent reasons to refer terminally ill patients to a specialist were lack of time (30%), better training of specialists (23%) and end-of-life care being incompatible with other duties (19%). In multiple regression analyses, confidence in end-of-life care was positively associated with GPs' age, practice size, home visits and palliative training. GPs considered non-somatic competencies (such as spiritual, cultural, ethical and legal aspects) nearly as important as pain and symptom control. Yet, few GPs felt confident in these non-somatic competencies. These findings should inform training and quality improvement efforts in this domain, in

  4. The association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratous, Sokratis; Merkouris, Anastasios; Middleton, Nicos; Karanikola, Maria

    2013-12-05

    Previous findings suggest that stressful life events have a causal relationship with depressive symptoms. However, to date little is known concerning the contribution of the number and severity of recent stressful life events on the prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with the number and the severity of self-reported stressful life events among university students in Cyprus. A descriptive correlational design with cross sectional comparison was used. The CES-D scale was applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms and the LESS instrument for stressful life events. Both scales were completed anonymously and voluntarily by 1.500 students (response rate 85%). The prevalence of mild to moderate depressive symptoms [CES-D score between 16 and 21] and of clinically significant depressive symptoms [CES-D score ≥ 22] were 18.8% and 25.3% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in clinically significant depressive symptoms by gender, with higher rates among women (x(2) = 8.53, df = 1, p = 0.003). Higher scores on the LESS scale were associated with more frequent reports of clinical depressive symptoms (x(2) = 70.63, df = 4, p life events and clinical depressive symptoms (x(2) = 40.06, df = 4, p stressful life events during the previous year (OR = 2.64 95% CI: 1.02, 6.83) and a severe degree of stress due to these events (total LESS score > 351, OR = 3.03 95% CI: 1.66, 5.39) were more likely to manifest clinical depressive symptoms. The high frequency of occurrence of depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students, as well as the strong association with stressful life events, highlights the need for psychological empowerment strategies towards students by institutional counseling services.

  5. Stress, health and quality of life of female migrant domestic workers in Singapore: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjara, S G; Nellums, L B; Bonetto, C; Van Bortel, T

    2017-10-10

    There is a global increase in migrant workers. In Singapore, there are over 230,000 migrant domestic workers (MDWs). Female MDWs may experience high levels of stress and social isolation, which may negatively impact on their health and quality of life. There have also been documented cases of abuse and exploitation. However, there is a lack of empirical research with this population. This study aimed to investigate factors impacting on the health and quality of life of female MDWs in Singapore, including socio-demographic and job related characteristics, stress, social isolation, and working management style. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 182 female MDWs in Singapore. The survey examined health and quality of life (WHOQoL-Bréf), social connectedness (the Friendship Scale), and preferred and experienced working management style (the Theory X and Theory Y Questionnaire). Descriptive analyses were carried out in addition to ANOVA, t-tests, and chi-square tests, followed by a multivariate analysis using linear regression. Participants were found to have good overall quality of life and satisfaction with health. Age and working experience were found to be significantly (p health). Agreement between experienced and preferred working management style was also found to be associated with higher quality of life scores (with the exception of the social relationships domain). Though women reported relatively good overall quality of life, more than half of participants reported feeling stressed. In addition, nearly 20% of participants reported being isolated or very isolated. Stress was identified to be associated with isolation. In the multivariate analysis, stress was found to contribute to worse quality of life in all domains except social relationships, after adjusting for confounders. Social connectedness was positively associated with all domains of quality of life, and agreement of working management style was positively associated with physical health

  6. Relation Between Reading and Quality of Life of Adolescents: Results of Cohort Cross-Sectional Sequential Study

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    Elena G. Vikhareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination and monitoring of the quality of life of adolescents are needed to examine the social conditions of their life.Objective: Our aim was to study the relation between reading books and the number of read books with the quality of life of adolescents. Patients and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study where examined the quality of life of children aged 13–18 years attending secondary educational institutions of Izhevsk city and Udmurtia rural districts. Using PedsQL questionnaire, we analyzed the physical, emotional and social component of the quality of life of adolescents, school functioning and overall assessment score of the quality of life. The attitude to reading was determined by the results of the answers to questions about the love of reading (yes/no and the number of read books.Results: The study included 2,947 high school students, in which 2,473 (83.9% adolescents indicated their attitude toward reading. It has been shown that students who enjoy reading (42.2% have a lower assessment score of the quality of life on the scale of «emotional functioning» (66 ± 17 and higher — on the scale of «school functioning» (69 ± 15 than their peers not liking to read (68 ± 16 and 66 ± 15, respectively; p < 0.001. The number of read books was associated with the quality of life assessment on the scale of «physical functioning» and «school functioning» as well as with the assessment of the social component of quality of life for girls.Conclusion: The studied factors («reading books» and «the number of read books» are related to the quality of life of adolescents that may be taken into account in the preparation of educational programs.

  7. Assessment of a residual life evaluation tool for gas turbine blades and vanes based on microstructural evolution of a NiCoCrAlY+Re coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbareschi, E.; Bonadei, A.; Costa, A.; Guarnone, P.; Vacchieri, E. [Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Life management of hot gas path components is a fundamental topic in gas turbine for power generation. The gas turbine components have to withstand severe service conditions in term of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and creep-fatigue. The resistance to environmental conditions is assured by metallic coatings of the MCrAlY family. {beta} phase, NiAl, present as secondary phase, is the source of protection against oxidation. Among MCrAlY coatings, NiCoCrAlY + Re have a complex microstructure with a higher number of phases than the standard ones; these phases are subjected to transformations during service. The addition of Re is effective against the diffusion of protective elements, as Al and Cr, toward the base material. For the estimation of residual life a first approach has been developed using the decrease of {beta} phase amount after static oxidation test at high temperature and for long time. This type of prediction tool is not complete for the assessment of the hot gas path components life management and a deep study focused on the transformation of the other phases is necessary. Experimental tests have been performed to identify the phase stability range by annealing at different temperatures and durations. Moreover after static oxidation tests a systematic data collection of phase evolution has been carried out through EDS, XRD and EBSD techniques in order to define the kinetic laws that rule the phase transformations. The tuning of thermodynamic and kinetic results allows to build up another residual life tool that, even if it is more complex, is more reliable in temperature evaluation in GT components. Both models have been applied to a component after service and a comparison between the different models evaluation has been conducted. (orig.)

  8. Lithium Sulfide (Li2S)/Graphene Oxide Nanospheres with Conformal Carbon Coating as a High-Rate, Long-Life Cathode for Li/S Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Yoon; Zhao, Juan; Cairns, Elton J

    2015-05-13

    In recent years, lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cells have attracted great attention as a candidate for the next generation of rechargeable batteries due to their high theoretical specific energy of 2600 W·h kg(-1), which is much higher than that of Li ion cells (400-600 W·h kg(-1)). However, problems of the S cathode such as highly soluble intermediate species (polysulfides Li2Sn, n = 4-8) and the insulating nature of S cause poor cycle life and low utilization of S, which prevents the practical use of Li/S cells. Here, a high-rate and long-life Li/S cell is proposed, which has a cathode material with a core-shell nanostructure comprising Li2S nanospheres with an embedded graphene oxide (GO) sheet as a core material and a conformal carbon layer as a shell. The conformal carbon coating is easily obtained by a unique CVD coating process using a lab-designed rotating furnace without any repetitive steps. The Li2S/GO@C cathode exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 650 mA·h g(-1) of Li2S (corresponding to the 942 mA·h g(-1) of S) and very low capacity decay rate of only 0.046% per cycle with a high Coulombic efficiency of up to 99.7% for 1500 cycles when cycled at the 2 C discharge rate.

  9. Quality of life, self-stigma, and hope in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a cross-sectional study

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    Vrbova K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kristyna Vrbova,1 Jan Prasko,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Ales Grambal,1 Milos Slepecky,3 Klara Latalova1 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University Palacky Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovakia Goals: The aim of this study was to explore the quality of life, self-stigma, personality traits, and hope in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Patients and methods: A total of 52 outpatients participated in this cross-sectional study. The attending psychiatrist assessed each patient with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The patients then completed Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q, Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory – Revised (TCI-R, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS, Drug Attitude Inventory 10 (DAI-10, and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-Self-report. The psychiatrist evaluated Clinical Global Impression Severity – the objective version (objCGI-S, and the patients completed the Clinical Global Impression Severity – the subjective version (subjCGI-S. Each participant also completed Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI.Results: The quality of life was significantly higher in employed patients and individuals with higher hope, self-directedness (SD, and persistence (PS. The quality of life was lower among patients with higher number of psychiatric hospitalizations, those with higher severity of the disorder, and individuals who were taking higher doses of antipsychotics. Patients with more pronounced symptoms of depression, anxiety, and social anxiety had a lower quality of life. Finally, the

  10. Quality of life associated with treatment adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

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    Valdivia-Martínez José J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite certain contradictions, an association has been identified between adherence to drug treatment and the quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes. The contradictions observed emphasize the importance of using different methods to measure treatment adherence, or the association of psychological precursors of adherence with quality of life. For this reason, we have used an indirect method to measure adherence (pill count, as well as two adherence behaviour precursors (attitude and knowledge, to assess the association between adherence and the quality of life in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods A cross-sectional comparative study on a random sample of 238 type 2 diabetic patients was carried out over one year in four family medicine units of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS in Aguascalientes, Mexico. Treatment adherence was measured using the indirect method of pill count to assess adherence behaviour, obtaining information at two home visits. In the first we recorded the medicine prescribed and in the second, we counted the medicine remaining to determine the proportion of the medicine taken. We also assessed two adherence behaviour precursors: the patients' knowledge regarding their medical prescription measured through a structured questionnaire; and attitudes to treatment adherence using a Likert scale. Quality of life was measured through the WHOQOL-100 (the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire. Information concerning both knowledge and attitude was obtained through interviews with the patients. A multiple linear regression model was constructed to establish the relationship between each quality of life domain and the variables related to adherence, controlling for covariates. Results There was no association between quality of life and treatment adherence behaviour. However, the combination of strong knowledge and a positive attitude was associated with five of the six quality of life domains

  11. A cross-sectional study of psychological complaints and quality of life in severely injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft-Schreurs, C C H M; van Bergen, J J M; van de Sande, P; Verhofstad, M H J; de Vries, J; de Jongh, M A C

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of psychological complaints and the relationship of these complaints with the quality of life (QOL) and accident- and patient-related factors among severely injured patients after the rehabilitation phase. Patients of 18 years or older with an injury severity score above 15 were included 15-53 months after their accident. Accident and patient characteristics were obtained from questionnaires and the trauma registry. Several questionnaires (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Impact of Events Scale, and Cognitive Failure Questionnaire) were used to determine the symptoms of psychological problems (anxiety or depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, or subjective cognitive complaints, respectively). The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref was used to determine QOL. A reference group of the Dutch general population was used for comparison of QOL scores. The participation rate was 62 % (n = 173). At the time of the study, 30.1 % (n = 52) of the investigated patients had psychological complaints. No relation between psychological complaints and somatic severity or type of injury was found. Patients who were employed before the accident or resumed working reported less psychological complaints. Use of any medication before the accident and treatment for pre-accidental psychological problems were positively related to psychological complaints afterwards. QOL of severely injured patients was impaired in comparison with the general Dutch population, but only for those with psychological complaints. Psychological complaints seem to be an important and underestimated factor for a decreased QOL among severely injured patients.

  12. Risk of Hyperglycemia and Diabetes after Early-Life Famine Exposure: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Northeastern China

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    Yangyu Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggested that malnutrition during early life may play an essential role in later outcomes and disease risk in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the risks of hyperglycemia and diabetes 50 years after early-life famine exposure in a Northeastern Chinese population. We used the data from 5690 adults born between 1956 and 1965 in selected communities from a 2012 cross-sectional study. The early-childhood exposure cohort showed an increased risk of hyperglycemia compared with the unexposed cohort in the female population (odds ratio (OR 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.04, 2.06. The increased risk of diabetes in the early-childhood and fetal exposure cohorts was 37.0% (95% CI 1.05–1.79 and 50% (95% CI 1.15–1.96, respectively. For women, the risk of diabetes was more pronounced in the fetal-exposed cohort (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.26–2.63 than in the early-childhood cohort (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.08–2.26. Early-life exposure to famine increased the risk of diabetes. Furthermore, early-childhood exposure to famine might increase the risk of hyperglycemia in women. A policy for preventing early life malnutrition should be drafted by the government to prevent hyperglycemia and diabetes in adulthood.

  13. Social support network, mental health and quality of life: a cross-sectional study in primary care

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    Flávia Batista Portugal

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the association between emotional distress and social support networks with quality of life in primary care patients. This was a cross-sectional study involving 1,466 patients in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2009/2010. The General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument were used. The Social Support Network Index classified patients with the highest and lowest index as socially integrated or isolated. A bivariate analysis and four multiple linear regressions were conducted for each quality of life outcome. The means scores for the physical, psychological, social relations, and environment domains were, respectively, 64.7; 64.2; 68.5 and 49.1. In the multivariate analysis, the psychological domain was negatively associated with isolation, whereas the social relations and environment domains were positively associated with integration. Integration and isolation proved to be important factors for those in emotional distress as they minimize or maximize negative effects on quality of life.

  14. Work stress, asthma control and asthma-specific quality of life: Initial evidence from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Bettina; Leucht, Verena; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    Research has suggested that psychological stress is positively associated with asthma morbidity. One major source of stress in adulthood is one's occupation. However, to date, potential links of work stress with asthma control or asthma-specific quality of life have not been examined. We aimed to address this knowledge gap. In 2014/2015, we conducted a cross-sectional study among adults with asthma in Germany (n = 362). For the current analyses that sample was restricted to participants in employment and reporting to have never been diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 94). Work stress was operationalized by the 16-item effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) questionnaire, which measures the subcomponents "effort", "reward" and "overcommitment." Participants further completed the Asthma Control Test and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire-Sydney. Multivariable associations were quantified by linear regression and logistic regression. Effort, reward and their ratio (i.e. ERI ratio) did not show meaningful associations with asthma morbidity. By contrast, increasing levels of overcommitment were associated with poorer asthma control and worse quality of life in both linear regression (ß = -0.26, p = 0.01 and ß = 0.44, p work-related overcommitment with asthma control and asthma-specific quality of life. Longitudinal studies with larger samples are needed to confirm our findings and to disentangle the potential causality of associations.

  15. Work-life conflict and musculoskeletal disorders: a cross-sectional study of an unexplored association

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    Knecht Michaela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health consequences of work-family or rather work-life conflict (WLC have been studied by numerous researchers. The work-related causes of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD are also well explored. And stress (at work has been found to be a consequence of WLC as well as a cause of MSD. But very little is known about a potential association between WLC and MSD and the possible mediating role of stress in this relationship. Methods Survey data collected in 2007 among the workforces of four large companies in Switzerland were used for this study. The study population covered 6091 employees. As the exposure variable and hypothesized risk factor for MSD, WLC was measured by using a 10-item scale based on an established 18-item scale on work-family conflict. The outcome variables used as indicators of MSD were (low back pain and neck/shoulder pain. Stress as the assumed intervening variable was assessed by a validated single-item measure of general stress perception. Correlation coefficients (r, standardized regression coefficients (β and multiple adjusted odds ratios (OR were calculated as measures of association. Results WLC was found to be quite strongly associated with MSD (β = .21. This association turned out to be substantially confounded by physical strain at work, workload and job autonomy and was considerably reduced but far from being completely eliminated after adjusting for general stress as another identified risk factor of MSD and a proven strong correlate of WLC (r = .44. A significant and relevant association still remained (β = .10 after having controlled for all considered covariates. This association could be fully attributed to only one direction of WLC, namely the work-to-life conflict. In subsequent analyses, a clear gradient between this WLC direction and both types of MSD was found, and proved to be consistent for both men and women. Employees who were most exposed to such work-to-life conflict were also

  16. Work-life conflict and musculoskeletal disorders: a cross-sectional study of an unexplored association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmig, Oliver; Knecht, Michaela; Läubli, Thomas; Bauer, Georg F

    2011-03-16

    The health consequences of work-family or rather work-life conflict (WLC) have been studied by numerous researchers. The work-related causes of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are also well explored. And stress (at work) has been found to be a consequence of WLC as well as a cause of MSD. But very little is known about a potential association between WLC and MSD and the possible mediating role of stress in this relationship. Survey data collected in 2007 among the workforces of four large companies in Switzerland were used for this study. The study population covered 6091 employees. As the exposure variable and hypothesized risk factor for MSD, WLC was measured by using a 10-item scale based on an established 18-item scale on work-family conflict. The outcome variables used as indicators of MSD were (low) back pain and neck/shoulder pain. Stress as the assumed intervening variable was assessed by a validated single-item measure of general stress perception. Correlation coefficients (r), standardized regression coefficients (β) and multiple adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated as measures of association. WLC was found to be quite strongly associated with MSD (β=.21). This association turned out to be substantially confounded by physical strain at work, workload and job autonomy and was considerably reduced but far from being completely eliminated after adjusting for general stress as another identified risk factor of MSD and a proven strong correlate of WLC (r=.44). A significant and relevant association still remained (β=.10) after having controlled for all considered covariates. This association could be fully attributed to only one direction of WLC, namely the work-to-life conflict. In subsequent analyses, a clear gradient between this WLC direction and both types of MSD was found, and proved to be consistent for both men and women. Employees who were most exposed to such work-to-life conflict were also most at risk and showed a fivefold higher prevalence

  17. The Job Satisfaction-Life Satisfaction Relationship Revisited: Using the Lewbel Estimation Technique to Estimate Causal Effects Using Cross-Sectional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Mishra; Ingrid Nielsen; Russell Smyth; Alex Newman

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a novel identification strategy proposed by Lewbel (2012, J. Bus. Econ. Stat.) to illustrate how causation between job satisfaction and life satisfaction can be established with cross-sectional data. In addition to examining the relationship between composite job satisfaction and life satisfaction, we consider the relationship between life satisfaction and different facets of job satisfaction. We find evidence of bidirectional causality between job satisfaction and life satisf...

  18. Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, cognitive reserve, and cognitive function in later life: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tzu

    2017-01-01

    Background Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may influence cognitive health in later life and offer potential to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The concept of cognitive reserve has been proposed as a mechanism to explain individual differences in rates of cognitive decline, but its potential role as a mediating pathway has seldom been explored using data from large epidemiological studies. We explored the mediating effect of cognitive reserve on the cross-sectional association between lifestyle factors and cognitive function in later life using data from a population-based cohort of healthy older people. Methods and findings We analysed data from 2,315 cognitively healthy participants aged 65 y and over in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS-Wales) cohort collected in 2011–2013. Linear regression modelling was used to investigate the overall associations between five lifestyle factors—cognitive and social activity, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking—and cognition, adjusting for demographic factors and chronic conditions. Mediation analysis tested for indirect effects of the lifestyle factors on cognition via cognitive reserve. After controlling for age, gender, and the presence of chronic conditions, cognitive and social activity, physical activity, healthy diet, and light-to-moderate alcohol consumption were positively associated with cognitive function, together accounting for 20% (95% CI 17%–23%) of variance in cognitive test scores. Cognitive reserve was an important mediator of this association, with indirect effects via cognitive reserve contributing 21% (95% CI 15%–27%) of the overall effect on cognition. The main limitations of the study derive from the cross-sectional nature of the data and the challenges of accurately measuring the latent construct of cognitive reserve. Conclusions Cross-sectional associations support the view that enhancing cognitive reserve may benefit cognition

  19. Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, cognitive reserve, and cognitive function in later life: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Clare

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may influence cognitive health in later life and offer potential to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The concept of cognitive reserve has been proposed as a mechanism to explain individual differences in rates of cognitive decline, but its potential role as a mediating pathway has seldom been explored using data from large epidemiological studies. We explored the mediating effect of cognitive reserve on the cross-sectional association between lifestyle factors and cognitive function in later life using data from a population-based cohort of healthy older people.We analysed data from 2,315 cognitively healthy participants aged 65 y and over in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS-Wales cohort collected in 2011-2013. Linear regression modelling was used to investigate the overall associations between five lifestyle factors-cognitive and social activity, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking-and cognition, adjusting for demographic factors and chronic conditions. Mediation analysis tested for indirect effects of the lifestyle factors on cognition via cognitive reserve. After controlling for age, gender, and the presence of chronic conditions, cognitive and social activity, physical activity, healthy diet, and light-to-moderate alcohol consumption were positively associated with cognitive function, together accounting for 20% (95% CI 17%-23% of variance in cognitive test scores. Cognitive reserve was an important mediator of this association, with indirect effects via cognitive reserve contributing 21% (95% CI 15%-27% of the overall effect on cognition. The main limitations of the study derive from the cross-sectional nature of the data and the challenges of accurately measuring the latent construct of cognitive reserve.Cross-sectional associations support the view that enhancing cognitive reserve may benefit cognition, and maintenance of cognitive health

  20. Exploring the relationship between physical activity, life goals and health-related quality of life among high school students: a cross-sectional study

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    Julie Sigvartsen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two models were developed to increase high school students’ participation in physical education (PE: “motion enjoyment” and “sport enjoyment”. The first model focuses on increasing knowledge about the health benefits of a physically active lifestyle and thereby promoting a positive attitude towards physical activity, whereas the second model focuses on techniques and practices for enhancing athletic performance. The aims of the present study are to investigate and understand the similarities and differences between students selecting “motion enjoyment” vs. “sport enjoyment” and to examine the extent to which life goals and reported physical activity are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Method A total of 156 high school students (mean age, 16 years [standard deviation = 0.8], 123 girls and 33 boys were included in this cross-sectional study. HRQOL and life goals were measured using KIDSCREEN-10 and the Adolescent Life Goal Profile Scale, respectively. Physical activity was measured using a self-reporting questionnaire intended to describe the students’ leisure-time activity. Independent sample t-tests, chi-square, one-way analyses of variance and multiple regression analysis were applied. Results Self-reported physical activity level and HRQOL were higher among students in the “sport enjoyment” program, while the perceived importance of life goals was the same regardless of the preferred PE model. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the perceived importance of relations-oriented life goals (B = −5.61; 95 % confidence interval CI = −10.53 to −0.70; p = .026, perceived importance of generativity-oriented life goals (B = 4.14.; 95 % CI = 0.85 to 7.422; p = .014, perceived attainability of relations-oriented life goals (B = 7.28; 95 % CI = 2.49 to 12.07; p = .003, age (B = −7.29; 95 % CI = −11.38 to −3.20; p

  1. Exploring the relationship between physical activity, life goals and health-related quality of life among high school students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigvartsen, Julie; Gabrielsen, Leiv Einar; Abildsnes, Eirik; Stea, Tonje H; Omfjord, Christina Sandvand; Rohde, Gudrun

    2016-08-03

    Two models were developed to increase high school students' participation in physical education (PE): "motion enjoyment" and "sport enjoyment". The first model focuses on increasing knowledge about the health benefits of a physically active lifestyle and thereby promoting a positive attitude towards physical activity, whereas the second model focuses on techniques and practices for enhancing athletic performance. The aims of the present study are to investigate and understand the similarities and differences between students selecting "motion enjoyment" vs. "sport enjoyment" and to examine the extent to which life goals and reported physical activity are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A total of 156 high school students (mean age, 16 years [standard deviation = 0.8], 123 girls and 33 boys) were included in this cross-sectional study. HRQOL and life goals were measured using KIDSCREEN-10 and the Adolescent Life Goal Profile Scale, respectively. Physical activity was measured using a self-reporting questionnaire intended to describe the students' leisure-time activity. Independent sample t-tests, chi-square, one-way analyses of variance and multiple regression analysis were applied. Self-reported physical activity level and HRQOL were higher among students in the "sport enjoyment" program, while the perceived importance of life goals was the same regardless of the preferred PE model. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the perceived importance of relations-oriented life goals (B = -5.61; 95 % confidence interval CI = -10.53 to -0.70; p = .026), perceived importance of generativity-oriented life goals (B = 4.14.; 95 % CI = 0.85 to 7.422; p = .014), perceived attainability of relations-oriented life goals (B = 7.28; 95 % CI = 2.49 to 12.07; p = .003), age (B = -7.29; 95 % CI = -11.38 to -3.20; p = .001) and gender, with boys as the reference group (B = -12.10; 95 % CI

  2. Health-related quality of life among children with Turner syndrome: controlled cross-sectional study.

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    Amedro, Pascal; Tahhan, Nabil; Bertet, Helena; Jeandel, Claire; Guillaumont, Sophie; Mura, Thibault; Picot, Marie-Christine

    2017-08-28

    The aim of the study was to assess health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in children with Turner syndrome in comparison with controls. We prospectively recruited 16 female girls with Turner syndrome (mean age 15.2±2.6 years) and 78 female controls (mean age 12.7±2.8 years) in randomly selected schools. We used the PedsQL, a generic HR-QoL questionnaire (self and parents' versions). Global HR-QoL scores in Turner syndrome were lower than controls for self-reports (respectively, 74.3±3.0 vs. 82.8±1.3, p=0.01) and parents' reports (62.7±3.8 vs. 80.1±1.7, pTurner syndrome, self-reported HR-QoL was impaired in school functioning (70.6±4.0 vs. 80.71±1.7, p=0.02), social functioning (78.2±4.0 vs. 90.4±1.8, pTurner syndrome, as in previously reported adult studies. In addition to medical treatment and routine clinical follow-up, female girls and teenagers with Turner syndrome should also be supported psychologically by social, educational and psychotherapeutic interventions that aim to address their self-esteem and emotional difficulties.

  3. Impact of edible chitosan-cassava starch coatings enriched with Lippia gracilis Schauer genotype mixtures on the shelf life of guavas (Psidium guajava L.) during storage at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Alana Bezerra; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Santana, Luciana Cristina Lins de Aquino

    2015-03-15

    The effect of edible chitosan-cassava starch (CH-CS) coatings containing a mixture of Lippia gracilis Schauer genotypes (EOM) on the shelf life of guavas during storage at room temperature for 10 days was studied. Sixteen formulations were prepared with a range of chitosan and essential oil mixtures concentrations, and the in vitro antimicrobial activity was tested. Formulations containing 2.0% cassava starch, 2.0% chitosan and 1.0%, 2.0% or 3.0% EOM were most effective in inhibiting the growth of the majority of bacteria. The edible CH-CS coating and CH-CS with 1.0% (CH-CS-EOM1) or 3.0% EOM (CH-CS-EOM3) were added to guavas and the shelf life was evaluated. On the tenth day of storage, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and mould and yeast counts were statistically lower (p<0.05) in the CH-CS-EOM1- or CH-CS-EOM3-coated fruits than CH-CS-coated fruits. In addition, fruits coated with CH-CS or CH-CS-EOM showed no significant changes of total soluble solids content, while CH-CS-EOM-coated fruits showed lower titratable acidity than CH-CS-coated fruits at the end of storage. CH-CS-EOM3-coated guavas showed lower a(∗) and b(∗) values and higher L(∗) and hue values than those with other coatings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of Quality of Life of People who Stutter: A Cross-sectional Study

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    Gagan Bajaj

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a complex communication disorder that impedes the normal flow and pattern of speech, which is characterized by involuntary audible or inaudible pause, repetitions, prolongations, blocks, etc. Other than the core behaviors, people who stutter experience various other problems such as fear, anxiety, depression, shame, etc., which can in turn affect the quality of life (QOL. The purpose of this study is to develop a questionnaire in order to assess the QOL of people who stutter. A total of 30 participants aged between 18 and 30 years were enrolled for the study. Out of the stutterers included, 15 were employed and 15 were non-employed/students. The study was carried out in two phases. The first phase involved the development of a questionnaire based on literature search and available tests. The second phase involved administering the validated questionnaire on the participants. The questionnaire consisted of six domains targeting (1 speech-related fear and anxiety, (2 interpersonal and social relationships, (3 behavioral reaction to stuttering, (4 educational status, (5 employment and job opportunity, and (6 effect of speech therapy. For each item, response scales were organized (2—almost always, 1—sometime, 0—not at all. Developed questionnaire showed good content validity for all the domains and questions. The result of Cronbach's alpha for each domain indicates moderate internal consistency and excellent internal consistency for the overall questionnaire. Multiple domains were observed to be affected among adults who stutter, and the differences were not found to be significantly different as compared to the available QOL data from other cultural settings.

  5. Children with congenital limb deficiency in Norway: issues related to school life and health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Heidi; Dammann, Brede; Øinæs Andersen, Liv; Andresen, Inger-Lise

    2016-09-01

    To describe clinical features, issues related to school life and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for children with congenital limb deficiency (CLD) and compare these children to Norwegian school children on HRQOL. Cross-sectional study. In 2010, a postal questionnaire, designed for this study and the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), was sent to 154 eligible parents of children with CLD, aged 6-18 years and registered at TRS National Resource Centre for Rare Disorders in Norway. Response rate 44% (n = 67), median age 11 years, 42% were girls. Of the total group, 46 had unilateral upper limb deficiency (UULD) and 21 had multiple/lower limb deficiency (MLD/LLD). The most common UULD was below-elbow deficiency, of these, 65% used grip-improving devices, and 35% used prostheses. Children with UULD-reported PedsQL score similar to Norwegian schoolchildren (NSC). The MLD/LLD group was heterogeneous; most had below-elbow/knee deficiency. In this group, PedsQL scores were reduced for physical and social functioning compared with NSC. Compared with children with UULD, more children with MLD/LLD were restricted in participation because of pain and fewer participated in physical education with peers. Most children with CLD participated with their peers and managed well in everyday life. Children with MLD/LLD seemed to have more challenges than children with UULD. Approximately one-third of all the children had assistive devices and/or practical assistance in school. Implications for Rehabilitation Most children with upper-limb deficiency (UULD) in Norway manage well in everyday life and have HRQOL equal to other Norwegian children. Many choose grip-improving devices instead of prostheses. Their preferences should be respected and taken into account as the need for new assistive devices arise. For children with pronounced disabilities, access to, and use of, assistive devices, adaptions and practical assistance may be important for participation

  6. Factors affecting quality of life in breast cancer patients: A descriptive and cross-sectional study with review of literature

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    Neelam Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the factors affecting quality of life (QOL in breast cancer patients. Methods: We collected data from 60 patients of carcinoma breast post modified radical mastectomy on radiotherapy in a tertiary care hospital. We included volunteered patients with a signed informed consent and at least 70 Karnofsky Performance Scale points. The data was gathered by interview technique using EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 (Breast Cancer Module. Results: The mean age at presentation was 47.6 years (range 30-75 years.75% patients were of low socio-economic status and 63.3% belonged to rural areas. Younger Women in the age group of 30-39 years had faired worst on physical, social and emotional scores as compared to older women in the age group of 70-79 years. Other factors which affected Quality of Life of patients during treatment were stage of disease at presentation, performance score of the patients, socioeconomic status of disease at follow up. Conclusion: Age, Education status, Performance Score, Stage of disease at presentation and status of disease at last follow up are few factors which significantly affects QOL in Carcinoma breast patients though the treatment remains same. Advanced studies on individual quality of life factors affecting cancer would empower physicians for better personal care techniques and patients for easily overcoming the disease.

  7. Evaluation of oral health-related quality of life among professional students: A cross-sectional study

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    Jaya Prakash Manapoti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine the impact of oral diseases on everyday life, measures of oral quality of life are needed. In complementing traditional disease-based measures, they assess the need for oral care to evaluate oral healthcare programs and management of treatment. Aim: To evaluate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL among professional college students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the OHRQOL of 940 students (males: 425, females: 515 from six different professions (medical, dental, engineering, pharmacy, physiotherapy, and master of business administration of Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, using a 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14 questionnaire. The data were analyzed using statistical analysis system to perform the Chi-square test and Kruskal–Wallis test. Results: The mean OHIP scores for medical, dental, pharmacy, physiotherapy, engineering, and MBA students were 5.2, 3.5, 3.2, 3.0, 3.6, and 2.8, respectively. The overall OHIP-14 score showed a significant statistical difference (P < 0.05 from medical students to remaining study population. Conclusion: There is much significant difference in OHRQOL in different professional students. Oral health-care providers are urged to integrate the OHRQOL concept into their daily practice to improve the outcome of their services as it provides the basis for any oral health program development.

  8. Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS in the Ho Municipality, Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    James Osei-Yeboah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life (QoL is an important component in the evaluation of the wellbeing of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV. This study was aimed at evaluating the QoL of PLHIV attending the antiretroviral clinics in the Ho municipality. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2017 to April 2017 involving 158 purposively selected HIV-positive patients who were attending the antiretroviral clinics both in the Volta Regional Hospital and Ho Municipal Hospital. An Interviewer administered standard questionnaire (WHOQOL-HIV Bref was used to collect information on sociodemography, medical history, and the quality of life (QoL of the respondents. Among these 158 HIV-positive respondents, 126 (79.75 and 14 (8.86 presented with excellent and good overall QoL, respectively, whilst 18 (11.39 had their life negatively affected by HIV/AIDS. Religious/personal beliefs (19.62% were the most affected QoL component, followed by the physical (15.82% and level of independence (15.19% domains. Patients’ occupation, perception of health, sexual activity, and state of the disease were associated with poor overall QoL. In general, being an HIV-infected man, symptomatic patient, not being sexually active, or being ART naïve was also associated with poorer QoL in several HIV/AIDS QoL domains.

  9. Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS in the Ho Municipality, Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Yeboah, James; Owiredu, William K B A; Norgbe, Gameli Kwame; Lokpo, Sylvester Yao; Obirikorang, Christian; Alote Allotey, Emmanuel; Gameli Deku, John; Akomanin Asiamah, Emmanuel; Manaphraim, Nana Yaw Barimah; Senyo Kwasi Nyamadi, Prince; Yiadom Boakye, Edward; Ntoni, Tibemponi; Avorkliyah, Roseline; Asumbasiya Aduko, Romeo; Tetteh Quarshie, Seyram; Jenkins Gbemu, Maxwell

    2017-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is an important component in the evaluation of the wellbeing of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). This study was aimed at evaluating the QoL of PLHIV attending the antiretroviral clinics in the Ho municipality. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2017 to April 2017 involving 158 purposively selected HIV-positive patients who were attending the antiretroviral clinics both in the Volta Regional Hospital and Ho Municipal Hospital. An Interviewer administered standard questionnaire (WHOQOL-HIV Bref) was used to collect information on sociodemography, medical history, and the quality of life (QoL) of the respondents. Among these 158 HIV-positive respondents, 126 (79.75) and 14 (8.86) presented with excellent and good overall QoL, respectively, whilst 18 (11.39) had their life negatively affected by HIV/AIDS. Religious/personal beliefs (19.62%) were the most affected QoL component, followed by the physical (15.82%) and level of independence (15.19%) domains. Patients' occupation, perception of health, sexual activity, and state of the disease were associated with poor overall QoL. In general, being an HIV-infected man, symptomatic patient, not being sexually active, or being ART naïve was also associated with poorer QoL in several HIV/AIDS QoL domains.

  10. Determinants of breastfeeding initiation within the first hour of life in a Brazilian population: cross-sectional study

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    Mendes Carlos MC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding within the first hour of life is a potential mechanism for health promotion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of breastfeeding initiation within the first hour of life in Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil, between 2004 and 2005, and investigate the influence of maternal, child and prenatal factors on this practice. Methods This is a cross-sectional study extracted from the results of a contemporary cohort conducted in 10 maternity hospitals in the city of Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. A group of 1,309 mother-child pairs was included in the study. Information about mother's and baby's characteristics, pregnancy, birth, and time of breastfeeding initiation was collected in the first 72 hours after delivery, through interview with mothers and hospital records. The data gathered were stored and analyzed using the SPSS 16.0 and R 8.0. The chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis were used to examine the relationship between breastfeeding within the first hour and different variables. Results 47.1% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding within the first hour after birth. Early initiation of breastfeeding was associated with birth at full term pregnancy (adjusted Prevalence Ratio 1.43; 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 2.00, mothers who received prenatal guidance regarding the advantages of breastfeeding (aPR1.23; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.41 and vaginal delivery (aPR 2.78; 95% CI 2.38 to 3.23. Conclusions In order to improve the rates of breastfeeding within the first hour of life, health care professionals must promote the factors favoring this practice such as prenatal guidance regarding the advantages of breastfeeding, vaginal delivery and full term birth, and stimulate this practice in vulnerable situations such as mothers with cesarean section and preterm birth.

  11. Quality of life among women with sexual dysfunction undergoing hemodialysis: a cross-sectional observational study

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    Santos Paulo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual function among women undergoing hemodialysis (HD is under-studied and there is no consensus about the effect of sexual dysfunction (SD on their quality of life (QoL. We aimed to determine the prevalence of SD and to compare QoL between women undergoing maintenance HD with and without SD. Methods We included female end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing HD during June 2011 in the only renal unit in the north of Ceará state, northeastern Brazil. The criteria for inclusion were age between 18 and 55, at least three months on dialysis and being sexually active. Women using antidepressant medication were excluded. We used the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, which evaluates six domains of sexual function, including desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain. The patients were classified as presenting SD if the total FSFI score was less than 26. For QoL evaluation, we used the validated Brazilian version of SF-36. This is a widely used 36-item questionnaire covering eight dimensions of QoL. Demographic data, time on dialysis, underlying etiology of ESRD, and laboratory measures were assessed in unit records. Results Of a total of 58 women, 46 (79.3% presented SD. There were lower scores related to physical functioning (48.2 vs. 71.2; p = 0.007, bodily pain (45 vs. 67.5; p = 0.010, vitality (52.1 vs. 69.1; p = 0.026 and social functioning (57.2 vs. 76.1; p = 0.034 among women with SD compared to women without SD. Physical functioning and role-physical presented positive linear correlation with FSFI scores, respectively, r = 0.322 (p = 0.013 and r = 0.345 (p = 0.007. Conclusion The prevalence of SD among women on HD is very high, reaching nearly 80%. Women on HD with SD had worse QoL, especially physical aspects of QoL, when compared to women without SD. Therefore, approaches aiming to improve QoL among women undergoing HD should be considered.

  12. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan.

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    Shamsa Zafar

    Full Text Available For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries.Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%, late pregnancy (35% and the postnatal period (31% among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727 and Malawi (1732. Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity.One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective. Both infective (Pakistan and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon ( 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001, intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02 were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings.Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity.

  13. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Shamsa; Jean-Baptiste, Rachel; Rahman, Atif; Neilson, James P; van den Broek, Nynke R

    2015-01-01

    For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective) and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries. Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%), late pregnancy (35%) and the postnatal period (31%) among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727) and Malawi (1732). Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity. One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective). Both infective (Pakistan) and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi) was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon (Pakistan 2.6% in Malawi had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) > 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001), intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02) were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings. Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity.

  14. Predictors of family caregiver ratings of patient quality of life in Alzheimer disease: cross-sectional results from the Canadian Alzheimer's Disease Quality of Life Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglie, Gary; Hogan, David B; Krahn, Murray; Black, Sandra E; Beattie, B Lynn; Patterson, Christopher; Macknight, Chris; Freedman, Morris; Borrie, Michael; Byszewski, Anna; Bergman, Howard; Streiner, David; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul; Comrie, Janna; Kowgier, Matthew; Tomlinson, George

    2011-10-01

    To assess whether the core symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD) and caregiver factors consistently predict family caregiver ratings of patient quality of life (QOL) as assessed by a variety of QOL measures in a large national sample. : Cross-sectional. Fifteen dementia and geriatric clinics across Canada. : Family caregivers (n = 412) of community-living patients with AD of all severities. Caregiver ratings of patient QOL using three utility indexes, the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, Quality of Well-Being Scale and Health Utilities Index; a global QOL visual analogue scale; a disease-specific measure, the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease; and a generic health status measure, the Short Form-36. Patient cognition was assessed with the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale and Mini-Mental State Examination, function with the Disability Assessment for Dementia, and behavioral and psychological symptoms with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Caregiver burden was assessed with the Zarit Burden Interview and caregiver depression with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. One-way analysis of variance and fully adjusted multiple linear regression were used to assess the relationship between patient dementia symptom and caregiver variables with QOL ratings. In multivariable analyses, caregiver ratings of patient function and depressive symptoms were the only consistent independent predictors of caregiver-rated QOL across the QOL measures. Caregiver ratings of patient function and depression were consistent independent predictors of caregiver-rated QOL, using a spectrum of QOL measures, while measures of patient cognition and caregiver burden and depression were not. These findings support the continued use of caregiver ratings as an important source of information about patient QOL and endorse the inclusion in AD clinical trials of caregiver-rated measures of patient function, depression

  15. Optimization of edible coating formulations for improving postharvest quality and shelf life of pear fruit using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandane, A S; Dave, Rudri K; Rao, T V Ramana

    2017-01-01

    The effect of composite edible films containing soy protein isolate (SPI) in combination with additives like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and olive oil on 'Babughosha' pear ( Pyrus communis L.) stored at ambient temperature (28 ± 5 °C and 60 ± 10% RH) was evaluated using Response surface methodology (RSM). A total of 30 edible coating formulations comprising of SPI (2-6%, w/v), olive oil (0.7-1.1%, v/v), HPMC (0.1-0.5%, w/v) and potassium sorbate (0-0.4% w/v) were evaluated for optimizing the most suitable combination. Quality parameters like weight loss%, TSS, pH and titrable acidity of the stored pears were selected as response variables for optimization. The optimization procedure was carried out using RSM. It was observed that the response variables were mainly effected by concentration of SPI and olive oil in the formulation. Edible coating comprising of SPI 5%, HPMC 0.40%, olive oil 1% and potassium sorbate 0.22% was found to be most suitable combination for pear fruit with predicted values of response variables indicated as weight loss% 3.50, pH 3.41, TSS 11.13 and TA% 0.513.

  16. Application of lemon peel essential oil with edible coating agent to prolong shelf life of tofu and strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Della; Chandra, Mega; Santoso, Stefanus; Puteri, Maria Gunawan

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil of sweet orange, lemon, and key lime peel were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of each citrus essential oil with different concentration was assessed using broth macro-dilution against Bacillus sp, Eschericia coli, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Botrytis sp which represented specific spoilage microorganism in tofu and fresh strawberry. Among all the citrus peel essential oils tested, lemon peel essential oil with 0.6% concentration showed significant activity as an antimicrobial agent against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp. In other hand 1% of lemon peel essential oil is also considered to be the best concentration of inhibiting the Rhizopus Stolonifer and Botrytis sp. Lemon peel essential oil which has the highest antimicrobial activity was combined with two different kind of edible coating agents (cassava starch and sodium alginate) and was applied in both tofu and strawberry to observe whether it had possibility to decrease the degradation rate of tofu and strawberry. The addition of 0.6% and 1% lemon peel essential oil with each of edible coating agents was significantly able to reduce the degradation of tofu and fresh strawberry.

