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Sample records for secreted phytotoxin undergoes

  1. Phragmites australis root secreted phytotoxin undergoes photo-degradation to execute severe phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Choi, Yong Seok; Levia, Delphis F; Legates, David R; Lee, Kelvin H; Bais, Harsh P

    2009-06-01

    Our study organism, Phragmites australis (common reed), is a unique invader in that both native and introduced lineages are found coexisting in North America. This allows one to make direct assessments of physiological differences between these different subspecies and examine how this relates to invasiveness. Recent efforts to understand plant invasive behavior show that some invasive plants secrete a phytotoxin to ward-off encroachment by neighboring plants (allelopathy) and thus provide the invaders with a competitive edge in a given habitat. Here we show that a varying climatic factor like ultraviolet (UV) light leads to photo-degradation of secreted phytotoxin (gallic acid) in P. australis rhizosphere inducing higher mortality of susceptible seedlings. The photo-degraded product of gallic acid (hereafter GA), identified as mesoxalic acid (hereafter MOA), triggered a similar cell death cascade in susceptible seedlings as observed previously with GA. Further, we detected the biological concentrations of MOA in the natural stands of exotic and native P. australis. Our studies also show that the UV degradation of GA is facilitated at an alkaline pH, suggesting that the natural habitat of P. australis may facilitate the photo-degradation of GA. The study highlights the persistence of the photo-degraded phytotoxin in the P. australis's rhizosphere and its inhibitory effects against the native plants.

  2. Intraspecific and interspecific interactions mediated by a phytotoxin, (-)-catechin, secreted by the roots of Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed).

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    Weir, Tiffany L; Bais, Harsh Pal; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2003-11-01

    Centarea maculosa Lam. (spotted knapweed) is one of the most destructive invasive weeds in the western United States, particularly in pastures and rangelands. One of the components that may contribute to its invasiveness is the naturally produced, root-secreted allelochemical (-)-catechin. This compound has been shown to have broad-spectrum phytotoxic activity, possibly assisting C. maculosa in displacing native plant communities. As a recently characterized phytochemical, little is known about the specific effect of (-)-catechin on either C. maculosa or other plant species. We have found that, in vitro, C. maculosa begins to secrete phytotoxic levels of (-)-catechin within 2-3 weeks of seedling emergence. Furthermore, (-)-catechin concentrations consistent with those naturally secreted by C. maculosa were sufficient to inhibit germination in all species tested, including C. maculosa. These concentrations were also often either phytotoxic or growth inhibitory to seedlings in a range of plant species, while having no negative effects on the growth of C. maculosa seedlings. However, our results also indicate that different levels of resistance and susceptibility to (-)-catechin exist in plant populations, suggesting that the capability of C. maculosa to invade an area through allelochemistry may be dependent on the age and species composition of plants in that area.

  3. Phytotoxins: environmental micropollutants of concern?

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    Bucheli, Thomas D

    2014-11-18

    Natural toxins such as mycotoxins or phytotoxins (bioactive compounds from fungi and plants, respectively) have been widely studied in food and feed, where they are stated to out-compete synthetic chemicals in their overall human and animal toxicological risk. A similar perception and awareness is yet largely missing for environmental safety. This article attempts to raise concern in this regard, by providing (circumstantial) evidence that phytotoxins in particular can be emitted into the environment, where they may contribute to the complex mixture of organic micropollutants. Exposures can be orders-of-magnitude higher in anthropogenically managed/affected (agro-)ecosystems than in the pristine environment.

  4. Beta-amyloid peptides undergo regulated co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters.

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    Toneff, Thomas; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Mosier, Charles; Abagyan, Armen; Ziegler, Michael; Hook, Vivian

    2013-08-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides are secreted from neurons, resulting in extracellular accumulation of Aβ and neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease. Because neuronal secretion is fundamental for the release of neurotransmitters, this study assessed the hypothesis that Aβ undergoes co-release with neurotransmitters. Model neuronal-like chromaffin cells were investigated, and results illustrate regulated, co-secretion of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) with peptide neurotransmitters (galanin, enkephalin, and NPY) and catecholamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine). Regulated secretion from chromaffin cells was stimulated by KCl depolarization and nicotine. Forskolin, stimulating cAMP, also induced co-secretion of Aβ peptides with peptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters. These data suggested the co-localization of Aβ with neurotransmitters in dense core secretory vesicles (DCSV) that store and secrete such chemical messengers. Indeed, Aβ was demonstrated to be present in DCSV with neuropeptide and catecholamine transmitters. Furthermore, the DCSV organelle contains APP and its processing proteases, β- and γ-secretases, that are necessary for production of Aβ. Thus, Aβ can be generated in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV. Human IMR32 neuroblastoma cells also displayed regulated secretion of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) with the galanin neurotransmitter. These findings illustrate that Aβ peptides are present in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV, and undergo co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters that regulate brain functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of a volatile phytotoxin from algae

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    Garavelli, J. S.; Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives were to develop a trap system for isolating fractions of volatile algal phytotoxin and to characterize the major components of the isolated phytotoxin fractions. A bioassay using Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings was developed to aid in investigating the properties of the phytotoxin produced by cultures of Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris and Chlorella vulgaris. Two traps were found, 1.0 M hydrochloric acid and 0 C, which removed the phytotoxin from the algal effluent and which could be treated to release that phytotoxin as judged with the bioassay procedure. It was also determined that pretraps of 1.0 M sodium hydroxide and 1.0 M potassium biocarbonate could be used without lowering the phytotoxin effect. Ammonia was identified in trap solutions by ninhydrin reaction, indophenol reaction and derivatization with dansyl chloride and phenylisothiocyanate. Ammonia at the gaseous concentrations detected was found to have the same effects in the bioassay system as the volatile phytotoxin. It is possible that other basic, nitrogen containing compounds which augment the effects of ammonia were present at lower concentrations in the algal effluent.

  6. Analysis of an acyl-CoA binding protein in Aspergillus oryzae that undergoes unconventional secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hee Su; Kawaguchi, Kouhei; Kikuma, Takashi; Takegawa, Kaoru; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Higuchi, Yujiro

    2017-11-04

    Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) plays important roles in the metabolism of lipids in eukaryotic cells. In the industrially important filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, although we have previously demonstrated that the A. oryzae ACBP (AoACBP) localizes to punctate structures and exhibits long-range motility, which is dependent on autophagy-related proteins, the physiological role of AoACBP remains elusive. Here, we describe identification and characterization of another ACBP from A. oryzae; we named this ACBP as AoAcb2 and accordingly renamed AoACBP as AoAcb1. The deduced amino acid sequence of AoAcb2 lacked a signal peptide. Phylogenetic analysis classified AoAcb2 into a clade that was same as the ACBP Acb1 of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but was different from that of AoAcb1. In contrast to punctate localization of AoAcb1, AoAcb2 was found to be dispersedly distributed in the cytoplasm, as was previously observed for the S. cerevisiae Acb1. Since we could not generate an Aoacb2 disruptant, we created an Aoacb2 conditional mutant that exhibited less growth under Aoacb2-repressed condition, suggesting that Aoacb2 is an essential gene for growth. Moreover, we observed that A. oryzae AoAcb2, but not A. oryzae AoAcb1, was secreted under carbon-starved condition, suggesting that AoAcb2 might be secreted via the unconventional protein secretion (UPS) pathway, just like S. cerevisiae Acb1. We also demonstrated that the unconventional secretion of AoAcb2 was dependent on the t-SNARE AoSso1, but was independent of the autophagy-related protein AoAtg1, suggesting that the unconventional secretion of AoAcb2, unlike that of S. cerevisiae Acb1, via the UPS pathway, is not regulated by the autophagy machinery. Thus, the filamentous fungus A. oryzae harbors two types of ACBPs, one of which appears to be essential for growth and undergoes unconventional secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbially produced phytotoxins and plant disease management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nowadays, these evaluation techniques are becoming an important complement to classical breeding methods. The knowledge of the inactivation of microbial toxins has led to the use of microbial enzymes to inactivate phytotoxins thereby reducing incidence and severity of disease induced by microbial toxins. Considering ...

  8. Structural and functional analysis of phytotoxin toxoflavin-degrading enzyme.

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    Woo-Suk Jung

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria synthesize and secrete toxic low molecular weight compounds as virulence factors. These microbial toxins play essential roles in the pathogenicity of bacteria in various hosts, and are emerging as targets for antivirulence strategies. Toxoflavin, a phytotoxin produced by Burkholderia glumae BGR1, has been known to be the key factor in rice grain rot and wilt in many field crops. Recently, toxoflavin-degrading enzyme (TxDE was identified from Paenibacillus polymyxa JH2, thereby providing a possible antivirulence strategy for toxoflavin-mediated plant diseases. Here, we report the crystal structure of TxDE in the substrate-free form and in complex with toxoflavin, along with the results of a functional analysis. The overall structure of TxDE is similar to those of the vicinal oxygen chelate superfamily of metalloenzymes, despite the lack of apparent sequence identity. The active site is located at the end of the hydrophobic channel, 9 Å in length, and contains a Mn(II ion interacting with one histidine residue, two glutamate residues, and three water molecules in an octahedral coordination. In the complex, toxoflavin binds in the hydrophobic active site, specifically the Mn(II-coordination shell by replacing a ligating water molecule. A functional analysis indicated that TxDE catalyzes the degradation of toxoflavin in a manner dependent on oxygen, Mn(II, and the reducing agent dithiothreitol. These results provide the structural features of TxDE and the early events in catalysis.

  9. Fungal phytotoxins with potential herbicidal activity: chemical and biological characterization.

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    Cimmino, Alessio; Masi, Marco; Evidente, Marco; Superchi, Stefano; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-12-19

    Covering: 2007 to 2015 Fungal phytotoxins are secondary metabolites playing an important role in the induction of disease symptoms interfering with host plant physiological processes. Although fungal pathogens represent a heavy constraint for agrarian production and for forest and environmental heritage, they can also represent an ecofriendly alternative to manage weeds. Indeed, the phytotoxins produced by weed pathogenic fungi are an efficient tool to design natural, safe bioherbicides. Their use could avoid that of synthetic pesticides causing resistance in the host plants and the long term impact of residues in agricultural products with a risk to human and animal health. The isolation and structural and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for weeds, including parasitic plants, are described. Structure activity relationships and mode of action studies for some phytotoxins are also reported to elucidate the herbicide potential of these promising fungal metabolites.

  10. Fungal Phytotoxins in Sustainable Weed Management.

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    Vurro, Maurizio; Boari, Angela; Casella, Francesca; Zonno, Maria Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Fungal phytotoxins are natural secondary metabolites produced by plant pathogenic fungi during host-pathogen interactions. They have received considerable particular attention for elucidating disease etiology, and consequently to design strategies for disease control. Due to wide differences in their chemical structures, these toxic metabolites have different ecological and environmental roles and mechanisms of action. This review aims at summarizing the studies on the possible use of these metabolites as tools in biological and integrated weed management, e.g. as: novel and environmentally friendly herbicides; lead for novel compounds; sources of novel mechanisms of action. Moreover, the limiting factors for utilizing those metabolites in practice will also be briefly discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Analysis of selected phytotoxins and mycotoxins in environmental samples.

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    Hoerger, Corinne C; Schenzel, Judith; Strobel, Bjarne W; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2009-11-01

    Natural toxins such as phytotoxins and mycotoxins have been studied in food and feed for decades, but little attention has yet been paid to their occurrence in the environment. Because of increasing awareness of the presence and potential relevance of micropollutants in the environment, phytotoxins and mycotoxins should be considered and investigated as part of the chemical cocktail in natural samples. Here, we compile chemical analytical methods to determine important phytotoxins (i.e. phenolic acids, quinones, benzoxazinones, terpenoids, glycoalkaloids, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, phytosterols, flavonoids, coumestans, lignans, and chalcones) and mycotoxins (i.e. resorcyclic acid lactones, trichothecenes, fumonisins, and aflatoxins) in environmentally relevant matrices such as surface water, waste water-treatment plant influent and effluent, soil, sediment, manure, and sewage sludge. The main problems encountered in many of the reviewed methods were the frequent unavailability of suitable internal standards (especially isotope-labelled analogues) and often absent or fragmentary method optimization and validation.

  12. Modes of Action of Microbially-Produced Phytotoxins

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    Duke, Stephen O.; Dayan, Franck E.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the most potent phytotoxins are synthesized by microbes. A few of these share molecular target sites with some synthetic herbicides, but many microbial toxins have unique target sites with potential for exploitation by the herbicide industry. Compounds from both non-pathogenic and pathogenic microbes are discussed. Microbial phytotoxins with modes of action the same as those of commercial herbicides and those with novel modes of action of action are covered. Examples of the compounds discussed are tentoxin, AAL-toxin, auscaulitoxin aglycone, hydantocidin, thaxtomin, and tabtoxin. PMID:22069756

  13. Oxalate contributes to the resistance of Gaillardia grandiflora and Lupinus sericeus to a phytotoxin produced by Centaurea maculosa.

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    Weir, Tiffany L; Bais, Harsh Pal; Stull, Valerie J; Callaway, Ragan M; Thelen, Giles C; Ridenour, Wendy M; Bhamidi, Suresh; Stermitz, Frank R; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2006-03-01

    Centaurea maculosa Lam. is a noxious weed in western North America that produces a phytotoxin, (+/-)-catechin, which is thought to contribute to its invasiveness. Areas invaded by C. maculosa often result in monocultures of the weed, however; in some areas, North American natives stand their ground against C. maculosa and show varying degrees of resistance to its phytotoxin. Two of these resistant native species, Lupinus sericeus Pursh and Gaillardia grandiflora Van Houtte, were found to secrete increased amounts of oxalate in response to catechin exposure. Mechanistically, we found that oxalate works exogenously by blocking generation of reactive oxygen species in susceptible plants and reducing oxidative damage generated in response to catechin. Furthermore, field experiments show that L. sericeus indirectly facilitates native grasses in grasslands invaded by C. maculosa, and this facilitation can be correlated with the presence of oxalate in soil. Addition of exogenous oxalate to native grasses and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh grown in vitro alleviated the phytotoxic effects of catechin, supporting the field experiments and suggesting that root-secreted oxalate may also act as a chemical facilitator for plant species that do not secrete the compound.

  14. Synthesis and Activity of Grape Wood Phytotoxins and Related Compounds

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    S. Perrin-Cherioux

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of analogues and derivatives of two o-hydroxyphenylacetylenes, eutypine and sterehirsutinal, the main phytotoxins isolated from the culture medium of Eutypa lata and Stereum hirsutum, is reported. Two means of synthesis are described, based on cyclisation, oxidation, oxidative decarboxylation or reduction reactions, and producing o-hydroxyphenylacetylene or benzofuran derivatives. Some of these synthetic compounds were tested on grapevine callus in order to compare their toxicity with the natural analogues.

  15. Synthesis and Activity of Grape Wood Phytotoxins and Related Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    S. Perrin-Cherioux; E. Abou-Mansour; R. Tabacchi

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of analogues and derivatives of two o-hydroxyphenylacetylenes, eutypine and sterehirsutinal, the main phytotoxins isolated from the culture medium of Eutypa lata and Stereum hirsutum, is reported. Two means of synthesis are described, based on cyclisation, oxidation, oxidative decarboxylation or reduction reactions, and producing o-hydroxyphenylacetylene or benzofuran derivatives. Some of these synthetic compounds were tested on grapevine callus in order to compare t...

  16. Calreticulin-mutant proteins induce megakaryocytic signaling to transform hematopoietic cells and undergo accelerated degradation and Golgi-mediated secretion

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    Lijuan Han

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic calreticulin (CALR, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2, and thrombopoietin receptor (MPL mutations essentially show mutual exclusion in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN, suggesting that they activate common oncogenic pathways. Recent data have shown that MPL function is essential for CALR mutant-driven MPN. However, the exact role and the mechanisms of action of CALR mutants have not been fully elucidated. Methods The murine myeloid cell line 32D and human HL60 cells overexpressing the most frequent CALR type 1 and type 2 frameshift mutants were generated to analyze the first steps of cellular transformation, in the presence and absence of MPL expression. Furthermore, mutant CALR protein stability and secretion were examined using brefeldin A, MG132, spautin-1, and tunicamycin treatment. Results The present study demonstrates that the expression of endogenous Mpl, CD41, and the key megakaryocytic transcription factor NF-E2 is stimulated by type 1 and type 2 CALR mutants, even in the absence of exogenous MPL. Mutant CALR expressing 32D cells spontaneously acquired cytokine independence, and this was associated with increased Mpl mRNA expression, CD41, and NF-E2 protein as well as constitutive activation of downstream signaling and response to JAK inhibitor treatment. Exogenous expression of MPL led to constitutive activation of STAT3 and 5, ERK1/2, and AKT, cytokine-independent growth, and reduction of apoptosis similar to the effects seen in the spontaneously outgrown cells. We observed low CALR-mutant protein amounts in cellular lysates of stably transduced cells, and this was due to accelerated protein degradation that occurred independently from the ubiquitin-proteasome system as well as autophagy. CALR-mutant degradation was attenuated by MPL expression. Interestingly, we found high levels of mutated CALR and loss of downstream signaling after blockage of the secretory pathway and protein glycosylation. Conclusions These

  17. Reinvestigation of structure of porritoxin, a phytotoxin of Alternaria porri.

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    Horiuchi, Masayuki; Maoka, Takashi; Iwase, Noriyasu; Ohnishi, Keiichiro

    2002-08-01

    The structure of porritoxin, a phytotoxin of Alternaria porri, was reinvestigated by detailed 2D NMR analysis including (1)H-(13)C and (1)H-(15)N HMBC experiments. The structure of porritoxin was determined to be 2-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-4-methoxy-5-methyl-6-(3' '-methyl-2' '-butenyloxy)-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-1-one (1). Thus our previous proposed structure, 8-(3',3'-dimethylallyloxy)-10-methoxy-9-methyl-1H-3,4-dihydro-2,5-benzoxazocin-6(5H)-one (2), is incorrect.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of toxicity of important food-borne phytotoxins.

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    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Martena, Martijn J; Boersma, Marelle G; Spiegelenberg, Wim; Alink, Gerrit M

    2005-02-01

    At present, there is an increasing interest for plant ingredients and their use in drugs, for teas, or in food supplements. The present review describes the nature and mechanism of action of the phytochemicals presently receiving increased attention in the field of food toxicology. This relates to compounds including aristolochic acids, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, beta-carotene, coumarin, the alkenylbenzenes safrole, methyleugenol and estragole, ephedrine alkaloids and synephrine, kavalactones, anisatin, St. John's wort ingredients, cyanogenic glycosides, solanine and chaconine, thujone, and glycyrrhizinic acid. It can be concluded that several of these phytotoxins cause concern, because of their bioactivation to reactive alkylating intermediates that are able to react with cellular macromolecules causing cellular toxicity, and, upon their reaction with DNA, genotoxicity resulting in tumors. Another group of the phytotoxins presented is active without the requirement for bioactivation and, in most cases, these compounds appear to act as neurotoxins interacting with one of the neurotransmitter systems. Altogether, the examples presented illustrate that natural does not equal safe and that in modern society adverse health effects, upon either acute or chronic exposure to phytochemicals, can occur as a result of use of plant- or herb-based foods, teas, or other extracts.

  19. Evaluation of the potential interaction between tofacitinib and drugs that undergo renal tubular secretion using metformin, an in vivo marker of renal organic cation transporter 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerus, Karen J; Alvey, Christine; Li, Lei; Feng, Bo; Wang, Rong; Kaplan, Irina; Shi, Haihong; Dowty, Martin E; Krishnaswami, Sriram

    2014-11-01

    Tofacitinib is a novel, oral Janus kinase inhibitor. The potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between tofacitinib and drugs that undergo renal tubular secretion was evaluated using metformin as a probe transporter substrate, and genotyping for organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, OCT2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 polymorphisms. Twenty-four healthy male subjects completed this open-label, fixed-sequence study. Subjects were administered a single oral metformin 500 mg dose on Days 1 and 4, and multiple oral tofacitinib 30 mg twice daily doses on Days 2, 3, and 4. Subjects underwent serial blood and urine samplings (Days 1 and 4) to estimate metformin pharmacokinetics. A single blood sample for tofacitinib was collected 2 hours after the morning dose (Day 4). The 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of maximum plasma concentration, area under the curve and renal clearance of metformin, with and without tofacitinib, were contained within the 80-125% acceptance range commonly used to establish a lack of DDI. No deaths, serious adverse events (AEs), severe AEs or discontinuations due to AEs were reported. The study confirms tofacitinib is unlikely to impact the pharmacokinetics of drugs that undergo renal tubular secretion, and concurs with its weak in vitro OCT2 inhibitory profile. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Chemical and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by Diplodia species, fungi involved in forest plants diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have been initiated in order to understand what are the microorganisms involved in forest plants diseases and the role played by phytotoxins produced in the pathogenesis processes. The aim of the present thesis was to study the fungi and the phytotoxins associated with canker disease of the Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) and the branch dieback of juniper (Juniperus phoenicea L.) which are plant diseases with noteworthy social and economical impli...

  1. Omics Methods for Probing the Mode of Action of Natural and Synthetic Phytotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Stephen O.; Bajsa, Joanna; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    For a little over a decade, omics methods (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and physionomics) have been used to discover and probe the mode of action of both synthetic and natural phytotoxins. For mode of action discovery, the strategy for each of these approaches is to generate an omics profile for phytotoxins with known molecular targets and to compare this library of responses to the responses of compounds with unknown modes of action. Using more than one omics approach enhances ...

  2. Omics methods for probing the mode of action of natural and synthetic phytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O; Bajsa, Joanna; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2013-02-01

    For a little over a decade, omics methods (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and physionomics) have been used to discover and probe the mode of action of both synthetic and natural phytotoxins. For mode of action discovery, the strategy for each of these approaches is to generate an omics profile for phytotoxins with known molecular targets and to compare this library of responses to the responses of compounds with unknown modes of action. Using more than one omics approach enhances the probability of success. Generally, compounds with the same mode of action generate similar responses with a particular omics method. Stress and detoxification responses to phytotoxins can be much clearer than effects directly related to the target site. Clues to new modes of action must be validated with in vitro enzyme effects or genetic approaches. Thus far, the only new phytotoxin target site discovered with omics approaches (metabolomics and physionomics) is that of cinmethylin and structurally related 5-benzyloxymethyl-1,2-isoxazolines. These omics approaches pointed to tyrosine amino-transferase as the target, which was verified by enzyme assays and genetic methods. In addition to being a useful tool of mode of action discovery, omics methods provide detailed information on genetic and biochemical impacts of phytotoxins. Such information can be useful in understanding the full impact of natural phytotoxins in both agricultural and natural ecosystems.

  3. De novo Biosynthesis of "Non-Natural" Thaxtomin Phytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Michael; Francis, Daniel; Micklefield, Jason

    2018-03-30

    Thaxtomins are diketopiperazine phytotoxins produced by Streptomyces scabies and other actinobacterial plant pathogens that inhibit cellulose biosynthesis in plants. Due to their potent bioactivity and novel mode of action there has been considerable interest in developing thaxtomins as herbicides for crop protection. To address the need for more stable derivatives, we have developed a new approach for structural diversification of thaxtomins. Genes encoding the thaxtomin NRPS from S. scabies, along with genes encoding a promiscuous tryptophan synthase (TrpS) from Salmonella typhimurium, were assembled in a heterologous host Streptomyces albus. Upon feeding indole derivatives to the engineered S. albus strain, tryptophan intermediates with alternative substituents are biosynthesized and incorporated by the NRPS to deliver a series of thaxtomins with different functionalities in place of the nitro group. The approach described herein, demonstrates how genes from different pathways and different bacterial origins can be combined in a heterologous host to create a de novo biosynthetic pathway to "non-natural" product target compounds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Radicinols and radicinin phytotoxins produced by Alternaria radicina on carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solfrizzo, Michele; Vitti, Carolina; De Girolamo, Annalisa; Visconti, Angelo; Logrieco, Antonio; Fanizzi, Francesco P

    2004-06-02

    The phytotoxin epi-radicinol, a diastereomer of radicinol, was isolated from large cultures of Alternaria radicina grown on carrot slices and identified by GC-MS, LC-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. Four strains of A. radicina isolated from rotted carrot produced epi-radicinol as the major metabolite (up to 39414 microg/g) together with radicinol (up to 2423 microg/g), and, to a lesser extent, radicinin when cultured on carrot slices, whereas on rice they mainly produced radicinin (2486-53800 microg/g). Radicinin and epi-radicinol reduced root elongation of germinating carrot seeds at concentrations of 10-20 microg/mL. Carrot samples naturally infected by A. radicina contained detectable quantities of epi-radicinol also in combination with lower levels of radicinin or radicinol. Accumulation of radicinols and radicinin in stored carrots, either naturally contaminated or artificially inoculated with A. radicina, was stimulated by successive temperature rises from 1 to 10 degrees C and from 10 to 20 degrees C, reaching maximum levels of 60 microg/g epi-radicinol and 26 microg/g radicinin. This is the first report on the production of radicinols by A. radicina and its natural occurrence in carrots in association with radicinin.

  5. Phytotoxin produced by Bipolaris euphorbiae in-vitro is effective against the weed Euphorbia heterophylla

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    Barbosa Aneli M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Four virulent strain isolates of the fungus, Bipolaris euphorbiae (previously identified as a Helminthosporium sp., isolated from host plants in four states within Brazil were screened for the production of phytotoxins that promoted wilting and defoliation of the Brazilian weed, Euphorbia heterophylla, commonly found growing among soyabean crops. Only one isolate, B. euphorbiae Strain I (EUPH petropar from Mato Grosso state, produced phytotoxin in-vitro when grown in stationary culture for 7 d at 28 ° C on minimum salts medium supplemented with 1.5 % glucose as the sole carbon source. Phytotoxin was also produced when the fungal strain was grown on fructose, galactose, mannose, xylose and sucrose. The addition of nitrogen source (yeast extract, peptone or malt extract to the culture medium did not influence phytotoxin production. The phytotoxin produced by Strain I was most active at pH 6.0, stable between pH 3-9, and was highly thermostable, remaining fully active when heated at 90 ° C for 1 h.

  6. The effect of stereochemistry on the biological activity of natural phytotoxins, fungicides, insecticides and herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Phytotoxins are secondary microbial metabolites that play an essential role in the development of disease symptoms induced by fungi on host plants. Although phytotoxins can cause extensive-and in some cases devastating-damage to agricultural crops, they can also represent an important tool to develop natural herbicides when produced by fungi and plants to inhibit the growth and spread of weeds. An alternative strategy to biologically control parasitic plants is based on the use of plant and fungal metabolites, which stimulate seed germination in the absence of the host plant. Nontoxigenic fungi also produce bioactive metabolites with potential fungicide and insecticide activity, and could be applied for crop protection. All these metabolites represent important tools to develop eco-friendly pesticides. This review deals with the relationships between the biological activity of some phytotoxins, seed germination stimulants, fungicides and insecticides, and their stereochemistry. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Catechin secretion and phytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Shail

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that the invasiveness of Centaurea stoebe is attributed to the stronger allelopathic effects on the native North American species than on the related European species, which is one of the unquestionable aspects of the “novel weapons hypothesis (NWH).” Studies originating from controlled to field conditions have shown that C. stoebe utilizes its biochemical potential to exert its invasiveness. The roots of C. stoebe secrete a potent phytotoxin, catechin, which has a detrimental effect on the surrounding plant species. Although, studies on catechin secretion and phytotoxicity represent one of the most well studied systems describing negative plant-plant interactions, it has also sparked controversies lately due to its phytotoxicity dosages and secretion effluxes. Previous reports negate the phytotoxic and pro-oxidant nature of catechin.1–3 In our recent study we have shown that catechin is highly phytotoxic against Arabidopsis thaliana and Festuca idahoensis. We also show that (±) catechin applied to roots of A. thaliana induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) confirming the pro-oxidant nature of catechin. In addition, activation of signature cell death genes such as acd2 and cad1 post catechin treatment in A. thaliana ascertains the phytotoxic nature of catechin. PMID:21057643

  8. Omics methods for probing the mode of action of natural phytotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a little over a decade, omics methods (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and physionomics) have been used to discover and probe the mode of action of both synthetic and natural phytotoxins. For mode of action discovery, the strategy for each of these approaches is to generate an omics...

  9. Biosynthesis and regulation of coronatine, a non-host-specific phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, C L; Palmer, D A; Peñaloza-Vázquez, A; Rangaswamy, V; Ullrich, M

    1998-01-01

    Many P. syringae pathovars are known to produce low-molecular-weight, diffusible toxins in infected host plants. These phytotoxins reproduce some of the symptoms of the relevant bacterial disease and are effective at very low concentrations. Phytotoxins generally enhance the virulence of the P. syringae pathovar which produces them, but are not required for pathogenesis. Genes encoding phytotoxin production have been identified and cloned from several P. syringae pathovars. With the exception of coronatine, toxin biosynthetic gene clusters are generally chromosomally encoded. In several pathovars, the toxin biosynthetic gene cluster also contains a resistance gene which functions to protect the producing strain from the biocidal effects of the toxin. In the case of phaseolotoxin, a resistance gene (argK) has been utilized to engineer phaseolotoxin-resistant tobacco plants. Although P. syringae phytotoxins can induce very similar effects in plants (chlorosis and necrosis), their biosynthesis and mode of action can be quite different. Knowledge of the biosynthetic pathways to these toxins and the cloning of the structural genes for their biosynthesis has relevance to the development of new bioactive compounds with altered specificity. For example, polyketides constitute a huge family of structurally diverse natural products including antibiotics, chemotherapeutic compounds, and antiparasitics. Most of the research on polyketide synthesis in bacteria has focused on compounds synthesized by Streptomyces or other actinomycetes. It is also important to note that it is now possible to utilize a genetic rather than synthetic approach to biosynthesize novel polyketides with altered biological properties (Hutchinson and Fujii, 1995; Kao et al., 1994; Donadio et al., 1993; Katz and Donadio, 1993). Most of the reprogramming or engineering of novel polyketides has been done using actinomycete PKSs, but much of this technology could also be applied to polyketides synthesized by

  10. [Phytotoxic activity of chernozem saprophytic micromycetes: specificity, sorption and stability of phytotoxins in soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svistova, I D; Shcherbakov, A P; Frolova, L O

    2003-01-01

    Micromycetes of the complex of typical chernozem saprotrophic fungi released phytotoxic metabolites into medium. The metabolites displayed their phytotoxic activities directly in soil. Evaluation of the toxicities, range of biological effects activities, and stabilities of phytotoxins in soil and the rates of their biodegradation allowed the species that can serve as indicators of chernozem microbial toxicosis to be selected, namely, Aspergillus clavatus, Fusarium solani, Talaromyces flavus, Penicillium rubrum, and P. funiculosum.

  11. Scalable total synthesis and comprehensive structure–activity relationship studies of the phytotoxin coronatine

    OpenAIRE

    Littleson, Mairi M.; Baker, Christopher M.; Dalençon, Anne J.; Frye, Elizabeth C.; Jamieson, Craig; Kennedy, Alan R.; Ling, Kenneth B.; McLachlan, Matthew M.; Montgomery, Mark G.; Russell, Claire J.; Watson, Allan J. B.

    2018-01-01

    The authors thank the EPSRC UK National Mass Spectrometry Facility at Swansea University for analyses, the University of Strathclyde for PhD studentship (M.M.L), and Syngenta for financial and chemical support. Natural phytotoxins are valuable starting points for agrochemical design. Acting as a jasmonate agonist, coronatine represents an attractive herbicidal lead with novel mode of action, and has been an important synthetic target for agrochemical development. However, both restricted a...

  12. Maculosin, a host-specific phytotoxin for spotted knapweed from Alternaria alternata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierle, Andrea C.; Cardellina, John H.; Strobel, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Several diketopiperazines have been isolated from liquid cultures of Alternaria alternata, the causal agent of black leaf blight of spotted knapweed, Centaurea maculosa Lam. One of these compounds, maculosin [the diketopiperazine cyclo(-L-Pro-L-Tyr-)], was active in the nicked-leaf bioassay at 10-5 M; synthetic maculosin possessed chemical and biological activities identical to those of the natural product. Other diketopiperazines isolated from the fungus possessed either less activity or none at all. In tests against 19 plant species, maculosin was phytotoxic only to spotted knapweed. Thus maculosin is a host-specific phytotoxin from a weed pathogen. PMID:16593989

  13. Cellular protein receptors of maculosin, a host specific phytotoxin of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S H; Strobel, G A

    1994-01-05

    Maculosin (the diketopiperazine, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Tyr)) is a host specific phytotoxin produced by Alternaria alternata on spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa L.). Receptors for this phytotoxin have been isolated from spotted knapweed. Knapweed leaves possess most of the maculosin-binding activity in the cytosolic fraction. However, activity was also observed in the whole membrane fraction of the leaf. The binding component of the cytosolic fraction was identified as a protein(s) because of its heat-lability and sensitivity to proteases. A 16-fold purification of a toxin-binding protein was carried out by ammonium sulfate fractionation, and Sephadex G-200, and maculosin-affinity column chromatography. The affinity column was prepared with epoxy activated Sepharose 6B to which the phenolic group of maculosin was attached. The receptor was estimated to contain more than one binding protein by native and SDS-PAGE. At least one of the maculosin-binding proteins was identified as ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase).

  14. Mevalocidin: a novel, phloem mobile phytotoxin from Fusarium DA056446 and Rosellinia DA092917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwick, B Clifford; Brewster, William K; Deboer, Gerrit J; Fields, Steve C; Graupner, Paul R; Hahn, Donald R; Pearce, Cedric J; Schmitzer, Paul R; Webster, Jeffery D

    2013-02-01

    A multiyear effort to identify new natural products was built on a hypothesis that both phytotoxins from plant pathogens and antimicrobial compounds might demonstrate herbicidal activity. The discovery of one such compound, mevalocidin, is described in the current report. Mevalocidin was discovered from static cultures of two unrelated fungal isolates designated Rosellinia DA092917 and Fusarium DA056446. The chemical structure was confirmed by independent synthesis. Mevalocidin demonstrated broad spectrum post-emergence activity on grasses and broadleaves and produced a unique set of visual symptoms on treated plants suggesting a novel mode of action. Mevalocidin was rapidly absorbed in a representative grass and broadleaf plant. Translocation occurred from the treated leaf to other plant parts including roots confirming phloem as well as xylem mobility. By 24 hr after application, over 20 % had been redistributed through-out the plant. Mevalocidin is a unique phytotoxin based on its chemistry, with the uncommon attribute of demonstrating both xylem and phloem mobility in grass and broadleaf plants.

  15. A novel Meloidogyne graminicola effector, MgGPP, is secreted into host cells and undergoes glycosylation in concert with proteolysis to suppress plant defenses and promote parasitism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansong Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogen effectors can recruit the host post-translational machinery to mediate their post-translational modification (PTM and regulate their activity to facilitate parasitism, but few studies have focused on this phenomenon in the field of plant-parasitic nematodes. In this study, we show that the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne graminicola has evolved a novel effector, MgGPP, that is exclusively expressed within the nematode subventral esophageal gland cells and up-regulated in the early parasitic stage of M. graminicola. The effector MgGPP plays a role in nematode parasitism. Transgenic rice lines expressing MgGPP become significantly more susceptible to M. graminicola infection than wild-type control plants, and conversely, in planta, the silencing of MgGPP through RNAi technology substantially increases the resistance of rice to M. graminicola. Significantly, we show that MgGPP is secreted into host plants and targeted to the ER, where the N-glycosylation and C-terminal proteolysis of MgGPP occur. C-terminal proteolysis promotes MgGPP to leave the ER, after which it is transported to the nucleus. In addition, N-glycosylation of MgGPP is required for suppressing the host response. The research data provide an intriguing example of in planta glycosylation in concert with proteolysis of a pathogen effector, which depict a novel mechanism by which parasitic nematodes could subjugate plant immunity and promote parasitism and may present a promising target for developing new strategies against nematode infections.

  16. Biotransformation of the streptomyces scabies phytotoxin thaxtomin A by the fungus aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarovits, G.; Hill, J.; King, R.; Calhoun, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Of several hundred microorganisms randomly selected from the environment, only a fungal isolate identified as Aspergillus niger van Tiegham var. niger was found to transform the phytotoxin thaxtomin A to much less toxic metabolites. The rate and extent of transformation of thaxtomin A was tested under a variety of conditions, including different growth media, biomass concentrations, incubation periods, and shaker speeds. Under optimum conditions the fungus converted thaxtomin A into two major and five minor metabolites. The two major metabolites and three of the five minor metabolites were fully characterized by a combination of mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. When assayed on aseptically produced mini-tubers, the major metabolites proved to be much less phytotoxic than thaxtomin A. (author)

  17. Biotransformation of the streptomyces scabies phytotoxin thaxtomin A by the fungus aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarovits, G.; Hill, J. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: Lazarovitsg@agr.gc.ca; King, R. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Potato Research Centre, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada); Calhoun, L.A. [Univ. of New Brunswick, Dept. of Chemistry, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Of several hundred microorganisms randomly selected from the environment, only a fungal isolate identified as Aspergillus niger van Tiegham var. niger was found to transform the phytotoxin thaxtomin A to much less toxic metabolites. The rate and extent of transformation of thaxtomin A was tested under a variety of conditions, including different growth media, biomass concentrations, incubation periods, and shaker speeds. Under optimum conditions the fungus converted thaxtomin A into two major and five minor metabolites. The two major metabolites and three of the five minor metabolites were fully characterized by a combination of mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. When assayed on aseptically produced mini-tubers, the major metabolites proved to be much less phytotoxic than thaxtomin A. (author)

  18. Scalable total synthesis and comprehensive structure-activity relationship studies of the phytotoxin coronatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleson, Mairi M; Baker, Christopher M; Dalençon, Anne J; Frye, Elizabeth C; Jamieson, Craig; Kennedy, Alan R; Ling, Kenneth B; McLachlan, Matthew M; Montgomery, Mark G; Russell, Claire J; Watson, Allan J B

    2018-03-16

    Natural phytotoxins are valuable starting points for agrochemical design. Acting as a jasmonate agonist, coronatine represents an attractive herbicidal lead with novel mode of action, and has been an important synthetic target for agrochemical development. However, both restricted access to quantities of coronatine and a lack of a suitably scalable and flexible synthetic approach to its constituent natural product components, coronafacic and coronamic acids, has frustrated development of this target. Here, we report gram-scale production of coronafacic acid that allows a comprehensive structure-activity relationship study of this target. Biological assessment of a >120 member library combined with computational studies have revealed the key determinants of potency, rationalising hypotheses held for decades, and allowing future rational design of new herbicidal leads based on this template.

  19. A comparative study on the crystal structure of bicycle analogues to the natural phytotoxin helminthosporins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio de Almeida; Teixeira, Robson Ricardo; Nogueira, Leonardo Brandão; Maltha, Celia Regina Alvares; Doriguetto, Antônio Carlos; Martins, Felipe Terra

    2016-02-01

    Herein we described structural insights of a series of analogues to helminthosporin phytotoxins. The key reaction used to prepare the compounds corresponded to the [3 + 4] cycloaddition between the oxyallyl cation generated from 2,4-dibromopentan-3-one and different furans. Their structures were confirmed upon IR, NMR and X-ray diffraction analyses. While bicycles 7, 8 and 9 crystallize in the centrosymmetric monoclinic space group P21/c, compound 10 was solved in the noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic space group P212121. The solid materials obtained were shown to be racemic crystals (7, 8, 9) or racemic conglomerate (10). In all compounds, there is formation of a bicycle featured by fused tetrahydropyranone and 2,5-dihydrofuran rings. They adopt chair and envelope conformations, respectively. Crystal packing of all compounds is stabilized through C-H•••O contacts. Conformational aspects as well as similarities and differences among the crystal structures of the synthesized analogues are discussed.

  20. Detoxifying symbiosis: microbe-mediated detoxification of phytotoxins and pesticides in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hideomi; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2018-04-12

    Covering: up to 2018Insects live in a world full of toxic compounds such as plant toxins and manmade pesticides. To overcome the effects of these toxins, herbivorous insects have evolved diverse, elaborate mechanisms of resistance, such as toxin avoidance, target-site alteration, and detoxification. These resistance mechanisms are thought to be encoded by the insects' own genomes, and in many cases, this holds true. However, recent omics analyses, in conjunction with classic culture-dependent analyses, have revealed that a number of insects possess specific gut microorganisms, some of which significantly contribute to resistance against phytotoxins and pesticides by degrading such chemical compounds. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding on the symbiont-mediated degradation of natural and artificial toxins, with a special emphasis on their underlying genetic basis, focus on the importance of environmental microbiota as a resource of toxin-degrading microorganisms, and discuss the ecological and evolutionary significance of these symbiotic associations.

  1. Absolute configurations of phytotoxins seiricardine A and inuloxin A obtained by chiroptical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Ernesto; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Petrovic, Ana G; Cimmino, Alessio; Koshoubu, Jun; Evidente, Antonio; Berova, Nina; Superchi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    The absolute configuration (AC) of the plant phytotoxin inuloxin A, produced by Inula viscosa, and of the fungal phytotoxin seiricardine A, obtained from Seiridium fungi, pathogen for cypress, has been determined by experimental measurements and theoretical simulations of chiroptical properties of three related methods, namely, Optical Rotatory Dispersion (ORD), Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD), and Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD). Computational prediction by Density Functional Theory (DFT) of VCD spectra and by Time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) of ORD and ECD spectra allowed to assign (7R,8R,10S) AC to naturally occurring (+)-inuloxin A. In the case of compound (-)-seiricardine A, which lacks useful for the analysis UV-Vis absorption, and thus provides a hardly detectable ECD spectrum and quite low ORD values, an introduction of a suitable chromophore by chemical derivatization was performed. The corresponding derivative, 2-O-p-bromobenzoate ester, gave rise to an intense ECD spectrum and higher ORD and VCD values. The comparison of computed spectra with the experimental ones allowed to assign (1S,2R,3aS,4S,5R,7aS) AC to (-)-2-O-p-bromobenzoate ester of seiricardine A and then to (-)-seiricardine A. This study further supports a recent trend of concerted application of more than a single chiroptical technique toward an unambiguous assignment of AC of flexible and complex natural products. Moreover, the use of chemical derivatization, with insertion of suitable chromophoric moieties has allowed to treat also UV-Vis transparent molecules by ECD and ORD spectroscopies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Open Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The law of trade secrets is often conceptualized in bilateral terms, as creating and enforcing rights between trade secret owners, on the one hand, and misappropriators on the other hand. This paper, a chapter in a forthcoming collection on the law of trade secrets, argues that trade secrets and the law that guards them can serve structural and insitutional roles as well. Somewhat surprisingly, given the law’s focus on secrecy, among the institutional products of trade secrets law are commons...

  3. Catechin secretion and phytotoxicity: Fact not fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, Harsh P; Kaushik, Shail

    2010-09-01

    Research indicates that the invasiveness of Centaurea stoebe is attributed to the stronger allelopathic effects on the native North American species than on the related European species, which is one of the unquestionable aspects of the "novel weapons hypothesis (NWH)." Studies originating from controlled to field conditions have shown that C. stoebe utilizes its biochemical potential to exert its invasiveness. The roots of C. stoebe secrete a potent phytotoxin, catechin, which has a detrimental effect on the surrounding plant species. Although, studies on catechin secretion and phytotoxicity represent one of the most well studied systems describing negative plant-plant interactions, it has also sparked controversies lately due to its phytotoxicity dosages and secretion effluxes. Previous reports negate the phytotoxic and pro-oxidant nature of catechin.1-3 In our recent study we have shown that catechin is highly phytotoxic against Arabidopsis thaliana and Festuca idahoensis. We also show that (±) catechin applied to roots of A. thaliana induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) confirming the pro-oxidant nature of catechin. In addition, activation of signature cell death genes such as acd2 and cad1 post catechin treatment in A. thaliana ascertains the phytotoxic nature of catechin.

  4. High-resolution mapping of Rsn1, a locus controlling sensitivity of rice to a necrosis-inducing phytotoxin from Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia solani is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes disease on all major crop-plant species. Anastomosis group 1-IA is the causal agent of sheath blight of rice (Oryza sativa), one of the most important rice diseases worldwide. R. solani AG-IA produces a necrosis-inducing phytotoxin a...

  5. Secret Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Kerry

    1997-01-01

    Argues that children are as deep as the ocean, with secret places inside of them waiting to be opened. Notes that it is powerful for students to learn they can make sense of the world through words, and describes inviting them into poetry as they read poetry, create poetry packets, and write and revise poems. (SR)

  6. The fungal phytotoxin alternariol 9-methyl ether and some of its synthetic analogues inhibit the photosynthetic electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuner, Antonio Jacinto; Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio Almeida; Miranda, Ana Cristina Mendes; Geraldo, Guilherme Carvalho; da Silva, Cleiton Moreira; Giberti, Samuele; Bertazzini, Michele; Forlani, Giuseppe

    2013-12-27

    Alternariol and monomethylalternariol are natural phytotoxins produced by some fungal strains, such as Nimbya and Alternaria. These substances confer virulence to phytopathogens, yet no information is available concerning their mode of action. Here we show that in the micromolar range alternariol 9-methyl ether is able to inhibit the electron transport chain (IC50 = 29.1 ± 6.5 μM) in isolated spinach chloroplasts. Since its effectiveness is limited by poor solubility in water, several alternariol analogues were synthesized using different aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized 6H-benzo[c]cromen-6-ones, 5H-chromene[4,3-b]pyridin-5-one, and 5H-chromene[4,3-c]pyridin-5-one also showed inhibitory properties, and three 6H-benzo[c]cromen-6-ones were more effective (IC50 = 12.8-22.8 μM) than the lead compound. Their addition to the culture medium of a cyanobacterial model strain was found to inhibit algal growth, with a relative effectiveness that was consistent with their activity in vitro. In contrast, the growth of a nonphotosynthetic plant cell culture was poorly affected. These compounds may represent a novel lead for the development of new active principles targeting photosynthesis.