  17. Are advance directives helpful for good end of life decision making: a cross sectional survey of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peicius, Eimantas; Blazeviciene, Aurelija; Kaminskas, Raimondas

    2017-06-05

    This paper joins the debate over changes in the role of health professionals when applying advance directives to manage the decision-making process at the end of life care. Issues in relation to advance directives occur in clinical units in Lithuania; however, it remains one of the few countries in the European Union (EU) where the discussion on advance directives is not included in the health-care policy-making agenda. To encourage the discussion of advance directives, a study was designed to examine health professionals' understanding and preferences related to advance directives. In addition, the study sought to explore the views of health care professionals of the application of Advance Directives (AD) in clinical practice in Lithuania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by interviewing 478 health professionals based at major health care centers in Kaunas district, Lithuania. The design of the study included the use of a questionnaire developed for this study and validated by a pilot study. The collected data were analyzed using standard descriptive statistical methods. The analysis of knowledge about AD revealed some statistically significant differences when comparing the respondents' profession and gender. The analysis also indicated key emerging themes among respondents including tranquility of mind, the longest possible life expectancy and freedom of choice. Further, the study findings revealed that more than half of the study participants preferred to express their will while alive by using advance directives. The study findings revealed a low level of knowledge on advance directives among health professionals. Most health professionals agreed that AD's improved end-of-life decision making while the majority of physicians appreciated AD as the best tool for sharing responsibilities in clinical practice in Lithuania. More physicians than nurses preferred the presence of advance directives to support their decision making in end-of-life situations.

  18. The impact of self-perceived limitations, stigma and sense of coherence on quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients : results of a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Feddrik; Oeseburg, Barth; Dijkstra, Jacob; Wynia, Klaske

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of perceived limitations, stigma and sense of coherence on quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. SUBJECTS: Multiple sclerosis patients.

  19. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC 50 , FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. End-of-life care in general practice: A cross-sectional, retrospective survey of 'cancer', 'organ failure' and 'old-age/dementia' patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.C.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Donker, G.A.; Deliens, L.; Block, L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: End-of-life care is often provided in primary care settings. Aim: To describe and compare general-practitioner end-of-life care for Dutch patients who died from 'cancer', 'organ failure' and 'old-age or dementia'. Design: A cross-sectional, retrospective survey was conducted within a

  1. Perception of parents and caregivers regarding the impact of malocclusion on adolescents' quality of life: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Lages, Elizabeth Maria Bastos; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to assess the perception of parents and caregivers regarding the impact of malocclusion on adolescents' oral health -related quality of life (OHRQoL). This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 280 parents/caregivers of 11 and 12-year-old adolescents who answered the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ). Parent-assessed quality of life of adolescents was the dependent variable. The main independent variable was adolescents' malocclusion which was diagnosed by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Based on DAI cut-off points, adolescents were classified into four grades of malocclusion, with different orthodontic treatment recommendations assigned to each grade: no need/slight treatment need, elective treatment, highly desirable treatment and mandatory treatment. Adolescents' age and sex, as well as family monthly income, were considered as confounding variables. Statistical analysis involved descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and Poisson regression with robust variance. Of the 280 parents/caregivers initially accepted in this study, 18 refused to answer the P-CPQ. Therefore, 262 individuals participated in this assessment, providing a response rate of 93.5%. The severity of adolescents' malocclusion was significantly associated with a higher negative impact on parents'/caregivers' perception on the oral symptoms (pcontrolling variables. Parents/caregivers reported a negative impact of malocclusion on adolescents' OHRQoL. Increased severity of malocclusion is associated with higher adverse impact on OHRQoL.

  2. Self-stigma and quality of life in patients with depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Marackova, Marketa; Grambal, Ales; Slepecky, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Self-stigma is a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patients' lives and have a negative impact on their quality of life (QoL). This study explored the association between self-stigma, QoL, demographic data, and the severity of symptoms in patients with depressive disorder. Patients who met the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, research criteria for depressive disorder were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All outpatients completed the following measurements: the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, demographic questionnaire, and the objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression-Severity scales that measure the severity of disorder. A total of 81 depressive disorder patients (with persistent affective disorder - dysthymia, major depressive disorder, or recurrent depressive disorder) and 43 healthy controls participated in this study. Compared with the healthy control group, a lower QoL was observed in patients with depressive disorder. The level of self-stigma correlated positively with total symptom severity score and negatively with QoL. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the overall rating of objective symptom severity and score of self-stigma were significantly associated with QoL. This study suggests a lower QoL in patients with depressive disorder in comparison with healthy controls and a negative impact of self-stigma level on QoL in patients suffering from depressive disorders.

  3. Cross-sectional analysis of Quality-of-Life of patients undergoing reconstructive surgery for tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Seiichi; Kimata, Yasuhiro; Kurita, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    Organs with important functions for daily life are concentrated in the head and neck area, and maintaining post-treatment Quality-of-Life (QOL) is also important when treating cancers of the head and neck, in addition to improving survival rate. Free flap reconstruction techniques are expected to contribute to maintaining post-treatment QOL, but these techniques have not been adequately evaluated in Japan. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of QOL, using the Japanese version of the UWQOL (version 4) from the University of Washington in the United States, with 202 patients from 10 institutions who had undergone reconstructive surgery for tongue cancer. In addition to the survey form, we collected clinical information (age, sex, time since surgery, flap donor site, whether radiotherapy was administered, and other factors), and analyzed whether differences in postoperative QOL were seen depending on each of these factors and the hospital at which the surgery was performed. Although a relationship was found between QOL following reconstructive surgery for tongue cancer and the extent of resection, age and whether radiotherapy was administered, fairly good QOL was maintained overall. (author)

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN ELDERLY PEOPLE: A CROSS SECTION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Kamal M. Abdelbasset

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between physical activitylevel and health related quality of life in elderly people. Design: Between January and April 2017, a cross-sectional study of 114 elderly people (73 males and 41 females conducted this study. Their mean age was (71±5.24 and the mean body mass index (BMI was (29±3.31.The participating elderly were classified according to walking duration into two groups, low level of physical activity (walking duration 300min/week.The health-related quality of life (HRQoL was measured using the Euro Qol-5dimensions-3 levels scale questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L. Statistical analysis was used to determine the relation between the physical activity and HRQoL scores in elderly people. Results:The measures showed statistically significant differences between high and low physical activity groups (p<0.05. The group of high physical activity showed higher HRQoL scores more than the group of low physical activity in the all five dimensions. The low level group showed high predominance of the chronic disease. Conclusions: High level of physical activity has a beneficial effect on all dimensions of the HRQoL in elderly people. Effort and awareness should be dedicated to encouraging the active lifestyle among different population especially elderly people

  5. Analysis of quality of life among asthmatic individuals with obesity and its relationship with pulmonary function: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Baltieri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The combined effect of obesity and asthma may lead to significant impairment of quality of life (QOL. The aim here was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma among obese individuals, characterize the severity of impairment of quality of life and measure its relationship with pulmonary function. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study in public university hospital. METHODS: Morbidly obese individuals (body mass index > 40 kg/m2 seen in a bariatric surgery outpatient clinic and diagnosed with asthma, were included. Anthropometric data were collected, the Standardized Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ(S was applied and spirometry was performed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on the median of the score in the questionnaire (worse < 4 and better > 4 and were compared regarding anthropometric data and pulmonary function. RESULTS: Among the 4791 individuals evaluated, 219 were asthmatic; the prevalence of asthma was 4.57%. Of these, 91 individuals were called to start multidisciplinary follow-up during the study period, of whom 82 answered the questionnaire. The median score in the AQLQ(S was 3.96 points and, thus, the individuals were classified as having moderate impairment of their overall QOL. When divided according to better or worse QOL, there was a statistically difference in forced expiratory flow (FEF 25-75%, with higher values in the better QOL group. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of asthma was 4.57% and QOL was impaired among the asthmatic obese individuals. The worst QOL domain related to environmental stimuli and the best QOL domain to limitations of the activities. Worse QOL was correlated with poorer values for FEF 25-75%.

  6. Common measure of quality of life for people with systemic sclerosis across seven European countries: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndosi, Mwidimi; Alcacer-Pitarch, Begonya; Allanore, Yannick; Del Galdo, Francesco; Frerix, Marc; García-Díaz, Sílvia; Hesselstrand, Roger; Kendall, Christine; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Mueller-Ladner, Ulf; Sandqvist, Gunnel; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Schmeiser, Tim; Sierakowska, Matylda; Sierakowska, Justyna; Sierakowski, Stanslaw; Redmond, Anthony

    2018-02-20

    The aim of this study was to adapt the Systemic Sclerosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (SScQoL) into six European cultures and validate it as a common measure of quality of life in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This was a seven-country (Germany, France, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden and UK) cross-sectional study. A forward-backward translation process was used to adapt the English SScQoL into target languages. SScQoL was completed by patients with SSc, then data were validated against the Rasch model. To correct local response dependency, items were grouped into the following subscales: function, emotion, sleep, social and pain and reanalysed for fit to the model, unidimensionality and cross-cultural equivalence. The adaptation of the SScQoL was seamless in all countries except Germany. Cross-cultural validation included 1080 patients with a mean age 58.0 years (SD 13.9) and 87% were women. Local dependency was evident in individual country data. Grouping items into testlets corrected the local dependency in most country specific data. Fit to the model, reliability and unidimensionality was achieved in six-country data after cross-cultural adjustment for Italy in the social subscale. The SScQoL was then calibrated into an interval level scale. The individual SScQoL items have translated well into five languages and overall, the scale maintained its construct validity, working well as a five-subscale questionnaire. Measures of quality of life in SSc can be directly compared across five countries (France, Poland Spain, Sweden and UK). Data from Italy are also comparable with the other five countries although require an adjustment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Quality of life and its related factors among Iranian patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbar Heydari Fard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Quality of life (QoL is an important issue in all cancer patients; especially in patients with metastatic cancer. But there is very little information available about QoL in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and its associated factors among Iranian patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 250 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer were recruited from the one oncology center related to the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, between March 2012 and August 2013. Their QoL was evaluated using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire (Persian version. Results: In this study, the overall QoL score of patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer was 57.63, which was relatively optimal. There was a statistically significant relationship between symptoms scale and general health status domains of quality of life with age ( P < 0.05. Also, there was a significant association between patients′ gender and their social functioning ( P = 0.017 and also their emotional functioning ( P = 0.015. Conclusions: The findings suggest that in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancers, the most affected functions in their QoL were social and emotional functioning which get worse with age. Thus, providing psychological counseling and psychotherapy services to deliver culturally appropriate mental health care and social support for these patients and their families′ which can lead to the improvement of QoL in these patients is strongly recommended.

  8. Health-related quality of life associated with bullying and aggression: a cross-sectional study in English secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantaguzzi, Catherine; Allen, Elizabeth; Miners, Alec; Christie, Deborah; Opondo, Charles; Sadique, Zia; Fletcher, Adam; Grieve, Richard; Bonell, Chris; Viner, Russell M; Legood, Rosa

    2018-06-01

    Associations between adolescent health-related quality of life (HRQoL), bullying, and aggression are not well understood. We used baseline data from a large-cluster randomized school trial to study the relationship between HRQoL, bullying experience, and other demographic factors. Cross-sectional self-reported questionnaires collected pre-randomization from the on-going INCLUSIVE trial. The questionnaires were completed in the classroom. The Gatehouse Bullying Scale measured bullying victimization and the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime school misbehavior subscale (ESYTC) measured aggressive behaviors. HRQoL was assessed using the Child Health Utility 9 Dimensions (CHU-9D) and general quality of life using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). Participants were a cohort of year 7 students (age 11-12 years) from 40 state secondary schools in England. Descriptive statistics for the CHU-9D and PedsQL were calculated using standard methods with tests for differences in median scores by sex assessed using quantile regression. Correlation between HRQoL measures was conducted using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Predictors of HRQoL were identified using univariate and multiple regressions. A total of 6667 students filled out the questionnaire. The CHU-9D was correlated with the PedsQL (0.63, p decrement in CHU-9D scores of (-0.108) and fall in PedsQL score of (-16.2). The impact of the antisocial/aggressive behavior on the ESYTC scale resulted in a utility decrement of -0.004 and fall of -.5 on the PedsQL. Adolescents' involvement in bullying and aggression is a strong correlate of HRQoL. These data have important implications for the potential cost-effectiveness of reducing bullying and aggression in schools.

  9. Association between social support and health-related quality of life among Chinese seafarers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Huang, Binjun; Shen, Huan; Liu, Xiuli; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Yaqing; Wu, Chuanli; Hua, Tianqi; Gao, Yuexia

    2017-01-01

    Seafarers have reported impaired health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Social support might increase HRQOL, but little is known about this association among Chinese seafarers. The aim of this study was to describe social support and explore its association with HRQOL among Chinese seafarers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the ports of Nantong and Rugao, China, from April to December 2013. A total of 917 Chinese seafarers were interviewed on social support, mental distress, perceived occupational stress, and HRQOL using the following self-administered questionnaires: The Social Support Rating Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale, Occupational Stress Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used to analyze the association between seafarers' subjective level of social support and their HRQOL. Of the 917 male Chinese seafarers included in the study, 40.7% perceived high levels of social support, and 39.1% were highly satisfied with their overall quality of life (QOL). Hierarchical regression analysis showed significant associations between level of social support and all health dimensions in the WHOQOL-BREF, even after adjusting for depressive symptoms, occupational stress, occupational activities, sleep duration, and other relevant covariates. Compared with the medium or low level social support group, seafarers with a high level of social support had better QOL scores in the general facet health and QOL (β = 2.43, phealth (β = 3.23, phealth (β = 5.56, psocial relation (β = 6.07, psocial support has a significant positive effect on their HRQOL. Efforts to improve social support should be undertaken.

  10. Self-stigma and quality of life in patients with depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holubova M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Michaela Holubova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Ales Grambal,1 Milos Slepecky3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Background: Self-stigma is a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patients’ lives and have a negative impact on their quality of life (QoL. This study explored the association between self-stigma, QoL, demographic data, and the severity of symptoms in patients with depressive disorder. Patients and methods: Patients who met the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, research criteria for depressive disorder were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All outpatients completed the following measurements: the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, demographic questionnaire, and the objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression-Severity scales that measure the severity of disorder. A total of 81 depressive disorder patients (with persistent affective disorder – dysthymia, major depressive disorder, or recurrent depressive disorder and 43 healthy controls participated in this study. Results: Compared with the healthy control group, a lower QoL was observed in patients with depressive disorder. The level of self-stigma correlated positively with total symptom severity score and negatively with QoL. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the overall rating of objective symptom severity and score of self-stigma were significantly associated with QoL. Conclusion: This study suggests a lower QoL in patients with depressive disorder in comparison with healthy controls and a negative impact of

  11. Quality of life of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia survivors: a study of patients at the Philippine General Hospital trophoblastic disease section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagayan, M Stephanie Fay S; Llarena, Raquel T

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of patients who were diagnosed with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) at the Philippine General Hospital Trophoblastic Disease Section and who were in remission at the time of this study. A cross-sectional descriptive study designed to measure the QOL of all patients diagnosed as having GTN in remission and following up at the Philippine General Hospital Trophoblastic Disease Outpatient Clinic from May-August 2008 (N = 46). This study used the short form 12-question (SF-12) survey forms to evaluate the QOL of patients diagnosed with GTN. Scores from the SF-12 were analyzed using Pearson's correlation. Statistical significance was assumed for p values educational level and physical functioning. A negative correlation was found between the stage of GTN and patients' general health. In conclusion, the survivors' age, educational level and type of treatment had impact on the QOL among GTN survivors in terms of physical functioning. No relationship was established between the demographic variables and mental status. SF-12 appears to be a reliable instrument, suggesting its potential in measuring health status in GTN survivors. Age, educational attainment and type of treatment were shown to have an impact on the QOL of the surviving GTN patients.

  12. Investigation of wear and tool life of coated carbide and cubic boron nitride cutting tools in high speed milling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Twardowski, P.; Legutko, S.; Krolczyk, G.; Hloch, Sergej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2015), s. 1-9 ISSN 1687-8132 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : hardened steels * milling tools * high speed machining * tool life * wear Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2015 http://ade.sagepub.com/content/7/6/1687814015590216.full.pdf+html

  13. Comorbidity of schizophrenia and social phobia – impact on quality of life, hope, and personality traits: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrbova K

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kristyna Vrbova,1 Jan Prasko,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Michaela Holubova1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore whether the comorbidity of social phobia affects symptoms severity, positive and negative symptoms, self-stigma, hope, and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which all participants completed the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q, Temperament and Character Inventory – Revised (TCI-R, and the demographic questionnaire. The disorder severity was assessed both by a psychiatrist (Clinical Global Impression Severity – the objective version [objCGI-S] scale and by the patients (Clinical Global Impression Severity – the subjective version [subjCGI-S] scale. The patients were in a stabilized state that did not require changes in the treatment. Diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorder was determined according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10 research criteria. A structured interview by Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to confirm the diagnosis. Results: The study included 61 patients of both genders. Clinically, the patients with comorbid social phobia had the earlier onset of the illness, more severe current psychopathology, more intense anxiety (general and social, and higher severity of depressive symptoms. The patients with comorbid social phobia showed the significantly lower quality

  14. Disability, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in infertile women: a cross-sectional study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Hacer; Hocaoglu, Cicek; Guvendag-Guven, Emine Seda

    2016-04-25

    Infertility is a major life crisis which can lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms and negative effects on the quality of life of affected couples, but the magnitude of the effects may vary depending on cultural expectations. We compare the level of psychiatric symptoms, disability, and quality of life in fertile and infertile women in urban Turkey. This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 married women being treated for infertility at the outpatient department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Rize Education and Research Hospital and a control group of 100 fertile married women. All study participants were evaluated with a socio-demographic data screening form, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The mean anxiety subscale score and depression subscale score of HADS were slightly higher in the infertile group than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The proportion of subjects with clinically significant anxiety (i.e., anxiety subscale score of HADS ≥11) was significantly higher in infertile women than in fertile women (31% v. 17%, χ (2)=5.37, p=0.020), but the proportion with clinically significant depressive symptoms (i.e., depression subscale score of HADS >8) was not significantly different (43% v. 33%, χ (2)=2.12, p=0.145). Self-reported disability over the prior month was significantly worse in the infertile group than in the controls, and 4 of the 8 subscales of the SF-36 - general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health - were significantly worse in the infertile group. Compared to infertile women who were currently working, infertile women who were not currently working reported less severe depression and anxiety and better general health, vitality, and mental health. Married women from urban Turkey seeking treatment for infertility do not have significantly more severe depressive

  15. Quality of life in borderline patients comorbid with anxiety spectrum disorders – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grambal A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ales Grambal,1 Jan Prasko,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Zuzana Sedláčková,3 Radovan Hruby4 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 4Private Practice, Martin, Slovak Republic Introduction: Borderline personality disorder (BPD significantly reduces the quality of life (QoL in mental, social, and work domains. Patients with BPD often suffer from depressive anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the QoL and demographic and clinical factors of inpatients diagnosed with BPD and comorbid anxiety spectrum disorders, and healthy controls.Methods: Ninety-two hospitalized patients treated in the psychotherapeutic department and 40 healthy controls were included. Subjects were assessed by the Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Clinical Global Impression, demographic questionnaire, Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS, and Sheehan Anxiety Scale.Results: BPD patients suffered from comorbid anxiety disorders, panic disorder (18.5%, social phobia (20.7%, generalized anxiety disorder/mixed anxiety depression disorder (17.4%, adjustment disorder (22.8%, and posttraumatic stress disorder (8.7%; 19.6% patients had two or more anxiety disorder comorbidities. Patients score in Q-LES-Q (general was 36.24±9.21, which was significantly lower in comparison to controls (57.83±10.21 and similar in all domains (physical health, feelings, work, household, school/study, leisure, social activities. The subjective level of depression measured by BDI and SDS (social life and family subscales negatively correlated with all Q-LES-Q domains.Conclusion: Patients suffering

  16. Environmental Barrier Coatings for Ceramic Matrix Composites - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang; Zhu, Dongming; Wiesner, Valerie Lynn; van Roode, Mark; Kashyap, Tania; Zhu, Dongming; Wiesner, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) are increasingly being considered as structural materials for advanced power generation equipment. Broadly speaking the two classes of materials are oxide-based CMCs and non-oxide based CMCs. The non-oxide CMCs are primarily silicon-based. Under conditions prevalent in the gas turbine hot section the water vapor formed in the combustion of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons reacts with the surface-SiO2 to form volatile products. Progressive surface recession of the SiC-SiC CMC component, strength loss as a result of wall thinning and chemical changes in the component occur, which leads to the loss of structural integrity and mechanical strength and becomes life limiting to the equipment in service. The solutions pursued to improve the life of SiC-SiC CMCs include the incorporation of an external barrier coating to provide surface protection to the CMC substrate. The coating system has become known as an Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC). The relevant early coatings work was focused on coatings for corrosion protection of silicon-based monolithic ceramics operating under severely corrosive conditions. The development of EBCs for gas turbine hot section components was built on the early work for silicon-based monolithics. The first generation EBC is a three-layer coating, which in its simplest configuration consists of a silicon (Si) base coat applied on top of the CMC, a barium-strontium-aluminosilicate (BSAS) surface coat resistant to water vapor attack, and a mullite-based intermediate coating layer between the Si base coat and BSAS top coat. This system can be represented as Si-Mullite-BSAS. While this baseline EBC presented a significant improvement over the uncoated SiC-SiC CMC, for the very long durations of 3-4 years or more expected for industrial operation further improvements in coating durability are desirable. Also, for very demanding applications with higher component temperatures but shorter service lives more rugged EBCs

  17. Shot peening as a pre-treatment to anodic oxidation coating process of AW 6082 aluminum for fatigue life improvement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadzima, B.; Nový, F.; Trško, L.; Pastorek, F.; Jambor, M.; Fintová, Stanislava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, 9-12 (2017), s. 3315-3323 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fatigue life * AW 6082 aluminum alloy * Anodizing * Shot peening * Ultrasonic fatigue testing Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00170-017-0776-1.pdf

  18. Cyclic fatigue and fracture in pyrolytic carbon-coated graphite mechanical heart-valve prostheses: role of small cracks in life prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauskardt, R H; Ritchie, R O; Takemoto, J K; Brendzel, A M

    1994-07-01

    A fracture-mechanics based study has performed to characterize the fracture toughness and rates of cyclic fatigue-crack growth of incipient flaws in prosthetic heart-valve components made of pyrolytic carbon-coated graphite. Such data are required to predict the safe structural lifetime of mechanical heart-valve prostheses using damage-tolerant analysis. Unlike previous studies where fatigue-crack propagation data were obtained using through-thickness, long cracks (approximately 2-20 mm long), growing in conventional (e.g., compact-tension) samples, experiments were performed on physically small cracks (approximately 100-600 microns long), initiated on the surface of the pyrolytic-carbon coating to simulate reality. Small-crack toughness results were found to agree closely with those measured conventionally with long cracks. However, similar to well-known observations in metal fatigue, it was found that based on the usual computations of the applied (far-field) driving force in terms of the maximum stress intensity, Kmax, small fatigue cracks grew at rates that exceeded those of long cracks at the same applied stress intensity, and displayed a negative dependency on Kmax; moreover, they grew at applied stress intensities less than the fatigue threshold value, below which long cracks are presumed dormant. To resolve this apparent discrepancy, it is shown that long and small crack results can be normalized, provided growth rates are characterized in terms of the total (near-tip) stress intensity (incorporating, for example, the effect of residual stress); with this achieved, in principle, either form of data can be used for life prediction of implant devices. Inspection of the long and small crack results reveals extensive scatter inherent in both forms of growth-rate data for the pyrolytic-carbon material.

  19. The mediating role of resilience in the relationship between stress and life satisfaction among Chinese medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Wang, XiaoXi; Bian, YuGe; Wang, Lie

    2015-02-13

    The psychological distress of medical students has been widely acknowledged. However, few studies focused on positive well-being among medical students. The purpose of this study was to investigate related demographic factors of life satisfaction among Chinese medical students, to examine the relationship between stress and life satisfaction among this group of people, and to explore the mediating role of resilience in this relationship. This multicenter cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2014. Self-reported questionnaires consisting of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), as well as demographic section were distributed to students at four medical colleges and universities in Liaoning province, China. A total of 2925 students (effective response rate: 83.6%) became our subjects. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to explore the mediating role of resilience. Among the demographic factors, life satisfaction was significantly different in gender (P = 0.001) and study programs (P life satisfaction (r = -0.35, P life satisfaction (β = -0.34, P life satisfaction among Chinese medical students. Both stress and resilience played a big role in life satisfaction among Chinese medical students. Besides reducing perceived stress, the university authorities should adopt evidence-based intervention strategies to enhance their resilience in order to promote life satisfaction among the students.

  20. A cross-sectional study of quality of life in incident stroke survivors in rural northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Suzanne C; Jones, Matthew P; Jusabani, Ahmed; Gray, William K; Aris, Eric; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Swai, Mark; Walker, Richard W

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes to, and predictors of, quality of life (QOL) in a community-based cohort of stroke survivors from an earlier stroke incidence study in rural northern Tanzania. Patients were assessed 1-5 years after their incident stroke. The study cohort was compared with an age- and sex-matched control group from the same rural district within a cross-sectional design. Patients and controls were asked a series of questions relating to their QOL [World Health Organization quality of life, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF)], levels of anxiety and depression [hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale], cognitive function [community screening instrument for dementia (CSI-D) screening tool], socioeconomic status and demographic characteristics (e.g. age, sex, education and abode). Patients were further assessed for functional outcome and disability (Barthel index, modified Rankin scale), post-stroke care and psychosocial functioning. Patients (n = 58) were found to have significantly lower QOL than controls (n = 58) in all six domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. Gender, socioeconomic status, cognitive function and time elapsed since stroke were not associated with QOL. Older patients and those with more impaired motor function and disability (Barthel index, modified Rankin score) had significantly poorer physical health-related QOL. Greater anxiety and depression, reduced muscle power and less involvement in social events were significantly correlated with lower physical and psychological health-related QOL. To our knowledge, this is the first long-term study of QOL in survivors of incident stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Poorer QOL was associated with greater levels of physical disability, anxiety and depression and reduced social interaction. Demographic factors appear to be much less significant. Modifying these QOL predictors could be important in planning effective post-stroke care within a stretched healthcare system.

  1. Perception of parents and caregivers regarding the impact of malocclusion on adolescents’ quality of life: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Guimarães Abreu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this article was to assess the perception of parents and caregivers regarding the impact of malocclusion on adolescents’ oral health -related quality of life (OHRQoL. Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 280 parents/caregivers of 11 and 12-year-old adolescents who answered the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ. Parent-assessed quality of life of adolescents was the dependent variable. The main independent variable was adolescents’ malocclusion which was diagnosed by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI. Based on DAI cut-off points, adolescents were classified into four grades of malocclusion, with different orthodontic treatment recommendations assigned to each grade: no need/slight treatment need, elective treatment, highly desirable treatment and mandatory treatment. Adolescents’ age and sex, as well as family monthly income, were considered as confounding variables. Statistical analysis involved descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: Of the 280 parents/caregivers initially accepted in this study, 18 refused to answer the P-CPQ. Therefore, 262 individuals participated in this assessment, providing a response rate of 93.5%. The severity of adolescents’ malocclusion was significantly associated with a higher negative impact on parents’/caregivers’ perception on the oral symptoms (p< 0.05, functional limitations (p < 0.001, emotional well-being (p < 0.001, and social well-being (p < 0.001 subscale scores as well as on the overall P-CPQ score (p < 0.001, even after having been adjusted for the controlling variables. Conclusions: Parents/caregivers reported a negative impact of malocclusion on adolescents’ OHRQoL. Increased severity of malocclusion is associated with higher adverse impact on OHRQoL.

  2. Quality of work life among primary health care nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

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    Almalki Mohammed J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of work life (QWL is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. QWL has been found to influence the commitment and productivity of employees in health care organizations, as well as in other industries. However, reliable information on the QWL of primary health care (PHC nurses is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the QWL among PHC nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods A descriptive research design, namely a cross-sectional survey, was used in this study. Data were collected using Brooks’ survey of quality of nursing work life and demographic questions. A convenience sample was recruited from 134 PHC centres in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Jazan region is located in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. A response rate of 91% (n = 532/585 was achieved (effective response rate = 87%, n = 508. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, t-test and one way-analysis of variance. Total scores and subscores for QWL items and item summary statistics were computed and reported using SPSS version 17 for Windows. Results Findings suggested that the respondents were dissatisfied with their work life. The major influencing factors were unsuitable working hours, lack of facilities for nurses, inability to balance work with family needs, inadequacy of vacations time for nurses and their families, poor staffing, management and supervision practices, lack of professional development opportunities, and an inappropriate working environment in terms of the level of security, patient care supplies and equipment, and recreation facilities (break-area. Other essential factors include the community’s view of nursing and an inadequate salary. More positively, the majority of nurses were satisfied with their co-workers, satisfied to be nurses and had a sense of belonging

  3. Health-related quality of life and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in the unemployed: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes

    2014-11-29

    The loss of one's job has been conceptualized as a major stressful life event in an adult's life and has consistently been associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies after the experience of stressful events has emerged as an important predictor of adverse psychological and health outcomes. However, the effect of these coping strategies on the HRQoL of unemployed people has not been examined until now. We aimed to study the associations of these cognitive emotion regulation strategies on HRQoL of unemployed people. Using cross-sectional data, 1,125 unemployed adults were assessed using a Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for cognitive coping and SF-12 to assess HRQoL. We studied the effect of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on mental and physical health composite separately, adjusting for gender, age, educational level and length of unemployment, using hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed unemployed men tended to express greater use of self-blame, other-blame, and catastrophizing, and lower use of perspective taking strategies when confronted with unemployment. Moreover, self-blame (for mental health composite only), blaming others, rumination, and catastrophizing negatively correlated, while positive reappraisal, putting into perspective, planning, and positive refocusing positively correlated with both mental and physical health composite in unemployed people. Further hierarchical regression analyses indicate that five strategies (a lower reported use of self-blame, rumination, and catastrophizing, as well as higher scores of positive reappraisal and positive refocusing) and three strategies (lower scores of catastrophizing and rumination and high scores in planning) have significant and independent contributions, beyond gender, age, educational level and length of unemployment, to the prediction of mental health and physical health composite, respectively

  4. Quality of work life among primary health care nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Mohammed J; Fitzgerald, Gerry; Clark, Michele

    2012-09-13

    Quality of work life (QWL) is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. QWL has been found to influence the commitment and productivity of employees in health care organizations, as well as in other industries. However, reliable information on the QWL of primary health care (PHC) nurses is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the QWL among PHC nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. A descriptive research design, namely a cross-sectional survey, was used in this study. Data were collected using Brooks' survey of quality of nursing work life and demographic questions. A convenience sample was recruited from 134 PHC centres in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Jazan region is located in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. A response rate of 91% (n = 532/585) was achieved (effective response rate = 87%, n = 508). Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, t-test and one way-analysis of variance. Total scores and subscores for QWL items and item summary statistics were computed and reported using SPSS version 17 for Windows. Findings suggested that the respondents were dissatisfied with their work life. The major influencing factors were unsuitable working hours, lack of facilities for nurses, inability to balance work with family needs, inadequacy of vacations time for nurses and their families, poor staffing, management and supervision practices, lack of professional development opportunities, and an inappropriate working environment in terms of the level of security, patient care supplies and equipment, and recreation facilities (break-area). Other essential factors include the community's view of nursing and an inadequate salary. More positively, the majority of nurses were satisfied with their co-workers, satisfied to be nurses and had a sense of belonging in their workplaces. Significant differences were found

  5. Association between social support and health-related quality of life among Chinese seafarers: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiao

    Full Text Available Seafarers have reported impaired health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Social support might increase HRQOL, but little is known about this association among Chinese seafarers. The aim of this study was to describe social support and explore its association with HRQOL among Chinese seafarers.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the ports of Nantong and Rugao, China, from April to December 2013. A total of 917 Chinese seafarers were interviewed on social support, mental distress, perceived occupational stress, and HRQOL using the following self-administered questionnaires: The Social Support Rating Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale, Occupational Stress Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used to analyze the association between seafarers' subjective level of social support and their HRQOL.Of the 917 male Chinese seafarers included in the study, 40.7% perceived high levels of social support, and 39.1% were highly satisfied with their overall quality of life (QOL. Hierarchical regression analysis showed significant associations between level of social support and all health dimensions in the WHOQOL-BREF, even after adjusting for depressive symptoms, occupational stress, occupational activities, sleep duration, and other relevant covariates. Compared with the medium or low level social support group, seafarers with a high level of social support had better QOL scores in the general facet health and QOL (β = 2.43, p<0.05, and the physical health (β = 3.23, p<0.001, psychological health (β = 5.56, p<0.001, social relation (β = 6.07, p<0.001, and environment domains (β = 4.27, p<0.001. In addition, depression, occupational stress, occupational activities, and sleep duration were found to be determinants of seafarers' HRQOL.Chinese seafarers have poorer HRQOL than the general population, but social support has a significant

  6. The experience of work-life balance across family-life stages in Switzerland: a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepfer, Ariane G; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J; Hämmig, Oliver; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-12-24

    The division of paid and unpaid labor in families continues to be highly gendered with men doing more paid work and women doing more unpaid care work. This is especially true for life stages with young children. Our study investigates the subjective experience of demands in the work and the private domain and the experience of work-life balance across family-life stages as a consequence of this gendered division of labor. We used data from a survey study on work-life issues and health in four large companies in Switzerland (N = 3664). In line with our hypotheses, subjective work and private demands were predicted by an interaction of family-life stages and gender. Specifically, during the primary child-rearing family-life stages, women experience more private demands than men while men experience more work demands, regardless of level of employment. Furthermore, women who work part time experience more work-life balance than women who work full time and more than men who work part or full time during the primary child-rearing family-life stages. Results are discussed in terms of a gendered work-life experience across the life course and the need for part-time work for both genders. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning our results' implications for public health considerations.

  7. Satisfaction with work-life balance among U.S. gynecologic oncologists, a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szender, J Brian; Grzankowski, Kassondra S; Eng, Kevin H; Lele, Shashikant B; Odunsi, Kunle; Frederick, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the satisfaction with work-life balance (WLB) and career satisfaction of gynecologic oncologists. Methods In August 2014, members of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) were sent an anonymous, cross-sectional survey evaluating demographic variables, practice characteristics, career satisfaction, fatigue, and satisfaction with WLB. Fatigue was assessed using a visual-analog scale. Career satisfaction and WLB were assessed with a Likert scale. Inferential statistics were computed with type I error rates of 0.05. Results Out of the 1002 gynecologic oncologists surveyed, 290 (28.9%) responded. Only 18.6% of respondents were satisfied with WLB and there were significant associations between gender (P = 0.0157), time spent in work related activities at home (P = 0.0024), on weekends (P = 0.0017), and in the hospital (P = 0.0001). More than 84% of physicians reported they would choose medicine as a career again and of those 90% would choose to be a gynecologic oncologist again. Fatigue was strongly associated with dissatisfaction with WLB in univariate and multivariate analysis (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Although gynecologic oncologists indicated they are satisfied with their careers, most are not satisfied with their WLB. Given the forecast shortage of gynecologic oncologists and projected increased cancer rates, understanding the factors associated with career satisfaction may assist the SGO in meeting future gynecologic cancer care needs. PMID:27088113

  8. Erectile dysfunction and quality of life in men receiving methadone or buprenorphine maintenance treatment. A cross-sectional multicentre study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Lugoboni

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is common among men on opioid replacement therapy (ORT, but most previous studies exploring its prevalence and determinants yielded contrasting findings. Moreover, the impact of ED on patients' quality of life (QoL has been seldom explored.To explore the prevalence and determinants of ED in men on ORT, and the impact on QoL.In a multicentre cross-sectional study, we recruited 797 consecutive male patients on methadone and buprenorphine treatment, collected data on demographic, clinical, and psychopathological factors, and explored their role as predictors of ED and QoL through univariate and multivariate analysis. ED severity was assessed with a self-assessment questionnaire.Nearly half of patients in our sample were sexually inactive or reported some degree of ED. Some demographic, clinical and psychopathological variables significantly differed according to the presence or absence of ED. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that age, employment, smoke, psychoactive drugs, opioid maintenance dosage, and severity of psychopathological factors significantly influenced the risk and severity of ED. QoL was worse in patients with ED and significantly correlated with ED severity. Age, education, employment, opioid maintenance dosage, ED score, and severity of psychopathology significantly influenced QoL in the multivariate analysis.ED complaints can be explored in male opioid users on ORT through a simple and quick self-assessment tool. ED may have important effects on emotional and social well-being, and may affect outcome.

  9. A cross-sectional assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among hypertensive patients in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Fahad; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal

    2014-06-01

    To describe the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profile of hypertensive population in Pakistan. A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a cohort of 385 hypertensive patients attending two public hospitals in Quetta city, Pakistan. The EuroQoL EQ-5D scale was used for the assessment of HRQoL. EQ-5D is a standardized instrument for use as a measure of health outcome and is used in the clinical and economic evaluation of health care as well as population health surveys. The HRQoL was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. P ≤ 0.05 was taken as significant. Two hundred and sixty-five (68.85%) respondents were men with 3.01 ± 0.939 years of history of hypertension. Majority (n = 186, 48.3%) were categorized in age group of 28-37 years with mean age of 39.02 ± 6.596. Education, income and locality had significant relation with HRQoL score. HRQoL was measured poor in our study patients (0.4674 ± 0.2844). Hypertension has an adverse effect on patients' well-being and HRQoL. Results from this study could be useful in clinical practice, particularly in early treatment of hypertension, at point where improving HRQoL is still possible. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Health-related quality of life in European women following myocardial infarction: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, Evy; Höfer, Stefan; Saner, Hugo; Perk, Joep; Hildingh, Cathrine; Oldridge, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Coronary heart disease is a major contributor to women's health problems. Self-perceived social support, well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQL) were documented in the cross-sectional HeartQoL survey of European women one and six months after a myocardial infarction. European women were recruited in 18 European countries and grouped into four geographical regions (Southern Europe, Northern Europe, Western Europe and Eastern Europe). Continuous socio-demographic variables and categorical variables were compared by age and region with ANOVA and χ(2), respectively; multiple regression models were used to identify predictors of social support, well-being and HRQL. Women living in the Eastern European region rated social support, well-being and HRQL significantly lower than women in the other regions. Older women had lower physical HRQL scores than younger women. Eastern European women rated social support, well-being and HRQL significantly lower than women in the other regions. Prediction of the dependent variables (social support, well-being and HRQL) by socio-demographic factors varied by total group, in the older age group, and by region; body mass index and managerial responsibility were the most consistent significant predictors. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  11. Lifestyle and health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study among civil servants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Qiu, Jincai; Chen, Jie; Zou, Liai; Feng, Liyi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Qian; Zhang, Jinhua

    2012-05-04

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been increasingly acknowledged as a valid and appropriate indicator of public health and chronic morbidity. However, limited research was conducted among Chinese civil servants owing to the different lifestyle. The aim of the study was to evaluate the HRQoL among Chinese civil servants and to identify factors might be associated with their HRQoL. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate HRQoL of 15,000 civil servants in China using stratified random sampling methods. Independent-Samples t-Test, one-way ANOVA, and multiple stepwise regression were used to analyse the influencing factors and the HRQoL of the civil servants. A univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences among physical component summary (PCS), mental component summary (MCS), and TS between lifestyle factors, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, having breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, work time, operating computers, and sedentariness (P breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, operating computers, sedentariness, work time, and drinking (P breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, work time, operating computers, and sedentariness in China. The performance of the questionnaire in the large-scale survey is satisfactory and provides a large picture of the HRQoL status in Chinese civil servants. Our results indicate that lifestyle factors such as smoking, drinking alcohol, having breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, work time, operating computers, and sedentariness affect the HRQoL of civil servants in China.

  12. Dog Ownership, Physical Activity, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Veterinary Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Virginia K; Pierce, Bess J; Hosig, Kathy

    The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between dog ownership and physical activity in veterinary students. The secondary objective was to gain an understanding of veterinary students' health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and whether dog ownership and/or physical activity were associated with HRQOL measures. Veterinary students were invited to complete surveys between September and November 2015. The primary outcome for multivariate analyses was self-reported physical activity. Bivariate analyses and descriptive statistics were performed to assess student HRQOL. The survey response rate was 33% (152/460). Self-efficacy to exercise (pstudents had significantly worse self-reported mental health scores when compared to both national and state averages. Neither dog ownership nor meeting physical activity guidelines were significantly associated with measures of HRQOL. The poor mental health status of veterinary students remains a significant issue for the profession to address. Longitudinal studies are needed that examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health outcomes in this population.

  13. Satisfaction with work-life balance among U.S. gynecologic oncologists, a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szender, J Brian; Grzankowski, Kassondra S; Eng, Kevin H; Lele, Shashikant B; Odunsi, Kunle; Frederick, Peter J

    To evaluate the satisfaction with work-life balance (WLB) and career satisfaction of gynecologic oncologists. In August 2014, members of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) were sent an anonymous, cross-sectional survey evaluating demographic variables, practice characteristics, career satisfaction, fatigue, and satisfaction with WLB. Fatigue was assessed using a visual-analog scale. Career satisfaction and WLB were assessed with a Likert scale. Inferential statistics were computed with type I error rates of 0.05. Out of the 1002 gynecologic oncologists surveyed, 290 (28.9%) responded. Only 18.6% of respondents were satisfied with WLB and there were significant associations between gender (P = 0.0157), time spent in work related activities at home (P = 0.0024), on weekends (P = 0.0017), and in the hospital (P = 0.0001). More than 84% of physicians reported they would choose medicine as a career again and of those 90% would choose to be a gynecologic oncologist again. Fatigue was strongly associated with dissatisfaction with WLB in univariate and multivariate analysis (P satisfaction may assist the SGO in meeting future gynecologic cancer care needs.

  14. Assessment of quality of life in children with epilepsy in rural settings of South India: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullazy Paramadam Srujana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is the most common pediatric neurological disorder which alters the conscious, behavior, motor activity, and autonomy function leads to compromised quality of life (QoL in children. Objective: The aim is to assess the QoL, and to evaluate the influence of demographic and clinical factors on QoL in children with epilepsy. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted over 1 year from October 2013 to September 2014. Baseline demographic characteristics and other details were collected from patient case data and through a semi-structured interview during their recruitment into the present investigation. The child version of TNO-AZL Children's QoL questionnaire was administered by the trained research coordinator to collect data from and about the study subjects. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and student t-test were performed for the statistical analysis. The data analysis was performed using Graph pad instat 3.0.10.0. Results: The educational status, socioeconomic status, and maternal education were the demographic characters that significantly affected the QoL of study subjects. Type of seizures, early childhood history of seizures, duration of therapy and duration of epilepsy were the most important clinical characteristics that could significantly affect the QoL of study subjects. Conclusion: Further QoL studies and interventional programs may be conducted to improve the QoL and to individualize management in rural resident children with epilepsy.

  15. Quality of life and self-esteem in patients with paraplegia and pressure ulcers: a controlled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, L; Blanes, L; Salomé, G M; Ferreira, L M

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and self-esteem in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and pressure ulcers. This study was a controlled cross-sectional study. HRQoL was assessed using the generic Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem/UNIFESP-EPM Scale. A total of 120 patients with traumatic SCI were included in the sample, of which 60 had pressure ulcers and were assigned to the study group, and 60 had no pressure ulcers and were assigned to the control group. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t-test. Of the 60 patients in the study group, 83.3% were men and the mean age was 38.17 years (SD = 9.08 years). When compared with controls, patients in the study group reported significantly lower scores (worse health status) on all SF-36 subscales (p less than or equal to 0.0013) except for general health (p=0.109). The RSE/UNIFESP-EMP scale total score indicated that patients with pressure ulcers had significantly lower self-esteem than controls (p<0.001). Pressure ulcers had an adverse impact on the HRQoL and self-esteem of patients with SCI. There were no external sources of funding for this study. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

  16. Life cycle assessment of ITO-free flexible polymer solar cells prepared by roll-to-roll coating and printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Urbina, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Indium is a scarce and expensive material that has been identified as a bottleneck for future organic electronics deployment in large scale. Indium is the main constituent of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), which is the most successful transparent electrode in organic photovoltaics (OPV) so far. A new...... process, termed Hiflex, allows for manufacture of flexible OPV modules where the ITO electrode has been replaced by a sputtered Al/Cr electrode in an inverted device architecture with front illumination. This work presents a life cycle assessment of the Hiflex process, in order to compare...... the environmental impact of avoiding ITO as electrode. The new ITO-free process reduces some of the processing steps, leading to important reductions of the energy input during OPV module manufacturing in comparison to ITO-based modules. The environmental analysis reveals an Energy Pay-Back time (EPBT) of 10 years...

  17. Erosion and foreign object damage of thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, J.R.; Jaslier, Y.; Rickerby, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating technology is used in the hot sections of gas turbines to extend component life. To maximise these benefits, the thermal barrier coating has to remain intact throughout the life of the turbine. High velocity ballistic damage can lead to total thermal barrier removal, while erosion may lead to progressive loss of thickness during operation. This paper particularly addresses the erosion resistance and resistance to foreign object damage of thermal barrier coatings. It was found that EB-PVD thermal barriers are significantly more erosion resistant when impacted with alumina or silica, than the equivalent plasma spray coating, both at room temperature and 910 C. Examination of tested hardware, reveals that cracking occurs within the near surface region of the columns for EB-PVD ceramic and that erosion occurs by removal of these small blocks of material. In stark contrast, removal of material for plasma sprayed ceramic occurs through poorly bonded splat boundaries. Large particle impact results in severe damage to the EB-PVD thermal barrier, with cracks penetrating through the ceramic coating to the ceramic/bond coat interface. Material removal, per particle impact, increases with increased particle size. (orig.)

  18. Relationship between late-life depression and life stressors: large-scale cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Japanese general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Tatsuhiko; Mishima, Kazuo; Kitamura, Shingo; Enomoto, Minori; Nagase, Yukihiro; Li, Lan; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ohida, Takashi; Nishikawa, Toru; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship between late-life depression and daily life stress in a representative sample of 10 969 Japanese subjects. Data on 10 969 adults aged > or =50 who participated in the Active Survey of Health and Welfare in 2000, were analyzed. The self-administered questionnaire included items on 21 reasons for life stressors and the magnitude of stress, as well as the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The relationship between the incidence of life stressors and mild-moderate (D(16)) and severe (D(26)) depressive symptoms was examined using logistic regression analysis. A total of 21.9% of subjects had D(16) symptoms, and 9.3% had D(26) symptoms. Further, increased age and being female were associated with more severe depressive state. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the strongest relationship between both the incidence of D(16) and D(26) symptoms and life stressors stemmed from 'having no one to talk to' (odds ratio = 3.3 and 5.0, respectively). Late-life depression was also associated with 'loss of purpose in life', 'separation/divorce', 'having nothing to do', 'health/illness/care of self', and 'debt'. There is a relationship between late-life depression and diminished social relationships, experiences involving loss of purpose in life or human relationships, and health problems in the Japanese general population.

  19. Exploring health-related quality of life in eating disorders by a cross-sectional study and a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiano, Monica; Salvo, Pierandrea; Righetti, Pierluigi; Cereser, Lucia; Baldissera, Erika; Camponogara, Ilenia; Balestrieri, Matteo

    2014-06-04

    People with eating disorders (ED) often report poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which is explicitly correlated to illness' severity and its effects on cognitive performance. We aimed to analyze health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subgroups of eating disorder (ED) patients by using the brief version of WHOQoL questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF) before treatment administration. Moreover, in order to compare our findings with other published data, we carried out a comprehensive review of the literature on HRQoL in ED patients. Our review was carried out by means of an accurate data mining of PsychInfo and Medline databases and other available sources. In our cross-sectional study, eighty female ED patients (26 with bulimia nervosa, 33 with anorexia nervosa, 7 with binge eating disorder and 14 with ED not otherwise specified) completed the WHOQoL-BREF. HRQoL scores were compared among ED subgroups and clinical information (presence of previous contacts, length of illness, psychiatric comorbidity) was considered in the analysis. Our review shows that with few exceptions ED patients have a poorer HRQoL than the healthy population of control and sometimes the mental component of HRQoL is the most involved dimension. Moreover, there are no differences in the HRQoL among ED groups, even if AN patients in some studies have a lower HRQoL scores. Furthermore, BED patients have a poorer HRQoL than obese patients who do not have binge episodes. Finally, all treatments were positively correlated with an improvement on general and specific QoL dimensions. In our sample, ED subgroups differed only for Psychological Health HRQoL scores (F = 4.072, df = 3; p = 0.01). No differences were found between inpatients and outpatients, treatment naïve and previously treated patients and patients with or without psychiatric comorbidity. Moreover, HRQoL scores were not correlated to length of illness within each ED subgroup. The analysis of the literature adds some

  20. Effect of anterior crowding or spacing on oral health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan AH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ali H Hassan,1 Nour M Hobani,2 Sara M Almokri,3 Nour M Almokri,1 Faiza G Alotibi,4 Ehab N Alshouibi5 1Department of Orthodontics, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Periodontolgy, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Saudi Board of Prosthodontics, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Orthodontics, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Dental Public Health, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL involves many aspects such as chewing ability, sleeping, social interactions, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life and oral health. The increasing research interest in OHRQoL began only after the shortcomings of previous approaches of treating symptoms only and neglecting the patient’s self-perception were revealed.Patients and methods: The current study design is a cross-sectional study of patients who attended King Abdulaziz University Dental Hospital (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and King Saud University Dental Hospital (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. After obtaining their verbal consent, young adult and adult patients (mean age 25.19±7.29 years old with anterior spacing or crowding were recruited to participate in the study. They filled the Arabic short version of the oral-health impact profile-14 questionnaire after a clinical evaluation of the severity of their spacing or crowding. Parameters of spacing/crowding severity assessment were as follows: <4, mild; 4–8, moderate; and >8, severe. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test in SPSS statistical package. The level of significance was set to <0.05.Results: The sample size of this study was 308 subjects. Findings indicated a statistically significant (p=0.001 association between anterior spacing malocclusion (ASM with Q5 “self-consciousness”, since 64.2% of

  1. Osteoporosis-related life habits and knowledge about osteoporosis among women in El Salvador: A cross-sectional study

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    Martinez-Garcia Sandra

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder, characterized by reduced bone mass, deterioration of bone structure, increased bone fragility, and increased fracture risk. It is more frequent to find among women than men at a 4:1 ratio. Evidence suggests that to adopt changes on some life habits can prevent or delay development of osteoporosis. Several osteoporosis-risk factors have been confirmed in the US and western Europe, but in El Salvador there are neither reliable epidemiological statistics about this skeletal disorder nor studies addressing osteoporosis-risk factors in women. The aim of this study was to determinate the extent of osteoporosis knowledge, the levels of both daily calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity, and the influence of several osteoporosis-risk factors on these variables in three age groups of Salvadorean women. Methods In this exploratory cross-sectional study, an osteoporosis knowledge assessment questionnaire incluiding a food frequency and a physical activity record section were used to collect data and it was delivered through a face-to-face interview. A convenience sample (n = 197 comprised of three groups of women aged 25–35 years, 36–49 years, and over 49 years was taken. Among-group comparisons of means were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. To determinate the overall influence of osteoporosis-risk factors, the multivariate analysis was used. Results Study results indicated that better educated women had more knowledge about osteoporosis than women with a low education level, regardless of age, even though this knowledge was rather fair. Older women got more weight-bearing physical activity at home and less at place of employment than reported by the younger women; however, neither group performed sufficient high-intensity WBPA to improve bone mass. Regardless of age, the most women consumed 60% or less than the Dietary Reference Intake of calcium and depend on household income

  2. Poor quality of life in Australian men: Cross-sectional associations with obesity, mobility, lifestyle and psychiatric symptoms.

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    Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Pasco, Julie A; Hosking, Sarah M; Dobbins, Amelia G; Williams, Lana J

    2017-09-01

    Despite their public health importance, little is known about associations between modifiable lifestyles, quality of life (QOL), and psychiatric symptoms in men. We investigated relationships between QOL, obesity, mobility and lifestyle in Australian men, including whether associations were mediated by anxiety and depression. A cross-sectional study of 893 men (aged 24-92 yrs) participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study: an age-stratified, population-based sample of men randomly recruited from the Barwon Statistical Division (BSD), in south-eastern Australia. Using a validated tool, QOL was measured in the domains of physical health, psychological health, social relationships and the environment. Anxiety and depression were ascertained using the Hospital Anxiety and Depressive Scale. Models were adjusted for age, clinical measures of obesity and mobility, and self-reported lifestyles, with adjustment made for anxiety and depression. Associations were observed between low mobility and lower psychological-related QOL (OR 0.70, 95%CI 0.53-0.93), and for smoking and low mobility with lower environment-related QOL (OR 0.48, 95%CI 0.27-0.84; OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.50-0.90, respectively). Age, anxiety and depression were independently associated with QOL in each domain. Independent of age, anxiety and depression, smoking and low mobility showed particularly strong effects on the likelihood of men reporting a lower satisfaction with their QOL. This information will inform the design of effective and equitable health policies, the allocation of resources toward unmet needs, and the development of strategic health-related plans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

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    Alberto Raggi

    Full Text Available To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+.In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately.Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4. The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation, chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6% and a wide and rich social network (4.6%. Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics.Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of

  4. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

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    Raggi, Alberto; Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+. In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of ageing

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With α1 Antitrypsin Deficency: A Cross Sectional Study.

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    Torres Redondo, Margarida; Campoa, Elsa; Ruano, Luis; Sucena, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Measures of health related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with α1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) can help to determine the impact of the disease and provide an important insight into the intervention outcomes. There is few data regarding this issue in the literature. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between HRQoL and gender, functional parameters and history of hospitalizations in patients with AATD. This is a cross-sectional study of 26 patients with severe AATD recruited in the pulmonology outpatient clinic at a tertiary care medical center. Social-demographic, clinical and functional parameters were recorded and HRQoL was assessed with the Portuguese version of the medical outcome study short form-36 (SF-36) self-administered questionnaire. Older patients, females and patients with at least one hospitalization in the previous year due to respiratory disease had statistical lower scores in some dimensions of the SF-36 questionnaire. Superior FEV1 and higher distance mark in the 6-min walking test distance influenced positively several dimensions of the questionnaire. Higher scores in the mMRC scale influenced negatively the HRQoL. These data suggests that older and female patients with AATD have worse HRQoL. Hospitalizations and functional markers of respiratory disease progression influenced negatively the HRQoL, suggesting that the SF-36 questionnaire could be useful as an outcome for AATD patients with lung involvement. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Health-related quality of life of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study

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    Smith Maureen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on children's responses to wartime trauma has mostly addressed Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. However, PTSD is only one aspect of a complex set of responses. This study proposes to expand knowledge of well-being in children exposed to political violence through widening the conceptualization of well-being beyond PTSD, morbidity, and mortality by measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL and its facets, physical health, and psychosocial health. Methods In 2007, we used a cross-sectional random sample of kindergartens to examine factors associated with HRQOL, as measured by the PedsQL 4.0, in 350 preschoolers in the Gaza Strip, Palestine, where political violence and deprivation are widespread. Results About 65% of the mothers reported severely impaired psychosocial and emotional functioning in their children. Preschoolers had lower HRQOL than the US reference sample and samples of children in other low income countries with large effect size. HRQOL was comparable to those of US children with several chronic diseases. Factors associated with lower HRQOL were older child age, male gender, and more exposures to traumatic events. Factors associated with HRQOL subscales were for lower psychosocial health: older child age, history of food, water, and electricity deprivation during incursion, and witnessing assassination of people by rockets. For lower physical health: older child age, history of food, water, and electricity deprivation during incursion, and having heard of a killing of a friend by soldiers. Conclusions HRQOL, including psychosocial health and emotional functioning is often severely impaired among preschoolers in the Gaza Strip. Exposure to both violent and non-violent negative events was associated with HRQOL in preschoolers.

  7. Lifestyle and health-related quality of life: A cross-sectional study among civil servants in China

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    Xu Jun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL has been increasingly acknowledged as a valid and appropriate indicator of public health and chronic morbidity. However, limited research was conducted among Chinese civil servants owing to the different lifestyle. The aim of the study was to evaluate the HRQoL among Chinese civil servants and to identify factors might be associated with their HRQoL. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate HRQoL of 15,000 civil servants in China using stratified random sampling methods. Independent-Samples t-Test, one-way ANOVA, and multiple stepwise regression were used to analyse the influencing factors and the HRQoL of the civil servants. Results A univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences among physical component summary (PCS, mental component summary (MCS, and TS between lifestyle factors, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, having breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, work time, operating computers, and sedentariness (P  Conclusion In this study, using Short Form 36 items (SF-36, we assessed the association of HRQoL with lifestyle factors, including smoking, drinking alcohol, having breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, work time, operating computers, and sedentariness in China. The performance of the questionnaire in the large-scale survey is satisfactory and provides a large picture of the HRQoL status in Chinese civil servants. Our results indicate that lifestyle factors such as smoking, drinking alcohol, having breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, work time, operating computers, and sedentariness affect the HRQoL of civil servants in China.

  8. Quality of life and anterior resection syndrome after surgery for mid to low rectal cancer: A cross-sectional study.

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    Trenti, Loris; Galvez, Ana; Biondo, Sebastiano; Solis, Alejandro; Vallribera-Valls, Francesc; Espin-Basany, Eloy; Garcia-Granero, Alvaro; Kreisler, Esther

    2018-04-04

    The aim of this study was to analyze the quality of life (QoL), low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) and fecal incontinence after surgery for mid to low rectal cancer and its relationship with the type of surgical procedure performed. A cross-sectional cohort survey study of 358 patients operated on for mid to low rectal cancer. Patients were included in three groups: abdominoperineal resection (APR), low mechanical colorectal anastomosis (CRA) and hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis (CAA). The QLQ-C30/CR29 questionnaires, LARS and Vaizey scores were used to study QoL and defecatory dysfunction. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the prognostic effect of the variables on QoL and LARS scores. 62.6% of the patients answered the survey. The global QoL score was similar among APR, CRA and CAA. Patients' body image perception was significantly worse after APR than after CRA or CAA. LARS score was better in CRA group (p = 0.002). A major LARS was observed in 83.3% of the patients who underwent CAA and in 56.6% of the patients who underwent CRA. No relationship between surgical procedures and the global QoL score was observed. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy (p = 0.048) and CAA (p = 0.005) were associated with a major LARS. The Vaizey score was higher for CAA than for CRA (p = 0.036). Though CAA group presents worse LARS and higher faecal incontinence scores respect CRA patients, and APR is related with a worse body image, global QoL was similar in the three groups. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical activity and health-related quality of life in chronic low back pain patients: a cross-sectional study.

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    Schaller, Andrea; Dejonghe, Lea; Haastert, Burkhard; Froboese, Ingo

    2015-03-19

    The aim of the present study was to identify the relationship of physical activity (PA) and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in patients suffering from low back pain (LBP). The present evaluation was conducted as a cross-sectional study based on baseline data of an randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of an intervention promoting PA. Patients answered a questionnaire on domain specific PA (GPAQ) and HRQoL (EQ-5D-5 L). Furthermore, sociodemographic and indication-specific variables as well as work-related aspects were assessed. Associations of PA and HRQoL were estimated by means of regression analysis: one regression model only included domain specific PA (model 1) and a second regression model additionally included further variables (model 2). 412 patients completed the questionnaire. Model 1 showed opposed effects of workplace and leisure time PA: while workplace PA showed a negative association (β = -0.064; p = 0.04), a positive association of leisure time PA could be proved (β = 0.068; p = 0.01). Model 2 showed that only the variables "current work ability" (β = -0.030; p workplace and leisure time PA in the context of assessing health-enhancing effects of PA in LBP patients. In the context of HRQoL it must be assumed that the relevance of PA might be overestimated. Further research should be performed on predictors of HRQoL and thereby particular attention should be paid on the patients' work-related and indication-specific aspects.

  10. Health amongst former rugby union players: A cross-sectional study of morbidity and health-related quality of life.

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    Davies, Madeleine A M; D Judge, Andrew; Delmestri, Antonella; P T Kemp, Simon; Stokes, Keith A; Arden, Nigel K; Newton, Julia L

    2017-09-28

    In the general population, physical activity is associated with improved health outcomes. However, long-term sports participation may be associated with adverse outcomes, particularly at the elite level. The aims of this study were to assess morbidity and health-related quality of life (HrQoL) amongst former rugby players, compared to an age-standardised general population sample. A cross-sectional study of former elite, male, rugby players (n = 259) was undertaken, and standardised morbidity ratios (SMR) calculated, assessing morbidity prevalence relative to English Longitudinal Study of Aging participants (ELSA, n = 5186). HrQoL, measured using the EQ-5D, was compared to a Health Survey for England (HSE, n = 2981) sample. In SMR analyses of participants aged 50+, diabetes was significantly lower amongst former players, (0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.66), whereas osteoarthritis (4.00, 95% CI 3.32-4.81), joint replacement (6.02, 95% CI 4.66-7.77), osteoporosis (2.69, 95% CI 1.35-5.38), and anxiety (2.00, 95% CI 1.11-3.61) were significantly higher. More problems in HrQoL were reported amongst former players within the domains of mobility (p < 0.001), self-care (p = 0.041), usual activities (p < 0.001) and pain/discomfort (p < 0.001). Morbidity and HrQoL differ between players and the general population, with higher musculoskeletal morbidity and lower diabetes amongst former players. The magnitude of musculoskeletal morbidity may warrant proactive osteoarthritis management within this population.

  11. Effects of life satisfaction and psychache on risk for suicidal behaviour: a cross-sectional study based on data from Chinese undergraduates.

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    You, Zhiqi; Song, Juanjuan; Wu, Caizhi; Qin, Ping; Zhou, Zongkui

    2014-03-21

    To examine predictive power of psychache and life satisfaction on risks for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among young people. A cross-sectional study. Data were collected from an online survey in Wuhan, China. 5988 university students from six universities were selected by a stratified cluster sampling method. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempt at some point of the students' lifetime were the outcomes of interest. Students with suicidal ideation or attempted suicide reported a lower level of life satisfaction and high degree of psychache than counterparts without suicidal ideation or attempt. Regression analyses indicated that life satisfaction and psychache were significantly associated with the risk of suicidal ideation and the risk of suicidal attempt. Though psychache showed a relatively stronger predictive power than life satisfaction, the effect of the two factors remained significant when they were individually adjusted for personal demographic characteristics. However, when the two factors were included in the model simultaneously to adjust for each other, psychache could fully explain the association between life satisfaction and suicidal attempt. Life satisfaction remained to contribute unique variance in the statistical prediction of suicidal ideation. Psychache and life satisfaction both have a significant predictive power on risk for suicidal behaviour, and life satisfaction could relieve the predictive power of psychache when suicidal behaviour is just starting. Shneidman's theory that psychache is the pre-eminent psychological cause of suicide is perhaps applicable only to a more serious form of suicidal behaviour.

  12. Effects of social support, hope and resilience on quality of life among Chinese bladder cancer patients: a cross-sectional study.

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    Li, Meng-Yao; Yang, Yi-Long; Liu, Li; Wang, Lie

    2016-05-06

    Improvement of quality of life has been one of goals in health care for people living with bladder cancer. Meanwhile, positive psycho-social variables in oncology field have increasingly received attention. However, the assessment of quality of life of bladder cancer patients and the integrative effects of positive psycho-social variables has limited reporting. The aim of this study was to assess quality of life as well as the integrative effects of social support, hope and resilience on quality of life among Chinese bladder cancer patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the First Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, China. A total of 365 bladder cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic variables, FACT-BL, Perceived Social Support Scale, Adult Hope Scale, and Resilience Scale-14 during July 2013 to July 2014. The average score of FACT-BL was 87.60 ± 16.27 (Mean ± SD). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that social support, hope and resilience as a whole accounted for 30.3 % variance of quality of life. Under standardized estimate (β) sequence, social support, hope and resilience significantly and positively associated with quality of life, respectively. Quality of life for bladder cancer patients was at a low level in China, which should receive more attention in Chinese medical institutions. More importantly, efforts to increase social support, hope and resilience might be useful to support the quality of life among Chinese bladder cancer patients.

  13. The mediating role of emotional intelligence between negative life events and psychological distress among nursing students: A cross-sectional study.

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    Zhang, Pan; Li, Chang-Zai; Zhao, Ya-Ning; Xing, Feng-Mei; Chen, Chang-Xiang; Tian, Xi-Feng; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have highlighted that negative life events and emotional intelligence are significant predictors of mental health. However, whether emotional intelligence mediates the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress among nursing students have not been given adequate attention. To explore the relationship among negative life events, emotional intelligence and psychological distress and to examine the mediating role of emotional intelligence in psychological distress among Chinese nursing students. A cross-sectional survey using convenience sampling. A total of 467 nursing students who were enrolled in a university in mainland of China. A structured questionnaire was administered from September-November in 2013 to participants who consented to participate in the study. Independent variables were personal variables, emotional intelligence and negative life events. Outcome variable was psychological health. The means and standard deviations were computed. Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed, to test the differences among the demographic characteristics on the psychological distress scores. Pearson correlation analyses and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Negative life events were positively associated with psychological distress. Emotional intelligence was negatively associated with psychological distress and negative life events. Emotional intelligence mediated the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress. The findings support the theory of Salovey and his colleagues, and provide evidence for emotional intelligence as a factor that buffers effects of negative life events on psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Is organic food consumption associated with life satisfaction? A cross-sectional analysis from the NutriNet-Santé study

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    Louise Seconda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Well-being is often mentioned as an important motive for organic food consumption. Little is known about the relationship between organic food consumption and life satisfaction (a component of well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relationship between organic food consumption and life satisfaction.A total of 17,446 volunteers aged 45 or above, from the NutriNet-Santé cohort filled in an organic food semi-quantitative frequency questionnaire and completed the French validated satisfaction with life scale (range score 5–35. Adjusted means (95% confidence intervals of the satisfaction with life score across quintiles of contribution of organic food to the diet (total and by food group were estimated using ANCOVA models.In multivariable model, life satisfaction among lowest and highest consumers of organic food reached 24.98 (95%CI: 24.78–25.17 and 25.52 (95%CI: 25.33–25.71 respectively (P trend<0.0001. Life satisfaction was slightly and positively associated with higher contribution of organic food to the diet (overall and in most food groups.Our findings suggest that high organic food consumption may play a role in life satisfaction of participants over 45years old through hedonist or eudemonic approaches. Keywords: Organic food consumption, Life satisfaction, Hedonic motives, Eudemonic motives, Well-being

  15. Prediction models of health-related quality of life in different neck pain conditions: a cross-sectional study

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    Beltran-Alacreu H

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hector Beltran-Alacreu,1,2 Ibai López-de-Uralde-Villanueva,1,2 César Calvo-Lobo,3 Roy La Touche,1,2,4 Roberto Cano-de-la-Cuerda,5 Alfonso Gil-Martínez,1,2,4 David Fernández-Ayuso,6 Josué Fernández-Carnero2,4,5 1Departamento de Fisioterapia, Centro Superior de Estudios Universitarios La Salle, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain; 2Motion in Brains Research Group, Institute of Neuroscience and Movement Sciences (INCIMOV, Centro Superior de Estudios Universitarios La Salle, Universidad Autonóma de Madrid, Spain; 3Nursing and Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad de León, Ponferrada, León, Spain; 4Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research, IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain; 5Department of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain; 6“San Juan de Dios” School of Nursing and Physiotherapy, Pontifica de Comillas University, Madrid, Spain Purpose: The main aim of the study was to predict the health-related quality of life (HRQoL based on physical, functional, and psychological measures in patients with different types of neck pain (NP. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study included 202 patients from a primary health center and the physiotherapy outpatient department of a hospital. Patients were divided into four groups according to their NP characteristics: chronic (CNP, acute whiplash (WHIP, chronic NP associated with temporomandibular dysfunction (NP-TMD, or chronic NP associated with chronic primary headache (NP-PH. The following measures were performed: Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12, Neck Disability Index (NDI, visual analog scale (VAS, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Beck Depression Inventory (BECK, and cervical range of movement (CROM. Results: The regression models based on the SF-12 total HRQoL for CNP and NP-TMD groups showed that only NDI was a significant

  16. Variations in risk and protective factors for life satisfaction and mental wellbeing with deprivation: a cross-sectional study.

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    Bellis, Mark A; Lowey, Helen; Hughes, Karen; Deacon, Lynn; Stansfield, Jude; Perkins, Clare

    2012-07-02

    Improving life satisfaction (LS) and mental wellbeing (MWB) is important for better public health. Like other health issues, LS and MWB are closely related to deprivation (i.e. lack of resources). Developing public health measures that reduce inequalities in wellbeing requires an understanding of how factors associated with high and low LS and MWB vary with deprivation. Here, we examine such variations and explore which public health measures are likely to improve wellbeing while reducing related inequalities. A self-administered questionnaire measuring LS and MWB was used with a cross-sectional sample of adults from the North West of England (n = 15,228). Within deprivation tertiles, analyses examined how demographics, health status, employment, relationships and behaviours (alcohol, tobacco, physical exercise) were associated with LS and MWB. Deprivation was strongly related to low LS and MWB with, for instance, 17.1% of the most deprived tertile having low LS compared to 8.9% in the most affluent. After controlling for confounders, across all deprivation tertiles, better self-assessed health status and being in a relationship were protective against low LS and MWB. Unemployment increased risks of low LS across all tertiles but only risks of low MWB in the deprived tertile. For this tertile, South Asian ethnicity and higher levels of exercise were protective against low MWB. In the middle tertile retired individuals had a reduced risk of low MWB and an increased chance of high LS even in comparison to those in employment. Alcohol's impact on LS was limited to the most deprived tertile where heavy drinkers were at most risk of poor outcomes. In this study, positive outcomes for LS and MWB were strongly associated with lower deprivation and good health status. Public health measures already developed to promote these issues are likely to improve LS and MWB. Efforts to increase engagement in exercise are also likely to have positive impacts, particularly in deprived

  17. Variations in risk and protective factors for life satisfaction and mental wellbeing with deprivation: a cross-sectional study

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    Bellis Mark A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving life satisfaction (LS and mental wellbeing (MWB is important for better public health. Like other health issues, LS and MWB are closely related to deprivation (i.e. lack of resources. Developing public health measures that reduce inequalities in wellbeing requires an understanding of how factors associated with high and low LS and MWB vary with deprivation. Here, we examine such variations and explore which public health measures are likely to improve wellbeing while reducing related inequalities. Methods A self-administered questionnaire measuring LS and MWB was used with a cross-sectional sample of adults from the North West of England (n = 15,228. Within deprivation tertiles, analyses examined how demographics, health status, employment, relationships and behaviours (alcohol, tobacco, physical exercise were associated with LS and MWB. Results Deprivation was strongly related to low LS and MWB with, for instance, 17.1 % of the most deprived tertile having low LS compared to 8.9 % in the most affluent. After controlling for confounders, across all deprivation tertiles, better self-assessed health status and being in a relationship were protective against low LS and MWB. Unemployment increased risks of low LS across all tertiles but only risks of low MWB in the deprived tertile. For this tertile, South Asian ethnicity and higher levels of exercise were protective against low MWB. In the middle tertile retired individuals had a reduced risk of low MWB and an increased chance of high LS even in comparison to those in employment. Alcohol’s impact on LS was limited to the most deprived tertile where heavy drinkers were at most risk of poor outcomes. Conclusions In this study, positive outcomes for LS and MWB were strongly associated with lower deprivation and good health status. Public health measures already developed to promote these issues are likely to improve LS and MWB. Efforts to increase engagement in

  18. Impact of periodontal conditions on the quality of life of pregnant women: a cross-sectional study.

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    Lu, Hai-Xia; Xu, Wei; Wong, May Chun Mei; Wei, Tian-You; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-05-28

    Studies have been rarely conducted to provide a comprehensive perspective of pregnant women with the intention to investigate the relationships between periodontal conditions and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). As such, this study aimed to describe the OHRQoL of pregnant women in Shanghai, China and to investigate the relationships between periodontal conditions and OHRQoL of pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst pregnant women in all stages of pregnancy in Shanghai, China. Clinical examinations were performed to assess periodontal conditions, including tooth loss, visible plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. The OHRQoL of pregnant women was determined using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14, Chinese version). Information regarding maternal characteristics, socio-demographic background and health-related behaviours was also obtained from the participants through the structured questionnaires. A total of 512 pregnant women (mean age = 27.3 ± 4.0 years)participated in the survey,giving a response rate of 91.4 %. The mean gestational age was 19 weeks (SD = 8.2). The mean and the median OHIP-14 scores were 7.92 (SD = 6.84) and 6, respectively. The mean number of negative impact items (extent) was 0.20 (SD = 0.82). Approximately 10 % of pregnant women reported at least one item with 'fairly often' or 'very often' (prevalence). Results of multivariable analyses showed that periodontal conditions was not significantly associated with three scoring formats of OHRQoL (severity, extent and prevalence of impact) after adjustment for pregnancy-related variables and possible confounders (all p > 0.05). However, frequency of nausea-vomiting was found to be significantly associated with severity of impacts (p = 0.012). Utilization of dental services, age and tooth loss were the significant variables to the extent of negative impacts (all p  0

  19. Relationship Between Types of Exercise and Quality of Life in a Korean Metabolic Syndrome Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang Ho; Son, Sun Han; Kang, Si Hyun; Kim, Don-Kyu; Seo, Kyung Mook; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) significantly correlates with exercise. MetS also has an independent and inverse correlation to quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have examined the association between exercise and QoL in people with MetS. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relationship between exercise and QoL in a MetS population. This was a cross-sectional study using public data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2014 (n = 7550). MetS was defined on the basis of the revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Demographic factors, three types of exercise (resistance, flexibility, walking), five subsets of EuroQoL (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression), and QoL scores (EQ-VAS), were investigated. Independent associations of each exercise on five subsets of QoL were determined using odds ratios (OR) adjusted for four demographic factors (age group, sex, weight change, and area of residence) using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Prevalence of MetS was 26.4% and the ratio of subjects performing resistance, flexibility, or walking exercise was 17.7%, 45.8%, and 71.5% among this population, respectively. EQ-VAS of exercisers was significantly higher than that of non-exercisers in resistance, flexibility, and walking exercise. Although resistance and flexibility exercise did not correlate with any subsets of QoL, mobility and self-care were significantly associated with walking exercise (OR = 0.635, 95% CI = 0.439-0.919 and OR = 0.577, 95% CI = 0.348-0.958, respectively). All exercisers showed higher QoL scores than non-exercisers. Among QoL subsets, mobility and self-care were independently associated with walking exercise in the MetS population. Regular walking exercise was important to higher QoL in those with MetS. This is the first clinical report to indicate that QoL could be independently influenced by walking exercise.

  20. Impact of demographic and comorbid conditions on quality of life of hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusay Mohammed Mandoorah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the quality of life (QOL of Saudi Arabian patients undergoing hemo-dialysis (HD and to determine the impact of gender, age, education and comorbidities on the QOL of these patients, we conducted a cross-sectional study and used the short form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire, a generic instrument for measuring QOL. This questionnaire is composed of eight scales that summarize the physical component scale (PCS and mental component scale (MCS of health status. We calculated the PCS and MCS scores for each patient. We studied 205 HD patients (123 men; ages 18-75 years from the King Fahd General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The mean SF-36 score was 59.4 ± 21.7 in men and 41.9 ± 20.9 in women (P <0.0001. Patients older than 60 years had the worst score (41.5 ± 21.2, followed by patients aged 40-59 years (53.6 ± 22.8; patients aged 18-39 years had the best SF-36 score (57.5 ± 22.5; P <0.0001. Education had a positive impact on QOL (P <0.0001, whereas comorbid conditions had a nega-tive impact. Peripheral vascular disease was associated with the worst outcome (SF-36 score, 40.4 ± 23.0; P <0.0001, followed by dyslipidemia (42.9 ± 22.4; P = 0.001 and diabetes mellitus (45.0 ± 22.0; P = 0.012. Among the comorbid conditions, hypertension was associated with the best SF-36 score (50.6 ± 22.7; P = 0.034. We conclude that old age, female gender, poor education and comorbid conditions have a negative impact on the QOL of HD patients in Saudi Arabia. These findings indicate a general need for social support for female patients on HD and early diagnosis and management of comorbid conditions.

  1. Impact of dental health on children's oral health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsumait, Aishah; ElSalhy, Mohamed; Raine, Kim; Cor, Ken; Gokiert, Rebecca; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Amin, Maryam

    2015-07-07

    To assess the impact of children's dental health status (DHS) on their oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Participants were 11- and 12-year-old children attending public schools in the Kuwait Capital Region. Children's DHS was evaluated by clinical examinations and presented using decayed, missed, filled teeth/surface (DMFT/dmft, DMFS/dmfs); restorative (RI), plaque (PI); and pulp, ulcers, fistula, abscess (PUFA) indices. Children's OHRQoL was assessed using Child's Perception Questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14). Means (SD) and frequencies were used for data description. Different factors were analyzed as predictors of OHRQoL by logistic regression analysis. A total of 440 children aged 11-12 years (50.7 % females) participated in this cross-sectional study. Mean (SD) DMFT/dmft, RI, PI, and PUFA scores were 2.91(2.75), 0.21 (0.34), 3.59 (1.63), 0.31 (0.85), respectively. The mean total CPQ11-14 was 20.72 (16.81). Mean scores of oral-symptoms, functional-limitations, emotional and social well-being were 4.26 (3.32), 5.40 (4.92), 5.48 (6.15), and 5.33 (6.05), respectively. Children with more than four fillings were 95 % less likely to have had oral symptoms than those with no fillings. Children with a DMFT/dmft of 2-3 were 2.8 times more likely to have functional limitation than those with a DMFT/dmft of 0, while children with a DMFT/dmft of more than 4 were 4.4 times more likely to experience limitations. Having two or three non-cavitated lesions reduced the odds of having functional-limitation by 58 %. Children with more than four missing teeth were 45 % more likely to experience emotional stress. Having more than four fissure sealants reduced the odds of having emotional stress by 46 %. The increase in the number of carious teeth was associated with a limitation in oral functions. Preventive treatment had a positive impact on children's emotional well-being and restorative treatments improved their oral function.

  2. High impact of sleeping problems on quality of life in transgender individuals: A cross-sectional multicenter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias K Auer

    Full Text Available Studies in the general population suggest that determinants of QoL are often sex-dependent. Sex-dependent analyses of QoL in transgender populations have not been performed so far.To identify sex-specific and potentially modifiable determinants of QoL in transgender patients.In this cross-sectional multicentre study including 82 transwomen (TW and 72 transmen (TM at different treatment stages, we investigated potential determinants for QoL focusing on the impact of mood (BDI, STAI-X, sleep quality (PSQI, chronic pain (GPQ, body image (FBeK and social support (SSS.Health-related quality of life measured with the Short Form (36 Health Survey (SF-36.The age-adjusted SF-36 total score and its subscales did not significantly differ between TM and TW. Using a multivariate regression analysis approach, we identified common but also sex-dependent determinants for QoL (Adjusted R2 = 0.228; 0.650 respectively. Accounting for general characteristics such as age, BMI and treatment status, sleep quality according to the PSQI was an independent and strong determinant of QoL in both sexes (β = -0.451, p = 0.003 TM; β = -0.320; p = 0.0029 TW. Chronic pain was a significant independent predictor of QoL in TM (β = -0.298; p = 0.042 but not in TW. In contrast, anxiety (β = -0.451; p< 0.001 being unemployed (β = -0.206; p = 0.020 and insecurity about the own appearance (FBeK (β = -0.261; p = 0.01 were independent predictors of QoL in TW. The rate of those reporting high sleep disturbances (PSQI ≥5 was high with 79.2% in TW and 81.2% in TM. Accordingly, age-adjusted QoL was also significantly lower in those reporting poor sleep in both sexes.Sleep strongly affected QoL in both genders, while other factors, like pain and body image, seem to be gender specific in transgender individuals.

  3. Health-related quality of life and associated factors in Jordanian cancer patients: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Sultan M

    2018-06-04

    Understanding the factors associated with patients' health-related quality of life along with their social networks can help identify who may benefit from supportive programmes. This study sought to evaluate the impact of a cancer diagnosis on Jordanian cancer patients' health-related quality of life and its relationship with social support and emotional status. A descriptive design was utilized, and 226 clients were participated. Participants completed European Organization for Research and Treatment of cancer quality of life questionnaire (EORTC-version 3), the Hospice Comfort Questionnaire, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. The results revealed that participants demonstrated unsatisfactory quality of life and many complained of fatigue. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that social support, hospitalization readmission and being a nonsmoker were significant predictors for poor global quality of life score. In addition, a high educational level, less rehospitalization and high anxiety and depression scores were significant predictors for comfort level. In conclusion, patients with cancer are at an elevated risk of impaired physical functioning and report unsatisfactory quality of life, particularly if they are anxious, depressed and lack social support. The associated factors with decreased quality of life or low comfort level could be amenable to change with appropriate interventions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The mediating role of organizational justice in the relationship between transformational leadership and nurses' quality of work life: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Bonnaud-Antignac, Angélique; Mokounkolo, René; Colombat, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    The importance of transformational leadership for nurses' well-being is increasingly acknowledged. However, there is a paucity of research examining the mechanisms that may explain the relationships between transformational leadership and nurses' quality of work life. First, to examine two possible psychological mechanisms that link transformational leadership behaviors to nurses' quality of work life. Second, to study the relationship between nurses' quality of work life and their work engagement. Cross-sectional study design. The study took place in 47 different hematology, oncology, and hematology/oncology units in France. Participants were nurses and auxiliary nurses. 343 nurses completed the questionnaire. Surveys were sent to all nurses working in the units. 95% were female, the average age was 36.30 years. Nurses were asked to rate their supervisor's transformational leadership style and their perceptions of distributive and interactional justice in the unit. They were also asked to evaluate their own level of quality of work life and their work engagement. Distributive justice and interactional justice were found to fully mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and nurses' quality of work life. In addition, nurses' quality of work life positively related to their work engagement. Transformational leaders may help ensure nurses' quality of work life which in turn increases their work engagement. These leadership practices are thus beneficial for both employees and organization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determinants of Quality of Work Life among Nurses Working in Hawassa Town Public Health Facilities, South Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbiso, Lolemo; Belay, Admasu; Woldie, Mirkuzie

    2017-01-01

    A high quality of work life (QWL) is a crucial issue for health care facilities to have qualified, dedicated, and inspired employees. Among different specialties in health care settings, nurses have a major share among other health care providers. So, they should experience a better QWL to deliver high-quality holistic care to those who need help. To assess the level of quality of work life and its predictors among nurses working in Hawassa town public health facilities, South Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 253 nurses of two hospitals and nine health centers. The total sample size was allocated to each facility based on the number of nurses in each facility. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The interitem consistency of the scale used to measure QWL had Cronbach's alpha value of 0.86. A multinomial logistic regression model was fitted to identify significant predictors of quality of work life using SPSS version 20. The study showed that 67.2% of the nurses were dissatisfied with the quality of their work life. We found that educational status, monthly income, working unit, and work environment were strong predictors of quality of work life among nurses ( p quality of their work life. The findings in this study and studies reported from elsewhere pinpoint that perception of nurses about the quality of their work life can be modified if health care managers are considerate of the key issues surrounding QWL.

  6. The impact of socioeconomic conditions, social networks, and health on frail older people’s life satisfaction: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Berglund

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that frailty is associated with low levels of wellbeing and life satisfaction. Further exploration is needed, however, to better understand which components constitute life satisfaction for frail older people and how satisfaction is related to other life circumstances. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between frail older people’s life satisfaction and their socioeconomic conditions, social networks, and health-related conditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted (n=179. A logistic regression analysis was performed, including life satisfaction as the dependent variable and 12 items as independent variables. Four of the independent variables made statistically significant contributions: financial situation (OR 3.53, social contacts (OR 2.44, risk of depression (OR 2.26, and selfrated health (OR 2.79. This study demonstrates that financial situation, self-rated health conditions and social networks are important components for frail older people’s life satisfaction. Health and social care professionals and policy makers should consider this knowledge in the care and service for frail older people; and actions that benefit life satisfaction − such as social support − should be promoted.

  7. Nurses' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care: a cross-sectional study in five countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, Alice

    2016-01-28

    Nurses\\' knowledge regarding advance directives may affect their administration and completion in end-of-life care. Confidence among nurses is a barrier to the provision of quality end-of-life care. This study investigated nurses\\' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care, in Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy and the USA using a cross-sectional descriptive design (n = 1089). In all countries, older nurses and those who had more professional experience felt more confident managing patients\\' symptoms at end-of-life and more comfortable stopping preventive medications at end-of-life. Nurses in the USA reported that they have more knowledge and experience of advance directives compared with other countries. In addition, they reported the highest levels of confidence and comfort in dealing with end-of-life care. Although legislation for advance directives does not yet exist in Ireland, nurses reported high levels of confidence in end-of-life care.

  8. Participation in life situations of 8-12 year old children with cerebral palsy: cross sectional European study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauconnier, Jérôme; Dickinson, Heather O; Beckung, Eva

    2009-01-01

    with cerebral palsy; multilevel multivariable regression related participation to impairments, pain, and sociodemographic characteristics. SETTING: Eight European regions with population registers of children with cerebral palsy; one further region recruited children from multiple sources. PARTICIPANTS: 1174...... children aged 8-12 with cerebral palsy randomly selected from the population registers, 743 (63%) joined in the study; the further region recruited 75 children. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Children's participation assessed by the Life-H questionnaire covering 10 main areas of daily life. Scoring ignored...