  7. Autointoxication mechanism ofOryza sativa : III. Effect of temperature on phytotoxin production during rice straw decomposition in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C H; Chiang, Y C; Chfng, H H

    1981-07-01

    The phytotoxicity produced during decomposition of rice straw in soil was evaluated under both constant and changing temperature conditions. Bioassay tests showed that the aqueous extract from a soilstraw mixture after incubation at constant temperature was more than twice as phytotoxic as the extract from soil incubated alone. The phytotoxicity was highest at 20-25 ° C. Temperatures above 25 ° C enhanced rice straw decomposition and also degraded the phytotoxic substances more rapidly. After incubation of soil mixtures under changing temperature regimes in a phytotron, the phytotoxicy of the soil aqueous extracts increased in the following order: soil alone lettuce or rice seedlings was also at the highest at the temperature range of 25-30 ° C irrespective of the direction of temperature changes from either low to high or vice versa. Five phytotoxic phenolics,p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic,p-coumaric, syringic, and ferulic acids, were obtained from both the aqueous extract and residue of the incubated soil samples and were quantitatively estimated by chromatography. The amount of phytotoxins found in various soil mixtures followed the same increasing order as that found by the seed bioassay test. Although no definite distribution pattern of the phenolics in the incubated soil samples can be attributed to temperature variations, the amount of the phenolics was likely higher in the samples incubated at 25 ° C than at either 15 ° C or 35 ° C. The quantity of toxins released during decomposition of rice straw in soil reached highest levels six weeks after incubation and gradually disappeared after twelve weeks.

  8. Immunoglobins in mammary secretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulins secreted in colostrum and milk by the lactating mammal are major factors providing immune protection to the newborn. Immunoglobulins in mammary secretions represent the cumulative immune response of the lactating animal to exposure to antigenic stimulation that occurs through...... the immunoglobulins found in mammary secretions in the context of their diversity of structure, origin, mechanisms of transfer, and function....

  9. Probabilistic Infinite Secret Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Csirmaz, László

    2013-01-01

    The study of probabilistic secret sharing schemes using arbitrary probability spaces and possibly infinite number of participants lets us investigate abstract properties of such schemes. It highlights important properties, explains why certain definitions work better than others, connects this topic to other branches of mathematics, and might yield new design paradigms. A probabilistic secret sharing scheme is a joint probability distribution of the shares and the secret together with a colle...

  10. Authentication Without Secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Lyndon G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  11. Dynamic quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Heng-Yue; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we consider quantum secret sharing (QSS) between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We consider quantum secret sharing between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). ► In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. ► Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. ► Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. ► Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  12. Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balk-Møller, Emilie; Holst, Jens Juul; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich

    2014-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β...... enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct...

  13. Secret quality of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan-Hall, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Many of us can recite three Donabedian dimensions of the quality of care of structure, process and outcome. Recently, I was introduced to another of Avedis Donabedian's quotes about the 'secret quality of love'.

  14. Six secrets of champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2015-12-01

    Popping open a bottle of champagne is one of life's great delights, but how much do you really know about the science behind this greatest of wines? Gérard Liger-Belair reveals his six favourite champagne secrets.

  15. Proprotein Convertases Process Pmel17 during Secretion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ralf M.; Vigneron, Nathalie; Rahner, Christoph; Cresswell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Pmel17 is a melanocyte/melanoma-specific protein that traffics to melanosomes where it forms a fibrillar matrix on which melanin gets deposited. Before being cleaved into smaller fibrillogenic fragments the protein undergoes processing by proprotein convertases, a class of serine proteases that typically recognize the canonical motif RX(R/K)R↓. The current model of Pmel17 maturation states that this processing step occurs in melanosomes, but in light of recent reports this issue has become controversial. We therefore addressed this question by thoroughly assessing the processing kinetics of either wild-type Pmel17 or a secreted soluble Pmel17 derivative. Our results demonstrate clearly that processing of Pmel17 occurs during secretion and that it does not require entry of the protein into the endocytic system. Strikingly, processing proceeds even in the presence of the secretion inhibitor monensin, suggesting that Pmel17 is an exceptionally good substrate. In line with this, we find that newly synthesized surface Pmel17 is already quantitatively cleaved. Moreover, we demonstrate that Pmel17 function is independent of the sequence identity of its unconventional proprotein convertase-cleavage motif that lacks arginine in P4 position. The data alter the current view of Pmel17 maturation and suggest that the multistep processing of Pmel17 begins with an early cleavage during secretion that primes the protein for later functional processing. PMID:21247888

  16. Acetate stimulates secretion in the rabbit mandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1989-01-01

    In isolated perfused rabbit mandibular glands undergoing stimulation with 0.8 microM acetylcholine, replacement of HCO3- with acetate (25 mM) increased fluid secretion by more than 100%. Other short-chain fatty acids, except for propionate, had a similar effect. We focused our further studies...

  17. Regulated Mucin Secretion from Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Bruce Adler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Secretory epithelial cells of the proximal airways synthesize and secrete gel-forming polymeric mucins. The secreted mucins adsorb water to form mucus that is propelled by neighboring ciliated cells, providing a mobile barrier which removes inhaled particles and pathogens from the lungs. Several features of the intracellular trafficking of mucins make the airway secretory cell an interesting comparator for the cell biology of regulated exocytosis. Polymeric mucins are exceedingly large molecules (up to 3x10^6 D per monomer whose folding and initial polymerization in the ER requires the protein disulfide isomerase Agr2. In the Golgi, mucins further polymerize to form chains and possibly branched networks comprising more than 20 monomers. The large size of mucin polymers imposes constraints on their packaging into transport vesicles along the secretory pathway. Sugar side chains account for >70% of the mass of mucins, and their attachment to the protein core by O-glycosylation occurs in the Golgi. Mature polymeric mucins are stored in large secretory granules ~1 um in diameter. These are translocated to the apical membrane to be positioned for exocytosis by cooperative interactions among MARCKS, cysteine string protein (CSP, HSP70 and the cytoskeleton. Mucin granules undergo exocytic fusion with the plasma membrane at a low basal rate and a high stimulated rate. Both rates are mediated by a regulated exocytic mechanism as indicated by phenotypes in both basal and stimulated secretion in mice lacking Munc13-2, a sensor of the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG. Basal secretion is induced by low levels of activation of P2Y2 purinergic and A3 adenosine receptors by extracellular ATP released in paracrine fashion and its metabolite adenosine. Stimulated secretion is induced by high levels of the same ligands, and possibly by inflammatory mediators as well. Activated receptors are coupled to phospholipase C by Gq, resulting in the

  18. Type VI secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  20. 'Secret' Shuttle payloads revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joel W.

    1993-05-01

    A secret military payload carried by the orbiter Discovery launched on January 24 1985 is discussed. Secondary payloads on the military Shuttle flights are briefly reviewed. Most of the military middeck experiments were sponsored by the Space Test Program established at the Pentagon to oversee all Defense Department space research projects.

  1. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  2. Physiology of bile secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, Alejandro

    2008-10-07

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment, in different situations, results in the syndrome of cholestasis. The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed. Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane. This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation. The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bile-duct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts. The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed. In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled, cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves. A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included. The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  3. A Public Secret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on anthropological fieldwork undertaken at two elite universities in Beijing. It addresses the paradoxical situation of the many instances of suicide among Chinese elite university students in Beijing, which constitute a public secret. The pressure of education weighs heavily...

  4. MONA Implementation Secrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Nils; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    a period of six years. Compared to the first naive version, the present tool is faster by several orders of magnitude. This speedup is obtained from many different contributions working on all levels of the compilation and execution of formulas. We present a selection of implementation "secrets" that have...

  5. Wrapped up in Covers: Preschoolers' Secrets and Secret Hiding Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Kimberly; Colwell, Malinda J.; Bell, Nancy J.; Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this qualitative study, interviews about children's secret hiding places were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?17) in a university sponsored preschool programme using art narratives. Since prior studies indicate that children understand the concept of a secret as early as five and that they associate secrets with hiding places, the purpose of…

  6. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  7. Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, J.; Pabst, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion is reviewed in brief separating hyperglucagonemic from hypoclucagonemic states. Many questions concerning the role of glucagon in diabetes mellitus and in other diseases are still unresolved. The clucagon RIA is of clinical significance in a few diseases like glucagonoma, which may present without symptoms of the 'glucagonoma syndrome', the probably very rare hyperglucagonemia and some of the spontaneous hypoglycemias. Glucagon secretion may be evaluated by the determination of fasting immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) and by appropriate function tests as stimulation with i.v. arginine and suppression with oral glucose. However, the glucagon RIA at present is not a routine method, although commercial kits are available. Many pitfalls of radioimmunological glucagon determination still exist. (orig.) [de

  8. Bucarest, Strictement Secret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Mihai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available L’émission Bucarest, strictement secret représente un documentaire organisésous la forme d’une série télé, qui dépeint le Bucarest à partir de deux perspectives: de l’histoire, de la conte et du lieu. La valeur d’une cité réside dans l’existence d’une mystique, d’un romantisme abscons, à part et des caractères empruntés de drames de Shakespeare, mystérieux, serrés d’angoisse et des secrets qui assombrissent leur existence. Par conséquence, le rôle du metteur en scène est de dévoiler leur vraie identité et de remettre en place, autant que possible, la vérité.

  9. Bile Formation and Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Bile is a unique and vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by the hepatocyte and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium. Approximately 5% of bile consists of organic and inorganic solutes of considerable complexity. The bile-secretory unit consists of a canalicular network which is formed by the apical membrane of adjacent hepatocytes and sealed by tight junctions. The bile canaliculi (~1 μm in diameter) conduct the flow of bile countercurrent to the direction of portal blood flow and connect with the canal of Hering and bile ducts which progressively increase in diameter and complexity prior to the entry of bile into the gallbladder, common bile duct, and intestine. Canalicular bile secretion is determined by both bile salt-dependent and independent transport systems which are localized at the apical membrane of the hepatocyte and largely consist of a series of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transport proteins that function as export pumps for bile salts and other organic solutes. These transporters create osmotic gradients within the bile canalicular lumen that provide the driving force for movement of fluid into the lumen via aquaporins. Species vary with respect to the relative amounts of bile salt-dependent and independent canalicular flow and cholangiocyte secretion which is highly regulated by hormones, second messengers, and signal transduction pathways. Most determinants of bile secretion are now characterized at the molecular level in animal models and in man. Genetic mutations serve to illuminate many of their functions. PMID:23897680

  10. Lipids in airway secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, K.R.; DeFeudis O'Sullivan, D.; Opaskar-Hincman, H.; Reid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids form a significant portion of airway mucus yet they have not received the same attention that epithelial glycoproteins have. We have analysed, by thin layer chromatography, lipids present in airway mucus under 'normal' and hypersecretory (pathological) conditions.The 'normals' included (1) bronchial lavage obtained from healthy human volunteers and from dogs and (2) secretions produced ''in vitro'' by human (bronchial) and canine (tracheal) explants. Hypersecretory mucus samples included (1) lavage from dogs made bronchitic by exposure to SO 2 , (2) bronchial aspirates from acute and chronic tracheostomy patients, (3) sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and (4) postmortem secretions from patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or from status asthmaticus. Cholesterol was found to be the predominant lipid in 'normal' mucus with lesser amounts of phospholipids. No glycolipids were detected. In the hypersecretory mucus, in addition to neutral and phospholipids, glycolipids were present in appreciable amounts, often the predominant species, suggesting that these may be useful as markers of disease. Radioactive precursors 14 C acetate and 14 C palmitate were incorporated into lipids secreted ''in vitro'' by canine tracheal explants indicating that they are synthesised by the airway. (author)

  11. Dynamic secrets in communication security

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Sheng; Towsley, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic secrets are constantly generated and updated from messages exchanged between two communication users. When dynamic secrets are used as a complement to existing secure communication systems, a stolen key or password can be quickly and automatically reverted to its secret status without disrupting communication. 'Dynamic Secrets in Communication Security' presents unique security properties and application studies for this technology. Password theft and key theft no longer pose serious security threats when parties frequently use dynamic secrets. This book also illustrates that a dynamic

  12. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  13. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  14. RSA-Based Secret Handshakes

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnaud , Damien

    2006-01-01

    A secret handshake mechanism allows two entities, members of a same group, to authenticate each other secretly. This primitive was introduced recently by Balfanz, Durfee, Shankar, Smetters, Staddon and Wong and, so far, all the schemes proposed are based on discrete log systems. This paper proposes three new secret handshake protocols secure against active impersonator and detector adversaries. Inspired by two RSA-based key agreement protocols introduced by Okamoto and Tanaka in 1989 and Gira...

  15. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  16. Secret and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André PETITAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The postures of secrecy and revelation maintain our common relational dynamics between sharing and not sharing. Science, which has become the dominant form of knowledge, is a rational and empirical knowledge sharing. For this purpose, the knowledge articulates languages, if possible unambiguous, spaces of rational deliberation, technical devices and resources of the imagination. This activity meets other logics called power, prestige, status, profit, customer, blind adherence and revealed truth, in which the postures of secret invite themselves massively. The codes of ethics attempt to regulate this mix of contradictory logics by setting standards of scientific exchanges, recalling the person rights and particularly the subjects observed rights, protecting the working conditions of the researcher, preserving its autonomy from funders and policy makers, and ensuring the dissemination of its results.

  17. Maturation processes and structures of small secreted peptides in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo eTabata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, small secreted peptides have proven to be essential for various aspects of plant growth and development, including the maintenance of certain stem cell populations. Most small secreted peptides identified in plants to date are recognised by membrane-localized receptor kinases, the largest family of receptor proteins in the plant genome. This peptide-receptor interaction is essential for initiating intracellular signalling cascades. Small secreted peptides often undergo post-translational modifications and proteolytic processing to generate the mature peptides. Recent studies suggest that, in contrast to the situation in mammals, the proteolytic processing of plant peptides involves a number of complex steps. Furthermore, NMR-based structural analysis demonstrated that post-translational modifications induce the conformational changes needed for full activity. In this mini review, we summarise recent advances in our understanding of how small secreted peptides are modified and processed into biologically active peptides and describe the mature structures of small secreted peptides in plants.

  18. Pheochromocytomas and secreting paragangliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenez-Roqueplo Anne-Paule

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Catecholamine-producing tumors may arise in the adrenal medulla (pheochromocytomas or in extraadrenal chromaffin cells (secreting paragangliomas. Their prevalence is about 0.1% in patients with hypertension and 4% in patients with a fortuitously discovered adrenal mass. An increase in the production of catecholamines causes symptoms (mainly headaches, palpitations and excess sweating and signs (mainly hypertension, weight loss and diabetes reflecting the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Catecholamine-producing tumors mimic paroxysmal conditions with hypertension and/or cardiac rhythm disorders, including panic attacks, in which sympathetic activation linked to anxiety reproduces the same signs and symptoms. These tumors may be sporadic or part of any of several genetic diseases: familial pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma syndromes, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, neurofibromatosis 1 and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Familial cases are diagnosed earlier and are more frequently bilateral and recurring than sporadic cases. The most specific and sensitive diagnostic test for the tumor is the determination of plasma or urinary metanephrines. The tumor can be located by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Treatment requires resection of the tumor, generally by laparoscopic surgery. About 10% of tumors are malignant either at first operation or during follow-up, malignancy being diagnosed by the presence of lymph node, visceral or bone metastases. Recurrences and malignancy are more frequent in cases with large or extraadrenal tumors. Patients, especially those with familial or extraadrenal tumors, should be followed-up indefinitely.

  19. The Secret of Future Victories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Copy S of 320 copies AD--A25 0 718 IDA PAPER P-265 3 THE SECRET OF FUTURE VICTORIES Paul F. Gormnan General, USA (Retired) DTIC 05M February 1992 NAY...TYPE AND DATES COVERED IFebruary 1992 Final--June 1991-January 1992 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The Secret of Future Victories C -MDA...8 2N0-102 IDA PAPER P-2653 THE SECRET OF FUTURE VICTORIES Paul F. Gorman General. LUSA (Retired) February 1992 Approved for public release

  20. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  1. On alternative approach for verifiable secret sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesza, Kamil; Kotulski, Zbigniew; Pieprzyk, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Secret sharing allows split/distributed control over the secret (e.g. master key). Verifiable secret sharing (VSS) is the secret sharing extended by verification capacity. Usually verification comes at the price. We propose "free lunch", the approach that allows to overcome this inconvenience.

  2. Salivary function in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, M.; Cermik, T.F.; Uestuen, F.; Sen, S.; Berkarda, S.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in salivary gland function in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing hemodialysis. The group consisted of 23 patients with CRF (13 female, 10 male; mean age: 40±13 yr) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 40±13 yr). All underwent dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy with gustatory stimulation. After intravenous administration of 99m Tc pertechnetate, first, perfusion images at 2 seconds per frame were acquired for 1 minute, then dynamic images at 1 minute per frame were acquired for 45 minutes. At 30 minutes after injection , 10 ml lemon juice was given for 15 minutes as a gustatory stimulus. We obtained time-activity curves derived from regions of interest centered over the four major salivary glands. The following functional indices were calculated for each gland: the time of maximum radioactivity (T max ) for the prestimulated period, the time of minimum radioactivity (T min ), as an indicator of velocity of secretion after stimulation, and the Lem E 5 % value as an indicator of the secretion function. When the patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis were compared to the controls, there were statistically significant differences in T max , T min and Lem E 5 % values for bilateral parotid glands, and T min values for bilateral submandibular glands (p max and Lem E 5 % values for bilateral submandibular glands. There were also significant differences in T max and Lem E 5 % values for bilateral parotid glands between mild oral problems and severe oral problems in patients with CRF (undergoing hemodialysis). In this study, prolonged T max and T min values, and decreased Lem E 5 % values for parotid glands and prolonged T min values for submandibular glands on salivary scintigraphy pointed out decreased parenchymatous and excretory function in patients with CRF undergoing hemodialysis. (author)

  3. Effect of hypothermic renal ischaemia on renin secretion rate in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Petersen, H K; Giese, J

    1985-01-01

    Plasma renin concentration (PRC), renal blood flow (RBF) and renin secretion rate (RSR = renal veno-arterial PRC difference multiplied by renal plasma flow) were measured before and after a period of hypothermic renal ischaemia in seven patients undergoing surgery for renal calculi. After...

  4. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Rytaro Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together...... however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced....... This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can...

  5. Histaminergic regulation of prolactin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U P

    1990-01-01

    Histamine (HA), which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, participates in the neuroendocrine regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion. HA has a predominant stimulatory effect which is mediated via H2-receptors following central administration and via H1-receptors following...... systemic infusion of the amine. In addition, HA seems to exert a minor inhibitory effect on PRL secretion, an effect unmasked only during blockade of the receptor mediating the stimulatory effect. Following central administration the inhibitory effect is mediated via H1-receptors, while following systemic...... administration this effect is mediated via H2-receptors. In accordance with these findings, the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine (CIM) has an inhibitory (following central administration) or stimulatory (following systemic administration) effect on PRL secretion. However, high doses of CIM possess an additional...

  6. Metabonomic strategy for the investigation of the mode of action of the phytotoxin (5S,8R,13S,16R)-(-)-pyrenophorol using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliferis, Konstantinos A; Chrysayi-Tokousbalides, Maria

    2006-03-08

    The biochemical mode of action of (5S,8R,13S,16R)-(-)-pyrenophorol isolated from a Drechslera avenae pathotype was investigated by using metabolic fingerprinting. (1)H NMR spectra of crude leaf extracts from untreated Avena sterilis seedlings and A. sterilis seedlings treated with pyrenophorol were compared with those obtained from treatments with the herbicides diuron, glyphosate, mesotrione, norflurazon, oxadiazon, and paraquat. Multivariate analysis was carried out to group treatments according to the mode of action of the phytotoxic substances applied. Analysis results revealed that none of the herbicide treatments fitted the pyrenophorol model and indicate that the effect of the phytotoxin on A. sterilis differs than those caused by glyphosate, mesotrione, norflurazon, oxadiazon, paraquat, and diuron, which inhibit 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate-dioxygenase, phytoene desaturase, protoporphyrinogen oxidase, photosystem I, and photosystem II, respectively. The method applied, combined with appropriate data preprocessing and analysis, was found to be rapid for the screening of phytotoxic substances for metabolic effects.

  7. Impaired Follistatin Secretion in Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders Rasmussen; Plomgaard, Peter; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2016-01-01

    compared to healthy control participants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: To experimentally increase the glucagon-insulin ratio (mimicking the hormonal effect of exercise), we infused glucagon/somatostatin (to inhibit insulin secretion) and compared the acute follistatin increase in eight male cirrhosis...... controls (27.6 ± 3.8 vs 34.5 ± 2.9%, respectively; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cirrhosis show impaired capacity to acutely secrete follistatin. The decrease in acute follistatin release may contribute to the loss of muscle mass in liver cirrhosis....

  8. Secrets and Disclosures: How Young Children Handle Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J.; Papathanasiou, Athanasia

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of content and verbal cues on young children's understanding of secret information and of its disclosure. Participants were 209 5- and 6-year-old children in an experiment where a puppet, named Zinc, was the protagonist. Children were asked to whom Zinc would disclose a list of pieces of information, some of…

  9. Secreted osteopontin is highly polymerized in human airways and fragmented in asthmatic airway secretions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Arjomandi

    Full Text Available Osteopontin (OPN is a member of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING family and a cytokine with diverse biologic roles. OPN undergoes extensive post-translational modifications, including polymerization and proteolytic fragmentation, which alters its biologic activity. Recent studies suggest that OPN may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma.To determine whether secreted OPN (sOPN is polymerized in human airways and whether it is qualitatively different in asthma, we used immunoblotting to examine sOPN in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid samples from 12 healthy and 21 asthmatic subjects (and in sputum samples from 27 healthy and 21 asthmatic subjects. All asthmatic subjects had mild to moderate asthma and abstained from corticosteroids during the study. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between airway sOPN and cellular inflammation.We found that sOPN in BAL fluid and sputum exists in polymeric, monomeric, and cleaved forms, with most of it in polymeric form. Compared to healthy subjects, asthmatic subjects had proportionately less polymeric sOPN and more monomeric and cleaved sOPN. Polymeric sOPN in BAL fluid was associated with increased alveolar macrophage counts in airways in all subjects.These results suggest that sOPN in human airways (1 undergoes extensive post-translational modification by polymerization and proteolytic fragmentation, (2 is more fragmented and less polymerized in subjects with mild to moderate asthma, and (3 may contribute to recruitment or survival of alveolar macrophages.

  10. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  11. Unraveling the Wnt secretion pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harterink, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt family of signaling proteins has essential functions in development and adult tissue homeostasis throughout the animal kingdom. Although signaling cascades triggered by Wnt proteins have been extensively studied, much remains to be learned about how Wnts are produced and secreted and how

  12. VIP secreting tumours in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.P.; Slavotinek, J.P.; Dorney, S.F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) secreting neural crest tumours are an uncommon but important treatable cause of intractable childhood diarrhoea. The radiological appearances of two cases are presented with a review of radiological findings in childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours. Twenty eight cases of childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours were reviewed. Nineteen (68%) were ganglioneuroblastomas and nine (32%) were ganglioneuromas. The majority of tumours (66%) were in a paravertebral location in the abdomen indicating that a search for such a tumour should be initiated at this site. Eighteen of the twenty eight cases reviewed discussed relevant radiological investigations. Calcification was detected in 50% of abdominal radiographs. Gut dilatation was often a prominent feature. A mass was detected in 5 of 5 cases where ultrasound findings were reported, and seven of seven cases with CT findings reported. Prior to the availability of CT and ultrasound the most useful investigation was IVU which demonstrated evidence of a mass in 5 of 9 cases. The presence of paravertebral calcification and gut dilatation on the plain radiograph of a child with intractable diarrhoea suggests the presence of a VIP secreting neural crest tumour. If an abdominal tumour is not found in the appropriate clinical setting and VIP levels are elevated, a widespread search of the paravertebral region is indicated. (orig.)

  13. Gamma knife radiosurgery for secreting pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noren, G.; Jackson, I.M.D.; Chougule, P.; Zheng, Z.; Epstein, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    Transsphenoidal surgery usually represents first line treatment for pituitary adenomas with the aim of removing the tumor, decompressing the optic apparatus and, in secreting tumors, eliminating the hypersecretion. Gamma Knife radiosurgery is indicated for tumor remnants or recurrences in or above the sella including those invading the cavernous sinus and also as initial treatment in patients who are unable to tolerate an open surgical procedure and where medication has failed. In this study, the target definition was retrospectively studied and when necessary corrected in 10 acromegalic patients, 8 with Cushing's disease, and 12 with prolactinomas undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery. The dose plan was analyzed and the volume of the target covered by a minimum of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 Gy was estimated. A dose/volume profile for each treatment was created and correlated to the endocrinological and clinical outcome. Cure, according to strict endocrinological criteria, was seen in 6 of the acromegalic patients, in 2 of the patients with ACTH hypersecretion, and in 2 of the patients with prolactinomas. Analysis of these profiles, also for the patients with partial effect, show that a minimum radiation dose of 20 Gy may be adequate to eliminate the hypersecretion in acromegalic patients whereas a dose of at least 25 Gy may be required in patients with Cushing's disease and prolactinoma. (author)

  14. Tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheated secret keys and shared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Liu, Chong-An

    2013-01-01

    A (t,n) secret image-sharing scheme shares a secret image to n participants, and the t users recover the image. During the recovery procedure of a conventional secret image-sharing scheme, cheaters may use counterfeit secret keys or modified shared images to cheat other users' secret keys and shared images. A cheated secret key or shared image leads to an incorrect secret image. Unfortunately, the cheater cannot be identified. We present an exponent and modulus-based scheme to provide a tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheaters on secret keys or shared images. The proposed scheme allows users to securely select their secret key. This assignment can be performed over networks. Modulus results of each shared image is calculated to recognize cheaters of a shared image. Experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme is excellent at identifying cheated secret keys and shared images.

  15. 29 CFR 1903.9 - Trade secrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.9 Trade secrets. (a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All... concerns or relates to the trade secrets, processes, operations, style of work, or apparatus, or to the...

  16. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading

  17. Tipping the balance: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum secreted oxalic acid suppresses host defenses by manipulating the host redox environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Williams

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic ascomycete fungus with an extremely broad host range. This pathogen produces the non-specific phytotoxin and key pathogenicity factor, oxalic acid (OA. Our recent work indicated that this fungus and more specifically OA, can induce apoptotic-like programmed cell death (PCD in plant hosts, this induction of PCD and disease requires generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the host, a process triggered by fungal secreted OA. Conversely, during the initial stages of infection, OA also dampens the plant oxidative burst, an early host response generally associated with plant defense. This scenario presents a challenge regarding the mechanistic details of OA function; as OA both suppresses and induces host ROS during the compatible interaction. In the present study we generated transgenic plants expressing a redox-regulated GFP reporter. Results show that initially, Sclerotinia (via OA generates a reducing environment in host cells that suppress host defense responses including the oxidative burst and callose deposition, akin to compatible biotrophic pathogens. Once infection is established however, this necrotroph induces the generation of plant ROS leading to PCD of host tissue, the result of which is of direct benefit to the pathogen. In contrast, a non-pathogenic OA-deficient mutant failed to alter host redox status. The mutant produced hypersensitive response-like features following host inoculation, including ROS induction, callose formation, restricted growth and cell death. These results indicate active recognition of the mutant and further point to suppression of defenses by the wild type necrotrophic fungus. Chemical reduction of host cells with dithiothreitol (DTT or potassium oxalate (KOA restored the ability of this mutant to cause disease. Thus, Sclerotinia uses a novel strategy involving regulation of host redox status to establish infection. These results address a long-standing issue

  18. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium expres...

  19. 5 CFR 2421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secret ballot. 2421.15 Section 2421.15... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine or otherwise, but in no event by proxy, of a...

  20. 29 CFR 452.97 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 452.97 Section 452.97 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.97 Secret ballot. (a) A prime requisite of elections regulated by title IV is that they be held by secret ballot among the members or in appropriate...

  1. 29 CFR 401.11 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 401.11 Section 401.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.11 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by...

  2. 22 CFR 1421.15 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Secret ballot. 1421.15 Section 1421.15 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.15 Secret ballot. Secret ballot means the expression by ballot, voting machine...

  3. 29 CFR 1202.4 - Secret ballot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret ballot. 1202.4 Section 1202.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.4 Secret ballot. In conducting such investigation, the Board is authorized to take a secret ballot of the employees involved, or...

  4. Some Economics of Trade Secret Law

    OpenAIRE

    David D. Friedman; William M. Landes; Richard A. Posner

    1991-01-01

    Despite the practical importance of trade secrets to the business community, the law of trade secrets is a neglected orphan in economic analysis. This paper sketches an approach to the economics of trade secret law that connects it more closely both to other areas of intellectual property and to broader issues in the positive economic theory of the common law.

  5. Secreted factors as synaptic organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Venkatesh, Erin M; Umemori, Hisashi

    2010-07-01

    A critical step in synaptic development is the differentiation of presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments. This complex process is regulated by a variety of secreted factors that serve as synaptic organizers. Specifically, fibroblast growth factors, Wnts, neurotrophic factors and various other intercellular signaling molecules are proposed to regulate presynaptic and/or postsynaptic differentiation. Many of these factors appear to function at both the neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system, although the specific function of the molecules differs between the two. Here we review secreted molecules that organize the synaptic compartments and discuss how these molecules shape synaptic development, focusing on mammalian in vivo systems. Their critical role in shaping a functional neural circuit is underscored by their possible link to a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders both in animal models and by mutations identified in human patients. © The Authors (2010). Journal Compilation © Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Weegee’s City Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    TRACHTENBERG, Alan

    2011-01-01

    En tant que photographe indépendant de meurtres, d’accidents, d’incendies, mais aussi de moments de loisirs dans la ville — de scènes de violence et de plaisir — Weegee travaillait essentiellement la nuit et utilisait un flash puissant associé à son appareil-photo de presse. Ses « secrets pour réaliser des photographies avec un flash » consistent à donner des conseils pratiques et techniques pour débutants. Mais au cœur de la rhétorique de ses « secrets » se trouvent des réflexions subtiles e...

  7. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-05-07

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as "plug-and-play" biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance.

  8. Semiquantum secret sharing using entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Chan, W. H.; Long Dongyang

    2010-01-01

    Secret sharing is a procedure for sharing a secret among a number of participants such that only the qualified subsets of participants have the ability to reconstruct the secret. Even in the presence of eavesdropping, secret sharing can be achieved when all the members are quantum. So what happens if not all the members are quantum? In this paper, we propose two semiquantum secret sharing protocols by using maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states in which quantum Alice shares a secret with two classical parties, Bob and Charlie, in a way that both parties are sufficient to obtain the secret, but one of them cannot. The presented protocols are also shown to be secure against eavesdropping.

  9. LcrG secretion is not required for blocking of Yops secretion in Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matson Jyl S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LcrG, a negative regulator of the Yersinia type III secretion apparatus has been shown to be primarily a cytoplasmic protein, but is secreted at least in Y. pestis. LcrG secretion has not been functionally analyzed and the relevance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function is unknown. Results An LcrG-GAL4AD chimera, originally constructed for two-hybrid analyses to analyze LcrG protein interactions, appeared to be not secreted but the LcrG-GAL4AD chimera retained the ability to regulate Yops secretion. This result led to further investigation to determine the significance of LcrG secretion on LcrG function. Additional analyses including deletion and substitution mutations of amino acids 2–6 in the N-terminus of LcrG were constructed to analyze LcrG secretion and LcrG's ability to control secretion. Some changes to the N-terminus of LcrG were found to not affect LcrG's secretion or LcrG's secretion-controlling activity. However, substitution of poly-isoleucine in the N-terminus of LcrG did eliminate LcrG secretion but did not affect LcrG's secretion controlling activity. Conclusion These results indicate that secretion of LcrG, while observable and T3SS mediated, is not relevant for LcrG's ability to control secretion.

  10. Cortisol levels and sleep patterns in infants with orofacial clefts undergoing surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller AA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Andreas A Mueller,1,2 Nadeem Kalak,3 Katja Schwenzer-Zimmerer,1,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,4 1Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, University of Basel and University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Hightech Research Center of Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress, and Sleep Disorders, Basel, Switzerland; 4Department of Sport and Health Science, Division of Sport Science, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Traumatic events during early infancy might damage infants’ psychobiological functioning, such as sleep and cortisol secretion. Infants born with orofacial clefts (OFCs undergo functional, anatomical, and aesthetic surgery. The aim of the present study was to determine whether infants with OFC and undergoing OFC surgery show deteriorated sleep and cortisol secretion compared with healthy controls and with their presurgery status.Methods: A total of 27 infants with OFC (mean age: 22 weeks and 30 healthy controls (mean age: 23 weeks took part in the study. For infants with OFC, sleep actigraphy was performed and saliva cortisol was analyzed 5 days before, during, and 5 days after surgery. For controls, sleep and saliva cortisol were assessed similarly, except for the period taken up with surgery.Results: Compared with healthy controls, infants with OFC undergoing OFC surgery did not differ in sleep and cortisol secretion. Their sleep and cortisol secretion did deteriorate during the perisurgical period but recovered 5 days postsurgery. Conclusion: In infants with OFC undergoing corrective surgery, the pattern of results for sleep and cortisol suggests that OFC surgery does not seem to constitute a traumatic event with long-term consequences. Keywords: cortisol, sleep, orofacial cleft, surgery, infants

  11. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidi...

  12. Secret sharing via quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillery, M.; Buzek, V.

    1999-01-01

    Secret sharing is a procedure for splitting a message into several parts so that no single part is sufficient to read the message, but the entire set is. This procedure can be implemented using either GHZ states or two-particle entangled states. In the quantum case the presence of an eavesdropper will introduce errors so that her presence can be detected. We also discuss how quantum information can be split into parts so that the message can be reconstructed from a sufficiently large subset of the parts. (Authors)

  13. Weegee’s City Secrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan TRACHTENBERG

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En tant que photographe indépendant de meurtres, d’accidents, d’incendies, mais aussi de moments de loisirs dans la ville — de scènes de violence et de plaisir — Weegee travaillait essentiellement la nuit et utilisait un flash puissant associé à son appareil-photo de presse. Ses « secrets pour réaliser des photographies avec un flash » consistent à donner des conseils pratiques et techniques pour débutants. Mais au cœur de la rhétorique de ses « secrets » se trouvent des réflexions subtiles et convaincantes révélant la relation entre la lumière et l’obscurité, et plus particulièrement la manière dont la lumière du flash permet de rendre visible l’obscurité. Dans le récit de Weegee, le flash confère à la photographie le pouvoir d’écrire — d’écrire avec la lumière, un mode de représentation singulièrement approprié pour enregistrer des instants de vie dans les rues nocturnes de la ville.As a freelance photographer of crime, accidents, fires, and also of the recreational life of the city—scenes of violence and of pleasure—Weegee worked mainly at night and employed a powerful photoflash attachment to his press camera. His "secrets of shooting with photoflash" consist of practical technical advice for beginners. But within the rhetoric of his "secrets" there lie cogent and subtle reflections on the relation of light to darkness, especially on the way the flash of light makes darkness visible. In Weegee’s account, the photoflash gives photography the power of writing—writing with light, a mode of picturing uniquely suited to recording instants of life on city streets at night.

  14. Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Richard D

    2007-10-01

    Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient includes routine methods for maintaining mucociliary function, as well as techniques for secretion removal. Humidification, mobilization of the patient, and airway suctioning are all routine procedures for managing secretions in the ventilated patient. Early ambulation of the post-surgical patient and routine turning of the ventilated patient are common secretion-management techniques that have little supporting evidence of efficacy. Humidification is a standard of care and a requisite for secretion management. Both active and passive humidification can be used. The humidifier selected and the level of humidification required depend on the patient's condition and the expected duration of intubation. In patients with thick, copious secretions, heated humidification is superior to a heat and moisture exchanger. Airway suctioning is the most important secretion removal technique. Open-circuit and closed-circuit suctioning have similar efficacy. Instilling saline prior to suctioning, to thin the secretions or stimulate a cough, is not supported by the literature. Adequate humidification and as-needed suctioning are the foundation of secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient. Intermittent therapy for secretion removal includes techniques either to simulate a cough, to mechanically loosen secretions, or both. Patient positioning for secretion drainage is also widely used. Percussion and postural drainage have been widely employed for mechanically ventilated patients but have not been shown to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia or atelectasis. Manual hyperinflation and insufflation-exsufflation, which attempt to improve secretion removal by simulating a cough, have been described in mechanically ventilated patients, but neither has been studied sufficiently to support routine use. Continuous lateral rotation with a specialized bed reduces atelectasis in some patients, but has not been shown

  15. Matroids and quantum-secret-sharing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A secret-sharing scheme is a cryptographic protocol to distribute a secret state in an encoded form among a group of players such that only authorized subsets of the players can reconstruct the secret. Classically, efficient secret-sharing schemes have been shown to be induced by matroids. Furthermore, access structures of such schemes can be characterized by an excluded minor relation. No such relations are known for quantum secret-sharing schemes. In this paper we take the first steps toward a matroidal characterization of quantum-secret-sharing schemes. In addition to providing a new perspective on quantum-secret-sharing schemes, this characterization has important benefits. While previous work has shown how to construct quantum-secret-sharing schemes for general access structures, these schemes are not claimed to be efficient. In this context the present results prove to be useful; they enable us to construct efficient quantum-secret-sharing schemes for many general access structures. More precisely, we show that an identically self-dual matroid that is representable over a finite field induces a pure-state quantum-secret-sharing scheme with information rate 1.

  16. Normal and abnormal secretion by haemopoietic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    STINCHCOMBE, JANE C; GRIFFITHS, GILLIAN M

    2001-01-01

    The secretory lysosomes found in haemopoietic cells provide a very efficient mechanism for delivering the effector proteins of many immune cells in response to antigen recognition. Although secretion shows some similarities to the secretion of specialized granules in other secretory cell types, some aspects of secretory lysosome release appear to be unique to melanocytes and cells of the haemopoietic lineage. Mast cells and platelets have provided excellent models for studying secretion, but recent advances in characterizing the immunological synapse allow a very fine dissection of the secretory process in T lymphocytes. These studies show that secretory lysosomes are secreted from the centre of the talin ring at the synapse. Proper secretion requires a series of Rab and cytoskeletal elements which play critical roles in the specialized secretion of lysosomes in haemopoietic cells. PMID:11380687

  17. Melatonin Secretion Pattern in Critically Ill Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Holst, René; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    effect of remifentanil on melatonin secretion. We found that the risk of atypical sleep compared to normal sleep was significantly lower (p REM) sleep was only observed during the nonsedation period. We found preserved diurnal pattern of melatonin...... secretion in these patients. Remifentanil did not affect melatonin secretion but was associated with lower risk of atypical sleep pattern. REM sleep was only registered during the period of nonsedation.......Critically ill patients have abnormal circadian and sleep homeostasis. This may be associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The aims of this pilot study were (1) to describe melatonin secretion in conscious critically ill mechanically ventilated patients and (2) to describe whether melatonin...

  18. Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Li; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu; Pan Jianwei

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we generalize the quantum-secret-sharing scheme of Hillery, Buzek, and Berthiaume [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999)] into arbitrary multiparties. Explicit expressions for the shared secret bit is given. It is shown that in the Hillery-Buzek-Berthiaume quantum-secret-sharing scheme the secret information is shared in the parity of binary strings formed by the measured outcomes of the participants. In addition, we have increased the efficiency of the quantum-secret-sharing scheme by generalizing two techniques from quantum key distribution. The favored-measuring-basis quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Lo-Chau-Ardehali technique [H. K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, e-print quant-ph/0011056] where all the participants choose their measuring-basis asymmetrically, and the measuring-basis-encrypted quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Hwang-Koh-Han technique [W. Y. Hwang, I. G. Koh, and Y. D. Han, Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)] where all participants choose their measuring basis according to a control key. Both schemes are asymptotically 100% in efficiency, hence nearly all the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states in a quantum-secret-sharing process are used to generate shared secret information

  19. Thymidine secretion by hybridoma and myeloma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilsberg, Bjorn; Rise, Frode; Petersen, Dirk; Nissen-Meyer, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Secretion of thymidine appeared to be a common property of hybridoma and myeloma cells, but not of other cell types, which were tested. Of three hybridoma cell lines tested, all secreted thymidine in amounts resulting in the accumulation of thymidine to concentrations of 10-20 μM in the culture medium. Also three of five myeloma cell lines that were analyzed secrete thymidine, but none of the other cell types that were studied. Thymidine was purified to homogeneity (4 mg purified from 3 l of culture medium) and identified as such by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cells that secreted thymidine showed high resistance to the growth inhibitory effect of thymidine

  20. "The Secret Garden": A Literary Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the life of Frances Hodgson Burnett, author of "The Secret Garden." Argues that it not only tells an enthralling tale, but takes readers on a journey through the history of English literature. Discusses the gothic tradition and romanticism of "The Secret Garden." Lists classic elements in the book and offers five ideas…

  1. Gastric secretion elicited by conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, José Liberato Ferreira; Cury, Francico de Assis; Borin, Aldenis Albanese; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Sales Caboclo; de Freitas, Pedro José; Andersson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether interdigestive gastric acid secretion can be controlled by a possible memory-related cortical mechanism. To evaluate gastric secretion in rats, we used a methodology that allows gastric juice collection in rats in their habitual conditions (without any restraining) by pairing sound as the conditioning stimulus (CS) and food as the unconditioning stimulus (US). The levels of gastric acid secretion under basal conditions and under sound stimulation were recorded and the circulating gastrin levels determined. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 10 days of conditioning (p<0.01). The significance was definitively demonstrated after 13 days of conditioning (p<0.001). Basal secretions of the conditioned rats reached a significant level after 16 days of conditioning. The levels of noise-stimulated gastric acid secretion were the highest so far described in physiological experiments carried out in rats and there were no significant increases in the circulating gastrin levels. The results point to the important role played by cortical structures in the control of interdigestive gastric acid secretion in rats. If this mechanism is also present in humans, it may be involved in diseases caused by inappropriate gastric acid secretion during the interprandial periods.

  2. Secret rate - Privacy leakage in biometric systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.; Willems, F.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Ahlswede and Csiszár [1993] introduced the concept of secret sharing. In their source model two terminals observe two correlated sequences. It is the objective of the terminals to form a common secret by interchanging a public message (helper data) in such a way that the secrecy leakage is

  3. Cryptanalysis of 'less short' RSA secret exponents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, E.R.; Tilborg, van H.C.A.

    1997-01-01

    In some applications of RSA, it is desirable to have a short secret exponent d. Wiener [6], describes a technique to use continued fractions (CF) in a cryptanalytic attack on an RSA cryptosystem having a ‘short’ secret exponent. Let n=p¿·¿q be the modulus of the system. In the typical case that

  4. Dig It! The Secrets of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! The Secrets of Soil Come and Explore! Discover the amazing world of soils with images and information from the Dig It! The Secrets of Soil exhibit from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural and new web content will be added over the coming months including a new soil blog. New Interactives

  5. Ionizing radiation in secret services' conspirative actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Lotz, P.; Vogel, B.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The death of Litvinenko has been reported by the media. It has raised the question whether this case had been unique. The fall of the wall has allowed a glimpse in the planning and comporting of a secret service. Material and method: Documents of the secret service of the former German democratic republic (GDR), books of defectors, and media reports about secret service actions with radiating substances have been analyzed. Results: Since decades, secret services have been using radioactive nuclides and radiation for their tasks. Several killings with radiation have been reported. A complicated logistic had been developed. Conclusion: Only singular cases of the employment of radiating substances have become known. It is probable that the majority rests unknown. Government support seems necessary in secret services' conspirative actions with radiating substance

  6. Unconventional Pathways of Secretion Contribute to Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. D. Daniels

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the conventional pathway of protein secretion, leader sequence-containing proteins leave the cell following processing through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi body. However, leaderless proteins also enter the extracellular space through mechanisms collectively known as unconventional secretion. Unconventionally secreted proteins often have vital roles in cell and organism function such as inflammation. Amongst the best-studied inflammatory unconventionally secreted proteins are interleukin (IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-33 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1. In this review we discuss the current understanding of the unconventional secretion of these proteins and highlight future areas of research such as the role of nuclear localisation.

  7. Secret-key expansion from covert communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Amiri, Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Covert communication allows the transmission of messages in such a way that it is not possible for adversaries to detect that the communication is occurring. This provides protection in situations where knowledge that two parties are talking to each other may be incriminating to them. In this work, we study how covert communication can be used for a different purpose: secret key expansion. First, we show that any message transmitted in a secure covert protocol is also secret and therefore unknown to an adversary. We then propose a covert communication protocol where the amount of key consumed in the protocol is smaller than the transmitted key, thus leading to secure secret key expansion. We derive precise conditions for secret key expansion to occur, showing that it is possible when there are sufficiently low levels of noise for a given security level. We conclude by examining how secret key expansion from covert communication can be performed in a computational security model.

  8. Current Therapies That Modify Glucagon Secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Magnus F.; Keating, Damien J.; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2017-01-01

    and provide insights into how antidiabetic drugs influence glucagon secretion as well as a perspective on the future of glucagon-targeting drugs. Recent Findings: Several older as well as recent investigations have evaluated the effect of antidiabetic agents on glucagon secretion to understand how glucagon...... may be involved in the drugs’ efficacy and safety profiles. Based on these findings, modulation of glucagon secretion seems to play a hitherto underestimated role in the efficacy and safety of several glucose-lowering drugs. Summary: Numerous drugs currently available to diabetologists are capable...... of altering glucagon secretion: metformin, sulfonylurea compounds, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and amylin mimetics. Their diverse effects on glucagon secretion are of importance for their individual efficacy...

  9. Characterization of a secreted Chlamydia protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A.C.; Vandahl, B.B.; Larsen, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that are important human pathogens. The Chlamydia genomes contain orthologues to secretion apparatus proteins from other intracellular bacteria, but only a few secreted proteins have been identified. Most likely, effector proteins are secreted in order...... to promote infection. Effector proteins cannot be identified by motif or similarity searches. As a new strategy for identification of secreted proteins we have compared 2D-PAGE profiles of [35S]-labelled Chlamydia proteins from whole lysates of infected cells to 2D-PAGE profiles of proteins from purified...... Chlamydia. Several secretion candidates from Chlamydia trachomatis D and Chlamydia pneumoniae were detected by this method. Two protein spots were identified among the candidates. These represent fragments of the 'chlamydial protease- or proteasome-like activity factor' (CPAF) and were clearly present in 2D...

  10. On Secret Sharing with Nonlinear Product Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Cramer, Ronald; Mirandola, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Multiplicative linear secret sharing is a fundamental notion in the area of secure multiparty computation and, since recently, in the area of two-party cryptography as well. In a nutshell, this notion guarantees that the product of two secrets is obtained as a linear function of the vector......-necessarily-linear “product reconstruction function.” Is the resulting notion equivalent to multiplicative linear secret sharing? We show the (perhaps somewhat counterintuitive) result that this relaxed notion is strictly more general. Concretely, fix a finite field ${\\mathbb F}_q$ as the base field over which linear secret...... sharing is considered. Then we show there exists an (exotic) linear secret sharing scheme with an unbounded number of players $n$ such that it has $t$-privacy with $t = \\Omega(n)$ and such that it does admit a product reconstruction function, yet this function is necessarily nonlinear. In addition, we...

  11. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M; Biermasz, Nienke R; Smit, Jan W; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Romijn, Johannes A

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore evaluated TSH, GH and PRL secretion in 6 patients with up-to-date analytical and mathematical tools by 24-h blood sampling at 10-min intervals in a clinical research laboratory. The profiles were analyzed with a new deconvolution method, approximate entropy, cross-approximate entropy, cross-correlation and cosinor regression. TSH burst frequency and basal and pulsatile secretion were increased in patients compared with controls. TSH secretion patterns in patients were more irregular, but the diurnal rhythm was preserved at a higher mean with a 2.5 h phase delay. Although only one patient had clinical acromegaly, GH secretion and IGF-I levels were increased in two other patients and all three had a significant cross-correlation between the GH and TSH. PRL secretion was increased in one patient, but all patients had a significant cross-correlation with TSH and showed decreased PRL regularity. Cross-ApEn synchrony between TSH and GH did not differ between patients and controls, but TSH and PRL synchrony was reduced in patients. We conclude that TSH secretion by thyrotropinomas shares many characteristics of other pituitary hormone-secreting adenomas. In addition, abnormalities in GH and PRL secretion exist ranging from decreased (joint) regularity to overt hypersecretion, although not always clinically obvious, suggesting tumoral transformation of thyrotrope lineage cells.

  12. THE BUFFER CAPACITY OF AIRWAY EPITHELIAL SECRETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusik eKim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF. The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 µl volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO3- is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO3- secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO3- secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions.

  13. Analysis of secreted proteins from Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Martha L; Haynes, Paul A; Breci, Linda; Francisco, Wilson A

    2005-08-01

    MS/MS techniques in proteomics make possible the identification of proteins from organisms with little or no genome sequence information available. Peptide sequences are obtained from tandem mass spectra by matching peptide mass and fragmentation information to protein sequence information from related organisms, including unannotated genome sequence data. This peptide identification data can then be grouped and reconstructed into protein data. In this study, we have used this approach to study protein secretion by Aspergillus flavus, a filamentous fungus for which very little genome sequence information is available. A. flavus is capable of degrading the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-glycoside), as the only source of carbon via an extracellular enzyme system. In this continuing study, a proteomic analysis was used to identify secreted proteins from A. flavus when grown on rutin. The growth media glucose and potato dextrose were used to identify differentially expressed secreted proteins. The secreted proteins were analyzed by 1- and 2-DE and MS/MS. A total of 51 unique A. flavus secreted proteins were identified from the three growth conditions. Ten proteins were unique to rutin-, five to glucose- and one to potato dextrose-grown A. flavus. Sixteen secreted proteins were common to all three media. Fourteen identifications were of hypothetical proteins or proteins of unknown functions. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive proteomic study conducted to identify the secreted proteins from a filamentous fungus.

  14. Biliary and pancreatic secretions in abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becciolini, A.; Cionini, L.; Cappellini, M.; Atzeni, G.

    1979-01-01

    The biliary and pancreatic secretions have been determined in patients given pelvic or para-aortic irradiation, with a dose of 50 Gy in the former group and between 36 and 40 Gy in the latter. A test meal containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) as reference substance was used. Each sample of the duodenal content was assayed for volume, PEG content, amylase and trypsin activity, pH and biliary secretion. No significant modifications of biliary and pancreatic secretions were demonstrated after irradiation, suggesting that these functions are not involved in the pathogenesis of the malabsorption radiation syndrome. (Auth.)

  15. [Secret drug tribulations and French legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlot, Colette

    2002-01-01

    From an official Montpellier prefecture paper of 18th century, we are interested in a secret drug from Provence origin: the Irroë powder. This purgative will pass from "secret" drug status to "patent" drug. It's notoriety will come from its arrival to Paris. The law of 21th germinal year XI, the decret of 25 prairial year XIII and this of 18th 1810 imposed to give the drug composition to an official status; that examined and permit it's sale. This secret will be produce for half century.

  16. Air Force UAVs: The Secret History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    iA Mitchell Institute Study i Air Force UAVs The Secret History A Mitchell Institute Study July 2010 By Thomas P. Ehrhard Report Documentation Page...DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force UAVs The Secret History 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...opening phases of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. By Thomas P. Ehrhard a miTchEll insTiTuTE sTudy July 2010 Air Force UAVs The Secret History

  17. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit pancreatic secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; Barbuskaite, Dagne; Tozzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    +/K+-ATPases are expressed and functional in human pancreatic ducts and whether proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have effect on those. Here we show that the gastric HKα1 and HKβ subunits (ATP4A; ATP4B) and non-gastric HKα2 subunits (ATP12A) of H+/K+-ATPases are expressed in human pancreatic cells. Pumps have similar...... of major ions in secretion follow similar excretory curves in control and PPI treated animals. In addition to HCO3-, pancreas also secretes K+. In conclusion, this study calls for a revision of the basic model for HCO3- secretion. We propose that proton transport is driving secretion, and that in addition...

  18. Experimental Study on Gastric Juice Secretion by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    管理平台

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Study on stomach physiological functions by ... mechanism of regulating gastric electrical activity and gastric juice secretion might become true by the .... samples was used in comparism among these different groups.

  19. Applying secret sharing for HIS backup exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kimura, Eizen; Matsumura, Yasushi; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Hiramatsu, Haruhiko; Kume, Naoto; Sato, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    To secure business continuity is indispensable for hospitals to fulfill its social responsibility under disasters. Although to back up the data of the hospital information system (HIS) at multiple remote sites is a key strategy of business continuity plan (BCP), the requirements to treat privacy sensitive data jack up the cost for the backup. The secret sharing is a method to split an original secret message up so that each individual piece is meaningless, but putting sufficient number of pieces together to reveal the original message. The secret sharing method eases us to exchange HIS backups between multiple hospitals. This paper evaluated the feasibility of the commercial secret sharing solution for HIS backup through several simulations. The result shows that the commercial solution is feasible to realize reasonable HIS backup exchange platform when template of contract between participating hospitals is ready.

  20. EPCRA Trade Secret Form Instructions (PDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detail on what information is required for each section of the form. Only the specific chemical identity required to be disclosed in EPCRA sections 303, 311,312, and 313 submissions may be claimed trade secret on the EPCRA report.

  1. (LH) secretion in fasted prepubertal ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in fasted prepubertal ewes .... kisspeptin-10 injection could restore the baseline levels of. LH changed by ..... Terasawa E (2005). Role of GABA in the mechanism of the onset of.

  2. Regulation of glucagon secretion by incretins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Christensen, M; Lund, A

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon secretion plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatic glucose production, and elevated fasting and postprandial plasma glucagon concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) contribute to their hyperglycaemia. The reason for the hyperglucagonaemia is unclear, but recent...... studies have shown lack of suppression after oral but preserved suppression after isoglycaemic intravenous glucose, pointing to factors from the gut. Gastrointestinal hormones that are secreted in response to oral glucose include glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) that strongly inhibits glucagon secretion......, and GLP-2 and GIP, both of which stimulate secretion. When the three hormones are given together on top of isoglycaemic intravenous glucose, glucagon suppression is delayed in a manner similar to that observed after oral glucose. Studies with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin 9-39, suggest...

  3. Cortisol secretion in patients with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Hagen, C; Andersen, A N

    1988-01-01

    with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea have elevated basal serum cortisol, the reason probably being hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone. Secondly that dopaminergic blockade with metoclopramide stimulates ACTH and cortisol secretion in patients presumed to have raised dopaminergic activity....

  4. Cell Secretion: Current Structural and Biochemical Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Trikha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential physiological functions in eukaryotic cells, such as release of hormones and digestive enzymes, neurotransmission, and intercellular signaling, are all achieved by cell secretion. In regulated (calcium-dependent secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles dock and transiently fuse with specialized, permanent, plasma membrane structures, called porosomes or fusion pores. Porosomes are supramolecular, cup-shaped lipoprotein structures at the cell plasma membrane that mediate and control the release of vesicle cargo to the outside of the cell. The sizes of porosomes range from 150nm in diameter in acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas to 12nm in neurons. In recent years, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the porosome and the cellular activities required for cell secretion, such as membrane fusion and swelling of secretory vesicles. The discovery of the porosome complex and the molecular mechanism of cell secretion are summarized in this article.

  5. Cholecystokinin inhibits gastrin secretion independently of paracrine somatostatin secretion in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Hansen, L; Hilsted, L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholecystokinin inhibits the secretion of gastrin from antral G cells, an effect that is speculated to be mediated by D cells secreting somatostatin. The aim of the study was to test directly whether cholecystokinin inhibition of antral gastrin secretion is mediated by somatostatin....... METHODS: The effects of CCK on gastrin and somatostatin secretion were studied in isolated vascularly perfused preparations of pig antrum before and after immunoneutralization brought about by infusion of large amounts of a high affinity monoclonal antibody against somatostatin. RESULTS: CCK infusion...... at 10(-9) M and 10(-8) M decreased gastrin output to 70.5% +/- 7.6% (n = 8) and 76.3% +/- 3.6% (n = 7) of basal output, respectively. CCK at 10(-10) M had no effect (n = 6). Somatostatin secretion was dose-dependently increased by CCK infusion and increased to 268 +/- 38.2% (n = 7) of basal secretion...

  6. Secret Sharing Schemes and Advanced Encryption Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    25 4.7 Computational Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5 Side-Channel Effect on Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ) 31...improvements, and to build upon them to discuss the side-channel effects on the Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ). The following questions are asked...secret sharing scheme? • Can the improvements to the current secret sharing scheme prove to be beneficial in strengthening/weakening AES encryption

  7. Matryoshka: Hiding Secret Communication in Plain Sight

    OpenAIRE

    Safaka, Iris; Fragouli, Christina; Argyraki, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    We want to enable a pair of communicating users to exchange secret messages while hiding the fact that secret communication is taking place. We propose a linguistic steganography approach, where each human message is hidden in another human-like message. A hard open question is how to keep the steganographic message small -- existing related tools tend to blow up its size, thereby revealing the use of steganography. We encrypt by compressing each message, mapping it to a plausible sequence of...

  8. Peptides and neurotransmitters that affect renin secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W. F.; Porter, J. P.; Bahnson, T. D.; Said, S. I.

    1984-01-01

    Substance P inhibits renin secretion. This polypeptide is a transmitter in primary afferent neurons and is released from the peripheral as well as the central portions of these neurons. It is present in afferent nerves from the kidneys. Neuropeptide Y, which is a cotransmitter with norepinephrine and epinephrine, is found in sympathetic neurons that are closely associated with and presumably innervate the juxtagolmerular cells. Its effect on renin secretion is unknown, but it produces renal vasoconstriction and natriuresis. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a cotransmitter with acetylocholine in cholinergic neurons, and this polypeptide stimulates renin secretion. We cannot find any evidence for its occurence in neurons in the kidneys, but various stimuli increase plasma VIP to levels comparable to those produced by doses of exogenous VIP which stimulated renin secretion. Neostigmine increases plasma VIP and plasma renin activity, and the VIP appears to be responsible for the increase in renin secretion, since the increase is not blocked by renal denervation or propranolol. Stimulation of various areas in the brain produces sympathetically mediated increases in plasma renin activity associated with increases in blood pressure. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the renin response can be separated from the blood pressure response. In anaesthetized dogs, drugs that increase central serotonergic discharge increase renin secretion without increasing blood pressure. In rats, activation of sertonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus increases renin secretion by a pathway that projects from this nucleus to the ventral hypothalamus, and from there to the kidneys via the sympathetic nervous system. The serotonin releasing drug parachloramphetamine also increases plasma VIP, but VIP does not appear to be the primary mediator of the renin response. There is preliminary evidence that the serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus are part of the

  9. Percolation of secret correlations in a network

    OpenAIRE

    Leverrier, Anthony; García-Patrón, Raúl

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we explore the analogy between entanglement and secret classical correlations in the context of large networks, more precisely the question of percolation of secret correlations in a network. It is known that entanglement percolation in quantum networks can display a highly nontrivial behavior depending on the topology of the network and on the presence of entanglement between the nodes. Here we show that this behavior, thought to be of a genuine quantum nature, also occurs in a...

  10. Percolation of secret correlations in a network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leverrier, Anthony; Garcia-Patron, Raul [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Research Laboratory of Electronics, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States) and Max-Planck Institut fur Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    In this work, we explore the analogy between entanglement and secret classical correlations in the context of large networks--more precisely, the question of percolation of secret correlations in a network. It is known that entanglement percolation in quantum networks can display a highly nontrivial behavior depending on the topology of the network and on the presence of entanglement between the nodes. Here we show that this behavior, thought to be of a genuine quantum nature, also occurs in a classical context.

  11. Percolation of secret correlations in a network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverrier, Anthony; Garcia-Patron, Raul

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we explore the analogy between entanglement and secret classical correlations in the context of large networks--more precisely, the question of percolation of secret correlations in a network. It is known that entanglement percolation in quantum networks can display a highly nontrivial behavior depending on the topology of the network and on the presence of entanglement between the nodes. Here we show that this behavior, thought to be of a genuine quantum nature, also occurs in a classical context.

  12. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

  13. An unexpected knock on Corrigan's secret door.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woywodt, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    Corrigan's secret door describes a metaphorical escape route for busy physicians. The term was derived from the successful and exceptionally busy professional life of Irish physician Dominic John Corrigan (1802-80). It is claimed that Corrigan's outpatient clinic was so busy that he required a secret door in his consulting rooms to escape from the ever-growing queue of eager patients. The origins of this charming story are unknown, and the door may have never existed. However, at present, Corrigan's secret door is often quoted when busy physicians have their own little ways in surviving a stressful professional life. Generations of British-trained doctors have grown up with Corrigan's secret door, as it was featured in the introduction of the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine. Accordingly, trainees as well as more senior doctors are often reminded that having a 'secret door' is vital in surviving in the medical profession. My own escape is through classical music and the violoncello, in particular. As the name implies, my own secret door is normally invisible to colleagues and patients. This little article is about a patient who found me out, and a reflection on the role of classical music and the cello in my professional life.

  14. Specialised care in patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, J.A.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies the controversies in the management of patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy and determines different factors that will improve this management and thereby the postoperative outcomes. The studies were performed in both the pre-, peri- and postoperative

  15. Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. M Brand, D Bisoz. Abstract. Background. Antibiotic prophylaxis for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is controversial. We set out to assess the current antibiotic prescribing practice among ...

  16. Intra-operative haemodynamic volatility in a patient undergoing retroperitoneal cyst excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrivikrama Padur Tantry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Excision of a suspected retroperitoneal, duodenal duplication cyst was performed in a pre-operatively normotensive patient under combined epidural and general anaesthesia. Intraoperatively, the cystic tumour was discovered to be a retroperitoneal mass, free from duodenal or adrenal origin. Development of severe arrhythmias, ST segment changes and hypertensive spikes during cyst handling and dissection suggested the possibility of a catecholamine-secreting tumour. These were managed effectively with pharmacological agents. Subsequently, histopathology of the specimen revealed a paraganglioma. Vasoactive tumour has to be suspected in every patient undergoing anaesthesia for retroperitoneal cystic lesion.

  17. Sagnac secret sharing over telecom fiber networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanski, Jan; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2009-01-19

    We report the first Sagnac quantum secret sharing (in three-and four-party implementations) over 1550 nm single mode fiber (SMF) networks, using a single qubit protocol with phase encoding. Our secret sharing experiment has been based on a single qubit protocol, which has opened the door to practical secret sharing implementation over fiber telecom channels and in free-space. The previous quantum secret sharing proposals were based on multiparticle entangled states, difficult in the practical implementation and not scalable. Our experimental data in the three-party implementation show stable (in regards to birefringence drift) quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 55-75 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 2.3-2.4% for the mean photon number micro?= 0.1 and 1.7-2.1% for micro= 0.3. In the four-party case we have achieved quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 45-55 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 3.0-3.7% for the mean photon number micro= 0.1 and 1.8-3.0% for micro?= 0.3. The stability of quantum transmission has been achieved thanks to our new concept for compensation of SMF birefringence effects in Sagnac, based on a polarization control system and a polarization insensitive phase modulator. The measurement results have showed feasibility of quantum secret sharing over telecom fiber networks in Sagnac configuration, using standard fiber telecom components.

  18. Regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskoaho, H.; Toth, M.; Lang, R.E.; Unger, Th.; Garten, D.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the role of calcium, protein kinase C and adenylate cyclase in the ANP secretion, the secretory responses from isolated perfused rat hearts to a calcium channel activator, Bay k8644 (methyl-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3-nitro-4-(2-trifluomethylphenyl)-2-pyridine-5-carboxylate), the calcium ionophore (A23187), the phorbol ester (12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, TPA), and to forskolin were studied. ANP in perfusate was measured by radioimmunoassay 10 min before and during the infusion (30 min) of various agents at 2 min intervals. A23187 (5.7 x 10 -7 ) induced a sharp increase, whereas TPA (0.15 - 1.6 x 10 -7 ) caused a slowly progressive increase in ANP secretion. 4a-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, a non-active phorbol ester, had no effect on ANP secretion. Bay k8644 (4 x 10 -7 ) and forskolin (1 x 10 -6 ) alone caused small but sustained increase in ANP secretion. The combination of TPA with Bay k8644, forskolin or A23187 stimulated ANP secretion higher than the calculated additive value for each agent. Dibuturyl-cAMP (1.6 x 10 -4 ) pretreatment also enhanced TPA-induced ANP release. 8-Bromo-cGMP (1.3 x 10 -4 ) and sodium nitroprusside (9 x 10 -5 ) alone had no effect, but both attenuated the TPA-induced ANP secretion. The results suggest that atrial cardiocytes possess at least two different secretory pathways for ANP secretion, which are probably dependent on protein kinase C and cyclic AMP

  19. 5 CFR 1312.27 - Top secret control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Top secret control. 1312.27 Section 1312... Classified Information § 1312.27 Top secret control. The EOP Security Officer serves as the Top Secret... Top Secret material. The ATSCOs will be responsible for the accountability and custodianship of Top...

  20. Secret-key rates and privacy leakage in biometric systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis both the generation of secret keys from biometric data and the binding of secret keys to biometric data are investigated. These secret keys can be used to regulate access to sensitive data, services, and environments. In a biometric secrecy system a secret key is generated or chosen

  1. OPA1 deficiency promotes secretion of FGF21 from muscle that prevents obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renata Oliveira; Tadinada, Satya M; Zasadny, Frederick M; Oliveira, Karen Jesus; Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; Olvera, Angela; Jeffers, Jennifer; Souvenir, Rhonda; Mcglauflin, Rose; Seei, Alec; Funari, Trevor; Sesaki, Hiromi; Potthoff, Matthew J; Adams, Christopher M; Anderson, Ethan J; Abel, E Dale

    2017-07-14

    Mitochondrial dynamics is a conserved process by which mitochondria undergo repeated cycles of fusion and fission, leading to exchange of mitochondrial genetic content, ions, metabolites, and proteins. Here, we examine the role of the mitochondrial fusion protein optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) in differentiated skeletal muscle by reducing OPA1 gene expression in an inducible manner. OPA1 deficiency in young mice results in non-lethal progressive mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of muscle mass. Mutant mice are resistant to age- and diet-induced weight gain and insulin resistance, by mechanisms that involve activation of ER stress and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) from skeletal muscle, resulting in increased metabolic rates and improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. OPA1-elicited mitochondrial dysfunction activates an integrated stress response that locally induces muscle atrophy, but via secretion of FGF21 acts distally to modulate whole-body metabolism. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Secretion Trap Tagging of Secreted and Membrane-Spanning Proteins Using Arabidopsis Gene Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Groover; Joseph R. Fontana; Juana M. Arroyo; Cristina Yordan; W. Richard McCombie; Robert A. Martienssen

    2003-01-01

    Secreted and membrane-spanning proteins play fundamental roles in plant development but pose challenges for genetic identification and characterization. We describe a "secretion trap" screen for gene trap insertions in genes encoding proteins routed through the secretory pathway. The gene trap transposon encodes a ß-glucuronidase reporter enzyme...

  3. Role of adipose secreted factors and kisspeptin in the metabolic control of gonadotropin secretion and puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factors secreted by adipose tissue continue to be discovered. Evidence indicates a strong link between neural influences and adipocyte expression and secretion of a wide array of cytokines, neurotrophic factors, growth factors, binding proteins, and neuropeptides. These “adipokines” are linked to im...

  4. Shared Secrets versus Secrets Kept Private Are Linked to Better Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijns, Tom; Finkenauer, Catrin; Keijsers, Loes

    2013-01-01

    It is a household notion that secrecy is bad while sharing is good. But what about shared secrets? The present research adopts a functional analysis of sharing secrets, arguing that it should negate harmful consequences generally associated with secrecy and serves important interpersonal functions in adolescence. A survey study among 790 Dutch…

  5. Meaningful Share Generation for Increased Number of Secrets in Visual Secret-Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ulutas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new scheme for hiding two halftone secret images into two meaningful shares created from halftone cover images. Meaningful shares are more desirable than noise-like (meaningless shares in Visual Secret Sharing because they look natural and do not attract eavesdroppers' attention. Previous works in the field focus on either increasing number of secrets or creating meaningful shares for one secret image. The method outlined in this paper both increases the number of secrets and creates meaningful shares at the same time. While the contrast ratio of shares is equal to that of Extended Visual Cryptography, two secrets are encoded into two shares as opposed to one secret in the Extended Visual Cryptography. Any two natural-looking images can be used as cover unlike the Halftone Visual Cryptography method where one cover should be the negative of the other cover image and can only encode one secret. Effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by an experiment.

  6. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L; Haanes, Kristian A; Krabbe, Simon; Nitschke, Roland; Hede, Susanne E

    2011-01-07

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium express H(+)/HCO(3)(-) transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps, have not been explored. Here we show that pancreatic ducts express functional gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+)-ATPases. We measured intracellular pH and secretion in small ducts isolated from rat pancreas and showed their sensitivity to H(+)-K(+) pump inhibitors and ion substitutions. Gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+) pumps were demonstrated on RNA and protein levels, and pumps were localized to the plasma membranes of pancreatic ducts. Quantitative analysis of H(+)/HCO(3)(-) and fluid transport shows that the H(+)-K(+) pumps can contribute to pancreatic secretion in several species. Our results call for revision of the bicarbonate transport physiology in pancreas, and most likely other epithelia. Furthermore, because pancreatic ducts play a central role in several pancreatic diseases, it is of high relevance to understand the role of H(+)-K(+) pumps in pathophysiology.

  7. Incretin hormone secretion over the day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahren, B; Carr, RD; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2010-01-01

    The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years. Regulat......The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years....... Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established...... that a diurnal regulation exists with incretin hormone secretion to an identical meal being greater when the meal is served in the morning compared to in the afternoon. Finally, whether incretin hormone secretion is altered in disease states is an area with, so far, controversial results in different studies...

  8. Cell secretion machinery: Studies using the AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Bhanu P.

    2006-01-01

    A new field in biology, 'nano-cell biology', has emerged from the successful use of force microscopy in understanding the structure and dynamics of cells and biomolecules, at nm resolution and in real time. Atomic force microscopy, in combination with conventional tools and approaches (electron microscopy, electrophysiology, X-ray diffraction, photon correlation spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, biochemistry, and molecular biology), has revealed for the first time, the universal molecular machinery and mechanism of secretion in cells. Secretion occurs in all living cells and involves the delivery of intracellular products to the cell exterior. Secretory products are packaged and stored in membranous sacs or vesicles within the cell. When the cell needs to secrete these products, the secretory vesicles containing them, dock and fuse at plasma membrane-associated supramolecular structures called Porosome, to release their contents. Specialized cells for neurotransmission, enzyme secretion, or hormone release utilize a highly regulated secretory process. During secretion, swelling of secretory vesicles results in a build-up of intravesicular pressure, allowing expulsion of vesicular contents. The extent of vesicle swelling dictates the amount of vesicular contents expelled. The discovery of the porosome as the universal secretory machinery, its isolation, its structure and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time, its biochemical composition and functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane, have been determined. The molecular mechanism of secretory vesicle swelling, and the fusion of opposing bilayers, i.e., the fusion of secretory vesicle membrane at the base of the porosome membrane, has also been resolved

  9. Adaptive Secret Sharing for Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Hong Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A secret sharing model can secure a secret over multiple noise-like shadows and remain recoverable despite multiple shadow failures. Even if some of the shadows are compromised, the secret will not be revealed as long as the number of the compromised shadows is smaller than a pre-determined threshold. Moreover, there are some necessary details of concerns: the malicious tampering on shadows must be detectable; the shadows must be concealed in a camouflage image with adequate quality to reduce suspicion and possible attack; color image properties must be considered. In addition to these concerns, in this paper, an adaptable mechanism is further designed to balance the hiding quantity and the quality of camouflage images depending on different applications.This is an important and interesting aspect that has never been discussed in previous research.

  10. Hiding secret data into a carrier image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COSMA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of steganography is embedding hidden information in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, or video. There are several known methods of solving this problem, which operate either in the space domain or in the frequency domain, and are distinguished by the following characteristics: payload, robustness and strength. The payload is the amount of secret data that can be embedded in the carrier without inducing suspicious artefacts, robustness indicates the degree in which the secret data is affected by the normal processing of the carrier e.g., compression, and the strength indicate how easy the presence of hidden data can be detected by steganalysis techniques. This paper presents a new method of hiding secret data into a digital image compressed by a technique based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT [2] and the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT subband coding algorithm [6]. The proposed method admits huge payloads and has considerable strength.

  11. Quantum secret sharing with classical Bobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lvzhou; Qiu Daowen; Mateus, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Boyer et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 140501) proposed a novel idea of semi-quantum key distribution, where a key can be securely distributed between Alice, who can perform any quantum operation, and Bob, who is classical. Extending the ‘semi-quantum’ idea to other tasks of quantum information processing is of interest and worth considering. In this paper, we consider the issue of semi-quantum secret sharing, where a quantum participant Alice can share a secret key with two classical participants, Bobs. After analyzing the existing protocol, we propose a new protocol of semi-quantum secret sharing. Our protocol is more realistic, since it utilizes product states instead of entangled states. We prove that any attempt of an adversary to obtain information necessarily induces some errors that the legitimate users could notice. (paper)

  12. Standpoints and protection of business secrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brane Bertoncelj

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The human impact on an information system where data bases, containing business secretes, are stored is one of the most unreliable and unforeseeable factors. For this reason, it must not be underestimated. The results of this study indicate a correlation between behavioural intention and protection of business secretes. There is a statistically significant correlation between behavioural intention and behavioural supervision. This means that an increased level of perceived supervision over one's own behaviour is related to behavioural intention. A great majority of participants would not divulge a business secret due to internal moral factors, i.e., they possess the appropriate capabilities to determine the advantages of social moral values over personal values.

  13. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    1. The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. 2. Albumin was chosen...... secretion to be carried out on the whole sample of lavage fluid, thereby avoiding the necessity of complete admixture between marker and lavage fluid which would be pertinent to marker molecules measured chemically. The radiation from a nasal lavage is minimal and the procedure is fully acceptable...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  14. Apical secretion of apolipoproteins from enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Hansen, Gert Helge; Poulsen, Mona Dam

    1993-01-01

    Synthesis and secretion of apolipoproteins in pig small intestine was studied by pulse-chase labeling of jejunal segments, kept in organ culture. Apo A-1 and apo B-48 were the two major proteins released, constituting 25 and 10%, respectively, of the total amount of labeled protein in the mucosal...... in the soluble fraction, suggesting a basolateral secretion into the intercellular space, and both this accumulation and the release to the medium was prevented by culture at 20 degrees C. The specific radioactivity of apo A-1 and apo B-48 released to the medium was significantly higher than...... that enterocytes release most of their newly made free apo A-1 and a significant portion of apo B-48 by exocytosis via the brush border membrane into the intestinal lumen. Fat absorption reduced apolipoprotein secretion to the medium and induced the formation of chylomicrons, containing apo A-1 at their surface...

  15. Pancreatic exocrine secretion in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Masataka; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Ohtaki, Megu

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of A-bombing on pancreatic exocrine secretion in 6 A-bomb survivors (an average age of 57 years) and the age- and sex-matched non-exposed 6 persons (an average age of 58 years). Six A-bomb survivors consisted of: three who had been directly exposed to A-bombing, one who had entered the city within 3 days after bombing, one who had worked in caring for A-bomb survivors, and one who had later entered the city. Caerulein-Secretin test revealed no significant difference in the total secretion of lipase, maximum bicarbonate, amylase output, or lipase output between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The concentration of lipase ten min after stimulation was significantly decreased in the exposed group than the control group. This suggests that radiation may be responsible for abnormality in the ability of pancreatic exocrine secretion. (N.K.)

  16. Comment on "Dynamic quantum secret sharing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ci-Hong; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelish

    2013-10-01

    Hsu et al. (Quantum Inf Process 12:331-344,2013) proposed a dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS) protocol using the entanglement swapping of Bell states for an agent to easily join (or leave) the system. In 2013, Wang and Li (Quantum Inf Process 12(5):1991-1997, 2013) proposed a collusion attack on Hsu et al.'s DQSS protocol. Nevertheless, this study points out a new security issue on Hsu et al.'s DQSS protocol regarding to the honesty of a revoked agent. Without considering this issue, the DQSS protocol could be failed to provide secret sharing function.

  17. Analysis of Secreted Proteins Using SILAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Jeanette; Blagoev, Blagoy; Kratchmarova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Secreted proteins serve a crucial role in the communication between cells, tissues, and organs. Proteins released to the extracellular environment exert their function either locally or at distant points of the organism. Proteins are secreted in a highly dynamic fashion by cells and tissues...... in the body responding to the stimuli and requirements presented by the extracellular milieu. Characterization of secretomes derived from various cell types has been performed using different quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategies, several of them taking advantage of labeling with stable...

  18. [Secretion of growth hormone in hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, F; Morreale de Escobar, G; Escobar Del Rey, F; Pozuelo, V

    1976-01-01

    The authors studied growth hormone (GH) secretion in a group of adult controls and another group of hyperthyroid patients after stimulation with intravenous insulin-induced (0,1 IU/kg) hypoglycemia, aiming to clear out the problem of discrepancies in literature concerning GH secretion in hyperthyroidism. They concluded that in this syndrome, GH levels are significantly higher than those of controls. The GH releasing response is normal, though it could be expected to be decreased due to decreased pituitary GH contents as a result of permanent somatotrophic cell stimulation.

  19. Secret Codes, Remainder Arithmetic, and Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Lyman C.

    This pamphlet is designed for use as enrichment material for able junior and senior high school students who are interested in mathematics. No more than a clear understanding of basic arithmetic is expected. Students are introduced to ideas from number theory and modern algebra by learning mathematical ways of coding and decoding secret messages.…

  20. The Best Kept Secret in Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvino, James

    2004-01-01

    It is perhaps one of the best-kept secrets in educating gifted high school youth, and yet for 45 years, Hugh O'Brian Youth Leadership (HOBY) has been going strong, "Motivating Tomorrow's Leaders Today." After spending nine inspirational days in 1958 with Albert Schweitzer (Nobel Prize physician and philosopher) at his clinic in the African jungle,…

  1. Factors influencing insulin secretion from encapsulated islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, BJ; Faas, MM; de Vos, P

    2003-01-01

    Adequate regulation of glucose levels by a microencapsulated pancreatic islet graft requires a minute-to-minute regulation of blood glucose. To design such a transplant, it is mandatory to have sufficient insight in factors influencing the kinetics of insulin secretion by encapsulated islets. The

  2. Secretion Of Methionine By Microorganisms Associated With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methionine were secreted after 96 hours and 72 hours respectively by the lactobacilli and Leuconostoc sp. Since lactic acid bacteria are micro-aerophilic, it is suggested that lactic acid bacteria (the two lactobacilli and Leuconostoc sp.), which are the major organisms involved in cassava fermentation for garri production, ...

  3. Employees, Trade Secrets and Restrictive Covenants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman Sanders, Anselm; Heath, C.

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the protection of trade secrets and the law on post-contractual non-compete clauses (restrictive covenants) in an employment context. The topic is approached on an international and comparative level (chapters 1–3 and 10), and by way of country reports covering several European and

  4. Type V secretion: From biogenesis to biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ulsen, P.; Rahman, S.U.; Jong, W.S.P.; Daleke, M.H.; Luirink, J.

    2014-01-01

    The two membranes of Gram-negative bacteria contain protein machines that have a general function in their assembly. To interact with the extra-cellular milieu, Gram-negatives target proteins to their cell surface and beyond. Many specialized secretion systems have evolved with dedicated

  5. The secret of the blue fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Oliver; Marenduzzo, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Why certain liquids turn blue when cooled was a mystery that stumped scientists for more than a century. As Oliver Henrich and Davide Marenduzzo explain, solving the secret of the “blue fog” proved to be an intellectual tour de force - and one that could lead to new types of display devices

  6. Surfactant secretion and clearance in the newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.A.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Pregnant rabbits (30 days) were injected intravenously with [3H]choline 8 h before delivery. The fetuses were delivered, and lung lavage and lamellar body phospholipids (PL) were analyzed. Some newborns also received radioactively labeled surfactant intratracheally on delivery and were permitted to breathe. With time, intratracheal label decreased in lavage and appeared in the lamellar body fraction, and intravenous label accumulated in both pools. Using a tracer analysis for non-steady state, we calculated surfactant secretion and clearance rates for the newborn period. Before birth, both rates rose slightly from 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 at 6 h before birth to 7.3 at birth. Immediately after birth, secretion rate rose to 37.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1. Between 1.5 and 2 h after birth it fell to a minimum of 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 and then rose slowly to 6.0 at 12 h. After birth, clearance rate increased less than secretion rate (maximum 24.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 shortly after birth) then followed the same pattern but did not balance secretion rate in the 1st day

  7. Multiple Ca2+ sensors in secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Alexander M; Groffen, Alexander J; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev

    2011-01-01

    Regulated neurotransmitter secretion depends on Ca(2+) sensors, C2 domain proteins that associate with phospholipids and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes to trigger release upon Ca(2+) binding. Ca(2+) sensors are thought to prevent spontaneous...

  8. Secret Shopping as User Experience Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Crystal M.

    2015-01-01

    Secret shopping is a form of unobtrusive evaluation that can be accomplished with minimal effort, but still produce rich results. With as few as 11 shoppers, the author was able to identify trends in user satisfaction with services provided across two entry-level desks at Illinois Wesleyan University's The Ames Library. The focus of this secret…

  9. In vitro cholesteatoma growth and secretion of cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgaland, Tore; Engelen, Bart; Olsnes, Carla; Aarstad, Hans Jørgen; Vassbotn, Flemming S

    2010-07-01

    Our results show a significant difference between skin and cholesteatoma biology in vitro. Cholesteatoma disease is a process of destruction characterized by uncontrolled growth of squamous epithelial cells in the middle ear or temporal bone. The pathophysiology behind the cholesteatoma development is controversial, and the mechanisms driving the cholesteatoma growth, migration and destructive properties is still unclear. We aimed to provide a method to study the effect of various compounds on cholesteatoma and skin tissue growth, as well as to further investigate the biological differences between normal skin and cholesteatoma tissue. We have established a method to study cholesteatoma biopsy tissue in vitro. Cholesteatoma tissues from patients undergoing surgery for chronic otitis were grown in culture medium and compared to growth patterns and behaviour of normal retroauricular skin. Conditioned medium was analysed for various secreted cytokines. We found a radial outgrowth of keratinocyte epithelium from the circular biopsies. After 5 days of culture we found a significant growth of both cholesteatoma and skin-derived cells. Cholesteatoma samples showed higher growth rate as compared with skin control cultures from the same patient. Moreover, the cholesteatoma cells showed higher production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin (IL)-6 as compared with normal skin.

  10. Bicarbonate-dependent secretion and proteolytic processing of recombinant myocilin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Daniel Aroca-Aguilar

    Full Text Available Myocilin is an extracellular glycoprotein of poorly understood function. Mutations of this protein are involved in glaucoma, an optic neuropathy characterized by a progressive and irreversible visual loss and frequently associated with elevated intraocular pressure. We previously showed that recombinant myocilin undergoes an intracellular proteolytic processing by calpain II which cleaves the central region of the protein, releasing one N- and one C-terminal fragment. Myocilin cleavage is reduced by glaucoma mutations and it has been proposed to participate in intraocular pressure modulation. To identify possible factors regulating the proteolytic processing of recombinant myocilin, we used a cellular model in which we analyzed how different culture medium parameters (i.e., culture time, cell density, pH, bicarbonate concentration, etc. affect the presence of the extracellular C-terminal fragment. Extracellular bicarbonate depletion associated with culture medium acidification produced a reversible intracellular accumulation of full-length recombinant myocilin and incremented its intracellular proteolytic processing, raising the extracellular C-terminal fragment percentage. It was also determined that myocilin intracellular accumulation depends on its N-terminal region. These data suggest that aqueous humor bicarbonate variations could also modulate the secretion and cleavage of myocilin present in ocular tissues.

  11. Effect of adrenal hormones on thyroid secretion and thyroid hormones on adrenal secretion in the sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, I R; Jacks, F

    1975-01-01

    1. Previous work has shown that after stressful stimuli, sheep initially secrete increased amounts of thyroid hormone, at a time when adrenal secretion is also elevated. 2. This study was designed to evaluate (a) any short-term activation or inhibition of thyroid secretion by exogenous cortisol or ACTH administered in quantities comparable to those secreted after stress in sheep and (b) any short-term effect that exogenous thyroxine or triiodothyronine may have on the concentration of plasma cortisol in the sheep. 3. Thyroid activity was measured by determination of plasma protein bound 125I (PB125I) and total 125I in thyroid vein and mixed venous (jugular) blood. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine concentrations were measured by a competitive protein-binding assay at intervals for up to 5 hr after commencement of the experiment. 4. No evidence of an activation of thyroid secretion was found during cortisol or ACTH infusion, as monitored by thyroid vein PB125I. Similarly there was no evidence of any inhibition of thyroid function, as measured by continued secretion of thyroid hormones into thyroid vein blood. 5. No effect on plasma cortisol concentration due to thyroid hormone treatment was observed. 6. It was concluded that (a) elevated circulating corticosteroids in physiological concentrations have no short-term effects on thyroid activity in the sheep and (b) the short-term alterations in thyroid and adrenal cortical secretion observed during stress in the sheep could not be attributed to direct interaction of elevated thyroid hormone concentrations with adrenal cortical secretion. PMID:170400

  12. Long-term outcomes of surgery and radiotherapy for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, El

    2016-01-01

    To investigate treatment outcome and long term complication after surgery and radiotherapy (RT) for pituitary adenoma. From 1990 to 2009, 73 patients with surgery and RT for pituitary adenoma were analyzed in this study. Median age was 51 years (range, 25 to 71 years). Median tumor size was 3 cm (range, 1 to 5 cm) with suprasellar (n = 21), cavernous sinus extension (n = 14) or both (n = 5). Hormone secreting tumor was diagnosed in 29 patients; 16 patients with prolactin, 12 patients with growth hormone, and 1 patient with adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Impairment of visual acuity or visual field was presented in 33 patients at first diagnosis. Most patients (n = 64) received RT as postoperative adjuvant setting. Median RT dose was 45 Gy (range, 45 to 59.4 Gy). Median follow-up duration was 8 years (range, 3 to 22 years). In secreting tumors, hormone normalization rate was 55% (16 of 29 patients). For 25 patients with evaluable visual field and visual acuity test, 21 patients (84%) showed improvement of visual disturbance after treatment. The 10-year tumor control rate for non-secreting and secreting adenoma was 100% and 58%, respectively (p < 0.001). Progression free survival rate at 10 years was 98%. Only 1 patient experienced endocrinological recurrence. Following surgery, 60% (n = 44) suffered from pituitary function deficit. Late complication associated with RT was only 1 patient, who developed cataract. Surgery and RT are very effective and safe in hormonal and tumor growth control for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma

  13. Long-term outcomes of surgery and radiotherapy for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, El [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To investigate treatment outcome and long term complication after surgery and radiotherapy (RT) for pituitary adenoma. From 1990 to 2009, 73 patients with surgery and RT for pituitary adenoma were analyzed in this study. Median age was 51 years (range, 25 to 71 years). Median tumor size was 3 cm (range, 1 to 5 cm) with suprasellar (n = 21), cavernous sinus extension (n = 14) or both (n = 5). Hormone secreting tumor was diagnosed in 29 patients; 16 patients with prolactin, 12 patients with growth hormone, and 1 patient with adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Impairment of visual acuity or visual field was presented in 33 patients at first diagnosis. Most patients (n = 64) received RT as postoperative adjuvant setting. Median RT dose was 45 Gy (range, 45 to 59.4 Gy). Median follow-up duration was 8 years (range, 3 to 22 years). In secreting tumors, hormone normalization rate was 55% (16 of 29 patients). For 25 patients with evaluable visual field and visual acuity test, 21 patients (84%) showed improvement of visual disturbance after treatment. The 10-year tumor control rate for non-secreting and secreting adenoma was 100% and 58%, respectively (p < 0.001). Progression free survival rate at 10 years was 98%. Only 1 patient experienced endocrinological recurrence. Following surgery, 60% (n = 44) suffered from pituitary function deficit. Late complication associated with RT was only 1 patient, who developed cataract. Surgery and RT are very effective and safe in hormonal and tumor growth control for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma.

  14. Biliary cholesterol secretion : More than a simple ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the final step for the elimination of cholesterol

  15. psycho-social correlates of students' involvement in secret cults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    as constituting general threat to peace in institutions of higher learning. (Fawole ... involvement in secret cults, and to investigate if peer group do influence students involvement in secret cults. .... be of benefit to students, teachers, parents,.

  16. SECURE VISUAL SECRET SHARING BASED ON DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jyothi Lekshmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual Cryptography Scheme (VCS is an encryption method to encode secret written materials. This method converts the secret written material into an image. Then encode this secret image into n shadow images called shares. For the recreation of the original secret, all or some selected subsets of shares are needed; individual shares are of no use on their own. The secret image can be recovered simply by selecting some subset of these n shares, makes transparencies of them and stacking on top of each other. Nowadays, the data security has an important role. The shares can be altered by an attacker. So providing security to the shares is important. This paper proposes a method of adding security to cryptographic shares. This method uses two dimensional discrete wavelet transform to hide visual secret shares. Then the hidden secrets are distributed among participants through the internet. All hidden shares are extracted to reconstruct the secret.

  17. A thyrotropin‑secreting macroadenoma with positive growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A thyrotropin‑secreting macroadenoma with positive growth hormone and prolactin immunostaining: A case report and literature review. ... thyroid hormone receptor resistance syndrome. Key words: Inappropriate thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin‑secreting pituitary adenoma, thyroid stimulating hormone adenoma ...