  9. Environmental Barrier Coatings for Ceramic Matrix Composites - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang; van Roode, Mark; Kashyap, Tania; Zhu, Dongming; Wiesner, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) are increasingly being considered as structural materials for advanced power generation equipment because of their light weight, higher temperature capability, and oxidation resistance. Limitations of SiC/SiC CMCs include surface recession and component cracking and associated chemical changes in the CMC. The solutions pursued to improve the life of SiC/SiC CMCs include the incorporation of coating systems that provide surface protection, which has become known as an Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC). The development of EBCs for the protection of gas turbine hot section CMC components was a continuation of coating development work for corrosion protection of silicon-based monolithics. Work on EBC development for SiC/SiC CMCs has been ongoing at several national laboratories and the original gas turbine equipment manufacturers. The work includes extensive laboratory, rig and engine testing, including testing of EBC coated SiC/SiC CMCs in actual field applications. Another EBC degradation issue which is especially critical for CMC components used in aircraft engines is the degradation from glassy deposits of calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) with other minor oxides. This paper addresses the need for and properties of external coatings on SiC/SiC CMCs to extend their useful life in service and the retention of their properties.

  10. Laser reflector with an interference coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol'pyan, O D; Semenov, A A; Yakovlev, P P

    1998-01-01

    An analysis was made of the reflectivity of interference coatings intended for the use in optical pumping of solid-state lasers. Ruby and Nd 3+ :YAG lasers were used as models in comparative pumping efficiency measurements, carried out employing reflectors with interference and silver coatings. Estimates of the service life of reflectors with interference coatings were obtained. The power of a thermo-optical lens was reduced by the use of such coatings in cw lasers. (laser system components)

  11. Factors Related to Life satisfaction, Meaning of life, Religiosity and Death Anxiety in Health Care Staff and Students: A Cross Sectional Study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha KS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Death is beyond one's personal control, generates great concern and anxiety, among human beings. Studies exploring the association between religious attitudes and death attitudes in adolescents and young adults in postmodern society are scarce. This study examines the relationship between five dimensions of attitude toward death (fear of death, death avoidance, neutral acceptance, approach acceptance, and escape acceptance, death anxiety, life satisfaction and meaning, religiosity and selected personal factors among health care staff and students in three teaching hospitals. A total of 230 adolescents and adults both sexes who were willing participated. Diener et al Satisfaction with Life, Steger et al Meaning of Life Questionnaire; Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, Wong's Death Attitude Profile-R and a religious attitude scale were administered. Findings showed students' search for meaning was higher than faculty. An unusual finding of higher Approach acceptance death attitude in students emerged. Correlation analysis revealed that presence of meaning was related to greater life satisfaction in both groups. It was further related to higher religiosity in both groups and higher neutral acceptance of death and lesser death anxiety in students alone. In both groups search for meaning was positively associated with death anxiety. Faculty's search for meaning was positively associated with negative death attitudes and surprisingly one positive death attitude. Death anxiety was more with faculty's advancing age, and was also more when both groups held negative death attitudes. Religiosity was positively associated with death anxiety in students. Further, religiosity was not only positively associated with positive death attitudes of approach acceptance (both groups and neutral acceptance (faculty but also with negative attitude of death avoidance (faculty. Death anxiety was more despite both groups embracing approach acceptance death attitude indicating

  12. The caregiving relationship and quality of life among partners of stroke survivors: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Keith G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the majority of stroke survivors return home following their stroke, families play a pivotal role in their care. Few studies have addressed both positive and negative aspects of this role or the broader construct of health-related quality of life (HRQL. Furthermore, little consideration has been given to the context of care in terms of relationship quality, and reciprocity. The present study examined the relationships between caregiver quality of life (HRQL, caregiver role, relationship satisfaction, balance and reciprocity in caregivers of partners who had experienced a stroke. Specific hypotheses were made based on equity theory in social relations. Methods Fifty-six partner caregivers completed a postal survey that included measures of HRQL (SF-36, caregiver role (negative and positive aspects, relationship satisfaction, reciprocity and balance. Data were also collected on the care recipients' quality of life (Stroke Specific Quality of Life scale. Results Compared to a normative sample, caregivers' HRQL was lower for all SF-36 domains. Care recipient and caregiver age, care recipient quality of life and caregiver role (negative significantly predicted physical component summary scores on the SF-36, while care recipient quality of life and caregiver role (negative significantly correlated with mental component summary scores. Relationship satisfaction and intrinsic rewards of caregiving were found to be important predictors of positive aspects of the caregiver role. Caregivers who viewed their relationship as less balanced in terms of give and take had significantly greater caregiver burden than those who viewed their relationship as more equitable. Conclusions The study highlights the importance of taking a broader approach to examining partner caregiving in the context of stroke, in terms of the caregiving relationship and their influence on the health and well-being of caregivers.

  13. Ion Deposited Carbon Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    PAGE ("’hen Dita t,,I,, efl TABLE OF CONTENTS Section No. Title Page No. 1.0 OBJECTIVE 1 2.0 SCOPE 2 3.0 BACKGROUND 3 4.0 COATINGS DEPOSITION 4 4.1...scientific, ards of measure. The Committee, and Confer- technical, practical, and teaching purposes.ence voting members, are leading professional On the

  14. Health-related quality of life and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually experienced female inner-city students: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri, Trisha; Southgate, Eleanor; Kerry, Sarah R; Nightingale, Claire; Oakeshott, Pippa

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) in women with and without undiagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis infection. We analysed data from 2401 multi-ethnic sexually active female students aged 16-27 years who were recruited to a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening - the prevention of pelvic infection trial in 2004-2006. At recruitment, all participants were asked to provide self-taken vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing and to complete a sexual health questionnaire including quality of life (EQ-5D). Most women (69%) had an EQ-5D of one representing 'perfect health' in the five dimensions: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. We therefore compared the proportion of women with an EQ-5D score life, but EQ-5D may not be the best tool to measure it in this group.

  15. The relationship between health literacy and quality of life among frequent users of health care services: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Éva Marjorie; Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Fortin, Martin; Hudon, Catherine

    2017-07-06

    Although health literacy and quality of life are important concepts in health care, the link between them is unclear, especially for a population of frequent users of health care services with chronic diseases. Low health literacy is a common problem that has been linked to several negative health outcomes. Quality of life is an important health outcome in patient-centered care. Frequent users of health care services are a vulnerable population that deserves attention due to high costs and negative outcomes such as lower quality of life and higher mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between health literacy and the physical and mental components of quality of life among frequent users of health care services with chronic diseases. This study presents the cross-sectional analysis of data collected through the V1SAGES project, a randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a case management intervention in primary care in Quebec, Canada. Participants (n = 247) were frequent users of health care services presenting at least one chronic condition. Health literacy was measured by the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), and the physical and mental components of quality of life were evaluated by the Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-12v2). The association between health literacy (independent variable) and the physical and mental components of quality of life was examined using biserial correlation. No association was found between health literacy and quality of life (physical component: r = 0.108, ρ = 0.11; mental component: r = 0.147, ρ = 0.15). This study suggests that there is no relationship between health literacy and the physical and mental components of quality of life among frequent users of health care services. NCT01719991 . Registered October 25, 2012.

  16. Employment contracts: Cross-sectional and longitudinal relations with quality of working life, health and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.; Ybema, J.F.; Janssen, J.; Taris, T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to enhance (i) insight in the relationship between different types of employment contract and the quality of working life, health and well-being, and (ii) our causal understanding of these relationships by comparing employees whose contract type changes across

  17. Family Structure, Mother-Child Communication, Father-Child Communication, and Adolescent Life Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A.; Currie, Candace

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between mother-child and father-child communication and children's life satisfaction, and the moderating effect of communication with stepparents. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland…

  18. Quality of life and psychological distress in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers: A cross-sectional cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaans, Imke; Van Langen, Irene M.; Birnie, Erwin; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Wilde, Arthur A.M.; Smets, Ellen M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common hereditary heart disease associated with heart failure and sudden death.Quality of life and psychological distress were found to be impaired in HCM patients but have never been assessed in mutationcarriers, with or without manifest HCM. We aimed to

  19. Illustrating the body: Cross-sectional and prospective investigations of the impact of life drawing sessions on body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2016-01-30

    Life drawing sessions, where individuals produce drawings of the human figure from observations of a live model, may contain embodying elements that promote healthier body image. Two pilot studies were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Study 1, 138 individuals recruited from life drawing sessions in London, UK, estimated how many sessions they had attended in their lifetime and completed measures of negative and positive body image. In women, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation and lower drive for thinness and social physique anxiety. In men, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation, but not drive for muscularity or social physique anxiety. In Study 2, 37 women took part in a life drawing session for the first time. Compared to pre-session scores, participants had significantly more positive state body image and appearance satisfaction after the session. The findings of these studies suggest that life drawing may promote healthier body image, particularly among women, but further research is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between infection early in life and mental disorders among youth in the community: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodwin Renee D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the association between infection early in life and mental disorders among youth in the community. Methods Data were drawn from the MECA (Methods in Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent psychopathology, a community-based study of 1,285 youth in the United States conducted in 1992. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between parent/caregiver-reported infection early in life and DSM/DISC diagnoses of mental disorders at ages 9-17. Results Infection early in life was associated with a significantly increased odds of major depression (OR = 3.9, social phobia (OR = 5.8, overanxious disorder (OR = 6.1, panic disorder (OR = 12.1, and oppositional defiant disorder (OR = 3.7. Conclusions These findings are consistent with and extend previous results by providing new evidence suggesting a link between infection early in life and increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders among youth. These results should be considered preliminary. Replication of these findings with longitudinal epidemiologic data is needed. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  1. Predictors of persistent symptoms and reduced quality of life in treated coeliac disease patients: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paarlahti, Pilvi; Kurppa, Kalle; Ukkola, Anniina; Collin, Pekka; Huhtala, Heini; Mäki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri

    2013-04-30

    Evidence suggests that many coeliac disease patients suffer from persistent clinical symptoms and reduced health-related quality of life despite a strict gluten-free diet. We aimed to find predictors for these continuous health concerns in long-term treated adult coeliac patients. In a nationwide study, 596 patients filled validated Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and Psychological General Well-Being questionnaires and were interviewed regarding demographic data, clinical presentation and treatment of coeliac disease, time and place of diagnosis and presence of coeliac disease-associated or other co-morbidities. Dietary adherence was assessed by a combination of self-reported adherence and serological tests. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by binary logistic regression. Diagnosis at working age, long duration and severity of symptoms before diagnosis and presence of thyroidal disease, non-coeliac food intolerance or gastrointestinal co-morbidity increased the risk of persistent symptoms. Patients with extraintestinal presentation at diagnosis had fewer current symptoms than subjects with gastrointestinal manifestations. Impaired quality of life was seen in patients with long duration of symptoms before diagnosis and in those with psychiatric, neurologic or gastrointestinal co-morbidities. Patients with persistent symptoms were more likely to have reduced quality of life. There were a variety of factors predisposing to increased symptoms and impaired quality of life in coeliac disease. Based on our results, early diagnosis of the condition and consideration of co-morbidities may help in resolving long-lasting health problems in coeliac disease.

  2. Incomplete quality of life data in lung transplant research : comparing cross sectional, repeated measures ANOVA, and multi-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, KM; Post, WJ; Span, MM; van der Bij, W; Koeter, GH; ten Vergert, EM

    2005-01-01

    Background: In longitudinal studies on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) it frequently occurs that patients have one or more missing forms, which may cause bias, and reduce the sample size. Aims of the present study were to address the problem of missing data in the field of lung transplantation

  3. Evanescent wave assisted nanomaterial coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Samir K; Pal, Sudipta Sarkar; Kumbhakar, Dharmadas; Tiwari, Umesh; Bhatnagar, Randhir

    2013-08-01

    In this work we present a novel nanomaterial coating technique using evanescent wave (EW). The gradient force in the EW is used as an optical tweezer for tweezing and self-assembling nanoparticles on the source of EW. As a proof of the concept, we have used a laser coupled etched multimode optical fiber, which generates EW for the EW assisted coating. The section-wise etched multimode optical fiber is horizontally and superficially dipped into a silver/gold nanoparticles solution while the laser is switched on. The fiber is left until the solution recedes due to evaporation leaving the fiber in air. The coating time usually takes 40-50 min at room temperature. The scanning electron microscope image shows uniform and thin coating of self-assembled nanoparticles due to EW around the etched section. A coating thickness optical fiber probes and other plasmonic circuits.

  4. Association between severity of illicit drug dependence and quality of life in a psychosocial care center in BRAZIL: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campêlo, Selva Rios; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Dias, Danilo Rocha; Caixeta, Camila Cardoso; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Porto, Celmo Celeno

    2017-11-17

    Quality of life must be one of the main purposes for the treatment of drug users, requiring a better understanding of the association between the quality of life and the severity of dependency. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between severity of substance use in various areas of human functioning and quality of life of illicit drug users in a psychosocial care center for alcohol and drugs. This cross-sectional study included 60 participants - illicit drug users - treated at a psychosocial care center for alcohol and drugs. Participants were evaluated with the short version of World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-Bref) instrument to measure the quality of life, the 6th version of Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6) to assess the severity of dependence in several areas and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to identify the presence of psychiatric disorders. Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and linear regression were applied to verify the association between the severity of dependence and the quality of life, and Student's t-test to compare the mean quality of life between individuals with and without psychiatric comorbidities. Negative correlation was found between the severity of dependence on the drugs dimensions: alcohol, psychiatric, medical, legal, family/social support and family/social problems of ASI-6, and the quality of life domains measured by the WHOQOL-Bref. The evidence was strongest in the psychiatric and medical dimensions. There was a significant difference in the quality of life mean among participants presenting or not presenting psychiatric comorbidities, for the psychological domain in anxiety disorders, and for the physical and psychological domains in mood disorders. The quality of life decreased as the severity of dependence increased, with different results in the various areas of the participant's life. This result emphasizes the need for training the professional team which works in the

  5. A Cross-sectional Study on the Proportion of Anxiety and Depression and Determinants of Quality of Life in Polycystic Ovarian Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathap, Aparna; Subhalakshmi, T P; Varghese, P Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome is a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovarian morphologic features. Earlier studies have shown that depression was significantly increased in the polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) group and also that PCOD women had marked reduction in quality of life, impaired emotional well-being, and reduced sexual satisfaction. This study was undertaken with the objectives of studying the proportion of anxiety and depression and assessing the quality of life and its correlates in women with PCOD. A cross-sectional observational study on 64 PCOD patients using a pro forma for collecting sociodemographic and clinical details, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, Ferriman-Gallewey score for hirsutism and WHO-quality of life (QOL) BREF. Depression was seen in 93.5% of the subjects and anxiety in 100% of the subjects. The patients were also seen to have a lower quality of life. Lower scores were obtained in the psychological domain (68.80 ± 12.87). Presence and severity of depression and anxiety were found to have a negative correlation with QOL in all domains but maximally affecting the social relationships domain ( P ≤ 0.001 and PCOD in this study were found to have depression and anxiety. They were also seen to have a lower quality of life. Depression, anxiety, and hirsutism were found to have a negative correlation with QOL in all domains.

  6. A cross-sectional study on quality of life among the elderly in non-governmental organizations' elderly homes in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onunkwor, Obinna Francis; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; George, Philip Parikial; Arokiasamy, John; Yadav, Hemetram; Barua, Ankur; Shuaibu, Hassana Ojonuba

    2016-01-12

    There is a rapid increase in the population of the elderly globally, and Malaysia is anticipated to become an ageing nation in 2030. Maintaining health, social participation, reducing institutionalization, and improving quality of life of the elderly are public health challenges of the 21(st) century. Quality of life among elderly in Elderly Homes in Malaysia is under researched. This study aims to determine the quality of life and its associated factors among the Elderly in Elderly Homes in Kuala Lumpur. This was a cross-sectional study among 203 residents aged 60 years or more in eight randomly selected Elderly Homes in Kuala Lumpur in September 2014. Stratified simple random sampling was used to select participants. Study instruments included World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support, and a questionnaire for Socio-demographic variables. Data collection was by face to face interview. Univariate and Multivariate analysis were used to determine associations, and P-value leisure activity, physical activity, duration of residence, type of accommodation, co-morbidities, and social support. This study confirms that multiple factors are associated with quality of life among elderly in elderly homes. Social support, chronic co-morbidities, gender and outdoor leisure activity were significantly associated with all the domains of quality of life. Among the four domains of quality of life, the physical domain had the highest score while the social domain had the lowest score. This emphasizes the need for more social support-related interventions in these homes.

  7. Time kinetics of physical activity, sitting, and quality of life measures within a regional workplace: a cross–sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Lindsay

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviours within the workplace have been previously investigated. However, the evolution of these constructs without intervention has not been well documented. This retrospective study explored the natural progression or time kinetics of physical activity, sedentary behaviours and quality of life in a professional skilled workplace where focussed interventions were lacking. Methods Participants (n = 346 employed as full-time staff members at a regional university completed an online survey in 2013 assessing physical activity and sedentary behaviours via the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and quality of life via the Short-Form 36v2 questionnaire. Differences between that cohort of participants and an initial sample of similar participants (2009, n = 297, accounting for gender and staff categories (academic vs. professional, were examined using ANCOVAs with working hours as a co-variate. Results In comparison to the initial cohort, the follow-up cohort reported significantly less leisure-time, total walking, total vigorous and total physical activity levels, and lower overall physical health for quality of life (p < 0.05. In contrast, the follow-up cohort reported a significantly greater weekly sitting time, greater mental health scores for quality of life and greater total moderate physical activity levels (p < 0.05 compared to the initial cohort. Conclusions Over a 4-year timeframe and without focussed workplace interventions, total physical activity levels were lower with sedentary behaviours greater at a rate twice that reported previously. Continuation of these undesirable health behaviours may impact negatively on worker productivity and health at a greater rate than that currently reported. Workplace interventions targeting sedentary behaviours and physical activity should be actively incorporated into organisations to

  8. Cross-sectional study into quality of life issues surrounding insulin pump use in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnard, Katharine D.; Skinner, T. Chas

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is associated with improved quality of life (QoL) in routine care in the UK. We conducted a multiple cohort survey study of individuals with type 1 diabetes (matched for age, gender and frequency of blood glucose......-economic environment, individuals using CSII reported better QoL than a matched cohort of individuals managing their diabetes using MDI....

  9. Quality of work life among primary health care nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Almalki Mohammed J; FitzGerald Gerry; Clark Michele

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Quality of work life (QWL) is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. QWL has been found to influence the commitment and productivity of employees in health care organizations, as well as in other industries. However, reliable information on the QWL of primary health care (PHC) nurses is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the Q...

  10. Assessment of parent reported quality of life in children with epilepsy from Northern India: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Arya, Vandana; Gehlawat, Virender Kumar; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Gathwala, Geeta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the following study is to assess parent reported quality of life (QOL) in children with epilepsy and to assess the demographic and clinical factors, which influence the QOL in children with epilepsy. Study Participants: We consecutively enrolled 40 children aged from 2 years to 14 years with active epilepsy who had undergone a comprehensive evaluation for epilepsy. Materials and Methods: Parents were enquired on baseline demographic variables including age, gender,...

  11. Time kinetics of physical activity, sitting, and quality of life measures within a regional workplace: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Daniel B; Devine, Sue; Sealey, Rebecca M; Leicht, Anthony S

    2016-08-15

    Interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviours within the workplace have been previously investigated. However, the evolution of these constructs without intervention has not been well documented. This retrospective study explored the natural progression or time kinetics of physical activity, sedentary behaviours and quality of life in a professional skilled workplace where focussed interventions were lacking. Participants (n = 346) employed as full-time staff members at a regional university completed an online survey in 2013 assessing physical activity and sedentary behaviours via the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and quality of life via the Short-Form 36v2 questionnaire. Differences between that cohort of participants and an initial sample of similar participants (2009, n = 297), accounting for gender and staff categories (academic vs. professional), were examined using ANCOVAs with working hours as a co-variate. In comparison to the initial cohort, the follow-up cohort reported significantly less leisure-time, total walking, total vigorous and total physical activity levels, and lower overall physical health for quality of life (p productivity and health at a greater rate than that currently reported. Workplace interventions targeting sedentary behaviours and physical activity should be actively incorporated into organisations to counteract the alarming behavioural trends found in this study to maintain and/or enhance employee health and productivity.

  12. Modeling the relationship between physical activity and quality of life in menopausal-aged women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadivala, Zeinab; Kousha, Ahmad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Tallebian, Hossein

    2013-09-17

    The purpose of the present study was (a) to assess the relationship between physical activity and the intensity and duration of menopausal symptoms, (b) to investigate the relationship between physical activity and the four domains of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and (c) to assess the relationship between physical activity and chronic diseases. This descriptive-analytical study that was conducted in Tabriz City, Iran. Data were collected in 2012 by personal home-based interviews, using structured questionnaires. All participants (n= 273), who were middle-aged (age range of 40-60 yr) were recruited from two of the 25 urban health service centers' clients, by clustered random sampling allocation. There was a positive significant relationship between Psychological, Social, and Environmental domains of HRQOL with physical activity (Pphysical activity. Diabetic (Pphysical activity would be effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms as well as improving healthy aging and also physical activity promotion as a part of healthy life style promotion programs needs to be improved in communities where women are physically inactive. In addition, women need to be informed about importance of physical activity on their life which it leads to feel healthy aging and pre and post- menopausal stages.

  13. Dysgeusia and health-related quality of life of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponticelli, E; Clari, M; Frigerio, S; De Clemente, A; Bergese, I; Scavino, E; Bernardini, A; Sacerdote, C

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate taste disorders in patients receiving chemotherapy and to assess the impact of dysgeusia on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A total of 289 patients with a diagnosis of malignant solid or haematological cancer undergoing chemotherapy completed a questionnaire assessing dysgeusia and HRQOL. Sixty-four per cent of patients developed dysgeusia after and during chemotherapy. A statistically significant correlation was found between type of cancer and dysgeusia (p = .012), moreover a statistically significant association was found between type of chemotherapy and occurrence of dysgeusia (p = .031). Patients with dysgeusia had a worse overall HRQOL than those who did not have dysgeusia, and the association between HRQOL and dysgeusia was also statistically significant (p = .003). Patients with dysgeusia had a higher probability of having a worse HRQOL (p = .002). In line with previous studies, we observed a significant correlation between chemotherapy and dysgeusia. Furthermore, this study found that cancer patients with dysgeusia have a lower quality of life. In particular the domains "role," "social aspect," "nausea-vomiting" and "appetite" are most influenced by dysgeusia. Improving the communication and information to patients considered at higher risk of developing dysgeusia can have a positive impact on patients' quality of life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Oral Health and Quality of Life in Old Age: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Project in Germany and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skośkiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Noack, Barbara; Kaderali, Lars; Malicka, Barbara; Lorenz, Katrin; Walczak, Katarzyna; Weber, Marie-Theres; Mendak-Ziółko, Magdalena; Hoffmann, Thomas; Ziętek, Marek; Walter, Michael; Kaczmarek, Urszula; Hannig, Christian; Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata; Raedel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The process of ageing influences all dimensions of social life and personal well-being, but the influence of health on different dimensions of quality of life (QoL) among the elderly is rarely examined. The aim of the pilot study is to test the feasibility of a comprehensive study design to evaluate general and dental health as well as QoL in a bi-national sample. In addition, this pilot study should allow for the exploration of potential interactions between QoL, socioeconomic, health and oral health variables. Individuals aged 64 years and older (n = 100) from university dental clinics of the Wroclaw Medical University, Poland (n = 50) and of the University Hospital in Dresden, Germany (n = 50) were examined. The oral health status of participants was assessed by clinical examination. Socio-demographic, environmental and general health status were evaluated during the medical interview. General quality of life (GQoL) was assessed by an overall question with a visual analogue scale (VAS) from -5 (worst) to +5 (best). Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) were measured with the EQ-5D and OHIP-14 questionnaires. Statistical analyses comprised Pearson's c2 test, Wilcoxon test, linear regression model for statistical analysis and different multivariate linear regression analyses. For the GQoL-VAS-Score the results for QoL measurements were 1.22 ± 2.62 (x± SD), for EQ-5D-Score 7.45 ± 2.25 (x± SD), and for OHIP-14-ADD-Score 11.04 ± 13.56 (x± SD). Differences between Polish and German populations were observed. The study design proved to be feasible for a senior population. The overall GQoL question, EQ-5D and OHIP-14 were regarded as appropriate instruments. Subjective and objective (oral) health measures showed differences between Germany and Poland. For methodological reasons, these differences are not generalizable, but of value for study hypotheses in larger samples.

  15. Factors influencing life satisfaction in acute myeloid leukemia survivors following allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amler, Susanne; Sauerland, Maria Cristina; Deiters, Christian; Büchner, Thomas; Schumacher, Andrea

    2015-02-27

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is the preferred option of postremission therapy for high-risk patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Therefore, monitoring life satisfaction (LS) of long-term survivors following alloSCT is becoming increasingly important for oncologists. The aim of the study was to evaluate individual survivor priority of various general and health-related domains of life and their satisfaction with these domains. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of general and health-related LS on resilience, anxiety, depression and quality of life in AML survivors following alloSCT. Forty-one AML survivors (median age at time of assessment = 49.0 years) who had undergone alloSCT (median time since transplantation = 3.1 years) were enrolled in the study. Psychosocial parameters were assessed using the following instruments: FLZ(M) (Questions on Life Satisfaction), EORTC QLQ-C30, HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and the RS-25 (Resilience Scale-25 items). Correlation analyses were computed to reveal the associations between the different questionnaires. Independence from help or care, well-regulated living conditions and financial security contributed positively to LS, whereas being off work due to health-reasons and dissatisfaction with physical aspects were negatively associated to the subjective feelings of overall satisfaction. Moreover, a high quality of life was strongly positively correlated with LS (Spearman's rho general LS: 0.643 and health-related LS: 0.726, both p < 0.001). A high degree of resilience was also strongly positively correlated with better LS (general LS: 0.700, health-related LS: 0.675, both p < 0.001). Symptoms of anxiety and depression were associated with an impaired general LS (anxiety: -0.674, depression: -0.698, both p < 0.001). Our results indicate that LS should be considered an important key contributor to the survivors' well-being following alloSCT. Thus

  16. Degradation factors of a new long life cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingchen; Zhang Honglai; Liu Pukun; Li Yutao

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the degradation factors of a new long life coated impregnated cathode after accelerated life test. The surface state of the cathode is investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) as well as the content and variation of the various elements on the surface and the longitudinal section of the cathode are analyzed with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) before and after the life test. The analyzing results with SEM show that the cathode coating shrinks at the life end and leads to a rise in its work function. The analyzing results with AES show that the percent of the W increases and the active materials Ba decreases on the cathode surface at the life end. Furthermore, there is less Ba underneath the cathode surface but still a lot of Ba in the tungsten matrix at the life end.

  17. Assessment of Oral Conditions and Quality of Life in Morbid Obese and Normal Weight Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselene Martinelli Yamashita

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the impact of oral disease on the quality of life of morbid obese and normal weight individuals. Cohort was composed of 100 morbid-obese and 50 normal-weight subjects. Dental caries, community periodontal index, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP, calculus, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, dental wear, stimulated salivary flow, and salivary pH were used to evaluate oral diseases. Socioeconomic and the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP questionnaires showed the quality of life in both groups. Unpaired Student, Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Multiple Regression tests were used (p<0.05. Obese showed lower socio-economic level than control group, but no differences were found considering OIDP. No significant differences were observed between groups considering the number of absent teeth, bruxism, difficult mastication, calculus, initial caries lesion, and caries. However, saliva flow was low, and the salivary pH was changed in the obese group. Enamel wear was lower and dentine wear was higher in obese. More BOP, insertion loss, and periodontal pocket, especially the deeper ones, were found in obese subjects. The regression model showed gender, smoking, salivary pH, socio-economic level, periodontal pocket, and periodontal insertion loss significantly associated to obesity. However, both OIDP and BOP did not show significant contribution to the model. The quality of life of morbid obese was more negatively influenced by oral disease and socio-economic factors than in normal weight subjects.

  18. The associations between work-life balance behaviours, teamwork climate and safety climate: cross-sectional survey introducing the work-life climate scale, psychometric properties, benchmarking data and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, J Bryan; Schwartz, Stephanie P; Chadwick, Whitney A; Rehder, Kyle J; Bae, Jonathan; Bokovoy, Joanna; Doram, Keith; Sotile, Wayne; Adair, Kathryn C; Profit, Jochen

    2017-08-01

    Improving the resiliency of healthcare workers is a national imperative, driven in part by healthcare workers having minimal exposure to the skills and culture to achieve work-life balance (WLB). Regardless of current policies, healthcare workers feel compelled to work more and take less time to recover from work. Satisfaction with WLB has been measured, as has work-life conflict, but how frequently healthcare workers engage in specific WLB behaviours is rarely assessed. Measurement of behaviours may have advantages over measurement of perceptions; behaviours more accurately reflect WLB and can be targeted by leaders for improvement. 1. To describe a novel survey scale for evaluating work-life climate based on specific behavioural frequencies in healthcare workers.2. To evaluate the scale's psychometric properties and provide benchmarking data from a large healthcare system.3. To investigate associations between work-life climate, teamwork climate and safety climate. Cross-sectional survey study of US healthcare workers within a large healthcare system. 7923 of 9199 eligible healthcare workers across 325 work settings within 16 hospitals completed the survey in 2009 (86% response rate). The overall work-life climate scale internal consistency was Cronbach α=0.790. t-Tests of top versus bottom quartile work settings revealed that positive work-life climate was associated with better teamwork climate, safety climate and increased participation in safety leadership WalkRounds with feedback (pwork setting. The work-life climate scale exhibits strong psychometric properties, elicits results that vary widely by work setting, discriminates between positive and negative workplace norms, and aligns well with other culture constructs that have been found to correlate with clinical outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Interarm Difference in Systolic Blood Pressure in Different Ethnic Groups and Relationship to the "White Coat Effect": A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Claire Lorraine; Clark, Christopher; Koshiaris, Constantinos; Gill, Paramjit S; Greenfield, Shelia M; Haque, Sayeed M; Heer, Gurdip; Johal, Amanpreet; Kaur, Ramandeep; Mant, Jonathan; Martin, Una; Mohammed, Mohamed A; Wood, Sally; McManus, Richard J

    2017-09-01

    Interarm differences (IADs) ≥10 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (BP) are associated with greater incidence of cardiovascular disease. The effect of ethnicity and the white coat effect (WCE) on significant systolic IADs (ssIADs) are not well understood. Differences in BP by ethnicity for different methods of BP measurement were examined in 770 people (300 White British, 241 South Asian, 229 African-Caribbean). Repeated clinic measurements were obtained simultaneously in the right and left arm using 2 BPTru monitors and comparisons made between the first reading, mean of second and third and mean of second to sixth readings for patients with, and without known hypertension. All patients had ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). WCE was defined as systolic clinic BP ≥10 mm Hg higher than daytime ABPM. No significant differences were seen in the prevalence of ssIAD between ethnicities whichever combinations of BP measurement were used and regardless of hypertensive status. ssIADs fell between the 1st measurement (161, 22%), 2nd/3rd (113, 16%), and 2nd-6th (78, 11%) (1st vs. 2nd/3rd and 2nd-6th, P < 0.001). Hypertensives with a WCE were more likely to have ssIADs on 1st, (odds ratio [OR] 1.73 (95% confidence interval 1.04-2.86); 2nd/3rd, (OR 3.05 (1.68-5.53); and 2nd-6th measurements, (OR 2.58 (1.22-5.44). Nonhypertensive participants with a WCE were more likely to have a ssIAD on their first measurement (OR 3.82 (1.77 to -8.25) only. ssIAD prevalence does not vary with ethnicity regardless of hypertensive status but is affected by the number of readings, suggesting the influence of WCE. Multiple readings should be used to confirm ssIADs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.

  20. Physical Functioning, Physical Activity, Exercise Self-Efficacy, and Quality of Life Among Individuals With Chronic Heart Failure in Korea: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haejung; Boo, Sunjoo; Yu, Jihyoung; Suh, Soon-Rim; Chun, Kook Jin; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2017-04-01

    Both the beneficial relationship between exercise and quality of life and the important role played by exercise self-efficacy in maintaining an exercise regimen among individuals with chronic heart failure are well known. However, most nursing interventions for Korean patients with chronic heart failure focus only on providing education related to risk factors and symptoms. Little information is available regarding the influence of physical functions, physical activity, and exercise self-efficacy on quality of life. This study was conducted to examine the impact of physical functioning, physical activity, and exercise self-efficacy on quality of life among individuals with chronic heart failure. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. Data were collected from 116 outpatients with chronic heart failure in Korea. Left ventricular ejection fraction and New York Heart Association classifications were chart reviewed. Information pertaining to levels of physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and quality of life were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t tests, analyses of variance, correlations, and hierarchical multiple regressions. About 60% of participants were physically inactive, and most showed relatively low exercise self-efficacy. The mean quality-of-life score was 80.09. The significant correlates for quality of life were poverty, functional status, physical inactivity, and exercise self-efficacy. Collectively, these four variables accounted for 50% of the observed total variance in quality of life. Approaches that focus on enhancing exercise self-efficacy may improve patient-centered outcomes in those with chronic heart failure. In light of the low level of exercise self-efficacy reported and the demonstrated ability of this factor to predict quality of life, the development of effective strategies to enhance exercise self-efficacy offers a novel and effective approach to improving

  1. Adverse life events and delinquent behavior among Kenyan adolescents: a cross-sectional study on the protective role of parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiru, Caroline W; Elung'ata, Patricia; Mojola, Sanyu A; Beguy, Donatien

    2014-01-01

    Past research provides strong evidence that adverse life events heighten the risk of delinquent behavior among adolescents. Urban informal (slum) settlements in sub-Saharan Africa are marked by extreme adversity. However, the prevalence and consequences of adverse life events as well as protective factors that can mitigate the effects of exposure to these events in slum settlements is largely understudied. We examine two research questions. First, are adverse life events experienced at the individual and household level associated with a higher likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya? Second, are parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem protective against delinquency in a context of high adversity? We used cross-sectional data from 3,064 males and females aged 12-19 years who participated in the Transitions to Adulthood Study. We examined the extent to which a composite index of adverse life events was associated with delinquent behavior (measured using a composite index derived from nine items). We also examined the direct and moderating effects of three protective factors: parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem. Fifty-four percent of adolescents reported at least one adverse life event, while 18% reported three or more adverse events. For both males and females, adversity was positively and significantly associated with delinquency in bivariate and multivariate models. Negative associations were observed between the protective factors and delinquency. Significant adverse events × protective factor interaction terms were observed for parental monitoring (females and males), religiosity (males), and self-esteem (females). Similar to research in high income countries, adverse life events are associated with an increased likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya, a low-income country. However, parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem may

  2. Effort-reward imbalance and quality of life of healthcare workers in military hospitals: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng Dong-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan’s National Defense Bureau has been merging its hospitals and adjusting hospital accreditation levels since the beginning of 2006. These changes have introduced many stressors to the healthcare workers in these hospitals. This study investigates the association between job stress, psychological morbidity and quality of life in healthcare workers in three military hospitals. Methods We posted surveys to 1269 healthcare workers in three military hospitals located in southern Taiwan. The surveys included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF, and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI Questionnaire. High effort-reward (ER ratio and overcommitment were defined when scores fell into the upper tertile of the total distribution. Results The survey was completed by 791 healthcare workers. On average, women reported a higher ERI than men. High ERI was associated with younger age, higher psychological morbidity, and poor physical and psychological QOL domains in this population. High ER ratio and high overcommitment were associated with psychological morbidity and poor QOL in both sexes. However, high ER ratio was not significantly associated with the social QOL domain in either sexes or the physical QOL domain in males. Conclusions There was a clear association between ERI and QOL in the healthcare workers in the military hospitals under reorganization and accreditation in this study. We found ER ratio and overcommitment to be suitable indicators of job stress.

  3. The interaction between erectile dysfunction complaints and depression in men: a cross-sectional study about sleep, hormones and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soterio-Pires, J H; Hirotsu, C; Kim, L J; Bittencourt, L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2017-03-01

    Depression (DEP) is one of the main disabling diseases and is considered a contributor factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). Both of these conditions may be associated with hormonal changes and sleep disturbances. We aimed to evaluate the interaction between ED complaints and depression symptoms on sleep parameters, hormone levels and quality of life in men. This was a cross-sectional study of 468 men aged 20-80 years. The participants were classified according to the presence of ED and/or DEP in groups of healthy individuals, ED, DEP and DEP with ED (DEP-ED). All participants completed questionnaires about sleep, clinical history and quality of life, and underwent polysomnography with blood collection the following morning. ED participants showed higher frequency of insomnia symptoms (65.5%), whereas DEP group had more complaints of difficulty in falling asleep and early morning awakening. In the polysomnography, all groups showed similar parameters. No differences were found in cortisol and total testosterone levels; however, free testosterone levels and the physiological domain of quality of life were lower in DEP-ED group. ED and DEP, as independent factors, negatively affected subjective sleep parameters. The interaction between these factors led to a low quality of life and was related to a decrease in free testosterone levels.

  4. Quality of life in Indian women with fertility problems as assessed by the FertiQoL questionnaire: a single center cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Hema Jagdish; Gundabattula, Sirisha Rao

    2017-11-24

    Infertility and its treatment can significantly impact an individual's physical and psychological health; however, this has not been well-studied in the Indian population. This study aimed to assess the quality of life in women with infertility at a teaching hospital in Hyderabad, India. In this cross sectional study of women with infertility, the quality of life was measured using the 'FertiQoL International' questionnaire (English/Hindi). The age ranged from 20 to 38 years and polycystic ovary syndrome was the most common cause of infertility. Core FertiQoL scores were analyzed in 215 women and Treatment FertiQoL in 156. The mean Total FertiQoL score in the study population was 66.1 (SD 13.0) and this overall score was not influenced by socio-demographic or infertility-specific factors. However, on subscale analysis, women who had living children and were university-educated had significantly better emotional scores while obese (≥35 kg/m 2 ) women and those on ovulation induction treatment had poorer mind body and relational scores, respectively. Women with associated co-morbidities had worse quality of life on the Treatment Environment scale than those without. The results provide a baseline quality of life score in these women. Infertility had the greatest impact on the emotional domain.

  5. Health-related Quality of Life in Young Adult Girls with Dysmenorrhea among University Medical Students in Shah Alam, Malaysia: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumeshini Sukalingam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dysmenorrhea is a notably serious crisis among young adult girls and it distresses their quality of life. After menarche, most young adult girls suffer severe pain, irregular menses, too much bleeding, and dysmenorrhea. It is a common gynecological complication affecting more than half of the young adult girls resulting in episodic school absenteeism coupled with a negative impact on social behavior, educational, and sports activities. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive, conducted from September to November 2013 among 210 young adult, female medical students of Management and Science University, using a semi-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire used in this study was associated with the health-related quality of life among young adult girls; questions were related to demography, family menstrual history, prevalence, symptoms, absentees of school, involvement in sports activities, and self-care strategies. This survey was completed and the data was analyzed for the results with percentages and chi-square test applied.

  6. Insecure attachment style and cumulative traumatic life events in patients with somatoform pain disorder: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacak, Yeliz; Morawa, Eva; Tuffner, Daniela; Erim, Yesim

    2017-12-01

    Current models assume somatoform pain disorder (SPD) to be the result of a complex interaction between bio- and psychosocial factors, but the etiology is still not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of attachment style and the frequency of traumatic life events, especially childhood adversities, in patients with SPD compared to healthy controls. We compared 65 patients with SPD (confirmed by Structured Clinical Interview, SCID-I) to 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The following questionnaires were employed: Relationship Scale Questionnaire (RSQ), Essen Trauma Inventory (ETI), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15). A logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between SPD and psychological factors. Insecure attachment was significantly more prevalent (60%) in patients with SPD compared to healthy subjects (14%; pcumulative traumatic events emphasize their importance as risk factors of SPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of parent reported quality of life in children with epilepsy from Northern India: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Vandana; Gehlawat, Virender Kumar; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Gathwala, Geeta

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the following study is to assess parent reported quality of life (QOL) in children with epilepsy and to assess the demographic and clinical factors, which influence the QOL in children with epilepsy. We consecutively enrolled 40 children aged from 2 years to 14 years with active epilepsy who had undergone a comprehensive evaluation for epilepsy. Parents were enquired on baseline demographic variables including age, gender, socio-economic status and parental education. Clinical details of epilepsy including the type of epilepsy, seizure frequency were assessed. QOL was evaluated with the parent reported quality of life in childhood epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire. A total of 40 children were enrolled of which 55% (22/40) were males and the mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of enrolled children was 10.6 (2.7) years. The majority came from a rural background (80% [32/40]), were from lower (15 [37.5%]) or middle (23 [57.5%]) socio-economic status, with almost half (22 [55%]) of mothers being educated until high school. The overall mean (SD) QOL score was 66.7 (4.83). Lowest mean (SD) scores were observed in self-esteem (45.2 [7.3]) subscale and subscales with higher QOL scores included control/helplessness (82.1 [8.51]), anxiety (81.6 [12.55]) and social stigma (95.0 [11.6]). Parental education, socio-economic status (P = 0.96), frequency of seizure (P = 0.34) or type of epilepsy (P = 0.92) did not significantly affect the overall QOL among children with epilepsy. Our study concluded that overall QOL was compromised in Indian children with epilepsy. Demographic factors like parental education, socio-economic status and clinical factors like frequency of seizure or type of seizure did not significantly affect the QOL of epileptic children.

  8. Association between Work Related Stress and Health Related Quality of Life: The Impact of Socio-Demographic Variables. A Cross Sectional Study in a Region of Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Sestili, Cristina; Mannocci, Alice; Sinopoli, Alessandra; De Paolis, Massimiliano; De Francesco, Sara; Rapaccini, Laura; Barone, Marco; Iodice, Valentina; Lojodice, Bruno; Sernia, Sabina; De Sio, Simone; Del Cimmuto, Angela; De Giusti, Maria

    2018-01-19

    The aim of this work is investigate relationship between health-related quality of life and work-related stress and the impact of gender, education level, and age on this relationship. A cross-sectional study was conducted among workers of various setting in Rome and Frosinone. Work-related stress was measured with a demand-control questionnaire and health-related functioning by SF (short form)-12 health survey. There were 611 participants. Men reported high mental composite summary (MCS) and physical composite summary (PCS). In multivariate analysis age, gender ( p work-related stress should consider socio-demographic factors.