  18. Ranitidine has no influence on tubular creatinine secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. G.; Koopman, M. G.; Arisz, L.

    1996-01-01

    Oral cimetidine competitively inhibits tubular secretion of creatinine. We investigated the potential of oral ranitidine, a comparable H2-receptor antagonist, to block tubular creatinine secretion. In 10 healthy subjects, clearances of inulin and endogenous creatinine were simultaneously measured

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Peter R.; Bailey, Clifford J.

    1991-01-01

    Information and current ideas on the factors regulating insulin secretion, the mechanisms underlying the secretion and biological actions of insulin, and the main characteristics of diabetes mellitus are presented. (Author)

  20. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Je Min, E-mail: jemin@knu.ac.kr [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jik [Biotechnology Institute, Nongwoo Bio Co, Ltd, Yeoju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Rose, Jocelyn K.C. [Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Yeam, Inhwa [Department of Horticulture and Breeding, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Dong [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening.

  1. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Sang-Jik; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Yeam, Inhwa; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening

  2. Quantum secret sharing protocol using modulated doubly entangled photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan, Wang; Yong, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a quantum secret sharing protocol utilizing polarization modulated doubly entangled photon pairs. The measurement devices are constructed. By modulating the polarizations of entangled photons, the boss could encode secret information on the initial state and share the photons with different members to realize the secret sharing process. This protocol shows the security against intercept-resend attack and dishonest member cheating. The generalized quantum secret sharing protocol is also discussed. (general)

  3. Aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereaux, P J; Mrkobrada, Marko; Sessler, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is substantial variability in the perioperative administration of aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, both among patients who are already on an aspirin regimen and among those who are not. METHODS: Using a 2-by-2 factorial trial design, we randomly assigned 10......,010 patients who were preparing to undergo noncardiac surgery and were at risk for vascular complications to receive aspirin or placebo and clonidine or placebo. The results of the aspirin trial are reported here. The patients were stratified according to whether they had not been taking aspirin before...... the study (initiation stratum, with 5628 patients) or they were already on an aspirin regimen (continuation stratum, with 4382 patients). Patients started taking aspirin (at a dose of 200 mg) or placebo just before surgery and continued it daily (at a dose of 100 mg) for 30 days in the initiation stratum...

  4. Platelet activation in outpatients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagripanti, A.; Polloni, A.; Materazzi, F.; Ferdeghini, M.; Pinori, E.; Bianchi, R.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of emotional stress on platelet function mesured by radioimmunoassay in plasma two platelet factor 4, in a series of outpatients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy for upper digestive complaints has been measured. The plasma levels of β-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4, determined just before the instrumental examination, were significantly more elevated as compared to basal values, checked a week later. These results provide evidence of enhanced in vivo platelet release reaction during emotional stress

  5. Trade Secrets in Life Science and Pharmaceutical Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Tara; Daignault, Ronald M.; Cai, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Trade secret protection arises under state common law and state statutes. In general, a trade secret is information that is not generally known to the public and is maintained as a secret, and it provides a competitive advantage or economic benefit to the trade secret holder. Trade secrets can be worth tens or hundreds of millions of dollars, and damage awards in trade secret litigation have been high; often, there is a lot at stake. Obtaining a trade secret through “improper means” is misappropriation. If the alleged trade secret, however, was developed independently, known publicly, or not maintained as a secret, then those defenses may successfully overcome a claim for trade secret misappropriation. With today’s interconnectedness in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical fields, more collaborations, joint ventures, and outsourcing arrangements among firms, and increased mobility of employees’ careers, life science companies need to not only understand how to protect their trade secrets, but also know how to defend against a claim for trade secret theft. PMID:25414378

  6. Information Theoretic Secret Key Generation: Structured Codes and Tree Packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitinawarat, Sirin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation deals with a multiterminal source model for secret key generation by multiple network terminals with prior and privileged access to a set of correlated signals complemented by public discussion among themselves. Emphasis is placed on a characterization of secret key capacity, i.e., the largest rate of an achievable secret key,…

  7. Multiparty secret sharing of quantum information based on entanglement swapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongmin; Zhang Kuanshou; Peng Kunchi

    2004-01-01

    A protocol of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information based on entanglement swapping is analyzed. In this protocol, Bell states are needed in order to realize the quantum information secret sharing and it is convenient to realize the quantum secret sharing among the members of any subset of users

  8. 10 CFR 1016.34 - Accountability for Secret Restricted Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. 1016.34 Section... Information § 1016.34 Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. Each permittee possessing documents containing Secret Restricted Data shall establish a document accountability procedure and shall maintain...

  9. Secretion of Flavins by Three Species of Methanotrophic Bacteria▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, Ramakrishnan; Levinson, Benjamin T.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    We detected flavins in the growth medium of the methanotrophic bacterium Methylocystis species strain M. Flavin secretion correlates with growth stage and increases under iron starvation conditions. Two other methanotrophs, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), secrete flavins, suggesting that flavin secretion may be common to many methanotrophic bacteria.

  10. Trade secrets in life science and pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Tara; Daignault, Ronald M; Cai, Yu

    2014-11-20

    Trade secret protection arises under state common law and state statutes. In general, a trade secret is information that is not generally known to the public and is maintained as a secret, and it provides a competitive advantage or economic benefit to the trade secret holder. Trade secrets can be worth tens or hundreds of millions of dollars, and damage awards in trade secret litigation have been high; often, there is a lot at stake. Obtaining a trade secret through "improper means" is misappropriation. If the alleged trade secret, however, was developed independently, known publicly, or not maintained as a secret, then those defenses may successfully overcome a claim for trade secret misappropriation. With today's interconnectedness in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical fields, more collaborations, joint ventures, and outsourcing arrangements among firms, and increased mobility of employees' careers, life science companies need to not only understand how to protect their trade secrets, but also know how to defend against a claim for trade secret theft. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Hoopoes color their eggs with antimicrobial uropygial secretions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, M.; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.; Arco, L.; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N.

    2014-09-01

    Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation.

  12. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1996-01-01

    with control experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p = 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means...

  13. Coagulation management in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robba, Chiara; Bertuetti, Rita; Rasulo, Frank; Bertuccio, Alessando; Matta, Basil

    2017-10-01

    Management of coagulation in neurosurgical procedures is challenging. In this contest, it is imperative to avoid further intracranial bleeding. Perioperative bleeding can be associated with a number of factors, including anticoagulant drugs and coagulation status but is also linked to the characteristic and the site of the intracranial disorder. The aim of this review will be to focus primarily on the new evidence regarding the management of coagulation in patients undergoing craniotomy for neurosurgical procedures. Antihemostatic and anticoagulant drugs have shown to be associated with perioperative bleeding. On the other hand, an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and hypercoagulative state after elective and emergency neurosurgery, in particular after brain tumor surgery, has been described in several patients. To balance the risk between thrombosis and bleeding, it is important to be familiar with the perioperative changes in coagulation and with the recent management guidelines for anticoagulated patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures, in particular for those taking new direct anticoagulants. We have considered the current clinical trials and literature regarding both safety and efficacy of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in the neurosurgical population. These were mainly trials concerning both elective surgical and intensive care patients with a poor grade intracranial bleed or multiple traumas with an associated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Coagulation management remains a major issue in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. However, in this field of research, literature quality is poor and further studies are necessary to identify the best strategies to minimize risks in this group of patients.

  14. Secrets of over-indebted people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie BILLAUDEAU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the economic and financial crisis is brought to light and it is now clear that many people are directly impacted by this phenomenon. However, a lot of situations are obviously hidden and in particular those concerning over-indebted people. These people often find that it is difficult to express the hardship they are going through and keep silent because is more comfortable for them. The media also does not tackle this burning issue because the complexity of some situations complicates the message. Therefore, a giant gap has appeared leaving over-indebted people entrapped in their secret. Starting from this hypothesis, this article will examine the results of a research conducted on the over-indebted people (survey on written press, analysis of TV broadcasts, analysis of records related to person in debts and responses of people in debts and the secrets that this phenomenon involves.

  15. Radioimmunoassay of glicagon secretion in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanova, St.; Koparanova, O.; Milkov, V.; Visheva, N.; Kurtev, I.; Maleeva, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioimunoassay of glucagon, lh, fsh, aldosterone, cortisol, acth, sth and lth was performed using preparations from the firms SORIN, AMERSHAM and HOECHST. The basal glucagon secretion was estimated in 403 diabetic patients and 84 normal subjects. It was transitorily suppressed by glucose. The alpha-cellular reactivity in diabetic patients was stimulated by insulin-induced hypoglycemia and with arginine and vasopressin. The tested group of diabetic patients had absolute hyperglucagonemia, despite the hyperglycemia, which is an evidence of abnormal alpha-cellular function. The insulin-dependent nature of hyperglucagonemia in diabetes mellitus and the hyperreactivity of glucagon secretion after protein stimulation was demonstrated. The correlation of these results leads to essential diagnostic inferences

  16. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    1. The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. 2. Albumin was chosen...... as marker molecule, since only negligible amounts were absorbed or adsorbed to the mucosa during the nasal lavage. 3. Labelling of the albumin with 99mTc ensured an accuracy of measurements only limited by the precision of the weighing. The isotope allowed for the determination of the amount of admixed...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  17. Sphingomyelin synthases regulate protein trafficking and secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Subathra

    Full Text Available Sphingomyelin synthases (SMS1 and 2 represent a class of enzymes that transfer a phosphocholine moiety from phosphatidylcholine onto ceramide thus producing sphingomyelin and diacylglycerol (DAG. SMS1 localizes at the Golgi while SMS2 localizes both at the Golgi and the plasma membrane. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that modulation of SMS1 and, to a lesser extent, of SMS2 affected the formation of DAG at the Golgi apparatus. As a consequence, down-regulation of SMS1 and SMS2 reduced the localization of the DAG-binding protein, protein kinase D (PKD, to the Golgi. Since PKD recruitment to the Golgi has been implicated in cellular secretion through the trans golgi network (TGN, the effect of down-regulation of SMSs on TGN-to-plasma membrane trafficking was studied. Down regulation of either SMS1 or SMS2 significantly retarded trafficking of the reporter protein vesicular stomatitis virus G protein tagged with GFP (VSVG-GFP from the TGN to the cell surface. Inhibition of SMSs also induced tubular protrusions from the trans Golgi network reminiscent of inhibited TGN membrane fission. Since a recent study demonstrated the requirement of PKD activity for insulin secretion in beta cells, we tested the function of SMS in this model. Inhibition of SMS significantly reduced insulin secretion in rat INS-1 cells. Taken together these results provide the first direct evidence that both enzymes (SMS1 and 2 are capable of regulating TGN-mediated protein trafficking and secretion, functions that are compatible with PKD being a down-stream target for SMSs in the Golgi.

  18. Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria Prophylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing...thereby stimulating an avid, antigen specific, cytotoxic CD8 T cell response. Here we developed malaria vaccine that relies on secreted gp96-Ig... stimulating multi-epitope specific cytotoxic T cells. In the proposed studies, we will adapt this vaccine approach to stimulate cytotoxic T cells

  19. Eight Simple Secrets to More Persuasive Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Donald

    The goal of persuasive writing is to move the reader to action or to get the reader to refrain from action, and most of the secrets of persuasion can work either way. To get readers to take action, a writer has to appeal to the emotions as much as possible. To get readers to refrain from action, a writer must appeal to the intellect. The secrets…

  20. Discovering the secrets of the Olifants sediments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Petersen, C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available is an important component of an aquatic ecosystem in that it provides habitat, feed- ing and spawning areas for aquatic fauna such as fish and benthic Discovering the secrets of THE OLIFANTS SEDIMENTS The polluted Upper Olifants River, in Mpumalanga, has... the distribution of bed material sizes. This allows for the determination ? Top right: The Koffie- spruit, a tributary of the Upper Olifants River. Middle right: Bank erosion was evident throughout the Koffiespruit study reach. This section of river...

  1. Mucin secretion induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Y T Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle (NP exposure has been closely associated with the exacerbation and pathophysiology of many respiratory diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and asthma. Mucus hypersecretion and accumulation in the airway are major clinical manifestations commonly found in these diseases. Among a broad spectrum of NPs, titanium dioxide (TiO(2, one of the PM10 components, is widely utilized in the nanoindustry for manufacturing and processing of various commercial products. Although TiO(2 NPs have been shown to induce cellular nanotoxicity and emphysema-like symptoms, whether TiO(2 NPs can directly induce mucus secretion from airway cells is currently unknown. Herein, we showed that TiO(2 NPs (<75 nm can directly stimulate mucin secretion from human bronchial ChaGo-K1 epithelial cells via a Ca(2+ signaling mediated pathway. The amount of mucin secreted was quantified with enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA. The corresponding changes in cytosolic Ca(2+ concentration were monitored with Rhod-2, a fluorescent Ca(2+ dye. We found that TiO(2 NP-evoked mucin secretion was a function of increasing intracellular Ca(2+ concentration resulting from an extracellular Ca(2+ influx via membrane Ca(2+ channels and cytosolic ER Ca(2+ release. The calcium-induced calcium release (CICR mechanism played a major role in further amplifying the intracellular Ca(2+ signal and in sustaining a cytosolic Ca(2+ increase. This study provides a potential mechanistic link between airborne NPs and the pathoetiology of pulmonary diseases involving mucus hypersecretion.

  2. George's secret key to the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Galfard, Christophe; Parsons, Gary

    2007-01-01

    In their bestselling book for young readers, noted physicist Stephen Hawking and his daughter, Lucy, provide a grand and funny adventure that explains fascinating information about our universe, including Dr. Hawking's latest ideas about black holes. It's the story of George, who's taken through the vastness of space by a scientist, his daughter, and their super-computer named Cosmos. George's Secret Key to the Universe was a New York Times bestseller and a selection of Al's Book Club on the Today show.

  3. The Best kept Secrets In Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    external events that could disrupt energy supplies and services. • Science and Technology. We use the unique resources of the Department’s laboratories...1996. There is no doubt that access to and 96 Appendix A use of the Internet will be a big factor enabling GSA employees to compete in the coming...workers. 113 The Best Kept Secrets In Government • Sweatshops are under attack. More than 50 manufacturing firms across the country have com

  4. Mort Rainey's Split Personality in Secret Window

    OpenAIRE

    Sandjaya, Cynthya; Limanta, Liem Satya

    2013-01-01

    Psychological issue is the main issue discussed in David Koepp's Secret Window through its main character, Mort Rainey. Rainey's psychological struggle will be the main theme in this research. This thesis examines Rainey's split personality. Furthermore, in this study, we want to analyze the process of how Mort Rainey's personality splits into two different personalities. To meet the answer of this study, we will use the theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder with a support from Sigmund Fre...

  5. Unconventional Protein Secretion in Animal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Fanny; Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-01-01

    All eukaryotic cells secrete a range of proteins in a constitutive or regulated manner through the conventional or canonical exocytic/secretory pathway characterized by vesicular traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum, through the Golgi apparatus, and towards the plasma membrane. However, a number of proteins are secreted in an unconventional manner, which are insensitive to inhibitors of conventional exocytosis and use a route that bypasses the Golgi apparatus. These include cytosolic proteins such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and membrane proteins that are known to also traverse to the plasma membrane by a conventional process of exocytosis, such as α integrin and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductor (CFTR). Mechanisms underlying unconventional protein secretion (UPS) are actively being analyzed and deciphered, and these range from an unusual form of plasma membrane translocation to vesicular processes involving the generation of exosomes and other extracellular microvesicles. In this chapter, we provide an overview on what is currently known about UPS in animal cells.

  6. Secret Sharing of a Quantum State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, He; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Chang; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-07-15

    Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share a certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality: with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists: the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Here, by employing a six-photon entangled state, we demonstrate a quantum threshold scheme, where the shared quantum secrecy can be efficiently reconstructed with a state fidelity as high as 93%. By observing that any one or two parties cannot recover the secrecy, we show that our scheme meets the confidentiality criterion. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that entangled quantum information can be shared and recovered via our setting, which shows that our implemented scheme is fully quantum. Moreover, our experimental setup can be treated as a decoding circuit of the five-qubit quantum error-correcting code with two erasure errors.

  7. A trade secret model for genomic biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, John M; Mitchell, Robert; Cadigan, R Jean; Davis, Arlene M; Dobson, Allison W; Gladden, Ryan Q

    2012-01-01

    Genomic biobanks present ethical challenges that are qualitatively unique and quantitatively unprecedented. Many critics have questioned whether the current system of informed consent can be meaningfully applied to genomic biobanking. Proposals for reform have come from many directions, but have tended to involve incremental change in current informed consent practice. This paper reports on our efforts to seek new ideas and approaches from those whom informed consent is designed to protect: research subjects. Our model emerged from semi-structured interviews with healthy volunteers who had been recruited to join either of two biobanks (some joined, some did not), and whom we encouraged to explain their concerns and how they understood the relationship between specimen contributors and biobanks. These subjects spoke about their DNA and the information it contains in ways that were strikingly evocative of the legal concept of the trade secret. They then described the terms and conditions under which they might let others study their DNA, and there was a compelling analogy to the commonplace practice of trade secret licensing. We propose a novel biobanking model based on this trade secret concept, and argue that it would be a practical, legal, and ethical improvement on the status quo. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  8. Extracellular secretion of a recombinant therapeutic peptide by Bacillus halodurans utilizing a modified flagellin type III secretion system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Berger, E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available further 3.5-fold increase in the secretion of recombinant peptide fusions. Conclusions: The type III flagellar secretion system of B. halodurans has been shown to successfully secrete a therapeutic peptide as a heterologous flagellin fusion. Improvements...

  9. Trade secrets protection mode of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Bin

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes the legal environment in which nuclear power enterprises are stayed, and mainly discusses the business secret protection modes of China's nuclear power enterprises. It is expected to provide a revelation and help for these enterprises to protect their business secrets. Firstly, the paper briefly expounds the legal basis of business secret protection and China's legalization status in this regard. Then it mainly puts forward the business secret management framework and postulations for nuclear power enterprises, and key points in application and protection of nuclear power business secret. (author)

  10. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosalbicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophagealbicarbonate secretion and thus......: The median rates (95% confidence intervals)of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203)mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and gastric bicarbonate...... be overestimated. As omeprazole and ranitidine did not affect bicarbonate secretion differently there was no evidence that omeprazole acts on icarbonate secretory cells in the oesophageal mucosa....

  11. Air Force UAV’s: The Secret History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    iA Mitchell Institute Study i Air Force UAVs The Secret History A Mitchell Institute Study July 2010 By Thomas P. Ehrhard Report Documentation Page...DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force UAVs The Secret History 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c... The Secret History 2 Air Force UAVs: The Secret History2 air Force uaVs: The secret history Has any airplane in the past decade captured the public

  12. Indomethacin decreases gastroduodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduce mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the duodenum, but the evidence for their effect on bicarbonate secretion in the stomach remains controversial. We have, therefore, studied how indomethacin influences gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal...... healthy volunteers. Bicarbonate and PGE2 were measured in the gastroduodenal effluents by back-titration and radioimmunoassay, respectively. RESULTS: Vagal stimulation and duodenal luminal acidification (0.1 M HCl; 20 ml; 5 min) increased gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion (p ... markedly inhibited both basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion, and this reduction was similar to the degree of cyclooxygenase inhibition estimated by the luminal release of PGE2 (p

  13. EFFECTS OF SECRETABLE PLACENTAL FACTORS UPON SECRETION OF CYTOKINES BY THP-1 MONOCYTE-LIKE CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. S. Onokhina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Мonocytes in feto-placental circulation are exposed to factors secreted by placental tissue. These factors influence monocyte functions in pregnancy. In present study, an in vitro model (monocyte-like THP-1 cells was used for assessing effects of soluble placental factors obtained from women with physiological pregnancies, or preeclampsia cases. The following effects of placental factors were revealed: increased secretion of VEGF by THP-1 cells along with decreased secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 under the influence of placental factors from the I. trimester of pregnancy in comparison with III. trimester. Secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 by THP-1 cells was increased, and secretion of soluble TNFRII was decreased upon co-cultivation with soluble placental factors from the women with preeclampsia, as compared with placental products from physiological pregnancies.The work is supported by grants ГК № 02.740.11.0711 from Ministry of Education and Science, and НШ-3594.2010.7 grant from the President of Russian Federation.

  14. The role of jasmonates in floral nectar secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Radhika

    Full Text Available Plants produce nectar in their flowers as a reward for their pollinators and most of our crops depend on insect pollination, but little is known on the physiological control of nectar secretion. Jasmonates are well-known for their effects on senescence, the development and opening of flowers and on plant defences such as extrafloral nectar. Their role in floral nectar secretion has, however, not been explored so far. We investigated whether jasmonates have an influence on floral nectar secretion in oil-seed rape, Brassica napus. The floral tissues of this plant produced jasmonic acid (JA endogenously, and JA concentrations peaked shortly before nectar secretion was highest. Exogenous application of JA to flowers induced nectar secretion, which was suppressed by treatment with phenidone, an inhibitor of JA synthesis. This effect could be reversed by additional application of JA. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine and its structural mimic coronalon also increased nectar secretion. Herbivory or addition of JA to the leaves did not have an effect on floral nectar secretion, demonstrating a functional separation of systemic defence signalling from reproductive nectar secretion. Jasmonates, which have been intensively studied in the context of herbivore defences and flower development, have a profound effect on floral nectar secretion and, thus, pollination efficiency in B. napus. Our results link floral nectar secretion to jasmonate signalling and thereby integrate the floral nectar secretion into the complex network of oxylipid-mediated developmental processes of plants.

  15. The semantics of secrecy: young children's classification of secret content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J; Bourchier-Sutton, Alison J

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored whether young children can distinguish potential secrets from nonsecrets by their content, as can older children, adolescents, and adults. Ninety children, 4, 5, and 6 years old, rated the secrecy of items from an adult-validated list of personal information about an age- and gender-appropriate puppet. Two factors of the children's data corresponded to the adult categories of nonsecrets and secrets, and a third factor corresponded to surprises. All ages rated surprises as significantly more secret than nonsecret items; however, the surprise items contained linguistic cues to secrecy. A tendency to rate nonsecrets as secret decreased with age, but only the 6-year-olds rated secrets other than surprises as significantly more secret than nonsecrets. Thus, children acquire the implicit rules defining secret content from a somewhat later age than that reported for the cognitive or behavioral capacities for secrecy.

  16. Speech profile of patients undergoing primary palatoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegueti, Katia Ignacio; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Alonso, Nivaldo; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2017-10-26

    To characterize the profile and speech characteristics of patients undergoing primary palatoplasty in a Brazilian university hospital, considering the time of intervention (early, before two years of age; late, after two years of age). Participants were 97 patients of both genders with cleft palate and/or cleft and lip palate, assigned to the Speech-language Pathology Department, who had been submitted to primary palatoplasty and presented no prior history of speech-language therapy. Patients were divided into two groups: early intervention group (EIG) - 43 patients undergoing primary palatoplasty before 2 years of age and late intervention group (LIG) - 54 patients undergoing primary palatoplasty after 2 years of age. All patients underwent speech-language pathology assessment. The following parameters were assessed: resonance classification, presence of nasal turbulence, presence of weak intraoral air pressure, presence of audible nasal air emission, speech understandability, and compensatory articulation disorder (CAD). At statistical significance level of 5% (p≤0.05), no significant difference was observed between the groups in the following parameters: resonance classification (p=0.067); level of hypernasality (p=0.113), presence of nasal turbulence (p=0.179); presence of weak intraoral air pressure (p=0.152); presence of nasal air emission (p=0.369), and speech understandability (p=0.113). The groups differed with respect to presence of compensatory articulation disorders (p=0.020), with the LIG presenting higher occurrence of altered phonemes. It was possible to assess the general profile and speech characteristics of the study participants. Patients submitted to early primary palatoplasty present better speech profile.

  17. Two-party secret key distribution via a modified quantum secret sharing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, W P; Evans, P G; Lawrie, B; Legré, M; Lougovski, P; Ray, W; Williams, B P; Qi, B; Smith, A M

    2015-03-23

    We present and demonstrate a novel protocol for distributing secret keys between two and only two parties based on N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS). We demonstrate our new protocol with N = 3 parties using phase-encoded photons. We show that any two out of N parties can build a secret key based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N - 2 parties. Our implementation allows for an accessible transition between N-party QSS and arbitrary two party QKD without modification of hardware. In addition, our approach significantly reduces the number of resources such as single photon detectors, lasers and dark fiber connections needed to implement QKD.

  18. Reelin secreted by GABAergic neurons regulates glutamate receptor homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Gonzalez Campo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reelin is a large secreted protein of the extracellular matrix that has been proposed to participate to the etiology of schizophrenia. During development, reelin is crucial for the correct cytoarchitecture of laminated brain structures and is produced by a subset of neurons named Cajal-Retzius. After birth, most of these cells degenerate and reelin expression persists in postnatal and adult brain. The phenotype of neurons that bind secreted reelin and whether the continuous secretion of reelin is required for physiological functions at postnatal stages remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Combining immunocytochemical and pharmacological approaches, we first report that two distinct patterns of reelin expression are present in cultured hippocampal neurons. We show that in hippocampal cultures, reelin is secreted by GABAergic neurons displaying an intense reelin immunoreactivity (IR. We demonstrate that secreted reelin binds to receptors of the lipoprotein family on neurons with a punctate reelin IR. Secondly, using calcium imaging techniques, we examined the physiological consequences of reelin secretion blockade. Blocking protein secretion rapidly and reversibly changes the subunit composition of N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs to a predominance of NR2B-containing NMDARs. Addition of recombinant or endogenously secreted reelin rescues the effects of protein secretion blockade and reverts the fraction of NR2B-containing NMDARs to control levels. Therefore, the continuous secretion of reelin is necessary to control the subunit composition of NMDARs in hippocampal neurons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data show that the heterogeneity of reelin immunoreactivity correlates with distinct functional populations: neurons synthesizing and secreting reelin and/or neurons binding reelin. Furthermore, we show that continuous reelin secretion is a strict requirement to maintain the composition of NMDARs. We propose

  19. Secretive eating among youth with overweight or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Andrea E; Wilfley, Denise E; Eddy, Kamryn T; Boutelle, Kerri N; Zucker, Nancy; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel; Celio-Doyle, Angela; Goldschmidt, Andrea B

    2017-07-01

    Secretive eating, characterized by eating privately to conceal being seen, may reflect eating- and/or body-related shame, be associated with depression, and correlate with binge eating, which predicts weight gain and eating disorder onset. Increasing understanding of secretive eating in youth may improve weight status and reduce eating disorder risk. This study evaluated the prevalence and correlates of secretive eating in youth with overweight or obesity. Youth (N = 577) presented to five research/clinical institutions. Using a cross-sectional design, secretive eating was evaluated in relation to eating-related and general psychopathology via linear and logistic regression analyses. Secretive eating was endorsed by 111 youth, who were, on average, older than youth who denied secretive eating (mean age = 12.07 ± 2.83 versus 10.97 ± 2.31). Controlling for study site and age, youth who endorsed secretive eating had higher eating-related psychopathology and were more likely to endorse loss of control eating and purging than their counterparts who did not endorse secretive eating. Groups did not differ in excessive exercise or behavioral problems. Dietary restraint and purging were elevated among adolescents (≥13y) but not children (<13y) who endorsed secretive eating; depression was elevated among children, but not adolescents, who endorsed secretive eating. Secretive eating may portend heightened risk for eating disorders, and correlates of secretive eating may differ across pediatric development. Screening for secretive eating may inform identification of problematic eating behaviors, and understanding factors motivating secretive eating may improve intervention tailoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thromboprophylaxis for women undergoing caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, C

    2012-02-01

    Thromboprophylaxis for women undergoing caesarean section (CS) was introduced in the hospital in 1995. This study audited the use of tinzaparin prophylaxis in a nested cohort of women who screened negative for diabetes mellitus at 28 weeks gestation. All the women had their weight measured and BMI calculated at the first antenatal visit. Of the 284 women, 68 (24%) had a CS and all received tinzaparin. Of the 68, however, 94% received a dose lower than recommended. Compliance with prophylaxis was complete but compliance with the recommended dosage was suboptimal, which may result in venous thromboembolism after CS despite thromboprophylaxis.

  1. Dermatillomania: In patient undergoing orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatillomania is a disorder in which a person habitually picks their skin, and this is a form of self-injury. It can involve any part of the body, but usually involves the face, neck, arms and shoulders. Symptoms often follow an event that has caused severe emotional distress. A dermatillomania or compulsive skin picking episode may be a conscious response to anxiety or depression but is frequently done as an unconscious habit. In this case report, a patient undergoing orthodontic treatment was found to be suffering from dermatillomania and was treated using psychological counseling.

  2. Care of patients undergoing external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, C.

    1977-01-01

    The anxiety and associated depression suffered by most patients undergoing radiotherapy is discussed and the possibilities open to the nurse to encourage and reassure patients thus facilitating physical care are considered. The general symptoms of anorexia, nausea, tiredness, skin problems, alopecia, bonemarrow depresssion and rapid tumour destruction are described and nursing care prescribed. The side-effects which may occur following radiation of the brain, head and neck region, eyes, oesophagus, lung, abdomen, pelvis, bones, skin, spine, and spinal cord are considered from the nursing standpoint. The specialised subject of radiotherapy in children is discussed briefly. (U.K.)

  3. Will They or Won't They? Secret Telling in Interpersonal Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Robin Marie; Morgan, Chad Alan; Whittaker, Elizabeth; Zaremba, Brittany; Frazee, Laura; Dean, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of within-gender secret telling. Eighty-eight participants were exposed to either a "positive" or a "negative" secret about another individual. Just under 20% of participants told the secret. Conscientiousness, secret condition, empathy, and the conscientiousness by secret condition interaction had effects on the rate of secret telling, χ(2) (5,82) = 17.78, p = .003, AIC = 80.60. Conscientiousness had a negative effect on secret telling among participants that told the "negative" secret.

  4. Pentagon's secret report about climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, P.

    2006-01-01

    This book reveals the content of a secret report ordered by the department of defense of the Pentagon which aims at foreseeing the possible consequences of a rapid climatic change on the security of the USA. The report is based on the most recent studies about the general climate conditions at the worldwide scale. They foresee for 2010 a fast cooling following several years of increasing warming up. A realistic detailed scenario of the geopolitical consequences of this change is made: floods, conflicts, populations migration, lack of drinkable water, starvation, generalized riots etc. (J.S.)

  5. Indirect evidence of calcitonin secretion in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniggia, A; Gennari, C; Vattimo, A; Nardi, P; Nuti, R

    1976-09-01

    1. The effect of calcitonin, a large amount of calcium given orally, pentagastrin and glucagon on plasma 47Ca radioactivity curves in subjects pretreated with 47Ca was examined. 2. A sudden increase of plasma radioactivity after intravenous administration of calcitonin and pentagastrin and after the oral calcium load was observed in normal subjects; the intravenous infusion of glucagon was less effective. 3. Two thyroparathyroidectomized patients who responded to the calcitonin infusion did not respond to the oral calcium load. 4. These data may be considered to offer indirect evidence of endogenous calcitonin secretion in man.

  6. Veritas Asteroid Family Still Holds Secrets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, B.

    2012-12-01

    Veritas asteroid family has been studied for about two decades. These studies have revealed many secrets, and a respectable knowledge about this family had been collected. Here I will present many of these results and review the current knowledge about the family. However, despite being extensively studied, Veritas family is still a mystery. This will be illustrated through the presentation of the most interesting open problems. Was there a secondary collision within this family? Does asteroid (490) Veritas belong to the family named after it? How large was the parent body of the family? Finally, some possible directions for future studies that aims to address these questions are discussed as well.

  7. Regulation of ghrelin secretion and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiña, Jesus P; Carreira, Marcos C; Micic, Dragan; Pombo, Manuel; Kelestimur, Fahrettin; Dieguez, Carlos; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2003-10-01

    The pulsatile release of growth hormone (GH) from anterior pituitary gland is regulated by the interplay of at least two hypothalamic hormones, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin, via their engagement with specific cell surface receptors on the anterior pituitary somatotroph. Furthermore, release of GH in vivo may also be controlled by a third type of receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor, called GHS receptor type 1a (GHSR1a), which was identified in the pituitary and the hypothalamus in humans using a nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue (MK-0677). Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the GHS-R1a, is a 28-amino-acid peptide isolated from human stomach that is modified by a straight chain octanoyl group covalently linked to Ser3, which is essential for its endocrine activity. This hormone, predominantly expressed and secreted by the stomach, has a dual action on GH secretion and food intake, showing interdependency between these actions. The finding that fasting and food intake, respectively, increase and decrease the secretion of ghrelin suggests that this hormone may be the bridge connecting somatic growth and body composition with energy metabolism, and appears to play a role in the alteration of energy homeostasis and body weight in pathophysiological states such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Despite this, little is known about the intracellular signaling through which ghrelin exerts its regulatory actions. Activation of intracellular calcium mobilization is one of the earliest known cellular signals elicited by ghrelin. In HEK- 293 cells expressing the GHS-R1a, ghrelin induces a biphasic cytosolic calcium elevation characterized by a spike phase of the response, which reflects Ins(1,4,5)P3- dependent calcium mobilization of intracellular stores, and a sustained phase of the response, which is due to calcium influx across the plasma membrane triggered by aperture of capacitative calcium channels

  8. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D

    1996-01-01

    The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during....../ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...

  9. Improved level of function in an individual with Carcinoma of the pyriform sinus undergoing radiotherapy: A case report study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Akhil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old female with a history of cough and difficulty in swallowing was admitted in KLE Cancer Hospital and was diagnosed with carcinoma of the pyriform sinus, where she was undergoing radiotherapy and was referred for physiotherapy. On examination, she had chest secretion, cough, breathlessness, and generalized body weakness that led to functional limitations. Pre- and postfunctional assessment was done with the help of Functional independence measure (FIMS scale. A 10-day physiotherapy intervention was given and post intervention evaluation showed an increased functional level.

  10. Intermittent subglottic secretion drainage may cause tracheal damage in patients with few oropharyngeal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suys, E; Nieboer, K; Stiers, W; De Regt, J; Huyghens, L; Spapen, H

    2013-12-01

    Injurious prolapse of tracheal mucosa into the suction port has been reported in up to 50% of intubated patients receiving continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions. We investigated whether similar injury could be inflicted by automated intermittent aspiration. Six consecutive patients, intubated with the Mallinckrodt TaperGuard Evac™ endotracheal tube, were studied. A flow sensor was placed between the vacuum regulating system and the mucus collector. Intermittent suctioning was performed at a pressure of -125 mmHg with a 25s interval and duration of 15s. After 24h, a CT scan of the tracheal region was performed. Excessive negative suction pressure, a fast drop in aspiration flow to zero, and important "swinging" movements of secretions in the evacuation line were observed in all patients. Oral instillation of antiseptic mouthwash restored normal aspiration flow and secretion mobility. CT imaging showed marked entrapment of tracheal mucosa into the suction port in all patients. In patients with few oropharyngeal secretions, automated intermittent subglottic aspiration may result in significant and potential harmful invagination of tracheal mucosa into the suction lumen. A critical amount of fluid must be present in the oropharynx to assure adequate and safe aspiration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trade Secret Law and Information Systems: Can Your Students Keep a Secret?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Lorrie; Ford, Janet C.; White, Barbara Jo; Clapper, Danial L.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of intellectual property (IP) law on information systems (IS) professionals in business cannot be overstated. The IS 2010 model curriculum guidelines for undergraduate IS programs stress the importance of information security and knowledge about IP. While copyright and patents are the most well-known types of IP, another, trade secrets,…

  12. Activated platelets enhance IL-10 secretion and reduce TNF-α secretion by monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbrandsdottir, Sif; Hasselbalch, Hans C; Nielsen, Claus H

    2013-01-01

    ), Escherichia coli LPS, or intact Porphyromonas gingivalis. Addition of platelets activated by thrombin-receptor-activating peptide enhanced IL-10 production induced by LPS (p gingivalis (p ....05), and P. gingivalis (p gingivalis-stimulated cultures (p ... of activated platelets. Adherence of platelets increased TG- and TT-induced IL-10 secretion by monocytes (p gingivalis (p

  13. Secretion of clostridium cellulase by E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ida Kuo

    1998-01-01

    A gene, encoding an endocellulase from a newly isolated mesophilic Clostridium strain IY-2 which can digest bamboo fibers, cellulose, rice straw, and sawdust, was isolated by shotgun cloning in an E. coli expression plasmid pLC2833. E. coli positive clones were selected based on their ability to hydrolyze milled bamboo fibers and cellulose present in agar plates. One clone contained a 2.8 kb DNA fragment that was responsible for cellulase activity. Western blot analyses indicated that the positive clone produced a secreted cellulase with a mass of about 58,000 daltons that was identical in size to the subunit of one of the three major Clostridium cellulases. The products of cellulose digestion by this cloned cellulase were cellotetraose and soluble higher polymers. The cloned DNA contained signal sequences capable of directing the secretion of heterologous proteins from an E. coli host. The invention describes a bioprocess for the treatment of cellulosic plant materials to produce cellular growth substrates and fermentation end products suitable for production of liquid fuels, solvents, and acids.

  14. The Smart Grid - A saucerful of secrets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissner, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    To many, a lot of secrets are at the bottom of the often-cited catchphrase 'Smart Grid'. This article gives an overview of the options that information and communication technology (ICT) offers for the restructuring and modernisation of the German power system, in particular with a view towards its development into a Smart Grid and thus tries to reveal these secrets. After a short outline on the development of ICT in terms of technology types and their availability, the further analysis highlights upcoming challenges in all parts of the power value chain and possible solutions for these challenges through the intensified usage of ICT applications. They are examined with regard to their effectiveness and efficiency in the fields of generation, transmission, distribution and supply. Finally, potential obstacles that may defer the introduction of ICT into the power system are shown. The analysis suggests that if certain hurdles are taken, the huge potential of ICT can create additional value in various fields of the whole power value chain. This ranges from increased energy efficiency and the more sophisticated integration of decentralised (renewable) energy plants to a higher security of supply and more efficient organisation of market processes. The results are true for the German power market but can in many areas also be transferred to other industrialised nations with liberalised power markets.

  15. Secrets and disclosure in donor conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Lucy; Blyth, Eric; Crawshaw, Marilyn; van den Akker, Olga

    2018-01-01

    This article considers the disclosure, sharing and exchange of information on being donor conceived within families, drawing on data from a study undertaken with donor-conceived adults registered with UK Donor Link (a voluntary DNA-linking register). This paper considers the narratives of how respondents found out they were donor-conceived and what events triggered disclosure of this information. This paper then goes on to examine the role secrecy played in their family life and uses the concept of 'display' to explore how secrecy affected their relationships with their immediate and extended family. Secrets are notoriously 'leaky' and we found complex patterns of knowing and uncertainty about whom in the family knew that the person was donor-conceived. We argue that what is kept secret and from whom provides insights into the multifaceted web of social relationships that can be created by donor-conception, and how knowledge can be managed and controlled in attempts to display and maintain family narratives of biogenetic connection. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  16. Myeloma cells suppress osteoblasts through sclerostin secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, S; Brunetti, G; Oranger, A [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Mori, G [Department of Biomedical Science, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Sardone, F [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Specchia, G; Rinaldi, E; Curci, P; Liso, V [Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Hematology Section, Bari University Medical School, Bari (Italy); Passeri, G [Department of Internal Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Zallone, A [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Rizzi, R [Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Hematology Section, Bari University Medical School, Bari (Italy); Grano, M [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy)

    2011-06-01

    Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling through the secretion of Wnt inhibitors Dickkopf1, soluble frizzled-related protein-2 and -3 has a key role in the decreased osteoblast (OB) activity associated with multiple myeloma (MM) bone disease. We provide evidence that another Wnt antagonist, sclerostin, an osteocyte-expressed negative regulator of bone formation, is expressed by myeloma cells, that is, human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) and plasma cells (CD138+ cells) obtained from the bone marrow (BM) of a large number of MM patients with bone disease. We demonstrated that BM stromal cells (BMSCs), differentiated into OBs and co-cultured with HMCLs showed, compared with BMSCs alone, reduced expression of major osteoblastic-specific proteins, decreased mineralized nodule formation and attenuated the expression of members of the activator protein 1 transcription factor family (Fra-1, Fra-2 and Jun-D). Moreover, in the same co-culture system, the addition of neutralizing anti-sclerostin antibodies restored OB functions by inducing nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. We further demonstrated that the upregulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand and the downregulation of osteoprotegerin in OBs were also sclerostin mediated. Our data indicated that sclerostin secretion by myeloma cells contribute to the suppression of bone formation in the osteolytic bone disease associated to MM.

  17. Some directions beyond traditional quantum secret sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Srikanth, R [Poornaprajna Institute of Scientific Research, Devanahalli, Bangalore 562 110 (India)], E-mail: suds@ee.ucla.edu, E-mail: srik@rri.res.in

    2008-06-15

    We investigate two directions beyond the traditional quantum secret sharing (QSS). Firstly, a restriction on QSS that comes from the no-cloning theorem is that any pair of authorized sets in an access structure should overlap. From the viewpoint of application, this places an unnatural constraint on secret sharing. We present a generalization, called assisted QSS (AQSS), where access structures without pairwise overlap of authorized sets are permissible, provided some shares are withheld by the share dealer. We show that no more than {lambda}-1 withheld shares are required, where {lambda} is the minimum number of partially linked classes among the authorized sets for the QSS. Our result means that such applications of QSS need not be thwarted by the no-cloning theorem. Secondly, we point out a way of combining the features of QSS and quantum key distribution (QKD) for applications where classical information is shared by quantum means. We observe that in such case, it is often possible to reduce the security proof of QSS to that of QKD.

  18. Some directions beyond traditional quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srikanth, R

    2008-01-01

    We investigate two directions beyond the traditional quantum secret sharing (QSS). Firstly, a restriction on QSS that comes from the no-cloning theorem is that any pair of authorized sets in an access structure should overlap. From the viewpoint of application, this places an unnatural constraint on secret sharing. We present a generalization, called assisted QSS (AQSS), where access structures without pairwise overlap of authorized sets are permissible, provided some shares are withheld by the share dealer. We show that no more than λ-1 withheld shares are required, where λ is the minimum number of partially linked classes among the authorized sets for the QSS. Our result means that such applications of QSS need not be thwarted by the no-cloning theorem. Secondly, we point out a way of combining the features of QSS and quantum key distribution (QKD) for applications where classical information is shared by quantum means. We observe that in such case, it is often possible to reduce the security proof of QSS to that of QKD

  19. Secrets Pages in DR’s Playbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    According to former Head of Drama at DR, Ingolf Gabold, one of the “great” and “strange” secrets subtending the success of DR’s TV series is the extremely deliberate work with audiovisual style (Gabold in Nielsen 2012). Here - as elsewhere - Gabold highlights the so-called “paramount-meeting” and......According to former Head of Drama at DR, Ingolf Gabold, one of the “great” and “strange” secrets subtending the success of DR’s TV series is the extremely deliberate work with audiovisual style (Gabold in Nielsen 2012). Here - as elsewhere - Gabold highlights the so-called “paramount...... shifts already took place with Een gang strømer (1987) (Refn in Nielsen 2006). Combining various methods (audiovisual analysis, media systemic analysis [see Hallin & Mancini, Vestergaard 2007] and interview-driven production studies [see Frandsen 2007, Caldwell 2008] that hone in on this particular...... aspect of DR’s productions by interviewing both management and creative personnel) this paper will discuss the causal mechanisms that subtend the development of audiovisual style in DR series from Gøngehøvdingen to 1864 and will conclude with reflections on the role of DR-series’ style in the age...

  20. Prolactin secretion: the impact of dynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Hermite, M.; Degueldre, M.; Caufriez, A.; Delvoye, P.; Robyn, C.