  9. Life adversity in depressed and non-depressed older adults: A cross-sectional comparison of the brief LTE-Q questionnaire and life events and difficulties interview as part of the CASPER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Hjördis M; Traviss-Turner, Gemma D; House, Allan O; Lewis, Helen; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-03-15

    There is a paucity of research on the nature of life adversity in depressed and non-depressed older adults. Early life events work used in-depth interviews; however, larger epidemiological trials investigate life adversity using brief questionnaires. This study investigates the type of life adversity experienced in later life and its association with depression and compares adversity captured using a brief (LTE-Q) and in-depth (LEDS) measure. 960 participants over 65 years were recruited in UK primary care to complete the PHQ-9 and LTE-Q. A sub-sample (n=19) completed the LEDS and a question exploring the subjective experience of the LTE-Q and LEDS. Important life adversity was reported on the LTE-Q in 48% of the sample. In the LTE-Q sample the prevalence of depression (PHQ-9≥10) was 12%. Exposure to recent adversity was associated with doubling of the odds of depression. The LTE-Q only captured a proportion of adversity measured by the LEDS (42% vs 84%). Both measures showed health, bereavement and relationship events were most common. The cross-sectional design limits the extent to which inferences can be drawn around the direction of causality between adversity and depression. Recall in older adults is questionable. UK older adults face adversity in areas of health, bereavement and relationships which are associated with depression. This has clinical relevance for psychological interventions for older adults to consider social context and social support. It helps identify the strengths and weaknesses of a brief adversity measure in large scale research. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms of onset and direction of causality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. White coat hypertension in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurko, Alexander; Minarik, Milan; Jurko, Tomas; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid

    2016-01-15

    The article summarizes current information on blood pressure changes in children during clinic visit. White coat as a general dressing of physicians and health care personnel has been widely accepted at the end of the 19th century. Two problems can be associated with the use of white coat: white coat phenomenon and white coat hypertension. Children often attribute pain and other unpleasant experience to the white coat and refuse afterwards cooperation with examinations. Definition of white coat hypertension in the literature is not uniform. It has been defined as elevated blood pressure in the hospital or clinic with normal blood pressure at home measured during the day by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system. White coat effect is defined as temporary increase in blood pressure before and during visit in the clinic, regardless what the average daily ambulatory blood pressure values are. Clinical importance of white coat hypertension is mainly because of higher risk for cardiovascular accidents that are dependent on end organ damage (heart, vessels, kidney). Current data do not allow any clear recommendations for the treatment. Pharmacological therapy is usually started in the presence of hypertrophic left ventricle, changes in intimal/medial wall thickness of carotic arteries, microalbuminuria and other cardiovascular risk factors. Nonpharmacological therapy is less controversial and certainly more appropriate. Patients have to change their life style, need to eliminate as much cardiovascular risk factors as possible and sustain a regular blood pressure monitoring.

  11. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  12. Retention of storage quality and post-refrigeration shelf-life extension of plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv. Santa Rosa using combination of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coating and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Suradkar, Prashant P.; Wani, Ali M.; Dar, Mohd A.

    2015-01-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality and extending shelf-life of plum. Matured green plums were CMC coated at levels 0.5–1.0% w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.5 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25±2 °C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temperature 3±1 °C, RH 80%) conditions. In fruits treated with individual treatments of 1.0% w/v CMC; 1.5 kGy irradiation and combination of 1.0% w/v CMC and 1.5 kGy irradiation, no decay was recorded up to 11, 17 and 21 days of ambient storage. Irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy gave 8 days extension in shelf-life of plum compared to 5 days by 1.0% w/v CMC coating following 45 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% but, combination of CMC at 1.0% w/v and 1.5 kGy irradiation was found significantly (p≤0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of plum. CMC coating of plums at 1.0% w/v followed by irradiation at 1.5 kGy resulted in chlorophyll retention of 19.4% after 16 days compared to 10% in control after 8 days of ambient storage. Under refrigerated conditions, same treatment gave retention of 67.6% in chlorophyll compared to 10.6% in control after 35 days of storage. The above combinatory treatment resulted in extension of 11 days in shelf-life of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% following 45 days of refrigeration. Based on microbial analysis, irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy and in combination with 1.0% w/v CMC resulted in 2.0 and 1.8 log reduction in yeast and mold count of plum fruit after 20 and 35 days of ambient and refrigerated storage, thereby ensuring consumer safety. - Highlights: • Irradiation and CMC alone at 1.5 k

  13. Stress and health related quality of life of Nepalese students studying in South Korea: A cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been a growing trend among students to travel for educational purposes to other countries where there is the possibility of experiencing considerable amounts of stress affecting their physical and mental functioning. The aims of the current study were to investigate the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of Nepalese students studying in South Korea to explore the relationship between HRQOL and perceived and acculturative stress, and to identify the determinants of HRQOL. Methods One hundred and thirty students were enrolled in this study. HRQOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms (SF-12) questionnaire. Perceived stress and acculturative stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale and Acculturative Stress Scale for international students, respectively. Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis were performed. Results Perceived stress and acculturative stress were negatively correlated with HRQOL. The highest value in the HRQOL was reported for the vitality subscale and the lowest value was reported for the role-emotional. In the regression model, perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status accounted for a significant (p culture specific counseling and orientation programs may benefit the students. The determinants of HRQOL identified in this study were perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status. PMID:22410138

  14. Stress and health related quality of life of Nepalese students studying in South Korea: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari Pratibha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing trend among students to travel for educational purposes to other countries where there is the possibility of experiencing considerable amounts of stress affecting their physical and mental functioning. The aims of the current study were to investigate the health related quality of life (HRQOL of Nepalese students studying in South Korea to explore the relationship between HRQOL and perceived and acculturative stress, and to identify the determinants of HRQOL. Methods One hundred and thirty students were enrolled in this study. HRQOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms (SF-12 questionnaire. Perceived stress and acculturative stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale and Acculturative Stress Scale for international students, respectively. Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis were performed. Results Perceived stress and acculturative stress were negatively correlated with HRQOL. The highest value in the HRQOL was reported for the vitality subscale and the lowest value was reported for the role-emotional. In the regression model, perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status accounted for a significant (p Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that Nepalese students studying in South Korea experience a considerable amount of perceived and acculturative stress, which is negatively related with their HRQOL. Provision of culture specific counseling and orientation programs may benefit the students. The determinants of HRQOL identified in this study were perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status.

  15. The importance of quality of life for work outcomes in patients with ankylosing spondylitis - a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Taser

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Work impairment is one of the most important exploration and one of the aims of rheumatologists. We aimed to determine the risk factors for employment state and predictive factors of work outcomes using multi-dimensional measures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS in this comprehensive study. Methods: One hundred patients with AS (31 females and 69 males were included into this study. Demographic properties, local factors, disease activity (BASDAI, functionality (BASFI, spinal mobility (BASMI, radiologic stage (BASRI, quality of life (AS-QoL, cardiopulmonary involvement, exercise stress test and work outcomes were investigated and compared in employed and un-employed patients. The work instability scale (AS-WIS and work productivity activity impairment scale (WPAI:SpA were selected as work outcomes. The predictive factors were analyzed using multiple stepwise linear regressions. Major results: Thirty-two patients (mean age: 42,6±11.7 were unemployed and the risk factors for unemployment state were female sex, lower annual income level, and older age. Work disability was detected only in 5% of patients. Decreased chest mobility (beta: -0.398, p:

  16. Comorbidity between personality disorders and depressive symptomatology in women: A cross-sectional study of three different transitional life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfoux, Aurore; Courtois, Robert; Duijsens, Inge; Reveillere, Christian; Senon, Jean Louis; Magnin, Guillaume; Voyer, Melanie; Montmasson, Helene; Camus, Vincent; El-Hage, Wissam

    2013-08-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs), according to DSM-IV criteria, in relation to depressive symptomatology at three different periods of life in female subjects. Depressive symptoms and personality disorders were assessed in a sample of 568 women from three different transitional stages: 134 students, 314 primiparous women after childbirth and 120 women diagnosed with breast cancer. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale in the first and third groups and by the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale in the second group, whereas PDs were assessed by the French version of the Vragenlijst voor Kenmerken van de Persoonlijkheid. Depressive symptomatology and rates of PD (20.4% and 6.3%) were equivalent in the three groups. The prevalence of PD was higher in the depressed group compared with the non-depressed group, with more paranoid, borderline, avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, schizotypal, antisocial, dependent and histrionic PD. Our findings support the hypothesis that PDs are more frequently associated with depressive symptoms. Borderline and avoidant PDs were more prevalent among young women. All cluster C PD (dependent, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive) co-occurred significantly with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEX EQUIPMENT FOR PLASMA SPRAY CERAMIC COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Okovity

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Develop a set equipment for plasma forming ceramic coatings. The article presents characteristics and parameters of the developed complex equipment for formation of plasma ceramic coatings as well as results of its testing. Methods of research is based on studies of structural elements composite plasma coatings system ZrO2 – Y2O3  obtained  using  developed complex equipment. One of the most effective ways to protect the components from high temperature corrosion and oxidation is formation on the surface of plasma thermal barrier coatings. For thermal barrier coating has very strict requirements: сharacterized by a smooth change of physico-mechanical properties (porosity, microhardness, elastic modulus in the cross section of the metal substrate to the outer ceramic layer; to withstand multiple cycles of thermal cycling from room temperature to the operating temperature; to maintain gastightness under operating conditions and thus ensure a sufficiently high level of adhesive strength. For realization of new technological schemes applying thermal barrier coatings with high operational characteristics was developed, patented and manufactured a range of new equipment. The experiments show that authors developed PBG-1 plasmatron and powder feeder PPBG-04 have at least 2–3 times the service life during the deposition of ceramic materials compared to the standard equipment of the company "Plasma-Technik", by changing the structure of the cathode-anode plasma torch assembly and construction of the delivery unit of the feeder to facilitate the uniform supply of the powder into the plasma jet and the best of his penetration. The result is better plasma coatings with improved operational characteristics: adhesion strength is increased to 1.3–2 times, material utilization in 1.5–1.6 times microhardness 1.2–1.4 times the porosity is reduced by 2–2.5 times.

  18. Effect of novel bioactive edible coatings based on jujube gum and nettle oil-loaded nanoemulsions on the shelf-life of Beluga sturgeon fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Mohammadnabi, Sara

    2017-02-01

    Effect of jujube gum (JG; 4, 8 and 12% wt)-based nanoemulsions (NEs) containing nettle essential oil (NEO; 2, 3.5 and 5% wt) as new edible coatings was investigated to preserve Beluga sturgeon fillets (BSFs) during 15 day-refrigerated storage at 4°C. Physical (weight loss, cooking loss, color and texture), chemical (pH, FFA, PV, TBARS and TVB-N), microbiological (total and psychrotrophic bacterial counts), and sensorial characteristics of BSFs were kinetically analyzed. Preliminary studies showed that the NEs formulated with NEO lower than 5% at all JG concentrations were able to form stable coating solutions owing to the highest short-term stability (>90%) and entrapment efficiency (94.4-98.3%). Edible NE coating formulated with 12% JG and 3.5% NEO as a novel antimicrobial and antioxidant biomaterial exhibited the lowest weight and cooking losses, pH changes, textural and color deterioration, lipid oxidation and microbial growth in BSFs refrigerated over a period of 15days (P<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and application of a dry ultramicrotomy technique for the preparation of galvanneal sheet coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, M P; Veillette, R; L'Espérance, G

    1995-07-01

    The formability of galvanneal steel sheets used in the automotive industry is influenced by the presence and distribution of brittle and difficult to distinguish Zn-Fe intermetallics in the coating. Characterization of these intermetallics requires a high spatial resolution technique such as analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM). Sample preparation by ion milling is impossible due to iron redeposition, and traditional ultramicrotomy using water affects the coating chemistry. A technique based on dry ultramicrotomy has therefore been developed. To optimize the technique, different parameters (knife angle, cutting medium, thickness setting on the ultramicrotome, cutting speed) have been investigated for the preparation of galvanneal coatings and pure A1 sections. Results show that dry cutting does not affect the coating chemistry but shortens the life of the knife. Knife quality (cleanliness, sharpness and absence of defects) is a major factor to obtain good dry sections. The best results for the more ductile pure A1 are obtained with a 35 degrees knife whilst for the harder galvanneal coating it is recommended to use a 55 degrees knife. These results suggest that the sectioning mechanism for the harder material involves more a cleavage-fracture mechanism whilst a greater amount of shear is involved when sectioning relatively ductile A1. The optimum parameters for sectioning galvanneal coatings are established and results obtained by parallel electron energy loss spectrum imaging and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry in the TEM are given. This study shows that with a good control of all the sectioning parameters it is possible to obtain good sections repeatedly and rapidly.

  20. Optimization of Heat Transfer on Thermal Barrier Coated Gas Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aabid, Abdul; Khan, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    In the field of Aerospace Propulsion technology, material required to resist the maximum temperature. In this paper, using thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) method in gas turbine blade is used to protect hot section component from high-temperature effect to extend the service life and reduce the maintenance costs. The TBCs which include three layers of coating corresponding initial coat is super alloy-INCONEL 718 with 1 mm thickness, bond coat is Nano-structured ceramic-metallic composite-NiCoCrAIY with 0.15 mm thickness and top coat is ceramic composite-La2Ce2O7 with 0.09 mm thickness on the nickel alloy turbine blade which in turn increases the strength, efficiency and life span of the blades. Modeling a gas turbine blade using CATIA software and determining the amount of heat transfer on thermal barrier coated blade using ANSYS software has been performed. Thermal stresses and effects of different TBCs blade base alloys are considered using CATIA and ANSYS.

  1. Association Between Personality Traits and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Javier; Gómez-Polo, Cristina

    The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among subjects with typical, atypically positive, and atypically negative personality trait scores within the five basic dimensions of personality (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). A total of 235 subjects not seeking dental treatment were recruited from the families and acquaintances of dental students from the University of Salamanca. The 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) was used to capture the impact on their OHRQoL. The Neouroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory Revised was applied to assess personality profiles. People were classified as having negatively atypical, typical, or positively atypical (PAP) personality, depending on whether the sum of the Z scores was 1, respectively. Pearson correlation, analysis of variance, and logistic regression test were used for the statistical analyses. The sample was comprised of highly educated adults (aged 18-80 years) with good oral health habits. PAP subjects suffered significantly more in the dimension of psychologic discomfort (0.6 ± 0.7) than did their counterparts (0.3 ± 0.6), but the global impact in OHRQoL was comparable. Personality was weakly correlated with OHIP-14. The perception of dental treatment needs was found to be the major predictor of the impact on OHRQoL, but the number of negatively atypical deviated personality traits and the agreeableness raw score also had an effect. The risk of perceiving an impact on OHRQoL is significantly higher in individuals perceiving treatment needs and increases proportionally to the number of negatively atypical personality traits.

  2. Thermal barrier coatings: Coating methods, performance, and heat engine applications. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning conference proceedings on coating methods, performance evaluations, and applications of thermal barrier coatings as protective coatings for heat engine components against high temperature corrosions and chemical erosions. The developments of thermal barrier coating techniques for high performance and reliable gas turbines, diesel engines, jet engines, and internal combustion engines are presented. Topics include plasma sprayed coating methods, yttria stabilized zirconia coatings, coating life models, coating failure and durability, thermal shock and cycling, and acoustic emission analysis of coatings. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Thermal barrier coatings: Coating methods, performance, and heat engine applications. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning conference proceedings on coating methods, performance evaluations, and applications of thermal barrier coatings as protective coatings for heat engine components against high temperature corrosions and chemical erosions. The developments of thermal barrier coating techniques for high performance and reliable gas turbines, diesel engines, jet engines, and internal combustion engines are presented. Topics include plasma sprayed coating methods, yttria stabilized zirconia coatings, coating life models, coating failure and durability, thermal shock and cycling, and acoustic emission analysis of coatings. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Childhood exposure to emotional abuse and later life stress among Kenyan women: a mediation analysis of cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Gutarra, Claudia; Billingsley, Katherine M; Keiser, Philip H; Gitari, Stanley

    2017-07-01

    We explore whether perceived stress among Kenyan mothers is predicted by childhood exposure to emotional abuse - both witnessed among parents and experienced directly. Further, we explore whether this association is mediated by social support, family functioning and polygynous marriage. We used cross-sectional data from a systematic random sample (n = 1974) of mothers in semi-rural Kenya. Data were collected using validated scales and trained interviewers. Analyses were conducted using bootstrapped structural equation models and fixed-effects linear regression models, controlling for age and household wealth. Reported experience of emotional abuse - both directly experienced and observed among household adults - was high in the present population (72.5% and 69%, respectively). Perceived stress among women was significantly higher if they were exposed to more emotional abuse during childhood (p emotional abuse exposure during childhood and adult perceived stress. Future research should investigate whether social integration, identity formation and self-esteem underlie observed dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts to promote social integration and support should target children currently experiencing emotional abuse, and may include child-targeted high quality television programing and adult-targeted media and celebrity campaigns.

  5. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  6. Associations between quality of life, physical activity, worry, depression and insomnia: A cross-sectional designed study in healthy pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Mourady

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (QOL is reported to be reduced during pregnancy. Associations between QOL, physical activity (PA, insomnia, depression and worry are insufficiently investigated among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to evaluate QOL and PA patterns among healthy pregnant women, and to examine how QOL might correlate to PA, sleep, worry and depression. This is an observational cross-sectional study, conducted among a convenient sample of 141 healthy pregnant women using five questionnaires: WHOQOL-brief (WHO quality of life questionnaire, brief version, ISI (Insomnia Severity Index, PSWQ (Penn State Worry Questionnaire, ZSRDS (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ. Pre-gestational BMI was inversely correlated to overall health while education was positively correlated to psychological health, social relationships and environment domains. Smoking before and during pregnancy significantly impacted the general health and psychological health. Total and light PA were positively correlated to psychological health and social relationships. Sports/exercise showed positive correlations with several QOL domains. Insomnia and depression were significantly associated with a decrease in all domains of QOL, while worries were associated with a decrease in physical, psychological and environmental domains. There were significant negative correlations between ZSRDS scores and total activity. PA, worries, depression and insomnia affected QOL during pregnancy. Furthermore, pregnant women presenting depression had a reduced total PA. Sleep and mental health as well as encouraging PA during pregnancy are necessary to improve the quality of life of pregnant women.

  7. Acculturation, quality of life and work environment of international nurses in a multi-cultural society: A cross-sectional, correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yong-Shian; Lopez, Violeta

    2016-05-01

    The aim is to examine the acculturation level of international nurses working in a multi-cultural society. The relationship between acculturation, working environment and quality of life of international nurses was also explored. A cross-sectional, correlational study using self-report questionnaire was conducted on 814 international nurses using stratified random sampling based on the nationality distribution of international nurses registered with the Singapore Nursing Board. Outcome measures included World Health Organisation Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL_BREF) and Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index-Revised (PES-NWI-R). Data were collected from June to December 2012. There were variations in the acculturation level among different nationality groups of international nurses. Acculturation levels were the lowest among Mainland Chinese international nurses (M=27.47, SD 5.23). A positive correlation was found between acculturation and quality of life whereas a lower perception of work environment was associated with lower acculturation level. Data obtained from this study can be utilized to develop interventions targeted at the unique needs of the international nurses as they migrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comorbidities, metabolic risk profile and health-related quality of life in German patients with plaque-type psoriasis: a cross-sectional prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Arnd; Kupke, Carina; Behzad, Melika; Hertl, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Patients with psoriasis experience a higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities and have a high burden of treatment. There is still a gap between treatment options and quality of care. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic data, comorbidities, and the limitations of quality of life in patients with plaque-type psoriasis. This epidemiological evaluation was designed as a single-center, cross-sectional, prospective study in Marburg, Germany. To investigate the association between mild to severe psoriasis and comorbidities, data were obtained from 133 patients. The average Psoriasis Area and Severity Index was 13.4, and the average Dermatology Life Quality Index was 6.3. Among the patients with severe psoriasis, 95% had been prescribed systemic treatments. Comorbidities were evaluated, with depression 30.8%, arterial hypertension 39.1%, and hypercholesterolemia 20.3% in all patients. Our findings underscore the importance of cardiovascular and metabolic risk screening for all patients with psoriasis. There is still a need for systemic treatments and the definition of treatment goals for psoriasis as a systemic inflammatory disease. Such goals should integrate parameters that include comorbidities and an improvement in health-related quality of life. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  10. NASA's Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Understanding Calcium Magnesium Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) Degradations and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures with improved efficiency, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. The development of prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings is essential to the viability and reliability of the envisioned CMC engine component applications, ensuring integrated EBC-CMC system durability and designs are achievable for successful applications of the game-changing component technologies and lifing methodologies.This paper will emphasize recent NASA environmental barrier coating developments for SiCSiC turbine airfoil components, utilizing advanced coating compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and combined mechanical and environment testing and durability evaluations. The coating-CMC degradations in the engine fatigue-creep and operating environments are particularly complex; one of the important coating development aspects is to better understand engine environmental interactions and coating life debits, and we have particularly addressed the effect of Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) from road sand or volcano-ash deposits on the durability of the environmental barrier coating systems, and how the temperature capability, stability and cyclic life of the candidate rare earth oxide and silicate coating systems will be impacted in the presence of the CMAS at high temperatures and under simulated heat flux conditions. Advanced environmental barrier coating systems, including HfO2-Si with rare earth dopant based bond coat systems, will be discussed for the performance improvements to achieve better temperature capability and CMAS resistance for future engine operating conditions.

  11. Electrostatic coating technologies for food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Sheryl A; Sumonsiri, Nutsuda

    2015-01-01

    The application of electrostatics in both powder and liquid coating can improve the quality of food, such as its appearance, aroma, taste, and shelf life. Coatings can be found most commonly in the snack food industry, as well as in confectionery, bakery, meat and cheese processing. In electrostatic powder coating, the most important factors influencing coating quality are powder particle size, density, flowability, charge, and resistivity, as well as the surface properties and characteristics of the target. The most important factors during electrostatic liquid coating, also known as electrohydrodynamic coating, include applied voltage and electrical resistivity and viscosity of the liquid. A good understanding of these factors is needed for the design of optimal coating systems for food processing.

  12. Testing of coatings for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, G.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial scale nuclear power generating plant coatings must be able to withstand simultaneous exposure both to high humidity, and to cumulative radiation dosage, at elevated temperatures, for the design life of the plant. The coatings must be decontaminable by means other than by stripping, that is, actual physical removal, and must be of sufficient durability to withstand projected conditions of a loss of coolant accident. Tests to show that coatings are expected to do more than retard corrosion and erosion are described

  13. Two Swedish screening instruments for exhaustion disorder: cross-sectional associations with burnout, work stress, private life stress, and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Österberg, Kai; Viborg, Njördur; Jönsson, Peter; Tenenbaum, Artur

    2017-06-01

    To examine the relationships of two screening instruments recently developed for assessment of exhaustion disorder (ED) with some other well-known inventories intended to assess ED-related concepts and self-reports of job demands, job control, job support, private life stressors, and personality factors. A cross-sectional population sample ( n = 1355) completed: the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), Self-reported Exhaustion Disorder Scale (s-ED), Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Big Five Inventory (BFI), and items concerning family-to-work interference and stress in private life. Compared to participants without any indication of ED, participants classified as having ED on KEDS or s-ED had higher scores on all four SMBQ subscales, lower scores on the UWES-9 subscales vigor and dedication, higher JCQ job demands scores, lower JCQ job support scores, higher degrees of family-to-work interference and stress in private life, and higher BFI neuroticism and openness scores. In addition, participants classified as having ED on KEDS had lower scores on the UWES-9 absorption subscale, the JCQ job control scale, and lower BFI extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness scores, compared to the subgroup not classified as having ED. As expected, we observed an overall pattern of associations between the ED screening inventories KEDS and s-ED and measures of burnout, work engagement, job demands-control-support, stress in private life, family-to-work interference, and personality factors. The results suggest that instruments designed to assess burnout, work engagement, and ED share common ground, despite their conceptual differences.

  14. The impact of the built environment on health across the life course: design of a cross-sectional data linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Karen; Pereira, Gavin; Knuiman, Matthew; Bull, Fiona; Wood, Lisa; Christian, Hayley; Foster, Sarah; Boruff, Bryan J; Beesley, Bridget; Hickey, Sharyn; Joyce, Sarah; Nathan, Andrea; Saarloos, Dick; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The built environment is increasingly recognised as being associated with health outcomes. Relationships between the built environment and health differ among age groups, especially between children and adults, but also between younger, mid-age and older adults. Yet few address differences across life stage groups within a single population study. Moreover, existing research mostly focuses on physical activity behaviours, with few studying objective clinical and mental health outcomes. The Life Course Built Environment and Health (LCBEH) project explores the impact of the built environment on self-reported and objectively measured health outcomes in a random sample of people across the life course. Methods and analysis This cross-sectional data linkage study involves 15 954 children (0–15 years), young adults (16–24 years), adults (25–64 years) and older adults (65+years) from the Perth metropolitan region who completed the Health and Wellbeing Surveillance System survey administered by the Department of Health of Western Australia from 2003 to 2009. Survey data were linked to Western Australia's (WA) Hospital Morbidity Database System (hospital admission) and Mental Health Information System (mental health system outpatient) data. Participants’ residential address was geocoded and features of their ‘neighbourhood’ were measured using Geographic Information Systems software. Associations between the built environment and self-reported and clinical health outcomes will be explored across varying geographic scales and life stages. Ethics and dissemination The University of Western Australia's Human Research Ethics Committee and the Department of Health of Western Australia approved the study protocol (#2010/1). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at local, national and international conferences, thus contributing to the evidence base informing the design of healthy neighbourhoods for all residents. PMID

  15. Self- Perceived Stress in Relation to Anxiety, Depression and Health-related Quality of Life among Health Professions Students: A Cross-sectional Study from Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racic, Maja; Todorovic, Radica; Ivkovic, Nedeljka; Masic, Srdjan; Joksimovic, Bojan; Kulic, Milan

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine self-perceived stress of health professions students at the Faculty of Medicine Foča, and to explore its association with anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life. The cross-sectional study enrolled 451 students at the Faculty of Medicine (medicine, dentistry, nursing and speech therapy). Survey instruments were distributed at the conclusion of the spring semester during the last required lecture for each year and study programme class. Perceived stress was assessed using the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale. The students were evaluated for symptoms of depression and anxiety, using Zung's self-assessment inventory for depression and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). European Quality of Life-5 dimensions were used for describing and evaluating health. Multivariate analyses were carried out using logistic regression to examine the relationship between the outcome variable and selected determinant factors. A high degree of stress was reported by 1.6% of students, while the majority of students had either moderate (70.6%) or low degree (27.5%) of stress. The significant independent factors associated with perceived stress were anxiety score (OR, 0.339; CI 95%, 0.276-0.403) and EQ-5D score (OR, 0.044; CI 95%, 0.033-0.085). A high degree of perceived stress (OR, 0.624; CI 95%, 0.507-0.704), the presence of depression (OR, 0.800; CI 95%, 0.513-1.087), and low quality of life were associated with anxiety (OR, 0.073; CI 95%, 0.018-0.128). Higher levels of perceived stress predispose health professions students for anxiety and lower quality of life. The study programme was not a significant determinant of perceived stress sore.

  16. Use of social media to conduct a cross-sectional epidemiologic and quality of life survey of patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Tarrik; Burzawa, Jennifer; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Bodurka, Diane C; Ramondetta, Lois M; Brown, Jubilee; Frumovitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of using social media to perform cross-sectional epidemiologic and quality-of-life research on patients with rare gynecologic tumors, we performed a survey of patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the cervix using Facebook. After approval from our Institutional Review Board, a support group of patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the cervix was identified on Facebook. Group members were asked to complete a survey comprising 84 questions evaluating clinical presentation; treatment; recurrence; quality of life; and sexual function. The survey was posted for 30 days, during which 57 women responded from 8 countries across 4 continents treated at 51 centers. All respondents provided a detailed clinical and tumor history. The mean age was 38.5 years. The stage distribution was stage I, 36 patients (63%); II, 13 (23%); III, 2 (4%); and IV, 6 (11%). Forty-nine patients (86%) had small cell and 8 (14%) had large cell tumors. Forty-five of the respondents (79%) had completed primary therapy and were without evidence of disease. Five (9%) had recurrence, 3 (5%) had persistent disease after therapy, and 4 (7%) were still under treatment. Forty-one patients (72%) reported symptoms at time of presentation. Thirty-seven patients (65%) received multimodality primary therapy. Quality of life instruments demonstrated high scores for anxiety and a negative impact of anxiety and cancer on functional and emotional well-being. Sexual function scores did not differ significantly between respondents and the PROMIS reference population. Use of a social media network to perform epidemiologic and quality of life research on patients with rare gynecologic tumors is feasible and permits such research to be conducted efficiently and rapidly. © 2013.

  17. Association Between Awareness of Hypertension and Health-Related Quality of Life in a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study in Rural Area of Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Baibing; Dang, Shaonong; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Yaling; Yang, Ruihai; Wang, Duolao; Yan, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Hypertensive patients have more complex health care needs and are more likely to have poorer health-related quality of life than normotensive people. The awareness of hypertension could be related to reduce health-related quality of life. We propose the use of quantile regression to explore more detailed relationships between awareness of hypertension and health-related quality of life. In a cross-sectional, population-based study, 2737 participants (including 1035 hypertensive patients and 1702 normotensive participants) completed the Short-Form Health Survey. A quantile regression model was employed to investigate the association of physical component summary scores and mental component summary scores with awareness of hypertension and to evaluate the associated factors. Patients who were aware of hypertension (N = 554) had lower scores than patients who were unaware of hypertension (N = 481). The median (IQR) of physical component summary scores: 48.20 (13.88) versus 53.27 (10.79), P mental component summary scores: 50.68 (15.09) versus 51.70 (10.65), P = 0.03. adjusting for covariates, the quantile regression results suggest awareness of hypertension was associated with most physical component summary scores quantiles (P mental component summary scores quantiles in which the β-estimates from -3.47 (95% CI: -6.65 to -0.39) to -2.18 (95% CI: -4.30 to -0.06). The awareness of hypertension has a greater effect on those with intermediate physical component summary status: the β-estimates were equal to -2.04 (95% CI: -3.51 to -0.57, P Awareness of hypertension was negatively related to health-related quality of life in hypertensive patients in rural western China, which has a greater effect on mental component summary scores with the poorer status and on physical component summary scores with the intermediate status.

  18. Extraversion and openness to experience moderate the relationship between orthodontic treatment need and oral health-related quality of life in adolescents: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğan, Cihan

    2018-05-22

    To investigate the effects of personality traits to moderate the relationships between orthodontic treatment need and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed that included 230 subjects (125 girls and 105 boys) aged 11-14 years. Orthodontic treatment need was measured using the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). The Child Perceptions Questionnaire, the Basic Personality Traits Inventory (BPTI), and the Revised Life Orientation Test were used to assess the OHRQoL, basic personality dimensions, and dispositional optimism respectively. Potential moderation effects were evaluated with Spearman's correlations and multiple regression analyses. There were weak correlations between orthodontic treatment need and quality of life with social and emotional well-being dimensions ( r = 0.238, r = 0.296 and r = 0.209). A moderating effect of extraversion was observed in the relationship between orthodontic treatment need and OHRQoL, emotional well-being, and social well-being (SWB) (Δ R 2 = 0.03, Δ R 2 = 0.02, and Δ R 2 = 0.04, respectively). Openness to experience affected relationships between orthodontic treatment need and OHRQoL, and emotional well-being (EWB) (Δ R 2 = 0.03 and Δ R 2 = 0.04, respectively). In children with higher extraversion, the increase in ICON scores resulted in less increase in CPQ total, EWB, and SWB scores. In children with higher openness to experience, the increase influenced CPQ total and EWB scores similarly. The relationship between orthodontic treatment need and quality of life is moderated by personality traits. Early adolescents with higher extraversion and openness to experience are less affected by increased orthodontic treatment need.

  19. Quality of care and quality of life of people with dementia living at green care farms: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Bram; Hamers, Jan P H; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G; Tan, Frans E S; Verbeek, Hilde

    2017-07-19

    Many countries are introducing smaller, more home-like care facilities that represent a radically new approach to nursing home care for people with dementia. The green care farm is a new type of nursing home developed in the Netherlands. The goal of this study was to compare quality of care, quality of life and related outcomes in green care farms, regular small-scale living facilities and traditional nursing homes for people with dementia. A cross-sectional design was used. Three types of nursing homes were included: (1) green care farms; (2) regular small-scale living facilities; (3) traditional nursing homes. All participating nursing homes were non-profit, collectively funded nursing homes in the south of the Netherlands. One hundred and fifteen residents with a formal diagnosis of dementia were included in the study. Data on quality of care was gathered and consisted of outcome indicators (e.g. falling incidents, pressure ulcers), structure indicators (e.g. hours per resident per day), and process indicators (e.g. presence, accessibility and content of protocols on care delivery). Furthermore, questionnaires on cognition, dependence in activities of daily living, quality of life, social engagement, neuropsychiatric symptoms, agitation, and depression were used. Data showed that quality of care was comparable across settings. No large differences were found on clinical outcome measures, hours per resident per day, or process indicators. Higher quality of life scores were reported for residents of green care farms in comparison with residents of traditional nursing homes. They scored significantly higher on the Quality of Life - Alzheimer's disease Scale (p quality of life. In addition, residents of green care farms scored higher on three quality of life domains of the Qualidem: positive affect, social relations and having something to do (p  0.7). No differences with regular small-scale living facilities were found. Green care farms seem to be a valuable

  20. Patients' self-perceived burden, caregivers' burden and quality of life for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Dan; Ou, RuWei; Miao, XiaoHui; Zhao, LiHong; Wei, QianQian; Chen, XuePing; Liang, Yan; Shang, HuiFang; Yang, Rong

    2017-10-01

    This study surveys the quality of life of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and the factors associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients' self-perceived burden and their caregivers' burden. Burdens of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their caregivers in Chinese population are largely unknown. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 81 pairs of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and their caregivers. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients' self-perceived burden and caregivers' burden were assessed by the Self-Perceived Burden Scale and Zarit-Burden Interview, respectively. Quality of life of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref. The amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised questionnaire was used to estimate patients' physical function. Both patients and caregivers reported a mild to moderate burden. The World Health Organization quality of life-Bref scores were decreased in respondents with lower amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised, higher Self-Perceived Burden Scale and higher Zarit-Burden Interview scores. Self-Perceived Burden Scale scores were associated with patients' knowledge of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, respiratory function and female sex. Zarit-Burden Interview scores were associated with caregivers' age, patients' motor function and out-of-pocket payment. With increase in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients' self-perceived burden and caregivers' burden, quality of life of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients decreased. Female patients, who had known more about the disease, and those with severe respiratory dysfunction were subject to higher self-perceived burden. Older caregivers and caregivers of patients with severe motor dysfunction and more out-of-pocket payment experienced more care burdens. Our study suggests that paying more attention to female amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

  1. A cross-sectional study of sociodemographic factors and their influence on quality of life in medical students at Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinolli, Mario Ivo; Novaretti, Marcia Cristina Zago

    2017-01-01

    Various sociodemographic factors can affect the quality of life of medical students and interfere in their ability to study. A deeper understanding of these factors may facilitate improvements in learning and retention of medical students. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 405 medical students, representing 65.3% of the total student body (years 1-6), at a private medical school in São Paulo, Brazil. Among the entire study group, 177 students (43.7%) were male, and 228 (56.3%) were female. The mean age was 23.55 years (SD = 3.98 years, range: 18-40). The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Biomedical Research and Education Facility (WHOQOL-BREF) scale was used to evaluate the following sociodemographic factors: age, sex, academic year, daily traveling time, housing conditions, smoking, weight, height, participant's and his/her parents' education background, students who had a degree or not and religious beliefs. The reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF was evaluated using Cronbach's analysis, and the association of sociodemographic factors with quality of life was examined using multivariate regression analysis. Quality of life was significantly higher in medical students with religious beliefs (β 0.14 for psychological domain; β 0.11 for environmental domain) when compared with that in those with no religious beliefs. BMI was negative associated with QOL in medical students (β -0.11 for physical domain; β -18.9 for the psychological domain). In both male and female students, longer daily traveling time was negative related to QOL (β -0.11 for environmental domain). Having at least one parent who was a doctor was associated with a better quality of life (β 0.17 for environmental domain). Male students presented with significantly higher mean scores for three of the four domains evaluated (β 0.20 for physical domain; β 0.25 for psychological domain; β 0.14 for social domain). This study has provided novel insights into the effects of sociodemographic

  2. Thermal cycling behavior of La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} coating with the addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} by EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhenhua [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resources Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); He Limin, E-mail: he_limin@yahoo.co [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Chen Xiaolong; Zhao Yu [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resources Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Mu Rende; He Shimei [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Cao Xueqiang, E-mail: xcao@ciac.jl.c [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resources Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZ) with the addition of 3 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (LZ3Y) were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The phase structures, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, cyclic oxidation behaviors of these coatings were studied in detail. The thermal cycling test at 1373 K in an air furnace indicates that the LZ3Y coating has a lifetime of 617 cycles which is about 10% longer than that of LZ coating. The improvement of chemical homogeneity of the coating, the superior growth behavior of columns and the favorable mechanical properties are all very helpful to the prolongation of thermal cycling life of LZ3Y coating. The failure of LZ and LZ3Y coatings is mainly a result of the excess La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the chemical incompatibility of ceramic coatings with TGO layer, the thermal expansion mismatch between ceramic coatings and bond coat, and the outward diffusion of alloying elements into the ceramic coatings.

  3. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality. PMID:25802848

  4. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA, calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  5. End-of-life care in general practice: a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of ‘cancer’, ‘organ failure’ and ‘old-age/dementia’ patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Donker, G.A.; Deliens, L.; Block, L. van den; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: End-of-life care is often provided in primary care settings. Aim: To describe and compare general-practitioner end-of-life care for Dutch patients who died from ‘cancer’, ‘organ failure’ and ‘old-age or dementia’. Design: A cross-sectional, retrospective survey was conducted within a

  6. Comparison of self-stigma and quality of life in patients with depressive disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holubova M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Michaela Holubova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1 Stanislav Matousek,1 Klara Latalova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Kristyna Vrbova,1 Aleš Grambal,1 Milos Slepecky,3 Marta Zatkova3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic Background: The views of one’s self-stigma and quality of life (QoL in patients with schizophrenia and depressive disorders are significant subjective notions, both being proven to affect patient’s functioning in life. The objective of this study was to investigate the QoL and self-stigma in connection with demographic factors and compare the two groups of patients in terms of those variables. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and depressive disorders completed the Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, and a demographic questionnaire during a routine psychiatric control. Furthermore, both patients and their psychiatrists evaluated the severity of the disorder by Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale. Results: The QoL of patients with depressive disorders or schizophrenia spectrum disorders did not significantly differ between the two groups. In both groups, unemployment was perceived to be a significant factor decreasing the QoL. Self-stigma was detected to be higher in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders than in patients with depressive disorders. A strong correlation was found between the two scales, meaning that those with higher levels of self-stigmatization were less prone to see their life as fulfilling and joyful. Conclusion: This study shows that the degree of the internalized stigma can be an

  7. Relative hypo- and hypercortisolism are both associated with depression and lower quality of life in bipolar disorder: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Maripuu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression in unipolar and bipolar disorders is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis hyperactivity. Also, unipolar disorder has recently been shown to exhibit HPA-axis hypoactivity. We studied for the first time how HPA-axis hypo- and hyperactivity relate to depression and disease burden in bipolar disorder. We were interested in studying hypocortisolism; characterized by increased HPA-axis negative feedback sensitivity and lower basal cortisol levels together with the opposite HPA-axis regulatory pattern of hypercortisolism. METHODS: This cross-sectional study includes 145 type 1 and 2 bipolar outpatients and 145 matched controls. A dexamethasone-suppression-test (DST measures the negative feedback sensitivity and a weight-adjusted very-low-dose DST was employed, which is sensitive in identifying hypocortisolism and hypercortisolism. The 25th and 75th percentiles of control post-DST values were used as cut-offs identifying patients exhibiting relative hypo-, and hypercortisolism. Self-report questionnaires were employed: Beck-Depression-Inventory (BDI, Montgomery-Åsberg-Depression-Rating-Scale (MADRS-S, World-Health-Organization-Quality-of-Life-Assessment-100 and Global-Assessment-of-Functioning. RESULTS: Patients exhibiting relative hypocortisolism expectedly exhibited lowered basal cortisol levels (p = 0.046. Patients exhibiting relative hypercortisolism expectedly exhibited elevated basal levels (p<0.001. Patients exhibiting relative hypocortisolism showed 1.9-2.0 (BDI, p = 0.017, MADRS-S, p = 0.37 and 6.0 (p<0.001 times increased frequencies of depression and low overall life quality compared with patients exhibiting mid post-DST values (eucortisolism. Adjusted Odds Ratios (OR:s for depression ranged from 3.8-4.1 (BDI, p = 0.006, MADRS-S, p = 0.011 and was 23.4 (p<0.001 for life quality. Patients exhibiting relative hypercortisolism showed 1.9-2.4 (BDI, p = 0.017, MADRS-S, p

  8. Thermal cycling behavior of EB-PVD TBCs on CVD platinum modified aluminide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhxubiam@aliyun.com; Wang, Zhankao; Huang, Guanghong; Mu, Rende; He, Limin

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The removed ridges at the grain boundaries with grit blasting. • The ridge, oxidation and cracking are features of damage initiation in TBCs. • Spalled location either at TGO/bond coat interface or inside of TGO layer. • The lower strain energy release rate within TGO layer can prolong of TBCs life. - Abstract: Thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) including of chemical vapor deposited (Ni, Pt)Al bond coat with grit blasting process and electron beam physical vapor deposited Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized-ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ) ceramic coating were investigated. The phase structures, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, cyclic oxidation behaviors and residual stresses of the TBCs were studied in detail. It was found that the fracture path traverses through the ceramic coating to TGO interface, as well as at the TGO to bond coat interface is obviously detected. The change in fracture plane occurs at grain boundaries. The ridge top spallation leads to separate of sufficient size to result in unstable fracture driven by the strain energy stored in the TGO. The bond coat can undergo a volume increase upon oxidation, so that a cavity, enlarged strictly by oxidation would be full to overflowing with TGO layer. The spalled location of the TBCs probably occurs either at the interface of TGO layer and bond coat or inside of TGO layer. The lower strain energy release rate within TGO layer during thermal cycling is beneficial to prolong of TBCs life. The lower is the compressive stress within TGO layer, the longer is the lifetime of TBCs.