    1975-01-01

    Human prolactin blood levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in basal condition and in response to various inhibiting and/or stimulating agents (levodopa, water overload, insulinic hypoglycaemia, synthetic TRH, sulpiride) in cases of disturbed hypothalamo-pituitary axis (failure to lactate, prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas, acromegaly, other pituitary tumours, clinical panhypopituitarism). A blunted prolactin response to suckling was evidenced in 2 post-partum women who were unable to breast feed. Hyperprolactinaemia, whether related to the existence of a prolactin-producing adenoma or not was associated with the disappearance of the normal circadian pattern of prolactin secretion and with a blunted relative response to TRH; the latter phenomenon occurred also in acromegaly regardless of the basal prolactinaemia, and during the last trimester of pregnancy. Water overload was unsuccessful to suppress prolactin during the last trimester of pregnancy while the acute administration of levodopa was quite effective in about half of the patients with pituitary tumour. Therefore none of the dynamic tests presently studied allowed to attribute a hyperprolactinaemia to a pituitary tumour rather than to a functional disturbance. On the contrary, stimulation tests can help to locate the level of a defect in cases of hypopituitarism [fr

  1. Loose excitation-secretion coupling in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardjan, Nina; Parpura, Vladimir; Zorec, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Astrocytes play an important housekeeping role in the central nervous system. Additionally, as secretory cells, they actively participate in cell-to-cell communication, which can be mediated by membrane-bound vesicles. The gliosignaling molecules stored in these vesicles are discharged into the extracellular space after the vesicle membrane fuses with the plasma membrane. This process is termed exocytosis, regulated by SNARE proteins, and triggered by elevations in cytosolic calcium levels, which are necessary and sufficient for exocytosis in astrocytes. For astrocytic exocytosis, calcium is sourced from the intracellular endoplasmic reticulum store, although its entry from the extracellular space contributes to cytosolic calcium dynamics in astrocytes. Here, we discuss calcium management in astrocytic exocytosis and the properties of the membrane-bound vesicles that store gliosignaling molecules, including the vesicle fusion machinery and kinetics of vesicle content discharge. In astrocytes, the delay between the increase in cytosolic calcium activity and the discharge of secretions from the vesicular lumen is orders of magnitude longer than that in neurons. This relatively loose excitation-secretion coupling is likely tailored to the participation of astrocytes in modulating neural network processing. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Hollywood secret: zombies created with cerebral nanobot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David SALINAS FLORES

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently a surprising campaign is being carried out to warn the world of an upcoming epidemic of zombies, “zombification” is considered “as an infection that is transmitted by a virus, however, an objective scientific analysis, leads to suspect that the zombies would be being produced with brain nanobots.Promoted characteristics of zombies, telepathic properties, and swarming behavior can only be explained by brain nanobots. It is likely that the origin of the zombie epidemic announced by the US Army by nanobots is a secret of scriptwriters, Hollywood producers and its network of journalists, including Robert Kirkman, the main screenwriter of the most popular series of zombies, The Walking Dead. The long history of unethical human experiments carried out by transnational corporations in the world forces us to be alert and denounce the possible  existence of inhuman experimentation with microchips and brain nanobots to develop mental control and zombies, human experimentation that would be the secret script of many films of science fiction and series of Hollywood and source of its millionaire enrichment.

  3. Metoclopramide unmasks potentially misleading contralateral suppression in patients undergoing adrenal vein sampling for primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossitto, Giacomo; Miotto, Diego; Battistel, Michele; Barbiero, Giulio; Maiolino, Giuseppe; Bisogni, Valeria; Sanga, Viola; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2016-11-01

    As metoclopramide stimulates aldosterone secretion, we tested its usefulness in the assessment of lateralization of primary aldosteronism by adrenal vein sampling (AVS). Prospective within-patient study in consecutive patients undergoing AVS for primary aldosteronism subtyping. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of baseline and postmetoclopramide lateralization index and relative (to cortisol) aldosterone secretion indices (RASI) for each adrenal gland with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) determined by the four corners criteria as the reference diagnosis. We recruited 93 consecutive patients (mean age: 52 years; women 31%). Metoclopramide increased plasma aldosterone in the inferior vena cava and in both adrenal veins. The postmetoclopramide lateralization index was accurate in identifying APA, but did not increase diagnostic accuracy over baseline lateralization index, because the RASI increased similarly in both sides. Conversely, metoclopramide raised RASI to values more than 0.90 bilaterally in non-APA patients allowing accurate identification of factitious aldosterone suppression. In contrast, RASI was 0.90 or less in 48% contralateral to the tumor in APA patients. Regression analysis showed the APA patients with persistent suppression of RASI contralaterally showed a more florid primary aldosteronism phenotype. Metoclopramide does not enhance lateralization of aldosterone excess in APA, but consistently increased the value of RASI in non-APA cases, thus unmasking potentially misleading suppression of aldosterone. Postmetoclopramide RASI may therefore allow a more precise diagnosis when AVS can be achieved only unilaterally.

  4. Secure direct communication based on secret transmitting order of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Aidong; Zhang Shou; Xia Yan; Fan Qiubo

    2006-01-01

    We propose the schemes of quantum secure direct communication based on a secret transmitting order of particles. In these protocols, the secret transmitting order of particles ensures the security of communication, and no secret messages are leaked even if the communication is interrupted for security. This strategy of security for communication is also generalized to a quantum dialogue. It not only ensures the unconditional security but also improves the efficiency of communication

  5. The Secret Driving Force Behind Mongolia’s Successful Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    the nation’s democracy movement its earliest stages. Courtesy of the Democratic Union of Mongolia PRISM 6, no. 1 FROM THE FIELD | 141 The Secret Driving...assistance and trade. Our state budget PRISM 6, no. 1 FROM THE FIELD | 143 THE SECRET DRIVING FORCE BEHIND MONGOLIA’S SUCCESSFUL DEMOCRACY collapsed; we...O yungerel Tsedevdam ba (2006) PRISM 6, no. 1 FROM THE FIELD | 145 THE SECRET DRIVING FORCE BEHIND MONGOLIA’S SUCCESSFUL DEMOCRACY significantly as

  6. Family secrets: Law and understandings of openness in everyday relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Uncovering old or historical family secrets has become an enjoyable pastime yet in contemporary families the keeping of secrets, especially those relating to reproduction and paternity, is seen increasingly as undesirable. This article explores these issues and the growing tendency for family law and policy to favour exposing genetic truths seeing this form of scientific veracity as crucial to child welfare and equality. The article explores the changing contexts of family secrets (using data...

  7. Avaliação da capacidade de produzir fitotoxinas in vitro por parte de fungos com propriedades antagônicas a nematóides In vitro evaluation of the phytotoxin production ability by fungi with antagonic properties to nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Em trabalho preliminar foram obtidos 24 isolados fúngicos com propriedades antagônicas a nematóides parasitas de plantas segundo experimentos realizados em laboratório. Para dar continuidade a tal trabalho, tornou-se desejável dispor de metodologia simples e de baixo custo para selecionar aqueles sem capacidade de produção de substâncias fitotóxicas, para serem empregados em experimentos em casa-de-vegetação com fitonematóides. Conseqüentemente, cultivaram-se os fungos em meio líquido e, após filtração, as fases líquidas foram liofilizadas e extraídas com acetato de etila/metanol. Os extratos foram concentrados sob vácuo e dissolvidos em água e solução de sacarose para serem submetidos a testes in vitro com sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L. e com coleóptilos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., respectivamente. Vinte e três isolados pertencentes aos gêneros Arthrobotrys, Aspergillus, Coniothyrium, Cunninghamella, Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium, Monacrosporium, Mortierella, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Sclerotinia, Trichoderma e Verticillium, apresentaram atividade tóxica contra os coleóptilos de trigo. Apenas os isolados de Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc. Wollenw., Fusarium moniliforme Shelden, Mortierella sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom. Samson e Penicillium sp. apresentaram atividade fitotóxica no teste com sementes de alface. Somente um isolado de F. moniliforme se mostrou inativo em ambos os testes, o que sugere que não seja produtor de fitotoxinas.In a previous work 24 fungi cultures were selected due to their antagonic properties to phytonematodes in laboratory experiments. To proceed to further studies, it became desirable to use a simple and inexpensive methodology to identify those fungi able to produce phytotoxic substances, so that only the non phytotoxin producers could be used in green-house experiments with plant parasite nematodes. Thus, fungi were grown in liquid medium and the resulting mixtures were

  8. Kinetics of alpha-amylase secretion in Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anne Laurence Santerre; Carlsen, Morten; Bang de, H.

    1999-01-01

    -chase experiments were carried out to investigate the alpha-amylase secretion kinetics in A. oryzae. No unglycosylated alpha-amylase was detected neither intracellularly nor extracellularly demonstrating that glycosylation was not the rate controlling step in the secretory pathway. The pulse chase experiments...... indicated that there are two pools of intracellular alpha-amylase: a fast secreted and a slow secreted. The secretion of those two pools were described with a kinetic model, which was fitted to the pulse chase experiments. (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 65: 76-82, 1999....

  9. Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amer, Mildred

    2005-01-01

    "Secret" or "closed door" sessions of the House of Representatives and Senate are held periodically to discuss business, including impeachment deliberations, deemed to require confidentiality and secrecy...

  10. Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amer, Mildred

    2004-01-01

    Secret or closed door sessions of the House of Representatives and Senate are held periodically to discuss business, including impeachment deliberations, deemed to require confidentiality and secrecy...

  11. The ESX system in Bacillus subtilis mediates protein secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Huppert

    Full Text Available Esat-6 protein secretion systems (ESX or Ess are required for the virulence of several human pathogens, most notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. These secretion systems are defined by a conserved FtsK/SpoIIIE family ATPase and one or more WXG100 family secreted substrates. Gene clusters coding for ESX systems have been identified amongst many organisms including the highly tractable model system, Bacillus subtilis. In this study, we demonstrate that the B. subtilis yuk/yue locus codes for a nonessential ESX secretion system. We develop a functional secretion assay to demonstrate that each of the locus gene products is specifically required for secretion of the WXG100 virulence factor homolog, YukE. We then employ an unbiased approach to search for additional secreted substrates. By quantitative profiling of culture supernatants, we find that YukE may be the sole substrate that depends on the FtsK/SpoIIIE family ATPase for secretion. We discuss potential functional implications for secretion of a unique substrate.

  12. Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing of Secure Direct Communication Using Teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Zhang Quan; Tang Chaojing

    2007-01-01

    We present an (n,n) threshold quantum secret sharing scheme of secure direct communication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and teleportation. After ensuring the security of the quantum channel, the sender encodes the secret message directly on a sequence of particle states and transmits it to the receivers by teleportation. The receivers can recover the secret message by combining their measurement results with the sender's result. If a perfect quantum channel is used, our scheme is completely secure because the transmitting particle sequence does not carry the secret message. We also show our scheme is secure for noise quantum channel.

  13. Human renin biosynthesis and secretion in normal and ischemic kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.E.; Carleton, J.E.; Richie, J.P.; Heusser, C.; Dzau, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    The pathway of renin biosynthesis and secretion in normal and ischemic human kidneys has been investigated by pulse-labeling experiments. The results indicate that in normal human kidney, preprorenin is rapidly processed to 47-kDa prorenin. Microradiosequencing showed that this molecule was generated by cleavage between Gly-23 and Leu-24, yielding a 43-amino acid proregion. Analysis of prorenin secreted by the kidney tissue yielded an identical sequence, indicating that prorenin is secreted without any further proteolysis. An examination of the kinetics of processing and secretion suggested that a majority of the newly synthesized prorenin is quickly secreted, while only a small fraction is processed intracellularly to the mature renin. The differences in secretion kinetics between prorenin and mature renin and the selective inhibition of prorenin secretion by monensin suggest that they are secreted independently via two pathways: a constitutive pathway probably from the Golgi or protogranules that rapidly release prorenin and a regulated pathway that secretes mature renin from the mature granules. A comparison of the kinetics of processing between normal and ischemic tissues suggests that renal ischemia leads to an overall increase in the rate of processing or prorenin to mature renin. In addition, prolonged biosynthetic labeling of renin in the ischemic kidney yielded two smaller molecular weight immunoreactive forms suggestive of renin fragments that may be degradative products. These fragments were not detected in normal kidney tissue labeled for similar lengths of time

  14. Security of the AES with a Secret S-Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiessen, Tyge; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Kölbl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    How does the security of the AES change when the S-box is replaced by a secret S-box, about which the adversary has no knowledge? Would it be safe to reduce the number of encryption rounds? In this paper, we demonstrate attacks based on integral cryptanalysis which allow to recover both the secret...... key and the secret S-box for respectively four, five, and six rounds of the AES. Despite the significantly larger amount of secret information which an adversary needs to recover, the attacks are very efficient with time/data complexities of 217/216, 238/240 and 290/264, respectively. Another...

  15. Influence of hyperthyroidism on growth hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcavi, R; Dieguez, C; Zini, M; Muruais, C; Casanueva, F; Portioli, I

    1993-05-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with altered GH secretion. Whether this is due to changes of somatotroph responsiveness or reflects an alteration in negative feedback signals at the hypothalamic level is unknown. We therefore performed a series of studies to shed some light onto this issue. Study 1: GHRH (1 microgram/kg b.w.) was injected i.v. in 38 hyperthyroid patients and in 30 normal subjects; in 11 of the patients the GHRH test was repeated following methimazole-induced remission of hyperthyroidism. Study 2: hGH (2 U i.v.) or saline were administered 3 hours prior to GHRH; six hyperthyroid patients and six normal subjects were studied. Study 3: ten normal subjects and ten hyperthyroid patients were given 75 g oral glucose or water 30 minutes before GHRH. Study 4: 11 normal subjects and eight hyperthyroid patients were studied. TRH or vehicle were dissolved in 250 ml of saline solution and infused at a rate of 400 micrograms/h for 150 minutes. Thirty minutes after the beginning of the infusions, L-arginine (30 g infused over 45 min i.v.) was administered. Hyperthyroid patients were compared to normal subjects. Growth hormone was measured by RIA at 15-minute intervals. GH responses to GHRH were subnormal in hyperthyroid patients. Following antithyroid drug treatment with methimazole, GH responses to GHRH increased in these patients in comparison to pretreatment values. Serum IGF-I levels, which were elevated before treatment, decreased after methimazole administration. Exogenous GH administration induced a clear decrease of GH responses to GHRH in both control and hyperthyroid subjects. On the other hand, oral glucose load decreased the GH responses to GHRH in normal but not in hyperthyroid subjects. TRH administration did not modify the GH responses to arginine in either normal subjects or hyperthyroid patients. Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased serum IGF-I levels and marked alterations in the neuroregulation of GH secretion. These changes involve

  16. Alternative protein secretion: The Mam1 ABC transporter supports secretion of M-factor linked GFP in fission yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaerulff, Soren; Mueller, Sven; Jensen, Martin Roland

    2005-01-01

    To examine whether the fission yeast Mam1 ABC transporter can be used for secretion of heterologous proteins, thereby bypassing the classical secretion pathway, we have analyzed chimeric forms of the M-factor precursor. It was demonstrated that GFP can be exported when fused to both the amino-terminal prosequence from mfm1 and a CaaX motif. This secretion was dependent on the Mam1 transporter and not the classical secretion pathway. The secretion efficiency of GFP, however, was relatively low and most of the reporter protein was trapped in the vacuolar membranes. Our findings suggest that the Mam1 ABC protein is a promiscuous peptide transporter that can accommodate globular proteins of a relatively large size. Furthermore, our results help in defining the sequences required for processing and secretion of natural M-factor

  17. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D

    1996-01-01

    The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during....../ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...... of a standardized method we show that the calcium set-point is normal or slightly elevated, indicating normal parathyroid reactivity to calcium in chronic renal failure....

  18. Secreted and Transmembrane Wnt Inhibitors and Activators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciat, Cristina-Maria; Niehrs, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins plays important roles in embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Wnt signaling is modulated by a number of evolutionarily conserved inhibitors and activators. Wnt inhibitors belong to small protein families, including sFRP, Dkk, WIF, Wise/SOST, Cerberus, IGFBP, Shisa, Waif1, APCDD1, and Tiki1. Their common feature is to antagonize Wnt signaling by preventing ligand–receptor interactions or Wnt receptor maturation. Conversely, the Wnt activators, R-spondin and Norrin, promote Wnt signaling by binding to Wnt receptors or releasing a Wnt-inhibitory step. With few exceptions, these antagonists and agonists are not pure Wnt modulators, but also affect additional signaling pathways, such as TGF-β and FGF signaling. Here we discuss their interactions with Wnt ligands and Wnt receptors, their role in developmental processes, as well as their implication in disease. PMID:23085770

  19. Secrets of mlearning failures: confronting reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cochrane

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Having implemented and evaluated over 35 mlearning projects in a variety of contexts in higher education over the past 6 years the researcher is ready to share the untold secret: not all mlearning projects succeed! This article critiques three of the researcher's mlearning projects that can be classed as “failures” and compares them to successful projects to draw out critical implications for mlearning project design and implementation to avoid common pitfalls leading to potential project failure. This article uses the researcher's six critical success factors identified across the 35 mlearning projects to evaluate these three projects, and concludes that projects resulting in “no significant difference” in pedagogical outcomes are the result of attempts to shoehorn old pedagogies into new technologies. Lecturer professional development and sustained collaborative support are critical to fostering new pedagogies utilising the unique affordances of mobile devices.

  20. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D

    1996-01-01

    /ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...... of a standardized method we show that the calcium set-point is normal or slightly elevated, indicating normal parathyroid reactivity to calcium in chronic renal failure.......The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during...

  1. An engineered yeast efficiently secreting penicillin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loknath Gidijala

    Full Text Available This study aimed at developing an alternative host for the production of penicillin (PEN. As yet, the industrial production of this beta-lactam antibiotic is confined to the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. As such, the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, a recognized producer of pharmaceuticals, represents an attractive alternative. Introduction of the P. chrysogenum gene encoding the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS in H. polymorpha, resulted in the production of active ACVS enzyme, when co-expressed with the Bacillus subtilis sfp gene encoding a phosphopantetheinyl transferase that activated ACVS. This represents the first example of the functional expression of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase in yeast. Co-expression with the P. chrysogenum genes encoding the cytosolic enzyme isopenicillin N synthase as well as the two peroxisomal enzymes isopenicillin N acyl transferase (IAT and phenylacetyl CoA ligase (PCL resulted in production of biologically active PEN, which was efficiently secreted. The amount of secreted PEN was similar to that produced by the original P. chrysogenum NRRL1951 strain (approx. 1 mg/L. PEN production was decreased over two-fold in a yeast strain lacking peroxisomes, indicating that the peroxisomal localization of IAT and PCL is important for efficient PEN production. The breakthroughs of this work enable exploration of new yeast-based cell factories for the production of (novel beta-lactam antibiotics as well as other natural and semi-synthetic peptides (e.g. immunosuppressive and cytostatic agents, whose production involves NRPS's.

  2. Isotope selection for patients undergoing prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Christine M.; Potters, Louis; Ashley, Richard; Freeman, Katherine; Wang Xiaohong; Waldbaum, Robert; Leibel, Steven

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound-guided trans perineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy (TIPPB) is generally performed with either 103 Pd or 125 I. The use of 125 I for low Gleason score tumors and 103 Pd for higher Gleason scores has been suggested based on isotope dose rate and cell doubling time observed in in vitro studies. While many centers follow these isotope selection criteria, other centers have elected to use only a single isotope, regardless of Gleason score. No clinical data have been published comparing these isotopes. This study was undertaken to compare outcomes between 125 I and 103 Pd in a matched pair analysis for patients undergoing prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Six hundred forty-eight consecutively treated patients with clinically confined prostate cancer underwent TIPPB between June 1992 and February 1997. Five hundred thirty-two patients underwent TIPPB alone, whereas 116 received pelvic external beam irradiation and TIPPB. Ninety-three patients received androgen deprivation therapy prior to TIPPB. The prescribed doses for TIPPB were 160 Gy for 125 I (pre-TG43) and 120 Gy for 103 Pd. Patients treated with combination therapy received 41.4 or 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) external beam irradiation followed by a 3- to 5-week break and then received either a 120-Gy 125 I or a 90-Gy 103 Pd implant. Until November 1994, all patients underwent an 125 I implant after which the isotope selection was based on either Gleason score (Gleason score 2-5: 125 I; Gleason 5-8: 103 Pd) or isotope availability. A matched pair analysis was performed to assess any difference between isotopes. Two hundred twenty-two patients were matched according to Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and stage. PSA relapse-free survival (PSA-RFS) was calculated based on the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Group definition of failure. Kaplan-Meier actuarial survival curves were compared to assess differences in

  3. Engineering signal peptides for enhanced protein secretion from Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daphne T W; Sarkar, Casim A

    2013-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is an attractive vehicle for biotechnological production of proteins and clinical delivery of therapeutics. In many such applications using this host, it is desirable to maximize secretion of recombinant proteins into the extracellular space, which is typically achieved by using the native signal peptide from a major secreted lactococcal protein, Usp45. In order to further increase protein secretion from L. lactis, inherent limitations of the Usp45 signal peptide (Usp45sp) must be elucidated. Here, we performed extensive mutagenesis on Usp45sp to probe the effects of both the mRNA sequence (silent mutations) and the peptide sequence (amino acid substitutions) on secretion. We screened signal peptides based on their resulting secretion levels of Staphylococcus aureus nuclease and further evaluated them for secretion of Bacillus subtilis α-amylase. Silent mutations alone gave an increase of up to 16% in the secretion of α-amylase through a mechanism consistent with relaxed mRNA folding around the ribosome binding site and enhanced translation. Targeted amino acid mutagenesis in Usp45sp, combined with additional silent mutations from the best clone in the initial screen, yielded an increase of up to 51% in maximum secretion of α-amylase while maintaining secretion at lower induction levels. The best sequence from our screen preserves the tripartite structure of the native signal peptide but increases the positive charge of the n-region. Our study presents the first example of an engineered L. lactis signal peptide with a higher secretion yield than Usp45sp and, more generally, provides strategies for further enhancing protein secretion in bacterial hosts.

  4. Production, secretion, and stability of human secreted alkaline phosphatase in tobacco NT1 cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Arteaga, Alejandro; Mason, Hugh S; Shuler, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco NT1 cell suspension cultures secreting active human secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) were generated for the first time as a model system to study recombinant protein production, secretion, and stability in plant cell cultures. The SEAP gene encodes a secreted form of the human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP). During batch culture, the highest level of active SEAP in the culture medium (0.4 U/mL, corresponding to approximately 27 mg/L) was observed at the end of the exponential growth phase. Although the level of active SEAP decreased during the stationary phase, the activity loss did not appear to be due to SEAP degradation (based on Western blots) but due to SEAP denaturation. The protein-stabilizing agents polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP) and bacitracin were added extracellularly to test for their ability to reduce the loss of SEAP activity during the stationary phase. Bacitracin (100 mg/L) was the most effective treatment at sustaining activity levels for up to 17 days post-subculture. Commercially available human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) was used to probe the mechanism of SEAP deactivation. Experiments with PLAP in sterile and conditioned medium corroborated the denaturation of SEAP by factors generated by cell growth and not due to simple proteolysis. We also show for the first time that the factors promoting activity loss are heat labile at 95 degrees C but not at 70 degrees C, and they are not inactivated after a 5 day incubation period under normal culture conditions (27 degrees C). In addition, there were no significant changes in pH or redox potential when comparing sterile and cell-free conditioned medium during PLAP incubation, indicating that these factors were unimportant.

  5. Plasma fibronectin in patients undergoing major surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin in patients undergoing major surgery had been determined before and after operation. The study was done on 15 patients and 15 normal healthy individuals. The study revealed that patients subjected to major operation, their fibronectin level was normal before operation followed by reduction one day post-operation. After one week, fibronectin level raised again nearly to the pre-operations levels. The probable mechanisms of fibronectin in healing processes were discussed. Fibronectin (FN) is a family of structurally and immunologically related high molecular weight glycoproteins that are present in many cell surfaces, in extracellular fluids, in connective tissues and in most membranes. Interaction with certain discrete extracellular substances, such as a glucosaminoglycans (e.g. heparin), fibrin and collagen and with cell surface structure seem to account for many of its biological activities, among which are regulation of adhesion, spreading and locomotion (Mosesson and amrani, 1980). The concentration of Fn in human plasma decreases after extensive destruction such as that occurs in major surgery, burns or other trauma. This decrease has been generally though to be due to increased consumption of soluble plasma Fn in opsonization of particulate and soluble debris from circulation by the reticuloendothelial (RE) system. Fn rapidly appears in injury areas, in experimentally induced blisters, wounded and epithelium tissues (Petersen et al., 1985). Fn accumulates at times of increased vascular permeability and it is produced by cell of blood vessels in response to injury

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection in patients undergoing appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, T E; Atmatzidis, K S; Papaziogas, B T; Souparis, A; Koutelidakis, I M; Papaziogas, T B

    2002-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been found in the upper gastrointestinal tract; it is incriminated as aetiological factor in various pathological conditions. This prospective study assesses the presence of this microorganism in the appendix flora and the possible role of its infection in the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis. H. pylori was investigated in 46 consecutive patients undergoing emergent appendectomy for presumed acute appendicitis. Blood sample for serological test of H. pylori infection was drawn before operation. The removed appendix specimen was stained for H. pylori; confirmation was made by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis. The intensity of inflammation was determined pathologically grading from no inflammation to gangrenous appendicitis. Statistical analysis was made using the chi-square test. Seropositivity for H. pylori infection was found in 18 patients (39%), but the microbe was detected in just two appendix specimens (4%). In all seropositive patients acute appendicitis was confirmed by the pathology study; serous (33%) and purulent or gangrenous (67%). The latter incidence in the seronegative patients was 50%. There were found eight specimens (17%) negative for inflammation dealing all with seronegative patients. It seems that H. pylori colonizes the appendix in small proportion and is unlikely to be associated in direct correlation with acute appendicitis. However, seropositive patients with acute inflammation are likely to suffer from purulent or gangrenous form.

  7. Constipation Risk in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sevim; Atar, Nurdan Yalcin; Ozturk, Nilgun; Mendes, Guler; Kuytak, Figen; Bakar, Esra; Dalgiran, Duygu; Ergin, Sumeyra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Problems regarding bowel elimination are quite common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Objectives: To determine constipation risk before the surgery, bowel elimination during postoperative period, and the factors affecting bowel elimination. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a general surgery ward of a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey between January 2013 and May 2013. A total of 107 patients were included in the study, who were selected by convenience sampling. Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS), patient information form, medical and nursing records were used in the study. Results: The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.97 ± 15.74 (year). Most of the patients have undergone colon (37.4%) and stomach surgeries (21.5%). Open surgical intervention (83.2%) was performed on almost all patients (96.3%) under general anesthesia. Patients were at moderate risk for constipation with average scores of 11.71 before the surgery. A total of 77 patients (72%) did not have bowel elimination problem during postoperative period. The type of the surgery (P < 0.05), starting time for oral feeding after the surgery (P < 0.05), and mobilization (P < 0.05) were effective on postoperative bowel elimination. Conclusions: There is a risk for constipation after abdominal surgery. Postoperative practices are effective on the risk of constipation. PMID:26380107

  8. Renal renin secretion as regulator of body fluid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Isaksson, Gustaf L; Stubbe, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is essential for body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. This review focuses on the homeostatic regulation of the secretion of active renin in the kidney, primarily in humans. Under physiological conditions, renin secretion is determined mainly by sodium...

  9. 32 CFR 9.9 - Protection of State secrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.9 Protection of State secrets. Nothing in this part shall be construed to authorize disclosure of... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of State secrets. 9.9 Section 9.9...

  10. Radioimmunologic study of insulin secretion during acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkalaya, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    Insulin secretion in irradiated (750 R) albino rats has been studied radioimmunologically. The data obtained were correlated with the corticosterone and glucose contents of blood. It has been shown that there is a risk of relative incompetence of insulin secretion during the hypercorticoidism and hyperglycemia

  11. [Dynamics of hormone secretion during chronic emotional stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiragova, M G; Kovalev, S V; Svirskaia, R I

    1979-05-01

    Study of spontaneous secretion of corticosteroids and thyroid hormones and the direct hormonal response to stress revealed the pathogenic effect of chronic combined emotional stress upon the hormonal function of adrenal glands. The hippocampus takes part in formation of the emotional tension in response to stress stimulus and of the following hormonal secretion.

  12. In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Type VII Secretion System (T7SS) is one of the factors involved in virulence of Mycobacteriun tuberculosis H37Rv. Numerous research efforts have been made in the last decade towards characterizing the components of this secretion system. An extensive genome-wide analysis through compilation of isolated information ...

  13. Pathogenesis of canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In dogs, hypercortisolism is one of the most frequently observed endocrine disorders, with an estimated incidence of about 1-2 cases per 1000 dogs per year. Approximately 15% of these cases is due to a cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumor (AT). Cortisol-secreting ATs are characterized by

  14. Secretion of salivary statherin is compromised in uncontrolled diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Izumi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and general significance: The results show that synthesis and secretion of statherin is reduced in diabetics and this reduction is salivary gland specific. As compromised salivary statherin secretion leads to increased oral health risk, this study indicates that routine oral health assessment of these patients is warranted.

  15. Antifungal activity of epithelial secretions from selected frog species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of skin secretions from selected frogs (Amietia fuscigula, Strongylopus grayi and Xenopus laevis) and one toad (Amietophrynus pantherinus) of the south Western Cape Province of South Africa. Initially, different extraction techniques for the collection of skin secretions ...

  16. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chitinase, a Gradually Secreted Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folders, J. (Jindra); Algra, J. (Jon); Roelofs, M.S. (Marc); Loon, L.C. van; Tommassen, J.P.M.; Bitter, Wilbert

    2001-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes many proteins into its extracellular environment via the type I, II, and III secretion systems. In this study, a gene, chiC, coding for an extracellular chitinolytic enzyme, was identified. The chiC gene encodes a polypeptide of 483 amino

  17. The mechanism of biliary lipid secretion and its defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, R. P.; Groen, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    Biliary lipid secretion is an important physiological event; not only for the disposal of cholesterol from the body, but also for the protection of cells lining the biliary tree against bile salts. Insight into the (patho)physiological role of biliary lipid secretion has been recently expanded

  18. A linear construction of perfect secret sharing schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.; Santis, De A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the vector space construction due to Brickell [5]. This generalization, introduced by Bertilsson [1], leads to perfect secret sharing schemes with rational information rates in which the secret can be computed efficiently by each qualified group. A one to one

  19. Extrafloral nectar secretion from wounds of Solanum dulcamara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortzing, Tobias; Calf, Onno W; Böhlke, Marlene; Schwachtje, Jens; Kopka, Joachim; Geuß, Daniel; Kosanke, Susanne; van Dam, Nicole M; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-04-25

    Plants usually close wounds rapidly to prevent infections and the loss of valuable resources such as assimilates(1). However, herbivore-inflicted wounds on the bittersweet nightshade Solanum dulcamara appear not to close completely and produce sugary wound secretions visible as droplets. Many plants across the plant kingdom secrete sugary nectar from extrafloral nectaries(2) to attract natural enemies of herbivores for indirect defence(3,4). As ants forage on wound edges of S. dulcamara in the field, we hypothesized that wound secretions are a form of extrafloral nectar (EFN). We show that, unlike EFN from known nectaries, wound secretions are neither associated with any specific structure nor restricted to certain locations. However, similar to EFN, they are jasmonate-inducible and the plant controls their chemical composition. Wound secretions are attractive for ants, and application of wound secretion mimics increases ant attraction and reduces herbivory on S. dulcamara plants in a natural population. In greenhouse experiments, we reveal that ants can defend S. dulcamara from two of its native herbivores, slugs and flea beetle larvae. Since nectar is defined by its ecological function as a sugary secretion involved in interactions with animals(5), such 'plant bleeding' could be a primitive mode of nectar secretion exemplifying an evolutionary origin of structured extrafloral nectaries.

  20. Preliminary observation of genital secretions, growth rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cane rats are large terrestial rodents which have the potential to increase animal protein intake. There is paucity of information on the genital secretions and growth rate of caged cane rats. This study observed the genital secretions, growth rate, feeds, feeding and the behaviour of caged cane rats. When animals adjusted to ...

  1. Bidrag til "Life begins at 100 - Secrets of the supercentenarians"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Bidrag til: "Life begins at 100 - Secrets of the supercentenarians". Uddrag fra Human Genetics, vol. 119 p 1432. Udgivelsesdato: 5 september......Bidrag til: "Life begins at 100 - Secrets of the supercentenarians". Uddrag fra Human Genetics, vol. 119 p 1432. Udgivelsesdato: 5 september...

  2. A catalogue of human secreted proteins and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar Keerthikumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Under both normal and pathological conditions, cells secrete variety of proteins through classical and non-classical secretory pathways into the extracellular space. Majority of these proteins represent pathophysiology of the cell from which it is secreted. Recently, though more than 92% of the protein coding genes has been mapped by human proteome map project, but number of those proteins that constitutes secretome of the cell still remains elusive. Secreted proteins or the secretome can be accessible in bodily fluids and hence are considered as potential biomarkers to discriminate between healthy and diseased individuals. In order to facilitate the biomarker discovery and to further aid clinicians and scientists working in these arenas, we have compiled and catalogued secreted proteins from the human proteome using integrated bioinformatics approach. In this study, nearly 14% of the human proteome is likely to be secreted through classical and non-classical secretory pathways. Out of which, ~38% of these secreted proteins were found in extracellular vesicles including exosomes and shedding microvesicles. Among these secreted proteins, 94% were detected in human bodily fluids including blood, plasma, serum, saliva, semen, tear and urine. We anticipate that this high confidence list of secreted proteins could serve as a compendium of candidate biomarkers. In addition, the catalogue may provide functional insights in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions of the cell.

  3. Constitutive protein secretion from the exocrine pancreas of fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvan, P.; Chang, A.

    1987-01-01

    Two general kinds of exocytotic secretion of proteins are known: that which is stimulated by secretagogues; and constitutive exocytosis, which is unable to be stimulated. The exocrine pancreas has often been cited as a model system for the first kind of secretion. However, the release of digestive enzymes from the exocrine pancreas of 1-day prenatal rats cannot be stimulated by secretagogues; therefore, its secretion is constitutive. To gain insight into the intracellular pathways which mediate secretion in the fetal gland, we examined the kinetics of release of newly synthesized proteins. We find that fetal pancreas in a steady state of secretion releases pulse-labeled secretory proteins in two kinetically distinct phases. The first phase occurring during 0-6.5 h of chase comprises approximately 12% of total incorporated radioactivity, the second phase beginning at greater than 7 h of chase comprises the remainder. Based on analysis by electron microscope autoradiography, radiolabel is localized during the first phase of secretion in immature granules/condensing vacuoles, Golgi compartments, and few mature granules. The second phase of secretion occurs when radiolabel is predominantly in mature granules. We propose that secretion occurs via (at least) 2 exocytotic routes, both of which are constitutive in fetal pancreatic tissue

  4. The role of women's secret societies in cameroon's contemporary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there are many secret societies, most of which belong to the male folk in the North West Province of Cameroon, little was and/or is known about their activities. However, Takumbeng, a women's secret society from the North West Province of Cameroon came to prominence in the 1990's during the political upheaval ...

  5. Radioimmunologic study of insulin secretion during acute radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalaya, A I

    1977-01-01

    Insulin secretion in irradiated (750 R) albino rats has been studied radioimmunologically. The data obtained were correlated with the corticosterone and glucose contents of blood. It has been shown that there is a risk of relative incompetence of insulin secretion during the hypercorticoidism and hyperglycemia.

  6. The relationship between bone turnover and insulin sensitivity and secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Balkau, Beverley; Hatunic, Mensud

    2018-01-01

    Bone metabolism appears to influence insulin secretion and sensitivity, and insulin promotes bone formation in animals, but similar evidence in humans is limited. The objectives of this study are to explore if bone turnover markers were associated with insulin secretion and sensitivity and to det...

  7. Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing of Quantum States Using Entanglement States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Guo; Da-Zu, Huang; Gui-Hua, Zeng; Ho, Lee Moon

    2008-01-01

    A multi-partite-controlled quantum secret sharing scheme using several non-orthogonal entanglement states is presented with unconditional security. In this scheme, the participants share the secret quantum state by exchanging the secret polarization angles of the disordered travel particles. The security of the secret quantum state is also guaranteed by the non-orthogonal multi-partite-controlled entanglement states, the participants' secret polarizations, and the disorder of the travelling particles. Moreover, the present scheme is secure against the particle-number splitting attack and the intercept-and-resend attack. It may be still secure even if the distributed quantum state is embedded in a not-so-weak coherent-state pulse

  8. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, Anette; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus

    1996-01-01

    this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n=17) and after pretreatment with high......H 6.9 v 6.8; p>0.05). Omeprazole caused higher rates of basal (mean (SEM)) (597 (48) v 351 (39) mu mol/h; pstimulated (834 (72) v 474 (66) mu mol/h; pstimulated (3351 (678) v 2550 (456) mu mol/h; p>0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion compared with control...... experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p=0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means of acid...

  9. Distribution and diversity of bacterial secretion systems across metagenomic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Matthieu; Egan, Frank; O'Gara, Fergal

    2013-02-01

    Bacteria can manipulate their surrounding environment through the secretion of proteins into other living organisms and into the extracellular milieu. In Gram stain negative bacteria this process is mediated by different types of secretion systems from type I through type VI secretion system (T1SS-T6SS). In this study the prevalence of these secretion systems in 312 publicly available microbiomes derived from a wide range of ecosystems was investigated by a gene-centric approach. Our analysis demonstrates that some secretion systems are over-represented in some specific samples. In addition, some T3SS and T6SS phylogenetic clusters were specifically enriched in particular ecological niches, which could indicate specific bacterial adaptation to these environments. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Optimal Black-Box Secret Sharing over Arbitrary Abelian Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Fehr, Serge

    2002-01-01

    A black-box secret sharing scheme for the threshold access structure T t,n is one which works over any finite Abelian group G. Briefly, such a scheme differs from an ordinary linear secret sharing scheme (over, say, a given finite field) in that distribution matrix and reconstruction vectors...... are defined over ℤ and are designed independently of the group G from which the secret and the shares are sampled. This means that perfect completeness and perfect privacy are guaranteed regardless of which group G is chosen. We define the black-box secret sharing problem as the problem of devising......, for an arbitrary given T t,n , a scheme with minimal expansion factor, i.e., where the length of the full vector of shares divided by the number of players n is minimal. Such schemes are relevant for instance in the context of distributed cryptosystems based on groups with secret or hard to compute group order...

  11. Threshold secret sharing scheme based on phase-shifting interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaopeng; Shi, Zhengang; Wen, Wei

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new method for secret image sharing with the (3,N) threshold scheme based on phase-shifting interferometry. The secret image, which is multiplied with an encryption key in advance, is first encrypted by using Fourier transformation. Then, the encoded image is shared into N shadow images based on the recording principle of phase-shifting interferometry. Based on the reconstruction principle of phase-shifting interferometry, any three or more shadow images can retrieve the secret image, while any two or fewer shadow images cannot obtain any information of the secret image. Thus, a (3,N) threshold secret sharing scheme can be implemented. Compared with our previously reported method, the algorithm of this paper is suited for not only a binary image but also a gray-scale image. Moreover, the proposed algorithm can obtain a larger threshold value t. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  12. Threshold quantum secret sharing based on single qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Changbin; Miao, Fuyou; Meng, Keju; Yu, Yue

    2018-03-01

    Based on unitary phase shift operation on single qubit in association with Shamir's ( t, n) secret sharing, a ( t, n) threshold quantum secret sharing scheme (or ( t, n)-QSS) is proposed to share both classical information and quantum states. The scheme uses decoy photons to prevent eavesdropping and employs the secret in Shamir's scheme as the private value to guarantee the correctness of secret reconstruction. Analyses show it is resistant to typical intercept-and-resend attack, entangle-and-measure attack and participant attacks such as entanglement swapping attack. Moreover, it is easier to realize in physic and more practical in applications when compared with related ones. By the method in our scheme, new ( t, n)-QSS schemes can be easily constructed using other classical ( t, n) secret sharing.

  13. A quantum secret-sharing protocol with fairness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Feng; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    A quantum secret-sharing (QSS) protocol consists of two main phases, called sharing and reconstruction. In the first phase, the dealer selects a secret, divides it into several shares, and sends each participant its share securely with a quantum channel. In the second phase, the participants run an interactive protocol in order to reconstruct the secret. If the participants can communicate via a broadcast channel, they can show their shares and learn the secrets simultaneously. So what happens if the channel is not simultaneous? In this paper, we propose a QSS protocol with cheaters by using partially and maximally entangled states. A secure and fair reconstruction mechanism is designed, in a way that each participant can learn or cannot learn the secret simultaneously. (papers)

  14. Humidification and secretion volume in mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomita, Mario; Palmer, Lucy B; Daroowalla, Feroza; Liu, Jeffrey; Miller, Dori; LeBlanc, Deniese S; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2009-10-01

    To determine potential effects of humidification on the volume of airway secretions in mechanically ventilated patients. Water vapor delivery from devices providing non-heated-wire humidification, heated-wire humidification, and heat and moisture exchanger (HME) were quantified on the bench. Then, patients requiring 24-hour mechanical ventilation were exposed sequentially to each of these humidification devices, and secretions were removed and measured by suctioning every hour during the last 4 hours of the 24-hour study period. In vitro water vapor delivery was greater using non-heated-wire humidification, compared to heated-wire humidification and HME. In vivo, a total of 9 patients were studied. Secretion volume following humidification by non-heated-wire humidification was significantly greater than for heated-wire humidification and HME (P=.004). The volume of secretions appeared to be linked to humidification, as greater water vapor delivery measured in vitro was associated with greater secretion volume in vivo.

  15. Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2010-01-01

    The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

  16. Ionizing radiation in secret services' conspirative actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Lotz, P.; Vogel, B. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Introduction: The death of Litvinenko has been reported by the media. It has raised the question whether this case had been unique. The fall of the wall has allowed a glimpse in the planning and comporting of a secret service. Material and method: Documents of the secret service of the former German democratic republic (GDR), books of defectors, and media reports about secret service actions with radiating substances have been analyzed. Results: Since decades, secret services have been using radioactive nuclides and radiation for their tasks. Several killings with radiation have been reported. A complicated logistic had been developed. Conclusion: Only singular cases of the employment of radiating substances have become known. It is probable that the majority rests unknown. Government support seems necessary in secret services' conspirative actions with radiating substance.

  17. Enhanced secretion of natto phytase by Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Shogo; Tanaka, Kosei; Takenaka, Shinji; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Phytases comprise a group of phosphatases that trim inorganic phosphates from phytic acid (IP6). In this study, we aimed to achieve the efficient secretion of phytase by Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis laboratory standard strain 168 and its derivatives exhibit no phytase activity, whereas a natto starter secretes phytase actively. The natto phytase gene was cloned into strain RIK1285, a protease-defective derivative of 168, to construct a random library of its N-terminal fusions with 173 different signal peptides (SPs) identified in the 168 genome. The library was screened to assess the efficiency of phytase secretion based on clear zones around colonies on plates, which appeared when IP6 was hydrolyzed. The pbp SP enhanced the secretion of the natto phytase most efficiently, i.e. twice that of the original SP. Thus, the secreted natto phytase was purified and found to remove up to 3 phosphates from IP6.

  18. Sur les usages publics du secret : les archives du Service Secret Communiste Roumain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Mihalache

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available L’étude s’occupe des dossiers de l’ancienne police politique du régime communiste de Roumanie, la Securitate. Il a comme point de départ le fait que la mémoire sociale, le contexte politique et les débats publics actuels influencent la recherche historique, modifiant les perceptions sur le document d’archive. Ce dernier n’est plus vu seulement comme source principale de la recherche historique, devenant outil redoutable dans les disputes électorales, car, en base des informations extraites d’un dossier de la Securitate, l’on peut évincer un adversaire incommode. Se montrant utile à dénoncer la collaboration de quelqu’un sous le régime communiste, le document d’archive a acquis des mises symboliques imprévues, étant caché, protégé, volé, racheté, truqué, perdu et redécouvert à commande. Toutes ces pratiques compromettent de plus en plus les chances des historiens de reconstituer de manière crédible l’histoire récente des Roumains. On obtient difficilement l’accès aux dossiers de la Securitate, la patrimonialisation excessive des documents - en vérité leur trésorisation - étant conséquence directe du prestige idéologique et social que le secret détenait au temps communiste.This article focuses on the Securitate files as a political stake, but also as first rank sources for academic research, not from the current perspective of recent history, but from that of cultural history. In post-communist Romania, silence is the secret’s poor relative and confidentiality its respectable form. Ironically or not, we could state that in our country the secrets of communist repression are literally protected by law. The secret is an unbidden, illegitimate competence. In its ethics it does not matter what is good and what is bad, what is true and what is false. The main interest is what is said and what isn’t. The secret being a convention, a pact, the gesture of not saying seems to be more important than

  19. Proteomic Identification of Novel Secreted Antibacterial Toxins of the Serratia marcescens Type VI Secretion System*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Maximilian J.; Trunk, Katharina; Diniz, Juliana Alcoforado; Guo, Manman; Trost, Matthias; Coulthurst, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    It has recently become apparent that the Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a complex macromolecular machine used by many bacterial species to inject effector proteins into eukaryotic or bacterial cells, with significant implications for virulence and interbacterial competition. “Antibacterial” T6SSs, such as the one elaborated by the opportunistic human pathogen, Serratia marcescens, confer on the secreting bacterium the ability to rapidly and efficiently kill rival bacteria. Identification of secreted substrates of the T6SS is critical to understanding its role and ability to kill other cells, but only a limited number of effectors have been reported so far. Here we report the successful use of label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to identify at least eleven substrates of the S. marcescens T6SS, including four novel effector proteins which are distinct from other T6SS-secreted proteins reported to date. These new effectors were confirmed as antibacterial toxins and self-protecting immunity proteins able to neutralize their cognate toxins were identified. The global secretomic study also unexpectedly revealed that protein phosphorylation-based post-translational regulation of the S. marcescens T6SS differs from that of the paradigm, H1-T6SS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Combined phosphoproteomic and genetic analyses demonstrated that conserved PpkA-dependent threonine phosphorylation of the T6SS structural component Fha is required for T6SS activation in S. marcescens and that the phosphatase PppA can reverse this modification. However, the signal and mechanism of PpkA activation is distinct from that observed previously and does not appear to require cell–cell contact. Hence this study has not only demonstrated that new and species-specific portfolios of antibacterial effectors are secreted by the T6SS, but also shown for the first time that PpkA-dependent post-translational regulation of the T6SS is tailored to fit the needs of different bacterial

  20. Exploring Quantum Supremacy in Access Structures of Secret Sharing by Coding Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Ryutaroh

    2018-01-01

    We consider secret sharing schemes with a classical secret and quantum shares. One example of such schemes was recently reported whose access structure cannot be realized by any secret sharing schemes with classical shares. In this paper, we report further quantum secret sharing schemes whose access structures cannot be realized by any classical secret sharing schemes.

  1. 40 CFR 370.64 - What information can I claim as trade secret or confidential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... secret or confidential? 370.64 Section 370.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... secret or confidential? (a) Trade secrets. You may be able to withhold the name of a specific chemical... trade secret. The requirements for withholding trade secret information are set forth in EPCRA section...

  2. Tissue-specific expression of transgenic secreted ACE in vasculature can restore normal kidney functions, but not blood pressure, of Ace-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chattopadhyay

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE regulates normal blood pressure and fluid homeostasis through its action in the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS. Ace-/- mice are smaller in size, have low blood pressure and defective kidney structure and functions. All of these defects are cured by transgenic expression of somatic ACE (sACE in vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice. sACE is expressed on the surface of vascular endothelial cells and undergoes a natural cleavage secretion process to generate a soluble form in the body fluids. Both the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE are enzymatically active, and generate the vasoactive octapeptide Angiotensin II (Ang II with equal efficiency. To assess the relative physiological roles of the secreted and the cell-bound forms of ACE, we expressed, in the vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice, the ectodomain of sACE, which corresponded to only the secreted form of ACE. Our results demonstrated that the secreted form of ACE could normalize kidney functions and RAS integrity, growth and development of Ace-/- mice, but not their blood pressure. This study clearly demonstrates that the secreted form of ACE cannot replace the tissue-bound ACE for maintaining normal blood pressure; a suitable balance between the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE is essential for maintaining all physiological functions of ACE.

  3. Tissue-specific expression of transgenic secreted ACE in vasculature can restore normal kidney functions, but not blood pressure, of Ace-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Kessler, Sean P; Colucci, Juliana Almada; Yamashita, Michifumi; Senanayake, Preenie deS; Sen, Ganes C

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) regulates normal blood pressure and fluid homeostasis through its action in the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS). Ace-/- mice are smaller in size, have low blood pressure and defective kidney structure and functions. All of these defects are cured by transgenic expression of somatic ACE (sACE) in vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice. sACE is expressed on the surface of vascular endothelial cells and undergoes a natural cleavage secretion process to generate a soluble form in the body fluids. Both the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE are enzymatically active, and generate the vasoactive octapeptide Angiotensin II (Ang II) with equal efficiency. To assess the relative physiological roles of the secreted and the cell-bound forms of ACE, we expressed, in the vascular endothelial cells of Ace-/- mice, the ectodomain of sACE, which corresponded to only the secreted form of ACE. Our results demonstrated that the secreted form of ACE could normalize kidney functions and RAS integrity, growth and development of Ace-/- mice, but not their blood pressure. This study clearly demonstrates that the secreted form of ACE cannot replace the tissue-bound ACE for maintaining normal blood pressure; a suitable balance between the tissue-bound and the soluble forms of ACE is essential for maintaining all physiological functions of ACE.

  4. Adapting immunisation schedules for children undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Prada, María; Rodríguez-Martínez, María; García-García, Rebeca; García-Corte, María Dolores; Martínez-Ortega, Carmen

    2018-02-01

    Children undergoing chemotherapy for cancer have special vaccination needs after completion of the treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptation of post-chemotherapy vaccination schedules. An observational study was performed on a retrospective cohort that included all children aged from 0 to 14 years, who completed chemotherapy in a tertiary hospital between 2009 and 2015. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Immunisation was administered in accordance with the guidelines of the Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics. Primary Care immunisation and clinical records of the Preventive Medicine and Public Health Department were reviewed. Of the 99 children who had received chemotherapy, 51 (70.6% males) were included in the study. As regards the type of tumour, 54.9% had a solid organ tumour, and 45.1% had a haematological tumour. Post-chemotherapy immunisation was administered to 70.6%. The most common vaccines received were: diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis or diphtheria-tetanus (54.9%), meningococcus C (41.2%), and seasonal influenza (39.2%). The rate of adaptation of the immunisation schedule after chemotherapy was 9.8%. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against 7v or 13v was administered to 21.6% of study subjects. However, only 17.6% received polysaccharide 23v. None received vaccination against hepatitis A. No statistically significant differences were observed between adherence to immunisation schedules and type of tumour (P=.066), gender (P=.304), or age (P=.342). Post-chemotherapy immunisation of children with cancer is poor. The participation of health professionals in training programs and referral of paediatric cancer patients to Vaccine Units could improve the rate of schedule adaptation and proper immunisation of this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Preoperative information needs of children undergoing tonsillectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Aoife

    2012-02-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify the information needs of children undergoing tonsillectomy with reference to content of information, method of delivery, information providers and timing of information provision. BACKGROUND: Tonsillectomy can be anxiety provoking for children and preoperative preparation programmes are long recognised to reduce anxiety. However, few have been designed from the perspectives of children and to date little is known about how best to prepare children in terms of what to tell them, how to convey information to them, who can best provide information and what is the best timing for information provision. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study. METHOD: Data were collected from nine children (aged 6-9) using interviews supported by a write and draw technique. Data were coded and categorised into themes reflecting content, method, providers and timing of information. RESULTS: Children openly communicated their information needs especially on what to tell them to expect when facing a tonsillectomy. Their principal concerns were about operation procedures, experiencing \\'soreness\\' and discomfort postoperatively and parental presence. Mothers were viewed as best situated to provide them with information. Children were uncertain about what method of information and timing would be most helpful to them. CONCLUSION: Preoperative educational interventions need to take account of children\\'s information needs so that they are prepared for surgery in ways that are meaningful and relevant to them. Future research is needed in this area. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Practical steps towards informing children about having a tonsillectomy include asking them what they need to know and addressing their queries accordingly. Child-centred information leaflets using a question and answer format could also be helpful to children.

  6. Identification of genes encoding the type IX secretion system and secreted proteins in Flavobacterium columnare IA-S-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes, causes columnaris disease in wild and aquaculture-reared freshwater fish. The mechanisms responsible for columnaris disease are not known. Many members of the phylum Bacteroidetes use type IX secretion systems (T9SSs) to secrete enzymes...

  7. LIPID SYNTHESIS, INTRACELLULAR TRANSPORT, AND SECRETION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Olga; Stein, Yechezkiel

    1967-01-01

    In the mammary glands of lactating albino mice injected intravenously with 9, 10-oleic acid-3H or 9, 10-palmitic acid-3H, it has been shown that the labeled fatty acids are incorporated into mammary gland glycerides. The labeled lipid in the mammary gland 1 min after injection was in esterified form (> 95%), and the radioautographic reaction was seen over the rough endoplasmic reticulum and over lipid droplets, both intracellular and intraluminal. At 10–60 min after injection, the silver grains were concentrated predominantly over lipid droplets. There was no concentration of radioactivity over the granules in the Golgi apparatus, at any time interval studied. These findings were interpreted to indicate that after esterification of the fatty acid into glycerides in the rough endoplasmic reticulum an in situ aggregation of lipid occurs, with acquisition of droplet form. The release of the lipid into the lumen proceeds directly and not through the Golgi apparatus, in contradistinction to the mode of secretion of casein in the mammary gland or of lipoprotein in the liver. The presence of strands of endoplasmic reticulum attached to intraluminal lipid droplets provides a structural counterpart to the milk microsomes described in ruminant milk. PMID:6033535

  8. Triboelectric-Based Transparent Secret Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zuqing; Du, Xinyu; Li, Nianwu; Yin, Yingying; Cao, Ran; Zhang, Xiuling; Zhao, Shuyu; Niu, Huidan; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Zhong Lin; Li, Congju

    2018-04-01

    Private and security information for personal identification requires an encrypted tool to extend communication channels between human and machine through a convenient and secure method. Here, a triboelectric-based transparent secret code (TSC) that enables self-powered sensing and information identification simultaneously in a rapid process method is reported. The transparent and hydrophobic TSC can be conformed to any cambered surface due to its high flexibility, which extends the application scenarios greatly. Independent of the power source, the TSC can induce obvious electric signals only by surface contact. This TSC is velocity-dependent and capable of achieving a peak voltage of ≈4 V at a resistance load of 10 MΩ and a sliding speed of 0.1 m s -1 , according to a 2 mm × 20 mm rectangular stripe. The fabricated TSC can maintain its performance after reciprocating rolling for about 5000 times. The applications of TSC as a self-powered code device are demonstrated, and the ordered signals can be recognized through the height of the electric peaks, which can be further transferred into specific information by the processing program. The designed TSC has great potential in personal identification, commodity circulation, valuables management, and security defense applications.

  9. "ON-AIR SECRETS": TEN YEARS LATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a scientific review on the training manual On-air secret by Andrey Bubukin, published in 2003. This guide has been written by a man who never had anything to do with radio, but by the will of fate suddenly became at once the program director of Russia's first non-state radio station Europa Plus Moscow, the commercial music radio. Then came to the fore not the questions of art qualities of broadcast, but technical-mathematical details of the automated programming of song material. Therefore, at the end of the Soviet broadcasting, it became possible appearance some people obviously alien to the electronic mass media. They are, however, strongly influenced the further "format" broadcasting in new Russia, so as the principles of songs rotation and playlist making on the radio still can’t do without recourse to the Bubukin's textbook. There are serious concerns about the fact that the book is intended not only for program directors, but for the music editors also. Extremely dubious assertions and recommendations related to the problems of arts, journalism, radio-presenter's skill, history of radio.

  10. Preserving technological secrets vs. proliferation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    2004-01-01

    In July of 1991 Argentina and Brazil assume the commitment exclusively for the pacific use of the nuclear energy and of their respective nuclear programs through a Bilateral agreement. This Agreement also believes the ABACC, for monitoring the execution of the assumed commitments. From their beginnings, the Agency was involved in the application of safeguards in plants of ultra-centrifugation being this a so much topic of relevance for ABACC like for the IAEA. To preserve technological secrets, for demand of the operator, the cascades of centrifuges find hidden behind of panels. ABACC understanding this necessity, it has explored alternatives that allow to reconcile the interests of all the involved parts. A focus of safeguards based on the control of the perimeter one has come using in the plants of small installed capacity and in the first two cascades of a commercial plant in construction. In the work the efficiency of this focus is discussed as increases the capacity of the plant and with it concludes that it will be necessary to begin a dialogue on the future implementation of methods more standardized of control in the commercial plant, giving time so that the designs are adapted to the new reality. (Author)

  11. Secrets of the old one Einstein, 1905

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    In March 1905, at approximately eight week intervals, the Editor of the noted German physics journal, Annalen der Physik, received three hand-written manuscripts from a relatively unknown patent examiner in Bern, Switzerland. This patent examiner was the twenty-six year old Albert Einstein and the three papers would set the agenda for twentieth century physics. A fourth short paper was received in September 1905 and contained Einstein's derivation of the formula E=mc^2. These papers changed our lives in the twentieth century and beyond. While to a professional physicist the mathematics in these papers are quite straight forward, the ideas behind them are not. In fact, none of Einstein's contemporaries fully understood what he had done. In SECRETS OF THE OLD ONE: Einstein, 1905, renowned science writer Jeremy Bernstein makes these ideas accessible to a general reader with a limited background in mathematics. After reading this book, you will understand why 1905 is often designated as Einstein's miracle year.

  12. Exosome secretion affects social motility in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror Eliaz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV secreted by pathogens function in a variety of biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, exosome secretion is induced by stress that affects trans-splicing. Following perturbations in biogenesis of spliced leader RNA, which donates its spliced leader (SL exon to all mRNAs, or after heat-shock, the SL RNA is exported to the cytoplasm and forms distinct granules, which are then secreted by exosomes. The exosomes are formed in multivesicular bodies (MVB utilizing the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT, through a mechanism similar to microRNA secretion in mammalian cells. Silencing of the ESCRT factor, Vps36, compromised exosome secretion but not the secretion of vesicles derived from nanotubes. The exosomes enter recipient trypanosome cells. Time-lapse microscopy demonstrated that cells secreting exosomes or purified intact exosomes affect social motility (SoMo. This study demonstrates that exosomes are delivered to trypanosome cells and can change their migration. Exosomes are used to transmit stress signals for communication between parasites.

  13. Insulin secretion and action in North Indian women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, G P; Almgren, P; Thaman, R G; Pal, A; Groop, L; Vaag, A; Prasad, R B; Brøns, C

    2017-10-01

    The relative roles(s) of impaired insulin secretion vs. insulin resistance in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus depend upon multiple risk factors and diagnostic criteria. Here, we explored their relative contribution to gestational diabetes as defined by the WHO 1999 (GDM1999) and adapted WHO 2013 (GDM2013) criteria, excluding the 1-h glucose value, in a high-risk Indian population from Punjab. Insulin secretion (HOMA2-B) and insulin action (HOMA2-IR) were assessed in 4665 Indian women with or without gestational diabetes defined by the GDM1999 or adapted GDM2013 criteria. Gestational diabetes defined using both criteria was associated with decreased insulin secretion compared with pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance. Women with gestational diabetes defined by the adapted GDM2013, but not GDM1999 criteria, were more insulin resistant than pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance, and furthermore displayed lower insulin secretion than GDM1999 women. Urban habitat, illiteracy, high age and low BMI were independently associated with reduced insulin secretion, whereas Sikh religion, increasing age and BMI, as well as a family history of diabetes were independently associated with increased insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes risk factors influence insulin secretion and action in North Indian women in a differential manner. Gestational diabetes classified using the adapted GDM2013 compared with GDM1999 criteria is associated with more severe impairments of insulin secretion and action. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  14. Novel Threshold Changeable Secret Sharing Schemes Based on Polynomial Interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lifeng; Li, Mingchu; Guo, Cheng; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Ren, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    After any distribution of secret sharing shadows in a threshold changeable secret sharing scheme, the threshold may need to be adjusted to deal with changes in the security policy and adversary structure. For example, when employees leave the organization, it is not realistic to expect departing employees to ensure the security of their secret shadows. Therefore, in 2012, Zhang et al. proposed (t → t', n) and ({t1, t2,⋯, tN}, n) threshold changeable secret sharing schemes. However, their schemes suffer from a number of limitations such as strict limit on the threshold values, large storage space requirement for secret shadows, and significant computation for constructing and recovering polynomials. To address these limitations, we propose two improved dealer-free threshold changeable secret sharing schemes. In our schemes, we construct polynomials to update secret shadows, and use two-variable one-way function to resist collusion attacks and secure the information stored by the combiner. We then demonstrate our schemes can adjust the threshold safely.

  15. Affinity of antibody secreted by a single cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    It was the intention of this research to measure the affinity of antibody secreted by a single cell, and to describe the spectrum of affinities displayed in response to antigenic stimulation. The single cell secreting specific antibody was isolated by means of the hemolytic plaque assay. The amount of antibody secreted by the cell was to be measured through the use of a solid phase radioimmunoassay. The affinity of the antibody would be estimated by comparing the diameter of the plaque, and the amount of antibody secreted, with a mathematical theory of the formation of a plaque in agar. As a test system, a solid phase radioimmunoassay was developed for human serum albumin using antibody coupled to Sephadex. A sensitivity of 1 nanogram was attained with this assay. A solid phase radioimmunoassay for mouse immunoglobulin M was developed, using antibody coupled to Sepharose. The sensitivity attained with this assay was only on the order of 10 micrograms. The mouse immunoglobulin M radioimmunoassay was not sensitive enough to measure the amount of antibody secreted by a single cell. From a theoretical equation, the relationship between antibody affinity, plaque diameter and antibody secretion rate was calculated for the experimental conditions used in this research. By assuming a constant antibody secretion rate, an effective binding constant for the antibody was estimated from the average plaque diameters. This effective binding constant was observed to increase during the immune response

  16. Por secretion system-dependent secretion and glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis hemin-binding protein 35.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Shoji

    Full Text Available The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS, which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35, which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study.

  17. The secret of neuroscience boom: Are there secret human experiments in Latin América?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Salinas Flores

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available About 6 years ago there sparked a phenomenon in science called the neuroscientific boom. Neurologists underpin this phenomenon to cost reduction techniques such as electroencephalograms and to improved noninvasive technology such as functional MRI. But the human brain, the most complex organ in the universe, has not yet been fully investigated with the existing noninvasive technologies. Thus, there is a suspicion that the real reason for this boom is a secret, forced, and illicit human experimentation in Latin America. Physicians should investigate, be alert, and report these potential unethical human experiments to prevent any further damage to the public health of the citizens of Latin societies.

  18. Structural basis of cytotoxicity mediated by the type III secretion toxin ExoU from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Gendrin

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system (T3SS is a complex macromolecular machinery employed by a number of Gram-negative pathogens to inject effectors directly into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. ExoU from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most aggressive toxins injected by a T3SS, leading to rapid cell necrosis. Here we report the crystal structure of ExoU in complex with its chaperone, SpcU. ExoU folds into membrane-binding, bridging, and phospholipase domains. SpcU maintains the N-terminus of ExoU in an unfolded state, required for secretion. The phospholipase domain carries an embedded catalytic site whose position within ExoU does not permit direct interaction with the bilayer, which suggests that ExoU must undergo a conformational rearrangement in order to access lipids within the target membrane. The bridging domain connects catalytic domain and membrane-binding domains, the latter of which displays specificity to PI(4,5P₂. Both transfection experiments and infection of eukaryotic cells with ExoU-secreting bacteria show that ExoU ubiquitination results in its co-localization with endosomal markers. This could reflect an attempt of the infected cell to target ExoU for degradation in order to protect itself from its aggressive cytotoxic action.

  19. A randomized clinical trial of continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions in cardiac surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollef, M H; Skubas, N J; Sundt, T M

    1999-11-01

    To determine whether the application of continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions (CASS) is associated with a decreased incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Prospective clinical trial. Cardiothoracic ICU (CTICU) of Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, a university-affiliated teaching hospital. Three hundred forty-three patients undergoing cardiac surgery and requiring mechanical ventilation in the CTICU. Patients were assigned to receive either CASS, using a specially designed endotracheal tube (Hi-Lo Evac; Mallinckrodt Inc; Athlone, Ireland), or routine postoperative medical care without CASS. One hundred sixty patients were assigned to receive CASS, and 183 were assigned to receive routine postoperative medical care without CASS. The two groups were similar at the time of randomization with regard to demographic characteristics, surgical procedures performed, and severity of illness. Risk factors for the development of VAP were also similar during the study period for both treatment groups. VAP was seen in 8 patients (5.0%) receiving CASS and in 15 patients (8. 2%) receiving routine postoperative medical care without CASS (relative risk, 0.61%; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 1.40; p = 0. 238). Episodes of VAP occurred statistically later among patients receiving CASS ([mean +/- SD] 5.6 +/- 2.3 days) than among patients who did not receive CASS (2.9 +/- 1.2 days); (p = 0.006). No statistically significant differences for hospital mortality, overall duration of mechanical ventilation, lengths of stay in the hospital or CTICU, or acquired organ system derangements were found between the two treatment groups. No complications related to CASS were observed in the intervention group. Our findings suggest that CASS can be safely administered to patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The occurrence of VAP can be significantly delayed among patients undergoing cardiac surgery using this simple-to-apply technique.

  20. INTESTINAL MALROTATION IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Eduardo Arevalo; Rendon, Francisco Abarca; Zambrano, Trino Andrade; García, Yudoco Andrade; Viteri, Mario Ferrin; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Ramos, Manoela Galvão; Ramos, Almino Cardoso

    Intestinal malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly. In adults is very difficult to recognize due to the lack of symptoms. Diagnosis is usually incidental during surgical procedures or at autopsy. To review the occurrence and recognition of uneventful intestinal malrotation discovered during regular cases of bariatric surgeries. Were retrospectively reviewed the medical registry of 20,000 cases undergoing bariatric surgery, from January 2002 to January 2016, looking for the occurrence of intestinal malrotation and consequences in the intraoperative technique and immediate evolution of the patients. Five cases (0,025%) of intestinal malrotation were found. All of them were males, aging 45, 49, 37,52 and 39 years; BMI 35, 42, 49, 47 and 52 kg/m2, all of them with a past medical history of morbid obesity. The patient with BMI 35 kg/m2 suffered from type 2 diabetes also. All procedures were completed by laparoscopic approach, with no conversions. In one patient was not possible to move the jejunum to the upper abdomen in order to establish the gastrojejunostomy and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. In another patient was not possible to fully recognize the anatomy due to bowel adhesions and a single anastomosis gastric bypass was preferred. No leaks or bleeding were identified. There were no perioperative complications. All patients were discharged 72 h after the procedure and no immediate 30-day complications were reported. Patients with malrotation can successfully undergo laparoscopic bariatric surgery. May be necessary changes in the surgical original strategy regarding the malrotation. Surgeons must check full abdominal anatomical condition prior to start the division of the stomach. Má-rotação intestinal é rara anomalia congênita em adultos de difícil reconhecimento devido à falta de sintomas. O diagnóstico é feito geralmente incidentalmente durante procedimentos cirúrgicos ou durante autópsia. Verificar a ocorrência e reconhecimento não eventual

  1. A secreted factor represses cell proliferation in Dictyostelium

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Debra A.; Gomer, Richard H.

    2005-01-01

    Many cells appear to secrete factors called chalones that limit their proliferation, but in most cases the factors have not been identified. We found that growing Dictyostelium cells secrete a 60 kDa protein called AprA for autocrine proliferation repressor. AprA has similarity to putative bacterial proteins of unknown function. Compared with wild-type cells, aprA-null cells proliferate faster, while AprA overexpressing cells proliferate slower. Growing wild-type cells secrete a factor that i...

  2. Cryptanalysis of quantum secret sharing based on GHZ states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaofen; Pan Rijing

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper (Hwang et al 2011 Phys. Scr. 83 045004), a subtle quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol was proposed. One major advantage of this protocol is its high efficiency; that is, it is more efficient than other QSS protocols using the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states. However, we analyzed the security of this protocol and found that it is insecure for one agent who may deduce half of the information about the deal's secret directly just by his/her piece of secret. Finally, a feasible improvement of this QSS protocol is put forward.

  3. Human placenta secretes apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Eva; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Andersen, Claus B

    2004-01-01

    Supply of lipids from the mother is essential for fetal growth and development. In mice, disruption of yolk sac cell secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins results in embryonic lethality. In humans, the yolk sac is vestigial. Nutritional functions are instead established very...... lipoproteins secreted from placental tissue showed spherical particles with a diameter of 47 +/- 10 nm. These results demonstrate that human placenta expresses both apoB and MTP and consequently synthesize and secrete apoB-100-containing lipoproteins. Placental lipoprotein formation constitutes a novel pathway...

  4. Regulation of gut hormone secretion. Studies using isolated perfused intestines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Berit; Holst, Jens Juul.

    2016-01-01

    hormones is highly increased after gastric bypass operations, which have turned out to be an effective therapy of not only obesity but also type 2 diabetes. These effects are likely to be due, at least in part, to increases in the secretion of these gut hormones (except GIP). Therefore, stimulation...... of the endogenous hormone represents an appealing therapeutic strategy, which has spurred an interest in understanding the regulation of gut hormone secretion and a search for particularly GLP-1 and PYY secretagogues. The secretion of the gut hormones is stimulated by oral intake of nutrients often including...

  5. The Secret of Guided Missile Re-Entry,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-25

    I RD-PAI169 598 THE SECRET OF GUIDED MISSILE RE-ENTRY(U) FOREIGN / I TECHNOLOGY DIV NRIGHT-PATTERSON RFB OH J CHEN ET AL. I 25 JUN 96 FTD-ID(RS)T...TECHNOLOGY DIVISION THE SECRET OF GUIDED MISSILE RE-ENTRY by Chen Jingzhong, An Sehua J L 0 7 ’:;85’ ’ 0 *Approved for public release; Distribution...unlimite t d. :. 86 7 034.. FTD- ID(RS)T-0459-86 HUMAN TRANSLATION FTD-ID(RS)T-0459-86 25 June 1986 MICROFICHE NR: F - - 0Q 9? THE SECRET OF GUIDED

  6. Probing into the Secret of the Chinese Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-30

    Ri35 968 PROBING INTO THE SECRET OF THE CHINESE AIR FOREE(IJ 1/2 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT-PATTERSON RFB OH 9 38 NOV 83 FTD-ID(,RS)T 1088 3...FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION. PROBING INTO THE SECRET OF THE CHINESE AIRFORCE CL1 Approved for public re.lease; distribution unlimited C=)X ~ EET...MICROFICHE NR: FTD-83-C-001469 PROBING INTO THE SECRET OF THE CHINESE AIRFORCE -" -English pages: 111 Source: Enclosure to IR 6 842 0088 83-Booklet

  7. Cryptanalysis of quantum secret sharing based on GHZ states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaofen; Pan Rijing, E-mail: liuxiaofen23@fjnu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Key Laboratory of Network Security and Cryptography, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China)

    2011-10-15

    In a recent paper (Hwang et al 2011 Phys. Scr. 83 045004), a subtle quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol was proposed. One major advantage of this protocol is its high efficiency; that is, it is more efficient than other QSS protocols using the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states. However, we analyzed the security of this protocol and found that it is insecure for one agent who may deduce half of the information about the deal's secret directly just by his/her piece of secret. Finally, a feasible improvement of this QSS protocol is put forward.

  8. Apical membrane P2Y4 purinergic receptor controls K+ secretion by strial marginal cell epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scofield Margaret A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was previously shown that K+ secretion by strial marginal cell epithelium is under the control of G-protein coupled receptors of the P2Y family in the apical membrane. Receptor activation by uracil nucleotides (P2Y2, P2Y4 or P2Y6 leads to a decrease in the electrogenic K+ secretion. The present study was conducted to determine the subtype of the functional purinergic receptor in gerbil stria vascularis, to test if receptor activation leads to elevation of intracellular [Ca2+] and to test if the response to these receptors undergoes desensitization. Results The transepithelial short circuit current (Isc represents electrogenic K+ secretion and was found to be decreased by uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A but not uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP at the apical membrane of marginal cells of the gerbil stria vascularis. The potencies of these agonists were consistent with rodent P2Y4 and P2Y2 but not P2Y6 receptors. Activation caused a biphasic increase in intracellular [Ca2+] that could be partially blocked by 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl borate (2-APB, an inhibitor of the IP3 receptor and store-operated channels. Suramin (100 μM did not inhibit the effect of UTP (1 μM. The ineffectiveness of suramin at the concentration used was consistent with P2Y4 but not P2Y2. Transcripts for both P2Y2 and P2Y4 were found in the stria vascularis. Sustained exposure to ATP or UTP for 15 min caused a depression of Isc that appeared to have two components but with apparently no chronic desensitization. Conclusion The results support the conclusion that regulation of K+ secretion across strial marginal cell epithelium occurs by P2Y4 receptors at the apical membrane. The apparent lack of desensitization of the response is consistent with two processes: a rapid-onset phosphorylation of KCNE1 channel subunit and a slower-onset of regulation by depletion of plasma membrane PIP2.

  9. Secret letters cast light on Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, Matin

    2001-11-01

    Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)

  10. On the regulation of ghrelin secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.

    2003-04-01

    The newly discovered endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, ghrelin, is not only a potent stimulus for growth hormone secretion, but exerts also potent orexigenic (appetite stimulatory) effects. The purpose of this thesis was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the regulation of this peptide in three different studies. Ghrelin serum levels were analyzed with a commercially available radioimmunoassay (RIA). In 18 patients on chronic hemodialysis ghrelin levels were investigated and acetomorphine parameters were determined in order to correlate the nutritional status to the ghrelin serum levels. The potential elimination of ghrelin during dialysis was also tested. Ghrelin levels were significantly elevated compared to controls. No correlation was found between Ghrelin serum levels and anthropometric parameters. It can be speculated that chronic hemodialysis patients are not only resistant to growth hormone, but also to ghrelin. In 8 healthy volunteers a potential involvement of ghrelin in the response of growth hormone to acute exercise was tested. During three different exercise intensities (low, submaximal and maximal exercise) ghrelin levels were measured. No changes in ghrelin plasma concentrations could be detected. These findings suggest that ghrellin is not involved in the growth hormone response to acute exercise. The purpose of the third study was to enlighten the mechanisms underlying the postprandial decrease of ghrelin. During a double-blind placebo-controlled study increasing systemic glucose concentrations were attained with infusion of glucose, in order to represent fasting and postprandial conditions. Ghrelin levels were studied during coinfusion of insulin, somatostatin and placebo. It could be demonstrated that, the regulation of the postprandial decrease in ghrelin is not regulated by insulin or glucose, but by somatostatin. (author)

  11. Burkholderia cenocepacia type VI secretion system mediates escape of type II secreted proteins into the cytoplasm of infected macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosales-Reyes

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that survives intracellularly in macrophages and causes serious respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. We have previously shown that bacterial survival occurs in bacteria-containing membrane vacuoles (BcCVs resembling arrested autophagosomes. Intracellular bacteria stimulate IL-1β secretion in a caspase-1-dependent manner and induce dramatic changes to the actin cytoskeleton and the assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex onto the BcCV membrane. A Type 6 secretion system (T6SS is required for these phenotypes but surprisingly it is not required for the maturation arrest of the BcCV. Here, we show that macrophages infected with B. cenocepacia employ the NLRP3 inflammasome to induce IL-1β secretion and pyroptosis. Moreover, IL-1β secretion by B. cenocepacia-infected macrophages is suppressed in deletion mutants unable to produce functional Type VI, Type IV, and Type 2 secretion systems (SS. We provide evidence that the T6SS mediates the disruption of the BcCV membrane, which allows the escape of proteins secreted by the T2SS into the macrophage cytoplasm. This was demonstrated by the activity of fusion derivatives of the T2SS-secreted metalloproteases ZmpA and ZmpB with adenylcyclase. Supporting this notion, ZmpA and ZmpB are required for efficient IL-1β secretion in a T6SS dependent manner. ZmpA and ZmpB are also required for the maturation arrest of the BcCVs and bacterial intra-macrophage survival in a T6SS-independent fashion. Our results uncover a novel mechanism for inflammasome activation that involves cooperation between two bacterial secretory pathways, and an unanticipated role for T2SS-secreted proteins in intracellular bacterial survival.

  12. Secrets of universe eyed as collider core installed

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Robert

    2007-01-01

    "The world's leading centre for research into the origins of matter on Wedneday took a giant step towards completion of 1 15-year project which scientists hope will unlock many secrets of the universe."(1 page)

  13. Secrets of universe eyed as collider core installed

    CERN Multimedia

    Evans, Robert

    2007-01-01

    "The world's leading centre for researach into the origins of matter on Wednesday took a giant step towards completion of a 15-year project which scientists hope will unlock many secrets of the universe." (1/2 page)

  14. Giant machine set to probe secrets of the universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Deep underground on the Franco-Swiss border someone will throw a switch next year to start one of the most ambitious experiments in history, probing the secrets of the universe and possibly finding new dimensions." (1 page)

  15. Antifungal activity of epithelial secretions from selected frog species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... Chemical stimulation gave the best yield by mass, and secretions from A. fuscigula showed the best ..... electrical stimulation (Dourado et al., 2007; Kim et al.,. 2007 .... Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants: An International.

  16. Multi-group dynamic quantum secret sharing with single photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongwei [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Ma, Haiqiang, E-mail: hqma@bupt.edu.cn [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Wei, Kejin [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Yang, Xiuqing [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Qu, Wenxiu; Dou, Tianqi; Chen, Yitian; Li, Ruixue; Zhu, Wu [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2016-07-15

    In this letter, we propose a novel scheme for the realization of single-photon dynamic quantum secret sharing between a boss and three dynamic agent groups. In our system, the boss can not only choose one of these three groups to share the secret with, but also can share two sets of independent keys with two groups without redistribution. Furthermore, the security of communication is enhanced by using a control mode. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more flexible and will contribute to a practical application. - Highlights: • A multi-group dynamic quantum secret sharing with single photons scheme is proposed. • Any one of the groups can be chosen to share secret through controlling the polarization of photons. • Two sets of keys can be shared simultaneously without redistribution.

  17. Quantum secret information equal exchange protocol based on dense coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Dai, Jin-Qiao; Shi, Zhi-Ping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we design a novel quantum secret information equal exchange protocol, which implements the equal exchange of secret information between the two parties with the help of semi-trusted third party (TP). In the protocol, EPR pairs prepared by the TP are, respectively, distributed to both the communication parties. Then, the two parties perform Pauli operation on each particle and return the new particles to TP, respectively. TP measures each new pair with Bell basis and announces the measurement results. Both parties deduce the secret information of each other according to the result of announcement by TP. Finally, the security analysis shows that this protocol solves the problem about equal exchange of secret information between two parties and verifies the security of semi-trusted TPs. It proves that the protocol can effectively resist glitch attacks, intercept retransmission attacks and entanglement attack.

  18. Giant machine set to probe secrets of the universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Deep underground on the Franco-Swiss border someone will throw a switch next year to start one of the most ambitious experiments in history, probing the secrets of the universe and possibly finding new dimensions." (2/3 page)

  19. China: Suspected Acquisition of U.S. Nuclear Weapon Secrets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A

    2006-01-01

    ... of U.S. nuclear weapon secrets in its development of nuclear forces, as well as whether the Administration's response to the security problems was effective or mishandled and whether it fairly used or abused...

  20. Intracellular mediators of potassium-induced aldosterone secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, A.; Chiou, S.; Davis, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the intracellular messengers of potassium in eliciting aldosterone secretion in calf adrenal glomerulosa cells since there were unresolved issues relating to the role of phosphoinositides, cAMP and protein kinases. We observed no evidence of hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) in 3 H-inositol labeled alf adrenal cells or increase of cAMP in response to potassium. Addition of calcium channel blocker, nitrendipine after stimulating adrenal glomerulosa cells with potassium, markedly inhibited aldosterone secretion. A calmodulin inhibitor (W-7) produced greater reduction of aldosterone secretion than an inhibitor of protein kinase C (H-7). These results suggest that a rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration through voltage-dependent calcium channel and calmodulin are the critical determinants of aldosterone secretion stimulated by potassium

  1. Machine set to probe secrets of the universe

    CERN Multimedia

    Lovell, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    "Deep underground on the Franco-Swiss border someonw will throw a switch next year to start one of the most ambitious experiments in history, probing the secrets of the universe and possibly finding new dimensions."

  2. The Future Internet: A World of Secret Shares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Buchanan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI is crumbling, partially due to the lack of a strong understanding of how encryption actually works, but also due to weaknesses in its implementation. This paper outlines an Internet storage technique using secret sharing methods which could be used to overcome the problems inherent with PKI, while supporting new types of architectures incorporating such things as automated failover and break-glass data recovery. The paper outlines a novel architecture: SECRET, which supports a robust cloud-based infrastructure with in-built privacy and failover. In order to understand the performance overhead of SECRET, the paper outlines a range of experiments that investigate the overhead of this and other secret share methods.

  3. Lifestyle, mental health status and salivary secretion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. "eating breakfast" and "mental stress" were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from the viewpoint of the prevention of oral disease.A highly significant correlation (r=0.97; p<0.01) between the salivary cortisol levels and the cortisol secretion rates when controlled for the salivary secretion rates was also observed. This suggests that there is a high correlation between the intact salivary cortisol levels and the total cortisol quantity per unit time. Therefore, both these values can be used as a good index for the salivary cortisol determination.

  4. ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoid: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, J H

    2008-09-01

    We describe a case of Cushing\\'s syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion, where the only potential source on conventional imaging was a tiny benign-appearing lung nodule, which failed to take up radiolabelled octreotide.

  5. effect of low glycaemic index meals on insulin secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Chicago, IL, USA). Data was presented as mean plus .... carbohydrate along a longer portion of the small intestine ... insulin secretion despite producing relatively small .... Laaksonen, D E, Lindström, J, Lakka, T.A, Eriksson,.

  6. Vote Markets, Latent Opportunism, and the Secret Ballot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Mogens Kamp; Bøttkjær, Louise Thorn; Gates, Scott

    The secret ballot is a cornerstone of modern democracy because it protects voter autonomy and allows voters to express their political preferences freely without fear of repercussions. In theory, the secret ballot is supposed to prevent vote buying – the exchange of votes for money or material...... goods – from operating during elections. Yet, empirical evidence from surveys around the world suggests that vote buying is a common feature of elections in new democracies. Indeed, a fundamental puzzle concerns why political parties use vote buying to mobilize electoral support when the secret ballot...... allows voters to renege on their commitments and vote as they please. In this paper, we address this puzzle by arguing that voter perceptions of ballot secrecy affect their responses to vote buying offers. Theoretically, we develop a game theoretical model, where voter beliefs in the secret ballot guide...

  7. Autophagy Mediates Interleukin-1β Secretion in Human Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Iula

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, a major pro-inflammatory cytokine, is a leaderless cytosolic protein whose secretion does not follow the classical endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi pathway, and for which a canonical mechanism of secretion remains to be established. Neutrophils are essential players against bacterial and fungi infections. These cells are rapidly and massively recruited from the circulation into infected tissues and, beyond of displaying an impressive arsenal of toxic weapons effective to kill pathogens, are also an important source of IL-1β in infectious conditions. Here, we analyzed if an unconventional secretory autophagy mechanism is involved in the exportation of IL-1β by these cells. Our findings indicated that inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine and Wortmannin markedly reduced IL-1β secretion induced by LPS + ATP, as did the disruption of the autophagic flux with Bafilomycin A1 and E64d. These compounds did not noticeable affect neutrophil viability ruling out that the effects on IL-1β secretion were due to cell death. Furthermore, VPS34IN-1, a specific autophagy inhibitor, was still able to reduce IL-1β secretion when added after it was synthesized. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ATG5 markedly reduced IL-1β secretion in neutrophil-differentiated PLB985 cells. Upon LPS + ATP stimulation, IL-1β was incorporated to an autophagic compartment, as was revealed by its colocalization with LC3B by confocal microscopy. Overlapping of IL-1β-LC3B in a vesicular compartment peaked before IL-1β increased in culture supernatants. On the other hand, stimulation of autophagy by cell starvation augmented the colocalization of IL-1β and LC3B and then promoted neutrophil IL-1β secretion. In addition, specific ELISAs indicated that although both IL-1β and pro-IL-1β are released to culture supernatants upon neutrophil stimulation, autophagy only promotes IL-1β secretion. Furthermore, the serine proteases inhibitor

  8. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jau-Der

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD, and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach.

  9. A Finite Equivalence of Verifiable Multi-secret Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give an abstraction of verifiable multi-secret sharing schemes that is accessible to a fully mechanized analysis. This abstraction is formalized within the applied pi-calculus by using an equational theory which characterizes the cryptographic semantics of secret share. We also present an encoding from the equational theory into a convergent rewriting system, which is suitable for the automated protocol verifier ProVerif. Based on that, we verify the threshold certificate protocol in ProVerif.

  10. Intestinal absorption and secretion of 65Zn in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methfessel, A.H.; Spencer, H.

    1974-01-01

    A single dose of 65 Zn Cl 2 was given by intubation to the intact rat or was instilled into the lumen of ligated intestinal sacs to determine the absorption, or injected intravenously via the tail vein to determine intestinal secretion of 65 Zn. Results indicated that the small intestine plays a major role in the absorption and secretion of zinc and that aging decreases the absorption of zinc for the duodenum of the rat

  11. Secret Sharing and Secure Computing from Monotone Formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Kölker, Jonas; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    We present a construction of log-depth formulae for various threshold functions based on atomic threshold gates of constant size. From this, we build a new family of linear secret sharing schemes that are multiplicative, scale well as the number of players increases and allows to raise a shared...... of our scheme for pseudorandom secret sharing as defined by Cramer, Damgård and Ishai...

  12. Protection of industrial and business secrets in environmental protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The author investigates the relation between environmental protection and data protection, especially concerning the protection of industrial and business secrets. For this kind of conflict there are only general administrative and procedural provisions with little systematic order. Special provisions of data protection covering all aspects of industrial and business secrets, as for example in social or tax law, do not exist in German law until now. (WG) [de

  13. Discovery of the type VII ESX-1 secretion needle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Louis S; Brosch, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of human tuberculosis, harbours five ESAT-6/type VII secretion (ESX/T7S) systems. The first esx gene clusters were identified during the genome-sequencing project of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Follow-up studies revealed additional genes playing important roles in ESX/T7S systems. Among the latter genes, one can find those that encode Pro-Glu (PE) and Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) proteins as well as a gene cluster that is encoded >260 kb upstream of the esx-1 locus and encodes ESX-1 secretion-associated proteins EspA (Rv3616c), EspC (Rv3615c) and EspD (Rv3614c). The espACD cluster has been suggested to have an important function in ESX-1 secretion since EspA-EspC and EsxA-EsxB are mutually co-dependent on each other for secretion. However, the molecular mechanism of this co-dependence and interaction between the substrates remained unknown. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Lou and colleagues show that EspC forms high-molecular weight polymerization complexes that resemble selected components of type II, III and/or IV secretion systems of Gram-negative bacteria. Indeed, EspC-multimeric complexes form filamentous structures that could well represent a secretion needle of ESX-1 type VII secretion systems. This exciting observation opens new avenues for research to discover and characterize ESX/T7S components and elucidates the co-dependence of EsxA/B secretion with EspA/C. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Lipoidal Labellar Secretions in Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    DAVIES, K. L.; TURNER, M. P.; GREGG, A.

    2003-01-01

    The labella of Maxillaria acuminata Lindl., M. cerifera Barb. Rodr. and M. notylioglossa Rchb.f., all members of the M. acuminata alliance, produce a viscid wax‐like secretion. Histochemical analysis revealed that the chemical composition of the secretion is similar in all three species, consisting largely of lipid and protein. Light microscopy and low‐vacuum scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the secretory process. In a fourth taxon, M. cf. notylioglossa, transmission elec...

  15. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX) completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat) in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p taurine concentrations with cAMP was observed. Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach. PMID:21294907

  16. Lifestyle, mental health status and salivary secretion rates

    OpenAIRE

    Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. “eating breakfast” and “mental stress” were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from t...

  17. The Cellular Mechanisms that Ensure an Efficient Secretion in Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gullón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive soil bacteria included in the genus Streptomyces produce a large variety of secondary metabolites in addition to extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. From the industrial and commercial viewpoints, the S. lividans strain has generated greater interest as a host bacterium for the overproduction of homologous and heterologous hydrolytic enzymes as an industrial application, which has considerably increased scientific interest in the characterization of secretion routes in this bacterium. This review will focus on the secretion machinery in S. lividans.

  18. Influence of immunomodulators on the lymphokine secretion of irradiated lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk-Bronisz, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Spleen lymphocytes derived from guinea pigs loose their ability to secrete lymphokines induced by Con A after treatment with irradiation (500 and 750 mC/kg). In the presence of the immunomodulators isoprinosine, levamisole and the thymosine-like factor TFX the lymphocytes are again capable of secreting lymphokines. After treatment with immunomodulators in dosages between 10 and 100 μg/ml the migration inhibition activity for macrophages and the chemotactic activity for polymorphonuclear granulocytes produced by lymphocytes were restored. (author)

  19. Pituitary tumour causing gigantism. Morphology and in vitro hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anniko, M; Ritzén, E M

    1986-01-01

    True gigantism with overproduction of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) was diagnosed in a 13-year-old boy. The clinical history indicated that the tumour had caused an oversecretion of GH since the age of 4-5 years. At diagnosis, the sella turcica was markedly enlarged. No infiltrative growth was noted at surgery. Endocrine investigations showed elevated GH and PRL secretion. Light and electron microscopy of tumour tissue revealed densely packed pleomorphic cells of both GH and PRL type. In addition, oncocyte-like cells were observed. Organ culture of pieces of tumour tissue demonstrated continued secretion of GH and PRL into the medium for more than 5 days in vitro. Addition of bromocriptine to the medium caused a rapid decline in PRL secretion while GH secretion remained the same. X-ray irradiation in vitro also caused a decrease in PRL secretion. These effects of bromocriptine and X-ray on hormone secretion in vitro mirrored the corresponding effect of treatment, when the patient showed signs of tumour recurrence after pituitary surgery. It is concluded that also in childhood, the in vitro response of tumour tissue to various treatments may be explored as a possible way to predict the efficacy of pharmacological or irradiation treatment of pituitary tumours.

  20. An unexpected knock on Corrigan’s secret door

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woywodt, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Corrigan’s secret door describes a metaphorical escape route for busy physicians. The term was derived from the successful and exceptionally busy professional life of Irish physician Dominic John Corrigan (1802–80). It is claimed that Corrigan’s outpatient clinic was so busy that he required a secret door in his consulting rooms to escape from the ever-growing queue of eager patients. The origins of this charming story are unknown, and the door may have never existed. However, at present, Corrigan’s secret door is often quoted when busy physicians have their own little ways in surviving a stressful professional life. Generations of British-trained doctors have grown up with Corrigan’s secret door, as it was featured in the introduction of the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine. Accordingly, trainees as well as more senior doctors are often reminded that having a ‘secret door’ is vital in surviving in the medical profession. My own escape is through classical music and the violoncello, in particular. As the name implies, my own secret door is normally invisible to colleagues and patients. This little article is about a patient who found me out, and a reflection on the role of classical music and the cello in my professional life. PMID:25984078

  1. Post-translational processing and secretion of atrial natriuretic factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, P.P.

    1988-01-01

    The post-translational processing and regulated secretion of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) were studied in primary cultures of rat cardiac myocytes. Cultures were established from neonatal rat atria or ventricles, and were maintained for 7-14 days in complete serum free medium. The cultures contained high and constant levels of ANF-(1-126), the known storage form of the hormone in vivo. The cultures also secreted ANF-(1-126), instead of the known circulating form of the hormone, ANF-(99-126). However, the inclusion of the glucocorticoids dexamethasone or hydrocortisone in the culture medium increased the levels of ir-ANF contained and secreted by the cultures, and caused both atrial and ventricular cultures to secrete principally ANF-(99-126) instead of ANF-(1-126). The secreted peptide was shown to be authentic ANF-(99-126) by chromatographic, amino acid composition and radiosequence analysis, thus confirming that the cultures were accurately processing ANF to the in vivo circulating form in the presence of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids also caused an increase in size and clustering of atrial myocytes as determined by immunocytochemical analysis, but the morphological effects could be dissociated from the stimulation of ANF-(99-126) secretion by manipulating the timing of glucocorticoid exposure. The location of ANF-(99-126) formation was investigated using biosynthetically labeled 35 S-Cys-ANF-(1-126) in conjunction with actively processing cultures

  2. Variable effects of soman on macromolecular secretion by ferret trachea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, R.K.; Zwierzynski, D.J.; Stone, K.K.; Culp, D.J.; Marin, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the anticholinesterase agent, soman, on macromolecular secretion by ferret trachea, in vitro. We mounted pieces of ferret trachea in Ussing-type chambers. Secreted sulfated macromolecules were radiolabeled by adding 500 microCi of 35 SO 4 to the submucosal medium and incubating for 17 hr. Soman added to the submucosal side produced a concentration-dependent increase in radiolabeled macromolecular release with a maximal secretory response (mean +/- SD) of 202 +/- 125% (n = 8) relative to the basal secretion rate at a concentration of 10 - 7 M. The addition of either 10 -6 M pralidoxime (acetylcholinesterase reactivator) or 10 -6 M atropine blocked the response to 10 -7 M soman. At soman concentrations greater than 10 -7 M, secretion rate decreased and was not significantly different from basal secretion. Additional experiments utilizing acetylcholine and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine, suggest that inhibition of secretion by high concentrations of soman may be due to a secondary antagonistic effect of soman on muscarinic receptors

  3. Impaired insulin secretion in the spontaneous diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K; Toyota, T; Kakizaki, M; Kudo, M; Takebe, K; Goto, Y

    1982-08-01

    Dynamics of insulin and glucagon secretion were investigated by using a new model of spontaneous diabetes rats produced by the repetition of selective breeding in our laboratories. The perfusion experiments of the pancreas showed that the early phase of insulin secretion to continuous stimulation with glucose was specifically impaired, although the response of the early phase to arginine was preserved. The glucose-induced insulin secretion in the nineth generation (F8) which had a more remarkably impaired glucose tolerance was more reduced than in the sixth generation (F5). No significant difference of glucagon secretion in response to arginine or norepinephrine was noted between the diabetes rats and control ones. The present data indicate that the defective insulin secretion is a primary derangement in a diabetic state of the spontaneous diabetes rat. This defect in the early phase of glucose-induced insulin secretion suggests the specific impairment of the recognition of glucose by the pancreatic beta-cells. The spontaneous diabetes rats are very useful as a model of disease for investigating pathophysiology of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  4. Neurotrophin Signaling Is Required for Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtz, Jessica; Borden, Philip; Ceasrine, Alexis; Minichiello, Liliana; Kuruvilla, Rejji

    2016-11-07

    Insulin secretion by pancreatic islet β cells is critical for glucose homeostasis, and a blunted β cell secretory response is an early deficit in type 2 diabetes. Here, we uncover a regulatory mechanism by which glucose recruits vascular-derived neurotrophins to control insulin secretion. Nerve growth factor (NGF), a classical trophic factor for nerve cells, is expressed in pancreatic vasculature while its TrkA receptor is localized to islet β cells. High glucose rapidly enhances NGF secretion and increases TrkA phosphorylation in mouse and human islets. Tissue-specific deletion of NGF or TrkA, or acute disruption of TrkA signaling, impairs glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in mice. We show that internalized TrkA receptors promote insulin granule exocytosis via F-actin reorganization. Furthermore, NGF treatment augments glucose-induced insulin secretion in human islets. These findings reveal a non-neuronal role for neurotrophins and identify a new regulatory pathway in insulin secretion that can be targeted to ameliorate β cell dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The N-terminal neurotensin fragment, NT1-11, inhibits cortisol secretion by human adrenocortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Flavie; Contesse, Vincent; Lefebvre, Hervé; Ait-Ali, Djida; Gras, Marjorie; Cartier, Dorthe; Decker, Annick; Chartrel, Nicolas; Anouar, Youssef; Vaudry, Hubert; Delarue, Catherine

    2006-08-01

    Neurotensin (NT) modulates corticosteroid secretion from the mammalian adrenal gland. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of NT in the control of cortisol secretion in the human adrenal gland. In vitro studies were conducted on cultured human adrenocortical cells. This study was conducted in a university research laboratory. Adrenal explants from patients undergoing expanded nephrectomy for kidney cancer were studied. Cortisol secretion from cultured adrenocortical cells was measured. NT1-11, the N-terminal fragment of NT, dose-dependently inhibited basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol production by human adrenocortical cells in primary culture. In contrast, NT had no influence on cortisol output at concentrations up to 10(-6) m. HPLC and RT-PCR analyses failed to detect any significant amounts of NT and NT mRNA, respectively, in adrenal extracts. Molecular and pharmacological studies were performed to determine the type of NT receptor involved in the corticostatic effect of NT1-11. RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of NT receptor type (NTR) 3 mRNA but not NTR1 and NTR2 mRNAs in the human adrenal tissue. However, the pharmacological profile of the adrenal NT1-11 receptor was different from that of NTR3, indicating that this receptor type is not involved in the action of NT1-11 on corticosteroidogenesis. Our results indicate that NT1-11 may act as an endocrine factor to inhibit cortisol secretion through activation of a receptor distinct from the classical NTR1, NTR2, and NTR3.

  6. Expressed prostatic secretion biomarkers improve stratification of NCCN active surveillance candidates: performance of secretion capacity and TMPRSS2:ERG models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Christopher; Kawachi, Mark; Smith, David D; Linehan, Jennifer; Babilonia, Gail; Mejia, Rosa; Wilson, Timothy; Smith, Steven S

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance is a viable patient option for prostate cancer provided that a clinical determination of low risk and presumably organ confined disease can be made. To standardize risk stratification schemes the NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network®) provides guidelines for the active surveillance option. We determined the effectiveness of expressed prostatic secretion biomarkers for detecting occult risk factors in NCCN active surveillance candidates. Expressed prostatic secretion specimens were obtained before robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Secretion capacity biomarkers, including total RNA and expressed prostatic secretion specimen volume, were measured by standard techniques. RNA expression biomarkers, including TXNRD1 mRNA, prostate specific antigen mRNA, TMPRSS2:ERG fusion mRNA and PCA3 mRNA, were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Of the 528 patients from whom expressed prostatic secretions were collected 216 were eligible for active surveillance under NCCN guidelines. Variable selection on logistic regression identified 2 models, including one featuring types III and VI TMPRSS2:ERG variants, and one featuring 2 secretion capacity biomarkers. Of the 2 high performing models the secretion capacity model was most effective for detecting cases in this group that were up-staged or up-staged plus upgraded. It decreased the risk of up-staging in patients with a negative test almost eightfold and decreased the risk of up-staging plus upgrading about fivefold while doubling the prevalence of up-staging in the positive test group. Noninvasive expressed prostatic secretion testing may improve patient acceptance of active surveillance by dramatically reducing the presence of occult risk factors among those eligible for active surveillance under NCCN guidelines. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Coagulation profile in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Decker; Vad, Henrik; Pedersen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    -, and the first two days postoperatively by standard coagulation blood test, thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and thrombin generation. Results: Patients undergoing potential curative surgery for lung cancer were not hypercoagulable preoperatively. There was no statistically significant difference in the majority......Background: Knowledge about the impact of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin (LMWH) on the coagulation system in patients undergoing minimal invasive lung cancer surgery is sparse. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LMWH on the coagulation system in patients undergoing Video......-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) lobectomy for primary lung cancer. Methods: Sixty-three patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer undergoing VATS lobectomy were randomized to either subcutaneous injection with dalteparin (Fragmin®) 5000 IE once daily or no intervention. Coagulation was assessed pre-, peri...

  8. Experiense with remineraling means in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanova Ye.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In patients undergoing orthodontic treatment using bracket-technology a high risk of caries development. The algorithm of preventive interventions for the prevention of hair demineralization of enamel of the teeth

  9. Preoperative B-type natriuretic peptides in patients undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia ... Preoperative B-type natriuretic peptides in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a cumulative ... Future investigation should focus on the clinical implications of these data and the ...

  10. Do patients fear undergoing general anesthesia for oral surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Jasmine R; Priest, James H; Laskin, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Many patients undergoing major surgery have more fear of the general anesthesia than the procedure. This appears to be reversed with oral surgery. Therefore, patients need to be as well informed about this aspect as the surgical operation.

  11. Apparent inhibition of β-fructosidase secretion by tunicamycin may be explained by breakdown of the unglycosylated protein during secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faye, L.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota) cells synthesize and secrete β-fructosidase, a glycoprotein with asparagine-linked glycans. Treatment of the cells with tunicamycin completely inhibits the apparent secretion of β-fructosidase as measured by the accumulation of the 35 S-labelled protein in the cell wall or the culture medium. In the past, such a result has been interpreted as an inhibition of secretion by tunicamycin, but we suggest another explanation based on the following results. In the presence of tunicamycin, unglycosylated β-fructosidase is synthesized and is associated with an endoplasmic-reticulum-rich microsomal fraction. Pulse-chase experiments show that the unglycosylated β-fructosidase does not remain in the cells and appears to be secreted in the same way as glycosylated β-fructosidase; however, no radioactive, unglycosylated β-fructosidase accumulates extracellularly (cell wall or medium). Protoplasts obtained from carrot cells secrete β-fructosidase protein and activity, and treatment of the protoplasts with tunicamycin results in the synthesis of unglycosylated β-fructosidase. In the presence of tunicamycin, there is no accumulation of β-fructosidase activity or unglycosylated β-fructosidase polypeptide in the protoplast incubation medium. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the glycans of β-fructosidase are necessary for its stability, and that in these suspension-cultured cells, the unglycosylated enzyme is degraded during the last stage(s) of secretion, or immediately after its arrival in the wall

  12. The problem of using trade secrets in economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. О. Олефір

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. In a market economy and increased competition between enterprises become increasingly important concepts such as business information, trade secrets, know-how, confidential information, the information with restricted access. Given the fact that only one patent protection is unable to meet the needs of researchers, in addition to formal public protection and secured legal means we would like to pay attention at private legal measures, particular, the mode of trade secrets. Recent research and publications analysis. Different aspects of the protection of trade secrets were investigated by specialists such as G. Androschuk, J. Berzhye, I. Davydov, O. Davydyuk, D. Zadyhaylo, P. Kraynov, G. Nikiforov, S. Nikiforov, V. Rubanov, E. Solovyov, L. Hoffman, V. Chaplygin, A. Cherniavsky and others. However, at present there is a lack of comprehensive research of this legal phenomenon, equally useful for innovators and businesses that actively protect corporate security. Paper objective. This article is planned to determine the legal characteristics, structural elements and mechanisms by which the use of trade secrets in business have a positive impact on innovation development and corporate security entities. Paper main body. On the basis of requirements of Art. 505 Civil Code of Ukraine and art. 39 of the TRIPS Agreement we formulated commercial information signs under which it receives legal protection as an object of intellectual property: (1 privacy (real or potential in the sense that it is as a whole or in a precise combination of aggregate and its components are not generally known or available to persons in the circles that normally deal with such information; (2 commercial value (not purely industrial or industrial, due to its secrecy; this information is unknown to others, which is a commercial interest; (3 the lawful holder of the information provides active special measures (technical, organizational, legal to preserve secrecy

  13. Preoperative autologous plateletpheresis in patients undergoing open heart surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomar Akhlesh; Tempe Deepak; Banerjee A; Hegde R; Cooper A; Khanna S

    2003-01-01

    Blood conservation is an important aspect of care provided to the patients undergoing cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). It is even more important in patients with anticipated prolonged CPB, redo cardiac surgery, patients having negative blood group and in patients undergoing emergency cardiac surgery. In prolonged CPB the blood is subjected to more destruction of important coagulation factors, in redo surgery the separation of adhesions leads to increased bleeding and diff...

  14. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa chitinase, a gradually secreted protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folders, J; Algra, J; Roelofs, M S; van Loon, L C; Tommassen, J; Bitter, W

    2001-12-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes many proteins into its extracellular environment via the type I, II, and III secretion systems. In this study, a gene, chiC, coding for an extracellular chitinolytic enzyme, was identified. The chiC gene encodes a polypeptide of 483 amino acid residues, without a typical N-terminal signal sequence. Nevertheless, an N-terminal segment of 11 residues was found to be cleaved off in the secreted protein. The protein shows sequence similarity to the secreted chitinases ChiC of Serratia marcescens, ChiA of Vibrio harveyi, and ChiD of Bacillus circulans and consists of an activity domain and a chitin-binding domain, which are separated by a fibronectin type III domain. ChiC was able to bind and degrade colloidal chitin and was active on the artificial substrates carboxymethyl-chitin-Remazol Brilliant Violet and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-N,N',N"-triacetylchitotriose, but not on p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-N-acetylglucosamine, indicating that it is an endochitinase. Expression of the chiC gene appears to be regulated by the quorum-sensing system of P. aeruginosa, since this gene was not expressed in a lasIR vsmI mutant. After overnight growth, the majority of the ChiC produced was found intracellularly, whereas only small amounts were detected in the culture medium. However, after several days, the cellular pool of ChiC was largely depleted, and the protein was found in the culture medium. This release could not be ascribed to cell lysis. Since ChiC did not appear to be secreted via any of the known secretion systems, a novel secretion pathway seems to be involved.

  15. 31 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - United States Secret Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Secret Service D...—United States Secret Service 1. In general. This appendix applies to the United States Secret Service. 2. Public reading room. The United States Secret Service will provide a room on an ad hoc basis when...

  16. 31 CFR 401.1 - Secret Service agents authorized to make seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secret Service agents authorized to... Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF VESSELS, VEHICLES... Secret Service agents authorized to make seizures. All officers of the U.S. Secret Service engaged in the...

  17. Space Movie Reveals Shocking Secrets Of The Crab Pulsa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Just when it seemed like the summer movie season had ended, two of NASA's Great Observatories have produced their own action movie. Multiple observations made over several months with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope captured the spectacle of matter and antimatter propelled to near the speed of light by the Crab pulsar, a rapidly rotating neutron star the size of Manhattan. "Through this movie, the Crab Nebula has come to life," said Jeff Hester of Arizona State University in Tempe, lead author of a paper in the September 20th issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "We can see how this awesome cosmic generator actually works." The Crab was first observed by Chinese astronomers in 1054 A.D. and has since become one of the most studied objects in the sky. By combining the power of both Chandra and Hubble, the movie reveals features never seen in still images. By understanding the Crab, astronomers hope to unlock the secrets of how similar objects across the universe are powered. Crab Nebula Composite Image Crab Nebula Composite Image Bright wisps can be seen moving outward at half the speed of light to form an expanding ring that is visible in both X-ray and optical images. These wisps appear to originate from a shock wave that shows up as an inner X-ray ring. This ring consists of about two dozen knots that form, brighten and fade, jitter around, and occasionally undergo outbursts that give rise to expanding clouds of particles, but remain in roughly the same location. "These data leave little doubt that the inner X-ray ring is the location of the shock wave that turns the high-speed wind from the pulsar into extremely energetic particles," said Koji Mori of Penn State University in University Park, a coauthor of the paper. Another dramatic feature of the movie is a turbulent jet that lies perpendicular to the inner and outer rings. Violent internal motions are obvious, as is a slow motion outward into the surrounding nebula of

  18. Agrobacterium VirB10, an ATP energy sensor required for type IV secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, Eric; Christie, Peter J

    2004-12-07

    Bacteria use type IV secretion systems (T4SS) to translocate DNA and protein substrates to target cells of phylogenetically diverse taxa. Recently, by use of an assay termed transfer DNA immunoprecipitation (TrIP), we described the translocation route for a DNA substrate [T-DNA, portion of the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid that is transferred to plant cells] of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 T4SS in terms of a series of temporally and spatially ordered substrate contacts with subunits of the secretion channel. Here, we report that the bitopic inner membrane protein VirB10 undergoes a structural transition in response to ATP utilization by the VirD4 and VirB11 ATP-binding subunits, as monitored by protease susceptibility. VirB10 interacts with inner membrane VirD4 independently of cellular energetic status, whereas the energy-induced conformational change is required for VirB10 complex formation with an outer membrane-associated heterodimer of VirB7 lipoprotein and VirB9, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation. Under these conditions, the T-DNA substrate is delivered from the inner membrane channel components VirB6 and VirB8 to periplasmic and outer membrane-associated VirB2 pilin and VirB9. We propose that VirD4 and VirB11 coordinate the ATP-dependent formation of a VirB10 "bridge" between inner and outer membrane subassemblies of the VirB/D4 T4SS, and that this morphogenetic event is required for T-DNA translocation across the A. tumefaciens cell envelope.

  19. Influence of Flavonoids on Mechanism of Modulation of Insulin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Juliana Mikaelly Dias; Pereira Leal, Ana Ediléia Barbosa; Silva, Juliane Cabral; Almeida, Jackson R G S; de Oliveira, Helinando Pequeno

    2017-01-01

    The development of alternatives for insulin secretion control in vivo or in vitro represents an important aspect to be investigated. In this direction, natural products have been progressively explored with this aim. In particular, flavonoids are potential candidates to act as insulin secretagogue. To study the influence of flavonoid on overall modulation mechanisms of insulin secretion. The research was conducted in the following databases and platforms: PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and ScienceDirect, and the MeSH terms used for the search were flavonoids, flavones, islets of Langerhans, and insulin-secreting cells. Twelve articles were included and represent the basis of discussion on mechanisms of insulin secretion of flavonoids. Papers in ISI Web of Knowledge were in number of 1, Scopus 44, PubMed 264, ScienceDirect 511, and no papers from LILACS and SciELO databases. According to the literature, the majority of flavonoid subclasses can modulate insulin secretion through several pathways, in an indication that corresponding molecule is a potential candidate for active materials to be applied in the treatment of diabetes. The action of natural products on insulin secretion represents an important investigation topic due to their importance in the diabetes controlIn addition to their typical antioxidant properties, flavonoids contribute to the insulin secretionThe modulation of insulin secretion is induced by flavonoids according to different mechanisms. Abbreviations used: K ATP channels: ATP-sensitive K + channels, GLUT4: Glucose transporter 4, ERK1/2: Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2, L-VDCCs: L-type voltage-dependent Ca +2 channels, GLUT1: Glucose transporter 1, AMPK: Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, PTP1B: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, GLUT2: Glucose transporter 2, cAMP: Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, PKA: Protein kinase A, PTK: Protein tyrosine kinase, CaMK II: Ca 2+ /calmodulin

  20. Type VI Secretion System Toxins Horizontally Shared between Marine Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dor Salomon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system (T6SS is a widespread protein secretion apparatus used by Gram-negative bacteria to deliver toxic effector proteins into adjacent bacterial or host cells. Here, we uncovered a role in interbacterial competition for the two T6SSs encoded by the marine pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus. Using comparative proteomics and genetics, we identified their effector repertoires. In addition to the previously described effector V12G01_02265, we identified three new effectors secreted by T6SS1, indicating that the T6SS1 secretes at least four antibacterial effectors, of which three are members of the MIX-effector class. We also showed that the T6SS2 secretes at least three antibacterial effectors. Our findings revealed that many MIX-effectors belonging to clan V are "orphan" effectors that neighbor mobile elements and are shared between marine bacteria via horizontal gene transfer. We demonstrated that a MIX V-effector from V. alginolyticus is a functional T6SS effector when ectopically expressed in another Vibrio species. We propose that mobile MIX V-effectors serve as an environmental reservoir of T6SS effectors that are shared and used to diversify antibacterial toxin repertoires in marine bacteria, resulting in enhanced competitive fitness.

  1. The dynamics of secretion during sea urchin embryonic skeleton formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilt, Fred H.; Killian, Christopher E.; Hamilton, Patricia; Croker, Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    Skeleton formation involves secretion of massive amounts of mineral precursor, usually a calcium salt, and matrix proteins, many of which are deposited on, or even occluded within, the mineral. The cell biological underpinnings of this secretion and subsequent assembly of the biomineralized skeletal element is not well understood. We ask here what is the relationship of the trafficking and secretion of the mineral and matrix within the primary mesenchyme cells of the sea urchin embryo, cells that deposit the endoskeletal spicule. Fluorescent labeling of intracellular calcium deposits show mineral precursors are present in granules visible by light microscopy, from whence they are deposited in the endoskeletal spicule, especially at its tip. In contrast, two different matrix proteins tagged with GFP are present in smaller post-Golgi vesicles only seen by electron microscopy, and the secreted protein are only incorporated into the spicule in the vicinity of the cell of origin. The matrix protein, SpSM30B, is post-translationally modified during secretion, and this processing continues after its incorporation into the spicule. Our findings also indicate that the mineral precursor and two well characterized matrix proteins are trafficked by different cellular routes

  2. Diversity and subcellular distribution of archaeal secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zalan; Pohlschroder, Mechthild

    2012-01-01

    Secreted proteins make up a significant percentage of a prokaryotic proteome and play critical roles in important cellular processes such as polymer degradation, nutrient uptake, signal transduction, cell wall biosynthesis, and motility. The majority of archaeal proteins are believed to be secreted either in an unfolded conformation via the universally conserved Sec pathway or in a folded conformation via the Twin arginine transport (Tat) pathway. Extensive in vivo and in silico analyses of N-terminal signal peptides that target proteins to these pathways have led to the development of computational tools that not only predict Sec and Tat substrates with high accuracy but also provide information about signal peptide processing and targeting. Predictions therefore include indications as to whether a substrate is a soluble secreted protein, a membrane or cell wall anchored protein, or a surface structure subunit, and whether it is targeted for post-translational modification such as glycosylation or the addition of a lipid. The use of these in silico tools, in combination with biochemical and genetic analyses of transport pathways and their substrates, has resulted in improved predictions of the subcellular localization of archaeal secreted proteins, allowing for a more accurate annotation of archaeal proteomes, and has led to the identification of potential adaptations to extreme environments, as well as phyla-specific pathways among the archaea. A more comprehensive understanding of the transport pathways used and post-translational modifications of secreted archaeal proteins will also facilitate the identification and heterologous expression of commercially valuable archaeal enzymes.

  3. Bottleneck in secretion of α-amylase in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shaomin; Wu, Guang

    2017-07-19

    Amylase plays an important role in biotechnology industries, and Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a major host to produce heterogeneous α-amylases. However, the secretion stress limits the high yield of α-amylase in B. subtilis although huge efforts have been made to address this secretion bottleneck. In this question-oriented review, every effort is made to answer the following questions, which look simple but are long-standing, through reviewing of literature: (1) Does α-amylase need a specific and dedicated chaperone? (2) What signal sequence does CsaA recognize? (3) Does CsaA require ATP for its operation? (4) Does an unfolded α-amylase is less soluble than a folded one? (5) Does α-amylase aggregate before transporting through Sec secretion system? (6) Is α-amylase sufficient stable to prevent itself from misfolding? (7) Does α-amylase need more disulfide bonds to be stabilized? (8) Which secretion system does PrsA pass through? (9) Is PrsA ATP-dependent? (10) Is PrsA reused after folding of α-amylase? (11) What is the fate of PrsA? (12) Is trigger factor (TF) ATP-dependent? The literature review suggests that not only the most of those questions are still open to answers but also it is necessary to calculate ATP budget in order to better understand how B. subtilis uses its energy for production and secretion.

  4. Cooperative Secret Sharing Using QR Codes and Symmetric Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Wai Chow

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Secret sharing is an information security technique where a dealer divides a secret into a collection of shares and distributes these to members of a group. The secret will only be revealed when a predefined number of group members cooperate to recover the secret. The purpose of this study is to investigate a method of distributing shares by embedding them into cover Quick Response (QR codes in a secure manner using cryptographic keys. The advantage of this approach is that the shares can be disseminated over public channels, as anyone who scans the QR codes will only obtain public information. Only authorized individuals who are in possession of the required keys will be able to recover the shares. This also means that when group members cooperate to recover a secret, the group can determine the presence of an illegitimate participant if the person does not produce a valid share. This study proposes a protocol for accomplishing this and discusses the underlying security of the protocol.

  5. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Secreting Pheochromocytoma Underlying Glucocorticoid Induced Pheochromocytoma Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil A. Geva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Pheochromocytomas are hormone secreting tumors of the medulla of the adrenal glands found in 0.1–0.5% of patients with hypertension. The vast majority of pheochromocytomas secrete catecholamines, but they have been occasionally shown to also secrete interleukins, calcitonin, testosterone, and in rare cases adrenocorticotropic hormone. Pheochromocytoma crisis is a life threatening event in which high levels of catecholamines cause a systemic reaction leading to organ failure. Case Description. A 70-year-old man was admitted with acute myocardial ischemia following glucocorticoid administration as part of an endocrine workup for an adrenal mass. Cardiac catheterization disclosed patent coronary arteries and he was discharged. A year later he returned with similar angina-like chest pain. During hospitalization, he suffered additional events of chest pain, shortness of breath, and palpitations following administration of glucocorticoids as preparation for intravenous contrast administration. Throughout his admission, the patient demonstrated both signs of Cushing’s syndrome and high catecholamine levels. Following stabilization of vital parameters and serum electrolytes, the adrenal mass was resected surgically and was found to harbor an adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting pheochromocytoma. This is the first documented case of adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting pheochromocytoma complicated by glucocorticoid induced pheochromocytoma crisis. Conclusion. Care should be taken when administering high doses of glucocorticoids to patients with suspected pheochromocytoma, even in a patient with concomitant Cushing’s syndrome.

  6. Autophagy-dependent secretion: contribution to tumor progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Keulers

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is best known as a lysosomal degradation and recycling pathway to maintain cellular homeostasis. During autophagy, cytoplasmic content is recognized and packed in autophagic vacuoles, or autophagosomes, and targeted for degradation. However, during the last years, it has become evident that the role of autophagy is not restricted to degradation alone but also mediates unconventional forms of secretion. Furthermore, cells with defects in autophagy apparently are able to reroute their cargo, like mitochondria, to the extracellular environment; effects that contribute to an array of pathologies. In this review we discuss the current knowledge of the physiological roles of autophagy-dependent secretion, i.e. the effect on inflammation and insulin/ hormone secretion. Finally, we focus on the effects of autophagy-dependent secretion on the tumour microenvironment and tumour progression. The autophagy mediated secreted factors may stimulate cellular proliferation via auto- and paracrine signaling. The autophagy mediated release of immune modulating proteins change the immunosuppresive tumor microenvironment and may promote an invasive phenotype. These effects may be either direct or indirect through facilitating formation of the mobilized vesicle, aid in anterograde trafficking or alterations in homeostasis and/or autonomous cell signaling.

  7. Secretion of pancreastatins from the porcine digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerglum Jensen, T.D.; Holst, J.J.; Fahrenkrug, J.

    1994-01-01

    Pancreastatin, a 49-amino acid peptide with a COOH-terminal glycine amide, was originally isolated from porcine pancreas, but pancreastatin immunoreactivity has been found in several neuroendocrine tissues. There are strong indications that pancreastatin is derived from chromogranin A, since the amino acid sequence 240-288 in porcine chromogranin A corresponds to pancreastatin flanked by typical signals for proteolytic processing. The authors studied the effect of electric stimulation of the nervous supply to perfused porcine pancreas, antrum, nonantral stomach, and small intestine on the release of immunoreactive pancreastatin, and they have characterized the molecular nature of the secreted immunoreactivity by using a radioimmunoassay specific for the COOH-terminal glycine amide of porcine pancreastatin in combination with chromatography. In all tissues nerve stimulation significantly increased the release of immunoreactive pancreastatin. The secreted immunoreactive pancreastatin was heterogeneous, consisting of pancreastatin itself, a COOH-terminal pancreastatin fragment, and NH 2 -terminally extended pancreastatin forms. Pancreastatin predominated in the perfusate from pancreas and antrum, whereas mainly NH 2 -terminally extended molecular forms were secreted from the antrectomized stomach and small intestine. The different molecular forms of pancreastatin were secreted from the perfused organs in the same molar ratio as they occur in extracts of the corresponding tissues. Thus, pancreastatin and other chromogranin A-derived peptides in organ-specific proportions regularly accompany the secretion of the peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tissues on appropriate stimulation. 40 refs., 5 figs

  8. Insulin secretion and action in North Indian women during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, G P; Almgren, P; Thaman, R G

    2017-01-01

    . RESULTS: Gestational diabetes defined using both criteria was associated with decreased insulin secretion compared with pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance. Women with gestational diabetes defined by the adapted GDM2013, but not GDM1999 criteria, were more insulin resistant than pregnant women......AIM: The relative roles(s) of impaired insulin secretion vs. insulin resistance in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus depend upon multiple risk factors and diagnostic criteria. Here, we explored their relative contribution to gestational diabetes as defined by the WHO 1999 (GDM1999...... independently associated with increased insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational diabetes risk factors influence insulin secretion and action in North Indian women in a differential manner. Gestational diabetes classified using the adapted GDM2013 compared with GDM1999 criteria is associated with more...

  9. Computed tomographic study of hormone-secreting microadenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemminghytt, S.; Kalkhoff, R.K.; Daniels, D.L.; Williams, A.L.; Grogan, J.P.; Haughton, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    A review was made of the computed tomographic (CT) studies of 33 patients with hormone-secreting microadenomas that had been verified by transsphenoidal surgery and endocrinologic evaluation. In previous studies in small series of patients, the CT appearance of pituitary microadenomas has been reported as hypodense, isodense, and hyperdense. In this study, CT showed a region of diminished enhancement and ususally an enlarged pituitary gland in cases of prolactin-secreting adenomas. HGH- or ACTH-secreting adenomas were less consistently hypodense. It is concluded that hypodensity and enlargement in the pituitary gland are the most useful criteria for identification of microadenomas. Some technical factors that may affect the CT appearance of microadenomas and lead to conflicting reports are discussed

  10. Incretins, insulin secretion and Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Holst, Jens Møller

    2004-01-01

    the genes encoding their receptors have been deleted. In patients with Type 2 diabetes, the incretin effect is either greatly impaired or absent, and it is assumed that this could contribute to the inability of these patients to adjust their insulin secretion to their needs. In studies of the mechanism...... of the impaired incretin effect in Type 2 diabetic patients, it has been found that the secretion of GIP is generally normal, whereas the secretion of GLP-1 is reduced, presumably as a consequence of the diabetic state. It might be of even greater importance that the effect of GLP-1 is preserved whereas...... the effect of GIP is severely impaired. The impaired GIP effect seems to have a genetic background, but could be aggravated by the diabetic state. The preserved effect of GLP-1 has inspired attempts to treat Type 2 diabetes with GLP-1 or analogues thereof, and intravenous GLP-1 administration has been shown...

  11. Interaction of corneal nociceptive stimulation and lacrimal secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Ping; Simpson, Trefford L

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the interaction between corneal stimuli at different positions and tear secretion and to establish relationships between nociceptive stimuli detection thresholds and stimulated tearing. Using a computerized Belmonte-esthesiometer, mechanical and chemical stimuli, from 0% to 200% of the threshold in 50% steps, were delivered (in random order) to the central and peripheral (approximately 2-mm inside the limbus) cornea during four separate sessions to 15 subjects. Immediately after each stimulus, tear meniscus height (TMH) was measured using optical coherence tomography to quantify the amount of lacrimal secretion, and subjects reported whether they felt tears starting to accumulate in their eyes. Thresholds (50% detection) for detection of tearing were estimated. TMH increased with increasing stimulus intensity (P lacrimation reflex. Central mechanical corneal stimulation is the most effective stimulus-position pairing and appears to be the major sensory driving force for reflex tear secretion by the lacrimal functional unit.

  12. Secret Sharing over Fast-Fading MIMO Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Secret sharing over the fast-fading MIMO wiretap channel is considered. A source and a destination try to share secret information over a fast-fading MIMO channel in the presence of an eavesdropper who also makes channel observations that are different from but correlated to those made by the destination. An interactive, authenticated public channel with unlimited capacity is available to the source and destination for the secret sharing process. This situation is a special case of the "channel model with wiretapper" considered by Ahlswede and Csiszár. An extension of their result to continuous channel alphabets is employed to evaluate the key capacity of the fast-fading MIMO wiretap channel. The effects of spatial dimensionality provided by the use of multiple antennas at the source, destination, and eavesdropper are then investigated.

  13. Identification and characterization of secreted proteins in Eimeria tenella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlee, Intan Azlinda; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2015-09-01

    Eimeria tenella is a protozoan parasite that causes coccidiosis, an economically important disease in the poultry industry. The characterization of proteins that are secreted by parasites have been shown to play important roles in parasite invasion and are considered to be potential control agents. In this study, 775 proteins potentially secreted by E. tenella were identified. These proteins were further filtered to remove mitochondrial proteins. Out of 763 putative secreted proteins, 259 proteins possess transmembrane domains while another 150 proteins have GPI (Glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchors. Homology search revealed that 315 and 448 proteins have matches with known and hypothetical proteins in the database, respectively. Within this data set, previously characterized secretory proteins such as micronemes, rhoptry kinases and dense granules were detected.

  14. Transparency and secrets in the nuclear sector: report and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Based on several meetings, hearings of many actors involved in matters of transparency and secrets concerning the nuclear activity, and visits of ships carrying nuclear materials, this report aims at examining and analysing means to reconcile the transparency of nuclear information intended for the public with the confidentiality essential to transport security or nuclear activities. The authors also aim at a better understanding of these both notions of transparency and secret with respect to a legal and regulatory framework. In the following part of this report, the authors analyse recommendations which have been made in the past, and their consequences. They discuss possible appeal ways in front of a refusal to issue nuclear information because it is classified as secret. Remaining difficulties are identified as well as ways to overcome them

  15. Possible modulatory effect of endogenous islet catecholamines on insulin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardino Juan J

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The possible participation of endogenous islet catecholamines (CAs in the control of insulin secretion was tested. Methods Glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured in the presence of 3-Iodo-L-Tyrosine (MIT, a specific inhibitor of tyrosine-hydroxylase activity, in fresh and precultured islets isolated from normal rats. Incubated islets were also used to measure CAs release in the presence of low and high glucose, and the effect of α2-(yohimbine [Y] and idazoxan [I] and α1-adrenergic antagonists (prazosin [P] and terazosin [T] upon insulin secretion elicited by high glucose. Results Fresh islets incubated with 16.7 mM glucose released significantly more insulin in the presence of 1 μM MIT (6.66 ± 0.39 vs 5.01 ± 0.43 ng/islet/h, p Conclusion Our results suggest that islet-originated CAs directly modulate insulin release in a paracrine manner.

  16. Noncoherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Anurag

    2011-09-01

    We study the noncoherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion over independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading wireless channels, where neither the sender nor the receivers have access to instantaneous channel state information (CSI). We present two results. At high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the secret-key capacity is bounded in SNR, regardless of the number of antennas at each terminal. Second, for a system with a single antenna at both the legitimate and the eavesdropper terminals and an arbitrary number of transmit antennas, the secret-key capacity-achieving input distribution is discrete, with a finite number of mass points. Numerically we observe that at low SNR, the capacity achieving distribution has two mass points with one of them at the origin. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Incretins, insulin secretion and Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, T; Holst, Jens Juul

    2004-01-01

    the effect of GIP is severely impaired. The impaired GIP effect seems to have a genetic background, but could be aggravated by the diabetic state. The preserved effect of GLP-1 has inspired attempts to treat Type 2 diabetes with GLP-1 or analogues thereof, and intravenous GLP-1 administration has been shown...... the genes encoding their receptors have been deleted. In patients with Type 2 diabetes, the incretin effect is either greatly impaired or absent, and it is assumed that this could contribute to the inability of these patients to adjust their insulin secretion to their needs. In studies of the mechanism...... of the impaired incretin effect in Type 2 diabetic patients, it has been found that the secretion of GIP is generally normal, whereas the secretion of GLP-1 is reduced, presumably as a consequence of the diabetic state. It might be of even greater importance that the effect of GLP-1 is preserved whereas...

  18. [A case of GH and TSH secreting pituitary macroadenoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołkowski, Filip; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Stefańska, Agnieszka; Trofimiuk, Małgorzata; Pantofliński, Jacek; Huszno, Bohdan; Czepko, Ryszard; Adamek, Dariusz

    2006-01-01

    A case of GH and TSH secreting pituitary macroadenoma is reported. A 45-year-old female presented clinical features of acromegaly (the abnormal growth of the hands and feet, with lower jaw protrusion), diabetes mellitus, hypertension, nodular goiter and hyperthyroidism of unclear origin. NMR pituitary imaging revealed intra and extrasellar tumor. The laboratory examinations showed very high plasma levels of GH and IGF-1 and normal level of TSH coexisting with high plasma levels of free thyroid hormones. Pharmacological pretreatment with somatostatin analogues caused the substantial reduction of GH and TSH plasma levels. Histological and immunohistochemical examination of the tissue obtained at transsphenoidal surgery showed GH and TSH secreting adenoma. The laboratory examinations after surgery showed normal GH and IGF-1 plasma levels and reduced insulin requirement, what indicates radical operation. The very low plasma levels of TSH and free thyroid hormones after surgery and immunohistochemical examination suggest central hyperthyroidism due to TSH secreting pituitary tumor (thyrotropinoma).

  19. Noncoherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Anurag; Rezki, Zouheir; Khisti, Ashish J.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    We study the noncoherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion over independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading wireless channels, where neither the sender nor the receivers have access to instantaneous channel state information (CSI). We present two results. At high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the secret-key capacity is bounded in SNR, regardless of the number of antennas at each terminal. Second, for a system with a single antenna at both the legitimate and the eavesdropper terminals and an arbitrary number of transmit antennas, the secret-key capacity-achieving input distribution is discrete, with a finite number of mass points. Numerically we observe that at low SNR, the capacity achieving distribution has two mass points with one of them at the origin. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Assessing Cardiovascular Health Using Life′s Simple 7 in a Chinese Population Undergoing Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Few Chinese patients undergoing stroke prevention had optimal CVH (determined using LS7. Additionally, fewer patients undergoing secondary prevention had optimal CVH than those undergoing primary prevention. In particular, physical activity and diet status in this population require improvement.

  1. FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ∆fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ∆fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion.

  2. Mucus glycoprotein secretion by tracheal explants: effects of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, J.A.; Kaizu, T.

    1980-01-01

    Tracheal slices incubated with radioactive precursors in tissue culture medium secrete labeled mucus glycoproteins into the culture medium. We have used an in vivtro approach, a combined method utilizing exposure to pneumotoxins in vivo coupled with quantitation of mucus secretion rates in vitro, to study the effects of inhaled pollutants on mucus biosynthesis by rat airways. In addition, we have purified the mucus glycoproteins secreted by rat tracheal explants in order to determine putative structural changes that might by the basis for the observed augmented secretion rates after exposure of rats to H2SO4 aerosols in combination with high ambient levels of ozone. After digestion with papain, mucus glycoproteins secreted by tracheal explants may be separated into five fractions by ion-exchange chromatography, with recovery in high yield, on columns of DEAE-cellulose. Each of these five fractions, one neutral and four acidic, migrates as a single unique spot upon cellulose acetate electrophoresis at pH values of 8.6 and 1.2. The neutral fraction, which is labeled with [3H] glucosamine, does not contain radioactivity when Na2 35SO4 is used as the precursor. Acidic fractions I to IV are all labeled with either 3H-glucosamine or Na2 35SO4 as precursor. Acidic fraction II contains sialic acid as the terminal sugar on its oligosaccharide side chains, based upon its chromatographic behavior on columns of wheat-germ agglutinin-Agarose. Treatment of this fraction with neuraminidase shifts its elution position in the gradient to a lower salt concentration, coincident with acidic fraction I. After removal of terminal sialic acid residues with either neuraminidase or low pH treatment, the resultant terminal sugar on the oligosaccharide side chains is fucose. These results are identical with those observed with mucus glycoproteins secreted by cultured human tracheal explants and purified by these same techniques

  3. Stimulation of corticosterone secretion in vitro by brief ACTH exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, L.D.; Tam, B.; Greer, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between ACTH concentration and exposure duration on stimulation of corticosterone (B) secretion in vitro using perifused enzymatically dispersed rat adrenocortical cells. A modular perifusion apparatus was used that permitted evaluation of 20-24 cell chambers per experimental session. In expt 1,20-1000 pg/ml concentrations of synthetic ACTH-(1-24) were presented to cells for 1 min. In expt 2, 100 pg ACTH-(1-24) was presented to adrenal cells in five dose-duration regimens ranging from 5 pg/min for 20 min to 100 pg/min for 1 min. Perifusal rate was 1 ml/min in all sessions. B was determined by radioimmunoassay. In expt 1 (constant-duration paradigm), 1-min presentation of ACTH-(1-24) produced log-linear dose-response effects across these concentrations. In expt 2 (constant-mass paradigm), identical masses administered in different dose-duration regimens had different steroidogenic efficacies: low-dose long-duration regimens provoked greater total release than high-dose short-duration regimens. Overall, every dose-duration regimen was associated with stimulation of B secretion. These results indicate that 1) very brief exposure to physiological concentrations of ACTH-(1-24) is a significant stimulus for corticosteroid secretion; 2) variations in the dose-duration regimen over the physiological range modifies both the maximum rate of secretion and the duration of secretion, but not the response latency; and 3) ACTH-(1-24) presentation mass is not the sole determinant of B secretion

  4. Identification and functional analysis of secreted effectors from phytoparasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sajid; Gupta, Vijai K; Goyal, Aakash K

    2016-03-21

    Plant parasitic nematodes develop an intimate and long-term feeding relationship with their host plants. They induce a multi-nucleate feeding site close to the vascular bundle in the roots of their host plant and remain sessile for the rest of their life. Nematode secretions, produced in the oesophageal glands and secreted through a hollow stylet into the host plant cytoplasm, are believed to play key role in pathogenesis. To combat these persistent pathogens, the identity and functional analysis of secreted effectors can serve as a key to devise durable control measures. In this review, we will recapitulate the knowledge over the identification and functional characterization of secreted nematode effector repertoire from phytoparasitic nematodes. Despite considerable efforts, the identity of genes encoding nematode secreted proteins has long been severely hampered because of their microscopic size, long generation time and obligate biotrophic nature. The methodologies such as bioinformatics, protein structure modeling, in situ hybridization microscopy, and protein-protein interaction have been used to identify and to attribute functions to the effectors. In addition, RNA interference (RNAi) has been instrumental to decipher the role of the genes encoding secreted effectors necessary for parasitism and genes attributed to normal development. Recent comparative and functional genomic approaches have accelerated the identification of effectors from phytoparasitic nematodes and offers opportunities to control these pathogens. Plant parasitic nematodes pose a serious threat to global food security of various economically important crops. There is a wealth of genomic and transcriptomic information available on plant parasitic nematodes and comparative genomics has identified many effectors. Bioengineering crops with dsRNA of phytonematode genes can disrupt the life cycle of parasitic nematodes and therefore holds great promise to develop resistant crops against plant

  5. Discovery of new herbicide modes of action with natural phytotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    About 20 modes of action (MOAs) are utilized by commercial herbicides, and almost 30 years have passed since the last new MOA was introduced. Rapidly increasing evolution of resistance to herbicides with these MOAs has greatly increased the need for herbicides with new MOAs. Combinatorial chemistry ...

  6. α-Glucosidase inhibitors and phytotoxins from Streptomyces xanthophaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Zhang, Xiu-Yun; Deng, Shan; Cao, Lin; Xue, Quan-Hong; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2017-09-01

    Twenty-four metabolites 1-24 were isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces xanthophaeus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their NMR data with literature data reported. Daidzein (1), genistein (2) and gliricidin (3) inhibited α-glucosidase in vitro with IC 50 values of 174.2, 36.1 and 47.4 μM, respectively, more potent than the positive control, acarbose. Docking study revealed that the amino acid residue Thr 215 is the essential binding site for active ligands 2. In addition, the phytotoxic effects of all compounds were assayed on radish seedlings, five of which, 3, 8, 13, 15 and 18, inhibited the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings with inhibitory rates of >60% at a concentration of 100 ppm, which was comparable or superior to the positive control glyphosate. This is the first report of the phytotoxicity of the compounds.

  7. Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Mugnai, Laura; Luque, Jordi; Surico, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed. PMID:22295177

  8. Molecular mechanisms of toxicity of important food-borne phytotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Martena, M.J.; Boersma, M.G.; Spiegelenberg, W.; Alink, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    At present, there is an increasing interest for plant ingredients and their use in drugs, for teas, or in food supplements. The present review describes the nature and mechanism of action of the phytochemicals presently receiving increased attention in the field of food toxicology. This relates to

  9. Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Evidente

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed.

  10. Secretion of neurotensin from isolated perfused porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Pedersen, J; Knuthsen, S; Bernabei, M

    1988-01-01

    The secretion and molecular nature of immunoreactive neurotensin (NT) was studied following stimulation of an isolated perfused porcine ileal segment with glucose, triglyceride and intra-arterial infusion of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP). Secreted peptides were separated using gel chromatography...... in doses from 10(-10) to 10(-8) M stimulated NT release in a dose-related manner. Following gel chromatography only the intact peptide and no smaller or larger molecular size immunoreactive components were observed. The study showed that both luminal and humoral stimuli release NT from the isolated pig...

  11. Quantum secret sharing via local operations and classical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Hui; Gao, Fei; Wu, Xia; Qin, Su-Juan; Zuo, Hui-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2015-11-20

    We investigate the distinguishability of orthogonal multipartite entangled states in d-qudit system by restricted local operations and classical communication. According to these properties, we propose a standard (2, n)-threshold quantum secret sharing scheme (called LOCC-QSS scheme), which solves the open question in [Rahaman et al., Phys. Rev. A, 91, 022330 (2015)]. On the other hand, we find that all the existing (k, n)-threshold LOCC-QSS schemes are imperfect (or "ramp"), i.e., unauthorized groups can obtain some information about the shared secret. Furthermore, we present a (3, 4)-threshold LOCC-QSS scheme which is close to perfect.

  12. ["Secret causes": causality and determinism in the classical age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cléro, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The notion of the "secret cause", which appears in many classical texts is tied to a particular practice of science and a conception of its methods where the "law" finds itself at the center of the nexus. If certain phenomena appear to escape the law, one is obliged to amend the law through the introduction of a series of "small equations." If the calculation of probabilities is deployed, this is to precisely reveal causes which are, at their origin, secret, but which will gradually become less so and eventually conform to laws.

  13. Agnus castus extracts inhibit prolactin secretion of rat pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliutz, G; Speiser, P; Schultz, A M; Spona, J; Zeillinger, R

    1993-05-01

    In our studies on prolactin inhibition by plant extracts we focused on the effects of extracts of Vitex agnus castus and its preparations on rat pituitary cells under basal and stimulated conditions in primary cell culture. Both extracts from Vitex agnus castus as well as synthetic dopamine agonists (Lisuride) significantly inhibit basal as well as TRH-stimulated prolactin secretion of rat pituitary cells in vitro and as a consequence inhibition of prolactin secretion could be blocked by adding a dopamine receptor blocker. Therefore because of its dopaminergic effect Agnus castus could be considered as an efficient alternative phytotherapeutic drug in the treatment of slight hyperprolactinaemia.

  14. Laparoscopic Partial Adrenalectomy for Bilateral Cortisol-secreting Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Domino

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas are a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and bilateral adrenal adenomas. Adrenal venous sampling confirmed both adenomas to be hyper-secreting cortisol. She underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy; total right and partial left adrenalectomies. At 2-year follow-up, she is maintained on low-dose fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone, and without recurrence of hypercorticolism. Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy is a feasible option for this rare condition; however, long-term follow-up is needed to determine her total independence from steroid usage.

  15. Effect of head x-irradiation on adrenal medullary secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieno, Masahiro

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiments was to investigate an immediate effect of head x-irradiation on the secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline by the adrenal medulla. When the dogs were irradiated with 200 or 800 R of x-rays to their heads under pentobarbital anesthesia, the majority of the animals showed no stimulation of the adrenal medulla but the minority showed a slight but definite increase in the secretion of adrenaline, the peak being attained within 60 min after exposure. (auth.)

  16. Ectopic ACTH and CRH co-secreting tumor localized by 68Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Bagci, Ulas; Sadowski, Samira M.; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) co-secreting tumors causing Cushing syndrome (CS) is challenging, since these tumors are rare and their diagnosis is frequently confused with Cushing disease (CD), due to the effect of CRH on the pituitary. We report a case of a 21-year-old male who was referred to our institution with persistent hypercortisolemia and CS after undergoing unnecessary transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). 68Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT revealed increased tracer uptake in the thymus which was histologically proved to be neuroendocrine tumor (NET) staining positive for ACTH and CRH. Imaging with 18F-FDG PET/CT was not diagnostic. PMID:26018709

  17. Routine aspiration of subglottic secretions after major heart surgery: impact on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Granda, M J; Barrio, J M; Hortal, J; Muñoz, P; Rincón, C; Bouza, E

    2013-12-01

    Aspiration of subglottic secretions (ASS) is recommended in patients requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥48h. We assessed the impact of the introduction of ASS routinely in all patients after major heart surgery in an ecological study comparing ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) incidence, days of mechanical ventilation, and cost of antimicrobial agents before and after the implementation of ASS. Before and after the intervention the results (per 1000 days) were: VAP incidence, 23.92 vs 16.46 (P = 0.04); cost of antimicrobials, €71,384 vs €63,446 (P = 0.002); and days of mechanical ventilation, 507.5 vs 377.5 (P = 0.009). From the moment of induction of anaesthesia all patients undergoing major heart surgery should routinely receive ASS. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff of secret-key agreement over multiple-antenna channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2014-09-01

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over Rayleigh fading quasi-static channels. First, the secret-key diversity gain and the secret-key multiplexing gain are defined. Then, the secret-key diversity multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) is established. The eavesdropper is shown to \\'steal\\' only transmit antennas. We show that likewise the DMT without secrecy constraint, the secret-key DMT is the same either with or without full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSI-T). This insensitivity of secret-key DMT toward CSI-T highlights a fundamental difference between secret-key agreement and the wiretap channel whose secret DMT depends crucially on CSI-T. Several secret-key DMT-achieving schemes are presented in case of full CSI-T.

  19. On the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff of secret-key agreement over multiple-antenna channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen; Rezki, Zouheir; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over Rayleigh fading quasi-static channels. First, the secret-key diversity gain and the secret-key multiplexing gain are defined. Then, the secret-key diversity multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) is established. The eavesdropper is shown to 'steal' only transmit antennas. We show that likewise the DMT without secrecy constraint, the secret-key DMT is the same either with or without full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSI-T). This insensitivity of secret-key DMT toward CSI-T highlights a fundamental difference between secret-key agreement and the wiretap channel whose secret DMT depends crucially on CSI-T. Several secret-key DMT-achieving schemes are presented in case of full CSI-T.

  20. Ability of multicellular salt glands in Tamarix species to secrete Na+ and K+ selectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haiyan; Tian, Changyan; Feng, Gu; Yuan, Junfeng

    2011-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the mechanism of cation-selective secretion by multicellular salt glands. Using a hydroponic culture system, the secretion and accumulation of Na(+) and K(+) in Tamarix ramosissima and T. laxa under different salt stresses (NaCl, KCl and NaCl+KCl) were studied. Additionally, the effects of salt gland inhibitors (orthovanadate, Ba(2+), ouabain, tetraethylammonium (TEA) and verapamil) on Na(+) and K(+) secretion and accumulation were examined. Treatment with NaCl (at 0-200 mmol L(-1) levels) significantly increased Na(+) secretion, whereas KCl treatment (at 0-200 mmol L(-1) levels) significantly increased K(+) secretion. The ratio of secretion to accumulation of Na(+) was higher than that of K(+). The changes in Na(+) and K(+) secretion differed after adding different ions into the single-salt solutions. Addition of NaCl to the KCl solution (at 100 mmol L(-1) level, respectively) led to a significant decrease in K(+) secretion rate, whereas addition of KCl to the NaCl solution (at 100 mmol L(-1) level, respectively) had little impact on the Na(+) secretion rate. These results indicated that Na+ secretion in Tamarix was highly selective. In addition, Na(+) secretion was significantly inhibited by orthovanadate, ouabain, TEA and verapamil, and K(+) secretion was significantly inhibited by ouabain, TEA and verapamil. The different impacts of orthovanadate on Na(+) and K(+) secretion might be the primary cause for the different Na(+) and K(+) secretion abilities of multicellular salt glands in Tamarix.

  1. Salinity Alters the Polyisoprenoid Alcohol Content and Composition of Both Salt-Secreting and Non–Salt-Secreting Mangrove Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Basyuni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salinity on the polyisoprenoid alcohol content and composition of the salt-secreting mangrove species Avicennia marina and Sonneratia alba and the non–salt-secreting species Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Kandelia obovata were studied. The seedlings of mangroves were grown for 5 months under 0% and 3% salt concentrations. The occurrence, content, and distribution of four mangrove seedlings were analyzed by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. The structural groups of the polyprenols and dolichols in the leaves and roots were classified into two types (I and II. In type I, dolichols predominated over polyprenols (more than 90%, whereas in type II, the occurrence of both polyprenols and dolichols was observed. Polyprenols were not detected in the leaves of A. marina and B. gymnorrhiza under 0% salt (control, but were detected in small amounts in K. obovata leaves; however, significant amounts were found in the 3% salinity group. This finding in A. marina, B. gymnorrhiza, and K. obovata leaves implies a change to the structural group: under 0% salt concentrations, the groups are classified as type I, but become type II under 3% salt concentrations. The occurrence of ficaprenol (C50–55 was found only in the leaves of the non–salt-secreting species B. gymnorrhiza and K. obovata under 3% salinity and not in the salt-secreting species A. marina or S. alba. It is noteworthy that the polyisoprenoid type in the roots of the four species showed no change under salinity; the two salt-secreting species A. marina and S. alba contained type I under 0% and 3% salt concentrations. On the other hand, type II polyisoprenoids were identified in the non–salt-secreting species B. gymnorrhiza and K. obovata under 0% and 3% salinity conditions. This finding suggested that polyisoprenoids play a protective role against salinity in the mangrove leaves of both salt-secreting and non–salt-secreting species.

  2. The polyomaviruses WUPyV and KIPyV: a retrospective quantitative analysis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motamedi Nasim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polyomaviruses WUPyV and KIPyV have been detected in various sample types including feces indicating pathogenicity in the gastrointestinal (GI system. However, quantitative viral load data from other simultaneously collected sample types are missing. As a consequence, primary replication in the GI system cannot be differentiated from swallowed virus from the respiratory tract. Here we present a retrospective quantitative longitudinal analysis in simultaneously harvested specimens from different organ sites of patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. This allows the definition of sample types where deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA detection can be expected and, as a consequence, the identification of their primary replication site. Findings Viral DNA loads from 37 patients undergoing HSCT were quantified in respiratory tract secretions (RTS, stool and urine samples as well as in leukocytes (n = 449. Leukocyte-associated virus could not be found. WUPyV was found in feces, RTS and urine samples of an infant, while KIPyV was repeatedly detected in RTS and stool samples of 4 adult patients. RTS and stool samples were matched to determine the viral load difference showing a mean difference of 2.3 log copies/ml (p  Conclusions The data collected in this study suggest that virus detection in the GI tract results from swallowed virus from the respiratory tract (RT. We conclude that shedding from the RT should be ruled out before viral DNA detection in the feces can be correlated to GI symptoms.

  3. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-β-[ 75 Se] selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor

  4. In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-12

    Feb 12, 2016 ... Bio-Sciences R&D Division, TCS Innovation Labs, Tata Research Development & Design Centre, ... Type VII Secretion System (T7SS) is one of the factors involved in virulence of ... Such wide distribution of T7SS and.

  5. Body and Bulimia Revisited: Reflections on "A Secret Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    In 1996, the author published "A Secret Life in a Culture of Thinness: Reflections on Body, Food, and Bulimia" (Tillmann-Healy, 1996), an account of her struggle with binging and purging from ages 15 to 25. She came to understand bulimia as a communicative act, expressing fear, anxiety, and grief. From 25 to 35, her recovery from bulimia involved…

  6. A secreted factor represses cell proliferation in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Debra A; Gomer, Richard H

    2005-10-01

    Many cells appear to secrete factors called chalones that limit their proliferation, but in most cases the factors have not been identified. We found that growing Dictyostelium cells secrete a 60 kDa protein called AprA for autocrine proliferation repressor. AprA has similarity to putative bacterial proteins of unknown function. Compared with wild-type cells, aprA-null cells proliferate faster, while AprA overexpressing cells proliferate slower. Growing wild-type cells secrete a factor that inhibits the proliferation of wild-type and aprA- cells; this activity is not secreted by aprA- cells. AprA purified by immunoprecipitation also slows the proliferation of wild-type and aprA- cells. Compared with wild type, there is a higher percentage of multinucleate cells in the aprA- population, and when starved, aprA- cells form abnormal structures that contain fewer spores. AprA may thus decrease the number of multinucleate cells and increase spore production. Together, the data suggest that AprA functions as part of a Dictyostelium chalone.

  7. Signal transduction pathways involved in intestinal salt and water secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van den Berghe (Nina)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes some novel aspects of the regulation of salt and water secretion in the intestinal epithelium. This process is not unique for the intestine, but a common and necessary function of many other organs, including the stomach (gastric juice), kidney (urine), sweatglands

  8. Ghrelin: ghrelin as a regulatory Peptide in growth hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Nazli; Gaidhane, Shilpa; Gaidhane, Abhay M; Khatib, Mahanaaz; Simkhada, Padam; Gode, Dilip; Zahiruddin, Quazi Syed

    2014-08-01

    Ghrelin is a type of growth hormone (GH) secretagogue that stimulates the release of GH. It is a first hormone linking gastrointestinal-pituitary axis. This review highlights the interaction of ghrelin with GHRH and somatostatin to regulate the secretion of GH and intends to explore the possible physiological role of the ghrelin-pituitary-GH axis linkage system. Ghrelin is highly conserved among species and is classified into octanoylated (C8:0), decanoylated (C10:0), decenoylated (C10:1) and nonacylated,ghrelin. Acylated ghrelin is the major active form of human ghrelin. The primary production site of ghrelin is the stomach, and it interacts with stomach ghrelin as well as hypothalamic GHRH and somatostatin in the regulation of pituitary GH secretion. Ghrelin stimulate GH release through the GHS receptor to increase intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+] levels via IP3 signal transduction pathway. Ghrelin is a specific endogenous ligand for the GHS receptor and provides a definitive proof of the occurance of a GHS-GHS receptor signalling system in the regulation of GH secretion. Studies suggests that ghrelin is a powerful pharmacological agent that exerts a potent, time-dependent stimulation of pulsatile secretion of GH.

  9. Secrets of Science. Videos 1-13. [Videotape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt Disney Publishing Group, Burbank, CA. Discover Magazine.

    Discoveries in science and technology are being made at such a rapid pace that it is often difficult for many teachers to stay abreast of new and relevant information. To assist teachers in keeping their students well informed of new discoveries in science, Discover Magazine developed a 13-part video series entitled "Secrets of Science." In each…

  10. Tear secretion and tear stability of women on hormonal contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustina Kemdinum Idu

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Injectable hormonal contraceptives had no significant effects on tear secretion and tear stability of healthy women of childbearing age. Further studies may be required to determine the effects of hormonal contraceptives on tear volume and stability of women with dry eyes.

  11. MRI of the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) -secreting pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Chul; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sup; Cho, Yong Kook; Lee, Eun Gig; Jung, Joon Keun

    1995-01-01

    To demonstrate and evaluate the value of MRI findings of the TSH(Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, TSH, Thyrotropin)-secreting pituitary adenoma. The authors reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 4 patients with TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Evaluation of the anatomical location, signal characteristics, enhancement patterns, size, shape and circunferential changes were made. No characteristic common MR findings in size, shape, signal intensity, and circumferential changes of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma waere observed among 4 cases (size; 5 x 7 mm to 10 x 11 mm, shape; ovoid to round signal intensity; high in 1 case on T1 and T2WI, isosignal intensity in the other 3 cases, circumferential change; stalk deviation in 1 case, no stalk deviation in 3 cases). But, the tumors were centrally located at the anterior pituitary gland and showed relatively homogeneous signal intensity on MR images of all 4 patients. We conclude that centrally-located mass at the anterior pituitary gland with homogeneous signal intensity on MR image may be suggestive of the TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, although the MR findings are not specific for the disease

  12. Renin secretion and total body sodium: Pathways of integrative control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, Peter; Damkjaer, Mads

    2009-01-01

    to a spring/shock absorber set-up: Non-adaptive RAAS functions determine the new steady state position while TGF controls the rate of change. Recruitment of renin-secreting cells during sustained stimulation may be essential for chronic adaptation, although details of this afferent arteriolar cell plasticity...

  13. Secret Key Agreement: Fundamental Limits and Practical Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2017-02-15

    Despite the tremendous progress made toward establishing PLS as a new paradigm to guarantee security of communication systems at the physical layerthere is a common belief among researchers and industrials that there are many practical challenges that prevent PLS from flourishing at the industrial scale. Most secure message transmission constructions available to date are tied to strong assumptions on CSI, consider simple channel models and undermine eavesdropping capabilities; thus compromising their practical interest to a big extent. Perhaps arguably, the most likely reasonable way to leverage PLS potential in securing modern wireless communication systems is via secret-key agreement. In the latter setting, the legitimate parties try to agree on a key exploiting availability of a public channel with high capacity which is also accessible to the eavesdropper. Once a key is shared by the legitimate parties, they may use it in a one-time pad encryption, for instance. In this article, we investigate two performance limits of secret-key agreement communications; namely, the secret-key diversity-multiplexing trade-off and the effect of transmit correlation on the secretkey capacity. We show via examples how secretkey agreement offers more flexibility than secure message transmissions. Finally, we explore a few challenges of secret-key agreement concept and propose a few guidelines to overturn them.

  14. Direct demonstration of macula densa-mediated renin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Briggs, J P

    1987-01-01

    An in vitro method has been used to examine whether secretion of renin from the juxtaglomerular apparatus is affected by changes in the sodium chloride concentration of the tubular fluid at the macula densa. Single juxtaglomerular apparatuses were microdissected from rabbits and the tubule segmen...

  15. Oxytocin: the neuropeptide of love reveals some of its secrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Inga D

    2007-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin is synthesized in the brain and released from neurohypophyseal terminals into the blood and within defined brain regions that regulate emotional, cognitive, and social behaviors. A recent study of CD38-/- mice (Jin et al., 2007) has demonstrated an essential role for the transmembrane receptor CD38 in secretion of oxytocin into the blood.

  16. Interferometric key readable security holograms with secrete-codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology,. Hisar 125 001, India. *E-mail: aka1945@rediffmail.com. MS received 21 ... A new method is described to create secrete-codes in the security holograms for enhancing ... ing, or falsification of the valuable products and documents.

  17. Mechanism of Action of Secreted Newt Anterior Gradient Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin S Grassme

    Full Text Available Anterior gradient (AG proteins have a thioredoxin fold and are targeted to the secretory pathway where they may act in the ER, as well as after secretion into the extracellular space. A newt member of the family (nAG was previously identified as interacting with the GPI-anchored salamander-specific three-finger protein called Prod1. Expression of nAG has been implicated in the nerve dependence of limb regeneration in salamanders, and nAG acted as a growth factor for cultured newt limb blastemal (progenitor cells, but the mechanism of action was not understood. Here we show that addition of a peptide antibody to Prod1 specifically inhibit the proliferation of blastema cells, suggesting that Prod1 acts as a cell surface receptor for secreted nAG, leading to S phase entry. Mutation of the single cysteine residue in the canonical active site of nAG to alanine or serine leads to protein degradation, but addition of residues at the C terminus stabilises the secreted protein. The mutation of the cysteine residue led to no detectable activity on S phase entry in cultured newt limb blastemal cells. In addition, our phylogenetic analyses have identified a new Caudata AG protein called AG4. A comparison of the AG proteins in a cell culture assay indicates that nAG secretion is significantly higher than AGR2 or AG4, suggesting that this property may vary in different members of the family.

  18. Interferometric key readable security holograms with secrete-codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new method is described to create secrete-codes in the security holograms for enhancing their anti-counterfeiting characteristics. ... Scientific Instruments Organisation, Sector 30, Chandigarh 160 030, India; Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar 125 001, India ...

  19. Proton therapy of hormone-secreting hypophyseal adenomas: gluconeogenesis assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnova, L.A.; Konnov, B.A.; Mel'nikov, L.A.; Lebedeva, N.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of blood plasma aminograms of patients with hormone secreting hypophyseal adenomas (somatotropinomas and prolactinomas), that were obtained before and after a course of proton therapy, has confirmed the gluconeogenic effect of hypophyseal hormones and evidenced the relationship between this effect and dismetabolism of some amino acids

  20. Excreted/Secreted Proteins from Trypanosome Procyclic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestine Michelle Atyame Nten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma secretome was shown to be involved in parasite virulence and is suspected of interfering in parasite life-cycle steps such as establishment in the Glossina midgut, metacyclogenesis. Therefore, we attempted to identify the proteins secreted by procyclic strains of T. brucei gambiense and T. brucei brucei, responsible for human and animal trypanosomiasis, respectively. Using mass spectrometry, 427 and 483 nonredundant proteins were characterized in T. brucei brucei and T. brucei gambiense secretomes, respectively; 35% and 42% of the corresponding secretome proteins were specifically secreted by T. brucei brucei and T. brucei gambiense, respectively, while 279 proteins were common to both subspecies. The proteins were assigned to 12 functional classes. Special attention was paid to the most abundant proteases (14 families because of their potential implication in the infection process and nutrient supply. The presence of proteins usually secreted via an exosome pathway suggests that this type of process is involved in trypanosome ESP secretion. The overall results provide leads for further research to develop novel tools for blocking trypanosome transmission.

  1. Zebrafish genetics gets the Scube on Hedgehog secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Philip W

    2012-11-15

    Inspired by a zebrafish mutation, two recent studies by Creanga and colleagues (pp. 1312-1325) and Tukachinsky and colleagues have shed new light on the way in which lipidated Hedgehog proteins are secreted and released from expressing cells, suggesting a model for the sequential action of the Disp and Scube2 proteins in this process.

  2. Secreted proteins as a fundamental source for biomarker discovery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťastná, Miroslava; Van Eyk, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, 4-5 (2012), s. 722-735 ISSN 1615-9853 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : conditioned media * secreted proteins * proteomics * biomarker discovery Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.132, year: 2012

  3. Endogenous cellulases in stylet secretions of cyst nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smant, G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes the identification ofβ-1,4-endoglucanases (cellulases) in stylet secretions of the two cyst nematodes species, Globodera rostochiensis and Heterodera glycines . A novel method was developed to raise monoclonal antibodies that were

  4. Plant Physiology: The Venus Flytrap Counts on Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Colin

    2017-08-07

    The Venus flytrap effectively detects, traps, digests and absorbs insect prey. A recent study links the mechanical stimulation of sensory hair cells with short- and long-term signalling giving rise to different downstream secretion events that bring about conditions for prey digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pulsatile thyrotropin secretion in patients with Cushing's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, R.; Brabant, G.; Endert, E.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1994-01-01

    Pulsatile and circadian thyrotropin (TSH) secretion were studied in 16 healthy controls and in three patients with Cushing's syndrome who were studied twice (before and after treatment). Blood was sampled every 10 minutes over 24 hours for TSH (immunoradiometric assay [IRMA]). Mean 24-hour TSH in

  6. Brain sites mediating corticosteroid feedback inhibition of stimulated ACTH secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, L.

    1989-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that the brain mediates stress-induced and circadian increases in ACTH secretion and that corticosteroid concentrations which normalize basal plasma ACTH are insufficient to normalize ACTH responses to circadian or stressful stimuli in adrenalectomized rats. To identify brain sites mediating corticosteroid inhibition of stimulated ACTH secretion, two approaches were used. The first compared brain [ 14 C]-2-deoxyglucose uptake in rats with differential ACTH responses to stress. Relative to sham-adrenalectomized (SHAM) rats, adrenalectomized rats replaced with low, constant corticosterone levels via a subcutaneous corticosterone pellet (B-PELLET) exhibited elevated and prolonged ACTH responses to a variety of stimuli. Adrenalectomized rate given a circadian corticosterone rhythm via corticosterone in their drinking water exhibited elevated ACTH levels immediately after stress, but unlike B-PELLET rats, terminated stress induced ACTH secretion normally relative to SHAMS. Therefore, the abnormal ACTH responses to stress in B-PELLET rats were due to the lack of both circadian variations and stress-induced increases in corticosterone. Hypoxia was selected as a standardized stimulus for correlating brain [ 14 C]-2-deoxyglucose uptake with ACTH secretion. In intact rats, increases in plasma ACTH and decreases in arterial PO 2 correlated with the severity of hypoxia at arterial PCO 2 below 60 mm Hg. Hypoxia PELLET vs. SHAM rats. However, in preliminary experiments, although hypoxia increased brain 2-deoxyglucose uptake in most brain regions, plasma ACTH correlated poorly with 2-deoxyglucose uptake at 12% and 10% O 2

  7. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-11-13

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.

  8. Cosmic microwave background constraints on secret interactions among sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forastieri, Francesco; Natoli, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Giuseppe Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lattanzi, Massimiliano [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Via Giuseppe Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Mangano, Gianpiero [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Mirizzi, Alessandro [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin,' Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Saviano, Ninetta, E-mail: francesco.forastieri@unife.it, E-mail: lattanzi@fe.infn.it, E-mail: mangano@na.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: natoli@fe.infn.it, E-mail: nsaviano@uni-mainz.de [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, JohannesGutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Secret contact interactions among eV sterile neutrinos, mediated by a massive gauge boson X (with M {sub X} || M {sub W} ), and characterized by a gauge coupling g {sub X} , have been proposed as a mean to reconcile cosmological observations and short-baseline laboratory anomalies. We constrain this scenario using the latest Planck data on Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies, and measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We consistently include the effect of secret interactions on cosmological perturbations, namely the increased density and pressure fluctuations in the neutrino fluid, and still find a severe tension between the secret interaction framework and cosmology. In fact, taking into account neutrino scattering via secret interactions, we derive our own mass bound on sterile neutrinos and find (at 95 % CL) m {sub s} < 0.82 eV or m {sub s} < 0.29 eV from Planck alone or in combination with BAO, respectively. These limits confirm the discrepancy with the laboratory anomalies. Moreover, we constrain, in the limit of contact interaction, the effective strength G {sub X} to be < 2.8 (2.0) × 10{sup 10} G {sub F} from Planck (Planck+BAO). This result, together with the mass bound, strongly disfavours the region with M {sub X} ∼ 0.1 MeV and relatively large coupling g {sub X} {sub ∼} 10{sup −1}, previously indicated as a possible solution to the small scale dark matter problem.

  9. Human placenta secretes apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Eva; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Andersen, Claus B

    2004-01-01

    Supply of lipids from the mother is essential for fetal growth and development. In mice, disruption of yolk sac cell secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins results in embryonic lethality. In humans, the yolk sac is vestigial. Nutritional functions are instead established very...... of lipid transfer from the mother to the developing fetus....

  10. Prelysosomal Compartments in the Unconventional Secretion of Amyloidogenic Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Borland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic link between neuron-to-neuron transmission of secreted amyloid and propagation of protein malconformation cytopathology and disease has recently been uncovered in animal models. An enormous interest in the unconventional secretion of amyloids from neurons has followed. Amphisomes and late endosomes are the penultimate maturation products of the autophagosomal and endosomal pathways, respectively, and normally fuse with lysosomes for degradation. However, under conditions of perturbed membrane trafficking and/or lysosomal deficiency, prelysosomal compartments may instead fuse with the plasma membrane to release any contained amyloid. After a brief introduction to the endosomal and autophagosomal pathways, we discuss the evidence for autophagosomal secretion (exophagy of amyloids, with a comparative emphasis on Aβ1–42 and α-synuclein, as luminal and cytosolic amyloids, respectively. The ESCRT-mediated import of cytosolic amyloid into late endosomal exosomes, a known vehicle of transmission of macromolecules between cells, is also reviewed. Finally, mechanisms of lysosomal dysfunction, deficiency, and exocytosis are exemplified in the context of genetically identified risk factors, mainly for Parkinson’s disease. Exocytosis of prelysosomal or lysosomal organelles is a last resort for clearance of cytotoxic material and alleviates cytopathy. However, they also represent a vehicle for the concentration, posttranslational modification, and secretion of amyloid seeds.

  11. THE EFFECT OF ALOE VERA ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe ...

  12. Digging Up "The Secret Garden": Noble Innocents or Little Savages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Offers a rereading of Frances Hodgson Burnett's "The Secret Garden," finding in it the triumph of Apollonian male rationalism over the Dionysian female cult of nature. Examines images of primitivism and wildness in the book, connecting them to polarities in conceptions of primitivism. (SR)

  13. The secrets of the green and white cards | Hagemeister | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. The secrets of the green and white cards.

  14. Ionizing radiation induces tumor cell lysyl oxidase secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Colette J; Sharma, Ashish; Vuong, Dinh-Van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation (IR) is a mainstay of cancer therapy, but irradiation can at times also lead to stress responses, which counteract IR-induced cytotoxicity. IR also triggers cellular secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor beta and matrix...

  15. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Type III Secretion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Gu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant pathogens have presented increasing challenges to the discovery and development of new antibacterial agents. The type III secretion system (T3SS, existing in bacterial chromosomes or plasmids, is one of the most complicated protein secretion systems. T3SSs of animal and plant pathogens possess many highly conserved main structural components comprised of about 20 proteins. Many Gram-negative bacteria carry T3SS as a major virulence determinant, and using the T3SS, the bacteria secrete and inject effector proteins into target host cells, triggering disease symptoms. Therefore, T3SS has emerged as an attractive target for antimicrobial therapeutics. In recent years, many T3SS-targeting small-molecule inhibitors have been discovered; these inhibitors prevent the bacteria from injecting effector proteins and from causing pathophysiology in host cells. Targeting the virulence of Gram-negative pathogens, rather than their survival, is an innovative and promising approach that may greatly reduce selection pressures on pathogens to develop drug-resistant mutations. This article summarizes recent progress in the search for promising small-molecule T3SS inhibitors that target the secretion and translocation of bacterial effector proteins.

  16. Book review: Troubling possibility, hidden fires and secret drawers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book review: Troubling possibility, hidden fires and secret drawers: Tiyambe Zeleza's smouldering charcoal. H.F. Ross. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. The Secret between Storytelling and Retelling: Tea, School, & Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I will tell two of my personal stories to try to explore the secret or opaque space between the original telling and retelling of stories in narrative inquiry. Based upon my difficult struggles with the two stories of tea, school, and narrative, I suggest that narrative inquiry has to be a complex loop of relationship, reflexivity,…

  18. The Secret Identity of Science Education: Masculine and Politically Conservative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This response to Jesse Bazzul and Heather Sykes' paper, "The secret identity of a biology textbook: straight and naturally sexed," explores their critiques of textbooks and curricula that authoritatively present scientific accounts of the natural world without engaging students in critical thinking. It proposes that we need to go beyond such…

  19. The studies on aldosterone secretion rate by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenouchi, Takahiko

    1974-01-01

    The aldosterone secretion rate was measured by radioimmunoassay in 12 normal subjects and 47 hypertensive patients. The values ranged from 25.0 to 60.2 ng/day with a mean of 39.6+-10.7 (S.D.) in 8 normal males and from 30.2 to 85.4 ng/day with a mean of 62.6+-26.8 (S.D.) in 4 normal females. The mean value in 21 cases with benign essential hypertension was found to be within normal range. No significant difference was found in the aldosterone secretion rate between the group of benign essential hypertension with suppressed renin activity and with nonsuppressed renin activity. Metabolic clearance rate in benign essential hypertension was observed to be within normal range. The aldosterone secretion rate in a few cases of benign essential hypertension failed to increase normally in response to sodium restriction (<50 mEq/day). The values in 11 cases of primary aldosteronism were found to be clearly higher, when compared with the values of normal subjects and subjects with benign essential hypertension. High values were found in patients suffering from malignant hypertension and in 3 with unilateral renal artery stenosis. The values in cases of bilateral renal artery stenosis, of pheochromocytoma, and of acromegaly with hypertension were within normal range. Low values in the aldosterone secretion rate were found in 3 cases each of 17α-hydroxylase deficiency and Cushing's syndrome. (JPN)

  20. Le CERN va tenter de percer les secrets

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CERN will try to drill the secrets of neutrinos by setting up an experiment on a large scale. This one should begin at CERN in May 2006: neutrinos are considered by the physicians as the most imperceptible particles in the Universe

  1. The Secret of Play: Birth to 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ann Pleshette

    2009-01-01

    This article is an excerpt from "The Secret of Play: How to Raise Smart, Healthy, Caring Kids From Birth to Age 12" (2008, DK Publishing) by parenting expert Ann Pleshette Murphy. The author draws on child development research to help parents understand how play helps children learn at each stage of development and offers practical suggestions for…

  2. The Secret of the Svalbard Sea Ice Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Van Woert, Michael L.; Neumann, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    An elongated sea ice feature called the Svalbard sea ice barrier rapidly formed over an area in the Barents Sea to the east of Svalbard posing navigation hazards. The secret of its formation lies in the bottom bathymetry that governs the distribution of cold Arctic waters masses, which impacts sea ice growth on the water surface.

  3. Golgi bypass: skirting around the heart of classical secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grieve, A.; Rabouille, C.

    2011-01-01

    Classical secretion consists of the delivery of transmembrane and soluble proteins to the plasma membrane and the extracellular medium, respectively, and is mediated by the organelles of the secretory pathway, the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), the ER exit sites, and the Golgi, as described by the

  4. Central effects of humanin on hepatic triglyceride secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhenwei; Su, Kai; Cui, Lingguang; Tas, Emir; Zhang, Ting; Dong, H Henry; Yakar, Shoshana; Muzumdar, Radhika H

    2015-08-01

    Humanin (HN) is an endogenous mitochondria-associated peptide that has been shown to protect against various Alzheimer's disease-associated insults, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and reactive oxygen species-induced cell death. We have shown previously that HN improves whole body glucose homeostasis by improving insulin sensitivity and increasing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the β-cells. Here, we report that intraperitoneal treatment with one of HN analogs, HNG, decreases body weight gain, visceral fat, and hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The decrease in hepatic TG accumulation is due to increased activity of hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) and increased hepatic TG secretion. Both intravenous (iv) and intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of HNG acutely increase TG secretion from the liver. Vagotomy blocks the effect on both iv and icv HNG on TG secretion, suggesting that the effects of HNG on hepatic TG flux are centrally mediated. Our data suggest that HN is a new player in central regulation of peripheral lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Granulin Secreted by the Food-Borne Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini Promotes Angiogenesis in Human Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Haugen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a food-borne, zoonotic pathogen endemic to Thailand and adjacent countries in Southeast Asia. The adult developmental stage of the O. viverrini parasite excretes and secretes numerous proteins within the biliary tract including the gall bladder. Lesions caused by the feeding activities of the liver fluke represent wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing and re-injury during chronic infection, which can last for decades. Components of the excretory/secretory (ES complement released by the worms capably drive proliferation of bile duct epithelial cells and are implicated in establishing the oncogenic milieu that leads to bile duct cancer, cholangiocarcinoma. An ES protein, the secreted granulin-like growth factor termed Ov-GRN-1, accelerates wound resolution in mice and in vitro. To investigate angiogenesis (blood vessel development that may contribute to wound healing promoted by liver fluke granulin and, by implication, to carcinogenesis during chronic opisthorchiasis, we employed an in vitro tubule formation assay (TFA where human umbilical vein endothelial cells were grown on gelled basement matrix. Ten and 40 nM Ov-GRN-1 significantly stimulated angiogenesis as monitored by cellular proliferation and by TFA in real time. This demonstration of potent angiogenic property of Ov-GRN-1 bolsters earlier reports on the therapeutic potential for chronic non-healing wounds of diabetics, tobacco users, and the elderly and, in addition, showcases another of the hallmark of cancer characteristic of this carcinogenic liver fluke.

  6. Loss of a neural AMP-activated kinase mimics the effects of elevated serotonin on fat, movement, and hormonal secretions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Cunningham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator of metabolism and a therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes. As an energy sensor, AMPK activity is responsive to both metabolic inputs, for instance the ratio of AMP to ATP, and numerous hormonal cues. As in mammals, each of two genes, aak-1 and aak-2, encode for the catalytic subunit of AMPK in C. elegans. Here we show that in C. elegans loss of aak-2 mimics the effects of elevated serotonin signaling on fat reduction, slowed movement, and promoting exit from dauer arrest. Reconstitution of aak-2 in only the nervous system restored wild type fat levels and movement rate to aak-2 mutants and reconstitution in only the ASI neurons was sufficient to significantly restore dauer maintenance to the mutant animals. As in elevated serotonin signaling, inactivation of AAK-2 in the ASI neurons caused enhanced secretion of dense core vesicles from these neurons. The ASI neurons are the site of production of the DAF-7 TGF-β ligand and the DAF-28 insulin, both of which are secreted by dense core vesicles and play critical roles in whether animals stay in dauer or undergo reproductive development. These findings show that elevated levels of serotonin promote enhanced secretions of systemic regulators of pro-growth and differentiation pathways through inactivation of AAK-2. As such, AMPK is not only a recipient of hormonal signals but can also be an upstream regulator. Our data suggest that some of the physiological phenotypes previously attributed to peripheral AAK-2 activity on metabolic targets may instead be due to the role of this kinase in neural serotonin signaling.

  7. Neural modulation of salt secretion in teleostopercular epithelium by 2-adrenergic receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall; Duquesnay; Gillis; Bryson; Liedtke

    1998-05-21

    Opercular epithelia from seawater-adapted killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) were dissected with the nerve intact, mounted in Ussing-style membrane chambers and bathed in symmetrical saline solutions. Nerve stimulation rapidly inhibited transepithelial current (a measure of Cl- secretion rate) by 27.3+/-3.3 % (N=22), and the effect could be sustained for more than 10 min using intermittent pulse trains at 10 Hz. The effect was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by yohimbine, but not by propranolol, atropine or tubocurarine, indicating mediation by 2-adrenergic receptors. The effect was also present, but significantly diminished, in opercular membranes from animals that had been transferred to sea water for 48 h (18+/-8.6 % inhibition, N=14). The resting current and the effect were absent in membranes from freshwater-adapted animals. The addition of clonidine (1.0 micromol l-1 serosal side) started to inhibit Cl- current after 40-60 s; immediately before this, at 30 s, there was a significant rise (Plevel, but no change at later times, compared with LiCl-treated control membranes and measured by radiolabeled receptor assay. The results indicate that seawater-adapted killifish can decrease their Cl- secretion rate through the action of the sympathetic nervous system, a response appropriate for the entry of estuarine fish to fresh water, and that the effect is mediated by 2-adrenoceptors via InsP3. The results imply that euryhaline fish entering fresh water can undergo an autonomic reflex reduction in salt secretion that does not require a stress response.

  8. Diversity and subcellular distribution of archaeal secreted proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechthild ePohlschroder

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Secreted proteins make up a significant percentage of a prokaryotic proteome and play critical roles in important cellular processes such as polymer degradation, nutrient uptake, signal transduction, cell wall biosynthesis and motility. The majority of archaeal proteins are believed to be secreted either in an unfolded conformation via the universally conserved Sec pathway or in a folded conformation via the Twin arginine transport (Tat pathway. Extensive in vivo and in silico analyses of N-terminal signal peptides that target proteins to these pathways have led to the development of computational tools that not only predict Sec and Tat substrates with high accuracy but also provide information about signal peptide processing and targeting. Predictions therefore include indications as to whether a substrate is a soluble secreted protein, a membrane or cell-wall anchored protein, or a surface structure subunit, and whether it is targeted for post-translational modification such as glycosylation or the addition of a lipid. The use of these in silico tools, in combination with biochemical and genetic analyses of transport pathways and their substrates, has resulted in improved predictions of the subcellular localization of archaeal secreted proteins, allowing for a more accurate annotation of archaeal proteomes, and has led to the identification of potential adaptations to extreme environments, as well as archaeal kingdom-specific pathways. A more comprehensive understanding of the transport pathways and post-translational modifications of secreted archaeal proteins will also generate invaluable insights that will facilitate the identification of commercially valuable archaeal enzymes and the development of heterologous systems in which to efficiently express them.

  9. Multiplexed Quantitation of Intraphagocyte Mycobacterium tuberculosis Secreted Protein Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadel Sayes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The pathogenic potential of Mycobacterium tuberculosis largely depends on ESX secretion systems exporting members of the multigenic Esx, Esp, and PE/PPE protein families. To study the secretion and regulation patterns of these proteins while circumventing immune cross-reactions due to their extensive sequence homologies, we developed an approach that relies on the recognition of their MHC class II epitopes by highly discriminative T cell receptors (TCRs of a panel of T cell hybridomas. The latter were engineered so that each expresses a unique fluorescent reporter linked to specific antigen recognition. The resulting polychromatic and multiplexed imaging assay enabled us to measure the secretion of mycobacterial effectors inside infected host cells. We applied this novel technology to a large panel of mutants, clinical isolates, and host-cell types to explore the host-mycobacteria interplay and its impact on the intracellular bacterial secretome, which also revealed the unexpected capacity of phagocytes from lung granuloma to present mycobacterial antigens via MHC class II. : Sayes et al. develop an approach to express distinct fluorescent reporters that is based on the recognition of specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis MHC class II epitopes by highly discriminative T cell hybridomas. This multiplexed technology allows the study of secretion, subcellular location, and regulation patterns of these instrumental protein members. Keywords: mycobacterium tuberculosis, type VII secretion systems, intracellular bacteria, T-cell hybridomas, mycobacterial virulence factors, bacterial antigen presentation, lentiviral vectors, reporter T cells, in vivo antigen presentation, protein localization

  10. Fibromyalgia--a syndrome associated with decreased nocturnal melatonin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikner, J; Hirsch, U; Wetterberg, L; Röjdmark, S

    1998-08-01

    Most patients with fibromyalgic syndrome (FMS) complain of sleep disturbances, fatigue, and pain. These symptoms might be a consequence of changed melatonin (MT) secretion, since MT is known to have sleep promoting properties. Moreover, serum concentrations of two MT precursors (tryptophan and serotonin)--affecting both sleep and pain perception--appear to be low in patients with FMS. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to study whether serum MT (s-MT) level is also low in these patients. Eight patients with FMS and 8 healthy sex-, BMI-, and age-matched controls were included in the study. s-MT concentrations were determined every second hour between 1800 and 0800 h. Urine was collected between 2200 and 0700 h for determination of urinary MT excretion. To evaluate total MT secretion between 1800 and 0800 h and MT secretion during the hours of darkness (between 23 and 07 h) individual MT areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated and expressed as group means. The FMS patients had a 31% lower MT secretion than healthy subjects during the hours of darkness (MT AUC 2300-0700 h (mean +/- SEM): 1.70 +/- 0.17 vs 2.48 +/- 0.38 nmol/l; P < 0.05). Also the s-MT peak value was significantly lower in the patient group: 0.28 +/- 0.03 vs 0.44 +/- 0.06 nmol/l; P < 0.05). Patients with fibromyalgic syndrome have a lower melatonin secretion during the hours of darkness than healthy subjects. This may contribute to impaired sleep at night, fatigue during the day, and changed pain perception.

  11. Postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients on statins undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The efficacy of perioperative statin therapy in decreasing postoperative morbidity in patients undergoing valve replacements and repairs is unknown. The aim of our study was to determine whether or not the literature supports the hypothesis that statins decrease postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF), and hence ...

  12. 77 FR 6803 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... pregnant during Health Questionnaire/ 750 1 20/60 NHANES 1999-2010. Consent Form. 3. State/local vital...-11CE] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and... about the pregnant women at the time of interview. Having information on their children's birth...

  13. 77 FR 37051 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Year 1 and Year 2. Informed Consent Form... 4,404 1 2/60 Non-Responder Interview. 792 1 5/60 Kimberly S...] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...-minute interview will be conducted with a 10% sample of non-responders (up to 792 individuals). In order...

  14. 75 FR 68360 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ...] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... screener questionnaire will be used to determine participation eligibility and obtain oral consent. Approximately 7,000 individuals will be approached and screened (through a 2-minute interview) for eligibility...

  15. 75 FR 6671 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    2010-02-10

    ... programs implemented a new consent form. This form asked participants for permission for CDC to contact...] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... prevention behaviors, CDC will conduct telephone interviews of 425 Matter of Balance program participants six...

  16. 75 FR 24706 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    2010-05-05

    ... parent consent 214 1 10/60 form. Child Clinic Visit--Case 107 1 1.5 children packet. Parent Clinic Visit...] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...; (4) a telephone interview focusing on pregnancy-related events and early life history (biological...

  17. 76 FR 38654 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... consent for an interview. After the data collection phase, a multidisciplinary case review team (CRT) will... Post-Partum HIV- FIMR/HIV Maternal 300 1 1.5 infected Women. Interview Form. Daniel L. Holcomb, Reports...] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  18. 77 FR 12594 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

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    2012-03-01

    ... Script. Refusal Questions Form.. 62 1 2/60 Individual Consent Form. 250 1 3/60 Contact Information Form... Screening 92 1 5/60 Survey. Informed Consent........ 50 1 1/60 Interview Questionnaire. 50 1 1 Network Size...-12-12BL] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  19. 76 FR 55915 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... type 2 diabetes DPRP Application Form........ 120 1 1 prevention programs. DPRP Evaluation Data... mechanism for recognizing organizations that deliver effective, community-based type 2 diabetes prevention...] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  20. Multiple maxillofacial fractures in a patient undergoing orthodontic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multi-disciplinary team approach for the management of maxillofacial fractures in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is suggested. Orthodontic treatment with surgical involvement has been found to improve both facial aesthetics and occlusal function. Key words: Maxillofacial, trauma, ...