  9. Preparation and electrochemical properties of homogeneous carbon-coated LiFe0.9Mn0.1PO4 as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yang; Yu, Jingang; Peng, Sui; Liu, Suqin; Wei, Zhongqiang; Li, Xianhong; Li, Yajuan

    2012-01-01

    Homogeneous carbon-coated LiFe 0.9 Mn 0.1 PO 4 cathode material was synthesized by one-step solid-state reaction using glucose as carbon source. Powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic measurements were employed to characterize the samples. Mn-doping and carbon co-modification did not affect the olivine structure of LiFePO 4 , but improved its kinetics in terms of capacity delivery, polarization and rate capability. When compared with the undoped LiFePO 4 /C, the LiFe 0.9 Mn 0.1 PO 4 /C sample presented good size distribution - around 100-200 nm - and better electrochemical performance. At current rates of 0.1, 1.0, 3.0 and 10.0 C (C = 170 mA g -1 ), the LiFe 0.9 Mn 0.1 PO 4 /C electrode delivered discharge capacities of 154.1, 138.8, 120.0 and 94.0 mA h g -1 , respectively. Results obtained by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicated that the polarization and charge transfer resistance of the sample were greatly decreased by Mn-doping. (author)

  10. Impact of dental trauma on oral health-related quality of life among 12 years Lucknow school children: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjukta Bagchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental trauma has become an important attribute of dental public health inducing feelings of embarrassment to smile, laugh, and show teeth affecting social relationships. Available literature regarding the impact of dental trauma on the quality of life of children in Lucknow is scarce. Aims: To assess the impact of traumatic dental injuries (TDI on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL among 12-year-old school going children of Lucknow. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 12-year-old Lucknow school children. A total of 492 school children were selected through multistage cluster random sampling. The participants completed the child perceptions questionnaire (CPQ 11-14 - impact short form: 16 followed by an assessment of TDI. Unpaired t-test was used to determine the association of TDI with CPQ 11-14 because it involved two separate groups; one with dental trauma and other without dental trauma. Results: The prevalence of TDI was 10.8%. Maxillary central incisors (8.73% were the frequently traumatized teeth. Enamel fracture (7.11% was the most common type of TDI. OHRQoL had statistically significant association with TDI. Conclusions: TDI has a negative impact on OHRQoL of children affecting their personal relationships and school performance.

  11. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  12. The role of law in decisions to withhold and withdraw life-sustaining treatment from adults who lack capacity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Benjamin P; Willmott, Lindy; Williams, Gail; Cartwright, Colleen; Parker, Malcolm

    2017-05-01

    To determine the role played by law in medical specialists' decision-making about withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from adults who lack capacity, and the extent to which legal knowledge affects whether law is followed. Cross-sectional postal survey of medical specialists. The two largest Australian states by population. 649 medical specialists from seven specialties most likely to be involved in end-of-life decision-making in the acute setting. Compliance with law and the impact of legal knowledge on compliance. 649 medical specialists (of 2104 potential participants) completed the survey (response rate 31%). Responses to a hypothetical scenario found a potential low rate of legal compliance, 32% (95% CI 28% to 36%). Knowledge of the law and legal compliance were associated: within compliers, 86% (95% CI 83% to 91%) had specific knowledge of the relevant aspect of the law, compared with 60% (95% CI 55% to 65%) within non-compliers. However, the reasons medical specialists gave for making decisions did not vary according to legal knowledge. Medical specialists prioritise patient-related clinical factors over law when confronted with a scenario where legal compliance is inconsistent with what they believe is clinically indicated. Although legally knowledgeable specialists were more likely to comply with the law, compliance in the scenario was not motivated by an intention to follow law. Ethical considerations (which are different from, but often align with, law) are suggested as a more important influence in clinical decision-making. More education and training of doctors is needed to demonstrate the role, relevance and utility of law in end-of-life care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Physical Activity Throughout the Adult Life Span and Domain-Specific Cognitive Function in Old Age: A Systematic Review of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeroff, Tobias; Ingmann, Tobias; Banzer, Winfried

    2018-06-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that physical activity might alleviate the age-related neurodegeneration and decline of cognitive function. However, most of this evidence is based on data investigating the association of exercise interventions or current physical activity behavior with cognitive function in elderly subjects. We performed a systematic review and hypothesize that physical activity during the adult life span is connected with maintained domain-specific cognitive functions during late adulthood defined as age 60+ years. We performed a systematic literature search up to November 2017 in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar without language limitations for studies analyzing the association of leisure physical activity during the adult life span (age 18+ years) and domain-specific cognitive functions in older adults (age 60+ years). The literature review yielded 14,294 articles and after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, nine cross-sectional and 14 longitudinal studies were included. Moderate- and vigorous-intensity leisure physical activity was associated with global cognitive function and specific cognitive domains including executive functions and memory but not attention or working memory. Most studies assessed mid- to late-adulthood physical activity, thus information concerning the influence of young adult life-span physical activity is currently lacking. Observational evidence that moderate- and vigorous-intensity leisure physical activity is beneficially associated with maintained cognitive functions during old age is accumulating. Further studies are necessary to confirm a causal link by assessing objective physical activity data and the decline of cognitive functions at multiple time points during old age.

  14. Functional Fitness and Self-Reported Quality of Life of Older Women Diagnosed with Knee Osteoarthrosis: A Cross-Sectional Case Control Study

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    Paula Andréa Malveira Cavalcante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Utilizing a cross-sectional case control design, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functional fitness and self-reported quality of life differences in older people diagnosed with knee osteoarthrosis (O who participated in health promotion groups. Methods. Ninety older women were distributed into two groups: control without O of the knee (C, n=40 and a group diagnosed with primary and secondary knee O with grade II or higher, with definite osteophytes (OA, n=50. Functional fitness was evaluated by specific tests, and the time spent in physical activity and quality of life was evaluated by the IPAQ and WHOQOL (distributed in four domains: physical: P, psychological: PS, social: S, and environmental: E domain questionnaires. Results. No differences were found between ages of groups (C: 66±7; OA: 67±9; years. The values of the chair stand test (rep in the OA (13±5 group were different when compared to C group (22±5. For the 6-minute walk test (meters, the values obtained for the C (635±142 were higher (P<0.01 than the OA (297±143 group. The time spent in physical activity (min was greater (P<0.001 in the control (220±12 group compared to OA (100±10 group. Higher values (P<0.001 in all domains were found in the C (P: 69±16, PS: 72±17, S: 67±15, E: 70±15 group compared to OA (P: 48±7, PS: 43±8, S: 53±13, E: 47±14 group. Conclusion. Our data suggests that knee O, in older women, can promote a decline in time spent performing physical activity and functional fitness with decline in quality of life with an increase in sitting time.

  15. Depression, quality of life, work productivity, resource use, and costs among women experiencing menopause and hot flashes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibonaventura, Marco Dacosta; Wagner, Jan-Samuel; Alvir, Jose; Whiteley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effect of depression on health-related quality of life, work productivity, resource use, and costs among women experiencing menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes. The study included data from the 2005 US National Health and Wellness Survey (N = 41,184), a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey representative of the adult US population. Among women who reported experiencing menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes, women who reported experiencing depression in the last year (n = 1,165) were compared with women who did not report experiencing depression in the last year (n = 2,467), controlling for demographic and health characteristics. Outcome measures included health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 8-item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-8]), work productivity within the past 7 days, self-reported health care resource use within the past 6 months, and indirect and direct costs. Women experiencing depression were significantly more likely to be white, to be unemployed, to be uninsured, to currently smoke, to not exercise, and to be obese (all P women experiencing depression reported significantly lower mental (39.66 vs 50.85, P work (5.31% vs 2.80%, P work (25.00% vs 14.32%, P women experiencing depression. The numbers of physician visits (2.47 vs 1.77, P women experiencing depression. Per woman per year indirect and direct costs were $3,066 and $1,075 higher, respectively, for women experiencing depression compared with those not experiencing depression. Approximately one-third of women experiencing menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes, also reported experiencing depression. These women reported significantly worse quality of life and significantly greater work productivity loss, health care resource use, and costs. Given the prevalence and burden, these findings suggest that proper assessment and management of depressive symptoms among women with menopause may have an important humanistic and economic benefit.

  16. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO_4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jinpeng; Wang, Youlan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • B-doped carbon decorated LiFePO_4 has been fabricated for the first time. • The LiFePO_4@B-CdisplaysimprovedbatteryperformancecomparedtoLiFePO_4@C. • The LiFePO_4@B-C is good candidate for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO_4. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO_4 is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO_4@B_0_._4-C can reach 164.1 mAh g"−"1 at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g"−"1). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g"−"1 and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO_4@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  17. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinpeng; Wang, Youlan

    2016-12-01

    An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO4. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4 is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO4@B0.4-C can reach 164.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g-1). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g-1 and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO4@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooppil Nandakumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™ has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for haemodialysis patients in Singapore. Methods From December 2006 through January 2007, this cross-sectional study gathered data on patients ≥21 years old, who were undergoing haemodialysis at National Kidney Foundation in Singapore. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine construct validity of the eight KDQOL-SF™ sub-scales, Cronbach's alpha coefficient to determine internal consistency reliability, correlation of the overall health rating with kidney disease-targeted scales to confirm validity, and correlation of the eight sub-scales with age, income and education to determine convergent and divergent validity. Results Of 1980 haemodialysis patients, 1180 (59% completed the KDQOL-SF™. Full information was available for 980 participants, with a mean age of 56 years. The sample was representative of the total dialysis population in Singapore, except Indian ethnicity that was over-represented. The instrument designers' proposed eight sub-scales were confirmed, which together accounted for 68.4% of the variance. All sub-scales had a Cronbach's α above the recommended minimum value of 0.7 to indicate good reliability (range: 0.72 to 0.95, except for Social function (0.66. Correlation of items within subscales was higher than correlation of items outside subscales in 90% of the cases. The overall health rating positively correlated with kidney disease-targeted scales, confirming validity. General health subscales were found to have significant

  19. Validation of the kidney disease quality of life-short form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Veena D; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Lim, Jeremy Fy

    2010-12-20

    In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for haemodialysis patients in Singapore. From December 2006 through January 2007, this cross-sectional study gathered data on patients ≥21 years old, who were undergoing haemodialysis at National Kidney Foundation in Singapore. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine construct validity of the eight KDQOL-SF™ sub-scales, Cronbach's alpha coefficient to determine internal consistency reliability, correlation of the overall health rating with kidney disease-targeted scales to confirm validity, and correlation of the eight sub-scales with age, income and education to determine convergent and divergent validity. Of 1980 haemodialysis patients, 1180 (59%) completed the KDQOL-SF™. Full information was available for 980 participants, with a mean age of 56 years. The sample was representative of the total dialysis population in Singapore, except Indian ethnicity that was over-represented. The instrument designers' proposed eight sub-scales were confirmed, which together accounted for 68.4% of the variance. All sub-scales had a Cronbach's α above the recommended minimum value of 0.7 to indicate good reliability (range: 0.72 to 0.95), except for Social function (0.66). Correlation of items within subscales was higher than correlation of items outside subscales in 90% of the cases. The overall health rating positively correlated with kidney disease-targeted scales, confirming validity. General health subscales were found to have significant associations with age, income and education

  20. Coatings for Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Protection of Disk Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Jim; Gabb, Tim; Draper, Sue; Miller, Bob; Locci, Ivan; Sudbrack, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Increasing temperatures in aero gas turbines is resulting in oxidation and hot corrosion attack of turbine disks. Since disks are sensitive to low cycle fatigue (LCF), any environmental attack, and especially hot corrosion pitting, can potentially seriously degrade the life of the disk. Application of metallic coatings are one means of protecting disk alloys from this environmental attack. However, simply the presence of a metallic coating, even without environmental exposure, can degrade the LCF life of a disk alloy. Therefore, coatings must be designed which are not only resistant to oxidation and corrosion attack, but must not significantly degrade the LCF life of the alloy. Three different Ni-Cr coating compositions (29, 35.5, 45wt. Cr) were applied at two thicknesses by Plasma Enhanced Magnetron Sputtering (PEMS) to two similar Ni-based disk alloys. One coating also received a thin ZrO2 overcoat. The coated samples were also given a short oxidation exposure in a low PO2 environment to encourage chromia scale formation. Without further environmental exposure, the LCF life of the coated samples, evaluated at 760C, was less than that of uncoated samples. Hence, application of the coating alone degraded the LCF life of the disk alloy. Since shot peening is commonly employed to improve LCF life, the effect of shot peening the coated and uncoated surface was also evaluated. For all cases, shot peening improved the LCF life of the coated samples. Coated and uncoated samples were shot peened and given environmental exposures consisting of 500 hrs of oxidation followed by 50 hrs of hot corrosion, both at 760C). The high-Cr coating showed the best LCF life after the environmental exposures. Results of the LCF testing and post-test characterization of the various coatings will be presented and future research directions discussed.

  1. Tribological performance of Zinc soft metal coatings in solid lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalla, Srinivasa Prakash; Krishnan Anirudh, V.; Reddy Narala, Suresh Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Solid lubrication by soft coatings is an important technique for superior tribological performance in machine contacts involving high pressures. Coating with soft materials ensures that the subsurface machine component wear decreases, ensuring longer life. Several soft metal coatings have been studied but zinc coatings have not been studied much. This paper essentially deals with the soft coating by zinc through electroplating on hard surfaces, which are subsequently tested in sliding experiments for tribological performance. The hardness and film thickness values have been found out, the coefficient of friction of the zinc coating has been tested using a pin on disc wear testing machine and the results of the same have been presented.

  2. Cross-cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Stoma Quality of Life Questionnaire for Patients With a Colostomy or Ileostomy in Brazil: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lívia de Oliveira, Ana; Loures Mendes, Larissa; Pereira Netto, Michele; Gonçalves Leite, Isabel Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Many studies examining the quality of life of stoma patients utilize questionnaires that have not been validated specifically for these patients in their native language. Owing to the large and increasing prevalence of intestinal stomas, a cross-sectional study was conducted among patients of a stoma patient health care service in Juiz de Fora, Brazil between September 2014 and August 2015 to validate the Stoma Quality of Life (Stoma-QoL) questionnaire in Portuguese (Brazilian variant). In addition, the effect of sociodemographic, clinical, and eating habit variables on the quality of life of people with a colostomy or ileostomy was assessed. Eating habit variables included eating comfort in the postoperative period, excluding foods for a period of time, fear of eating, and excluding foods that may cause odor, gas, diarrhea, and/or constipation. All patients with a colostomy or ileostomy served by 1 ostomy care center were invited to participate. Patients who were at least 18 years of age, provided signed informed consent, and had the physical and mental capacity to complete the questionnaire were eligible to participate. The sociodemographic, clinical history, eating behavior, and Stoma-QoL questionnaires were administered by trained researchers as part of patient nutritional care. A sample of 11 (10% of all study participants) also completed the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), which includes a Mental Component Summary (MCS) and a Physical Component Summary (PCS), to establish convergent validity. All participant response data were collected using a standardized form developed for this study and stored in electronic files. The identities of patients were kept anonymous, and patients had the option to refuse to participate during the assessment. Data were analyzed descriptively; the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyze associations among the variables collected. Normal distribution of the Stoma-QoL total scores was assessed using the

  3. The Tribological Performance of CrMoN/MoS2 Solid Lubrication Coating on a Piston Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelan Di

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the tribological properties of an engine piston ring and enhance its service life, magnetron sputtering technology and low temperature ion sulphurizing treatment technology were used to prepare CrMoN/MoS2 solid lubricant coating on the surface of an engine piston ring. The morphologies and compositions of the surface and cross-section of the sulfuration layer were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and wear property under high load, high speed and high temperature conditions were tested by a SRV®4 friction and wear testing machine. The results show that the CrMoN/MoS2 composite coatings appear as a dense grain structure, and the coating is an ideal solid lubrication layer that possesses an excellent high temperature wear resistance, reducing the engine operating temperature abrasion effectively and prolonging the service life of the engine.

  4. The impact of Internet-based specific activities on the perceptions of Internet addiction, quality of life, and excessive usage: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Halley M; Szabo, Attila; Griffiths, Mark D

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has examined the context in which preference for specific online activities arises, leading researchers to suggest that excessive Internet users are engaged in specific activities rather than 'generalized' Internet use. The present study aimed to partially replicate and expand these findings by addressing four research questions regarding (i) participants' preferred online activities, (i) possible expected changes in online behavior in light of hypothetical scenarios, (iii) perceived quality of life when access to Internet was not possible, and (iv) how participants with self-diagnosed Internet addiction relate to intensity and frequency of Internet use. A cross-sectional design was adopted using convenience and snowball sampling to recruit participants. A total of 1057 Internet users with ages ranging from 16 to 70 years (M age  = 30 years, SD = 10.84) were recruited online via several English-speaking online forums. Most participants indicated that their preferred activities were (i) accessing general information and news, (ii) social networking, and (iii) using e-mail and/or online chatting. Participants also reported that there would be a significant decrease of their Internet use if access to their preferred activities was restricted. The study also found that 51% of the total sample perceived themselves as being addicted to the Internet, while 14.1% reported that without the Internet their life would be improved. The context in which the Internet is used appears to determine the intensity and the lengths that individuals will go to use this tool. The implications of these findings are further discussed.

  5. Occupational stress and health-related quality of life among public sector bank employees: A cross-sectional study in Mysore, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamardi, Sowmya N; Kamath, Ramachandra; Tiwari, Rajnarayan; Nair, Binu Valsalakumari Sreekumaran; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Phadnis, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Occupational morbidities have been estimated to cause an economic loss up to 10-20% of the gross national product of a country. It is an important cause of occupational morbidity and decreased quality of life (QOL) for the workers. The aim of the present study is to assess the level of occupational stress and its association with the QOL among the public sector bank employees. The present study was conducted among employees of public sector banks in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study. Job stress was measured by using occupational stress index (OSI) scale questionnaire and health-related QOL was measured using the short form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. The sample size estimated for the study was 526 and cluster random sampling technique was used. Chi-square test was used to find the association between the study variables and level of stress. Multiple linear regression model was used to find the determinants of health-related QOL among the study subjects. The total number of the study subjects was 546 out of which 57% were males and 43% were females. The proportion of study subjects reporting to be current smokers was 4.2% and almost all study subjects reported occasional alcohol consumption. The mean physical component summary (PCS) score and mental component summary (MCS) using the original United States standardization were 47.90 and 48.30, respectively. The individuals with mild stress scored higher in both PCS and MCS than the individuals who had moderate to severe stress levels. There was significant association of health related quality of life with the age of the respondent,presence of at least one morbidity and level of stress with health-related QOL. This study has shown an association of occupational stress with the QOL. There is a need for interventions aimed at mitigating the occupational stress among employees of the banking sector.

  6. Impact of genital warts on health related quality of life in men and women in mainland China: a multicenter hospital-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Ju-Fang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL of patients with genital warts (GW in populations in mainland China is still limited. The aim of the study was to use a generic instrument to measure the impact of genital warts on HRQoL in men and women in this setting. Methods A multi-centre hospital-based cross-sectional study across 18 centers in China was conducted to interview patients using the European quality of life-5 dimension (EQ-5D instrument; respondents' demographic and clinical data were also collected. Results A total of 1,358 GW patients (612 men, 746 women were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 32.0 ± 10.6 years. 56.4% of the patients reported some problems in the dimension of Anxiety/Depression (highest, followed by Pain/Discomfort (24.7% and Mobility (3.5%. The overall visual analogue scale (VAS score of the study population was found to be 65.2 ± 22.0, and the EQ-5D index score was found to be 0.843 ± 0.129 using Japanese preference weights (the Chinese preference was unavailable yet. Patients with lower VAS means and EQ-5D index scores were more often female, living in urban area, and suffering multiple GW (all p values 0.05. Conclusions The HRQoL of patients with GW was substantially lower, compared to a national representative general population in China (VAS = ~80; the findings of different subgroups are informative for future GW prevention and control efforts.

  7. Are self-stigma, quality of life, and clinical data interrelated in schizophrenia spectrum patients? A cross-sectional outpatient study

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    Holubova M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Michaela Holubova, Jan Prasko, Klara Latalova, Marie Ociskova, Aleš Grambal, Dana Kamaradova, Kristyna Vrbova, Radovan Hruby Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Background: Current research attention has been moving toward the needs of patients and their consequences for the quality of life (QoL. Self-stigma is a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon disturbing the QoL in a substantial number of psychiatric patients. In our study, we examined the relationship between demographic data, the severity of symptoms, self-stigma, and QoL in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder.Methods: Probands who met International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for schizophrenia spectrum disorder (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorder were recruited in the study. We studied the correlations between the QoL measured by the QoL Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire, self-stigma assessed by the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness, and severity of the disorder measured by the objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression severity scales in this cross-sectional study.Results: A total of 109 psychotic patients and 91 healthy controls participated in the study. Compared with the control group, there was a lower QoL and a higher score of self-stigmatization in psychotic patients. We found the correlation between an overall rating of self-stigmatization, duration of disorder, and QoL. The level of self-stigmatization correlated positively with total symptom severity score and negatively with the QoL. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the overall rating of objective symptom severity and the score of self-stigma were significantly associated with the QoL.Conclusion: Our study suggests a negative impact of self-stigma level on the QoL in patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Keywords: quality

  8. Is the concept of quality of life relevant for multiple sclerosis patients with cognitive impairment? Preliminary results of a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Baumstarck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment occurs in about 50% of multiple sclerosis (MS patients, and the use of self-reported outcomes for evaluating treatment and managing care among subjects with cognitive dysfunction has been questioned. The aim of this study was to provide new evidence about the suitability of self-reported outcomes for use in this specific population by exploring the internal structure, reliability and external validity of a specific quality of life (QoL instrument, the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire (MusiQoL. METHODS: DESIGN: cross-sectional study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: MS patients of any disease subtype. DATA COLLECTION: sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, education level, and occupational activity and clinical data (MS subtype, Expanded Disability Status Scale, disease duration; QoL (MusiQoL and SF36; and neuropsychological performance (Stroop color-word test. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: confirmatory factor analysis, item-dimension correlations, Cronbach's alpha coefficients, Rasch statistics, relationships between MusiQoL dimensions and other parameters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and twenty-four consecutive patients were enrolled. QoL scores did not differ between the 69 cognitively non-impaired patients and the 55 cognitively impaired patients, except for the symptoms dimension. The confirmatory factor analysis performed among the impaired subjects showed that the structure of the questionnaire matched with the initial structure of the MusiQoL. The unidimensionality of the MusiQoL dimensions was preserved, and the internal validity indices were satisfactory and close to those of the reference population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that executive dysfunction did not compromise the reliability and the validity of the self-reported QoL questionnaires.

  9. Participants at Norwegian Healthy Life Centres: Who are they, why do they attend and how are they motivated? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samdal, Gro Beate; Meland, Eivind; Eide, Geir Egil; Berntsen, Sveinung; Abildsnes, Eirik; Stea, Tonje H; Mildestvedt, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    We examine the characteristics of participants entering Norwegian Healthy Life Centres, their reasons for attending and whether socio-economic status, motivation, self-efficacy and social support relate to physical activity and sedentary behaviour. This cross-sectional study is part of a randomised controlled trial. Inclusion criteria are that participants should be ≥ 18 years old and able to take part in a physical activity group intervention. Exclusion criteria are severe mental illness and general learning disability. We analysed data using simple and multiple linear regression analyses. We recruited 118 participants from eight Norwegian municipalities between June 2014 and September 2015. Of these, 77% were female, mean (standard deviation) age 48.6 (13.4) years, body mass index 34.0 (5.8) kg/m 2 and mean gross family income €61,000. The proportion of participants with upper-secondary school or less as their highest level of education was 55%. The most frequent reasons given for attendance at Healthy Life Centres were being overweight, increasing physical activity, improving diet and having musculoskeletal health challenges. Participants had high levels of autonomous motivation and 79% achieved national recommendations for physical activity. Respect and appreciation in childhood, self-esteem and self-rated health were associated with self-efficacy and social support for physical activity. Participants were predominantly obese, physically active, female and motivated for change. A high proportion had low educational attainment and low incomes. The trial will reveal whether interventions succeed in increasing physical activity further, or in decreasing sedentary behaviour, and whether health inequalities narrow or widen across groups.

  10. Perceived quality of life in partners of patients undergoing treatment in somatic health, mental health, or substance use disorder units: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Bente; Weimand, Bente M; Ruud, Torleif; Høie, Magnhild M; Vederhus, John-Kåre

    2017-08-30

    This study explores (1) differences in socio-demographic, social/familial, and health variables and perceived quality of life (QoL) among partners of patients with somatic illness, mental illness, or substance use disorder (SUD); and (2) identifies factors associated with QoL. Participants (N = 213) in this cross-sectional study were recruited from inpatient or outpatient services in five hospitals in Norway, 2013-2014. QoL was measured by the QoL-5, a generic five-item questionnaire. Differences between groups were examined using Chi-square for categorical variables and Kruskal-Wallis for contiuous variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with QoL. The mean QoL score was similar to that of a general population sample, and 13% of the sample had a markedly low QoL. Partners in the SUD group experienced worse socio-demographic conditions in terms of occupation and income, but QoL did not differ significantly among the three groups. In a regression model, perceived family cohesion was positively associated with QoL while psychological distress (Symptom Checklist-10) was negatively related to it. The model explained 56% of the variance in QoL. When patients are ill, clinicians should consider the partners' QoL, and brief QoL tools can be used to identify those who are struggling most. Reduced QoL is associated with higher psychological distress and lower family cohesion. Treatment initiatives focusing on these themes may serve as preventive measures to help the most vulnerable families cope with their difficult life situation.

  11. Predictors of health-related quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. A cross-sectional study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsen, Vilde Lehne; Vandvik, Per Olav; Farup, Per G

    2015-07-30

    Reduced quality of life (QoL) is often the main problem for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study aimed at finding predictors of reduced physical and mental quality of life (QoL) accessible for intervention. Consecutive patients with IBS (according to the Rome II criteria) visiting a general practitioner were included in a prospective cohort study and followed up for 6-9 months. At the last visit, information about sociodemographic characteristics, abdominal complaints, QoL and a range of physical and mental comorbidities were collected. Physical and mental QoL were measured with the generic QoL instrument Short Form-12 Physical Component Score (SF-12 PCS) and Short Form-12 Mental Component Score (SF-12 MCS) respectively. The normal scores are 50. This cross-sectional study used data from the last visit. Out of 208 patients included in the cohort study, 149 (female/male: 105/44) with a mean age of 52 years (SD 15.3) were available for the analyses. Physical and mental QoL were reduced, the mean SF-12 PCS and SF-12 MCS scores were 38.4 (SD 11.9) and 45.0 (SD 11.3) respectively. The main independent predictors of low SF-12 PCS and SF-12 MCS were subjective health complaints and organic diseases, and affective disorders respectively. The severity of IBS symptoms was of minor clinical importance. To help patients with IBS and reduced QoL, treatment should focus on QoL and not on relief of IBS symptoms. The different causes of reduced physical and mental QoL make an individually directed treatment necessary.

  12. Building resiliency: a cross-sectional study examining relationships among health-related quality of life, well-being, and disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowan, Monica E; Kirk, Ray C; Sloan, Jeff A

    2014-06-09

    Worldwide, disaster exposure and consequences are rising. Disaster risk in New Zealand is amplified by island geography, isolation, and ubiquitous natural hazards. Wellington, the capital city, has vital needs for evacuation preparedness and resilience to the devastating impacts and increasing uncertainties of earthquake and tsunami disasters. While poor quality of life (QoL) is widely-associated with low levels of engagement in many health-protective behaviors, the relationships among health-related quality of life (HrQoL), well-being, and preparedness are virtually unknown. We hypothesized that QoL and well-being affect household evacuation preparedness. We performed a quantitative epidemiologic survey (cross-sectional design) of Wellington adults. Our investigation assessed health-promoting attributes that build resiliency, conceptualized as health-protective attitudes and behaviors. Multidimensional QoL variables were measured using validated psychometric scales and analyzed for associations with evacuation preparedness, and we determined whether age and gender affected these relationships. We received 695 survey responses (28.5% response rate; margin of error ±3.8%; 80% statistical power to detect true correlations of 0.11 or greater). Correlational analyses showed statistically significant positive associations with evacuation preparedness for spiritual well-being, emotional well-being, and life satisfaction. No associations were found for mental health, social well-being, or gender; physical health was weakly negatively associated. Evacuation preparedness increased with age. Regression analyses showed that overall health and well-being explained 4.6-6.8% of the variance in evacuation preparedness. Spiritual well-being was the only QoL variable that significantly and uniquely explained variance in preparedness. How well-being influences preparedness is complex and deeply personal. The data indicate that multidimensional readiness is essential, and

  13. Beyond quality of life: a cross sectional study on the mental health of patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Beatriz Dos Santos; Fernandes, Neimar da Silva; de Melo, Nayara Pires; Abrita, Renata; Grincenkov, Fabiane Rossi Dos Santos; Fernandes, Natália Maria da Silva

    2017-04-17

    Patients with terminal chronic kidney disease (CKDT) requiring renal replacement therapies (RRT) undergo important changes in living habits and frequently need caregiving. These patients and their caregivers are risk groups for the development of physical and psychological symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety, depression, stress, fatigue, social support, and quality of life in patients with CKD and their caregivers. This cross sectional study was conducted with 21 patients and their caregivers, from January to September 2015. We included patients aged over 18 years, with at least 6 months on dialysis treatment, and caregivers who were family members. The participants' social, demographic, clinical, laboratory, and psychological variables were evaluated. A descriptive analysis and an examination of the association between patients and caregivers were performed. Among patients, we observed that 38.1% had symptoms that indicated anxiety and depression. The average score for practical social support was 3.15 ± 0.769 and that for emotional social support was 3.16 ± 0.79. As for fatigue, 14.3% of patients reported being 'extremely tired' and 14.3% reported that they engaged in all the activities they usually performed before the illness. Further, 57.1% presented stress, and of these, 66.7% were at the resistance stage, with predominance of psychological symptoms in 60.0%. The quality of life domain in terms of functional capacity (FC) presented a correlation with haemoglobin level (r = 0.581, p = 0.006) and non-anaemic patients presented better FC. Among caregivers, we observed symptoms that indicated anxiety and depression in 33.3% of the sample. Caregivers exhibited an average score of 2.88 ± 0.77 for practical social support and 3.0 ± 0.72 for emotional social support. Further, 14.3% reported being 'extremely tired' and 28.8% reported that they engaged in all activities that they usually performed before the

  14. Most efficient questionnaires to measure quality of life, physical function, and pain in patients with metastatic spine disease: a cross-sectional prospective survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino Pereira, Nuno Rui; Janssen, Stein J; Raskin, Kevin A; Hornicek, Francis J; Ferrone, Marco L; Shin, John H; Bramer, Jos A M; van Dijk, Cornelis Nicolaas; Schwab, Joseph H

    2017-07-01

    Assessing quality of life, functional outcome, and pain has become important in assessing the effectiveness of treatment for metastatic spine disease. Many questionnaires are able to measure these outcomes; few are validated in patients with metastatic spine disease. As a result, there is no consensus on the ideal questionnaire to use in these patients. Our study aim was to assess whether certain questionnaires measuring quality of life, functional outcome, and pain (1) correlated with each other, (2) measured the construct they claim to measure, (3) had good coverage-floor and ceiling effects, (4) were reliable, and (5) whether there were differences in completion time between them. This is a prospective cross-sectional survey study from three outpatient clinics (two orthopedic oncology clinics and one neurosurgery clinic) from two affiliated tertiary hospital care centers. We included 100 consecutive patients with metastatic spine disease between July 2014 and February 2016. We excluded non-English-speaking patients. The following questionnaires were given in random order: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) or Neck Disability Index (NDI), Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function, PROMIS Pain Intensity, EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), and the Spine Oncology Study Group Outcome Questionnaire (SOSG-OQ). We used exploratory factor analysis-correlating questionnaires with an underlying mathematically derived trait-to assess if questionnaires measured the same concept. Coverage was assessed by floor and ceiling effects, and reliability was assessed by standard error of measurement as a function of ability. Differences in completion times were tested using the Friedman test. Questionnaires measured the construct they were developed for, as demonstrated with high correlations (>0.7) with the underlying trait. A floor effect was present in the PROMIS Pain Intensity (7.0%), ODI or NDI (4.0%), and the PROMIS Physical Function (1

  15. Sources of social support associated with health and quality of life: a cross-sectional study among Canadian and Latin American older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Phillips, Susan P; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the association between emotional support and indicators of health and quality of life differs between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Social support from friends, family members, children and partner was measured with a previously validated social network and support scale (IMIAS-SNSS). Low social support was defined as ranking in the lowest site-specific quartile. Prevalence ratios (PR) of good health, depression and good quality of life were estimated with Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, gender, education, income and disability in activities of daily living. Setting Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe in Canada, Manizales in Colombia and Natal in Brazil. Participants 1600 community-dwelling adults aged 65–74 years, n=400 at each site. Outcome measures Likert scale question on self-rated health, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and 10-point analogical quality-of-life (QoL) scale. Results Relationships between social support and study outcomes differed between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Among Canadians, those without a partner had a lower prevalence of good health (PR=0.90; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.98), and those with high support from friends had a higher prevalence of good health (PR=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Among Latin Americans, depression was lower among those with high levels of support from family (PR=0.63; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.83), children (PR=0.60; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.80) and partner (PR=0.57; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77); good QoL was associated with high levels of support from children (PR=1.54; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99) and partner (PR=1.31; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.67). Conclusions Among older adults, different sources of support were relevant to health across societies. Support from friends and having a partner were related to good health in Canada, whereas in Latin America, support from family, children and

  16. A Cross-sectional Study to Determine Whether Adjustment to an Ostomy Can Predict Health-related and/or Overall Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrebø, Kirsten Lerum; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Andersen, John Roger

    2016-10-01

    Ostomy-specific adjustment may or may not predict health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and/or overall quality of life (QoL). A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients recruited from the customer registers of 8 surgical suppliers and pharmacies across Norway between November 2010 and March 2011 to determine which of the 34 items of the Ostomy Adjustment Scale (OAS) are the strongest predictors for HRQoL and overall QoL and to determine the HRQoL and overall QoL of individuals with an ostomy compared to a control group representing the general population. Persons who were >18 years old; had a permanent colostomy, ileostomy, or urostomy for >3 months; and could read and write Norwegian were invited to participate. The participants received information about the study in a letter from the researcher and returned their demographic information (addressing gender, age, marital status, education, diagnosis, time since surgery, and ostomy type) and study questionnaires using prepaid envelopes. The 158 participants (mean age 64 years [range 29-91], 89 [56%] men and 69 [44%] women) completed and returned by mail a sociodemographic questionnaire, the 34-item OAS (questions scored on a scale of 1 to 6, totally disagree to totally agree, score range 34 to 204), the Short Form-36 (SF-36, including 2 main components [physical and mental issues] divided into 8 subscales, scored from 0 to 100), and the 16-item Quality of Life Scale (QOLS) instrument (each response scored 1 to 7, from very dissatisfied to very satisfied; total score ranging from 16 to 112). Statistical analysis, including ordinary least square regression analyses, assessed whether the OAS independently predicted the sum scores of the SF-36 (physical component summary [PCS] and mental component summary [MCS]) and the QOLS score after adjusting for age, gender, marital status, education, diagnosis, time since surgery, and ostomy type. The OAS significantly predicted the SF-36 (PCS and MCS) and QOLS scores

  17. LCA of an ice cream cup of polyethylene coated paper: how does the choice of the end-of-life affect the results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, Carla; Ferrara, Carmen; Malvano, Carmela; De Feo, Giovanni

    2017-11-07

    This study presents an evaluation of the environmental performance of an ice cream cup made of polyethylene (PE)/paper laminate using a life cycle assessment approach 'from cradle to grave'. Two opposite alternative disposal scenarios, as well as their intermediate combinations, were considered: 100% incineration and 100% landfilling. The environmental impacts were calculated using the EPD 2013 evaluation method since the study was developed in an Environmental Product Declaration perspective as well as the method ReCiPe 2008 H at the endpoint level. PE/paper laminate production was the most impactful process since it provided the highest contribution to total impacts in four of six impact categories considered. Ice cream cup production was the second impactful process. The 100% incineration scenario provided negligible contribution to life cycle total impact for all impact categories; while considering the landfilling scenario, the percentage contributions to the total impact provided by the end-of-life phase increased considerably, until to be comparable to the contributions provided by the production processes of the PE/paper laminate and the ice cream cup. The obtained results highlighted that different disposal scenarios can affect significantly the conclusions of a study. At the endpoint level, incineration was more environmentally sound than landfilling for all the ReCiPe damage categories.

  18. SPS: scrubbing or coating ?

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, J M

    2012-01-01

    The operation of the SPS with high intensity bunched beams is limited by the electron cloud building-up in both the arcs and long straight sections. Two consolidation options have been considered: mitigation of the electron cloud using coatings or relying, as before, on the scrubbing runs. A status report on both options will be given with a particular emphasis on measurements plans for 2012 and pending issues. The testing needs, corresponding beam parameters and MD time in 2012 will be addressed. The criteria for the decision making and the corresponding schedule will be discussed.

  19. SPS: scrubbing or coating?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The operation of the SPS with high intensity bunched beams is limited by the electron cloud building-up in both the arcs and long straight sections. Two consolidation options have been considered: suppression of the electron cloud build-up using coatings or relying, as before, on the scrubbing mitigation. A status report on both options will be given with a particular emphasis on measurements plans for 2012 and pending issues. The testing needs, corresponding beam parameters and MD time in 2012 will be addressed. The criteria for the decision making and the corresponding schedule will be discussed. (author)

  20. Buckling of Graded Coatings. A Continuum Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiu, Tz-Cheng

    2000-01-01

    Requirements for the protection of hot section components in many high temperature applications such as earth-to-orbit winged planes and advanced turbine systems have led to the application of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs...

  1. Multilayer composition coatings for cutting tools: formation and performance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakov, Vladimir P.; Vereschaka, Anatoly S.; Vereschaka, Alexey A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper considers the concept of a multi-layer architecture of the coating in which each layer has a predetermined functionality. Latest generation of coatings with multi-layered architecture for cutting tools secure a dual nature of the coating, in which coatings should not only improve the mechanical and physical characteristics of the cutting tool material, but also reduce the thermo-mechanical effect on the cutting tool determining wear intensity. Here are presented the results of the development of combined methods of forming multi-layer coatings with improved properties. Combined method of forming coatings using a pulsed laser allowed reducing excessively high levels of compressive residual stress and increasing micro hardness of the multilayered coatings. The results in testing coated HSS tools showed that the use of additional pulse of laser processing increases tool life up to 3 times. Using filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition for the generation of multilayer coatings based on TiAlN compound has increased the wear-resistance of carbide tools by 2 fold compared with tool life of cutting tool with commercial TiN coatings. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative methodological approach to the deposition of multilayer coatings for cutting tools with functional architectural selection, properties and parameters of the coating based on sound knowledge of coating failure in machining process.

  2. Laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, R; Quintero, F; Lusquiños, F; Pascual, M J; Boutinguiza, M; Durán, A; Pou, J

    2010-03-01

    Laser cladding by powder injection has been used to produce bioactive glass coatings on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates. Bioactive glass compositions alternative to 45S5 Bioglass were demonstrated to exhibit a gradual wetting angle-temperature evolution and therefore a more homogeneous deposition of the coating over the substrate was achieved. Among the different compositions studied, the S520 bioactive glass showed smoother wetting angle-temperature behavior and was successfully used as precursor material to produce bioactive coatings. Coatings processed using a Nd:YAG laser presented calcium silicate crystallization at the surface, with a uniform composition along the coating cross-section, and no significant dilution of the titanium alloy was observed. These coatings maintain similar bioactivity to that of the precursor material as demonstrated by immersion in simulated body fluid. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  4. The Impact of Combat Deployment on Health Care Provider Burnout in a Military Emergency Department: A Cross-Sectional Professional Quality of Life Scale V Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragun, Joshua N; April, Michael D; Thaxton, Robert E

    2016-08-01

    Compassion fatigue is a problem for many health care providers manifesting as physical, mental, and spiritual exhaustion. Our objective was to evaluate the association between prior combat deployment and compassion fatigue among military emergency medicine providers. We conducted a nonexperimental cross-sectional survey of health care providers assigned to the San Antonio Military Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine. We used the Professional Quality of Life Scale V survey instrument that evaluates provider burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction. Outcomes included burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction raw scores. Scores were compared between providers based on previous combat deployments using two-tailed independent sample t tests and multiple regression models. Surveys were completed by 105 respondents: 42 nurses (20 previously deployed), 30 technicians (11 previously deployed), and 33 physicians (16 previously deployed). No statistically significant differences in burnout, secondary traumatic stress, or compassion satisfaction scores were detected between previously deployed providers versus providers not previously deployed. There was no association between previous combat deployment and emergency department provider burnout, secondary traumatic stress, or compassion satisfaction scores. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. 3-D conformal treatment of prostate cancer to 74 Gy vs. high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost: A cross-sectional quality-of-life survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vordermark, Dirk [Univ. of Wuerzburg (DE). Dept. of Radiation Oncology] (and others)

    2006-09-15

    The effects of two modalities of dose-escalated radiotherapy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were compared. Forty-one consecutive patients were treated with a 3-D conformal (3-DC) boost to 74 Gy, and 43 with high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost (2x9 Gy), following 3-D conformal treatment to 46 Gy. Median age was 70 years in both groups, median initial PSA was 7.9 {mu}g/l in 3-DC boost patients and 8.1 {mu}g/l in HDR boost patients. Stage was 7 in 52% and 47%, respectively. HRQOL was assessed cross-sectionally using EORTC QLQ-C30 and organ-specific PR25 modules 3-32 (median 19) and 4-25 (median 14) months after treatment, respectively. Questionnaires were completed by 93% and 97% of patients, respectively. Diarrhea and insomnia scores were significantly increased in both groups. In the PR25 module, scores of 3-DC boost and HDR boost patients for urinary, bowel and treatment-related symptoms were similar. Among responders, 34% of 3-DC boost patients and 86% of HDR boost patients had severe erectile problems. Dose escalation in prostate cancer by either 3-DC boost to 74 Gy or HDR brachytherapy boost appears to result in similar HRQOL profiles.

  6. The quality of life of patients developed delirium after coronary artery bypass grafting is determined by cognitive function after discharge: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuling; Ding, Shu; Tao, Xiangjun; Feng, Xinwei; Lu, Sai; Shen, Yuzhi; Wu, Ying; An, Xiangguang

    2017-10-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) and declined cognitive function were common in patients (especially elderly patients) who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), which may affect quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among age, POD, declined cognitive function, and QoL in patients who underwent CABG. Consecutive patients who underwent first time elective CABG and assessed for POD using Confusion Assessment Method for intensive care unit for 5 postoperative days from November 2013 to March 2015 were recruited. A cross-sectional study was conducted during April 2015 to assess their cognitive function and QoL, using the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status Scale and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. The relationships among age, POD, declined cognitive function, and QoL were tested using path analysis. Declined cognitive function was associated with poorer QoL. POD was associated with declined cognitive function but was not associated with poorer QoL. Ageing was not associated with QoL but was associated with POD and declined cognitive function. The QoL of patients developed delirium after CABG is determined by cognitive function after discharge. Necessary strategies should be implemented to prevent POD and declined cognitive function, especially in elderly patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Associations between aspects of pain and cognitive performance and the contribution of depressive symptoms in mid-life women: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomey, Kristin; Greendale, Gail A; Kravitz, Howard M; Bromberger, Joyce T; Burns, John W; Dugan, Sheila A; de Leon, Carlos F Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Pain has been associated with cognitive problems in pain patients. This study evaluated the extent to which experiences of pain are associated with cognitive performance in a community sample of mid-life women, and the contribution of depressive symptoms to this association. A cross-sectional analysis was used with data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Associations between aspects of pain and cognitive performance were evaluated using statistical models with and without depressive symptoms. The cognitive performance score was a composite of three cognitive tests, the Digit Span Backward Test, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test and the East Boston Memory Test. Greater pain experiences that interfered with daily work were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance, [β (SE) -0.074 (0.021); p valueperformance was identified without adjusting for depressive symptoms, [β (SE) -0.002 (0.0009); p valuewomen, greater pain is associated with poorer cognitive performance, and depressive symptoms play an important role in this association. Clinicians should be aware of these relationships when evaluating patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between Work Related Stress and Health Related Quality of Life: The Impact of Socio-Demographic Variables. A Cross Sectional Study in a Region of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is investigate relationship between health-related quality of life and work-related stress and the impact of gender, education level, and age on this relationship. A cross-sectional study was conducted among workers of various setting in Rome and Frosinone. Work-related stress was measured with a demand–control questionnaire and health-related functioning by SF (short form-12 health survey. There were 611 participants. Men reported high mental composite summary (MCS and physical composite summary (PCS. In multivariate analysis age, gender (p < 0.001 and job demand (0.045 predicted low PCS. Low MCS predicted poor PCS. Job demand and educational level resulted negatively associated with MCS. In an analysis stratified for age, gender, and educational level, gender and age resulted effect modifier for MCS, gender and education level for PCS. In women increase of decision latitude predict (p = 0.001 an increase in MCS; a low job demand predict high MCS in male (p ≤ 0.001. In younger workers, a lower level of job demand predicted high MCS (<0.001. For PCS, gender and education level resulted effect modifier. In women, high decision latitude predicted higher PCS (p = 0.001 and lower level of job demand results in higher PCS (p ≤ 0.001. Higher educational level resulted predictor of low PCS. Management of risk about work-related stress should consider socio-demographic factors.

  9. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Amputations in Romania: Results of a Cross-Sectional Quality of Life Questionnaire Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmina I. Bondor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a post hoc analysis of quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients in a cross-sectional survey performed in 2012 in Romania, using the Norfolk QOL-DN in which 21,756 patients with self-reported diabetes were enrolled. This current analysis aims to expand research on the diabetic foot and to provide an update on the number of foot ulcers found in Romania. Of the 21,174 patients included in this analysis, 14.85% reported a history of foot ulcers and 3.60% reported an amputation. The percentage of neuropathy patients with foot ulcers increased with age; the lowest percentage was observed in the 20–29-year age group (6.62% and the highest in the 80–89-year age group (17.68%. The highest number of amputations was reported in the 70–79-year age group (largest group. Compared to patients without foot ulcers, those with foot ulcers had significantly higher scores for total DN and all its subdomains translating to worse QOL (p<0.001. This analysis showed a high rate of foot ulcers and amputations in Romanian diabetic patients. It underscores the need for implementation of effective screening and educational programs.

  10. Vision-Related Quality of Life and Appearance Concerns Are Associated with Anxiety and Depression after Eye Enucleation: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ye

    Full Text Available To investigate the association of demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables with levels of anxiety and depression in participants wearing an ocular prosthesis after eye enucleation.This cross-sectional study included 195 participants with an enucleated eye who were attending an ophthalmic clinic for prosthetic rehabilitation between July and November 2014. Demographic and clinical data, and self-reported feelings of shame, sadness and anger were collected. Participants also completed the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire, the Facial Appearance subscale of the Negative Physical Self Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Regression models were used to identify the factors associated with anxiety and depression.The proportion of participants with clinical anxiety was 11.8% and clinical depression 13.8%. More anxiety and depression were associated with poorer vision-related quality of life and greater levels of appearance concerns. Younger age was related to greater levels of anxiety. Less educated participants and those feeling more angry about losing an eye are more prone to experience depression. Clinical variables were unrelated to anxiety or depression.Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in eye-enucleated patients than the general population, which brings up the issues of psychiatric support in these patients. Psychosocial rather than clinical characteristics were associated with anxiety and depression. Longitudinal studies need to be conducted to further elucidate the direction of causality before interventions to improve mood states are developed.

  11. Coping mediates the relationship between sense of coherence and mental quality of life in patients with chronic illness: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Engström, Maria; Nilsson, Annika

    2018-04-05

    The aim of the present study was to investigate relationships between sense of coherence, emotion-focused coping, problem-focused coping, coping efficiency, and mental quality of life (QoL) in patients with chronic illness. A model based on Lazarus' and Folkman's stress and coping theory tested the specific hypothesis: Sense of coherence has a direct and indirect effect on mental QoL mediated by emotion-focused coping, problem-focused coping, and coping efficiency in serial adjusted for age, gender, educational level, comorbidity, and economic status. The study used a cross-sectional and correlational design. Patients (n = 292) with chronic diseases (chronic heart failure, end-stage renal disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, and Parkinson) completed three questionnaires and provided background data. Data were collected in 2012, and a serial multiple mediator model was tested using PROCESS macro for SPSS. The test of the conceptual model confirmed the hypothesis. There was a significant direct and indirect effect of sense of coherence on mental QoL through the three mediators. The model explained 39% of the variance in mental QoL. Self-perceived effective coping strategies are the most important mediating factors between sense of coherence and QoL in patients with chronic illness, which supports Lazarus' and Folkman's stress and coping theory.

  12. 3-D conformal treatment of prostate cancer to 74 Gy vs. high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost: A cross-sectional quality-of-life survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vordermark, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    The effects of two modalities of dose-escalated radiotherapy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were compared. Forty-one consecutive patients were treated with a 3-D conformal (3-DC) boost to 74 Gy, and 43 with high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost (2x9 Gy), following 3-D conformal treatment to 46 Gy. Median age was 70 years in both groups, median initial PSA was 7.9 μg/l in 3-DC boost patients and 8.1 μg/l in HDR boost patients. Stage was 7 in 52% and 47%, respectively. HRQOL was assessed cross-sectionally using EORTC QLQ-C30 and organ-specific PR25 modules 3-32 (median 19) and 4-25 (median 14) months after treatment, respectively. Questionnaires were completed by 93% and 97% of patients, respectively. Diarrhea and insomnia scores were significantly increased in both groups. In the PR25 module, scores of 3-DC boost and HDR boost patients for urinary, bowel and treatment-related symptoms were similar. Among responders, 34% of 3-DC boost patients and 86% of HDR boost patients had severe erectile problems. Dose escalation in prostate cancer by either 3-DC boost to 74 Gy or HDR brachytherapy boost appears to result in similar HRQOL profiles

  13. Factors associated with generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Magdalena; Böhmer, Merle M; Brandstetter, Susanne; Finger, Tamara; Fischer, Wiebke; Pfeifer, Michael; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is impaired in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but determining factors for HRQOL are still not unequivocal. This study measures HRQOL among patients with COPD and aims to determine factors associated with HRQOL. Data for cross-sectional analyses were obtained from the baseline of a cohort study. The study population includes adult COPD patients (disease duration ≥3 months), recruited from primary and secondary care settings in Germany, without acute psychiatric/neurologic disease (exception: affective/ anxiety disorders). HRQOL was assessed using the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) Health Survey Questionnaire, comprising a physical and mental component. Independent variables encompass socio-demographic, disease-specific, treatment-related and psychological factors. Multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted. In total, 206 COPD patients (60.7% male; mean age: 65.3 years) took part in the study. In multivariable analysis, the physical component score showed a significant negative association with the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) (PCOPD.

  14. Mechanical degradation of coating systems in high-temperature cyclic oxidation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pennefather, RC

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic oxidation tests were performed on a large variety of commercially available overlay coatings. The results confirmed that the composition of the coating as well as the processing method of the coating can affect the life of the system. Coating...

  15. Mechanical degradation of coating systems in high-temperature cyclic oxidation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pennefather, RC

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic oxidation tests were performed on a large variety of commercially available overlay coatings. The results confirmed that the composition of the coating as well as the processing method of the coating can affect the life of the system. Coating...

  16. Cold-Sprayed AZ91D Coating and SiC/AZ91D Composite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging coating building technique, cold spraying has many advantages to elaborate Mg alloy workpieces. In this study, AZ91D coatings and AZ91D-based composite coatings were deposited using cold spraying. Coatings were prepared using different gas temperatures to obtain the available main gas temperature. Compressed air was used as the accelerating gas, and although magnesium alloy is oxidation-sensitive, AZ91D coatings with good performance were obtained. The results show that dense coatings can be fabricated until the gas temperature is higher than 500 °C. The deposition efficiency increases greatly with the gas temperature, but it is lower than 10% for all coating specimens. To analyze the effects of compressed air on AZ91D powder particles and the effects of gas temperature on coatings, the phase composition, porosity, cross-sectional microstructure, and microhardness of coatings were characterized. X-ray diffraction and oxygen content analysis clarified that no phase transformation or oxidation occurred on AZ91D powder particles during cold spraying processes with compressed air. The porosity of AZ91D coatings remained between 3.6% and 3.9%. Impact melting was found on deformed AZ91D particles when the gas temperature increased to 550 °C. As-sprayed coatings exhibit much higher microhardness than as-casted bulk magnesium, demonstrating the dense structure of cold-sprayed coatings. To study the effects of ceramic particles on cold-sprayed AZ91D coatings, 15 vol % SiC powder particles were added into the feedstock powder. Lower SiC content in the coating than in the feedstock powder means that the deposition efficiency of the SiC powder particles is lower than the deposition efficiency of AZ91D particles. The addition of SiC particles reduces the porosity and increases the microhardness of cold-sprayed AZ91D coatings. The corrosion behavior of AZ91D coating and SiC reinforced AZ91D composite coating were examined. The Si

  17. Life adversity in depressed and non-depressed older adults : A cross-sectional comparison of the brief LTE-Q questionnaire and life events and difficulties interview as part of the CASPER study

    OpenAIRE

    Donoghue, Hjördis M; Traviss-Turner, Gemma D; House, Allan O; Lewis, Helen; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of research on the nature of life adversity in depressed and non-depressed older adults. Early life events work used in-depth interviews; however, larger epidemiological trials investigate life adversity using brief questionnaires. This study investigates the type of life adversity experienced in later life and its association with depression and compares adversity captured using a brief (LTE-Q) and in-depth (LEDS) measure. METHODS: 960 participants over 65 year...

  18. In vitro mechanical integrity of hydroxyapatite coated magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, M Bobby; Orr, Lynnley

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of resorbable implants during service, especially in load bearing orthopaedic applications, is critical. The high degradation rate of resorbable magnesium and magnesium-based implants in body fluid may potentially cause premature in-service failure. In this study, a magnesium alloy (AZ91) was potentiostatically coated with hydroxyapatite at different cathodic voltages in an attempt to enhance the mechanical integrity. The mechanical integrity of the uncoated and hydroxyapatite coated alloys was evaluated after in vitro testing of the coated samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). The uncoated alloy showed 40% loss in the mechanical strength after five days exposure to SBF. However, the hydroxyapatite coated alloy exposed to SBF showed 20% improvement in the mechanical strength as compared to that of the uncoated alloy. The alloy coated potentiostatically at -2 V performed better than the -3 V coated alloy. The cross-sectional analysis of the coatings revealed relatively uniform coating thickness for the -2 V coated alloy, whereas the -3 V coated alloy exhibited areas of uneven coating. This can be attributed to the increase in hydrogen evolution on the alloy during -3 V coating as compared to -2 V coating. The scanning electron micrographs of the in vitro tested alloy revealed that hydroxyapatite coating significantly reduced the localized corrosion of the alloy, which is critical for better in-service mechanical integrity. Thus, the study suggests that the in vitro mechanical integrity of resorbable magnesium-based alloy can be improved by potentiostatic hydroxyapatite coating.

  19. In vitro mechanical integrity of hydroxyapatite coated magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, M Bobby; Orr, Lynnley

    2011-08-01

    The mechanical integrity of resorbable implants during service, especially in load bearing orthopaedic applications, is critical. The high degradation rate of resorbable magnesium and magnesium-based implants in body fluid may potentially cause premature in-service failure. In this study, a magnesium alloy (AZ91) was potentiostatically coated with hydroxyapatite at different cathodic voltages in an attempt to enhance the mechanical integrity. The mechanical integrity of the uncoated and hydroxyapatite coated alloys was evaluated after in vitro testing of the coated samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). The uncoated alloy showed 40% loss in the mechanical strength after five days exposure to SBF. However, the hydroxyapatite coated alloy exposed to SBF showed 20% improvement in the mechanical strength as compared to that of the uncoated alloy. The alloy coated potentiostatically at -2 V performed better than the -3 V coated alloy. The cross-sectional analysis of the coatings revealed relatively uniform coating thickness for the -2 V coated alloy, whereas the -3 V coated alloy exhibited areas of uneven coating. This can be attributed to the increase in hydrogen evolution on the alloy during -3 V coating as compared to -2 V coating. The scanning electron micrographs of the in vitro tested alloy revealed that hydroxyapatite coating significantly reduced the localized corrosion of the alloy, which is critical for better in-service mechanical integrity. Thus, the study suggests that the in vitro mechanical integrity of resorbable magnesium-based alloy can be improved by potentiostatic hydroxyapatite coating. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  20. In vitro mechanical integrity of hydroxyapatite coated magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, M Bobby; Orr, Lynnley, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au [Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    The mechanical integrity of resorbable implants during service, especially in load bearing orthopaedic applications, is critical. The high degradation rate of resorbable magnesium and magnesium-based implants in body fluid may potentially cause premature in-service failure. In this study, a magnesium alloy (AZ91) was potentiostatically coated with hydroxyapatite at different cathodic voltages in an attempt to enhance the mechanical integrity. The mechanical integrity of the uncoated and hydroxyapatite coated alloys was evaluated after in vitro testing of the coated samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). The uncoated alloy showed 40% loss in the mechanical strength after five days exposure to SBF. However, the hydroxyapatite coated alloy exposed to SBF showed 20% improvement in the mechanical strength as compared to that of the uncoated alloy. The alloy coated potentiostatically at -2 V performed better than the -3 V coated alloy. The cross-sectional analysis of the coatings revealed relatively uniform coating thickness for the -2 V coated alloy, whereas the -3 V coated alloy exhibited areas of uneven coating. This can be attributed to the increase in hydrogen evolution on the alloy during -3 V coating as compared to -2 V coating. The scanning electron micrographs of the in vitro tested alloy revealed that hydroxyapatite coating significantly reduced the localized corrosion of the alloy, which is critical for better in-service mechanical integrity. Thus, the study suggests that the in vitro mechanical integrity of resorbable magnesium-based alloy can be improved by potentiostatic hydroxyapatite coating.

  1. 23 July - Italian Director-General for Prevention G. Ruocco and Director-General for European and International Relations Ministry of Health D. Roderigo visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Deputy Spokesperson B. Heinemann. Life Sciences Section M. Cirilli and Life Sciences Adviser M. Dosanjh present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    23 July - Italian Director-General for Prevention G. Ruocco and Director-General for European and International Relations Ministry of Health D. Roderigo visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Deputy Spokesperson B. Heinemann. Life Sciences Section M. Cirilli and Life Sciences Adviser M. Dosanjh present.

  2. Metallographic techniques for evaluation of thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, William J.; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of ceramic thermal barrier coatings is strongly dependent on the amount and shape of the porosity in the coating. Current metallographic techniques do not provide polished surfaces that are adequate for a repeatable interpretation of the coating structures. A technique recently developed at NASA-Lewis for preparation of thermal barrier coating sections combines epoxy impregnation, careful sectioning and polishing, and interference layering to provide previously unobtainable information on processing-induced porosity. In fact, increased contrast and less ambiguous structure developed by the method make automatic quantitative metallography a viable option for characterizing thermal barrier coating structures.

  3. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  4. Monodispersed Carbon-Coated Cubic NiP2 Nanoparticles Anchored on Carbon Nanotubes as Ultra-Long-Life Anodes for Reversible Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Peili; Cui, Zhonghui; Jia, Zhiqing; Sun, Jiyang; Tan, Yingbin; Guo, Xiangxin

    2017-04-25

    In search of new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries, metal phosphides that exhibit desirable properties such as high theoretical capacity, moderate discharge plateau, and relatively low polarization recently have attracted a great deal of attention as anode materials. However, the large volume changes and thus resulting collapse of electrode structure during long-term cycling are still challenges for metal-phosphide-based anodes. Here we report an electrode design strategy to solve these problems. The key to this strategy is to confine the electroactive nanoparticles into flexible conductive hosts (like carbon materials) and meanwhile maintain a monodispersed nature of the electroactive particles within the hosts. Monodispersed carbon-coated cubic NiP 2 nanoparticles anchored on carbon nanotubes (NiP 2 @C-CNTs) as a proof-of-concept were designed and synthesized. Excellent cyclability (more than 1000 cycles) and capacity retention (high capacities of 816 mAh g -1 after 1200 cycles at 1300 mA g -1 and 654.5 mAh g -1 after 1500 cycles at 5000 mA g -1 ) are characterized, which is among the best performance of the NiP 2 anodes and even most of the phosphide-based anodes reported so far. The impressive performance is attributed to the superior structure stability and the enhanced reaction kinetics incurred by our design. Furthermore, a full cell consisting of a NiP 2 @C-CNTs anode and a LiFePO 4 cathode is investigated. It delivers an average discharge capacity of 827 mAh g -1 based on the mass of the NiP 2 anode and exhibits a capacity retention of 80.7% over 200 cycles, with an average output of ∼2.32 V. As a proof-of-concept, these results demonstrate the effectiveness of our strategy on improving the electrode performance. We believe that this strategy for construction of high-performance anodes can be extended to other phase-transformation-type materials, which suffer a large volume change upon lithium insertion/extraction.

  5. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  6. Health-related quality of life of the parents of children hospitalized due to acute rotavirus infection: a cross-sectional study in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laizane, Gunta; Kivite, Anda; Stars, Inese; Cikovska, Marita; Grope, Ilze; Gardovska, Dace

    2018-03-15

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children and infants worldwide, representing a heavy public health burden. Limited information is available regarding the impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the quality of life of affected children and their families. The objectives of study were to estimate the impact of rotavirus infection on health-related quality of life (HRQL), to assess the social and emotional effects on the families of affected children. This study enrolled all (n = 527) RotaStrip®-positive (with further PCR detection) cases (0-18 years of age) hospitalized from April 2013 to December 2015 and their caregivers. A questionnaire comprising clinical (filled-in by the medical staff) and social (filled by the caregivers) sections was completed per child. Main indicators of emotional burden reported by caregivers were compassion (reported as severe/very severe by 91.1% of parents), worry (85.2%), stress/anxiety (68.0%). Regarding social burden, 79.3% of caregivers reported the need to introduce changes into their daily routine due to rotavirus infection of their child. Regarding economic burden, 55.1% of parents needed to take days off work because of their child's sickness, and 76.1% of parents reported additional expenditures in the family's budget. Objective measures of their child's health status were not associated with HRQL of the family, as were the parent's subjective evaluation of their child's health and some sociodemographic factors. Parents were significantly more worried if their child was tearful (p = 0.006) or irritable (p Parents were more stressful/anxious if their child had a fever (p = 0.003), was tearful (p parents' daily routines were more often reported if the child had a fever (p = 0.02) or insufficient fluid intake (p = 0.04). Objective health status of the child did not influence the emotional, social or economic burden, whereas the parents' subjective perception of the child's health

  7. Chronic complications and quality of life of patients living with sickle cell disease and receiving care in three hospitals in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andong, Anne M; Ngouadjeu, Eveline D T; Bekolo, Cavin E; Verla, Vincent S; Nebongo, Daniel; Mboue-Djieka, Yannick; Choukem, Simeon-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is associated with chronic multisystem complications that significantly influence the quality of life (QOL) of patients early in their life. Although sub-Saharan Africa bears 75% of the global burden of SCD, there is a paucity of data on these complications and their effects on the QOL. We aimed to record these chronic complications, to estimate the QOL, and to identify the corresponding risk factors in patients with SCD receiving care in three hospitals in Cameroon. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was used to collect data from consecutive consenting patients. Information recorded included data on the yearly frequency of painful crisis, the types of SCD, and the occurrence of chronic complications. A 36-Item Short Form (SF-36) standard questionnaire that examines the level of physical and mental well-being, was administered to all eligible participants. Data were analyzed with STATA® software. Of 175 participants included, 93 (53.1%) were female and 111 (aged ≥14 years) were eligible for QOL assessment. The median (interquartile range, IQR) age at diagnosis was 4.0 (2.0-8.0) years and the median (IQR) number of yearly painful crisis was 3.0 (1.0-7.0). The most frequent chronic complications reported were: nocturnal enuresis, chronic leg ulcers, osteomyelitis and priapism (30.9%, 24.6%, 19.4%, and 18.3% respectively). The prevalence of stroke and avascular necrosis of the hip were 8.0% and 13.1% respectively. The median (IQR) physical and mental scores were 47.3 (43.9-58.5) and 41.0 (38.8-44.6) respectively. Age and chronic complications such as stroke and avascular necrosis were independently associated with poor QOL. In this population of patients living with SCD, chronic complications are frequent and their QOL is consequently poor. Our results highlight the need for national guidelines for SCD control, which should include new-born screening programs and strategies to prevent chronic complications.

  8. The association between organizational behavior factors and health-related quality of life among college teachers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Wang, Shu; Shen, Xue; Li, Mengyao; Wang, Lie

    2015-06-20

    College teachers in China are confronted with a lot of pressure from teaching, researching and living. They are suffering from impaired physical and mental health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between organizational behavior factors and college teachers' health related quality of life (HRQOL), and to confirm whether they are positive resources for improving teachers' HRQOL. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from January to April 2014. Participants were composed of 965 teachers randomly selected from five representative colleges in Shenyang. Self-administrated questionnaires containing the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Chinese version Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), and scales assessing group identification, POS, and psychological empowerment were used to measure HRQOL and organizational behavior variables of college teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMR) was performed to explore the effects of organizational behavior variables on college teachers' HRQOL. The mean (SD) scores of physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) among college teachers were 71.43 (14.70) and 65.46 (16.55) respectively in the study population. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that group identification (β = 0.121, P < 0.001) and PsyCap (β = 0.336, P < 0.001) were significant predictors of PCS, while group identification (β = 0.107, P < 0.001), POS (β = 0.124, P = 0.003), psychological empowerment (β = 0.093, P = 0.017) and PsyCap (β = 0.421, P < 0.001) were significant predictors of MCS. Chinese college teachers experienced relatively low level of HRQOL and their mental quality of life (QOL) were impaired more seriously than physical QOL. Organizational behavior factors (PsyCap, group identification, POS and psychological empowerment) were strong predictors of college teachers' HRQOL and are

  9. Victimisation, poly-victimisation and health-related quality of life among high school students in Vietnam: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Minh T H; Holton, Sara; Nguyen, Huong T; Wolfe, Rory; Fisher, Jane

    2016-11-04

    In high and upper-middle income countries poly-victimisation (exposure to multiple forms of victimisation) is associated with worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adolescents. There is a lack of empirical evidence about these associations from low- and lower-middle income countries. The aims of this study were to examine the associations between exposure to 1) individual forms of victimisation and 2) poly-victimisation and the HRQoL of adolescents in Vietnam. A cross-sectional, anonymously-completed survey of high school students in Hanoi, Vietnam. Lifetime exposure to eight individual forms of victimisation and poly-victimisation were assessed using the Juvenile Victimisation Questionnaire Revised-2 (JVQ R2). Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Duke Health Profile Adolescent Version (DHP-A). Bi-variate analyses and multiple linear regressions were conducted to assess the associations between individual forms of victimisation, poly-victimisation and HRQoL among girls and boys. In total 1616/1745 students (92.6 %) completed the questionnaire. Adolescent girls had significantly worse HRQoL than boys in all domains, except disability. Different forms of victimisation were associated with different HRQoL domains among girls and boys. Cyber victimisation was the most detrimental to girls' HRQoL while for boys maltreatment was the most detrimental. Experiences of poly-victimisation were associated with worse HRQoL in physical, mental, social and general health, lower levels of self-esteem and increased levels of anxiety, depression and pain domains among both sexes. Among Vietnamese adolescents, experiences of individual forms of victimisation were associated with poorer HRQoL in specific domains; the most detrimental forms of victimisation varied for girls and boys. However, it was experiences of poly-victimisation that had the most detrimental impacts on the HRQoL of both sexes. Recognition of violence, including poly-victimisation, is

  10. Relationship between optimism and quality of life in patients with two chronic rheumatic diseases: axial spondyloarthritis and chronic low back pain: a cross sectional study of 288 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreis, Sarah; Molto, Anna; Bailly, Florian; Dadoun, Sabrina; Fabre, Stéphanie; Rein, Christopher; Hudry, Christophe; Zenasni, Franck; Rozenberg, Sylvie; Pertuiset, Edouard; Fautrel, Bruno; Gossec, Laure

    2015-06-10

    Axial Spondyloarthritis (AxSpA) and chronic low back pain are rheumatic diseases that impact patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In other chronic conditions, HRQoL was positively associated with dispositional optimism, a personality trait. The objective was to explore the relationship between optimism and HRQoL in these two diseases. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2 tertiary care hospitals and 2 private practices in France. Patients had definite AxSpA or chronic low back pain according to the rheumatologist. A generic HRQoL questionnaire (Short Form, SF-12) with physical and mental composite scores (PCS and MCS respectively) and an optimism questionnaire (the Life Orientation Test-revised, LOT-R) were collected. Analyses included non-parametric correlations and multiple regression analyses to study the effect of optimism on PCS and MCS. In all, 288 (199 AxSpA and 89 low back pain) patients were included: mean age, 47.3 ± 11.9 years, 48.6 % were males. Pain levels (0-10) were 4.5 ± 2.4 and 4.3 ± 2.4 in AxSpA and LOW BACK PAIN patients, respectively. HRQoL was similarly altered in both diseases, for both physical and mental composite scores (mean PCS: 43.7 ± 8.2 vs. 41.9 ± 7.1; mean 45.9 ± 7.8 vs. 46.7 ± 8.1 for AxSpA and low back pain respectively). Optimism was moderate and similar in both populations. Optimism was positively correlated to MCS in both diseases (rho = 0.54 and 0.58, respectively, both p Optimism was similar in these 2 chronic diseases and was an explanatory factor of the mental component of HRQoL, but not physical HRQoL. Physical HRQoL may reflect more the disease process than character traits.

  11. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition is provided which can be hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a composition which contains 10%-100% of a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A), (hereafter called an oligomer), having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. These compositions have a high degree of polymerization and characteristics equivalent to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resin. The oligomer (A) is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with saturated polycarboxylic acids or anhydrides. In one embodiment, 146 parts by weight of adipic acid and 280 parts of glycidyl methacrylate ester undergo addition reaction in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and a catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours to produce an oligomer having a fiberous divinyl construction. The coating composition utilizes this oligomer in the forms of (I-1), a whole oligomer; (I-2), 0%-90% of this oligomer and 90%-10% of a vinyl monomer containing at least 30% of (meth) acrylic monomer; (I-3), 10%-90% of such oligomer and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule; (I-4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3) in proportion of 1/9 to 9/1, and (I-5), above four compositions each containing 50% or less unsaturated polyester or drying oil having 500-5,000 molecules or a drying oil-modified alkyd resin having 500-5,000 molecules. Four examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  12. A cross-sectional assessment of health-related quality of life in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis c virus infection with EQ-5D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Rao, Huiying; Shang, Jia; Chen, Hong; Li, Jun; Xie, Qing; Gao, Zhiliang; Wang, Lei; Wei, Jia; Jiang, Jianning; Sun, Jian; Jiang, Jiaji; Wei, Lai

    2018-06-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most common liver infections, with a decrement in HRQoL of HCV patients. This study aims to assess Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese patients with chronic HCV infection, and to identify significant predictors of the HRQoL in these patients of China. In this cross-sectional observational study, treatment-naïve Han ethnic adults with chronic HCV infection were enrolled. Adopting European Quality of Life scale (EQ-5D) and EuroQOL visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) were used to qualify HRQoL. Results were reported in descriptive analyses to describe sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to investigate the associations of these variables with HRQoL. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations of these variables with HRQoL by dimensions of EQ-5D. Nine hundred ninety-seven patients were enrolled in the study [median age 46.0 (37.0, 56.0) years; male 54.8%]. Mean EQ-5D index and EQ-VAS score were 0.780 ± 0.083 and 77.2 ± 14.8. Multiple Linear regression analysis showed that income (< 2000 RMB, β = - 0.134; 2000-4999 RMB, β = - 0.085), moderate or severe symptoms of discomfort (more than one symptoms, β = - 0.090), disease profile (cirrhosis, β = - 0.114), hyperlipidemia (β = - 0.065) and depression (β = - 0.065) were independently associated with EQ-5D index. Residence (the west, β = 0.087), income (< 2000 RMB, β = - 0.129; 2000-4999 RMB, β = - 0.052), moderate or severe symptoms of discomfort (more than one symptoms, β = - 0.091), disease profile and depression (β = - 0.316) were the influencing factors on EQ-VAS. Binary logistic regression indicated that disease profile and clinical depression were the major influencing factors on all five dimensions of EQ-5D. In this cross-sectional assessment of HCV patients in China, we indicated HRQo

  13. Assessment of quality of life of the children and parents affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet: preliminary results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Alexandre; Baumstarck, Karine; Cano, Aline; Loundou, Anderson; Berbis, Julie; Chabrol, Brigitte; Auquier, Pascal

    2013-09-19

    The development in therapeutic strategies has increased survival of children affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet (IEMRD). These diseases have mild- and long-term consequences on the health. Little is known about the impact on the quality of life (QoL) of children and their families. The aims of this study were: to compare the QoL of the children and parents affected by IEMRD with the QoL of the general population and one pathology associated with long-term consequences. This cross-sectional study was performed at the French Reference Center for inborn metabolic disorders (Marseille, France). Inclusion criteria were: a child with a diagnosis of organic aciduria, urea cycle defect, or maple syrups urine disease (MSUD). Socio-demographics, clinical data, and QoL were recorded. Twenty-one of 32 eligible families were included during a planned routine visit. Ten (47%, 95% CI 27-69%) children were affected by organic aciduria, six (29%, 95% CI 10-48%) by urea cycle defects, and five (24%, 95% CI 6-42%) by MSUD. Among the younger children, the general well-being was significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (58 ± 16 versus 76 ± 15, p = 0.012), and among the older children, the leisure activities were significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (29 ± 18 versus 62 ± 22, p eating and neurologic disorders, enteral nutrition, and feeding modalities. The children and the parents of children affected presented altered 'physical' and 'social' QoL scores compared with the norms and patients with leukemia and their families. Future studies based on larger cohort studies should determine the different weights of potential predictive factors of QoL.

  14. Factors influencing long-term quality of life and depression in German liver transplant recipients: a single-centre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Alexandra; Seubert, Lisa; Jünger, Jana; Schellberg, Dieter; Weiss, Karl Heinz; Schemmer, Peter; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Sauer, Peter; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils

    2013-06-26

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has become increasingly important. Therefore, we aimed to identify factors affecting HRQOL after OLT. This cross-sectional, single-centre study surveyed 281 OLT patients. Survey tools included the Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey, the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ9), and a self-designed employment questionnaire. Patient medical records were reviewed. Participants included 187 men (mean age at OLT: 50 [± 11; 13-69] years). Primary indications for OLT were viral hepatitis (28%), alcoholic liver disease (35%), cholestatic liver disease (11%), and others (26%). Follow-up ranged from 2 to 136 months. Clinical factors associated with improved HRQOL were age ≤ 45 years at OLT and current MELD score <=≤ 13. Time after OLT and indication for transplantation affected SF-36 HRQOL. SF-36 physical component summary scales plateaued at 3-years post-OLT and then stabilized. For the SF-36 HRQOL, scores were the lowest in all domains for OLT recipients transplanted for chronic viral hepatitis and for unemployed patients, whereas sex and number of transplantations showed no significant differences. The PHQ9 results showed that depression was significantly more frequent among patients with current MELD score ≥ 13 or impaired liver function and those transplanted for chronic viral hepatitis or unemployed patients. Age and sex did not influence PHQ9 results. Medical and psychosocial support is crucial for long-term HRQOL after OLT. Developing multidisciplinary interventions to address issues such as employment, age, MELD score, and liver function may improve long-term HRQOL in these patients.

  15. Health Related Quality of Life and Its Socio-Demographic Determinants among Iranian Elderly People: a Population Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the stage of demographic transition, the rate of elderly is increasing and their health condition is a matter of concern. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the health related quality of life (QoL and the associated socio-demographic determinants among Iranian elderly people. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a representative samples of 750 elderly people whom community dwelling in urban area of Babol, in the north of Iran. In a household survey, the demographic data were collected and the health related QoL was assessed with a validated standard short form questionnaire (SF-36. The multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the demographic characteristics in predicting QoL using SPSS ver 13. Results: The overall mean (SD scores of QoL was 62.4(17.2 for men and 51.2 (17.9 for women. The mean scores of QoL in all dimensions in men had significantly higher than women. The adjusted regression coefficient of gender, age, educational level, being couple were significant on overall scores of QoL. Aging is inversely associated while male gender and education at high school or higher and being couple are positively associated in prediction of overall scores of QoL. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the health related QoL is rather poor in old people particular in women, elderly with low education level and being single. Therefore, healthcare policy makers should consider an urgent health interventional program among elderly people at present stage of demographic transition with emphasis on high risk demographic profiles.

  16. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and quality of life outcomes: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional case-control studies

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    Anna Coluccia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD is a chronic disabling psychological condition, which can severely affect quality of life (QOL. Growing interest has been dedicated to assessing which domains of QOL are more severely affected in patients with OCD. However, research yielded conflicting findings. Investigating QOL in OCD could suggest the need for integration of interventions aimed at improving those specific domains more severely impaired by obsessions and compulsions.Methods. We will conduct a systematic review of cross-sectional case-control studies according to PRISMA guidelines, where patients with a primary OCD diagnosis were compared on QOL outcomes with healthy controls. Primary objectives will be to examine differences in QOL outcomes between patients with OCD and healthy controls, and to assess which QOL domains are more severely impaired in patients compared with controls, particularly subjective well-being, social and interpersonal functioning, work functioning, and family functioning. Subsequently, the study will investigate potential moderators of QOL in OCD, including participants characteristics (age, sex, presence of comorbid personality disorders, OCD symptom severity, severity of concurrent depressive symptoms, duration of OCD symptoms, and generational cohort, and study characteristics (date of publication and methodological quality of the studies. Online databases will be searched (PsycINFO, PubMED, Science Direct, Cinahl, Biological Abstracts, Psyclit, Embase, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar. To locate unpublished records, conference abstracts, doctoral dissertations and theses will be handsearched, and experts will be contacted. Statistical analyses will be performed though random effect model meta-analysis. Risk of bias assessments will be conducted using the instrument Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies.

  17. Malocclusion, dental aesthetic self-perception and quality of life in a 18 to 21 year-old population: a cross section study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudino Dikson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aesthetic alterations in the face can be self-perceived and can affect quality of life. For young people, physical attractiveness is an important factor affecting social relationships. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of malocclusion, identify the most common types and test its association with oral aesthetic self-perception in 18 to 21 year-old population of male young adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 138 Brazilian Army soldiers. Data collection included socio demographic profile, malocclusion status through the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI and oral aesthetic self-perception as indicated by the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS. The chi-square and Fisher’s exact test were used to test for homogeneity of proportions. The stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to test for the relationship between the poorer oral aesthetic self-perception and parental and soldier’s education, per capita income, history of caries in all teeth and only on anterior teeth, dental trauma, previous orthodontic treatment and malocclusion. Results The prevalence of malocclusion was 45.6%. Incisor teeth crowding and misalignment of lower incisors were the most common types of malocclusions. A statistically significant and independent association between malocclusion and poorer oral aesthetic self-perception in the multivariate analysis was observed. Subjects with severe malocclusion conditions showed 88% higher prevalence [prevalence ratio =1.88 (95% CI, 1.30 – 2.72; p = 0.001] of poorer aesthetic self-perception comparing to those with minor malocclusion. Conclusions A high prevalence of malocclusion was observed. The young adults presenting severe malocclusion had a higher and independent prevalence of poorer oral aesthetic self-perception.

  18. Respiratory constraints during activities in daily life and the impact on health status in patients with early-stage COPD: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helvoort, Hanneke Ac; Willems, Laura M; Dekhuijzen, Pn Richard; van Hees, Hieronymus Wh; Heijdra, Yvonne F

    2016-10-13

    In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), exercise capacity is reduced, resulting over time in physical inactivity and worsened health status. It is unknown whether ventilatory constraints occur during activities of daily life (ADL) in early stages of COPD. The aim of this study was to assess respiratory mechanics during ADL and to study its consequences on dyspnoea, physical activity and health status in early-stage COPD compared with healthy controls. In this cross-sectional study, 39 early-stage COPD patients (mean FEV 1 88±s.d. 12% predicted) and 20 controls performed 3 ADL: climbing stairs, vacuum cleaning and displacing groceries in a cupboard. Respiratory mechanics were measured during ADL. Physical activity was measured with accelerometry. Health status was assessed by the Nijmegen Clinical Screening Instrument. Compared with controls, COPD patients had greater ventilatory inefficiency and higher ventilatory requirements during ADL (P50% of the patients developed dynamic hyperinflation in contrast to 10-35% of the controls. Higher dyspnoea was scored by patients with dynamic hyperinflation. Physical activity was low but comparable between both groups. From the patients, 55-84% experienced mild-to-severe problems in health status compared with 5-25% of the controls. Significant ventilatory constraints already occur in early-stage COPD patients during common ADL and result in increased dyspnoea. Physical activity level is not yet reduced, but many patients already experience limitations in health status. These findings reinforce the importance of early diagnosis of COPD and assessment of more than just spirometry.

  19. Association between anxiety and severe quality-of-life impairment in postmenopausal women: analysis of a multicenter Latin American cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Pizarro, Jorge L; González-Luna, Alejandro; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Blümel, Juan E; Barón, Germán; Bencosme, Ascanio; Benítez, Zully; Bravo, Luz M; Calle, Andrés; Flores, Daniel; Espinoza, María T; Gómez, Gustavo; Hernández-Bueno, José A; Martino, Mabel; Lima, Selva; Monterrosa, Alvaro; Mostajo, Desiree; Ojeda, Eliana; Onatra, William; Sánchez, Hugo; Tserotas, Konstantinos; Vallejo, María S; Witis, Silvina; Zúñiga, María C; Chedraui, Peter

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate associations between anxiety and severe impairment of quality of life (QoL) in Latin American postmenopausal women. This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter cross-sectional study among postmenopausal women aged 40 to 59 from 11 Latin American countries. We evaluated anxiety (The Goldberg Depression and Anxiety Scale), and QoL (Menopause Rating Scale [MRS]), and included sociodemographic, clinical, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables in the analysis. Poisson family generalized linear models with robust standard errors were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs. There were two adjusted models: a statistical model that included variables associated with the outcomes in bivariate analyses, and an epidemiologic model that included potentially confounding variables from literature review. Data from 3,503 women were included; 61.9% had anxiety (Goldberg). Severe QoL impairment (total MRS score ≥17) was present in 13.7% of women, as well as severe symptoms (MRS subscales): urogenital (25.5%), psychological (18.5%), and somatic (4.5%). Anxiety was independently associated with severe QoL impairment and severe symptoms in the epidemiological (MRS total score: PR 3.6, 95% CI, 2.6-5.0; somatic: 5.1, 95% CI, 2.6-10.1; psychological: 2.8, 95% CI, 2.2-3.6; and urogenital: 1.4, 95% CI, 1.2-1.6) and the statistical model (MRS total score: PR 3.5, 95% CI, 2.6-4.9; somatic: 5.0, 95% CI, 2.5-9.9; psychological: 2.9, 95% CI, 2.2-3.7; and urogenital: 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6). In this postmenopausal Latin American sample, anxiety was independently associated with severe QoL impairment. Hence, screening for anxiety in this population is important.

  20. Quality of life of people with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy in Cuba: a cross-sectional study of the national population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés-López, Carlos; Pérez-Ávila, Jorge; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Castro, Arachu

    2012-05-01

    We studied the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the quality of life (QOL) of Cubans with HIV/AIDS. We conducted a cross-sectional study including administration of the Medical Outcomes Study-HIV Health Survey Questionnaire to a representative sample of the 1592 Cubans receiving ART in 2004. For univariate analyses, we compared mean HIV scale scores. We used logistic regression models to estimate the association between role function and year of diagnosis, between pain and sex, and between health transition and region of diagnosis, with adjustment for demographics, ART regimen, and clinical status. There were 354 participants (73 women, 281 men). Scores for all functional activities showed means higher than 80 out of 100. Pain interfered more in women than in men (73.2 vs 81.9; P = .01). When HIV diagnosis occurred after 2001, the probability of experiencing difficulties performing work (odds ratio [OR] = 4.42; 95% CI = 1.83, 10.73) and pain (OR = 1.70; 95% CI = 1.01, 2.88) increased compared with earlier diagnosis. People treated with indinavir showed a greater perception of general health (58.9 vs 52.4; P = .045) and greater health improvement (78.6 vs 67.8; P = .002). Although Cubans receiving ART are maintaining a high QOL, we observed significant differences by sex and time of diagnosis. QOL assessment can serve as a health outcome and may allow identification of QOL reductions potentially related to ART side effects.

  1. CASP-19 special section: how does chronic disease status affect CASP quality of life at older ages? Examining the WHO ICF disability domains as mediators of this relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, E; King-Kallimanis, B L; Layte, R; Hickey, A

    2015-07-01

    The effect of chronic disease status on quality of life (QoL) has been well established. However, less is known about how chronic diseases affect QoL. This article examines impairment in three domains of the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability (ICF) - body function, activity and participation, as well as affective well-being, - as potential mediators of the relationship between chronic disease and QoL. A cross-sectional sample (n = 4961) of the general Irish community-dwelling population aged 50+ years was obtained from the Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing (TILDA). The CASP measure of QoL was examined as two dimensions - control/autonomy and self-realisation/pleasure. Structural equation modelling was used to test the direct and indirect effects of chronic disease on QoL, via variables capturing body function, activity, participation and positive affect. A factor analysis showed that indicators of body function and activity loaded onto a single overall physical impairment factor. This physical impairment factor fully mediated the effect of chronic disease on positive affect and QoL. The total effect of chronic disease on control/autonomy (-0.160) was primarily composed of an indirect effect via physical impairment (-0.86), and via physical impairment and positive affect (-0.45). The decomposition of effects on self-realisation/pleasure was similar, although the direct effect of physical impairment was weaker. The model fitted the data well (RMSEA = 0.02, TLI = 0.96, CFI = 0.96). Chronic disease affects QoL through increased deficits in physical body function and activity. This overall physical impairment affects QoL both directly and indirectly via reduced positive affect.

  2. Health-related quality of life in adults with congenital unilateral upper limb deficiency in Norway. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Heidi; Østlie, Kristin; Andersen, Liv Øinæs; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend

    2016-11-01

    To examine subjective health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with congenital unilateral upper limb deficiency (UULD) in Norway and to explore the associations between demographic and clinical factors and HRQoL. Cross-sectional study comparing HRQoL, measured by SF-36, among adults with UULD and an age- and gender-matched control group from the Norwegian general population (NGP). Seventy-seven respondents, median age 42 years (range: 20-82); 71% were women. Most had left-sided (61%), below elbow (53%), transverse (73%) deficiency. Compared to the NGP, the UULD group reported reduced HRQoL on all SF-36 subscales except for the role emotional (RE) scale (p=0.321), mental health (MH) (p=0.055) and mental component summary (MCS) (p=0.064). The greatest difference was on the bodily pain (BP) scale (point difference of 20.0). Multiple linear regression models showed significant association between several physical- and mental SF-36 subscales and occupational status, occurrence of comorbidity and chronic pain. Persons with UULD reported reduced HRQoL on most SF-36 subscales, mostly in the physical health domain. Employment status, occurrence of comorbidity and chronic pain seem to have a negative impact on the HRQoL. Measures that can reduce pain and loss of function should be given particular attention in UULD rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Persons with congenital unilateral upper limb deficiency (UULD) who experience pain and discomfort should seek professional help for evaluating their everyday coping strategies. Professionals who meet persons with UULD should examine anomalies, comorbidity, pain and employment status before choosing advices and actions. Individually adapted grip-improving devices, environments, physical exercise and pain management programs should be implemented early to reduce pain, loss of function and decreased HRQoL. A multidisciplinary approach is often necessary when counseling persons with UULD.

  3. Quality of Life of People With HIV/AIDS Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Cuba: A Cross-Sectional Study of the National Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés-López, Carlos; Pérez-Ávila, Jorge; Smith Fawzi, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the quality of life (QOL) of Cubans with HIV/AIDS. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study including administration of the Medical Outcomes Study–HIV Health Survey Questionnaire to a representative sample of the 1592 Cubans receiving ART in 2004. For univariate analyses, we compared mean HIV scale scores. We used logistic regression models to estimate the association between role function and year of diagnosis, between pain and sex, and between health transition and region of diagnosis, with adjustment for demographics, ART regimen, and clinical status. Results. There were 354 participants (73 women, 281 men). Scores for all functional activities showed means higher than 80 out of 100. Pain interfered more in women than in men (73.2 vs 81.9; P = .01). When HIV diagnosis occurred after 2001, the probability of experiencing difficulties performing work (odds ratio [OR] = 4.42; 95% CI = 1.83, 10.73) and pain (OR = 1.70; 95% CI = 1.01, 2.88) increased compared with earlier diagnosis. People treated with indinavir showed a greater perception of general health (58.9 vs 52.4; P = .045) and greater health improvement (78.6 vs 67.8; P = .002). Conclusions. Although Cubans receiving ART are maintaining a high QOL, we observed significant differences by sex and time of diagnosis. QOL assessment can serve as a health outcome and may allow identification of QOL reductions potentially related to ART side effects. PMID:22420793

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Arthritis: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Middle-Aged Adults in Chongqing, China

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    Yunshuang Rao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arthritis is a common disease in China, but few studies have been conducted to explore the associated health-related quality of life (HRQoL and its influencing factors in Chongqing, China. This study aimed to explore the association of arthritis and HRQoL and probe factors affecting HRQoL among arthritis patients. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Chongqing, China. A total of 1224 adults were included in the analysis. Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36 was used to measure HRQoL. Multiple linear regression models (stepwise and covariance analysis models were used to examine the association of arthritis with HRQoL and analyze factors associated with HRQoL among arthritis patients. Results: Participants with arthritis had poorer HRQoL than those without. Among arthritis patients, the female was associated with a poorer state of physical functioning (p < 0.05; unemployed patients had a poorer state of role-physical than employed patients (p < 0.05; low average monthly income was associated with a poorer state of physical functioning (p < 0.01; childhood non-breastfeeding history was associated with a poorer state of social functioning (p < 0.01; average or dissatisfied attitude to current living conditions was associated with a poorer state of vitality and mental health (p < 0.05 for all; moreover, poor or general appetite was associated with a poorer state of role-physical, general health, social functioning, bodily pain, and role-emotional (p < 0.01 for all. Conclusions: Arthritis patients have worse HRQoL than those without in the Chinese population. Female, low socioeconomic status, childhood non-breastfeeding history, average or dissatisfied attitude to current living conditions and poor or general appetite were associated with poorer state of HRQoL among Chinese arthritis patients.

  5. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Chinese caregivers of the older adults living in the community: a cross-sectional study

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    Yang Xiaoshi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the culture of filial piety and due to the Confucianism spirit in China, family caregivers usually undertake the responsibilities of caring for the older adults. They usually suffer from a heavy burden which is believed to impair their mental and physical health. Thus this study aims to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQOL among Chinese caregivers of the older adults living in the community and explore the predictors of caregivers’ HRQOL. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted through convenience sampling. The study population was composed of 1,144 caregivers of older adults who suffered from one or more types of chronic diseases in 15 communities in 3 eastern cities of China. Family caregivers were interviewed face-to-face using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the ZARIT Caregiver Burden interview (ZBI scales. The Antonovsky's Sense of coherence (SOC scale was also used to measure personal coping capability of the caregivers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMR was performed to explore the predictors of caregivers’ HRQOL. Results The majority of the caregivers were females (60.0% or adult children (66.5%. Mental QOL was significantly lower than physical QOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that Demographic Characteristics of Caregivers, Patients’ Characteristics, and Subjective Caregiver Burden explained most of the total variance of all aspects of HRQOL. While, Objective Caregiving Tasks was only associated with physical QOL. Subjective Caregiver Burden was the strongest predictor of both physical and mental QOL. SOC was also a strong predictor of physical and mental QOL. Conclusions The mental QOL of the caregivers of older adults was disrupted more seriously than physical QOL. Additionally, Subjective Caregiver Burden might decrease caregiver’ health. A decrease in caregiver burden could promote better management of caregiving tasks, and improve

  6. Malocclusion, dental aesthetic self-perception and quality of life in a 18 to 21 year-old population: a cross section study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, Dikson; Traebert, Jefferson

    2013-01-07

    Aesthetic alterations in the face can be self-perceived and can affect quality of life. For young people, physical attractiveness is an important factor affecting social relationships. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of malocclusion, identify the most common types and test its association with oral aesthetic self-perception in 18 to 21 year-old population of male young adults. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 138 Brazilian Army soldiers. Data collection included socio demographic profile, malocclusion status through the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and oral aesthetic self-perception as indicated by the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS). The chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used to test for homogeneity of proportions. The stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to test for the relationship between the poorer oral aesthetic self-perception and parental and soldier's education, per capita income, history of caries in all teeth and only on anterior teeth, dental trauma, previous orthodontic treatment and malocclusion. The prevalence of malocclusion was 45.6%. Incisor teeth crowding and misalignment of lower incisors were the most common types of malocclusions. A statistically significant and independent association between malocclusion and poorer oral aesthetic self-perception in the multivariate analysis was observed. Subjects with severe malocclusion conditions showed 88% higher prevalence [prevalence ratio =1.88 (95% CI, 1.30 - 2.72); p = 0.001] of poorer aesthetic self-perception comparing to those with minor malocclusion. A high prevalence of malocclusion was observed. The young adults presenting severe malocclusion had a higher and independent prevalence of poorer oral aesthetic self-perception.

  7. Chronic periodontitis and oral health-related quality of life in Chinese adults: A population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Songlin; Wei, Shicheng; Wang, Jinhua; Ji, Ping

    2018-03-01

    This population-based, cross-sectional study explored the association between chronic periodontitis and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in Chinese adults, independently of sociodemographic factors and other common oral conditions. The present study was carried out in a sample population of 480 adults aged 35 to 74 years from Chongqing municipality. A multi-stage stratified random sampling approach was adopted to select participants. The Chinese version of the short-form oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) was used to assess OHRQoL. Chronic periodontitis was trichotomized into mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis. Logistic regression models were adopted to explore the association between the severity of chronic periodontitis and OHIP-14 scores. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors and other common clinical conditions, participants with severe and moderate chronic periodontitis, respectively, had 1.63- (95% CI: 1.41 to 1.98) and 1.42-fold (95% CI: 1.29 to 1.63) higher odds for the OHIP-14 scores being above the median compared with participants without chronic periodontitis. However, participants with mild periodontitis did not have significantly higher odds for the OHIP-14 scores being above the median than participants without chronic periodontitis. Certain sociodemographic variables, including higher age, lower education level, number of missing teeth, and current smoker, had negative associations with OHRQoL. Chronic periodontitis was associated with poorer OHRQoL in Chinese adults. In addition, the impairment in OHRQoL showed a significant correlation with the severity of chronic periodontitis. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  8. Physically vapor deposited coatings on tools: performance and wear phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, W.; Fritsch, R.; Kammermeier, D.

    1991-01-01

    Coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) enhance the performance of tools for a broad variety of production processes. In addition to TiN, nowadays (Ti,Al)N and Ti(C,N) coated tools are available. This gives the opportunity to compare the performance of different coatings under identical machining conditions and to evaluate causes and phenomena of wear. TiN, (Ti,Al)N and Ti(C,N) coatings on high speed steel (HSS) show different performances in milling and turning of heat treated steel. The thermal and frictional properties of the coating materials affect the structure, the thickness and the flow of the chips, the contact area on the rake face and the tool life. Model tests show the influence of internal cooling and the thermal conductivity of coated HSS inserts. TiN and (Ti,Zr)N PVD coatings on cemented carbides were examined in interrupted turning and in milling of heat treated steel. Experimental results show a significant influence of typical time-temperature cycles of PVD and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coating processes on the physical data and on the performance of the substrates. PVD coatings increase tool life, especially towards lower cutting speeds into ranges which cannot be applied with CVD coatings. The reason for this is the superior toughness of the PVD coated carbide. The combination of tough, micrograin carbide and PVD coating even enables broaching of case hardened sliding gears at a cutting speed of 66 m min -1 . (orig.)

  9. Double trouble: the impact of multimorbidity and deprivation on preference-weighted health related quality of life a cross sectional analysis of the Scottish Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Kenny D; Mercer, Stewart W; Wyke, Sally; Grieve, Eleanor; Guthrie, Bruce; Watt, Graham C M; Fenwick, Elisabeth A E

    2013-08-20

    To investigate the association between multimorbidity and Preference_Weighted Health Related Quality of Life (PW_HRQoL), a score that combines physical and mental functioning, and how this varies by socioeconomic deprivation and age. The Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) is a cross-sectional representative survey of the general population which included the SF-12, a survey of HRQoL, for individuals 20 years and over. For 7,054 participants we generated PW_HRQoL scores by running SF-12 responses through the SF-6D algorithm. The resulting scores ranged from 0.29 (worst health) to 1 (perfect health). Using ordinary least squares, we first investigated associations between scores and increasing counts of longstanding conditions, and then repeated for multimorbidity (2+ conditions). Estimates were made for the general population and quintiles of socioeconomic deprivation. For multimorbidity, the analyses were repeated stratifying the population by age group (20-44, 45-64, 65+). 45% of participants reported a longstanding condition and 18% reported multimorbidity. The presence of 1, 2, or 3+ longstanding conditions were associated with average reductions in PW_HRQoL scores of 0.081, 0.151 and 0.212 respectively. Reduction in scores associated with multimorbidity was 33% greater in the most deprived quintile compared to the least deprived quintile, with the biggest difference (80%) in the 20-44 age groups. There were no significant gender differences. PW_HRQoL decreases markedly with multimorbidity, and is exacerbated by higher deprivation and younger age. There is a need to prioritise interventions to improve the HRQoL for (especially younger) adults with multimorbidity in deprived areas. BOX 1: What Is Known?Prevalence and premature onset of multimorbidity increases as socioeconomic position worsens. Previous studies have investigated the effect of multimorbidity on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) on separate physical and mental health states. There is limited data

  10. A population-based study of asthma, quality of life, and occupation among elderly Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites: a cross-sectional investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delclos George L

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The U.S. population is aging and is expected to double by the year 2030. The current study evaluated the prevalence of asthma and its correlates in the elderly Hispanic and non-Hispanic white population. Methods Data from a sample of 3021 Hispanics and non-Hispanic White subjects, 65 years and older, interviewed as part of an ongoing cross-sectional study of the elderly in west Texas, were analyzed. The outcome variable was categorized into: no asthma (reference category, current asthma, and probable asthma. Polytomous logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable and various socio-demographic measures, self-rated health, asthma symptoms, quality of life measures (SF-12, and various occupations. Results The estimated prevalence of current asthma and probable asthma were 6.3% (95%CI: 5.3–7.2 and 9.0% (95%CI: 7.8–10.1 respectively. The majority of subjects with current asthma (Mean SF-12 score 35.8, 95%CI: 34.2–37.4 or probable asthma (35.3, 34.0–36.6 had significantly worse physical health-related quality of life as compared to subjects without asthma (42.6, 42.1–43.1. In multiple logistic regression analyses, women had a 1.64 times greater odds of current asthma (95%CI: 1.12–2.38 as compared to men. Hay fever was a strong predictor of both current and probable asthma. The odds of current asthma were 1.78 times (95%CI: 1.24–2.55 greater among past smokers; whereas the odds of probable asthma were 2.73 times (95%CI: 1.77–4.21 greater among current smokers as compared to non-smokers. Similarly fair/poor self rated health and complaints of severe pain were independently associated with current and probable asthma. The odds of current and probable asthma were almost two fold greater for obesity. When stratified by gender, the odds were significantly greater among females (p-value for interaction term = 0.038. The odds of current asthma were significantly greater for

  11. The impact of community-based health insurance on health-related quality of life and associated factors in Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Teklemichael; Lentiro, Kifle

    2018-05-31

    Quality of life can be used to measure the effect of intervention on health related conditions. Health insurance contributes positive effect on availability of medical supplies and empowerment of women and children on financial healthcare. Therefore, the study was aimed to measure the impact of Community-Based Health Insurance on HRQoL and associated socio-demographic factors. A comparative community based cross-sectional study was employed. Data was collected by trained enumerators using World Health Organization QoL-BREF tool from a sample of 1964 (982 CBHI insured and 982 un-insured) household heads selected by probability proportional to size. A descriptive summery, simple and multiple linear regression analysis was applied to describe the functional predictors of HRQoL. The study was ethically approved by IRB of Wolkite University. The HRQoL score among CBHI insured family heads was 63.02 and 58.92 for un-insured family heads. The overall variation in HRQoL was explained due to; separated marital condition which reduced the HRQoL by 4.30% than those living together [ β  = - 0.044, 95% CI (- 5.67, - 0.10)], daily laborer decreased HRQoL by 7.50% [ β  = - 0.078, 95% CI (- 12.91, - 4.10)], but employment increased by 5.65% than farmers [ β  = 0.055, 95% CI (2.58, 17.59)]. QoL increased by 6.4 and 6.93% among primary and secondary level educated household heads than those household heads who could not read and write [ β  = 0.062, 95% CI (0.75, 4.31)] and [ β  = 0.067, 95% CI (1.84, 7.99)], respectively. As family size increased by one households' head, HRQoL decreased by 18.21% [ β  = - 0.201, 95% CI (- 2.55, - 1.63)], as wealth index increased by one unit, HRQoL decreased by 32.90% [ β  = - 0.306, 95% CI (- 5.15, - 3.86)] and QoL among CBHI insured household heads increased by 12.41% than those un-insured family heads [ β  = 0.117, 95% CI (2.98, 6.16)]. The study revealed that significant difference in

  12. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  13. Carbon-Based Wear Coatings: Properties and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2003-01-01

    The technical function of numerous engineering systems - such as vehicles, machines, and instruments - depends on the processes of motion and on the surface systems. Many processes in nature and technology depend on the motion and dynamic behavior of solids, liquids, and gases. Smart surface systems are essential because of the recent technological push toward higher speeds, loads, and operating temperatures; longer life; lighter weight and smaller size (including nanotechnology); and harsh environments in mechanical, mechatronic, and biomechanical systems. If proper attention is not given to surface systems, then vehicles, machines, instruments, and other technical systems could have short lives, consume excessive energy, experience breakdowns, result in liabilities, and fail to accomplish their missions. Surface systems strongly affect our national economy and our lifestyles. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we believe that proper attention to surface systems, especially in education, research, and application, could lead to economic savings of between 1.3 and 1.6 percent of the gross domestic product. Wear coatings and surface systems continue to experience rapid growth as new coating and surface engineering technologies are discovered, more cost-effective coating and surface engineering solutions are developed, and marketers aggressively pursue, uncover, and exploit new applications for engineered surface systems in cutting tools and wear components. Wear coatings and smart surface systems have been used widely in industrial, consumer, automotive, aerospace, and biomedical applications. This presentation expresses the author's views of and insights into smart surface systems in wear coatings. A revolution is taking place in carbon science and technology. Diamond, an allotrope of carbon, joins graphite, fullerenes, and nanotubes as its major pure carbon structures. It has a unique combination of extreme properties: hardness and abrasion resistance; adhesion

  14. Adhesion between coating layers based on epoxy and silicone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jacob R.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Kiil, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The adhesion between a silicon tie-coat and epoxy primers, used in marine coating systems, has been studied in this work. Six epoxy coatings (with varying chain lengths of the epoxy resins), some of which have shown problems with adhesion to the tie-coat during service life, have been considered....... The experimental investigation includes measurements of the surface tension of the tie-coat and the critical surface tensions of the epoxies, topographic investigation of the surfaces of cured epoxy coatings via atomic force microscopy (AFM), and pull-off tests for investigating the strength of adhesion...... to the silicon/epoxy systems. Calculations for determining the roughness factor of the six epoxy coatings (based on the AFM topographies) and the theoretical work of adhesion have been carried out. The coating surfaces are also characterized based on the van Oss-Good theory. Previous studies on the modulus...

  15. Thermal barrier coatings - Technology for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.; Lutz, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) are a development of the aerospace industry primarily aimed at hot gas flow paths in turbine engines. TBC consists of zirconia ceramic coatings applied over (M)CrAlY. These coatings can provide three benefits: (1) a reduction of metal surface operating temperatures, (2) a deterrent to hot gas corrosion, and (3) improved thermal efficiencies. TBC brings these same benefits to reciprocal diesel engines but coating longevity must be demonstrated. Diesels require thicker deposits and have challenging geometries for the arc-plasma spray (APS) deposition process. Different approaches to plasma spraying TBC are required for diesels, especially where peripheral edge effects play a major role. Bondcoats and ceramic top coats are modified to provide extended life as determined by burner rig tests, using ferrous and aluminum substrates

  16. Vanadium carbide coatings: deposition process and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, A.; Borisov, Y.; Shavlovsky, E.; Mits, I.; Castermans, L.; Jongbloed, R.

    2001-01-01

    Vanadium carbide coatings on carbon and alloyed steels were produced by the method of diffusion saturation from the borax melt. Thickness of the vanadium carbide layer was 5-15 μm, depending upon the steel grade and diffusion saturation parameters. Microhardness was 20000-28000 MPa and wear resistance of the coatings under conditions of end face friction without lubrication against a mating body of WC-2Co was 15-20 times as high as that of boride coatings. Vanadium carbide coatings can operate in air at a temperature of up to 400 o C. They improve fatigue strength of carbon steels and decrease the rate of corrosion in sea and fresh water and in acid solutions. The use of vanadium carbide coatings for hardening of various types of tools, including cutting tools, allows their service life to be extended by a factor of 3 to 30. (author)

  17. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...coatings both in laboratory and field service evaluations • LTCPC allows environmental cost reductions through VOC/HAP elimination and hexavalent ... chrome reduction. • The LTCPC process greatly shortens the coating operation (LTCPC cures much more rapidly then conventional wet coatings) resulting in

  18. Effects of irradiation-degradated chitosan coating on quality and shelf-life of the fruits of Shatang Mandarin, Fortunella Margariat (LOUR) swingle and Lycopersicon Esculentum MILL. var. cerasiforme alef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Gao Peng; Gao Ya; Yang Zhirong; Sun Qun

    2008-01-01

    Effects of irradiation-degradated chiotosan of different molecular weight on weight loss, rotting rate, total acid, soluble solid content, and ascorbic acid in Shatang mandarin, Fortunella margarita (lour) Swingle, and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme Alef during storage were investigated. The result showed that, compared to control, all chitosan treatment could significantly reduce weight loss and rotting rate, and maintain the content of total acid, soluble solid, and ascorbic acid. After 18 days of storage, treatment of chitosan with molecular weight of 6.6 x 10 4 Da showed the highest capability of decreasing the rotting rate in S. mandarin, F. margarita, L. esculentum by 71.11%, 66.01% and 70.22%, respectively; increasing total acid by 55.60%, 36.75% and 36.68%, soluble solid content by 49.06%, 25.75% and 49.46%, and ascorbic acid by 42.80%, 41.65% and 51.70%, respectively. Accordingly, irradiation-degradated chitosan coating could effectively prevent the rotting rate and preserve the quality of the three kinds of fruit during storage and thus prolong their shelf life to 18 days. (authors)

  19. The Association of Workplace Exposures on Quality of Life in Small and Medium Enterprises Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Four ASEAN Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isahak, Marzuki; Loh, May Young; Susilowati, Indri Hapsari; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Harncharoen, Kitiphong; Mohd Amin, Nursuhaili; Toai, Nguyen Phuong; Low, Wah-Yun; Ratanasiripong, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Quality of life is associated with several factors, including personal living styles and working conditions. This article aims to investigate the factors associated with quality of life among small and medium enterprises (SME) workers in 4 countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), namely Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam. A total of 2014 workers from food and textile industries were asked to answer a questionnaire about their sociodemographic characteristics, working environment and conditions, and quality of life. Results from showed that lifestyle (ie, alcohol intake and exercising), working characteristics (ie, shift work, working hours, and working days) and workplace conditions were associated with SME workers' quality of life (ie, physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain). Among the 16 types of workplace conditions, "sitting on the chair" and "slippery floor" most affect their quality of life . It is important for these variables to be taken into account in promoting workers' well-being and quality of life.

  20.  A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF ORAL HEALTH AND ORAL-HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG FRAIL ELDERLY PERSONS ON ADMISSION TO A SPECIAL ORAL-HEALTHCARE PROGRAM IN COPENHAGEN CITY,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Borge; Nielsen, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of oral health and oral health-related quality of life among frail elderly persons on admission to a special oral health care programme in Copenhagen City, Denmark Aim: To describe the oral health and the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of citizens in Copenhagen...... City on admission to a specific oral health-care programme for disabled elderly persons. Further, to analyse how various factors influence the oral health and the OHRQoL among these patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 189 persons (average 85 years) consecutively admitted to a special oral...... health-care programme. Clinical data and data from interviews comprising social factors, life-style, dental visit habits, oral hygiene practices and self-perceived oral health were collected. A modified index on perceived dysfunction, discomfort and disability due to oral disorders was used. Results...

  1. Determination of the DBTT of Aluminide Coatings and its Influence on the Mechanical Behavior of Coated Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The ductility of various coatings deposited by chemical vapor deposition, pack cementation and slurry processes on Fe- and Ni-based alloys was characterized by indentation at room temperature. A hot indentation apparatus has also been developed to more rapidly determine the ductile to brittle transition temperature of coated specimens. Creep testing has been conducted on bare and coated alloy 230 (NiCrW) specimens at 800 C with a significant decrease in creep life observed. Based on the observed failure of coated 230 specimens, the impact of coating ductility on substrate creep properties is discussed.

  2. The Development of Memory Efficiency and Value-Directed Remembering across the Life Span: A Cross-Sectional Study of Memory and Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Alan D.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Lee, Steve S.; Galvan, Adriana; Balota, David A.; McCabe, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Although attentional control and memory change considerably across the life span, no research has examined how the ability to strategically remember important information (i.e., value-directed remembering) changes from childhood to old age. The present study examined this in different age groups across the life span (N = 320, 5-96 years old). A…

  3. The Life-course Approach in Assessment of Dental Health: A Cross Sectional Study among Finnish and Turkish Pre-adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, Ayse Basak; Murtomaa, Heikki; Tseveenjav, Battsetseg

    2008-01-01

    Interest is growing on conceptualizing dental disease aetiology under the life-course approach. The aim of this study was to assess the association of dental caries experience with the major components of life-course approach, health- and behavioral capital, among Turkish and Finnish pre-adolesce...

  4. The interplay of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior among youth students in contemporary China: a large scale cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Fang; Xue, Fuzhong; Qin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Stressful life events are common among youth students and may induce psychological problems and even suicidal behaviors in those with poor coping skills. This study aims to assess the influence of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior and to elucidate the underlying mechanism using a large sample of university students in China. Methods 5972 students, randoml...

  5. Physical activity and quality of life in long-term hospitalized patients with severe mental illness : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenik, Jeroen; Kruisdijk, Frank; Tenback, Diederik; Braakman-Jansen, Annemarie; Taal, Erik; Hopman-Rock, Marijke; Beekman, Aartjan; Tak, Erwin; Hendriksen, Ingrid; van Harten, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Increasing physical activity in patients with severe mental illness is believed to have positive effects on physical health, psychiatric symptoms and as well quality of life. Till now, little is known about the relationship between physical activity and quality of life in long-term

  6. Health-related quality of life is not impaired in children with undetected as well as diagnosed celiac disease: a large population based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge regarding the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children with celiac disease remains limited and inconclusive. We investigated the HRQoL of three groups of 12-year-olds with: i) undetected celiac disease ii) clinically diagnosed celiac disease, and iii) without celiac disease. Methods A school-based cross-sectional multicenter screening study invited 18 325 children, whereof 68% consented to participate. Participants provided a blood sample, which was later analyzed for anti-tissue-tranglutaminase antibodies, and alongside filled in a questionnaire. When anti-tissue-tranglutaminase antibodies were elevated, a small intestinal biopsy verified the screening-detected celiac disease diagnosis. Self-reported HRQoL was measured using Kidscreen, a generic 52 items instrument with proven reliability and validity. Scores were linearly transformed into a 0–100 scale with higher values indicating better HRQoL. Mean values with standard deviations (mean ± SD) were compared, and uni- and multivariate logistic regression models tested the odds of a low HRQoL among children with undetected or diagnosed celiac disease, respectively. Results Children with undetected celiac disease (n = 238) reported similar HRQoL as children without celiac disease (n = 12 037) (83.0 ± 11.0 vs. 82.5 ± 11.3, P = 0.51), and also similar HRQoL (82.2 ± 12.2, P = 0.28) to that of children with diagnosed celiac disease (n = 90), of whom 92% were adherent to treatment. Having undetected celiac disease did not increase the odds of low overall HRQoL, independent of sex, area of residence, study year and occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.54-1.10). Comparable results were seen for diagnosed celiac disease cases (adjusted odds ratio 1.11, 95% CI 0.67-1.85). Conclusion Children with undetected celiac disease reported comparable HRQoL as their peers with diagnosed celiac disease, and those without celiac disease

  7. Association between social capital and quality of life among urban residents in less developed cities of western China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Yang, Shujuan; Liu, Xiang; Ren, Xiaohui; Liu, Danping; Li, Ningxiu

    2018-01-01

    China has experienced rapid urbanization over the past several decades. Social capital is considered a vital human resource, and quality of life (QoL) is an important measure of human health embedded in a physical, mental, and social context. No studies have reported on the association between social capital and QoL in Chinese urban residents. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate social capital in urban community residents of West China, and its relationship with QoL.Our study was carried out between June and July of 2015. A total of 1136 households were surveyed. The Chinese-translated version of the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) and social capital questionnaire were used to evaluate people's QoL and social capital. Associations between QoL and social capital were evaluated by 3 logistic regression analyses.A total of 1136 adult participants aged 18 years and older completed the questionnaire. Young residents were more likely to have lower second (SC2), third (SC3), and fourth (SC4) dimensions of social capital. Migrants and residents with higher education levels and high incomes showed lower SC1 and SC2 relative to other participants, and employed residents had relatively low SC1. Unmarried residents had lower SC2 and SC3. Without adjustment for potential confounding factors, participants with higher SC2 had higher average scores for mental components (MCS) of QoL [odds ratio (OR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.09-2.02], and the same was seen for SC3 (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.24-2.34). After adjusting for socioeconomic status (SES) and risk factors, SC2 and SC3 were still significantly associated with MCS. Social capital was not significantly associated with physical components of QoL in any of the 3 logistic regression models.In conclusion, social capital is related to MCS of QoL, and increasing it may be an effective way to promote health.

  8. Health utility scores from EQ-5D and health-related quality of life in patients with esophageal cancer: a real-world cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, M K; Leung, Y; Su, J; Naik, H; Patel, D; Eng, L; Kong, Q Q; Mohsin, F; Brown, M C; Espin-Garcia, O; Vennettilli, A; Renouf, D J; Faluyi, O O; Knox, J J; MacKay, H; Wong, R; Howell, D; Mittmann, N; Darling, G E; Cella, D; Xu, W; Liu, G

    2018-06-14

    Esophageal cancer and its treatment can cause serious morbidity/toxicity. These effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) can be measured using disease-specific scales such as FACT-E, generic scales such as EQ-5D-3L, or through symptoms. In a two-year cross-sectional study, we compared HRQOL across esophageal cancer patients treated in an ambulatory clinic and across multiple disease states, among patients with all stages of esophageal cancer. Consenting patients completed FACT-E, EQ-5D, a visual analog scale, and patient reported (PR)-ECOG. Symptom complexes were constructed from FACT-E domains. Responses were categorized by disease state: pre-, during, and post-treatment, surveillance, progression, and palliative chemotherapy. Spearman correlation and multivariable linear regression characterized these associations. In total, 199 patients completed 317 questionnaires. Mean FACT-E and subscale scores dropped from baseline through treatment and recovered during post-treatment surveillance (P < 0.001); EQ-5D health utility scores (HUS) displayed a similar pattern but with smaller differences (P = 0.07), and with evidence of ceiling effect. Among patients with stage II/III esophageal cancer, mean EQ-5D HUS varied across disease states (P < 0.001), along with FACT-E and subscales (P < 0.001). Among patients with advanced disease, there was no significant difference between baseline and on-treatment total scores, but improved esophageal cancer-specific scales were noted (P = 0.003). Strong correlation was observed between EQ-5D and FACT-E (R = 0.73), along with physical and functional subscales. In addition, the association between FACT-E and EQ-5D HUS was maintained in a multivariable model (P < 0.001). We interpret these results to suggest that in a real-world clinic setting, FACT-E, EQ-5D HUS, and symptoms were strongly correlated. Most HRQOL and symptom parameters suggested that patients had worse HRQOL and symptoms during curative therapy

  9. Long-term disease-specific and cognitive quality of life after intensity-modulated radiation therapy: a cross-sectional survey of nasopharyngeal carcinoma survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiang, Alan; Weinberg, Vivian K.; Cheung, Ka Ho Nicholas; Shugard, Erin; Chen, Josephine; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Yom, Sue S.

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of data on quality of life in long-term survivors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who have been treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We characterized long-term disease-specific and cognitive QoL in NPC survivors after IMRT. We conducted a cross-sectional study of surviving patients diagnosed and treated for NPC at our center with curative-intent IMRT, with or without chemotherapy. Patients who were deceased, still undergoing treatment, with known recurrent disease, or treated with RT modality other than IMRT were excluded. QoL was measured by FACT-NP and FACT-Cog. Between May and November 2013, 44 patients completed cognitive (FACT-Cog), general (FACT-G), and NPC-specific (NPCS) QoL assessments. Patients were categorized into 4 cohorts based on duration since IMRT (≤2.5, >2.5–6, >6–10, and >10–16 years). There was no significant difference in age (p = 0.20) or stage ((I/II vs III/IV: p = 0.78) among the cohorts. The 4 cohorts differed overall for all QoL measures (ANOVA: p < 0.02 for each), due to improved scores >2.5–6 years post-IMRT compared with ≤2.5 years post-IMRT (post hoc tests: p ≤ 0.04 for each). No differences were observed between >2.5–6 and >6–10 years post-IMRT, but lower mean FACT-Cog and NPCS scores were observed for >10 years compared to >2.5–6 years post-IMRT (post hoc: p < 0.05 for each). All QoL measures were low during the initial recovery period (≤2.5 years) and were higher by 6 years post-IMRT. At >10 years post-IMRT, lower scores were observed in the domains of NPC-specific and cognitive QoL. Survivors of NPC, even if treated with IMRT, are at risk for detriment in domain-specific QoL measures at very long-term follow-up

  10. Association between physical activity and health-related quality of life in elderly individuals with pre-diabetes in rural Hunan Province, China: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhao; Gao, Fan; Yang, Yang; Qin, Lulu; Luo, Bang-an

    2018-01-01

    Objectives There are few data on the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical activity among elderly individuals with pre-diabetes. This study aimed to determine if differences existed in HRQoL between individuals with pre-diabetes who were physically active compared with those who were physically inactive in rural China. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the elderly (≧60 years) in rural communities in Yiyang City of China. Multistage cluster random sampling was carried out to select 42 areas, and interviews were conducted among 434 elderly individuals with pre-diabetes. Pre-diabetes was screened using an oral glucose tolerance test. Main outcome measures The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire was used to measure HRQoL. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to test for differences in HRQoL between the physically active group and the inactive group. Results A total of 434 individuals with pre-diabetes were included in this study. The physical component summary (PCS) score of HRQoL was 42.1±10.2 and the mental component summary score was 46.4±8.9. A median total physical activity of 524 metabolic equivalent-min/week was reported. A significant MANCOVA model (Wilks’ λ=0.962, F(2,423)=8.44, Pphysically active reported higher PCS scores (Mdiff=5.2, Peffective size=0.47) compared with those physically inactive after adjusting for the following covariates: age, gender, marital status, education, smoking, chronic disease, body mass index and waist:hip ratio. Conclusions The HRQoL of elderly individuals with pre-diabetes is poor in rural China. These findings demonstrated that elderly individuals with pre-diabetes who were physically active had higher PCS scores than those who were physically inactive. Furthermore, these results support the rationale

  11. Factors influencing the health-related quality of life of Chinese advanced cancer patients and their spousal caregivers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuping; Xu, Yinghua; Zhou, Huiya; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2016-08-02

    Cancer and its treatment have a major impact on the lives of patients and their intimate partners, such as on their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The aims of this study are to: (i) assess the HRQOL of advanced cancer patients and spousal caregivers, and explore the relationship between the HRQOL of cancer patients and that of their spousal caregivers; (ii) detect factors influencing the HRQOL of cancer patients and spousal caregivers; and (iii) explore the impact of anxiety and depression on the HRQOL of couples. A total of 131 couples where one of the partners was hospitalized for advanced cancer were invited to complete a survey to assess their demographic and background information, HRQOL, and anxiety and depression. HRQOL was measured using the SF-12, while anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Data were analyzed using a T-test, Pearson correlations, multiple linear regressions, and structural equation modeling. In general, the spousal caregivers had higher levels of HRQOL (seven out of eight SF-12 domains and two SF-12 dimensions) p = 0.038-0.000, anxiety (p = 0.002), and depression (p = 0.011) than patients. Correlations of HRQOL between patients and spouses were small to moderate (r = 0.193-0.398). Multiple independent factors influencing the physical component summary (PCS), mental component summary (MCS), vitality (VT), and role emotional (RE) sections of the SF-12 were identified, including: gender, time since diagnosis, levels of education, working status, the extent to which spousal caregivers were informed about the disease, improved marital relationship after the diagnosis of cancer, and anxiety and depression. For both patients and spousal caregivers, the strongest independent factor influencing HRQOL (SF-12 PCS, MCS, VT, and RE) was anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression may have both actor and partner effects on the HRQOL of couples to various degrees. The findings of

  12. Health-related quality of life, depression, and self-esteem in adolescents with leprosy-affected parents: results of a cross-sectional study in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Nobuko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that has an impact on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL of sufferers as well as their children. To date, no study has investigated the effects of parental leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Lalitpur and Kathmandu districts of Nepal. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents (n = 102; aged 11–17 years and those with parents unaffected by leprosy (n = 115; 11–17 years were investigated. Self-reported data from adolescents were collected using the Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (KINDLR questionnaire to assess HRQOL, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare scores between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the determinants of HRQOL for adolescents with leprosy-affected parents. Results ANCOVA revealed that the KINDLR and RSES scores were significantly lower among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents compared with unaffected parents. However, the scores of “Friends” and “School” subscales of KINDLR were similar between the two groups. The CES-D score was significantly higher among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents than for adolescents with unaffected parents. The KINDLR scores for adolescents with both parents affected (n = 41 were significantly lower than the scores for those with one parent affected (n = 61. Multiple regression analysis revealed that adolescents with leprosy-affected parents who had higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to have lower KINDLR scores. A similar result was seen for adolescents where both parents had leprosy. Conclusions Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents had higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower levels of self-esteem, and lower HRQOL compared with adolescents whose

  13. Health-related quality of life, depression, and self-esteem in adolescents with leprosy-affected parents: results of a cross-sectional study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuko; Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-01-10

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that has an impact on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of sufferers as well as their children. To date, no study has investigated the effects of parental leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Lalitpur and Kathmandu districts of Nepal. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents (n = 102; aged 11-17 years) and those with parents unaffected by leprosy (n = 115; 11-17 years) were investigated. Self-reported data from adolescents were collected using the Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (KINDLR) questionnaire to assess HRQOL, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare scores between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the determinants of HRQOL for adolescents with leprosy-affected parents. ANCOVA revealed that the KINDLR and RSES scores were significantly lower among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents compared with unaffected parents. However, the scores of "Friends" and "School" subscales of KINDLR were similar between the two groups. The CES-D score was significantly higher among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents than for adolescents with unaffected parents. The KINDLR scores for adolescents with both parents affected (n = 41) were significantly lower than the scores for those with one parent affected (n = 61). Multiple regression analysis revealed that adolescents with leprosy-affected parents who had higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to have lower KINDLR scores. A similar result was seen for adolescents where both parents had leprosy. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents had higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower levels of self-esteem, and lower HRQOL compared with adolescents whose parents were unaffected by leprosy. Thus, mental health support

  14. Does the care dependency of nursing home residents influence their health-related quality of life?-A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabali, Manuela; Ostermann, Thomas; Jeschke, Elke; Dassen, Theo; Heinze, Cornelia

    2013-03-11

    Studies on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are missing for nursing home residents independent from their health conditions or interventions after admission. Our aim was to analyse if the care dependency of nursing home residents influence their HRQOL and to describe HRQOL of nursing home residents at the time of admission. Eleven German nursing homes were randomly selected for a cross-sectional multicentre study from April 2008 until December 2009. HRQOL was measured with the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) in the six domains "Physical Mobility", "Energy", "Pain", "Social Isolation", "Emotional Reaction" and "Sleep". Domain scores range from zero (good subjective health status) to 100 (poor subjective health status). Care dependency was evaluated using the Care Dependency Scale, age, sex, cognitive status and diseases were documented by the research assistants. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to quantify the influence of care dependency on HRQOL. 120 residents were included in total. HRQOL was mostly reduced in the domains "Physical Mobility" and "Energy" (mean scores >43.0), while impairment differences in the domains "Pain", "Social Isolation", "Emotional Reaction" and "Sleep" were only moderate (≤25.0). HRQOL was not influenced by the age. Women (n = 85) had a significantly poorer HRQOL in the domain "Pain" than men (mean score women: 29.5 ± 31.5; males: 14.9 ± 17.2; p = 0.011). Care dependency had an influence on the domain "Sleep" (ß = -0.195, p = 0.031), while the other domains were not influenced by care dependency. Residents with a low care dependency scored significantly lower (better HRQOL) in the domain "Sleep" than residents with a high care dependency (mean score 15.3; SD ± 19.0 versus mean score 32.8 SD ± 33.2; p dependency has no influence on the HRQOL from the nursing home residents' perspective apart from the domain "Sleep". High care dependency residents have a lower HRQOL in the

  15. "m=1" coatings for neutron guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, C.P.; Vorobiev, A.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2014-01-01

    A substantial part of the price for a neutron guide is the shielding needed because of the gamma ray produced when neutrons are absorbed. This absorption occurs in the coating and the substrate of the neutron guides. Traditional m=1 coatings have been made of Ni and if reflectivity over...... the critical angle of Ni is needed one has used Ni58 or Ni/Ti multilayer coatings. Ni has one of the highest neutron scattering density but it also has a fairly high absorption cross section for cold and thermal neutrons and when a neutron is absorbed it emits a lot of gamma rays, some with energies above 9 Me...... of diamond coatings to show the potential for using these coatings in neutron guides....

  16. Sensory Quality Preservation of Coated Walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Antonella L; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory stability of coated walnuts during storage. Four walnut samples were prepared: uncoated (NC), and samples coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (NCMC), methyl cellulose (NMC), or whey protein (NPS). The samples were stored at room temperature for 210 d and were periodically removed from storage to perform a sensory descriptive analysis. A consumer acceptance test was carried out on the fresh product (storage day 0) to evaluate flavor. All samples exhibited significant differences in their sensory attributes initially and after storage. Intensity ratings for oxidized and cardboard flavors increased during storage. NC showed the highest oxidized and cardboard intensity ratings (39 and 22, respectively) and NMC exhibited the lowest intensity ratings for these negative attributes (8 and 17, respectively) after 210 d of storage. Alternatively, the intensity ratings for sweetness and walnut flavors were decreased for all samples. NMC had the lowest decrease at the end of storage for these positive attributes (75.86 in walnut flavor and 12.09 in sweetness). The results of this study suggest a protective effect of the use of an edible coating to preserve sensory attributes during storage, especially for samples coated with MC. The results of the acceptance test showed that addition of the coating negatively affected the flavor acceptance for NMC and NCMC coated walnuts. Edible coatings help to preserve sensory attributes in walnuts, improving their shelf-life, however, these coatings may affect consumer acceptance in some cases. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. A novel coating strategy towards improving interfacial adhesion strength of Cu–Sn alloy coated steel with vulcanized rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Atanu [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur 831001 (India); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Dutta, Monojit [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur 831001 (India); Bysakh, Sandip [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (In