WorldWideScience

Sample records for secondary waste decommissioning

  1. Chemical and mechanical decontamination processes to minimize secondary waste decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enda, M.; Ichikawa, N.; Yaita, Y.; Kanasaki, T.; Sakai, H.

    2008-01-01

    In the decommissioning of commercial nuclear reactors in Japan, prior to the dismantling of the nuclear power plants, there are plans to use chemical techniques to decontaminate reactor pressure vessels (RPVs), internal parts, primary loop recirculation systems (PLRs), reactor water clean up systems (RWCUs), etc., so as to minimize radiation sources in the materials to be disposed of. After dismantling the nuclear power plants, chemical and mechanical decontamination techniques will then be used to reduce the amounts of radioactive metallic waste. Toshiba Corporation has developed pre-dismantling and post-dismantling decontamination systems. In order to minimize the amounts of secondary waste, the T-OZON process was chosen for decontamination prior to the dismantling of nuclear power plants. Dismantling a nuclear power plant results in large amounts of metallic waste requiring decontamination; for example, about 20,000 tons of such waste is expected to result from the dismantling of a 110 MWe Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Various decontamination methods have been used on metallic wastes in preparation for disposal in consideration of the complexity of the shapes of the parts and the type of material. The materials in such nuclear power plants are primarily stainless steel and carbon steel. For stainless steel parts having simple shapes, such as plates and pipes, major sources of radioactivity can be removed from the surface of the parts by bipolar electrolysis (electrolyte: H 2 SO 4 ). For stainless steel parts having complicated shapes, such as valves and pumps, major sources of radioactivity can be removed from the surfaces by redox chemical decontamination treatments (chemical agent: Ce(IV)). For carbon steel parts having simple shapes, decontamination by blasting with zirconia grit is effective in removing major sources of radioactivity at the surface, whereas for carbon steel parts having complicated shapes, major sources of radioactivity can be removed from

  2. Waste management considerations in nuclear facility decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.; Murphy, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities involves the management of significant quantities of radioactive waste. This paper summarizes information on volumes of waste requiring disposal and waste management costs developed in a series of decommissioning studies performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. These studies indicate that waste management is an important cost factor in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Alternatives for managing decommissioning wastes are defined and recommendations are made for improvements in waste management practices

  3. Waste Management During RA Reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, M.; Avramovic, I.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of radioactive waste management during the RA reactor decommissioning is to deal with radioactive waste in a manner that protects human health and the environment now and in the future. The estimation of waste quantities to be expected during decommissioning is a very important step in the initial planning. (author)

  4. The waste management implications of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passant, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    Decommissioning policy can only be framed in the light of radioactive waste management policy. What can be done with the waste materials, how and when, will determine the overall decommissioning plans and costs. In this paper the waste management options and their costs are reviewed for the decommissioning of the Central Electricity Generating Boards civil nuclear power stations. The paper concentrates on the decommissioning of Magnox stations, although comparative information on waste volumes and costs are given for the AGR programme and a typical PWR. (author)

  5. Decommissioning high-level waste surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The protective storage, entombment and dismantlement options of decommissioning a High-Level Waste Surface Facility (HLWSF) was investigated. A reference conceptual design for the facility was developed based on the designs of similar facilities. State-of-the-art decommissioning technologies were identified. Program plans and cost estimates for decommissioning the reference conceptual designs were developed. Good engineering design concepts were on the basis of this work identified

  6. Decommissioning standards: the radioactive waste impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.L.; Crofford, W.N.

    1979-01-01

    Several considerations are important in establishing standards for decommissioning nuclear facilities, sites and materials. The review includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions, and low-level radioactive waste. Decommissioning appears more closely related to radiation protection than to waste management, although it is often carried under waste management programs or activities. Basically, decommissioning is the removal of radioactive contamination from facilities, sites and materials so that they can be returned to unrestricted use or other actions designed to minimize radiation exposure of the public. It is the removed material that is the waste and, as such, it must be managed and disposed of in an environmentally safe manner. It is important to make this distinction even though, for programmatic purposes, decommissioning may be carried under waste management activities. It was concluded that the waste disposal problem from decommissioning activities is significant in that it may produce volumes comparable to volumes produced during the total operating life of a reactor. However, this volume does not appear to place an inordinate demand on shallow land burial capacity. It appears that the greater problems will be associated with occupational exposures and costs, both of which are sensitive to the timing of decommissioning actions

  7. Germany: Management of decommissioning waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrmann, F.; Brennecke, P.; Koch, W.; Kugel, K.; Steyer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Germany has gained a substantial amount of experience in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities of different types and sizes. Many research reactors and all prototype nuclear power plants, as well as a few larger nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, are currently at varying stages of decommissioning. Several facilities have been fully dismantled and the sites have been cleared for reuse. The decommissioning projects comprise 18 power and prototype reactors, 33 research reactors and 11 fuel cycle facilities which are being or have been decommissioned. In the future, further nuclear power plants will be shut down and decommissioned in accordance with Germany?s energy policy to phase out the use of nuclear power for commercial electricity generation as given in the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. Radioactive waste, from operations as well as from decommissioning activities, is to be conditioned in such a way as to comply with the waste acceptance requirements of a repository. In Germany, all types of radioactive waste (i.e., short-lived and long-lived) are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. A distinction is being made for heat generating waste (i.e., high level waste) and waste with negligible heat generation (i.e., low level and intermediate level waste). Radioactive decommissioning waste is waste with negligible heat generation. Waste acceptance requirements of a repository are of particular importance for the conditioning of radioactive waste, including decommissioning waste. The waste acceptance requirements, as they resulted from the Konrad licensing procedure, are being applied by the waste generators for the conditioning of decommissioning waste. Compliance with these requirements must be demonstrated through the waste package quality control, even if the waste will be disposed of in the future. In 2002 the Konrad repository was licensed for the disposal of all types of waste with negligible

  8. A decontamination technique for decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heki, H.; Hosaka, K.; Kuribayashi, N.; Ishikura, T.

    1993-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive metallic waste is generated from decommissioned commercial nuclear reactors. It is necessary from the point of environmental protection and resource utilization to decontaminate the contaminated metallic waste. A decommissioning waste processing system has been previously proposed considering such decommissioning waste characteristics as its large quantity, large radioactivity range, and various shapes and materials. The decontamination process in this system was carried out by abrasive blasting as pretreatment, electrochemical decontamination as the main process, and ultrasonic cleaning in water as post-treatment. For electrochemical decontamination, electrolytic decontamination for simple shaped waste and REDOX decontamination for complicated shaped waste were used as effective decontamination processing. This time, various kinds of actual radioactive contaminated samples were taken from operating power plants to simulate the decontamination of decommissioning waste. After analyzing the composition, morphogenesis and surface observation, electrolytic decontamination, REDOX decontamination, and ultrasonic cleaning experiments were carried out by using these samples. As a result, all the samples were decontaminated below the assumed exemption level(=4 x 10 -2 Bq/g). A maximum decontamination factor of over 104 was obtained by both electrolytic and REDOX decontamination. The stainless steel sample was easy to decontaminate in both electrochemical decontaminations because of its thin oxidized layer. The ultrasonic cleaning process after electrochemical decontamination worked effectively for removing adhesive sludge and the contaminated liquid. It has been concluded from the results mentioned above that electrolytic decontamination and REDOX decontamination are effective decontamination process for decontaminating decommissioning waste

  9. Waste from decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, P.O.

    1992-05-01

    This report is based on the assumption that all twelve nuclear power plants will be shut down no later than A.D. 2010, as was decided by the parliament after the referendum on the future of nuclear power in Sweden. The recent 'Party agreement on the energy policy' of January 15, 1991 does, indeed, leave the door open for an extension of the operational period for the nuclear reactors. This will, however, not change the recommendations and conclusions drawn in this report. The report consists of two parts. Part 1 discusses classification of waste from decommissioning and makes comparisons with the waste arising from reactor operation. Part 2 discusses the documentation required for decommissioning waste. Also this part of the report draws parallels with the documentation required by the authorities for the radioactive waste arising from operation of the nuclear power plants. To some extent these subjects depend on the future use of the nuclear power plant sites after decommissioning of the plants. The options for future site use are briefly discussed in an appendix to the report. There are many similarities between the waste from reactor operations and the waste arising from dismantling and removal of decommissioned nuclear power plants. Hence it seems natural to apply the same criteria and recommendations to decommissioning waste as those presently applicable to reactor waste. This is certainly true also with respect to documentation, and it is strongly recommended that the documentation requirements on decommissioning waste are made identical, or at least similar, to the documentation requirements for reactor waste in force today. (au)

  10. Optimizing decommissioning and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, J.

    2000-01-01

    UKAEA has clarified its future purpose. It is a nuclear environmental restoration business. Its proud history of being at the forefront of nuclear research now provides decommissioning challenges of unique breadth. The methods employed, and in some cases developed, by UKAEA to assist in the optimization of its overall work programme are identified. (author)

  11. The SGHWR decommissioning project-waste strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, G.; Napper, M.

    1999-01-01

    Every facility must reach a stage in the decommissioning process where low-level waste (LLW) becomes the major factor in the decommissioning costs, therefore a cost-effective strategy for dealing with the waste must be sought. This paper describes the waste management strategy process that was carried out at the steam generating heavy water reactor (SGHWR) at Winfrith in Dorset. Obviously, each facility will have its own specific radiological problems, with its own unique fingerprint, which will have to be addressed, and, therefore, the optimum waste management strategy will differ for each facility. However, from the work done at SGHWR, it can be seen that it is possible to formulate a structured approach for dealing with LLW which meets the requirements of all stake holders, is safe, technically acceptable, cost-effective, and, furthermore, is equally applicable to other plants. (author)

  12. The management and regulation of decommissioning wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is an inevitable consequence of nuclear technology. In the past it was often regarded as a peripheral matter, easily dealt with, and having little impact on the economics of the fuel cycle. Gradually, over the last two decades, waste management has asserted itself as one of nuclear power's most intractable problems. First, it is a problem of trying to understand through science the effects of discharging and disposing of man-made radioactivity to the general environment. Second, technologies for treating and disposing of the wastes, as well as techniques to verify their safety, must be developed. Third, and most problematically, a wide spread of public trust in the techniques of management must be nurtured. Disputes over each of these dimensions of the question exist in nearly all countries with nuclear programmes. Some of them may be near resolution, but many others are far from closure. Decommissioning, because it comes last in the nuclear life-cycle, is also the last important aspect of the technology to be considered seriously. In Britain, wastes arising from decommissioning, whether it is done slowly or quickly, are projected to have an important impact on the scale of radioactive waste management programmes, beginning in the mid-1990s. It follows that decommissioning, contentious in itself, is likely to exacerbate the difficulties of waste management. (author)

  13. Decommissioning and radioactive waste management. The European Commission overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, M

    2010-01-01

    In this lecture author deals with the European Commission overview on the decommissioning and radioactive waste management. Financial support of European Commission of decommissioning of the Ignalina NPP, Bohunice V1 NPP and Kozloduy Units 1 and 2 is presented.

  14. AECL's waste management and decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupferschmidt, W.C.H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Canada has developed significant expertise in radioactive waste management since the mid 1940s, when the Canadian nuclear program commenced activities at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), created as a Federal Crown Corporation in 1952, continues to manage wastes from these early days, as well as other radioactive wastes produced by Canadian hospitals, universities, industry, and operational wastes from AECL's current programs. AECL is also carrying out decommissioning of nuclear facilities and installations in Canada, predominantly at its own sites in Ontario (CRL, and the Douglas Point and Nuclear Power Demonstration prototype reactors), Manitoba (Whiteshell Laboratories) and Quebec (Gentilly-1 prototype reactor). At the CRL site, several major waste management enabling facilities are being developed to facilitate both the near- and long-term management of radioactive wastes. For example, the Liquid Waste Transfer and Storage Project is underway to recover and process highly radioactive liquid wastes, currently stored in underground tanks that, in some cases, date back to the initial operations of the site. This project will stabilize the wastes and place them in modern, monitored storage for subsequent solidification and disposal. Another initiative, the Fuel Packaging and Storage Project, has been initiated to recover and condition degraded used fuel that is currently stored in below-ground standpipes. The fuel will be then be stored in new facilities based on an adaptation of AECL's proven MACSTOR TM * dry storage system, originally designed for intermediate-term above-ground storage of used CANDU fuel bundles. Other commercial-based development work is underway to improve the storage density of the MACSTOR TM design, and to extend its application to interim storage of used LWR fuels as well as to the storage of intermediate-level radioactive waste arising from upcoming reactor refurbishment activities in Canada

  15. BN-350 decommissioning problems of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galkin, A.; Tkachenko, V.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant of modern concept on radioactive waste management applied in IAEA Member States all radioactive wastes produced during the BN-350 operation and decommissioning are subject to processing in order to be transformed to a form suitable for long-term storage and final disposal. The first two priority objectives for BN-350 reactor are as follows: cesium cleaning from sodium followed by sodium drain, and processing; processing of liquid and solid radioactive waste accumulated during BN-350 operation. Cesium cleaning from sodium and sodium processing to NaOH will be implemented under USA engineering and financial support. However the outputted product might be only subject to temporary storage under special conditions. Currently the problem is being solved on selection of technology for sodium hydroxide conversion to final product incorporated into cement-like matrix ready for disposal pursuant to existing regulatory requirements. Industrial installation is being designed for liquid radioactive waste processing followed by incorporation to cement matrix subject to further disposal. The next general objective is management of radioactive waste expected from BN-350 decommissioning procedure. Complex of engineering-radiation investigation that is being conducted at BN-350 site will provide estimation of solid and liquid radioactive waste that will be produced during the course of the BN-350 decommission. Radioactive wastes that will be produced may be shared for primary (metal structures of both reactor and reactor plant main and auxiliary systems equipment as well as construction wastes of dismantled biological protection, buildings and structures) and secondary (deactivation solutions, tools, materials, cloth, special accessory, etc.). Processing of produced radioactive wastes (including high activity waste) requires the use of special industrial facilities and construction of special buildings and structures for arrangement of facilities mentioned as well as for

  16. Operating Procedures to Identify Wastes of Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatea, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of sites in Iraq which have been used for nuclear activities and which contain potentially significant amounts of radioactive material. Many of these sites suffered substantial physical damage during the Gulf Wars as well as the challenging of the difficult security situation in the country.The destruction of the former nuclear facilities during the 1991 Gulf war aggravated the problem. As a result of these events, many of these nuclear facilities have lost their containment of the radioactive material and it now has an increased potential to be dispersed into the environment.Iraqi Decommissioning Directorate (IDD) is one of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) formations. It deals with decommissioning of former Iraqi nuclear sites. It considers a producer of radioactive waste.Therefore, waste management represents the vital requirement to work accomplishment.The work carries out on-site waste pretreatment which considers as a minimization of waste management.W M is necessary to: Segregate 'at source' as much materials as possible to minimize quantities of radioactive waste, clear or exempt as much materials as possible and decontaminate and recycle as much radioactive waste as possible. And in more general terms: to control and account for radioactive waste to protect human health and the environment, to make sure we do not leave unnecessary burdens for future generations, to concentrate, contain and isolate the waste from the environment therefore, this make any releases to the environment to be restricted and subject to regulatory control.This procedure applies on-site waste pretreatment which comprises segregating, characterizing, minimizing, classifying, packaging and relocating of generated wastes during decommissioning of destroyed nuclear facilities. The stationary waste treatment activities are the responsibility of RWTD/MoST.The (RPC/MoE) is the national regulatory body during the whole radioactive waste management

  17. Large transport packages for decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1988-03-01

    The main tasks performed during the period related to the influence of manufacture, transport and disposal on the design of such packages. It is deduced that decommissioning wastes will be transported under the IAEA Transport Regulations under either the Type B or Low Specific Activity (LSA) categories. If the LSA packages are self-shielded, reinforced concrete is the preferred material of construction. But the high cost of disposal implies that there is a strong reason to investigate the use of returnable shields for LSA packages and in such cases they are likely to be made of ferrous metal. Economic considerations favour the use of spheroidal graphite cast iron for this purpose. Transport operating hazards have been investigated using a mixture of desk studies, routes surveys and operations data from the railway organisations. Reference routes were chosen in the Federal Republic of Germany, France and the United Kingdom. This work has led to a description of ten accident scenarios and an evaluation of the associated accident probabilities. The effect of disposal on design of packages has been assessed in terms of the radiological impact of decommissioning wastes, an in addition corrosion and gas evolution have been examined. The inventory of radionuclides in a decommissioning waste package has low environmental impact. If metal clad reinforced concrete packages are to be used, the amount of gas evolution is such that a vent would need to be included in the design. Similar unclad packages would be sufficiently permeable to gases to prevent a pressure build-up. (author)

  18. Large packages for reactor decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1991-01-01

    This study was carried out jointly by the Atomic Energy Establishment at Winfrith (now called the Winfrith Technology Centre), Windscale Laboratory and Ove Arup and Partners. The work involved the investigation of the design of large transport containers for intermediate level reactor decommissioning waste, ie waste which requires shielding, and is aimed at European requirements (ie for both LWR and gas cooled reactors). It proposes a design methodology for such containers covering the whole lifetime of a waste disposal package. The design methodology presented takes account of various relevant constraints. Both large self shielded and returnable shielded concepts were developed. The work was generic, rather than specific; the results obtained, and the lessons learned, remain to be applied in practice

  19. Treatment of organic radioactive waste in decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimovic, S.; Plecas, I.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes methods of treatment of organic radioactive waste in the aspect of its integral part of radioactive waste which will arise during decommissioning process of nuclear power reactor RA (author)

  20. Treatment of Decommissioning Combustible Wastes with Incineration Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y. Min; Yang, D. S.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The aim of the paper is current status of management for the decommissioning radioactive combustible and metal waste in KAERI. In Korea, two decommissioning projects were carried out for nuclear research facilities (KRR-1 and KRR-2) and a uranium conversion plant (UCP). Through the two decommissioning projects, lots of decommissioning wastes were generated. Decommissioning waste can be divided into radioactive waste and releasable waste. The negative pressure of the incineration chamber remained constant within the specified range. Off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measures gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits. The achieved average volume reduction ratio during facility operation is about 1/65.

  1. Optimising waste management performance - The key to successful decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keep, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: On the 1. of April 2005 the United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority became responsible for the enormous task of decommissioning the UK's civilian nuclear liabilities. The success of the NDA in delivering its key objectives of safer, cheaper and faster decommissioning depends on a wide range factors. It is self-evident, however, that the development of robust waste management practices by those charged with decommissioning liability will be at the heart of the NDA's business. In addition, the implementation of rigorous waste minimisation techniques throughout decommissioning will deliver tangible environmental benefits as well as better value for money and release funds to accelerate the decommissioning program. There are mixed views as to whether waste minimisation can be achieved during decommissioning. There are those that argue that the radioactive inventory already exists, that the amount of radioactivity cannot be minimised and that the focus of activities should be focused on waste management rather than waste minimisation. Others argue that the management and decommissioning of the UK's civilian nuclear liability will generate significant volumes of additional radioactive waste and it is in this area where the opportunities for waste minimisation can be realised. (author)

  2. Radioactive waste management, decommissioning, spent fuel storage. V. 1. Waste management principles, decommissioning, dismantling, operations in hot environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This book deals mainly with decommissioning problems concerning more particularly dismantling and decontamination techniques, and radioactive waste processing. Radioactive waste management in France and the French regulation are tackled. Equipments developed for works in hostile environment are also presented [fr

  3. Waste management practices in decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    Several thousand sites exist in the United States where nuclear activities have been conducted over the past 30 to 40 years. Questions regarding potential public health hazards due to residual radioactivity and radiation fields at abandoned and inactive sites have prompted careful ongoing review of these sites by federal agencies including the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In some instances, these reviews are serving to point out poor low-level waste management practices of the past. Many of the sites in question lack adequate documentation on the radiological conditions at the time of release for unrestricted use or were released without appropriate restrictions. Recent investigations have identified residual contamination and radiation levels on some sites which exceed present-day standards and guidelines. The NRC, DOE, and Environmental Protection Agency are all involved in developing decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) procedures and guidelines which will assure that nuclear facilities are decommissioned in a manner that will be acceptable to the nuclear industry, various regulatory agencies, other stakeholders, and the general public

  4. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Radioactive Burnable and Metal Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y. K.; Cho, J. H. [SunKwang Atomic Energy Safety Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A large quantity of radioactive waste was generated during the decommissioning projects. For the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning wastes from decommissioning projects, the incineration and high melting technology has been selected for the decommissioning wastes treatment. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Incinerator burns waste at high temperature. Incineration of a mixture of chemically hazardous and radioactive materials, known as 'mixed waste,' has two principal goals: to reduce the volume and total chemical toxicity of the waste. Incineration itself does not destroy the metals or reduce the radioactivity of the waste. A proven melting technology is currently used for low-level waste (LLW) at several facilities worldwide. These facilities use melting as a means of processing LLW for unrestricted release of the metal or for recycling within the nuclear sector. About 16.4 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas.

  5. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Radioactive Burnable and Metal Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.; Choi, Y. K.; Cho, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    A large quantity of radioactive waste was generated during the decommissioning projects. For the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning wastes from decommissioning projects, the incineration and high melting technology has been selected for the decommissioning wastes treatment. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Incinerator burns waste at high temperature. Incineration of a mixture of chemically hazardous and radioactive materials, known as 'mixed waste,' has two principal goals: to reduce the volume and total chemical toxicity of the waste. Incineration itself does not destroy the metals or reduce the radioactivity of the waste. A proven melting technology is currently used for low-level waste (LLW) at several facilities worldwide. These facilities use melting as a means of processing LLW for unrestricted release of the metal or for recycling within the nuclear sector. About 16.4 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas

  6. Legal and Regulatory Frameworks for Decommissioning and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Safe and efficient decommissioning and waste management requires clear structures for allocating responsibility and funding. Organisation of decommissioning and waste management activities and the regulatory environment within which those activities are undertaken should also allow the supply chain to prosper and, wherever possible, reduce barriers to international availability of resources and waste facilities. Radioactive waste treatment and disposal in particular raises both legal and political challenges to effective international co-operation, yet options for decommissioning and waste management are maximised where international barriers can be minimised. Added to this, international nuclear liabilities issues must be managed so as to avoid unnecessary deterrents to international mobility of capability within the decommissioning market. Contractual terms and insurance arrangements for international shipments of nuclear waste and materials will also need to take into account imminent changes to liabilities conventions, ensuring compliance and management of compliance costs (of both insurance and management time). This paper explores legal and commercial structures intended to support effective decommissioning and waste management and examines regulatory and commercial factors affecting the ability of facility operators to utilise internationally available capability. It focusses on: - strategic approaches developed in the UK to address decommissioning and waste management liabilities associated with the UK's first and second generation civil nuclear sites and comparison of those approaches with other jurisdictions with significant decommissioning liabilities; - liability and compliance risks associated with navigating international nuclear liabilities regimes in context of both mobility of decommissioning capability and international waste shipment; and - regulatory issues affecting international availability of waste treatment facilities, including

  7. Waste management for the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullee, G.R.; Schulmeister, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is being performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) with the objectives of placing the station in a radiologically safe condition, demonstrating safe and cost effective dismantlement and providing useful data for future decommissioning projects. This paper describes the development of the Waste Management Plan which is being used for the accomplishment of the SSDP. Significant aspects of the Plan are described, such as the use of a process control and inventory system. The current status of waste management activities is reported. It is concluded that SSDP has some unique aspects which will provide useful information for future decommissioning projects

  8. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: Decontamination, disassembly and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The term 'decommissioning', as used within the nuclear industry, means the actions taken at the end of a facility's useful life to retire the facility from service in a manner that provides adequate protection for the health and safety of the decommissioning workers, the general public, and for the environment. These actions can range from merely closing down the facility and a minimal removal of radioactive material coupled with continuing maintenance and surveillance, to a complete removal of residual radioactivity in excess of levels acceptable for unrestricted use of the facility and its site. This latter condition, unrestricted use, is the ultimate goal of all decommissioning actions at retired nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to provide an information base on the considerations important to decommissioning, the methods available for decontamination and disassembly of a nuclear facility, the management of the resulting radioactive wastes, and the areas of decommissioning methodology where improvements might be made. Specific sections are devoted to each of these topics, and conclusions are presented concerning the present status of each topic. A summary of past decommissioning experience in Member States is presented in the Appendix. The report, with its discussions of necessary considerations, available operational methods, and waste management practices, together with supporting references, provides an appreciation of the activities that comprise decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It is anticipated that the information presented in the report should prove useful to persons concerned with the development of plans for the decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities

  9. Strategic aspects on waste management in decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannemalm, T.; Eliasson, S.; Larsson, A.; Lidar, P.; Bergh, N.; Hedin, G.

    2017-01-01

    A team composed of experts from the facility owner OKG, Westinghouse and Studsvik (today Cyclife Sweden and Studsvik Consulting) was asked to develop a basis for decision on an overall strategy for the management of the material and waste arising from the decommissioning of two BWR NPPs at the Oskarshamn site in Sweden. To be able to provide a good basis for decision the full waste management chain from generation to disposition, i.e. clearance or disposal had to be assessed, categorised, quantified and analysed with regards to costs, environmental impact and risks. A systematic approach was applied taking benefit of the decommissioning studies made previously for the two facilities, the decommissioning concepts developed by Ndcon (the partnership in decommissioning between Studsvik and Westinghouse) and the combined knowledge and experience in the project team. In total 4 different waste management concepts were compared individually and in combinations. The four concepts evaluated were based on: direct disposal in the national geological repository; treatment of the waste for volume reduction and where applicable clearance in an external waste treatment facility; decontamination and clearance in an on-site waste treatment facility; direct disposal in a near surface repository at the NPP site. It was important to be able to compare the different options in a quantifiable way. Therefore the project team set up a matrix with parameters for the different options gained from the utility, the national waste management company, external vendors and the experience of the team. In this way a quantitative analysis could be done with the four different waste management options. In addition to the quantitative analysis the team summarised decades of experience in radioactive waste management and decommissioning recommendations and risk analyses. Special attention was given to risk mitigation and redundancy in the waste management chain. The development of an overall waste

  10. Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Arcy, Daniel [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    This baseline report examines the solid waste generated by the U.S. electric power industry, including both waste streams resulting from electricity generation and wastes resulting from the decommissioning of power plants. Coal and nuclear plants produce large volumes of waste during electricity generation, and this report describes the policies and procedures for handling these materials. Natural gas and oil-fired power plants face similar waste challenges. Renewables considered in this baseline report include hydropower, wind and solar.

  11. Large transport packages for decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1988-08-01

    This document reports progress on a study of large transport packages for decommissioning waste and is the semi-annual report for the period 1 January - 30 June 1988. The main tasks performed during the period related to the assembly of package design criteria ie those aspects of manufacture, handling, storage, transport and disposal which impose constraints on design. This work was synthesised into a design specification for packages which formed the conclusion of that task and was the entry into the final task - the development of package design concepts. The design specifications, which concentrated on the Industrial Package category of the IAEA Transport Regulations, has been interpreted for the two main concepts (a) a self-shielded package disposed of in its entirety and (b) a package with returnable shielding. Preliminary information has been prepared on the cost of providing the package as well as transport to a repository and disposal. There is considerable uncertainty about the cost of disposal and variations of over a factor of 10 are possible. Under these circumstances there is merit in choosing a design concept which is relatively insensitive to disposal cost variations. The initial results indicate that on these grounds the package with returnable shielding is preferred. (author)

  12. Decommissioning of the secondary containment of the steam generating heavy water reactor at UKAEA-Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Keith; Cornell, Rowland; Parkinson, Steve; McIntyre, Kevin; Staples, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The Winfrith SGHWR was a prototype nuclear power plant operated for 23 years by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) until 1990 when it was shut down permanently. The current Stage 1 decommissioning contract is part of a multi-stage strategy. It involves the removal of all the ancillary plant and equipment in the secondary containment and non-containment areas ahead of a series of contracts for the decommissioning of the primary containment, the reactor core and demolition of the building and all remaining facilities. As an outcome of a competitive tending process, the Stage 1 decommissioning contract was awarded to NUKEM with operations commencing in April 2005. The decommissioning processes involved with these plant items will be described with some emphasis of the establishment of multiple work-fronts for the production, recovery, treatment and disposal of mainly tritium-contaminated waste arising from its contact with the direct cycle reactor coolant. The means of size reduction of a variety of large, heavy and complex items of plant made from a range of materials will also be described with some emphasis on the control of fumes during hot cutting operations and establishing effective containments within a larger secondary containment structure. Disposal of these wastes in a timely and cost-effective manner is a major challenge facing the decommissioning team and has required the development of a highly efficient means of packing the resultant materials into mainly one-third height ISO containers for disposal as LLW. Details of the quantities of LLW and exempt wastes handled during this process will be given with a commentary about the difficulty in segregating these two waste streams efficiently. (authors)

  13. Radiochemical analysis for nuclear waste management in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X.

    2010-07-01

    The NKS-B RadWaste project was launched from June 2009. The on-going decommissioning activities in Nordic countries and current requirements and problems on the radiochemical analysis of decommissioning waste were discussed and overviewed. The radiochemical analytical methods used for determination of various radionuclides in nuclear waste are reviewed, a book was written by the project partners Jukka Lehto and Xiaolin Hou on the chemistry and analysis of radionuclide to be published in 2010. A summary of the methods developed in Nordic laboratories is described in this report. The progresses on the development and optimization of analytical method in the Nordic labs under this project are presented. (author)

  14. Radiochemical analysis for nuclear waste management in decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Radiation Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-07-15

    The NKS-B RadWaste project was launched from June 2009. The on-going decommissioning activities in Nordic countries and current requirements and problems on the radiochemical analysis of decommissioning waste were discussed and overviewed. The radiochemical analytical methods used for determination of various radionuclides in nuclear waste are reviewed, a book was written by the project partners Jukka Lehto and Xiaolin Hou on the chemistry and analysis of radionuclide to be published in 2010. A summary of the methods developed in Nordic laboratories is described in this report. The progresses on the development and optimization of analytical method in the Nordic labs under this project are presented. (author)

  15. Decommissioning Combustible Waste Treatment using Oxygen-Enriched Incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byungyoun; Lee, Yoonji; Yun, Gyoungsu; Lee, Kiwon; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of the paper is current status of treatment for the decommissioning combustible waste in KAERI and for the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning combustible wastes generated by the decommissioning projects. The incineration technology has been selected for the treatment of combustible wastes. About 34 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. Temperature, pressure of major components, stack gas concentration, i. e., SOx, NOx, CO, CO{sub 2} and HCl, and the residual oxygen were measured. Measured major parameters during normal operation were sustained on a stable status within a criteria operation condition. Oxygen enriched air, 22vol. % (dry basis) was used for stable incineration. The volume reduction ratio has achieved about 1/117. The incineration with decommissioning radioactive combustible waste is possible with moderate oxygen enrichment of 22 vol.% (dry basis) into the supply air. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas. The pressure, off-gas flow and temperature of major components remained constant within the range specified. The measures gases and particulate materials in stack were considerably below the regulatory limits. The achieved volume reduction ratio through incineration is about 1/117.

  16. Development of recycling techniques for nuclear power plant decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Oguri, Daiichiro; Abe, Seiji; Ohnishi, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Recycling of concrete and metal waste will provide solution to reduce waste volume, contributing to save the natural resources and to protect the environment. Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation has developed techniques of concrete and metal recycling for decommissioning waste of commercial nuclear power plants. A process of radioactive concrete usage for mortar solidification was seen to reduce concrete waste volume by 2/3. A concrete reclamation process for high quality aggregate was confirmed that the reclaimed aggregate concrete is equivalent to ordinary concrete. Its byproduct powder was seen to be utilized various usage. A process of waste metal casting to use radioactive metal as filler could substantially decrease the waste metal volume when thinner containers are applied. A pyro-metallurgical separation process was seen to decrease cobalt concentration by 1/100. Some of these techniques are finished of demonstration tests for future decommissioning activity. (author)

  17. Potential of the non-waste concept under NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oussanov, V.I.; Popov, E.P.; Markelov, P.I.

    2001-01-01

    There are three principal ways to approaching the non-waste nuclear cycle: radical reduction of the long-lived radioactivity generation; creation of the effective reuse procedure and, at last, radioactive waste transmutation. Unlike nuclear fuel cycle, the drastic reduction of the waste arising from the design materials cycle can be reached without need to address the technologies of burning or transmutation of the long-lived radioactive nuclei. The study shows the great potential of the nuclear technology in respect of the cardinal solution of the NPP decommissioning problem and decreasing of decommissioning cost. The key issue of the solution is a radical reduction of the radioactive waste arising from the decommissioning procedure. Generalizing, one may come to conclusion that approaching the non-waste nuclear technology consists in the further developing of the nuclear power infrastructure to a self-contained system including: innovated NPPs (more safe and generating less amount of decommissioning waste), plants for reprocessing fuel and exposed design materials, storage facilities. The paper contribute to the notion that such activity is economically and ecologically expedient. (author)

  18. Development of recycling techniques on decommissioning concrete waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Oguri, Daiichiro; Sukekiyo, Mitsuaki

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has been developing decommissioning techniques, implemented under a contract with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), to verify and improve the performance of the key decommissioning techniques. One of main themes is on concrete recycling techniques, which deals with high quality aggregate retrieval from concrete waste, high efficient usage of the by-product powder to recycling products, and effective usage of radioactive concrete to filling material for waste form. This paper describes progress and accomplishment on the concrete recycling technique development which started in 1996. (author)

  19. Classifying decommissioning wastes for allocation to appropriate final repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, J.C.; Tunaboylu, K.

    1982-01-01

    For the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in different repositories, it is of advantage to classify them in well-defined conditioned categories, appropriate for final disposal. These categories, the so-called waste sorts are characterized by similar radionuclide distribution, similar nuclide-specific activity concentrations and similar waste matrix. A methodology is presented for classifying decommissioning wastes and is applied to the decommissioning wastes arising from a Swiss program of 6 GWe. The amounts and nuclide-specific activity inventories of the decommissioning waste sorts have been estimated. A first allocation into two different repository types has been performed. Such a classification enables one to define the source parameters for repository safety analysis and allows one to allocate the different waste categories into appropriate final repositories. This work presents a first iteration to determine which waste sorts belong to which repository type. The characteristics of waste sorts have to be better defined and the protective strength of the repository barriers has to be optimized. 7 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  20. Waste management for Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: Extended summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullee, G.R.; Schulmeister, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Shippingport Station (SSDP) is demonstrating that the techniques and methodologies of waste management, which are currently employed by the nuclear industry, provide adequate management and control of waste activities for the decommissioning of a large scale nuclear plant. The SSDP has some unique aspects in that as part of the objective to promote technology transfer, multiple subcontractors are being utilized in the project. The interfaces resulting from multiple subcontractors require additional controls. Effective control has been accomplished by the use of a process control and inventory system, coupled with personnel training in waste management activities. This report summarizes the waste management plan and provides a status of waste management activities for SSDP

  1. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  2. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Burnable Waste with Oxygen Enrich Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Yang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Choi, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. This paper covers the general facility operation of an oxygen-enriched incinerator for the treatment of decommissioning wastes generated from a decommissioning project. The combustible wastes have been treated by the utilization of incinerator the capacity of the average 20 kg/hr. The decommissioning combustible waste of about 31 tons has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incinerator by at the end of 2016. The off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measured gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits.

  3. Blending of Low-Level Radioactive Waste for NPP Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, David S.; Kim, Chang Lak

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive wastes may are generated throughout the life cycle of a nuclear power plant. These wastes can be categorized as follows: Operational wastes in the form of solids, liquids and gases. Plant components resulting from maintenance, modification or life extension work (e.g. steam generators, pumps, valves, control rods, spent filters, etc.). Materials from the structure of the plant and equipment (e.g. metals and concrete that result in large quantities of waste upon decommissioning Large quantities of materials will be generated during decommissioning and dismantling. A significant proportion of these materials will only be slightly contaminated with radioactivity. Due to economies of scale, recycling and reuse options are more likely to be cost effective for such large quantities of materials than for the relatively smaller quantities arising during operation. These materials also present opportunities to manage waste more effectively by utilizing the approaches to blending discussed in this paper. The NRC uses allows blending based on risk and performance measures for public health and safety. Performance-based regulation means that the blended waste must meet the limits on radiation exposures at the disposal facility and limits on how much the radioactivity concentration may vary or in other words, how homogeneous and well mixed it is. LLW blending is an approach to waste management that can give greater flexibility for disposal options for NPP waste from the entire life cycle of the plant which includes operational wastes such as ion exchange resins and filters, maintenance wastes which include replacement components (discrete items), and large quantities of decommissioning wastes

  4. Blending of Low-Level Radioactive Waste for NPP Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, David S.; Kim, Chang Lak [KEPCO, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Radioactive wastes may are generated throughout the life cycle of a nuclear power plant. These wastes can be categorized as follows: Operational wastes in the form of solids, liquids and gases. Plant components resulting from maintenance, modification or life extension work (e.g. steam generators, pumps, valves, control rods, spent filters, etc.). Materials from the structure of the plant and equipment (e.g. metals and concrete that result in large quantities of waste upon decommissioning Large quantities of materials will be generated during decommissioning and dismantling. A significant proportion of these materials will only be slightly contaminated with radioactivity. Due to economies of scale, recycling and reuse options are more likely to be cost effective for such large quantities of materials than for the relatively smaller quantities arising during operation. These materials also present opportunities to manage waste more effectively by utilizing the approaches to blending discussed in this paper. The NRC uses allows blending based on risk and performance measures for public health and safety. Performance-based regulation means that the blended waste must meet the limits on radiation exposures at the disposal facility and limits on how much the radioactivity concentration may vary or in other words, how homogeneous and well mixed it is. LLW blending is an approach to waste management that can give greater flexibility for disposal options for NPP waste from the entire life cycle of the plant which includes operational wastes such as ion exchange resins and filters, maintenance wastes which include replacement components (discrete items), and large quantities of decommissioning wastes.

  5. 77 FR 64361 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level... for low-level waste. DATES: Submit comments by November 15, 2012. Comments received after this date...

  6. The characterization of cement waste form for final disposal of decommissioning concrete wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon-ji; Lee, Ki-Won; Min, Byung-Youn; Hwang, Doo-Seong; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Decommissioning concrete waste recycling and disposal. • Compressive strength of cement waste form. • Characteristic of thermal resistance and leaching of cement waste form. - Abstract: In Korea, the decontamination and decommissioning of KRR-1, 2 at KAERI have been under way. The decommissioning of the KRR-2 was finished completely by 2011, whereas the decommissioning of KRR-1 is currently underway. A large quantity of slightly contaminated concrete waste has been generated from the decommissioning projects. The concrete wastes, 83ea of 200 L drums, and 41ea of 4 m 3 containers, were generated in the decommissioning projects. The conditioning of concrete waste is needed for final disposal. Concrete waste is conditioned as follows: mortar using coarse and fine aggregates is filled with a void space after concrete rubble pre-placement into 200 L drums. Thus, this research developed an optimizing mixing ratio of concrete waste, water, and cement, and evaluated the characteristics of a cement waste form to meet the requirements specified in the disposal site specific waste acceptance criteria. The results obtained from a compressive strength test, leaching test, and thermal cycling test of cement waste forms conclude that the concrete waste, water, and cement have been suggested as an optimized mixing ratio of 75:15:10. In addition, the compressive strength of the cement waste form was satisfied, including a fine powder up to a maximum of 40 wt% in concrete debris waste of about 75%. According to the scale-up test, the mixing ratio of concrete waste, water, and cement is 75:10:15, which meets the satisfied compressive strength because of an increase in the particle size in the waste

  7. Allocation of Decommissioning and Waste Liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff

    2011-11-01

    The work demonstrates that there are a number of methods available for cost allocation, the pros and cons of which are examined. The study investigates potential proportional and incremental methods in some depth. A recommendation in principle to use the latter methodology is given. It is concluded that a 'fair assumption' is that the potential allocation of costs for 'the RMA Leaching Hall' probably is small, in relation to the total costs, and estimated to be not more than about 175 kSEK, plus any costs associated with decommissioning/ disposal of a number of small pieces of equipment added by the current operator

  8. Developing a Step Wise Approach to Waste Management and Decommissioning at Sellafield Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Developing a Step Wise Approach to Waste Management and Decommissioning at Sellafield Ltd: • Understand the challenge; • Understand preferred direction of travel; • Characterisation - enabling waste led decommissioning; • Engaging stakeholders; • Focus on the true drivers - alternative ILW approach; • Alternative ILW approach - simplification of waste handling process; • Manage future challenges; • Fit for purpose transport package for decommissioning wastes; • Risk based management framework

  9. Basis for criteria for exemption of decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elert, M.; Wiborgh, M.; Bengtsson, A.

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) with technical background material to be used as a basis for future decisions concerning exemption levels for decommissioning waste. Simple models have been developed for evaluating the individual doses that may arise from steel waste, concrete waste and non-burnable waste exempted from regulatory control. Two alternatives were studied for the exempted wastes: recycling and disposal in different types of near-surface repositories. The example calculations for the recycling scenarios show that the individual dose obtained is strongly dependent on the exposure time. Thus, the storage of the waste at a scrap yard will give rise to a higher dose than the melting, due to the longer storage time. (28 refs.)

  10. The reuse of scrap and decontamination waste water from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Junxian; Li Xin; Xie Xiaolong

    2010-01-01

    Huge amount of radioactive scrap with low activity will be generated from reactor decommissioning; the decontamination is concentrated in the surface layer of the scrap. The decontaminated substance can be removed by high pressure water jet to appear the base metal and to reuse the metal. Big amount of radioactive waste water will be generated by this decontamination technology; the radioactive of the waste water is mainly caused by the solid particle from decontamination. To remove the solid particle as clean as possible, the waste water can be reused. Different possible technology to remove the solid particle from the water had been investigated, such as the gravity deposit separation, the filtration and the centrifugal separation etc. The centrifugal separation technology is selected; it includes the hydraulic vortex, the centrifugal filtration and the centrifugal deposit. After the cost benefit analysis at last the centrifugal deposit used butterfly type separator is selected. To reuse the waste water the fresh water consumption and the cost for waste water treatment can be reduced. To reuse the radioactive scrap and the waste water from decommissioning will minimize the radioactive waste. (authors)

  11. Technology development for recycling of decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Lee, K. W.

    2010-04-01

    The scenarios for recycling or self-disposal of concrete wastes was established according to the regulatory requirements for clearance settled up in overseas countries as well as our country. Through the radiological safety assessment for those scenarios, the exposure rate for the workers and the public was evaluated to come up with the clearance level of radioactive nuclides. On the basis of the results, the necessary condition of the process equipment for a volume reduction and self-disposal was suggested toward recycling in non-nuclear field and limited recycling in nuclear filed. In order to satisfy the clearance level suggested from the assessment of the scenarios for recycling of dismantled concrete wastes, the processes for thermal crushing and mechanical grinding were optimized through the experiments on the characteristics of the thermal and mechanical treatment of concrete wastes generated from the KRR and UCP. As a consequence, the process which can be reduced the radioactive concrete waste volume by about 70% was established. And also, not only the originative integrated thermal crushing equipment in which the concrete wastes were crushed simultaneously with the thermal treatment but also the rotated paddle type impact crushing equipment were developed. An optimized stabilization processes which have the conditions for manufacturing cemented waste form containing the maximum content of fine concrete waste resulting the minimization of increase in volume of cemented waste form was established

  12. Radioactive waste management and decommissioning in The United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymont, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    With their missions and access to disposal sites changing over the last decade, radioactive waste management and decommissioning practice in the U.S. commercial and federal nuclear markets has evolved to keep pace. This paper reviews the changes that have occurred and the differing waste management practices that have resulted depending on whether a nuclear facility is situated on federally owned or privately owned property in the United States, confirming that the cost of disposal generally dictates waste management and decommissioning practices. Of the 123 utility-owned licensed commercial reactors in U.S., 19 are undergoing decomissioning, with the balance of 104 reactors focusing on plant life extension, power upgrades, and power generation. As a result, almost all of the approximately dollar 400 million in annual expenditures on waste processing and disposal comes from waste generated from operations. In contrast, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Management (EM) program, is focused on decommissioning the facilities, tanks, and ground contamination resulting from 50-years of Cold War activities and spending about dollar 7 billion a year on these activities. Other than spent fuel, U.S. federal law precludes disposal of commercial nuclear power plant radioactive wastes at DOE disposal sites. In contrast to the commercial disposal market, which must go through extensive public hearings and decision-making, the DOE has a much freer hand in siting new disposal capacity on federal land. As a result, the DOE has ample disposal capacity, 'routinely' opens new disposal sites, and enjoys disposal pricing well below the commercial market. Waste composition, volume, and activity levels drive disposal costs, which is the key life cycle parameter in determining radioactive waste management practice. Differences in these parameters drive the differences in how radioactive waste management practice is performed in the commercial and DOE markets

  13. Decommissioning of evaporation technology for processing liquid radioactive waste in UJV Rez, a. s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tous, M.; Otcovsky, T.; Podlaha, J.

    2015-01-01

    The UJV Rez, a. s. is the main leader in processing institutional radioactive waste (RAW) in the Czech Republic and the Waste Management Department has been established since the research reactor VVR-S (now LVR-15) was put in operation. Due to the large activities in nuclear research and engineering in the past, a big capacity of waste management technologies was needed. The low pressure compactor for volume reduction of solid RAW, as well as chemical pre-treatment technology of liquid RAW were installed and later the evaporation technology for effective processing the liquid RAW with the cementation and bituminization unit for final conditioning of concentrated liquid RAW were used. During the years of research reactor operation and research activities in UJV Rez, a. s. there were two installed evaporation technologies in row. After the latest evaporator lifetime, changes in liquid RAW production and together with higher decontamination factor requirements, this technology was decided to be decommissioned. The decommissioned evaporation technology was installed and put in operation in 1991. This technology was used for processing liquid aqueous RAW produced from internal research activities and of course for external producers and institutions (e.g. universities, medicine, research institutes, industry). The approved decommissioning plan was prepared and the licence for immediate decommissioning was obtained in 2012. Then the decommissioning project started. The preparing stages as dosimetric survey, expected material balance and of course initial decontamination activities were performed. Evaporation technology dismantling and processing the arising RAW were done by the internal staff of Waste Management Department. The total volume of produced RAW was 49,5 m 3 of RAW. The secondary liquid RAW (from decontamination) of amount 1,4 m 3 , contaminated sludge of amount 0,5 m 3 , solid RAW (construction steel) of amount 39,1 m 3 , solid compressible RAW (protective

  14. Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden); Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Fredholmsgatan 2, SE-721 63, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named 'ndcon' to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid

  15. Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named 'ndcon' to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle

  16. Radioactive waste management and decommissioning at the NEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) seeks to assist its member countries in developing safe, sustainable and societally acceptable strategies for the management of all types of radioactive materials, with particular emphasis on the management of long-lived waste and spent fuel and on decommissioning of disused nuclear facilities. The programme of work in these areas is carried out for the most part by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) assisted by three working parties: - The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC). - The Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC). - The Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD). Other NEA Committees also have interests in this field: the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) and the Nuclear Development Committee (NDC). The OECD/NEA is at the forefront in addressing both the technical and societal requirements for durable and sustainable waste management and decommissioning solutions. Through the RWMC it provides a neutral forum where policy makers, regulators and implementing organisations can discuss issues of common interest and develop solutions that meet the diverse needs of its member countries

  17. Progress on radiochemical analysis for nuclear waste management in decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Center for Nuclear Technologies (NuTech), Roskilde (Denmark))

    2012-01-15

    This report summarized the progress in the development and improvement of radioanalytical methods for decommissioning and waste management completed in the NKS-B RadWaste 2011 project. Based on the overview information of the analytical methods in Nordic laboratories and requirement from the nuclear industry provided in the first phase of the RadWaste project (2010), some methods were improved and developed. A method for efficiently separation of Nb from nuclear waste especially metals for measurement of long-lived 94Nb by gamma spectrometry was developed. By systematic investigation of behaviours of technetium in sample treatment and chromatographic separation process, an effective method was developed for the determination of low level 99Tc in waste samples. An AMS approachment was investigated to measure ultra low level 237Np using 242Pu for AMS normalization, the preliminary results show a high potential of this method. Some progress on characterization of waste for decommissioning of Danish DR3 is also presented. (Author)

  18. Progress on radiochemical analysis for nuclear waste management in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarized the progress in the development and improvement of radioanalytical methods for decommissioning and waste management completed in the NKS-B RadWaste 2011 project. Based on the overview information of the analytical methods in Nordic laboratories and requirement from the nuclear industry provided in the first phase of the RadWaste project (2010), some methods were improved and developed. A method for efficiently separation of Nb from nuclear waste especially metals for measurement of long-lived 94Nb by gamma spectrometry was developed. By systematic investigation of behaviours of technetium in sample treatment and chromatographic separation process, an effective method was developed for the determination of low level 99Tc in waste samples. An AMS approachment was investigated to measure ultra low level 237Np using 242Pu for AMS normalization, the preliminary results show a high potential of this method. Some progress on characterization of waste for decommissioning of Danish DR3 is also presented. (Author)

  19. Selected problems of minimization and management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plant decommissioning. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrs, M.; Moravec, A.

    1988-06-01

    The processing prior to storage of radioactive wastes produced in nuclear power plant decommissioning is described as are the types of containers employed for waste transport and/or disposal. Data are summarized on exposure of personnel to radioactivity resulting from nuclear power plant decommissioning activities, and accessible data are collected on the costs of nuclear power plant decommissioning and of waste management. Potential directions of research in this field under Czechoslovak conditions are specified. (author)

  20. Remediation and decommissioning of radioactive waste facilities in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putnik, H.; Realo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear training facility at Paldiski was constructed in the early 1960's by the former USSR Navy. The hull sections of Delta and Echo class submarines each housing a full-sized ship reactor were installed in the main building of the site for training of navy personnel in safe operation of the submarine nuclear reactor systems. The first reactor was commissioned in 1968 and the second in 1982, while both was shut down in 1989. After Estonia's reproclamation of independence in 1991 the responsibility for the clean up and decommissioning of the Paldiski site became a subject of negotiations between Russia and Estonia. As the result Estonia took the ownership and control of the site in September 1995. Before the take over the Russian authorities defuelled the reactors and transported the spent fuel to Russia, dismantled the hull sections not related with reactor systems, seal-welded the hull sections housing the reactor vessels with their primary circuitry and enclosed those in reinforced concrete sarcophagi. The auxiliary facilities and radioactive waste were left intact. Main goals of the Conceptual Decommissioning Plan for the Paldiski facilities, developed under the auspices of the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (Pier, a group established at the request of the Estonian government to advise local authorities to maintain the decommissioning and waste management at Paldiski) were defined as following: Establishing the waste management system and a long term monitored interim storage, corresponding to internationally accepted safety standards and capable to condition, receive and store all the waste generated during decommissioning of the facility; Reductions of the extent of radiologically controlled areas as much as possible, in order to minimise maintenance requirements. To achieve these goals the following main tasks were addressed in the short and medium term site management action plans: Rearrangement of site for the needs of

  1. Radioactive waste management decommissioning spent fuel storage. V. 3. Waste transport, handling and disposal spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    As part of the book entitled Radioactive waste management decommissioning spent fuel storage, vol. 3 dealts with waste transport, handling and disposal, spent fuel storage. Twelve articles are presented concerning the industrial aspects of nuclear waste management in France [fr

  2. Progress on Radiochemical Analysis for Nuclear Waste Management in Decommissioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Qiao, Jixin; Shi, Keliang

    With the increaed numbers of nuclear facilities have been closed and are being or are going to be decommissioned, it is required to characterise the produced nuclear waste for its treatment by identification of the radionuclides and qualitatively determine them. Of the radionuclides related...... separation of radionuclides. In order to improve and maintain the Nodic competence in analysis of radionculides in waste samples, a NKS B project on this topic was launched in 2009. During the first phase of the NKS-B RadWaste project (2009-2010), a good achivement has been reached on establishment...... of collaboration, identifing the requirements from the Nordic nuclear industries and optimizing and development of some analytical methods (Hou et al. NKS-222, 2010). In the year 2011, this project (NKS-B RadWaste2011) continued. The major achievements of this project in 2011 include: (1) development of a method...

  3. Argentina: Disposal aspects of RA-1 research reactor decommissioning waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harriague, S; Barberis, C; Cinat, E; Grizutti, C; Scolari, H [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-12-15

    The objective of the project is to analyze disposal aspects of waste from total dismantling of Argentinean research reactors, starting with the oldest one, 48 years old RA-1. In order to estimate decommissioning waste, data was collected from files, area monitoring, measurements, sampling to measure activity and composition, operational history and tracing of operational incidents. Measurements were complemented with neutron activation calculations. Decommissioning waste for RA-1 is estimated to be 71.5 metric tons, most of it concrete (57 tons), the rest being steels, lead and reflector graphite (4.8 tons). Due to their low specific activities, no disposal problems are foreseen in the case of metals and concrete. Disposal of aluminium, steel, lead and concrete is analyzed. On the contrary, as the country has no experience in managing graphite radioactive waste, work was concentrated on that material. Stored (Wigner) energy may exist in RA-1 graphite reflectors irradiated at room temperature. Evaluation of stored energy by calorimetric methods is proposed, and its annealing by inductive heating; HEPA filters should be used to deal with gaseous activity emissions, mainly Cl-36 and C-14. Galvanic corrosion, dust explosion, ignition and oxidation can be addressed and should not become disposal problems. Care must be taken with graphite dust generation and disposal, due to wetting and flotation problems. Lessons learned from the project are presented, and the benefits of sharing international experience are stressed. (author)

  4. Establishment the code for prediction of waste volume on NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, W. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, Y. D.; Kim, I. S.; Moon, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    In practice, decommissioning waste volume can be estimated appropriately by finding the differences between prediction and actual operation and considering the operational problem or supplementary matters. So in the nuclear developed countries such as U.S. or Japan, the decommissioning waste volume is predicted on the basis of the experience in their own decommissioning projects. Because of the contamination caused by radioactive material, decontamination activity and management of radio-active waste should be considered in decommissioning of nuclear facility unlike the usual plant or facility. As the decommissioning activity is performed repeatedly, data for similar activities are accumulated, and optimal strategy can be achieved by comparison with the predicted strategy. Therefore, a variety of decommissioning experiences are the most important. In Korea, there is no data on the decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants yet. However, KAERI has accumulated the basis decommissioning data of nuclear facility through decommissioning of research reactor (KRR-2) and uranium conversion plant (UCP). And DECOMMIS(DECOMMissioning Information Management System) was developed to provide and manage the whole data of decommissioning project. Two codes, FAC code and WBS code, were established in this process. FAC code is the one which is classified by decommissioning target of nuclear facility, and WBS code is classified by each decommissioning activity. The reason why two codes where created is that the codes used in DEFACS (Decommissioning Facility Characterization management System) and DEWOCS (Decommissioning Work-unit productivity Calculation System) are different from each other, and they were classified each purpose. DEFACS which manages the facility needs the code that categorizes facility characteristics, and DEWOCS which calculates unit productivity needs the code that categorizes decommissioning waste volume. KAERI has accumulated decommissioning data of KRR

  5. Application of clearance principles to radioactive waste from the decommissioning of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Xiaoling; Feng Dingsheng; Dong Yonghe

    2010-01-01

    The definition of clearance is introduced. The principles and dose criterion of clearance are also clarified. The main radionuclides in radioactivity waste and the radioactivity waste which can be cleared are investigated. The techniques for the measurement of radioactivity waste from the decommissioning of nuclear reactors are summarized. This paper provides the scientific criterion and methods for the management of radioactive waste, and lays the foundation for the treatment of radioactive waste from the decommissioning of nuclear reactor. (authors)

  6. The Optimization of Radioactive Waste Management in the Nuclear Installation Decommissioning Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachar, Matej; Necas, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a basic characterization of nuclear installation decommissioning process especially in the term of radioactive materials management. A large amount of solid materials and secondary waste created after implementation of decommissioning activities have to be managed considering their physical, chemical, toxic and radiological characteristics. Radioactive materials should be, after fulfilling all the conditions defined by the authorities, released to the environment for the further use. Non-releasable materials are considered to be a radioactive waste. Their management includes various procedures starting with pre-treatment activities, continuing with storage, treatment and conditioning procedures. Finally, they are disposed in the near surface or deep geological repositories. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of all possible ways of releasing the material from nuclear installation area, optimization of the material management process should be done. Emphasis is placed on the radiological parameters of materials, availability of waste management technologies, waste repositories and on the radiological limits and conditions for materials release or waste disposal. Appropriate optimization of material flow should lead to the significant savings of money, disposal capacities or raw material resources. Using a suitable calculation code e.g. OMEGA, the evaluation of the various material management scenarios and selection of the best one, based on the multi-criterion analysis, should be done. (authors)

  7. Decommissioning and waste markets attract new global alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, John

    2014-01-01

    Renewed global efforts to broaden knowledge and expertise in the field of radwaste management and identify the most promising technologies for clean-up and treatment of nuclear wastes are being led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In its recently-published annual report for 2013, the IAEA has given details of the development of new projects for the management of intermediate-level waste and large amounts of waste. Decommissioning can be a lucrative prospect. The availability of skills will be a key factor. Whatever technological advances are made in the coming years, there needs to be corresponding investment in attracting new recruits to the nuclear industry and equipping them with the skills that the industry will need.

  8. Decommissioning and waste markets attract new global alliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear24, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Renewed global efforts to broaden knowledge and expertise in the field of radwaste management and identify the most promising technologies for clean-up and treatment of nuclear wastes are being led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In its recently-published annual report for 2013, the IAEA has given details of the development of new projects for the management of intermediate-level waste and large amounts of waste. Decommissioning can be a lucrative prospect. The availability of skills will be a key factor. Whatever technological advances are made in the coming years, there needs to be corresponding investment in attracting new recruits to the nuclear industry and equipping them with the skills that the industry will need.

  9. Study for reducing radioactive solid waste at ITER decommissioning period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shinichi; Araki, Masanori; Ohmori, Junji; Ohno, Isamu; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    It is one of the foremost goals for ITER to demonstrate the attractiveness with regard to safety and environmental potential. This implies that the radioactive materials and waste at decommissioning phase should carefully be treated with prescribed regulations. As possible activities during the Coordinated Technical Activity (CTA), the authors have performed a feasibility study for searching the possibility of effective reduction in the activated level as reasonably achievable as possible by taking account of minimum material changes while keeping original design concept and structure. Major induced activation in ITER comes from activated nickel and cobalt so that it is effective for the major structural components to minimize their material contents. Employing less Ni and Co steel in place of high-Ni austenitic stainless steel for blanket shield block, vacuum vessel shield material and TF coil casing has been considered as one of the effective plans to reduce the activated materials at the decommissioning phase. In this study, two less-Ni austenitic stainless steels are evaluated; one is high-Mn austenitic stainless steel JK2 which is developing for jacket material of ITER CS coil and the other is SS204L/ASTM-XM-11 which is also high-Mn steel specified in the popular standards such as American Society of Testing and Material (ASTM). Based on the material changes, activation analyses have been performed to investigate the possibility of reducing radioactive wastes. As a most impressive result, at 40 years after the termination some of main components such as a TF coil casing will reach to the clearance level which is specified by IAEA, and most components will be categorized into extremely low level waste except for limited components. These results will give the appropriate short decommissioning period that is assumed to start at 100 years after the termination in the original design. (author)

  10. Software development to support decommissioning and waste management strategic planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, John; Warneford, Ian; Harrison, J.

    1997-01-01

    One of the components of the UKAEA's mission is to care for and, at the appropriate time, safely dismantle its radioactive facilities which are no longer in use. To assist in the development of an optimised strategy, AEA Technology was commissioned to produce decision support software. This paper describes the background to the development of the software, its key features and current status, and the lessons learnt during the development. The software, known as UKAEA SPS (Strategic Planning System), is a unique support software package that has been developed to assist in the planning of decommissioning and radioactive waste management. SPS models linked decommissioning and waste management strategies covering all of UKAEA's nuclear liabilities. It has been developed around the database package ACCESS, and runs on Pentium PCs; however, it has many of the features of project planning systems. Its principal outputs are costs, timings and utilisation data for the waste stores, processing facilities, transport and disposal operations displayed at any level of aggregation. This allows programme managers to see easily the effects of changing key parameters in a strategy under development. (author)

  11. Environmental impact assessment of decommissioning treatment about radioactive model plant waste ore storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at decommissioning treatment project of radioactive model plant waste ore storage site, based on the detailed investigations of source terms and project description, systematic environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts both during decommissioning treatment, radioactive waste transportation and after treatment are assessed. Some specific environmental protection measures are proposed so as to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. (author)

  12. Evaluation of cost of radioactive waste management during the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrish, V.M.; Tkachev, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the results of calculations on evaluation of radioactive waste volumes, the required financing, and the labor expenses for management of radioactive waste that may arise during the decommissioning of Chernobyl NPP Units 1, 2, 3

  13. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station. Classification of decommissioning wastes. Addendum 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.S.

    1984-09-01

    The radioactive wastes expected to result from decommissioning of the reference pressurized water reactor power station are reviewed and classified in accordance with 10 CFR 61. The 17,885 cubic meters of waste from DECON are classified as follows: Class A, 98.0%; Class B, 1.2%; Class C, 0.1%. About 0.7% (133 cubic meters) of the waste would be generally unacceptable for disposal using near-surface disposal methods

  14. The state-of-the-art report on management of the decommissioning waste generated from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il Sik; Lee, K. M.; Chung, K. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kim, K. J.

    1998-03-01

    As a result of this research on management methodologies of decommissioning waste from nuclear facilities, the state of the art of decommissioning status, plan, and management field on decommissioning waste in foreign countries as well as in Korea is evaluated. Radioactive waste for final disposal according to reusing non-radioactive waste by clear guideline on classification criteria of decommissioning waste by clear guideline on classification criteria of decommissioning waste will be reduced and metal through melting decontamination may be reused. Also, the relevant regulations on acceptance criteria of disposal site for decommissioning waste should be introduced to manage decommissioning waste effectively. It is necessary that large transport containers which satisfy relevant regulations should be designed and manufactured to transport of large waste. (author). 49 refs., 24 tabs., 30 figs

  15. Preliminary study on recycling of metallic waste from decommissioning of nuclear power plant for cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Koichiro; Kato, Osamu; Saegusa, Toshiari

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary study was made on technology required to recycle of metallic waste from decommissioning for spent fuel storage cask and on quantity of the cask which can be produced by the metallic waste. The technical and institutional issues for the recycling were studied. The metallic waste from decommissioning may be technically used to a certain degree for manufacturing the casks. However, there were some technical issues to be solved. For example, the manufacturing factories should be established. The radioactive waste from the factories with radiation control should be handled and treated carefully. Quality of the cask should be properly controlled. The 'Clearance Levels' which allows to recycle decommissioning waste have been hardly enacted in Japan. Technical and economic evaluation on recycling of metallic waste from decommissioning for spent fuel storage cask should be conducted again after progress in recycling of radioactive waste of which radioactivity is below the 'Clearance Levels' in Japan. (author)

  16. UK safety and standards for radioactive waste management and decommissioning on nuclear licensed sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the regulation of radioactive waste and decommissioning in the United Kingdom and identifies the factors considered by HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate in examining the adequacy arrangements for their management on nuclear licensed sites. The principal requirements are for decommissioning to be undertaken as soon as reasonably practicable and that radioactive wastes should be minimised, disposed of or contained and controlled by storage in a passively safe form. However, these requirements have to be considered in the context of major organisational changes in the UK nuclear industry and the non-availability of disposal routes for some decommissioning wastes. The legislative framework used to regulate decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the UK is described. Reference is made to radioactive waste and decommissioning strategies, quinquennial reviews criteria for delicensing and the forthcoming Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations. (author)

  17. Establishment and Evaluation of Decommissioning Plant Inventory DB and Waste Quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Moon, Sang-Rae; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Hee-Geun; Sung, Nak-Hoon; Jung, Seung Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) made a decision for permanent shutdown of Kori-1 and has progressed the strategy determination and R and D for the decommissioning of Kori-1. Decommissioning waste, Structure, System and Components (SSCs) is one of the most important elements. Decommissioning waste quantity is calculated based on Plant Inventory Database (PI DB) with activation and contamination data. Due to the largest portion of waste management and disposal in decommissioning, it is necessary to exactly evaluate waste quantity (applying the regulation, guideline and site-specific characterization) for economic feasibility. In this paper, construction of PI DB and evaluation of waste quantity for Optimized Pressurized Reactor (OPR-1000) are mainly described. Decommissioning waste quantities evaluated are going to be applied to calculation of the project cost. In fact, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) in Korea expected the decommissioning waste quantity in a range of 14,500-18,850 drums, and predicted appropriate liability for decommissioning fund by using waste quantity. The result of this study is also computed by the range of 14,500-18,850 drums. Since there is no site-specific data for the NPP site, this evaluation is the preliminary analysis

  18. Establishment and Evaluation of Decommissioning Plant Inventory DB and Waste Quantity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Moon, Sang-Rae; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Hee-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Nak-Hoon; Jung, Seung Hyuk [KONES Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) made a decision for permanent shutdown of Kori-1 and has progressed the strategy determination and R and D for the decommissioning of Kori-1. Decommissioning waste, Structure, System and Components (SSCs) is one of the most important elements. Decommissioning waste quantity is calculated based on Plant Inventory Database (PI DB) with activation and contamination data. Due to the largest portion of waste management and disposal in decommissioning, it is necessary to exactly evaluate waste quantity (applying the regulation, guideline and site-specific characterization) for economic feasibility. In this paper, construction of PI DB and evaluation of waste quantity for Optimized Pressurized Reactor (OPR-1000) are mainly described. Decommissioning waste quantities evaluated are going to be applied to calculation of the project cost. In fact, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) in Korea expected the decommissioning waste quantity in a range of 14,500-18,850 drums, and predicted appropriate liability for decommissioning fund by using waste quantity. The result of this study is also computed by the range of 14,500-18,850 drums. Since there is no site-specific data for the NPP site, this evaluation is the preliminary analysis.

  19. A necessity for research in the recycling of concrete waste from the decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Ha Na; Whang, Joo Ho

    2009-01-01

    Construction of the I/LLW disposal site is now underway in Gyeongju. When completed it will be able to store 100,000 radioactive waste drums in a geologically deep disposal site; hence, a method for disposing of another 700,000 drums will be discussed. Kori-1 is continuously being safely operated even after passing its 30 years designated life span. However, because 12 more nuclear power plants will operate past their designated life span by 2030, the necessity for research about their decommissioning will increase. Approximately 6,200 tons of radioactive waste will be generated from each decommissioned plant. It will be difficult to store all of the waste in Gyeongju due to cost and efficiency issues. For these reasons it is needed to discuss recycling methods for minimizing radioactive waste during decommissioning. This study suggests a scenario for recycling concrete waste of a decommissioned disposal site as crushed rock and also presents prior research for concrete waste recycling

  20. Estimation and characterization of decontamination and decommissioning solid waste expected from the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Stratton, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose of the study was to estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant is decontaminated and decommissioned. (Building structure and soil are not covered.) Results indicate that ∼5,500 m 3 of solid waste is expected to result from the decontamination and decommissioning of the Pu Finishing Plant. The breakdown of the volumes and percentages of waste by category is 1% dangerous solid waste, 71% low-level waste, 21% transuranic waste, 7% transuranic mixed waste

  1. The characterization of cement waste form for final disposal of decommissioned concrete waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.W.; Lee, Y.J.; Hwang, D.S.; Moon, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Since the decommissioning of nuclear plants and facilities, large quantities of slightly contaminated concrete waste have been generated. In Korea, the decontamination and decommissioning of the KRR-1, 2 at the KAERI have been under way. In addition, 83 drums of 200 l, and 41 containers of 4 m 3 of concrete waste were generated. Conditioning of concrete waste is needed for final disposal. Concrete waste is conditioned as follows: mortar using coarse and fine aggregates is filled into a void space after concrete rubble pre-placement into 200 l drums. Thus, this research developed an optimizing mixing ratio of concrete waste, water, and cement, and evaluated the characteristics of a cement waste form to meet the requirements specified in the disposal site specific waste acceptance criteria. The results obtained from compressive strength test, leaching test, and thermal cycling test of cement waste forms conclude that the concrete waste, water, and cement have been suggested to have 75:15:10 as the optimized mixing ratio. In addition, the compressive strength of cement waste form was satisfied, including fine powder up to a maximum 40 wt% in concrete debris waste of about 75%. (authors)

  2. Proceedings of the research conference on cementitious composites in decommissioning and waste management (RCWM2017)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuichi; Ashida, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS) is responsible to promote international cooperation in the R and D activities on the decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and to develop the necessary human resources. CLADS held the Research Conference on Cementitious Composites in Decommissioning and Waste Management (RCWM2017) on 20th and 21st June, 2017. This report compiles the abstracts and the presentation materials in the above conference. (author)

  3. Principles and practices in managing the wastes resulting from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladescu, Gabriela; Oprescu, Theodor; Niculae, Ortenzia; Stan, Camelia

    2004-01-01

    . The chapter 2.4 presents a proposal for constituting a statistical basis for radioactive materials classification and the associated measuring procedures. The chapter 2.5 illustrates the principles by applying them to classification of solid. liquid and gaseous radioactive materials and their assignation to one of the categories: excluded, excepted, clean or radioactive. The results of this study can be applied in classifying the radioactive wastes produced in Romania in different nuclear activities such as Cernavoda NPP operation, nuclear research, industry, and medicine, decommissioning of different nuclear facilities, etc

  4. Reducing market distortions by setting harmonized standards for decommissioning and waste management funds in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irrek, W.

    2002-01-01

    There are significant differences in the operation and accessibility of decommissioning and waste management funds in Europe. The diverging standards for these funds cause substantial market distortions and discrimination between competing electricity producers. Although there are different views regarding the question, if provisions for decommissioning and final waste disposal constitute prohibited state aid within the meaning of Article 87 (1) EC Treaty, and although the decommissioning and waste management funds is not a new issue, the liberalisation process across the EU means that this issue is one which must be addressed quickly by EU and national policy. (author)

  5. Technical and cost aspects of radioactive wastes from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claes, J.; Menon, S.

    2001-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning was established in 1985 to share the experience and information emerging from on-going decommissioning projects within member countries. The main aim of the programme is to gather and collate such data, which can then provide the basis for planning the future industrial phase of decommissioning of commercial nuclear plants. Starting with 10 decommissioning projects in 1985, today the programme has 35 participating projects from 12 countries. Apart from exchanging valuable information, task groups have been set up for in-depth analysis and studies of areas of common interest, among which are the recycling of material from decommissioning projects and decommissioning costs. This paper will describe the structure and mode of operation of the programme. Some of the results of the work in the task groups will be presented, with particular emphasis on the management of materials from decommissioning and on decommissioning costs. (author)

  6. Hands on versus remote techniques in waste management and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asquith, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear industry has many requirements for planned and uplanned physical interactions with radioactive materials or their environment. In each case a choice must be made as to whether the interaction should be made directly by the operator using a 'hands on' technique, wearing any necessary protective clothing, or by entirely remote techniques. In facilities where remote handling equipment has already been provided and planned for, remote techniques are usually the obvious choice. However in radioactive waste management and decommissioning there are many cases where unexpected requirements emerge, often for relatively short term activities, where the choice is more complex. This paper takes a look at the various factors which should be considered in order to make these decisions, an overview of the types of remote equipment available in the UK and some examples of the benefits which have resulted when remote techniques have been adopted in Britain

  7. Waste minimization value engineering workshop for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Omega West Reactor Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnett, S.; Seguin, N.; Burns, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Pollution Prevention Program Office sponsored a Value Engineering (VE) Workshop to evaluate recycling options and other pollution prevention and waste minimization (PP/WMin) practices to incorporate into the decommissioning of the Omega West Reactor (OWR) at the laboratory. The VE process is an organized, systematic approach for evaluating a process or design to identify cost saving opportunities, or in this application, waste reduction opportunities. This VE Workshop was a facilitated process that included a team of specialists in the areas of decontamination, decommissioning, PP/WMin, cost estimating, construction, waste management, recycling, Department of Energy representatives, and others. The uniqueness of this VE Workshop was that it used an interdisciplinary approach to focus on PP/WMin practices that could be included in the OWR Decommissioning Project Plans and specifications to provide waste reduction. This report discusses the VE workshop objectives, summarizes the OWR decommissioning project, and describes the VE workshop activities, results, and lessons learned

  8. Waste minimization value engineering workshop for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Omega West Reactor Decommissioning Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartnett, S.; Seguin, N. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burns, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Pollution Prevention Program Office sponsored a Value Engineering (VE) Workshop to evaluate recycling options and other pollution prevention and waste minimization (PP/WMin) practices to incorporate into the decommissioning of the Omega West Reactor (OWR) at the laboratory. The VE process is an organized, systematic approach for evaluating a process or design to identify cost saving opportunities, or in this application, waste reduction opportunities. This VE Workshop was a facilitated process that included a team of specialists in the areas of decontamination, decommissioning, PP/WMin, cost estimating, construction, waste management, recycling, Department of Energy representatives, and others. The uniqueness of this VE Workshop was that it used an interdisciplinary approach to focus on PP/WMin practices that could be included in the OWR Decommissioning Project Plans and specifications to provide waste reduction. This report discusses the VE workshop objectives, summarizes the OWR decommissioning project, and describes the VE workshop activities, results, and lessons learned.

  9. Challenges in the management of decommission waste of nuclear facilities in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, E.T.; Fletcher, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    It is inevitable that every nuclear facility must one day be safely decommissioned. When considering decommissioning, large amounts of radioactive and non-radioactive waste have to be taken into account. Disposal of such materials can have large economic impact on the overall decommissioning cost. In developing countries like Ghana, the perception of environmental protection through waste management, is often not very high as compared to many other pressing needs. Therefore limited resources are allocated for environmental problems. Ghana operates a tank-in- pool type research reactor, 30kW output for research in neutron activation analysis, radioisotope preparation, education and training, a radiotherapy unit that utilizes a 185TBq Co-60 radioactive sources for the treatment of cancer and a gamma irradiation facility which utilizes 1.85PBq Co-60 radioactive source for the irradiation of various materials. All these facilities are operating without designed decommissioning in mind, an inadequate waste management infrastructure as well as a lack of a repository to handling the resulting waste. It is today's beneficials of the nuclear facility that has to deal with the legacies of the future decommissioning activities. The paper outlines some of the challenges and issues to be expected in the management of waste from future decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Ghana with the absence of a waste management infrastructure and inadequate financial resources. The paper puts forth a concept to perform meaningful and significant plans whilst the facilities are still operating. (author)

  10. Analytical methodology for optimization of waste management scenarios in nuclear installation decommissioning process - 16148

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachar, Matej; Necas, Vladimir; Daniska, Vladimir; Rehak, Ivan; Vasko, Marek

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear installation decommissioning process is characterized by production of large amount of various radioactive and non-radioactive waste that has to be managed, taking into account its physical, chemical, toxic and radiological properties. Waste management is considered to be one of the key issues within the frame of the decommissioning process. During the decommissioning planning period, the scenarios covering possible routes of materials release into the environment and radioactive waste disposal, should be discussed and evaluated. Unconditional and conditional release to the environment, long-term storage at the nuclear site, near surface or deep geological disposal and relevant material management techniques for achieving the final status should be taken into account in the analysed scenarios. At the level of the final decommissioning plan, it is desirable to have the waste management scenario optimized for local specific facility conditions taking into account a national decommissioning background. The analytical methodology for the evaluation of decommissioning waste management scenarios, presented in the paper, is based on the materials and radioactivity flow modelling, which starts from waste generation activities like pre-dismantling decontamination, selected methods of dismantling, waste treatment and conditioning, up to materials release or conditioned radioactive waste disposal. The necessary input data for scenarios, e.g. nuclear installation inventory database (physical and radiological data), waste processing technologies parameters or material release and waste disposal limits, have to be considered. The analytical methodology principles are implemented into the standardised decommissioning parameters calculation code OMEGA, developed in the DECOM company. In the paper the examples of the methodology implementation for the scenarios optimization are presented and discussed. (authors)

  11. TRU waste-assay instrumentation and application in nuclear-facility decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Los Alamos TRU waste assay program is developing measurement techniques for TRU and other radioactive waste materials generated by the nuclear industry, including decommissioning programs. Systems are now being fielded for test and evaluation purposes at DOE TRU waste generators. The transfer of this technology to other facilities and the commercial instrumentation sector is well in progress. 6 figures

  12. Radioactive Wastes Cementation during Decommissioning Of Salaspils Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenkova, G.; Klavins, M.; Abramenkovs, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with information on the radioactive wastes cementation technology for decommissioning of Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR). Dismantled radioactive materials were cemented in concrete containers using tritiated water-cement mortar. The laboratory tests system was developed to meet the waste acceptance criteria for disposal of containers with cemented radioactive wastes in near-surface repository 'Radons'. The viscosity of water-cement mortar, mechanical tests of solidified mortar's samples, change of temperature of the samples during solidification time and leakage of Cs-137 and T-3 radionuclides was studied for different water-cement compositions with different additives. The pH and electro conductivity of the solutions during leakage tests were controlled. It was shown, that water/cement ratio significantly influences on water-cement mortar's viscosity and solidified samples mechanical stability. Increasing of water ratio from 0.45 up to 0.62 decreases water-cement mortar's viscosity from 1100 mPas up to 90 mPas and decreases mechanical stability of water-cement samples from 23 N/mm 2 to the 12 N/mm 2 . The role of additives - fly ash and Penetron admix in reduction of solidification temperature is discussed. It was found, that addition of fly ash to the cement-water mortar can reduce the solidification temperature from 81 deg. C up to 62 deg. C. The optimal interval of water ratio in cement mortar is discussed. Tritium and Cs-137 leakage tests show, that radionuclides release curves has a complicate structure. The possible radionuclides release mechanisms are discussed. Experimental results indicated that addition of fly ash result in facilitation of tritium and cesium leakage in water phase. Further directions of investigations are drafted. (authors)

  13. Waste management strategy for cost effective and environmentally friendly NPP decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Per Lidar; Arne Larsson [Studsvik Nuclear AB (ndcon partner), Nykoping (Sweden); Niklas Bergh; Gunnar Hedin [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB (ndcon partner), Vasteraas (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named ndcon to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle

  14. Waste management strategy for cost effective and environmentally friendly NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Per Lidar; Arne Larsson; Niklas Bergh; Gunnar Hedin

    2013-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named ndcon to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle

  15. The Research Status for Decommissioning and Radioactive Waste Minimization of HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenqian; Li Hong; Cao Jianzhu; Tong Jiejuan

    2014-01-01

    Decommissioning of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor-pebble bed module (HTR-PM) as a part of the nuclear power plant, is very important during the early design stage of the construction, and it is under study and research currently. This article gives a thorough description of the current decommissioning study status of HTR-PM. Since HTR-PM has its features such as adopting a large amount of graphite, the waste inventory and characterization will be quite different from other type of reactors, new researches should be carried out and good lessons of practices and experiences should be learned from international other reactors, especially the AVR. Based on the new international regulations and Chinese laws, a comprehensive decommissioning program should be proposed to guarantee the HTR-PM will succeed in every stage of the decommissioning, such as defueling, decontamination, dismantling, demolition, waste classification and disposal, etc. In the meantime, the minimization of the radioactive waste should be taken into account during the whole process - before construction, during operation and after shut down. In this article, the decommissioning strategy and program conception of HTR-PM will be introduced, the radiation protection consideration during the decommissioning activities will be discussed, and the research on the activation problem of the decommissioning graphite will be introduced. (author)

  16. Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Progress in Iraq - 13216

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Musawi, Fouad; Shamsaldin, Emad S.; Jasim, Hadi [Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Al-Jadraya, P.O. Box 0765, Baghdad (Iraq); Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Laboratories1, New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Management of Iraq's radioactive wastes and decommissioning of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are the responsibility of Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST). The majority of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are in the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located a few kilometers from the edge of Baghdad. These facilities include bombed and partially destroyed research reactors, a fuel fabrication facility and radioisotope production facilities. Within these facilities are large numbers of silos, approximately 30 process or waste storage tanks and thousands of drums of uncharacterised radioactive waste. There are also former nuclear facilities/sites that are outside of Al-Tuwaitha and these include the former uranium processing and waste storage facility at Jesira, the dump site near Adaya, the former centrifuge facility at Rashdiya and the former enrichment plant at Tarmiya. In 2005, Iraq lacked the infrastructure needed to decommission its nuclear facilities and manage its radioactive wastes. The lack of infrastructure included: (1) the lack of an organization responsible for decommissioning and radioactive waste management, (2) the lack of a storage facility for radioactive wastes, (3) the lack of professionals with experience in decommissioning and modern waste management practices, (4) the lack of laws and regulations governing decommissioning or radioactive waste management, (5) ongoing security concerns, and (6) limited availability of electricity and internet. Since its creation eight years ago, the MoST has worked with the international community and developed an organizational structure, trained staff, and made great progress in managing radioactive wastes and decommissioning Iraq's former nuclear facilities. This progress has been made, despite the very difficult implementing conditions in Iraq. Within MoST, the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Management Directorate (RWTMD) is responsible for waste management and the

  17. Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Progress in Iraq - 13216

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Musawi, Fouad; Shamsaldin, Emad S.; Jasim, Hadi; Cochran, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Management of Iraq's radioactive wastes and decommissioning of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are the responsibility of Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST). The majority of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are in the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located a few kilometers from the edge of Baghdad. These facilities include bombed and partially destroyed research reactors, a fuel fabrication facility and radioisotope production facilities. Within these facilities are large numbers of silos, approximately 30 process or waste storage tanks and thousands of drums of uncharacterised radioactive waste. There are also former nuclear facilities/sites that are outside of Al-Tuwaitha and these include the former uranium processing and waste storage facility at Jesira, the dump site near Adaya, the former centrifuge facility at Rashdiya and the former enrichment plant at Tarmiya. In 2005, Iraq lacked the infrastructure needed to decommission its nuclear facilities and manage its radioactive wastes. The lack of infrastructure included: (1) the lack of an organization responsible for decommissioning and radioactive waste management, (2) the lack of a storage facility for radioactive wastes, (3) the lack of professionals with experience in decommissioning and modern waste management practices, (4) the lack of laws and regulations governing decommissioning or radioactive waste management, (5) ongoing security concerns, and (6) limited availability of electricity and internet. Since its creation eight years ago, the MoST has worked with the international community and developed an organizational structure, trained staff, and made great progress in managing radioactive wastes and decommissioning Iraq's former nuclear facilities. This progress has been made, despite the very difficult implementing conditions in Iraq. Within MoST, the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Management Directorate (RWTMD) is responsible for waste management and the Iraqi Decommissioning

  18. The Waste Management Plan integration into Decommissioning Plan of the WWR-S research reactor from Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barariu, Gheorghe; Oprescu, Theodor; Filip, Mihaela; Sociu, Florin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the progress of the Radioactive Waste Management Plan which accompanies the Decommissioning Plan for research reactor WWR-S located in Magurele, Ilfov, near Bucharest, Romania. The new variant of the Decommissioning Plan was elaborated taking into account the IAEA recommendation concerning radioactive waste management. A new feasibility study for WWR-S decommissioning was also developed. The preferred safe management strategy for radioactive wastes produced by reactor decommissioning is outlined. The strategy must account for reactor decommissioning, as well as rehabilitation of the existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant and the upgrade of the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at Baita-Bihor. Furthermore, the final rehabilitation of the laboratories and reusing of cleaned reactor building is envisaged. An inventory of each type of radioactive waste is presented. The proposed waste management strategy is selected in accordance with the IAEA assistance. Environmental concerns are part of the radioactive waste management strategy. (authors)

  19. Report on waste burial charges: Escalation of decommissioning waste disposal costs at low-level waste burial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    One of the requirements placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is for the licensees to periodically adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plant, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is scheduled to be revised annually, contains the development of a formula for escalating decommissioning cost estimates that is acceptable to the NRC, and contains values for the escalation of radioactive waste burial costs, by site and by year. The licensees may use the formula, the coefficients, and the burial escalation factors from this report in their escalation analysis, or may use an escalation rate at least equal to the escalation approach presented herein. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Gas cooled reactor decommissioning. Packaging of waste for disposal in the United Kingdom deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, S.V.; Wisbey, S.J.; Wood, P.

    1998-01-01

    United Kingdom Nirex Limited has been established to develop and operate a deep underground repository for the disposal of the UK's intermediate and certain low level radioactive waste. The UK has a significant Gas Cooled Reactor (GCR) programme, including both Magnox and AGR (Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor) capacity, amounting to 26 Magnox reactors, 15 AGR reactors as well as research and prototype reactor units such as the Windscale AGR and the Windscale Piles. Some of these units are already undergoing decommissioning and Nirex has estimated that some 15,000 m 3 (conditioned volume) will come forward for disposal from GCR decommissioning before 2060. This volume does not include final stage (Stage 3) decommissioning arisings from commercial reactors since the generating utilities in the UK are proposing to adopt a deferred safe store strategy for these units. Intermediate level wastes arising from GCR decommissioning needs to be packaged in a form suitable for on-site interim storage and eventual deep disposal in the planned repository. In the absence of Conditions for Acceptance for a repository in the UK, the dimensions, key features and minimum performance requirements for waste packages are defined in Waste Package Specifications. These form the basis for all assessments of the suitability of wastes for disposal, including GCR wastes. This paper will describe the nature and characteristics of GCR decommissioning wastes which are intended for disposal in a UK repository. The Nirex Waste Package Specifications and the key technical issues, which have been identified when considering GCR decommissioning waste against the performance requirements within the specifications, are discussed. (author)

  1. Methodology for assessing suitable systems for management of reactor decommissioning wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.P.; Barraclough, I.M.; Mobbs, S.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report demonstrates a methodology for comparing quantitatively the options open to decision-makers at various stages of the decommissioning process, taking into account radiological protection and other factors considered to be relevant. In order to compare different decommissioning options, various impacts associated with decommissioning operations and waste disposal were assessed, namely, costs and radiological, environmental and socio-political impact. The post-disposal radiological impact was calculated for four generic concepts (near surface, deep geological, coastal tunnel and deep ocean bed)

  2. Safety analysis of disposal of decommissioning waste from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant - PURKU-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Meszaros, F.; Nordman, H.; Taivassalo, V.

    1993-12-01

    Decommissioning waste from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant will be disposed of at the depth between 60 and 100 meters in the bedrock at the power plant site. The existing VLJ repository for low and medium level operating waste will be extended with three new silos for the decommissioning waste of the TVO I and II reactors and the spent fuel interim store at the Olkiluoto site. Besides dismantling waste also used fuel boxes, control rods and other activated metal components accumulated during the operation of the reactors will be disposed of in the repository. The safety analysis is based on the detailed decommissioning plan of the Olkiluoto power plants and the comprehensive safety analysis carried out for the Final Safety Analysis Report of the VLJ repository. (58 refs., 31 figs., 38 tabs.)

  3. SE-VYZ - Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations, Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    In this presentations processes of radioactive waste treatment in the Bohunice Radioactive Waste Processing Center (SE-VYZ), Jaslovske Bohunice are presented. Decommissioning of the A-1 NPP is also presented. Disposal of conditioned radioactive waste in fibre concrete containers (FCC) are transported to Mochovce from Jaslovske Bohunice by the transport truck where are reposited in the National radioactive waste repository Mochovce. The Interim spent fuel storage facility (ISFSF) is included into this presentation

  4. A State of the Art on the Technology for Recycling and Reuse of the Decommissioning Concrete Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chung Hun; Choi, Wang Kyu; Min, Byung Youn; Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Kun Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    This report describes the reduction and recycling technology of decommissioning concrete waste. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) becomes one of the most important nuclear markets especially in the developed countries including USA, UK and France where lots of the retired nuclear facilities have been waiting for decommissioning. In our country the KAERI has been carrying out the decommissioning of the retired TRIGA MARK II and III research reactors and an uranium conversion plant as the first national decommissioning project since 1998. One of the most important areas of the decommissioning is a management of a huge amount of a decommissioning waste the cost of which is more than half of the total decommissioning cost. Therefore reduction in decommissioning waste by a reuse or a recycle is an important subject of decommissioning technology development in the world. Recently much countries pay attention to recycle the large amount of concrete dismantling waste resulted from both a nuclear and a non nuclear industries. In our country, much attention was taken in a recycle of concrete dismantling waste as a concrete aggregate, but a little success has been resulted due to the disadvantages such as a weakness of hardness and surface mortar contamination. A recycle in nuclear industry and a self disposal of the radioactively contaminated concrete wastes are main directions of concrete wastes resulted from a nuclear facility decommissioning. In this report it was reviewed the state of art of the related technologies for a reduction and a recycle of concrete wastes from a nuclear decommissioning in the country and abroad. Prior to recycle and reuse in the nuclear sector, however, the regulatory criteria for the recycle and reuse of concrete waste should be established in parallel with the development of the recycling technology.

  5. A State of the Art on the Technology for Recycling and Reuse of the Decommissioning Concrete Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chung Hun; Choi, Wang Kyu; Min, Byung Youn; Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Kun Woo

    2008-02-01

    This report describes the reduction and recycling technology of decommissioning concrete waste. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) becomes one of the most important nuclear markets especially in the developed countries including USA, UK and France where lots of the retired nuclear facilities have been waiting for decommissioning. In our country the KAERI has been carrying out the decommissioning of the retired TRIGA MARK II and III research reactors and an uranium conversion plant as the first national decommissioning project since 1998. One of the most important areas of the decommissioning is a management of a huge amount of a decommissioning waste the cost of which is more than half of the total decommissioning cost. Therefore reduction in decommissioning waste by a reuse or a recycle is an important subject of decommissioning technology development in the world. Recently much countries pay attention to recycle the large amount of concrete dismantling waste resulted from both a nuclear and a non nuclear industries. In our country, much attention was taken in a recycle of concrete dismantling waste as a concrete aggregate, but a little success has been resulted due to the disadvantages such as a weakness of hardness and surface mortar contamination. A recycle in nuclear industry and a self disposal of the radioactively contaminated concrete wastes are main directions of concrete wastes resulted from a nuclear facility decommissioning. In this report it was reviewed the state of art of the related technologies for a reduction and a recycle of concrete wastes from a nuclear decommissioning in the country and abroad. Prior to recycle and reuse in the nuclear sector, however, the regulatory criteria for the recycle and reuse of concrete waste should be established in parallel with the development of the recycling technology

  6. Standard Guide for Preparing Waste Management Plans for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide addresses the development of waste management plans for potential waste streams resulting from decommissioning activities at nuclear facilities, including identifying, categorizing, and handling the waste from generation to final disposal. 1.2 This guide is applicable to potential waste streams anticipated from decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities whose operations were governed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or Agreement State license, under Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, or Department of Defense (DoD) regulations. 1.3 This guide provides a description of the key elements of waste management plans that if followed will successfully allow for the characterization, packaging, transportation, and off-site treatment or disposal, or both, of conventional, hazardous, and radioactive waste streams. 1.4 This guide does not address the on-site treatment, long term storage, or on-site disposal of these potential waste streams. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address ...

  7. Waste minimization fundamental principles used in radioactive waste management plan for decommissioning of a CANDU - 600 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barariu, Gheorghe; Georgescu, Roxana Cristiana; Sociu, Florin

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of waste minimization are to limit the generation and spread of radioactive contamination and to reduce the amount of wastes for storage and disposal, thereby limiting any consequent environmental impact, as well as the total costs associated with contaminated material management. This objective will be achieved by: reviewing the sources and characteristics of radioactive materials arising from Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities; reviewing waste minimization principles and current practical applications, together with regulatory, technical, financial and political factors influencing waste minimization practices; and reviewing current trends in improving waste minimization practices during Decontamination and Decommissioning. The main elements of a waste minimization strategy can be grouped into four areas: source reduction, prevention of contamination spread, recycle and reuse, and waste management optimization. For sustaining this objective, the following principles and procedures of wastes management are taken into account: safety and environment protection principles; principles regarding the facility operation; quality assurance procedures; procedures for material classification and releasing. (authors)

  8. Very low level waste disposal in France. A key tool for the management for decommissioning wastes in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetzer, Michel [Andra - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactives, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Direction Industrielle

    2015-07-01

    At the end of the 90{sup th}, France had to deal with the emerging issue of the management of wastes resulting from decommissioning operations of nuclear facilities. A specific regulation was issued and Andra, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, developed a dedicated near surface disposal facility to accommodate very low level radioactive wastes. After more than 10 years of operation, this facility demonstrated it can provide efficient and flexible solutions for the management of decomissioning wastes.

  9. Waste management, decommissioning and environmental restoration for Canada's nuclear activities. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Society conference on Waste Management, Decommissioning and Environmental Restoration for Canada's Nuclear Activities was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on September 11-14, 2011. The conference provided a forum for discussion of the status and proposed future directions of technical, regularly, environmental, social and economic aspects of radioactive waste management, nuclear facility decommissioning, and environmental restoration activities for Canadian nuclear facilities. The conference included both plenary sessions and sessions devoted to more detailed technical issues. The plenary sessions were focussed on three broad themes: the overall Canadian program; low and intermediate waste; and, international perspectives. Topics of the technical sessions included: OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste; stakeholder interactions; decommissioning projects; uranium mine waste management; used fuel repository - design and safety assessment; federal policies, programs and oversight; regulatory considerations; aboriginal traditional knowledge; geological disposal - CRL site classification; geological disposal - modelling and engineered barriers; Port Hope Area Initiative; waste characterization; LILWM - treatment and processing; decommissioning projects and information management; international experience; environmental remediation; fuel cycles and waste processing.

  10. DASAO: software tool for the management of safeguards, waste and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, Luc; Verwaest, Isi; Libon, Henri; Cuchet, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is a complex process involving operations such as detailed surveys, decontamination and dismantling of equipment's, demolition of buildings and management of resulting waste and nuclear materials if any. This process takes place in a well-developed legal framework and is controlled and followed-up by stakeholders like the Safety Authority, the Radwaste management Agency and the Safeguards Organism. In the framework of its nuclear waste and decommissioning program and more specifically the decommissioning of the BR3 reactor, SCK-CEN has developed different software tools to secure the waste and material traceability, to support the sound management of the decommissioning project and to facilitate the control and the follow-up by the stakeholders. In the case of Belgium, it concerns the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, the National Agency for radioactive waste management and fissile material and EURATOM and IAEA. In 2005, Belgonucleaire decided to shutdown her Dessel MOX fuel fabrication plant and the production stopped in 2006. According to the final decommissioning plan ('PDF') approved by NIRAS, the decommissioning works should start in 2008 at the earliest. In 2006, the management of Belgonucleaire identified the need for an integrated database and decided to entrust SCK-CEN with its development, because SCK-CEN relies on previous experience in comparable applications namely already approved by authorities such as NIRAS, FANC and EURATOM. The main objectives of this integrated software tool are: - simplified and updated safeguards; - waste and material traceability; - computerized documentation; - support to project management; - periodic and final reporting to waste and safety authorities. The software called DASAO (Database for Safeguards, Waste and Decommissioning) was successfully commissioned in 2008 and extensively used from 2009 to the satisfaction of Belgonucleaire and the stakeholders. SCK-CEN is

  11. Decommissioning and Waste Disposal Programme of NPP Krsko - How to Proceed in the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.; Zeleznik, N.; Levanat, I.; Lokner, V.

    2006-01-01

    By the agreement between Slovenia and Croatia on the ownership and exploitation of the NPP Krsko, which is effective since March 2003, the decommissioning and the disposal of spent fuel and low and intermediate level waste from NPP Krsko is the responsibility of both countries. In article 10 the agreement requires that within a year after putting it into force both parties jointly prepare a decommissioning and waste disposal programme with more detailed elaboration of these issues. According to these requirements such a programme was prepared by the waste management organisations from both countries - APO from Croatia and ARAO from Slovenia - and in March 2004 submitted to the Intergovernmental Commission for adoption. Later in 2004 the document was accepted also by both Governments and in Croatia also by the Parliament. By the agreement it is also anticipated that the decommissioning and waste disposal programmes be revised at least every 5 years. Such an approach is quite common and practiced in many countries, and some countries prepare revisions even more frequently. The purpose of these new revisions is two folded: on one hand to improve the technical solutions for the decommissioning as well as for waste disposal by including new or better known data and new technological developments and experience, and on the other hand to update the cost calculation of these future nuclear liabilities. Having in mind that these cost estimations are made for the rather distant future it is extremely important that regular updating and adjustment of estimates be performed in order to meet the future needs. Although the Decommissioning and Waste Disposal Programme has just recently passed the adoption procedure and its implementation has not yet been fully achieved, the time of the next revision is approaching fast. To make good progress in the next revision serious preparations including some strategic decisions should start immediately. The programme from 2004 was prepared

  12. Simulation studies for quantification of solid waste during decommissioning of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobhan Babu, K.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Gupta, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Decommissioning is the final phase in the lifecycle of a nuclear installation and in the area of occupational radiation protection, decommissioning constitute a challenge mainly due to the huge and complex radioactive waste generation. In the context of management and disposal of waste and reuse/recycle of usable materials during decommissioning of reactors, clearance levels for relevant radionuclides are of vital importance. During the process of decommissioning radionuclide-specific clearance levels allow the release of a major quantity of materials to the environment, without regulatory considerations. These levels may also be used to declare the usable materials for reuse or recycle. Assessment of activity concentration in huge quantities of material, for the purpose of clearance, is a challenge in decommissioning process. This paper describes the simulation studies being carried out for the design of a monitoring system for the estimation of activity concentration of the decommissioned materials, especially rubbles/concrete, using mathematical models. Several designs were studied using simulation and it was observed that for the estimation of very low levels of activity concentration, to satisfy the conditions of unrestricted releases, detection system using the principle of Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) is the best suitable method. (author)

  13. 1982 international decommissioning symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickelson, S.

    1982-01-01

    Sixty-four papers were presented at the following sessions: policy, regulations, and standards; management of decommissioning wastes; decommissioning experience; decommissioning tooling and techniques; radiological concerns; and planning and engineering

  14. Enhanced productivity in reactor decommissioning and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasinger, Karl

    2014-01-01

    As for any industrial facility, the service live of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities, research and test reactors ends. Decision for decommissioning such facilities may be motivated by technical, economical or political reasons or a combination of it. As of today, a considerable number of research reactors, fuel cycle facilities and power reactors have been completely decommissioned. However, the end point of such facilities' lifetime is achieved, when the facility is finally removed from regulatory control and the site becomes available for further economical utilization. This process is commonly known as decommissioning and involves detailed planning of all related activities, radiological characterization, dismantling, decontamination, clean-up of the site including treatment and packaging of radioactive and/or contaminated material not released for unrestricted recycling or industrial disposal. Decommissioning requires adequate funding and suitable measures to ensure safety while addressing stakeholders' requirements on occupational health, environment, economy, human resources management and the socioeconomic effects to the community and the region. One important aspect in successful management of decommissioning projects and dismantling operation relates to the economical impact of the endeavor, primarily depending on the selected strategy and, as from commencement of dismantling, on total duration until the end point is achieved. Experience gained by Areva in executing numerous decommissioning projects during past 2 decades shows that time injury free execution and optimum productivity turns out crucial to project cost. Areva develops and implements specific 'performance improvement plans' for each of its projects which follow the philosophy of operational excellence based on Lean Manufacturing principles. Means and methods applied in implementation of these plans and improvements achieved are described and examples are given on the way Areva

  15. Enhanced productivity in reactor decommissioning and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasinger, Karl [Areva GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    As for any industrial facility, the service live of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities, research and test reactors ends. Decision for decommissioning such facilities may be motivated by technical, economical or political reasons or a combination of it. As of today, a considerable number of research reactors, fuel cycle facilities and power reactors have been completely decommissioned. However, the end point of such facilities' lifetime is achieved, when the facility is finally removed from regulatory control and the site becomes available for further economical utilization. This process is commonly known as decommissioning and involves detailed planning of all related activities, radiological characterization, dismantling, decontamination, clean-up of the site including treatment and packaging of radioactive and/or contaminated material not released for unrestricted recycling or industrial disposal. Decommissioning requires adequate funding and suitable measures to ensure safety while addressing stakeholders' requirements on occupational health, environment, economy, human resources management and the socioeconomic effects to the community and the region. One important aspect in successful management of decommissioning projects and dismantling operation relates to the economical impact of the endeavor, primarily depending on the selected strategy and, as from commencement of dismantling, on total duration until the end point is achieved. Experience gained by Areva in executing numerous decommissioning projects during past 2 decades shows that time injury free execution and optimum productivity turns out crucial to project cost. Areva develops and implements specific 'performance improvement plans' for each of its projects which follow the philosophy of operational excellence based on Lean Manufacturing principles. Means and methods applied in implementation of these plans and improvements achieved are described and examples are given on

  16. The specificity of decommissioning waste for disposal and from different facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.; Hilden, W.; Pla Campana, E.; )

    2005-01-01

    Full text: During the decommissioning of nuclear installations significant waste quantities arise, the bulk being material which qualifies for free release or exemption. Only minor quantities have to be submitted to regulatory control and have either to be disposed or can be released, recycled or reused under certain conditions defined by the regulatory body. Actually, it is almost impossible to derive at meaningful data for the expected waste quantities by a simple propagation of the experiences made in other installations. Rather, the quantities and categorisation are significantly installation specific and are determined by a variety of factors such as the plant construction and operation history, the thoroughness of facility characterisation in preparation for decommissioning, the timing of the decommissioning exercise, the kind and scope of the applied waste treatment and conditioning techniques, the possibility for recycling or reusing irradiated or contaminated materials as well as the applicable national legislation. Further international co-operation aiming at the development of waste estimation techniques is required. Moreover, a harmonisation of national legislation might help to compare waste arisings under the various decommissioning exercises

  17. Waste management, decommissioning and environmental restoration for Canada's nuclear activities: 'Current practices and future needs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Society conference on Waste Management, Decommissioning and Environmental Restoration for Canada's Nuclear Activities was held on May 8-11, 2005 in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The objective of this Conference was to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of views on the technical, regulatory and social challenges and opportunities in radioactive waste management, nuclear facility decommissioning and environmental restoration activities in Canada. The Conference was organized into several plenary sessions and eight technical tracks: Low- and intermediate-level wastes; Uranium mining and milling wastes; Used nuclear fuel; Decommissioning; Environmental restoration; Policy, economics and social issues; Licensing and regulatory issues; and, Radioactive materials transportation. The three-day Conference involved waste management, decommissioning and environmental technology practitioners; delegates from industry, academia, and government agencies and regulators; consulting engineers; financial and legal experts; and other specialists working in the field. While the Conference had a primarily Canadian focus, about 10 per cent of the submissions received came from foreign and international organizations, which provided insights into how other countries are dealing with similar issues

  18. Reuse of waste water from high pressure water jet decontamination for reactor decommissioning scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Junxian; Li Xin; Hou Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    For recycle and reuse of reactor decommissioning scrap metal by high pressure water jet decontamination, large quantity of radioactive waste water will be generated. To save the cost of radioactive waste water treatment and to reduce the cost of the scrap decontamination, this part of radioactive waste water should be reused. Most of the radioactivities in the decontamination waste water come from the solid particle in the water. Thus to reuse the waste water, the solid particle in the waster should be removed. Different possible treatment technologies have been investigated. By cost benefit analysis the centrifugal separation technology is selected. (authors)

  19. Information base for waste repository design. Volume 5. Decommissioning of underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiffre, M.S.; Plum, R.L.; Koplick, C.M.; Talbot, R.

    1979-01-01

    This report discusses the requirements for decommissioning a deep underground facilitiy for the disposal of radioactive waste. The techniques for sealing the mined excavations are presented and an information base on potential backfill materials is provided. Possible requirements for monitoring the site are discussed. The performance requirements for backfill materials are outlined. The advantages and disadvantages of each sealing method are stated

  20. Nuclear power plant decommissioning and radioactive waste management in the U.K.. A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.M.

    1993-01-01

    Effective control of the decommissioning and radioactive waste management of nuclear power plant in United Kingdom are introduced. The Government established the legislative framework and national strategy, operators provided the necessary skills and equipment for implementation, and the regulators used the legislative controls to ensure a safe system of work is achieved and maintained

  1. Status of decommissioning and waste management in the Nuclear Science Research Institute of JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru; Yamashita, Toshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    The Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) of JAEA has some experiences of the decommissioning of research reactors and research laboratories including a reprocessing test facility. In order to dismantle those facilities safely, we paid much attention for the radiological protection of radiation workers taking into consideration of characteristics of each facility, especially to protect internal exposures. As the results of decommissioning activities, several thousands tons of solid radioactive wastes were generated. In the near future, we will start the treatment of these stored wastes by a super compactor, metal melting furnace and non-metal waste melting furnace to gain high volume reduction and to prepare stable waste forms for final disposal. In Japan, the clearance system was established in 2005 by amending the Nuclear Regulatory Law. The NSRI plans to release very slightly contaminated concrete debris for recycling, which was generated from the replacement of reactor core of research reactor (JRR-3), according to the clearance system. (author)

  2. What will we do with the low level waste from reactor decommissioning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, A. R.; Wilmott, S.; Crockett, G.; Watt, N. R.

    2008-01-01

    The decommissioning of the UK's Magnox reactor sites will produce large volumes of low level waste (LLW) arisings. The vast majority of this waste takes the form of concrete, building rubble and redundant plant containing relatively low levels of radioactivity. Magnox Electric Ltd (Magnox) is leading a strategic initiative funded by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to explore opportunities for the disposal of such waste to suitably engineered facilities that might be located on or adjacent to the site of waste arising, if appropriate and subject to regulatory acceptance and stakeholder views. The strategic issues surrounding this initiative are described along with an update of progress with stakeholder consultations in relation to the proposed licensing of the first such facility at Hinkley Point A, which could be viewed as a test case for the development of similar disposal facilities at other nuclear sites in England and Wales. (authors)

  3. Architecture for a new age of nuclear waste and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, D.

    1995-01-01

    Plans to decommission the Trawsfynydd Nuclear Reactor and bury the remaining structure, restoring the site to its previous natural appearance, are set out in this booklet. The ''Poweto Change'' project is a cooperative venture, drawing together architects, engineers, artists and the local communities of Trawsfynydd and Blaenaum Ffestiniog. Plans for reusing parts of the power plants structures to recreate a media centre are discussed and illustrated. (author)

  4. Information base for waste repository design. Volume 5. Decommissioning of underground facilities. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffre, M.S.; Plum, R.L.; Koplik, C.M.; Talbot, R.

    1979-03-01

    This report is Volume 5 of a seven volume document on nuclear waste repository design issues. This report discusses the requirements for decommissioning a deep underground facility for the disposal of radioactive waste. The techniques for sealing the mined excavations are presented and an information base on potential backfill materials is provided. Possible requirements for monitoring the site are discussed. The performance requirements for backfill materials are outlined. The advantages and disadvantages of each sealing method are stated

  5. Automated methodology for estimating waste streams generated from decommissioning contaminated facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, J.J.; King, D.A.; Humphreys, K.K.; Haffner, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), a viable way to determine aggregate waste volumes, cost, and direct labor hours for decommissioning and decontaminating facilities is required. In this paper, a methodology is provided for determining waste streams, cost and direct labor hours from remediation of contaminated facilities. The method is developed utilizing U.S. facility remediation data and information from several decommissioning programs, including reactor decommissioning projects. The method provides for rapid, consistent analysis for many facility types. Three remediation scenarios are considered for facility D ampersand D: unrestricted land use, semi-restricted land use, and restricted land use. Unrestricted land use involves removing radioactive components, decontaminating the building surfaces, and demolishing the remaining structure. Semi-restricted land use involves removing transuranic contamination and immobilizing the contamination on-site. Restricted land use involves removing the transuranic contamination and leaving the building standing. In both semi-restricted and restricted land use scenarios, verification of containment with environmental monitoring is required. To use the methodology, facilities are placed in a building category depending upon the level of contamination, construction design, and function of the building. Unit volume and unit area waste generation factors are used to calculate waste volumes and estimate the amount of waste generated in each of the following classifications: low-level, transuranic, and hazardous waste. Unit factors for cost and labor hours are also applied to the result to estimate D ampersand D cost and labor hours

  6. KONTEC 2009. Report about the 9th International Symposium on ''Conditioning of radioactive operational and decommissioning wastes''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    ''Kontec 2009'' was organized in Dresden on April 15-17, 2009. For the 8 th time, this established international meeting covered the subjects of ''Conditioning of Radioactive Operational and Decommissioning Wastes'' and ''Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities'' and the R and D Status Report delivered by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research on this key topic. Some 790 participants from 13 countries heard and discussed the contributions to the three-day meeting. The program of the symposium comprised plenary sessions dealing with these 4 key subjects: Disposal of Radioactive Residues from Nuclear Facilities' Operation and Decommissioning, Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities, Facilities and Systems for the Conditioning of Operational and Decommissioning Wastes, Transport, Interim and Final Storage of Non-heat Generating Wastes (i.e. Konrad). The sessions were supplemented by poster sessions and selected short presentations under the heading of ''Kontec Direct.'' (orig.)

  7. Waste management - textbook for secondary schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.; Kuruc, J.

    2010-09-01

    This text-book consist of five parts: (I) Waste management; (II) Solid waste management; (III) Recovery and recycling of secondary raw materials; (IV) Radioactive waste management; Examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet. (V) Suggestions for leisure time activities. This text-book is assigned for high school students.

  8. Decommissioning of Brennilis NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baize, Jean-Marc

    1998-01-01

    This EDF press communique give information related to the decommissioning of the Brennilis NPP. The following five items are developed in this report: 1. the level-2 decommissioning operations at the Brennilis NPP; 2. the Brennilis NPP, a pilot operation from the commissioning up to the decommissioning; 3. history of the Brennilis NPP decommissioning; 4. the types of radioactive wastes generated by the Brennilis NPP decommissioning; 5. the Brennilis NPP - a yard management as a function of the wastes. The document contains also seven appendices addressing the following subjects: 1. the share of decommissioning assigned to EDF and the decommissioning steps; 2. the EDF installations in course of decommissioning; 3. the CEA decommissioned installations or in course of decommissioning; 4. regulations; 5. costs; 6. waste management - principles; 7. data on the decommissioning yard

  9. Implementation of stage 3 decommissioning and optimization of radioactive waste generation, Triton facility, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The CEA centre of Fontenay-aux-Roses was created in 1946, when the French nuclear energy programme started. Two generations of facilities have been built and operated. The first generation remained operational for 15 years and was dismantled in the late 1950s. It was replaced by a new generation of facilities, as part of the French electronuclear programme, and these included the Triton and Nereide research reactors (hereafter called the Triton facility). In accordance with the CEA strategy and taking into account its urban location, in 1998 the CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses centre decided to launch an extensive cleanup programme to be implemented from 2010 onwards. This included the Stage 3 decommissioning of the Triton facility. In the frame of this decommissioning project, a decommissioning strategy was developed making it possible to optimize the volume of radioactive waste generated

  10. Decommissioning Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Decommissioning Handbook is a technical guide for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the removal of the radioactive and, for practical reasons, hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. This handbook identifies and technologies and techniques that will accomplish these objectives. The emphasis in this handbook is on characterization; waste treatment; decontamination; dismantling, segmenting, demolition; and remote technologies. Other aspects that are discussed in some detail include the regulations governing decommissioning, worker and environmental protection, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials. The handbook describes in general terms the overall decommissioning project, including planning, cost estimating, and operating practices that would ease preparation of the Decommissioning Plan and the decommissioning itself. The reader is referred to other documents for more detailed information. This Decommissioning Handbook has been prepared by Enserch Environmental Corporation for the US Department of Energy and is a complete restructuring of the original handbook developed in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services. The significant changes between the two documents are the addition of current and the deletion of obsolete technologies and the addition of chapters on project planning and the Decommissioning Plan, regulatory requirements, characterization, remote technology, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials.

  11. Research reactor utilization, safety, decommissioning, fuel and waste management. Posters of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    self assessments. Current developments in research reactor design criteria. Calculation methods and codes. Regulatory aspects and experience with current research reactor issues. Quality assurance programmes during the various stages of a reactor life. Training and qualification of reactor operating personnel and regulators. Modifications in operating procedures and training and qualification. In-service and special inspections with respect to ageing. c) Fuel cycle issues covering new high-density fuel development. Fuel fabrication and performance. Fuel qualification programmes. Core conversion. Fuel management (including spent fuel storage). Spent fuel transportation. Final disposition. d) Reactor Decommissioning including Preliminary decommissioning planning (long term). Creation of data base for decommissioning (e.g. during refurbishment). Final decommissioning planning. Extensive research and development activities associated with decommissioning of research reactors. On-going/recently completed research reactor decommissioning projects. e) Waste management (operational waste management) and decommissioning waste management

  12. HSE policy on decommissioning and radioactive waste management at licensed nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the UK, radioactive waste management and decommissioning on a licensed nuclear is regulated by the Health and Safety Executive. The same legislative framework used for operating nuclear power stations is also applied to radioactive waste management and decommissioning activities. This provides a continuous but flexible safety regime until there is no danger from ionizing radiations. The regulatory policy is discussed, taking into account the implications of the 1995 White Paper reviewing radioactive waste management policy. For both radioactive waste management and decommissioning the key element of HSE policy is the need for strategic planning. This should ensure that problems are not allowed to build up and to demonstrate that, taking into account all factors, the proposed actions are the optimum in terms of safety. There is a presumption in HSE's policy towards disposal of radioactive waste as soon as possible where disposal routes exist. Where long-term storage is necessary passively safe forms are preferred over those requiring continuous monitoring or frequent intervention. (author)

  13. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  14. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  15. Report on waste burial charges. Escalation of decommissioning waste disposal costs at low-level waste burial facilities, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    One of the requirements placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is for the licensees to periodically adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plants, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is scheduled to be revised periodically, contains the development of a formula for escalating decommissioning cost estimates that is acceptable to the NRC. The sources of information to be used in the escalation formula are identified, and the values developed for the escalation of radioactive waste burial costs, by site and by year, are given. The licensees may use the formula, the coefficients, and the burial escalation factors from this report in their escalation analyses, or they may use an escalation rate at least equal to the escalation approach presented herein. This fourth revision of NUREG-1307 contains revised spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference PWR and the reference BWR and the ratios of disposal costs at the Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina sites for the years 1986, 1988, 1991 and 1993, superseding the values given in the May 1993 issue of this report. Burial cost surcharges mandated by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) have been incorporated into the revised ratio tables for those years. In addition, spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference reactors and ratios of disposal costs at the two remaining burial sites in Washington and South Carolina for the year 1994 are provided. These latter results do not include any LLRWPAA surcharges, since those provisions of the Act expired at the end of 1992. An example calculation for escalated disposal cost is presented, demonstrating the use of the data contained in this report

  16. Radioactive waste management plan during the TRIGA Mark II and III decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K.J.; Park, S.K.; Geong, G.H.; Lee, K.W.; Chung, U.S.; Paik, S.T.

    2001-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project of TRIGA Mark-I and Mark-II (KRR 1 and 2) was started in January 1997 and will be completed by December 2002. In the first year of the project, work was performed in preparation of the decommissioning plan, start of the environmental impact assessment and setup licensing procedure and documentation for the project with cooperation of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). In the second year, Hyundai Engineering Company (HEC) with British Nuclear Fuels pie (BNFL) as technical assisting partner was designated as the contractor to do design and licensing documentation for the D and D of both reactors. After pre-design, a hazard and operability (HAZOP) study checked each step of the work. At the end of 1998, the decommissioning plan documentation including environmental impact assessment report was finished and submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for licensing. It is expected to be issued by the end of September 1999. Practical work will then be started around the end of 1999. The safe treatment and management of the radioactive waste arising from the D and D activities is of utmost importance for successful completion of the practical dismantling work. This paper summarizes general aspects of radioactive waste treatment and management plan for the TRIGA Mark-I and II decommissioning work. (author)

  17. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  18. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  19. Development for recycle of dismantled metal wastes by decommissioning of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tomohiro; Sato, Hiroshi; Hatakeyama, Mutsuo

    2007-01-01

    For recycle of dismantled metal wastes generated by the decommissioning of nuclear power plant, we examined a melting test for melting characterization of stainless steel scrap, designed the conceptual process to produce the recycle products, and developed a recycle cost evaluation code which is useful to make a rational planning for the waste management program (cost, determination of process, etc.) of these metal wastes. This report gives the summary of these development carried out from 2001 to 2005. This work was performed under the sponsorship of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  20. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  1. Decommissioning of a grout- and waste-filled storage tank in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marske, S.G.

    1991-01-01

    A self-concentrating waste tank located at the Strontium Semiworks Facility in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site will be decommissioned following waste removal. During a previous decommissioning phase, the tank, thought to be empty, was filled with grout to prevent it from collapsing over time. Several years later, an agitator rod was pulled from within the tank and found to contain significant amounts of radiation, indicating there was still radioactive waste in the tank. Several alternative waste-removal options have been researched and evaluated. It is concluded that before the waste is to be disposed, the grout must be removed. This paper addresses that effort

  2. Decommissioning Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusack, J.G.; Dalfonso, P.H.; Lenyk, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Decommissioning Handbook provides technical guidance on conducting decommissioning projects. Information presented ranges from planning logic, regulations affecting decommissioning, technology discussion, health and safety requirements, an developing a cost estimate. The major focus of the handbook are the technologies -- decontamination technologies, waste treatment, dismantling/segmenting/demolition, and remote operations. Over 90 technologies are discussed in the handbook providing descriptions, applications, and advantages/disadvantages. The handbook was prepared to provide a compendium of available or potentially available technologies in order to aid the planner in meeting the specific needs of each decommissioning project. Other subjects presented in the Decommissioning Handbook include the decommissioning plan, characterization, final project configuration based planning, environmental protection, and packaging/transportation. These discussions are presented to complement the technologies presented in the handbook

  3. Technologies for gas cooled reactor decommissioning, fuel storage and waste disposal. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    Gas cooled reactors (GCRs) and other graphite moderated reactors have been important part of the world's nuclear programme for the past four decades. The wide diversity in status of this very wide spectrum of plants from initial design to decommissioning was a major consideration of the International Working group on Gas Cooled Reactors which recommended IAEA to convene a Technical Committee Meeting dealing with GCR decommissioning, including spent fuel storage and radiological waste disposal. This Proceedings includes papers 25 papers presented at the Meeting in three sessions entitled: Status of Plant Decommissioning Programmes; Fuels Storage Status and Programmes; waste Disposal and decontamination Practices. Each paper is described here by a separate abstract

  4. Reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1984-01-01

    A pioneering project on the decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, by the UKAEA, is described. Reactor data; policy; waste management; remote handling equipment; development; and recording and timescales, are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Financial guarantee for decommissioning and nuclear waste management activities at OPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hengel, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the establishment and maintenance of a financial guarantee for decommissioning and nuclear waste management activities at Ontario Power Generation (OPG) in accordance with CNSC requirements. The process and timelines are documented leading to the establishment of the guarantee effective July 31, 2003. Reference plans, cost estimates, funding mechanisms and reporting mechanisms are summarized. The renewal process projected at the end of the 5-year initial financial guarantee period is also included. (author)

  6. A study on source term assessment and waste disposal requirement of decontamination and decommissioning for the TRIGA research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whang, Joo Ho; Lee, Kyung JIn; Lee, Jae Min; Choi, Gyu Seup; Shin, Byoung Sun [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    The objective and necessity of the project : TRIGA is the first nuclear facility that decide to decommission and decontamination in our nation. As we estimate the expected life of nuclear power generation at 30 or 40 years, the decommissioning business should be conducted around 2010, and the development of regulatory technique supporting it should be developed previously. From a view of decommissioning and decontamination, the research reactor is just small in scale but it include all decommissioning and decontamination conditions. So, the rules by regulatory authority with decommissioning will be a guide for nuclear power plant in the future. The basis of regulatory technique required when decommissioning the research reactor are the radiological safety security and the data for it. The source term is very important condition not only for security of worker but for evaluating how we dispose the waste is appropriate for conducting the middle store and the procedure after it when the final disposal is considered. The content and the scope in this report contain the procedure of conducting the assessment of the source term which is most important in understanding the general concept of the decommissioning procedure of the decommissioning and decontamination of TRIGA research reactor. That is, the sampling and measuring method is presented as how to measure the volume of the radioactivity of the nuclear facilities. And also, the criterion of classifying the waste occurred in other countries and the site release criteria which is the final step of decommissioning and decontamination presented through MARSSIM. Finally, the program to be applicable through comparing the methods of our nation and other countries ones is presented as plan for disposal of the waste in the decommissioning.

  7. Final disposal of decommissioning wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewitz, W; Stippler, R

    1981-01-01

    The waste disposal concept of the Federal Republic of Germany for nuclear power plants provides for the final disposal of radioactive waste in deep geological formations and mines. The radiological safety of such a repository depends on a system of multiple barriers of which the geological barrier is the most important one. The isolation concept must guarantee the waste to decay below the limiting values of the German Radiation Protection Regulation within the repository. The expected total decommissioning waste masses from 12 nuclear power plants operating in the Federal Republic of Germany amounts to approxiametly 85000 Mg. For the final disposal of these wastes there are, under present aspects, two mines being considered as repositories. The pilot repository in the Asse II salt mine is in the state of licensing. The adandoned iron ore mine Konrad is being investigated for its feasibility and licensing will probably be initiated in 1982. Capacity and efficiency calculations have proved that both mines have got the technical requirements needed for the disposal of decommissioning and operating wastes from existent as well as from future built nuclear power plants.

  8. Biological considerations in nuclear decommissioning, and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of natural processes such as microbial action in waste management has recently been recognised. Although it is often difficult to predict the effects because the interactive processes are complex, human intervention can optimize the process. This paper highlights some of the fundamental stages in the management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes where particular uncertainties exist and which might benefit from controlled microbial intervention. The areas considered are the use of biodegradable surfactants for cleaning surfaces before disposal, microbial adsorption and concentration of intermediate-level wastes from solution, microbial transformation of intermediate-level wastes organic fractions, enhancement of radionuclide transfer to the atmosphere, enhancement of transfer into vadose zone and ground water and the microbial treatment of any oily residues. (UK)

  9. Option managing for radioactive metallic waste from the decommissioning of Kori Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, David S.; Kim, Chagn Lak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School (KINGS), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate several leading options for the management of radioactive metallic waste against a set of general criteria including safety, cost effectiveness, radiological dose to workers and volume reduction. Several options for managing metallic waste generated from decommissioning are evaluated in this paper. These options include free release, controlled reuse, and direct disposal of radioactive metallic waste. Each of these options may involve treatment of the metal waste for volume reduction by physical cutting or melting. A multi-criteria decision analysis was performed using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to rank the options. Melting radioactive metallic waste to produce metal ingots with controlled reuse or free release is found to be the most effective option.

  10. Rapid separation and determination of 107Pd in radioactive waste produced during NPP A-1 decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris Andris; Miroslav Prazsky; Ferdinand Sebesta

    2015-01-01

    Procedure for 107 Pd determination in radioactive wastes coming from decommissioning of NPP A-1 is proposed and verified. 107 Pd was separated and purified by Pd precipitation with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) and/or ferric hydroxide precipitation. 107 Pd yield was determined gravimetrically by weighing the Pd(DMG) 2 precipitate. 107 Pd counting was performed using liquid scintillation counter (LSC-TDCR) and scintillation cocktail Hionic Fluor. In all analyzed samples the determined activities of 107 Pd were lower than MDA. Nevertheless such analyses permit the decision concerning the storage of solidified wastes in the Mochovce regional repository. (author)

  11. Financial aspects of decommissioning (key aspects of decommissioning costing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danska, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the following aspects of NPPs decommissioning are discussed: Requirements and purpose of decommissioning costing; Decommissioning costing methodologies; Standardised decommissioning cost structure; Input data for cost estimate process; Waste management in cost estimate process; Grading aspects in cost estimating; Cost control in decommissioning projects; Summary of the cost estimation process; Conclusions and recommendations.

  12. Waste generated by the future decommissioning of the Magurele VVR-S Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, F.; Turcanu, C.N.; Dragolici, A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Research Reactor WWR-S from the National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering 'Horia Hulubei', Bucharest-Magurele, was commissioned in July 1957 and it was shut down in December 1997. At the moment the reactor is in conservation state. During its operation this reactor worked at an average power of 2MW, almost 3216 h/year, producing a total thermal power of 230 x 10 3 MWh. No major modifications or improvements were made during the 40 years of operation to the essential parts of the reactor, respective to the primary cooling system, reactor vessel, active core and electronic devices. So, all components of the measure, control and protection systems are old, generally at the technical level of the 1950s, therefore a reason why in December 1997 the operation was ceased. At present, the reactor can be considered, by IAEA definition in the first stage (reactor shut down, but the vital functions are maintained and monitored). The survey is related to the second stage - restrictive use of the area. To develop a real decommissioning project, it was first necessary to evaluate the volume and the characteristics of the radioactive waste which will be generated. Radioactive waste generated during the decommissioning of Magurele WR-S research reactor may be classified as: Activated wastes (internal structures, horizontal channels and thermal column, biological shield); Contaminated wastes (primary circuit non-activated components, hot cells, some technological rooms as main hall, pumps room, radioactive material transfer areas, ventilation building and stack); Possibly contaminated materials from any area of reactor building and ventilation building. After 40 years of nuclear research activities, all such areas are suspected of contamination. The volume of wastes that will result from WWR-S Research Reactor decommissioning is summarized

  13. Clearance measurements as a tool for waste minimization during decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konneus, Patrick; Andersson, Veronica; Lindberg, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Clearance, exemption or free release of material from regulatory control are three ways of expressing the same thing, minimizing the amount of waste that needs disposal as radioactive waste and therefor preserving a repository as a national asset. Studsvik Nuclear has utilized the former full body measurement cell as a shielded compartment used for gamma spectroscopy measurements of materials that may be subject to clearance. The cell was moved from its original position by heavy lifting and transport, as it was transported in one piece weighing 53 tonnes. The facility has basically 4 parts, the cell in which the item is place, the rotating table that rotates the item to get the best possible measurement, the ISOCS that measure the gamma rays and the operator room from which the facility runs. The detector is a BEGe with a relative efficiency of 50 % and is provided by Canberra. Apex is used as software for acquisition, calibration and data storage. The cell can take Bergloefs boxes up to a volume of 1.2m 3 and a weight of 3 tonnes can be rotated on the table. Other standard geometries are drums of 100 or 200 liters. The shielding improves the background radiation to a level where a measurement time of only 1200 s for a standard object (100 L/200 L drum, Bergloefs box) is needed. This means a high daily capacity of measurements. During 2011 measurements have been done on several different materials and together with sampling for alpha emitting nuclides the material has been released from regulatory control and either recycled or disposed of in a standard landfill or a land fill for hazardous waste. The materials released are copper from cable shredding that was measured, samples and recycled about 14 tonnes, titanium tubes about 35 tonnes also recycled and fiberglass/epoxy that has been released for waste treatment in a non-radioactive treatment facility. Measurements have also been done of waste with complex geometries. (authors)

  14. Long-term safety of the maintenance and decommissioning waste of the encapsulation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nummi, O.; Kylloenen, J.; Eurajoki, T.

    2012-12-01

    This report, Long-term safety of the maintenance and decommissioning waste of the encapsulation plant, presents the disposal concept for the low and intermediate level waste (L/ILW) that is generated during the operation and decommissioning of the encapsulation plant, and assesses the long-term safety of the disposal of the waste. Radioactive waste originates from the spent nuclear fuel transferred and dried in the encapsulation plant. Radioactive waste accumulates also in the maintenance of the components and systems of the encapsulation plant. The waste is collected, exempted from control if possible and treated for final disposal if necessary. The waste is disposed of in the L/ILW hall which is currently planned to be located at a depth of -180 meters along the access tunnel to the repository for spent fuel. The main engineered barrier in the L/ILW hall is a concrete basin that encases the dried liquid waste. The safety concept of L/ILW disposal is based on the slow release of radioactivity from the L/ILW hall and its limited transport through the bedrock into biosphere. The release and transport of the radioactivity is described by the assessment scenarios, which include expected evolution and unlikely events affecting the long-term safety. The scenarios act as guidelines according to which the conceptual and mathematical models are formed. The long-term safety of the L/ILW hall is assessed using deterministic and probabilistic modeling. Special issues such as human intrusion and radiation effects on other biota are also assessed. The most significant contributor to the dose rates is the short-lived radionuclide 90 Sr followed by long-lived nuclides 129 I and 108 mAg. The annual doses to the public, and release rates of radioactive substances stay below the regulatory constraints in all analyzed scenarios. (orig.)

  15. Liquid secondary waste. Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during Site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility IDF). Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to demonstrate the waste form will provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF.

  16. Liquid secondary waste: Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-31

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, including Direct Feed Low Activity Waste (DFLAW) vitrification, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. The powdered salt waste form produced by the ETF will be replaced by a stabilized solidified waste form for disposal in Hanford’s Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the IDF. Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF. In 2015, three Hanford Liquid Secondary Waste simulants were developed based on existing and projected waste streams. Using these waste simulants, fourteen mixes of Hanford Liquid Secondary Waste were prepared and tested varying the waste simulant, the water-to-dry materials ratio, and the dry materials blend composition.1 In FY16, testing was performed using a simulant of the EMF process condensate blended with the caustic scrubber—from the Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter—, processed through the ETF. The initial EMF-16 simulant will be based on modeling efforts performed to determine the mass balance of the ETF for the DFLAW.2 The compressive strength of all of the mixes exceeded the target of 3.4 MPa (500 psi) to meet the requirements identified as potential IDF Waste Acceptance Criteria in Table 1 of the Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan.3 The hydraulic properties of the waste forms tested (hydraulic conductivity

  17. The European Community's research and development activities on the management of radioactive waste from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, B.

    1984-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities is conducting an R and D programme on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The activities carried out within this framework that concern, in particular, management of the radioactive waste arising from the decommissioning are outlined. Characterization of the radioactivity inventory of nuclear power plants at the end of their useful life is of fundamental importance in this context. Research in this field comprises analyses of the trace elements in reactor materials which are relevant for the formation of long-lived radionuclides by neutron activation, as well as examinations of samples taken from activated and contaminated plant components. Most of the radioactive plant components are only surface contaminated. Highly efficient decontamination techniques are being developed with the objective of achieving conditions permitting unrestricted release of the material treated. Other activities concern the conditioning of steel and concrete waste for disposal, and the management of graphite waste from gas-cooled reactors. Large containers are being developed for transport and disposal of radioactive components. Finally, the methods of radiological evaluation and measurement are being studied which are required to decide whether material from the dismantling of nuclear power plants has to be disposed of as radioactive waste or not. (author)

  18. The Nordic programme on waste and decommissioning (KAN) 1990-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    In assessing nuclear waste safety, both long term and short term aspects need to be considered. For the development of a system for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the most challenging task is to develop a sufficient understanding of the long term safety of a potential repository. Two of the NKS-projects are directly relevant for the long term safety of a deep geological repository, whereas the other projects mainly concern issues in managing nuclear waste today. Information about repositories and their contents must be conserved so that it can be easily retrieved. The KAN-1.3 studies deal with available information and how to preserve it. Archive safety as well as the expected durability of different archive media is explored. In the long term the present day climate will change significantly. An important part of the KAN-3 project has been to assemble field evidence, such as historic data indicating effects of past glaciations. The potential impact of a future glaciation on a repository is also explored in this project. An unlikely accident at a nuclear power plant could result in deposition of radioactive elements in the environment so that cleanup becomes necessary. In the KAN-2 project waste volumes and activities in different environments are estimated. Experiments have been performed with soil removal, and with cement solidification, and cost-benefit analyses are developed for use in emergency planning. Clearance of radioactive materials from regulatory control may reduce waste volumes that must otherwise be handled as radioactive, especially in conjunction with decommissioning. In the KAN-1.1 project the essential aspects of the clearance problems are dealt with such as definitions, radiological assessments, monitoring, and preparation of a clearance application. Eventually all nuclear installations in the Nordic countries will have to be decommissioned. In the KAN-1.2 project, the decommissioning of a pilot reprocessing plant is documented and

  19. The study on the recycle condition for existence of the decommissioning waste in the nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironaga, Michihiko; Ozaki, Sachio; Hirai, Mitsuyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Usui, Tatsuo; Simizu, Yasuo; Ogane, Daisuke

    2000-01-01

    To establish the technique of the recycle for concrete waste, this paper describes the recycle condition for existence of the decommissioning concrete waste in the nuclear power plant and considers the durability of cask yard concrete constructed at about twenty years ago. The authors examine the recycle system of concrete in the power plant. (author)

  20. Building confidence in decommissioning in France: Towards a safe, industrially applicable, coherent national system without site or waste liberation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averous, J.; Chapalain, E.

    2002-01-01

    The rate of decommissioning in France is accelerating, as the first generation of power reactors will be actively decommissioned in the next few years. Experience has been gathered from past decommissioning activities and some current pilot decommissioning operations. This experience has shown that a national system has to be put in place to deal with decommissioning, waste elimination and site cleaning up activities in order to allow a consistent, safe, transparent and industrially applicable management of these matters. A system founded on successive lines of defence has been put into enforcement, which does not involve any site nor waste liberation, as it is considered that the criteria associated are always prone to discussion and contradiction. This system is based on the following concepts : 'nuclear waste', waste prone to have been contaminated or activated, is segregated from 'conventional waste' using a system involving successive lines of defence, and hence, building a very high level of confidence that no 'nuclear waste' will be eliminated without control in conventional waste eliminators or recycling facilities ; 'nuclear waste' is eliminated in dedicated facilities or repositories, or in conventional facilities under the condition of a special authorisation based on a radiological impact study and a public inquiry ; a global safety evaluation of the nuclear site is conducted after decommissioning in order to define possible use restrictions. In all cases, minimum restrictions will be put into enforcement in urbanisation plans to ensure sufficient precaution when planning future uses of the ground or the building. This paper describes this global system in detail and shows that its inherent consistency allows it to be easily applicable by operators while achieving a high level of safety and confidence. (author)

  1. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Present concepts on stages of, designing for and costs of decommissioning, together with criteria for site release, are described. Recent operations and studies and assessments in progress are summarized. Wastes from decommissioning are characterized

  2. Determination of 36Cl in nuclear waste from reactor decommissioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Frøsig, Lars; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2007-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of Cl-36 in nuclear waste such as graphite, heavy concrete, steel, aluminum, and lead was developed. Several methods were investigated for decomposing the samples. AgCl precipitation was used to separate Cl-36 from the matrix elements, followed by ion......-exchange chromatography to remove interfering radionuclides. The purified Cl-36 was then measured by liquid scintillation counting. The chemical yield of chlorine, as measured by ICPMS, is above 70% and the decontamination factors for all interfering radionuclides are greater than 10(6). The detection limit...

  3. Radiological protection and radioactive waste management aspects of the decommissioning of redundant nuclear facilities at the Rosyth Dockyard, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, Robert W.; Murdo Murray; Hunter Common

    2008-01-01

    The Rosyth Dockyard is located near the city of Edinburgh in Scotland. The dockyard's nuclear activities centred around the refuelling and refitting of submarines, as well as some submarine decommissioning. In 1993, submarine refitting work was transferred to Devonport in Southern England. This meant that there were a number of facilities at the Rosyth Dockyard that were now redundant. In accordance with UK government policy a programme of works was instigated to allow for the decommissioning of these nuclear liabilities. This paper provides a brief overview of work activities performed to allow physical decommissioning to take place. Topics covered include radiological characterisation activities, development of monitoring protocols for decommissioning, obtaining relevant environmental authorisations, developing a decommissioning safety case, gaining the UK's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate approval to proceed with decommissioning and an overview of some of the post operative clean out (POCO) activities performed. Edmund Nuttall Ltd were contracted to perform the physical decommissioning of the redundant nuclear facilities, that have been subject to POCO, and this work commenced in February 2006. As part of this contract they were to provide a radiological protection infrastructure including dosimetry and health physics monitoring. This paper discusses the radiological protection infrastructure established by the decommissioning contractor, the radiological protection aspects of the decommissioning work, some of the tools and techniques utilised to date during the nuclear decommissioning, and the radioactive waste management processes established for the project. All activities are referenced to relevant aspects of UK nuclear industry best practice and to the Scottish, UK and European regulatory framework. The progress to date is discussed and lessons that have been learnt are highlighted. (author)

  4. Waste management facility remediation and decommissioning at a national nuclear research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, D.J.; Dolinar, G.M.; Killey, R.W.D.

    1994-01-01

    Historic waste management practices at eight locations on AECL's Chalk River site have resulted in the formation of contaminated groundwater plumes, some of which have surfaced and contaminated surface materials. A priority setting process has been used to establish a plan of attack that will lead to the eventual decommissioning of these facilities. In general terms, the preferred approach is to install impermeable covers to prevent further leaching of waste sources and to prevent escape of leachate to the biosphere, followed by cleanup of surface contamination and remediation of aquifers. Final disposal of the waste sources would be delayed for perhaps 20 years. Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of contaminated groundwater, with one field installation in place and another under development. This paper describes how the prioritization task was tackled to produce a long term plan of action and describes initial interventions that have been attempted and their results. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Systems engineering approach for the reuse of metallic waste from NPP decommissioning and dose evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyung Woo; Kim, Chang Lak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The oldest commercial reactor in South Korea, Kori-1 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), will be shut down in 2017. Proper treatment for decommissioning wastes is one of the key factors to decommission a plant successfully. Particularly important is the recycling of clearance level or very low level radioactively contaminated metallic wastes, which contributes to waste minimization and the reduction of disposal volume. The aim of this study is to introduce a conceptual design of a recycle system and to evaluate the doses incurred through defined work flows. The various architecture diagrams were organized to define operational procedures and tasks. Potential exposure scenarios were selected in accordance with the recycle system, and the doses were evaluated with the RESRAD-RECYCLE computer code. By using this tool, the important scenarios and radionuclides as well as impacts of radionuclide characteristics and partitioning factors are analyzed. Moreover, dose analysis can be used to provide information on the necessary decontamination, radiation protection process, and allowable concentration limits for exposure scenarios.

  6. RainMan - A methodology for the evaluation of decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitetti, B.; Mantero, G.; Orlandi, S.; Scarsi, G.; Brusa, L.; Ruggeri, G.; Dionisi, M.; Farina, A.; Grossi, G.

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this study, promoted by ANPA, the Italian Nuclear Regulatory Body, carried out with ANSALDO and in close co-operation with SOGIN, was to define a methodology for the evaluation of the inventory of the amount of radioactive waste produced during the NPPs decommissioning activities, in terms of both volume and radioactivity content, and estimate the solid materials suitable for release from the regulatory control. The simulation code RainMan, developed within this project, allows, according to a selected scenario, for the evaluation of the solid materials that could be cleared and the volumes of the L-MLW that should be sent to a disposal facility. (author)

  7. Decommissioning of four small nuclear waste storage buildings and an evaporation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedvall, R.H.; Ellmark, C.; Stocker, P.

    2008-01-01

    A small-scale decommissioning concept was applied with staff from an earlier project wish strong knowledge of radiation protection, minimized radiation doses and environmental pollution. The project was therefore initiated with less than 10 people involved using standard hand held equipment. The aim of the decommissioning project was to set free as much material as possible, i.e. remove waste from the regulatory control regime and also free the remaining structures and buildings for conventional demolition and subsequent reuse of the property. Complete decommissioning will be concluded at the end of 2008 when all waste is taken case of. This is the fourth in a series of important decommissioning projects in Studsvik since the 1980s. Some of the conclusions are: 1) Obtain a group with well-known personnel that have been working together before for the entire project For a project larger than this, project management assistant would have made follow-up more efficient. Experts in instrumentation and statistics are also important. Also important is knowledge about practical decisions that would make the project more efficient in terms of time. Interviews and historical facts are important when choosing which nuclides are of most interest for measurements (but be critic). 2) Be sure all authoritative requirements are followed, like setting up a work environment plan at the entrance to the site and placing a fence around the work site. 3) Check all individual radiation exposures before project start and do whole body measurements both before and after the project. Urine samples should be taken if alpha contamination is a risk. 4) Calculate for unwanted and 'not what you expected' situations in the time schedule. 5) Be aware of contaminations and radiation sources outside the actual area. They might have to be moved. 6) Calculate and order bins and containers for waste storage well in advance. Stay informed of the updated amount of waste and keep it in locked storage. 7

  8. Corrosion analysis of decommissioned carbon steel waste water tanks at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, P.; Roberts, T.C.

    1995-07-01

    A corrosion analysis was carried out on available sections of carbon steels taken from two decommissioned radioactive waste water tanks at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One of the 100,000 gallon tanks suffered from a pinhole failure in the wall which was subsequently patched. From the analysis it was shown that this leak, and two adjacent leaks were initiated by a discarded copper heating coil that had been dropped into the tank during service. The failure mechanism is postulated to have been galvanic attack at points of contact between the tank structure and the coil. Other leaks in the two tanks are also described in this report

  9. Minimization of waste volumes by means of pin-pointed decontamination during decommissioning measures. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, K.; Jacobs, W.; Kanitz, L.; Schildbach, T.

    1992-06-01

    This semi-automated equipment is able to remove surface building contamination as well as take radioactive measurements. This equipment is newly developed. The goal of the equipment is to improve the identification of areas of contamination and the compounding decontamination of epoxy layer building construction material by using commercially available components minimizing the waste volume. A system design for decommissioning of building surfaces was developed, selected components were tested and their function certified. With this systems concept the decontamination of fixed epoxy layers up to 20 m in height is possible. Operational data for the system are available. (orig.) [de

  10. Decommissioning the Romanian Water-Cooled Water-Moderated Research Reactor: New Environmental Perspective on the Management of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barariu, G.; Giumanca, R.

    2006-01-01

    Pre-feasibility and feasibility studies were performed for decommissioning of the water-cooled water-moderated research reactor (WWER) located in Bucharest - Magurele, Romania. Using these studies as a starting point, the preferred safe management strategy for radioactive wastes produced by reactor decommissioning is outlined. The strategy must account for reactor decommissioning, as well as for the rehabilitation of the existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant and for the upgrade of the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at Baita-Bihor. Furthermore, the final rehabilitation of the laboratories and ecological reconstruction of the grounds need to be provided for, in accordance with national and international regulations. In accordance with IAEA recommendations at the time, the pre-feasibility study proposed three stages of decommissioning. However, since then new ideas have surfaced with regard to decommissioning. Thus, taking into account the current IAEA ideology, the feasibility study proposes that decommissioning of the WWER be done in one stage to an unrestricted clearance level of the reactor building in an Immediate Dismantling option. Different options and the corresponding derived preferred option for waste management are discussed taking into account safety measures, but also considering technical, logistical and economic factors. For this purpose, possible types of waste created during each decommissioning stage are reviewed. An approximate inventory of each type of radioactive waste is presented. The proposed waste management strategy is selected in accordance with the recommended international basic safety standards identified in the previous phase of the project. The existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (RWTP) from the Horia Hulubei Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering (IFIN-HH), which has been in service with no significant upgrade since 1974, will need refurbishing due to deterioration, as well as upgrading in order to ensure the

  11. Decommissioning, radioactive waste management and nuclear public information issues in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enrico Mainardi [AIN - ENEA (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    the international level. The site is extremely stable from the geological point of view. It consists of a 10 km{sup 2} rock-salt layer 150 m thick protected by a clay layer 700 m thick. A similar solution has been adopted successfully for the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) in New Mexico (USA) operating from 1999. This paper outlines the main issues and considerations connected with decommissioning, radioactive waste management and site decision within the country together with more details on the quantities and quality of the Italian nuclear waste. The demonstration that decommissioning is feasible at reasonable costs and that wastes can be collected in a national repository with the highest safety levels will certainly further improve public attitude in favour of nuclear power. (author)

  12. Decommissioning, radioactive waste management and nuclear public information issues in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enrico Mainardi

    2006-01-01

    the international level. The site is extremely stable from the geological point of view. It consists of a 10 km 2 rock-salt layer 150 m thick protected by a clay layer 700 m thick. A similar solution has been adopted successfully for the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) in New Mexico (USA) operating from 1999. This paper outlines the main issues and considerations connected with decommissioning, radioactive waste management and site decision within the country together with more details on the quantities and quality of the Italian nuclear waste. The demonstration that decommissioning is feasible at reasonable costs and that wastes can be collected in a national repository with the highest safety levels will certainly further improve public attitude in favour of nuclear power. (author)

  13. Analysis of the risk assessment of a waste repository for radioactive waste from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, L.

    1984-09-01

    A review of decommissioning experiences and concepts is presented. The radioactive inventory of LWR of modern design at final shutdown is estimated on the basis of activation analysis and empirical data on contamination. In combination with existing types of waste packages and deposition techniques these results allow a prediction of the necessary repository volume for the decommissioning wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany. The essential element of this investigation is the development of a model for the quantitative analysis of the accident 'water intrusion' in the repository. Based on the fundamental chemical and physical processes governing nuclide migration a transport equation is obtained which can be restricted to one dimension due to the thickness and the low permeability of the geological layers above the repository. The radiological consequences are evaluated. The long-lived activation product Ni-59 turns out to be critical radionuclide. Despite a number of conservatisms in the model the evaluated doses are acceptable. The results clearly support the long term safety of the 'Konrad' mine as a low-level waste repository. (orig./HP) [de

  14. The CEC contribution to radioactive waste management, decommissioning and related radiation protection issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finzi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities has, for more than 15 years, supported Research and Development (R and D) programmes on ''Radioactive Waste Management'' (since 1975) as well as on ''Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations'' (since 1979), which are carried out by research laboratories, universities, public organisations and private companies of the EC Member states, under shared-cost contracts. Under these contracts, the Commission of the European Communities generally funds up to 50% of the total cost of a research project. The main objective of the ''Radioactive Waste Management Programme'' is to ensure the safety of the waste management and disposal systems with the goal that the scientific and technological results can be used in practice on industrial scale with full respect for safety and environmental protection requirements. Studies have been performed on three main components of the radioactive waste management system, (i) the waste packages, (ii) the geological repository and (iii) the performance assessment, either through experiments or by theoretical evaluation. The current programme which has two main components, one on waste management, the other on the construction and operation of underground storage facilities, is discussed. (author)

  15. Taking into account dismantling and decommissioning waste management in conception and operation phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Managing waste during the Dismantling and Decommissioning (D and D) phase is quite specific and different from what it was during the operation phase. Indeed, waste generated during dismantling could present some analogy especially with regards to the radionuclides spectrum and contents. However waste from dismantling and cleanup could actually presents a lower level of radiologic activity but produced in much larger quantities, which requires new solutions. Moreover the characteristics and quantities of waste to be managed during D and D are highly depending on the way the facility was designed and also how it was actually operated during its life time. Taking future D and D into consideration in the early design as well as during the operation of new facilities is becoming more and more mandatory. It is now an explicit requirement set by safety authorities, to provide - in the license application for news plants - a description of design provisions and future plans for D and D as well as anticipated technical and financial impacts,. Two major aspects are driving the cost and complexity of future D and D operations: waste volumes by categories and occupational exposure while performing the work. To reduce such impacts, key approaches are to maintain areas clean, segregate the waste types and provide appropriate provisions in the design. The paper's first part describes the related design and operation concepts derived from lessons learned, and illustrations by examples are presented in a second part. (author)

  16. Development of 3D Visualization Technology for Medium-and Large-sized Radioactive Metal Wastes from Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Rinah; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk Univ., Gyongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The most important point of decommissioning nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants is to spend less money and do this process safely. In order to perform a better decommissioning nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants, a data base of radioactive waste from decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities should be constructed. This data base is described herein, from the radioactive nuclide to the shape of component of nuclear facilities, and representative results of the status and analysis are presented. With the increase in number of nuclear facilities at the end of their useful life, the demand of decommissioning technologies will continue to grow for years to come. This analysis of medium-and large-sized radioactive metal wastes and 3D visualization technology of the radioactive metal wastes using the 3D-SCAN are planned to be used for constructing data bases. The data bases are expected to be used on development of the basic technologies for decommissioning nuclear facilities 4 session.

  17. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Duncan, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO 3 ) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities

  18. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities.

  19. Decontamination and decommissioning of TAN radioactive liquid-waste-evaporator system (PM-2A). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning of the Test Area North (TAN) liquid waste evaporator (PM-2A). The PM-2A facility included the aboveground evaporator system, two underground holding tanks and feedlines, an electrical distribution subsystem, and one above ground concrete tank. Much surface soil of the PM-2A area was also radioactively contaminated. Stabilization of the liquid and sludge in the holding tanks, a major task, was achieved by pumping most of the liquid into 55-gal drums and mixing it with cement. The drums were buried in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The remaining liquid and sludge were dried in place by layers of diatomaceous earth. The most contaminated surface soil was removed, and the area backfilled with clean topsoil and graded, reducing the surface radiation field to background. A 6-ft-high chain link fence now surrounds the area. Most of the area was seeded to crested wheatgrass. 46 figures, 9 tables

  20. Decommissioning standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofford, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  1. International intercomparison and harmonization projects for demonstrating the safety of radioactive waste management, decommissioning and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, Phil; O'Donnell, Patricio; Jova Sed, Luis; Batandjieva, Borislava; Rowat, John; Kinker, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and the safety of radioactive waste management and the international safety standards on radioactive waste management, decommissioning and radioactive waste disposal call for assessment and demonstration of the safety of facilities and activities; during siting, design and construction prior to operation, periodically during operation and at the end of lifetime or upon closure of a waste disposal facility. In addition, more recent revisions of the international safety standards require the development of a safety case for such facilities and activities, documentation presenting all the arguments supporting the safety of the facilities and activities covering site and engineering features, quantitative safety assessment and management systems. Guidance on meeting these safety requirements also indicates the need for a graded approach to safety assessment, with the extent and complexity of the assessment being proportional to the complexity of the activity or facility, and its propensity for radiation hazard. Safety assessment approaches and methodologies have evolved over several decades and international interest in these developments has been considerable as they can be complex and often subjective, which has led to international projects being established aimed at harmonization. The IAEA has sponsored a number of such initiatives, particularly in the area of disposal facility safety, but more recently in the areas of pre disposal waste management and decommissioning, including projects known as ISAM, ASAM, SADRWMS and DeSa. The projects have a number of common aspects including development of standardized methodological approaches, application on test cases and assessment review; they also have activity and facility specific elements. The paper presents an overview of the projects, the outcomes from the projects to date and their future direction aimed very much at practical application of

  2. Management of very low level waste from decommissioning of the A-1 Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burclova, J.; Konecny, L.; Mrskova, A.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts were made to accelerate decommissioning, particularly of the nuclear power plant A1 of the HWGCR type. Progress made and current developments in this subject area are reviewed. Radioactive waste categories are described along with release criteria. An overview is provided on contaminated scrap and the sorting of contaminated soil and concrete. (author)

  3. Overview of management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes at the Institute for Nuclear Research for to save management of the waste from decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2010-01-01

    The national policy of radioactive waste management fully complies with the international requirements established by 'Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management and with the EURATOM treaty, directives, recommendations and policy of radioactive waste management promoted at the level of the European Union. The Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR) has its own Radwaste Treatment Plant. The object of activity is to treat and condition radioactive waste resulted from the nuclear facility. According to the National Nuclear Program, the institute is the main support for implementation of the methods and technologies for conditioning and disposal of radioactive waste generated by Cernavoda NPP. For all these, in accordance with the Governmental order no. 11/2003, INR shall must prepare and manage the decommissioning projects of its own facilities and to upgrade the facilities for the management of the radioactive waste resulting from decommissioning activities. (authors)

  4. Investigation about the ecotown-enterprise for establishing recycling system of non-radioactive waste arising from power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironaga, Michihiko; Nishiuchi, Tatsuo; Ozaki, Yukio; Yamamoto, Kimio

    2004-01-01

    About 95% of demolition wastes generated by decommissioning nuclear power plants are below the clearance level, i.e., the wastes can be dealt with as industrial wastes. On that case, rational processing, disposal, and reuse are expectable. However, even if the demolition waste is below a clearance level, it seems to be difficult to be immediately accepted in general society with the demolition wastes. Therefore, it is important to establish the technology for an effective recycle system of demolition wastes, and to reuse demolition wastes as much as possible, resulting in recognition of the value by the society. On the other hand, as for recycling of industrial waste, the recycling enterprise is promoted in the domestic self-governing body in response to the 'eco-town enterprise' which is recommended by the government. This report investigates the system and subjects of a 'eco-town enterprise' for recycling demolition wastes. (author)

  5. Waste management experience during all the life cycle of treatment facilities from commissioning till decommissioning. Today's situation and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decobert, Guy; Devezeaux de Lavergne, Jean-Guy; Maurin, Matthieu

    2005-01-01

    Over time, the concepts of waste management have deeply evolved. In the case of the earlier generation of treatment plants, on-line conditioning was generally not implemented. In several cases, the strategy was clearly set as promoting storage of 'interim' raw waste, and implementing long-run R and D programs for future conditioning. Thus, one of the main objectives of the last generation of plants was to implement on-line conditioning of all waste, i.e. including waste issued from the used fuel and also those issued from plant operation (technological waste and effluent treatment waste). These strategic issues are naturally part of the core of the design of every new plant, as part of the operating performance. The enormous amount of experience collected from previous generations of plants, and managed by AREVA, allows us to go one step further. Indeed, our target is to rely on a comprehensive vision of waste management best practices, from the plant design through its decommissioning. This will allow AREVA to think about the next plant generation when encompassing the whole life cycle of the plant, including its different steps: Conception and building, Operation, Decommissioning. The first part of the paper will go back to waste management lessons and achievements in the design-construction phase and the operating phases of past and present treatment plants. From the past till today's generation, a factor of reduction of 50 for the volume of HLW-ILW type of waste was achieved leading to a ratio of 0.0012 m 3 /GWhe for a burn-up of 45 000 MWd/t! With regards to the development of the next generation of reactors and associated back-end, future improvements appear still possible in waste volume reduction. The second part of the paper will focus on decommissioning, which is likely to generate significant amount of waste, whose removal, handling, sorting, measurement, treatment and conditioning represent a substantial part of the cost of the program. Starting from

  6. The effect of proposed changes to the IAEA transport regulations on decommissioning and other low level waste transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetler, A.P.; Jayawardene, N.

    1986-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has studied the proposed changes to the IAEA Transport Regulations contained in the 1985 4th draft edition. The study shows that these proposed changes will have significant strategic and economic effects on the transportation of radioactive decommissioning and other low-level wastes. Under the 1985 4th draft edition, the definition of Low Specific Activity (LSA) material is revised and a new regulation is proposed which restricts the quantity of LSA material or Surface Contaminated Object (SCO) in a single package to that which would have an unshielded dose rate of 10 mSv/h (1 rem/h) at 3 m. The objective of this paper is to highlight the implications of the proposed regulatory changes. An example of the impact of these changes is presented by considering the transportation of typical CANDU decommissioning wastes which arise through piece-by-piece removal of a reactor assembly. The potential effect of the changes is that less decommissioning waste can be shipped in a single low-level waste package. This results in the requirement for so many small, low-level waste packages that Type B shipments are strategically and economically more attractive. However, use of Type B shipments would also result in higher dose uptake and waste management costs than under the 1973 Regulations

  7. Selection of optimal treatment procedures for non-standard radioactive waste arising from decommissioning of NPP after accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strážovec, Roman, E-mail: strazovec.roman@javys.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); JAVYS, a.s., Tomášikova 22, 821 02 Bratislava (Slovakia); Hrnčíř, Tomáš [DECOM, a.s., Sibírska 1, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lištjak, Martin [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); VUJE, a.s., Okružná 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Nečas, Vladimír [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2016-05-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is becoming a standard industrial activity where the optimization processes of partial activities are inevitable mainly for technical and economic reasons. In Slovakia, the decommissioning of A1 NPP is very specific case because A1 NPP is rare type of NPP (prototype) and furthermore its operation was affected by the accident. A large number of specific non-standard radioactive waste, such as long-time storage cases (hereinafter LSC), that is not usually present within the decommissioning projects of NPP with a regular termination of operation, represent one of the significant consequences of the accident and issues arisen from follow-up activities. The presented article describes the proposal of processing and conditioning of non-standard radioactive waste (such as LSC), together with description of methodology applied in the proposal for update of waste acceptance criteria for the processing and conditioning of radioactive waste (hereinafter RAW) within Bohunice Radioactive waste Treatment and Conditioning Centre (hereinafter RWTC). The results of performed detailed analysis are summarized into new waste acceptance criteria for technological lines keeping in mind safety principles and requirements for protection of operating personnel, the public and the environment.

  8. Liquid Secondary Waste Grout Formulation and Waste Form Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This report describes the results from liquid secondary waste (LSW) grout formulation and waste form qualification tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate new formulations for preparing a grout waste form with high-sulfate secondary waste simulants and the release of key constituents from these grout monoliths. Specific objectives of the LSW grout formulation and waste form qualification tests described in this report focused on five activities: 1.preparing new formulations for the LSW grout waste form with high-sulfate LSW simulants and solid characterization of the cured LSW grout waste form; 2.conducting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1313 leach test (EPA 2012) on the grout prepared with the new formulations, which solidify sulfate-rich Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) off-gas condensate secondary waste simulant, using deionized water (DIW); 3.conducting the EPA Method 1315 leach tests (EPA 2013) on the grout monoliths made with the new dry blend formulations and three LSW simulants (242-A evaporator condensate, Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) leachate, and WTP off-gas condensate) using two leachants, DIW and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water (VZPW); 4.estimating the 99Tc desorption Kd (distribution coefficient) values for 99Tc transport in oxidizing conditions to support the IDF performance assessment (PA); 5.estimating the solubility of 99Tc(IV)-bearing solid phases for 99Tc transport in reducing conditions to support the IDF PA.

  9. A study on the application of standards for clearance of metal waste generated during the decommissioning of NPP by using the RESRAD-RECYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Kim, Dong Min; Lee, Sang Heon [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The metal waste generated during nuclear power plant decommissioning constitutes a large proportion of the total radioactive waste. This study investigates the current status of domestic and international regulatory requirements for clearance and the clearance experience of domestic institutions. The RESRAD-RECYCLE code was used for analyzing the clearance of the metal wastes generated during actual nuclear power plant decommissioning, and assessment of the exposure dose of twenty-six scenarios was carried out. The evaluation results will be useful in preliminary analysis of clearance and recycling during nuclear power plant decommissioning. As a next step, the effects of reducing disposal costs by clearance can be studied.

  10. Decontamination and decommissioning waste characterization and cost estimates from historical records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    There are more than 600 facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) that are contaminated with either radioactivity, hazardous chemicals, or asbestos. The more significant facilities can be separated into broad categories for decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) planning such as plutonium facilities, waste tanks, chemical separations canyons, and nuclear reactors. Uncertainties exist in the timing, extent of stabilization, and D ampersand D required for these production facilities. Detailed analyses of the risk, costs, and engineering feasibility are needed to define production facility end states to ensure expected reduction in health and environmental risk. In the meantime, scoping projections are required to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for 30 year plans, and to indicate where detailed analysis should be funded

  11. Financing waste management, decommissioning and site rehabilitation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The book on financing waste management, decommissioning and site rehabilitation in the nuclear industry, concerns the findings of a survey carried out by the Uranium Institute on the financing of the fuel cycle and utility industries in seventeen countries. The countries included:- Australia, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Gabon, German Federal Republic, Italy, Japan, Namibia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, United Kingdom and United States of America. The survey revealed that provisions for future environmental management costs are being made for most facilities and operations, in some cases dating back over quite a long period. In the case of electricity, such costs are being, or about to be, included in the cost of a kWh by all of the electrical utilities examined. (U.K.)

  12. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Waste Segregation Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction, operation and decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the Waste Segregation Facility (WSF) for the sorting, shredding, and compaction of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The LLW to be processed consists of two waste streams: legacy waste which is currently stored in E-Area Vaults of SRS and new waste generated from continuing operations. The proposed action is to construct, operate, and D ampersand D a facility to process low-activity job-control and equipment waste for volume reduction. The LLW would be processed to make more efficient use of low-level waste disposal capacity (E-Area Vaults) or to meet the waste acceptance criteria for treatment at the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at SRS

  13. Impact of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and radioactive waste trafficking in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukabar, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    Africa is the world's second largest and the most populated continent after Asia, it has a total population of approximately 800 million people. It comprises of 54 sovereign nations out of which 36 are coastal countries and blessed with over 100 Seaports. Apart from Nigeria, South Africa, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Libya, all the other remaining African countries are extremely poor and unviable. As a result of this, Africa has been experiencing a lot of civil unrest since the 1960s when most of the African countries gained their independence from their former colonial masters, the civil unrest in countries like Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Mozambique, Liberia, Sierra Leon and recently in Cote D'Ivoire, are good examples. In addition to abject poverty of less than 1$ per person per day makes trafficking in drugs, arms, humans and weaponry trade on the continent becomes much more rampant. Today the continent is experiencing the coming of a new evil deal called 'Trade in radioactive waste'; which involves the transporting of materials from existing or decommissioned nuclear plants ranging from fairly used Trucks, laboratory equipment s, office facilities, clothing materials like booths and raincoats, roofing sheets and even toxic waste from the developed countries to it's waste bin in Africa, where it is unsafely disposed after collecting millions of dollars from It's original owners (UN report, 2001). Recent statistics have revealed that most of the people involved in the evil businesses of trafficking in drugs, human, arms and trading in weaponry, are diverting in to the so called new evil business of 'Trade in Radioactive waste' because this new evil business financially exceeds the rest of the above listed evil businesses. This is clearly proved by the recent toxic waste disposed in Abidjan Cot Devoir in August 2006. The materials from the decommissioned nuclear plant sites can be hazardous if for example a roofing sheet

  14. The calculation and estimation of wastes generated by decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Tokai works and Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayame, Y.; Tanabe, T.; Takahashi, K.; Takeda, S.

    2001-07-01

    This investigation was conducted as a part of planning the low-level radioactive waste management program (LLW management program). The aim of this investigation was contributed to compile the radioactive waste database of JNC's LLW management program. All nuclear facilities of the Tokai works and Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center were investigated in this work. The wastes generated by the decommissioning of each nuclear facility were classified into radioactive waste and others (exempt waste and non-radioactive waste), and the amount of the wastes was estimated. The estimated amounts of radioactive wastes generated by decommissioning of the nuclear facilities are as follows. (1) Tokai works: The amount of waste generated by decommissioning of nuclear facilities of the Tokai works is about 1,079,100 ton. The amount of radioactive waste is about 15,400 ton. The amount of exempt waste and non-radioactive waste is about 1,063,700 ton. (2) Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center: The amount of waste generated by decommissioning of nuclear facilities of Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center is about 112,500 ton. The amount of radioactive waste is about 7,800 ton. The amount of exempt waste and non-radioactive waste is about 104,700 ton. (author)

  15. Appendix 4. Documentation of sufficient capacity facility for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management and its compliance with the decommissioning strategy and schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter the documentation of sufficient capacity facility for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management and its compliance with the decommissioning strategy and schedule of the NPP A-1 are presented.

  16. Decommissioning handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manion, W.J.; LaGuardia, T.S.

    1980-11-01

    This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained.

  17. Decommissioning handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manion, W.J.; LaGuardia, T.S.

    1980-11-01

    This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained

  18. Management of the radioactive waste resulting from the Romanian VVR-S research reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ene, D.; Cepraga, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    The paper consists in a waste study of the Romanian VVR-S reactor which will be prepared for decommissioning operations after the permanent shutdown (23.12.1997). Calculations were carried out to determine the activity arising from neutron activation of structural materials inside the reactor, considering the design of the facility and its operating rules. To this end, the following method was used: i) Neutron flux distribution within the reactor was calculated using the DORT transport code, based on DLC23 shielding library relating to three cylindrical reference systems of the reactor structure: reactor core, horizontal tube and thermal column; ii) Calculation of the activity of each reactor component at different cooling times was performed by the ANITA2000 code, using the neutron flux, compositional data for each material and the power history of the reactor; iii) Unconditional clearance indexes for all material at various cooling times were calculated using the clearance levels defined in IAEA-TECDOC-855; iv) Total activities and masses by material type, within the waste category and for each decay time were calculated by summation of the data previously classified for each reactor component. The resulting activation inventory and waste masses, falling in IAEA defined waste categories are presented in the paper at periods of 100 days, and 6, 10, 25, and 50 years after reactor the shutdown. For some components of the reactor as: aluminum central vessel, the central iron shielding ring, the time behaviour of both the fin spatial activity distribution and the radionuclide contributions to the total activity are plotted in the paper. (author)

  19. Waste from decommissioning of research reactors and other small nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaut, V.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Small nuclear facilities were often built for research or pilot purposes. It includes the research reactors of various types and various aims (physics research, nuclear research, nuclear weapons development, materials testing reactor, isotope production, pilot plant, etc.) as well as laboratories, hot cells and accelerators used for a broad spectrum of research or production purposes. These installations are characterized not only by their size (reduced footprint) but also, and even mostly, by the very diversified type of materials, products and isotopes handled within these facilities. This large variety can sometimes enhance the difficulties encountered for the dismantling of such facilities. The presence of materials like beryllium, graphite, lead, PCBs, sodium, sometimes in relatively large quantities, are also challenges to be faced by the dismantlers of such facilities, because these types of waste are either toxic or no solutions are readily available for their conditioning or long term disposal. The paper will review what is currently done in different small nuclear facilities, and what are the remaining problems and challenges for future dismantling and waste management. The question of whether Research and Development for waste handling methods and processes is needed is still pending. Even for the dismantling operation itself, important improvements can be brought in the fields of characterization, decontamination, remote handling, etc. by further developments and innovative systems. The way of funding such facilities decommissioning will be reviewed as well as the very difficult cost estimation for such facilities, often one-of-a-kind. The aspects of radioprotection optimization (ALARA principle) and classical operators safety will also be highlighted, as well as the potential solutions or improvements. In fact, small nuclear facilities encounter often, when dismantling, the same problems as the large nuclear power plants, but have in

  20. Developing and initiating a public engagement process for a nuclear decommissioning and waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badke, C.; Johnson, C.; Brooks, S.; MacCafferty, M.

    2011-01-01

    Public consultation is key to any major nuclear initiative, but how do you engage the public in a complex multi-site nuclear decommissioning and environmental restoration program that will last 70 years? A clear message of sound environmental stewardship throughout the process is critical to building the trust required to attract public interest and support. The Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) manages Canada's nuclear legacy liabilities at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) sites and is funded by the Government of Canada through Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). The objective of the NLLP is to safely and cost-effectively reduce the federal legacy liabilities and associated risks, based on sound waste management and environmental principles, in the best interest of Canadians. An important area of focus for the NLLP in both the short- and long-term is to inform the public, stakeholders and Aboriginal people about the Program, and to gather input on the long-term strategy for site restoration and waste management. This paper describes progress made to date on developing and initiating a public engagement process for the NLLP in the initial phase of the Program. Furthermore, it examines general best practices for public participation, specific challenges and opportunities which have been identified, as well as the next steps for communications activities related to the Program. (author)

  1. Secondary incinerator for radioactive gaseous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tadashi; Masuda, Takashi.

    1997-01-01

    A vessel incorporated with packings, in which at least either of the packings and the vessel is put to induction-heating by high frequency induction coils, is disposed in a flow channel of radioactive gaseous wastes exhausted from a radioactive waste incinerator. The packings include metals such as stainless pipes and electroconductive ceramics such as C-SiC ceramics. Since only electricity is used as an energy source, in the secondary incinerator for the radioactive gaseous wastes, it can be installed in a cell safely. In addition, if ceramics are used, there is no worry of deterioration of the incinerator due to organic materials, and essential functions are not lowered. (T.M.)

  2. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friske, A.; Thiele, D.

    1988-01-01

    The IAEA classification of decommissioning stages is outlined. The international development hitherto observed in decommissioning of nuclear reactors and nuclear power stations is presented. The dismantling, cutting and decontamination methods used in the decommissioning process are mentioned. The radioactive wastes from decommissioning are characterized, the state of the art of their treatment and disposal is given. The radiation burdens and the decommissioning cost in a decommissioning process are estimated. Finally, some evaluation of the trends in the decommissioning process of nuclear power plants is given. 54 refs. (author)

  3. Safety analysis of disposal of decommissioning wastes from Loviisa nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Nordman, H.; Rasilainen, K.; Suolanen, V.

    1987-12-01

    The repository for decommissioning wastes from the Loviisa nuclear power plant consisting of two 445 MWe PWR units is planned to be excavated at the depth of 90-130 meters in the bedrock of the power plant site. The reactor vessels weighing each about 215 tons will be transferred each in one piece into the repository. They are emplaced in an upright position in big holes excavated in the bottom of repository caverns. The reactor vessel internals are then emplaced inside the vessels. Finally, the vessels will be filled with concrete and the lids will be emplaced and sealed. Steam generators and pressurizers will also be disposed of uncutted. Other decommissioning wastes will be cut into smaller pieces and emplaced in concrete or wooden containers. The repository will be situated on the small island on which the power plant is located. The groundwater on the island contains two zones of different salinity: an upper zone of fresh, flowing groundwater and a lower zone of saline, stagnant groundwater where the repository will be situated. Three groundwater scenarios have been considered in the safety analysis: a scenario based on the present site conditions, an altered scenario where the repository is assumed to be situated in a zone of fresh, flowing groundwater and a distruptive event scenario with an intensive groundwater flow through the repository. The obtained results of the analysis show clear safety margins. In the basic scenario the maximum annul dose rate is 6x10 -14 Sv/a via the local sea pathways, 6x10 -11 Sv/a via the lake pathways and 4x10 -8 Sv/a via a well bored in the vicinity of the repository. In the altered groundwater scenario the maximum annual dose rate is 4x10 -10 Sv/a via the sea pathways, 3x10 -7 Sv/a via the lake pathways and 1x10 -5 Sv/a via the well pathway. In the unlikely disruptive event scenario the corresponding dose rates are 8x10 -10 Sv/a (sea), 7x10 -7 Sv/a (lake) and 2x10 -4 Sv/a (well)

  4. The study of the container types used for transport and final disposal of the radioactive wastes resulting from decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postelnicu, C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to select from a variety of package forms and capacities some containers which will be used for transport and disposal of the radioactive wastes resulting from decommissioning of nuclear facilities into the National Repository for Radioactive Waste - Baita, Bihor county. Taken into account the possibilities of railway and / or road transport and waste disposal in our country, detailed container classification was given in order to use them for radioactive waste transport and final disposal from decommissioning of IFIN-HH Research Reactor. (author)

  5. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  6. How it is possible to build a national system for decommissioning waste management without site nor waste liberation: the case of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averous, Jeremie; Chapalain, Estelle

    2003-01-01

    Past experience in decommissioning in France has shown that a national system has to be put in place to deal with decommissioning, waste elimination and site cleaning up activities in order to allow a consistent, safe, transparent and industrially applicable management of these matters. A system founded on successive lines of defence has been put into enforcement, which does not involve any site nor waste liberation, as it is considered that the criteria associated are always prone to discussion and contradiction. This system is based on the following concepts: - 'nuclear waste', waste prone to have been contaminated or activated, is segregated from 'conventional waste' using a system involving successive lines of defence, and hence, building a very high level of confidence that no 'nuclear waste' will be eliminated without control in conventional waste eliminators or recycling facilities; - 'nuclear waste' is eliminated in dedicated facilities or repositories, or in conventional facilities under the condition of a special authorization based on a radiological impact study and a public inquiry; - a global safety evaluation of the nuclear site is conducted after decommissioning in order to define possible use restrictions. In all cases, minimum restrictions will be put into enforcement in urbanization plans to ensure sufficient precaution when planning future uses of the ground or the building. This paper describes this global system in detail and shows that its inherent consistency allows it to be easily applicable by operators while achieving a high level of safety and confidence. It is now widely accepted by stakeholders. The French Nuclear Safety Authority is now working to apply this methodology more widely to other nuclear practices like the waste management from medical, research and industrial activities, or from past or remediation activities. (authors)

  7. The new revision of NPP Krsko decommissioning, radioactive waste and spent fuel management program: analyses and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, Nadja; Kralj, Metka; Lokner, Vladimir; Levanat, Ivica; Rapic, Andrea; Mele, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of the new revision of the Decommissioning and Spent Fuel (SF) and Low and Intermediate level Waste (LILW) Disposal Program for the NPP Krsko (Program) started in September 2008 after the acceptance of the Term of Reference for the work by Intergovernmental Committee responsible for implementation of the Agreement between the governments of Slovenia and Croatia on the status and other legal issues related to investment, exploitation, and decommissioning of the Nuclear power plant Krsko. The responsible organizations, APO and ARAO together with NEK prepared all new technical and financial data and relevant inputs for the new revision in which several scenarios based on the accepted boundary conditions were investigated. The strategy of immediate dismantling was analyzed for planned and extended NPP life time together with linked radioactive waste and spent fuel management to calculate yearly annuity to be paid by the owners into the decommissioning funds in Slovenia and Croatia. The new Program incorporated among others new data on the LILW repository including the costs for siting, construction and operation of silos at the location Vrbina in Krsko municipality, the site specific Preliminary Decommissioning Plan for NPP Krsko which included besides dismantling and decontamination approaches also site specific activated and contaminated radioactive waste, and results from the referenced scenario for spent fuel disposal but at very early stage. Important inputs for calculations presented also new amounts of compensations to the local communities for different nuclear facilities which were taken from the supplemented Slovenian regulation and updated fiscal parameters (inflation, interest, discount factors) used in the financial model based on the current development in economical environment. From the obtained data the nominal and discounted costs for the whole nuclear program related to NPP Krsko which is jointly owned by Slovenia and Croatia have

  8. Decontamination and decommissioning assessment for the Waste Incineration Facility (Building 232-Z) Hanford Site, [Hanford], WA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, L.N.

    1994-02-01

    Building 232-Z is an element of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. From 1961 until 1972, plutonium-bearing combustible materials were incinerated in the building. Between 1972 and 1983, following shutdown of the incinerator, the facility was used for waste segregation activities. The facility was placed in retired inactive status in 1984 and classified as a Limited Control Facility pursuant to DOE Order 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, and 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. The current plutonium inventory within the building is estimated to be approximately 848 grams, the majority of which is retained within the process hood ventilation system. As a contaminated retired facility, Building 232-Z is included in the DOE Surplus Facility Management Program. The objective of this Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) assessment is to remove Building 232-Z, thereby elmininating the radiological and environmental hazards associated with the plutonium inventory within the structure. The steps to accomplish the plan objectives are: (1) identifying the locations of the most significant amounts of plutonium, (2) removing residual plutonium, (3) removing and decontaminating remaining building equipment, (4) dismantling the remaining structure, and (5) closing out the project

  9. Decontamination and decommissioning assessment for the Waste Incineration Facility (Building 232-Z) Hanford Site, [Hanford], WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, L.N. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Building 232-Z is an element of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. From 1961 until 1972, plutonium-bearing combustible materials were incinerated in the building. Between 1972 and 1983, following shutdown of the incinerator, the facility was used for waste segregation activities. The facility was placed in retired inactive status in 1984 and classified as a Limited Control Facility pursuant to DOE Order 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, and 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. The current plutonium inventory within the building is estimated to be approximately 848 grams, the majority of which is retained within the process hood ventilation system. As a contaminated retired facility, Building 232-Z is included in the DOE Surplus Facility Management Program. The objective of this Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) assessment is to remove Building 232-Z, thereby elmininating the radiological and environmental hazards associated with the plutonium inventory within the structure. The steps to accomplish the plan objectives are: (1) identifying the locations of the most significant amounts of plutonium, (2) removing residual plutonium, (3) removing and decontaminating remaining building equipment, (4) dismantling the remaining structure, and (5) closing out the project.

  10. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    The Symposium was jointly sponsored by OECD/NEA and IAEA and was attended by more than 225 participants from 26 countries. Forty one papers were presented in eight sessions which covered the following topics: national and international policies and planning; engineering considerations relevant to decommissioning; radiological release considerations and waste classifications; decommissioning experience; and decontamination and remote operations. In addition, a panel of decommissioning experts discussed questions from the participants

  11. UK-Nuclear decommissioning authority and US Salt-stone waste management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawless, William; Whitton, John

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: We update two case studies of stakeholder issues in the UK and US. Earlier versions were reported at Waste Management 2006 and 2007 and at ICEM 2005. UK: The UK nuclear industry has begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. Historically, methods of engagement within the industry have varied, however, recent discussions have generally been carried out with the explicit understanding that engagement with stakeholders will be 'dialogue based' and will 'inform' the final decision made by the decision maker. Engagement is currently being carried out at several levels within the industry; at the national level (via the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's (NDA) National Stakeholder Group (NSG)); at a local site level (via Site Stakeholder Groups) and at a project level (usually via the Best Practicable Environmental Option process (BPEO)). This paper updates earlier results by the co-author with findings from a second questionnaire issued to the NSG in Phase 2 of the engagement process. An assessment is made regarding the development of stakeholder perceptions since Phase 1 towards the NDA process. US: The US case study reviews the resolution of issues on salt-stone by Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Citizens Advisory Board (CAB), in Aiken, SC. Recently, SRS-CAB encouraged DOE and South Carolina's regulatory Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC-DHEC) to resolve a conflict preventing SC-DHEC from releasing a draft permit to allow SRS to restart salt-stone operations. It arose with a letter sent from DOE blaming the Governor of South Carolina for delay in restarting salt processing. In reply, the Governor blamed DOE for failing to assure that Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) would be built. SWPF is designed to remove most of the radioactivity from HLW prior to vitrification, the remaining fraction destined for salt-stone. (authors)

  12. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on on-site radioactive waste management and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passant, F.H.

    1988-09-01

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. The CEGB evidence to the Inquiry presented here provides information on the on-site management of solid, liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes both during station operation and during decommissioning. Estimates are given of current and projected future discharges of liquid and gaseous wastes from the site and packaging and transport arrangements for solid radioactive wastes are described. The framework of waste management policy, disposal strategy and legislation in the United Kingdom which will determine procedure at Hinkley Point ''C'' is given. (UK)

  13. Securing the long-term financing of decommissioning and radioactive waste management - From cost estimates to a comprehensive financing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebersold, Michael

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important issues in the area of waste disposal concerns the long-term securing of the necessary financing. Large amounts of money will have to be invested, managed and subsequently spent at the appropriate time, over an extended period of 100 years or more. In an electricity market that is opening up across Europe and is characterised by complicated legal structures, a focus on a handful of major groups and cost pressure due to increased competition, it will be necessary to create the corresponding background conditions. The anticipated costs for decommissioning and disposal will have to be calculated or estimated on the basis of available know-how and criteria. The required funds will then have to be collected and invested on the domestic and international money markets, which given the current situation on the stock markets will by no means be an easy task. But the assurance that enough money will be available is essential for public confidence. Using Switzerland as an example, the author wishes to demonstrate which steps are necessary in order to calculate the potential decommissioning and waste disposal costs based on a defined disposal concept and programme, determine the annual contributions to be paid in by operators, and establish a suitable system for securing the necessary funding. This paper deals with the following issues: 1. Political background and legislative framework in Switzerland; 2. Swiss radioactive waste management policy and programmes; 3. Calculating the decommissioning and waste management costs; 4. Calculating the contributions to the Funds; 5. Financing system

  14. The Importance of Enhancing Worldwide Industry Cooperation in Radiological Protection, Waste Management and Decommissioning - Views from the Global Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2008-01-01

    The slow or stagnant rate of nuclear power generation development in many developed countries over the last two decades has resulted in a significant shortage in the population of mid-career nuclear industry professionals. This shortage is even more pronounced in some specific areas of expertise such as radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning. This situation has occurred at a time when the renaissance of nuclear power and the globalization of the nuclear industry are steadily gaining momentum and when the industry's involvement in international and national debates in these three fields of expertise (and the industry's impact on these debates) is of great relevance.This paper presents the World Nuclear Association (WNA) approach to building and enhancing worldwide industry cooperation in radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning, which is manifested through the activities of the two WNA working groups on radiological protection (RPWG) and on waste management and decommissioning (WM and DWG). This paper also briefly describes the WNA's participatory role, as of Summer 2005, in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard development committees on radiation safety (RASSC), waste safety (WASSC) and nuclear safety (NUSSC). This participation provides the worldwide nuclear industry with an opportunity to be part of IAEA's discussions on shaping changes to the control regime of IAEA safety standards. The review (and the prospect of a revision) of IAEA safety standards, which began in October 2005, makes this WNA participation and the industry's involvement at the national level timely and important. All of this excellent industry cooperation and team effort is done through 'collegial' exchanges between key industry experts, which help tackle important issues more effectively. The WNA is continuously looking to enhance its worldwide industry representation in these fields of expertise through the RPWG and WM and DWG

  15. The Importance of Building and Enhancing Worldwide Industry Cooperation in the Areas of Radiological Protection, Waste Management and Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2006-01-01

    The slow or stagnant rate of nuclear power generation development in many developed countries over the last two decades has resulted in a significant shortage in the population of mid-career nuclear industry professionals. This shortage is even more pronounced in some specific areas of expertise such as radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning. This situation has occurred at a time when the renaissance of nuclear power and the globalization of the nuclear industry are steadily gaining momentum and when the industry's involvement in international and national debates in these three fields of expertise (and the industry's impact on these debates) is of vital importance. This paper presents the World Nuclear Association (WNA) approach to building and enhancing worldwide industry cooperation in radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning, which is manifested through the activities of the two WNA working groups on radiological protection (RPWG) and on waste management and decommissioning (WM and DWG). This paper also briefly describes the WNA's participatory role, as of summer 2005, in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard development committees on radiation safety (RASSC), waste safety (WASSC) and nuclear safety (NUSSC). This participation provides the worldwide nuclear industry with an opportunity to be part of IAEA's discussions on shaping changes to the control regime of IAEA safety standards. The review (and the prospect of a revision) of IAEA safety standards, which began in October 2005, makes this WNA participation and the industry ' s involvement at the national level timely and important. All of this excellent industry cooperation and team effort is done through 'collegial' exchanges between key industry experts, which help tackle important issues more effectively. The WNA is continuously looking to enhance its worldwide industry representation in these fields of expertise through the RPWG and WM and DWG

  16. The importance of building and enhancing worldwide industry cooperation in the areas of radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2006-01-01

    The slow or stagnant rate of nuclear power generation development in many developed countries over the last two decades has resulted in a significant shortage in the population of mid-career nuclear industry professionals. This shortage is even more pronounced in some specific areas of expertise such as radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning. This situation has occurred at a time when the renaissance of nuclear power and the globalization of the nuclear industry are steadily gaining momentum and when the industry's involvement in international and national debates in these three fields of expertise (and the industry's impact on these debates) is of vital importance. This paper presents the World Nuclear Association (WNA) approach to building and enhancing worldwide industry cooperation in radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning, which is manifested through the activities of the two WNA working groups on radiological protection (RPWG) and on waste management and decommissioning (WM and DWG). This paper also briefly describes the WNA's participatory role, as of Summer 2005, in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard development committees on radiation safety (RASSC), waste safety (WASSC) and nuclear safety (NUSSC). This participation provides the worldwide nuclear industry with an opportunity to be part of IAEA's discussions on shaping changes to the control regime of IAEA safety standards. The review (and the prospect of a revision) of IAEA safety standards, which began in October 2005, makes this WNA participation and the industry's involvement at the national level timely and important. All of this excellent industry cooperation and team effort is done through 'collegial' exchanges between key industry experts, which help tackle important issues more effectively. The WNA is continuously looking to enhance its worldwide industry representation in these fields of expertise through the RPWG and WM and DWG

  17. Preparation for Ignalina NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeliene, D.

    2004-01-01

    Latest developments of atomic energy in Lithuania, works done to prepare Ignalina NPP for final shutdown and decommissioning are described. Information on decommissioning program for Ignalina NPP unit 1, decommissioning method, stages and funding is presented. Other topics: radiation protection, radioactive waste management and disposal. Key facts related to nuclear energy in Lithuania are listed

  18. Alternate form and placement of short lived reactor waste and associated fuel hardware for decommissioning of EBR-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planchon, H.P.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    Upon the termination of EBR-II operation in 1994, the mission has progressed to decommissioning and waste cleanup of the facility. The simplest method to achieve this goal is to bury the raw fuel and activated steel in an approved burial ground or deep geologic repository. While this might be simple, it could be very expensive, consume much needed burial space for other materials, and leave large amounts of fissile easily available to future generations. Also, as with any operation, an associated risk to personnel and the public from the buried waste exists. To try and reduce these costs and risks, alternatives to burial are sought. One alternative explored here for EBR-II is to condition the fuel and store the fission products and steel either permanently or temporarily in the sealed primary boundary of the decommissioned reactor. The first problem is to identify which subassemblies are going to be conditioned and their current composition and decay time. The next problem is to identify the conditioning process and determine the composition and form of the waste streams. The volume, mass, heat, and curie load of the waste streams needs to be determined so a waste-assembly can be designed. The reactor vessel and internals need to be analyzed to determine if they can handle these loads. If permanent storage is the goal, then mechanisms for placing the waste-assembly in the reactor vessel and sealing the vessel are needed. If temporary storage is the goal, then mechanisms for waste-assembly placement and retrieval are needed. This paper answers the technical questions of volume, mass, heat, and curie loads while just addressing the other questions found in a safety analysis. The final conclusion will compare estimated risks from the burial option and this option.

  19. Basis for criteria for exemption of decommissioning waste: reprocessing of dust from recycling of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elert, M.; Wiborgh, M.

    1992-06-01

    This study is a part of a larger study with the purpose to provide the authority concerned, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), with technical background material needed for future decisions concerning exemption levels for recycling and disposal of material originating from decommissioned nuclear power reactors. The dismantling of nuclear power reactors will give rise to large amounts of steel scrap with a very low activity concentration. It is of interest to exempt this material from regulatory control in order to make recycling possible. During the melting of steel scrap dust will be formed which is collected in the off-gas cleaning system of the furnace. Radionuclides may be enriched in this dust, and thereby obtain a higher activity concentration than the melted scrap. Presently, there is a strong interest to reprocess these dusts with the objectives to recover valuable metals and to reduce the amounts of waste harmful to the environment. During the reprocessing of dusts collected from the melting process a further redistribution and reconcentration of radionuclides may occur. In this report the treatment of dust from steel melting is described, the potential reconcentration of radionuclides is analyzed, and the potential radiological consequences are estimated. The study has focussed on the reprocessing of dust with the plasma method used at ScanDust in Sweden, and with the Waelz process used in, for example Spain and Germany. Various factors as economical, political and future developments of dust treatment and steel processes will determine the amounts of dusts produced and also to what degree dust will be reprocessed in the future. (au)

  20. NPP Krsko decommissioning concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novsak, M.; Fink, K.; Spiler, J.

    1996-01-01

    At the end of the operational lifetime of a nuclear power plant (NPP) it is necessary to take measures for the decommissioning as stated in different international regulations and also in the national Slovenian law. Based on these requirements Slovenian authorities requested the development of a site specific decommissioning plan for the NPP KRSKO. In September 1995, the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) developed a site specific scope and content for decommissioning plan including the assumptions for determination of the decommissioning costs. The NEK Decommissioning Plan contains sufficient information to fulfill decommissioning requirements identified by NRC, IAEA and OECD - NEA regulations. In this paper the activities and the results of development of NEK Decommissioning Plan consisting of the development of three decommissioning strategies for the NPP Krsko and selection of the most suitable strategy based on site specific, social, technical, radiological and economical aspects, cost estimates for the strategies including the costs for construction of final disposal facilities for fuel/high level waste (fuel/HLW) and low/intermediate level waste (LLW/ILW) and scheduling all activities necessary for the decommissioning of the NPP KRSKO are presented. (author)

  1. NPP Krsko decommissioning concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novsak, M.; Fink, K.; Spiler, J.

    1996-01-01

    At the end of the operational lifetime of a nuclear power plant (NPP) it is necessary to take measures for the decommissioning as stated in different international regulations and also in the national Slovenian law. Based on these requirements Slovenian authorities requested the development of a site specific decommissioning plan for the NPP Krsko. In September 1995, the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) developed a site specific scope and content for a decommissioning plan including the assumptions for determination of the decommissioning costs. The NEK Decommissioning Plan contains sufficient information to fulfill the decommissioning requirements identified by NRC, IAEA and OECD - NEA regulations. In this paper the activities and results of development of NEK Decommissioning Plan consisting of the development of three decommissioning strategies for the NPP Krsko and selection of the most suitable strategy based on site specific, social, technical, radiological and economic aspects, cost estimates for the strategies including the costs for construction of final disposal facilities for fuel/high level waste (fuel/HLW) and low/intermediate level waste (LLW/ILW) and scheduling of all activities necessary for the decommissioning of the NPP Krsko are presented. (author)

  2. Decommissioning experience at UKAEA Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Winfrith Site was used for development of nuclear reactors, particularly the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) and the 30 MW gas-cooled DRAGON reactor. Following the closure of the SGHWR reactor in 1990 the site has run down nuclear operations by removing from site most of the high level hazards from both reactors and then commencing the decommissioning of major items of plant and other site facilities. After the SGHWR was shut down, UKAEA prepared a decommissioning programme for this plant comprising a multistage process, each to be subjected to a competitive tendering operation. The recently completed Stage 1 decommissioning contract, awarded to Nuvia in 2005, involved decommissioning and removal of all the ancillary plant and equipment in the secondary containment and non-containment areas of the plant. The decommissioning processes involved with these large and heavy plant items will be described with some emphasis of the establishment of multiple work-fronts for the production, recovery, treatment and disposal of mainly tritium contaminated waste arising from its contact with the direct cycle reactor coolant. The means of size reduction of a variety of large, heavy and complex items of plant made from a range of materials will also be described with some emphasis on the control of fumes during hot cutting operations. Over the past 18 years Nuvia has gained vast experience with decommissioning operations on redundant nuclear plant and facilities on the Winfrith Site and has been extremely successful in meeting its contractual obligations in a safe and efficient manner. The final section of the paper will dwell upon the key issues that have made a difference in achieving these objectives for the benefit of others involved in similar operations. (author)

  3. Final project report, TA-35 Los Alamos Power Reactor Experiment No. II (LAPRE II) decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    This final report addresses the decommissioning of the LAPRE II Reactor, safety enclosure, fuel reservoir tanks, emergency fuel recovery system, primary pump pit, secondary loop, associated piping, and the post-remediation activities. Post-remedial action measurements are also included. The cost of the project, including Phase I assessment and Phase II remediation was approximately $496K. The decommissioning operation produced 533 m 3 of low-level solid radioactive waste and 5 m 3 of mixed waste

  4. Present status of technology development on decommissioning and waste management in Nuclear Cycle Backend Directorate. Progress in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kuniaki; Ishigami, Tsutomu; Funabashi, Hideyuki; Meguro, Yoshihiro; Tachibana, Mitsuo

    2010-11-01

    It is an important issue to take measures against the matters on decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities and management of low-level radioactive waste arising from research activities and operation of nuclear facilities, and the measures must be taken with rational way by ensuring the safety. As the development, improvement, and proper deployment of technologies will be key factors, a technology development program is under way in Nuclear Cycle Backend Directorate taking account of these matters in cooperation with research and development institutes/centers in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The technology development items are selected from the viewpoints of systematic implementation of measures and cost reduction; these include the development of computer systems for planning and evaluation of decommissioning programs, supercritical CO 2 fluid leaching method for decontamination, nitrate-ion degradation method, simple and rapid determination method for radioactivity of radioactive waste, safety assessment for waste disposal and so on. This report describes outline and progress of the technology development program conducted in FY2009 by the research and development unit. (author)

  5. Decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, S.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear facilities present a number of problems at the end of their working lives. They require dismantling and removal but public and environmental protection remain a priority. The principles and strategies are outlined. Experience of decommissioning in France and the U.K. had touched every major stage of the fuel cycle by the early 1990's. Decommissioning projects attempt to restrict waste production and proliferation as waste treatment and disposal are costly. It is concluded that technical means exist to deal with present civil plant and costs are now predictable. Strategies for decommissioning and future financial provisions are important. (UK)

  6. Novel Problems Associated with Accounting and Control of Nuclear Material from Decontamination and Decommissioning and in Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    The reduction in nuclear arms and the production facilities that supported the weapons programs have produced some unique problems for nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A). Many of these problems are not limited to the weapons complex, but have the potential to appear in many legacy facilities as they undergo dismantlement and disposal. Closing facilities find that what was previously defined as product has become a waste stream bringing regulatory, human, and technological conflict. The sometimes unique compositions of these materials produce both storage and measurement problems. The nuclear material accounting and control programs have had to become very adaptive and preemptive to ensure control and protection is maintained. This paper examines some of the challenges to Safeguards generated by deinventory, decontamination decommissioning, dismantlement, demolition, and waste site remediation from predictable sources and some from unpredictable sources. 1.0 Introduction The United States is eliminating many facilities that support the nuclear weapons program. With the changing political conditions around the world and changes in military capabilities, the decreased emphasis on nuclear weapons has eliminated the need for many of the aging facilities. Additionally, the recovery of plutonium from dismantled weapons and reuse of components has eliminated the need to produce more plutonium for the near future. Because the nuclear weapons program and commercial applications generally do not mix in the United States, the facilities in the DOE complex that no longer have a weapon mission are being deinventoried, decontaminated, decommissioned, and dismantled/demolished. The materials from these activities are then disposed of in various ways but usually in select waste burial sites. Additionally, the waste in many historical burial sites associated with the weapons complex are being recovered, repackaged if necessary, and disposed of in either

  7. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niel, J.Ch.; Rieu, J.; Lareynie, O.; Delrive, L.; Vallet, J.; Girard, A.; Duthe, M.; Lecomte, C.; Rozain, J.P.; Nokhamzon, J.G.; Davoust, M.; Eyraud, J.L.; Bernet, Ph.; Velon, M.; Gay, A.; Charles, Th.; Leschaeva, M.; Dutzer, M.; Maocec, Ch.; Gillet, G.; Brut, F.; Dieulot, M.; Thuillier, D.; Tournebize, F.; Fontaine, V.; Goursaud, V.; Birot, M.; Le Bourdonnec, Th.; Batandjieva, B.; Theis, St.; Walker, St.; Rosett, M.; Cameron, C.; Boyd, A.; Aguilar, M.; Brownell, H.; Manson, P.; Walthery, R.; Wan Laer, W.; Lewandowski, P.; Dorms, B.; Reusen, N.; Bardelay, J.; Damette, G.; Francois, P.; Eimer, M.; Tadjeddine, A.; Sene, M.; Sene, R.

    2008-01-01

    This file includes five parts: the first part is devoted to the strategies of the different operators and includes the following files: the decommissioning of nuclear facilities Asn point of view, decommissioning of secret nuclear facilities, decommissioning at the civil Cea strategy and programs, EDF de-construction strategy, Areva strategy for decommissioning of nuclear facilities; the second one concerns the stakes of dismantling and includes the articles as follow: complete cleanup of buildings structures in nuclear facilities, decommissioning of nuclear facilities and safety assessment, decommissioning wastes management issues, securing the financing of long-term decommissioning and waste management costs, organizational and human factors in decommissioning projects, training for the decommissioning professions: the example of the Grenoble University master degree; the third part is devoted to the management of dismantling work sites and includes the different articles as follow: decommissioning progress at S.I.C.N. plant, example of decommissioning work site in Cea Grenoble: Siloette reactor decommissioning, matters related to decommissioning sites, decommissioning of french nuclear installations: the viewpoint of a specialist company, specificities of inspections during decommissioning: the Asn inspector point of view; the fourth part is in relation with the international approach and includes as follow: IAEA role in establishing a global safety regime on decommissioning, towards harmonization of nuclear safety practices in Europe: W.E.N.R.A. and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, EPA superfund program policy for decontamination and decommissioning, progress with remediation at Sellafield, progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Belgium, activities of I.R.S.N. and its daughter company Risk-audit I.r.s.n./G.r.s. international in the field of decommissioning of nuclear facilities in eastern countries

  8. Decommissioning plan - decommissioning project for KRR 1 and 2 (revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. J.; Paik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Lee, B. J.

    2000-10-01

    This report is the revised Decommissioning Plan for the license of TRIGA research reactor decommissioning project according to Atomic Energy Act No. 31 and No. 36. The decommissioning plan includes the TRIGA reactor facilities, project management, decommissioning method, decontamination and dismantling activity, treatment, packaging, transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. the report also explained the radiation protection plan and radiation safety management during the decommissioning period, and expressed the quality assurance system during the period and the site restoration after decommissioning. The first decommissioning plan was made by Hyundai Engineering Co, who is the design service company, was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology, and then was reviewed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The first decommissioning plan was revised including answers for the questions arising from review process

  9. Decommissioning plan - decommissioning project for KRR 1 and 2 (revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K. J.; Paik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Lee, B. J

    2000-10-01

    This report is the revised Decommissioning Plan for the license of TRIGA research reactor decommissioning project according to Atomic Energy Act No. 31 and No. 36. The decommissioning plan includes the TRIGA reactor facilities, project management, decommissioning method, decontamination and dismantling activity, treatment, packaging, transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. the report also explained the radiation protection plan and radiation safety management during the decommissioning period, and expressed the quality assurance system during the period and the site restoration after decommissioning. The first decommissioning plan was made by Hyundai Engineering Co, who is the design service company, was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology, and then was reviewed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The first decommissioning plan was revised including answers for the questions arising from review process.

  10. The estimation of the amount of radioactive waste from decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in Oarai Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Kenichi; Aihara, Nagafumi; Imai, Katutomo; Tobita, Kazunori; Nemoto, Masaaki; Imahori, Shinji; Noguchi, Kouichi; Hasegawa, Makoto

    1998-11-01

    The estimation of the amount of radioactive waste produced from nuclear facilities in Oarai Engineering Center was performed for the purpose of using it for countermeasure of decommissioning planning. The conditions and the result of the estimation are as follows; (1) The total amount of occurrence of radioactive waste is 18,820 tons. As the items of the amount in radioactive level, the amount of 1 GBq/t and over is 820 tons and that of under 1 GBq/t is 18,000 tons. (2) The amount of metal waste is 5,820 tons and the amount of concrete is 13,000 tons. (3) Above calculation was based on related specifications, complete drawings, and visual observation. (4) To dismantle facilities, if must exfoliate the surface of wall. As for the polluted zone and the zone with possibility of pollution, it decided to exfoliate 5 cm in thickness from the surface of the wall. And, as for the zone that fundamentally pollution was not there, it decided to exfoliate surface 1 cm in thickness from the surface of the wall. (5) Using the suitable decontamination technology and exfoliation technology can reduce the amount of radioactive waste. (6) In the facilities dealing with sealed source judging from the past record of operation, there is no contact with the radioactive material, etc. Therefore, it can be disposed of all the waste that comes out from the facilities as non-radioactive waste. (author)

  11. Feasibility studies for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with planning of decommission of the NPPs A1, V1 and V2 Bohunice and Mochovce. It was concluded that: Used model for decommissioning parameters assessment has been suitable for elaboration of initial decommissioning plans (feasibility studies); Basic assessment of main decommissioning parameters and basic comparison of various decommissioning options have been possible; Improvement of the model and corresponding software is desirable and works on software improvement began one year ago; V1-NPP initial decommissioning plan should be actualized, because initial decommissioning plan does not correspond by its content and structure to requirements of Act No. 130/98 and Nuclear Regulatory Authority Degree No. 246/99; Strategy of radioactive wastes treatment and conditioning together with technical provisions at Jaslovske Bohunice site was changed in comparison with the assumptions in 1991-92; Considered V1 NPP decommissioning options are necessary to be re-evaluated in accordance with latest development of knowledge and approaches to NPP decommissioning in the world; Specific unit costs are substantially and differentially changed in comparison with the assumptions in 1991-92; Necessity to take into account technical changes resulted from V1 NPP reconstruction. (author)

  12. Study on decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This project consists of researches on (1) establishment of review plan on application of decommissioning, (2) establishment of specific method to confirm decommissioning completion, of decommissioning and (3) establishment of radioactive waste management guideline during dismantling and (4) development of the regulatory system on decommissioning in response to Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. About researches on establishment of review plan on application of decommissioning. 'Planning of the Commercial Power Reactor Decommissioning:2001' which was published by Atomic Energy Society of Japan, was evaluated whether it suited the requirement for the decommissioning stipulated in the law, and the draft evaluation report was prepared. About researches on establishment of specific method to confirm decommissioning completion, technical information of practical procedures on the confirmation in U.S.A. were organized based on MARSSIM (Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual, NUREG-1575) and applicability of MARSSIM on the confirmation in Japan was examined. Exposed doses for public during decommissioning period were estimated to study dose criterion of the confirmation. Radioactive concentrations in the soil of Tokai and Hamaoka NPP caused by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident were also investigated. About researches on establishment of radioactive waste management guideline during dismantling, one concrete core was sampled in biological shield of the Tokai NPP and radioactive concentrations were investigated. About researches on development of the regulatory system on decommissioning in response to Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, present status of Three Mile Island Unit 2 and Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 were investigated. Present status of regulatory systems for decommissioning in foreign countries taken in consideration of the accident was also researched. (author)

  13. Nuclear Waste Management under Approaching Disaster: A Comparison of Decommissioning Strategies for the German Repository Asse II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilg, Patrick; Gabbert, Silke; Weikard, Hans-Peter

    2017-07-01

    This article compares different strategies for handling low- and medium-level nuclear waste buried in a retired potassium mine in Germany (Asse II) that faces significant risk of uncontrollable brine intrusion and, hence, long-term groundwater contamination. We survey the policy process that has resulted in the identification of three possible so-called decommissioning options: complete backfilling, relocation of the waste to deeper levels in the mine, and retrieval. The selection of a decommissioning strategy must compare expected investment costs with expected social damage costs (economic, environmental, and health damage costs) caused by flooding and subsequent groundwater contamination. We apply a cost minimization approach that accounts for the uncertainty regarding the stability of the rock formation and the risk of an uncontrollable brine intrusion. Since economic and health impacts stretch out into the far future, we examine the impact of different discounting methods and rates. Due to parameter uncertainty, we conduct a sensitivity analysis concerning key assumptions. We find that retrieval, the currently preferred option by policymakers, has the lowest expected social damage costs for low discount rates. However, this advantage is overcompensated by higher expected investment costs. Considering all costs, backfilling is the best option for all discounting scenarios considered. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Assessment, evaluation, and testing of technologies for environmental restoration, decontamination, and decommissioning and high level waste management. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzochukwu, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management objectives are being assessed and evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objectives of the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites

  15. Sensitivity of physics parameters for establishment of a burned CANDU full-core model for decommissioning waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dong-Keun; Sun, Gwang-Min; Choi, Jongwon; Hwang, Dong-Hyun; Hwang, Tae-Won; Yang, Ho-Yeon; Park, Dong-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity of parameters related with reactor physics on the source terms of decommissioning wastes from a CANDU reactor was investigated in order to find a viable, simplified burned core model of a Monte Carlo simulation for decommissioning waste characterization. First, a sensitivity study was performed for the level of nuclide consideration in an irradiated fuel and implicit geometry modeling, the effects of side structural components of the core, and structural supporters for reactive devices. The overall effects for computation memory, calculation time, and accuracy were then investigated with a full-core model. From the results, it was revealed that the level of nuclide consideration and geometry homogenization are not important factors when the ratio of macroscopic neutron absorption cross section (MNAC) relative to a total value exceeded 0.95. The most important factor affecting the neutron flux of the pressure tube was shown to be the structural supporters for reactivity devices, showing an 10% difference. Finally, it was concluded that a bundle-average homogeneous model considering a MNAC of 0.95, which is the simplest model in this study, could be a viable approximate model, with about 25% lower computation memory, 40% faster simulation time, and reasonable engineering accuracy compared with a model with an explicit geometry employing an MNAC of 0.99. (author)

  16. Assessment, evaluation, and testing of technologies for environmental restoration, decontamination, and decommissioning and high level waste management. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzochukwu, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management objectives are being assessed and evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objectives of the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

  17. The management of financial resources intended for radioactive waste and decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in the european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatar, F.; Dima, A.; Glodeanu, F.; Miller, B.; Mosmonea, R.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission has developed policies and made recommendations on how financial resources should be established and managed by Member States for the purpose of radioactive waste management. The manner in which these recommendations have been accepted, and are applied, varies between European countries. To some extent, this variation reflects the maturity of the nuclear programs in each country and whether or not nuclear facilities are largely state or privately owned and operated. This paper reviews the European Commission.s policy on financial resourcing for radioactive waste management and decommissioning and evaluates how financial resources are practically established and managed by Member States. The findings from the review are then used to benchmark the situation in Romania. (authors)

  18. Study on the design and manufacturing requirements of container for low level radioactive solid waste form KRR decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. K.; Kim, H. R.; Park, S. K.; Jung, K. H.; Jung, W. S.; Jung, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    The design requirement and manufacturing criteria have been proposed on the container for the storage and transportation of low level radioactive solid waste from decommissioning of KRR 1 and 2. The structure analysis was carried out based on the design criteria, and the safety of the container was assessed. The ISO container with its capacity of 4m 3 was selected for the radioactive solid waste storage. The proposed container was satisfied the criteria of ISO 1496/1 and the packaging standard of atomic energy act. manufacturing and test standards of IAEA were also applied to the container. Stress distribution and deformation were analyzed under given condition using ANSYS code, and the maximum stress was verified to be within yield stress without any structural deformation. From the results of lifting tests, it was verified that the container was safe

  19. Chemical mode control in nuclear power plant decommissioning during operation of technologies in individual radioactive waste processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.; Dugovic, L.

    1999-01-01

    Sewage treatment of nuclear power plant decommissioning is performed by system of sewage concentration in evaporator with formation of condensed rest, it means radioactive waste concentrate and breeding steam. During sewage treatment plant operation department of chemical mode performs chemical and radiochemical analysis of sewage set for treatment, chemical and radiochemical analysis of breeding steam condensate which is after final cleaning on ionization filter and fulfilling the limiting conditions released to environment; chemical and radiochemical analysis of heating steam condensate which is also after fulfilling the limiting conditions released to environment. Condensed radioactive concentrate is stored in stainless tanks and later converted into easy transportable and chemically stable matrix from the long term storage point of view in republic storage Mochovce. The article also refer to bituminous plant, vitrification plant, swimming pool decontamination plant of long term storage and operation of waste processing plant Bohunice

  20. State fund of decommissioning of nuclear installations and handling of spent nuclear fuels and nuclear wastes (Slovak Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozma, Milos

    2006-01-01

    State Fund for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations and Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Nuclear Wastes was established by the Act 254/1994 of the National Council of the Slovak Republic as a special-purpose fund which concentrates financial resources intended for decommissioning of nuclear installations and for handling of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes. The Act was amended in 2000, 2001 and 2002. The Fund is legal entity and independent from operator of nuclear installations Slovak Power Facilities Inc. The Fund is headed by Director, who is appointed and recalled by Minister of Economy of the Slovak Republic. Sources of the Fund are generated from: a) contributions by nuclear installation operators; b) penalties imposed by Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic upon natural persons and legal entities pursuant to separate regulation; c) bank credits; d) interest on Fund deposits in banks; e) grants from State Budget; f) other sources as provided by special regulation. Fund resources may be used for the following purposes: a) decommissioning of nuclear installations; b) handling of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes after the termination of nuclear installation operation; c) handling of radioactive wastes whose originator is not known, including occasionally seized radioactive wastes and radioactive materials stemming from criminal activities whose originator is not known, as confirmed by Police Corps investigator or Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic; d) purchase of land for the establishment of nuclear fuel and nuclear waste repositories; e) research and development in the areas of decommissioning of nuclear installations and handling of nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes after the termination of the operation of nuclear installations; f) selection of localities, geological survey, preparation, design, construction, commissioning, operation and closure of repositories of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes

  1. Management of waste associated with the decommissioning of the JASON research reactor and the nuclear laboratories at the Royal Naval College Greenwich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeley, P.A.; Lockwood, R.J.S.; Hoult, D.; Major, R.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996 the UK Government announced that the Royal Naval College, Greenwich would pass to non-defence use by the millennium. As a consequence of this decision, the decommissioning of the JASON 10 kW Argonaut research reactor and the relocation of the Department of Nuclear Science and Technology (DNST) were approved by the Ministry of Defence. The decommissioning of the reactor commenced in November 1997 while DNST remained operational until October 1998. The DNST was responsible for education and training in support of the UK Naval Nuclear Propulsion Programme and operated academic laboratories for atomic and nuclear physics, health physics, instrument calibration and radiochemistry. Therefore, besides the nuclear reactor, open and sealed sources (alpha, beta and gamma), intense x-ray (sealed tube) and gamma-ray ( 60 CO and 137 Cs) sources and small 241 Am/Be neutron sources had been used in the Department for over 35 years. Decommissioning of all facilities was therefore a relatively complex task and the management of waste streams was challenging. All facilities were successfully decommissioned for unrestricted site release by December 1999 and this paper will describe the methodology used for preparation, storage, characterisation and disposal of all waste streams. The most significant waste management task during this decommissioning programme was that associated with the JASON reactor. It should be noted that the JASON reactor fuel was not designated as nuclear waste, the fuel removal and storage were covered under separate contracts and therefore no high level waste was generated. With respect to other waste streams, a combination of Monte Carlo modelling and selective sampling and analysis of the reactor materials was used to estimate the quantities of waste as follows: LLW - 76 tonnes packed in 4 half height ISO containers; LLW - 6 Tonnes packed in 200litre drums in 1 full height ISO container; ILW - 60 kg packed in approved shielded containers; FRW -121

  2. Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment - Decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Won, Hui Jun; Yoon, Ji Sup and others

    1997-12-01

    Through the project of D econtamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology development , the following were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Environmental remediation technology development. (author). 95 refs., 45 tabs., 163 figs

  3. Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection Data Package—Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Strachan, Denis M.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pires, Richard P.

    2011-09-12

    The Hanford Site in southeast Washington State has 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes stored in 177 underground tanks (ORP 2010). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), through its contractors, is constructing the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to convert the radioactive and hazardous wastes into stable glass waste forms for disposal. Within the WTP, the pretreatment facility will receive the retrieved waste from the tank farms and separate it into two treated process streams. These waste streams will be vitrified, and the resulting waste canisters will be sent to offsite (high-level waste [HLW]) and onsite (immobilized low-activity waste [ILAW]) repositories. As part of the pretreatment and ILAW processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed of in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has initiated secondary waste form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is developing data packages to support that down-selection. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilizing and solidifying the liquid secondary wastes. At the Hanford Site, the FBSR process is being evaluated as a supplemental technology for treating and immobilizing Hanford LAW radioactive tank waste and for treating secondary wastes from the WTP pretreatment and LAW vitrification processes.

  4. Management of construction and demolition wastes as secondary building resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukhina, Lyubov; Ivanova, Irina

    2017-10-01

    The article analyzes the methods of management of construction and demolition wastes. The authors developed suggestions for improving the management system of the turnover of construction and demolition wastes. Today the issue of improving the management of construction and demolition wastes is of the same importance as problems of protecting the life-support field from pollution and of preserving biological and land resources. The authors educed the prospective directions and methods for improving the management of the turnover processes for construction and demolition wastes, including the evaluation of potential of wastes as secondary raw materials and the formation of a centralized waste management system.

  5. New projects related to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbow, R.

    2008-01-01

    The PMU has been established in support of the KNPP Decommissioning Department. All of the Infrastructure Projects associated with Decommissioning have been identified and are being managed through the EBRD Procurement Process. The status of the following projects is presented: Evaluation of the Radiological Inventory for Units 1 to 4; Supply of Size Reduction and Decontamination Workshops; Dismantling Tools and Equipment; Heat Generation Plant; Environmental Assessment for Decommissioning; Decay Storage Site for Transitional RAW ; Information Centres for Decommissioning; Storage Site for Conventional Waste from Decommissioning; Inventory, Treatment an Conditioning of Contaminated Soil; Concrete Core Sampling Analysis; Asbestos Removal Equipment; Demolition Equipment

  6. Secondary Waste Form Development and Optimization—Cast Stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S. K.; Parker, Kent E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pitman, Stan G.; Chun, Jaehun; Chung, Chul-Woo; Kimura, Marcia L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Um, Wooyong; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-07-14

    Washington River Protection Services is considering the design and construction of a Solidification Treatment Unit (STU) for the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. The ETF is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-permitted, multi-waste, treatment and storage unit and can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed wastewaters for treatment. The STU needs to be operational by 2018 to receive secondary liquid wastes generated during operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The STU to ETF will provide the additional capacity needed for ETF to process the increased volume of secondary wastes expected to be produced by WTP.

  7. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for

  8. Development of decommissioning recycle simulator for the rational reuse of dismantled wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Eichi; Ozaki, Sachio; Hironaga, Michihiko; Nishiuchi, Tatsuo

    2002-01-01

    An expert system having a faculty of furnishing motivations for decommissioning planners to establish a rational recycle scenario has been developed and named 'recycle simulator'. This paper presents both a summarized configuration and an algorithm of the proposed system and indicates content of required data-bases and their mutual relations. Finally an instance applying the 'recycle simulator' pointed out some important factors in the reuse of demolished concrete. (author)

  9. Incentivizing secondary raw material markets for sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Maximilian; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Notwithstanding several policy initiatives in many countries over a number of years, there remains a general sense that too much municipal solid waste is generated and that too much of the waste that is generated is landfilled. There is an emerging consensus that a sustainable approach to waste management requires further development of secondary raw material markets. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical economic model that focuses upon this stage of a sustainable waste management program and explores policy options that could motivate efficiency in secondary raw material markets. In particular, we show how firm profit and social welfare optimizing objectives can be reconciled in a two-product market of waste management processes: landfilling and material reclamation. Our results provide theoretical support for building out recent Circular Economy initiatives as well as for the relatively recent emergence of landfill mining as a means for procuring secondary raw materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Secondary Waste Simulant Development for Cast Stone Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rinehart, Donald E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, David J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Mahoney, J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) funded Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a waste form testing program to implement aspects of the Secondary Liquid Waste Treatment Cast Stone Technology Development Plan (Ashley 2012) and the Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap (PNNL 2009) related to the development and qualification of Cast Stone as a potential waste form for the solidification of aqueous wastes from the Hanford Site after the aqueous wastes are treated at the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The current baseline is that the resultant Cast Stone (or grout) solid waste forms would be disposed at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Data and results of this testing program will be used in the upcoming performance assessment of the IDF and in the design and operation of a solidification treatment unit planned to be added to the ETF. The purpose of the work described in this report is to 1) develop simulants for the waste streams that are currently being fed and future WTP secondary waste streams also to be fed into the ETF and 2) prepare simulants to use for preparation of grout or Cast Stone solid waste forms for testing.

  11. Nuclear decommissioning and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualetti, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Links between decommissioning in general, reactor decommissioning in particular, and the public are indexed. The established links are recognised and others, such as jobs, are discussed. Finally the links with policy, such as political geography, and wider issues of the environment and public concern over waste disposal are considered. Decommissioning is a relatively new field where public opinion must now be considered but it has implications both for existing nuclear power plants and those planned for the future, especially in their siting. This book looks especially at the situation in the United Kingdom. There are twelve papers, all indexed separately. (UK)

  12. Secondary waste form testing: ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Ganga, R.; Gaviria, J.; Yusufoglu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The cleanup activities of the Hanford tank wastes require stabilization and solidification of the secondary waste streams generated from the processing of the tank wastes. The treatment of these tank wastes to produce glass waste forms will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. Liquid wastes may include process condensates and scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids from the thermal waste treatment. The current baseline for solidification of the secondary wastes is a cement-based waste form. However, alternative secondary waste forms are being considered. In this regard, Ceramicrete technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, is being explored as an option to solidify and stabilize the secondary wastes. The Ceramicrete process has been demonstrated on four secondary waste formulations: baseline, cluster 1, cluster 2, and mixed waste streams. Based on the recipes provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the four waste simulants were prepared in-house. Waste forms were fabricated with three filler materials: Class C fly ash, CaSiO 3 , and Class C fly ash + slag. Optimum waste loadings were as high as 20 wt.% for the fly ash and CaSiO 3 , and 15 wt.% for fly ash + slag filler. Waste forms for physical characterizations were fabricated with no additives, hazardous contaminants, and radionuclide surrogates. Physical property characterizations (density, compressive strength, and 90-day water immersion test) showed that the waste forms were stable and durable. Compressive strengths were >2,500 psi, and the strengths remained high after the 90-day water immersion test. Fly ash and CaSiO 3 filler waste forms appeared to be superior to the waste forms with fly ash + slag as a filler. Waste form weight loss was ∼5-14 wt.% over the 90-day immersion test. The majority of the weight loss occurred during the initial phase of the immersion test, indicative of washing off of residual unreacted binder components from

  13. Secondary waste form testing : ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Ganga, R.; Gaviria, J.; Yusufoglu, Y. (Nuclear Engineering Division); ( ES)

    2011-06-21

    The cleanup activities of the Hanford tank wastes require stabilization and solidification of the secondary waste streams generated from the processing of the tank wastes. The treatment of these tank wastes to produce glass waste forms will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. Liquid wastes may include process condensates and scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids from the thermal waste treatment. The current baseline for solidification of the secondary wastes is a cement-based waste form. However, alternative secondary waste forms are being considered. In this regard, Ceramicrete technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, is being explored as an option to solidify and stabilize the secondary wastes. The Ceramicrete process has been demonstrated on four secondary waste formulations: baseline, cluster 1, cluster 2, and mixed waste streams. Based on the recipes provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the four waste simulants were prepared in-house. Waste forms were fabricated with three filler materials: Class C fly ash, CaSiO{sub 3}, and Class C fly ash + slag. Optimum waste loadings were as high as 20 wt.% for the fly ash and CaSiO{sub 3}, and 15 wt.% for fly ash + slag filler. Waste forms for physical characterizations were fabricated with no additives, hazardous contaminants, and radionuclide surrogates. Physical property characterizations (density, compressive strength, and 90-day water immersion test) showed that the waste forms were stable and durable. Compressive strengths were >2,500 psi, and the strengths remained high after the 90-day water immersion test. Fly ash and CaSiO{sub 3} filler waste forms appeared to be superior to the waste forms with fly ash + slag as a filler. Waste form weight loss was {approx}5-14 wt.% over the 90-day immersion test. The majority of the weight loss occurred during the initial phase of the immersion test, indicative of washing off of residual unreacted

  14. Decommissioning and Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaut, V.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's decommissioning and decontamination programme are (1) to develop, test and optimise the technologies and procedures for decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear installations in order to minimise the waste arising and the distributed dose; (2) to optimise the environmental impact; (3) to reduce the cost of the end-of-life of the installation; (4) to make these new techniques available to the industry; (5) to share skills and competences. The programme and achievements in 1999 are summarised

  15. Evaluation of Secondary Streams in Mixed Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, Fred F.; Goldsmith, William A.; Allen, Douglas F.; Mezga, Lance J.

    1995-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have generated waste containing radioactive and hazardous chemical components (mixed wastes) for over 50 years. Facilities and processes generating these wastes as well as the regulations governing their management have changed. Now, DOE has 49 sites where mixed waste streams exist. The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 (1) required DOE to prepare and obtain regulatory approval of plans for treating these mixed waste streams. Each of the involved DOE sites submitted its respective plan to regulators in April 1995 (2). Most of the individual plans were approved by the respective regulatory agencies in October 1995. The implementation of these plans has begun accordance with compliance instruments (orders) issued by the cognizant regulatory authority. Most of these orders include milestones that are fixed, firm and enforceable as defined in each compliance order. In many cases, mixed waste treatment that was already being carried out and survived the alternative selection process is being used now to treat selected mixed waste streams. For other waste streams at sites throughout the DOE complex treatment methods and schedules are subject to negotiation as the realties of ever decreasing budgets begin to drive the available options. Secondary wastes generated by individual waste treatment systems are also mixed wastes that require treatment in the appropriate treatment system. These secondary wastes may be solid or liquid waste (or both). For example debris washing will generate wastewater requiring treatment; wastewater treatment, in turn, will generate sludge or other residuals requiring treatment; liquid effluents must meet applicable limits of discharge permits. At large DOE sites, secondary waste streams will be a major influence in optimizing design for primary treatment. Understanding these impacts is important not only foe system design, but also for assurances that radiation releases and

  16. Decommissioning Work Modeling System for Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. K.; Cho, W. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Moon, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    During the decommissioning activities of the KRR-1 and 2 (Korea Research Reactor 1 and 2) and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), all information and data, which generated from the decommissioning project, were record, input and managed at the DECOMMIS (DECOMMissioning Information management System). This system was developed for the inputting and management of the data and information of the man-power consumption, operation time of the dismantling equipment, the activities of the radiation control, dismantled waste management and Q/A activities. When a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste volume and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. That is why, the DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System) was established for the management of the facility characterization data. The DEWOCS (DEcommissioning WOrk-unit productivity Calculation System) was developed for the calculation of the workability on the decommissioning activities. The work-unit productivities are calculated through this system using the data from the two systems, DECOMMIS and DEFACS. This result, the factors of the decommissioning work-unit productivities, will be useful for the other nuclear facility decommissioning planning and engineering. For this, to set up the items and plan for the decommissioning of the new objective facility, the DEMOS (DEcommissioning work Modeling System) was developed. This system is for the evaluation the cost, man-power consumption of workers and project staffs and technology application time. The factor of the work-unit productivities from the DEWOCS and governmental labor cost DB and equipment rental fee DB were used for the calculation the result of the DEMOS. And also, for the total system, DES (Decommissioning Engineering System), which is now

  17. Decommissioning of surface facilities associated with repositories for the deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1978-11-01

    A methodology is presented in this paper to evaluate the decommissioning of the surface facilities associated with repositories for the deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. A cost/risk index (figure of merit), expressed as $/manrem, is proposed as an evaluation criteria. On the basis of this cost/risk index, we gain insight into the advisability of adapting certain decontamination design options into the original facility. Three modes are considered: protective storage, entombment, and dismantlement. Cost estimates are made for the direct labor involved in each of the alternative modes for a baseline design case. Similarly, occupational radiation exposures are estimated, with a larger degree of uncertainty, for each of the modes. Combination of these estimates produces the cost/risk index. To illustrate the methodology, an example using a preliminary baseline repository design is discussed

  18. Final feasibility study of possibilities and potentials of the disused iron ore mine Konrad (FRG) for low-level waste and decommissioning waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.; Stippler, R.

    1982-01-01

    The ''Institut fur Tieflagerung'' of the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- and Umweltforschung, in collaboration with the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, carries out geoscientific and technical investigations in the disused iron ore mine Konrad. The aim is to prove the mine's feasibility for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste and decommissioning waste as well as the use of the existing mining installations. The investigations were initiated in 1975 and are being financed by the Minister for Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany. Since 1978 the work is being supported as well by the Commission of the European Community in the scope of two years each. So far an amount of 60 mio DM has been spent, 86% for maintenance and further operation of the mine and 14% for research work

  19. Final project report: TA-35 Los Alamos Power Reactor Experiment No. II (LAPRE II) decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, G.M.

    1993-02-01

    This final report addresses the decommissioning of the LAPRE II Reactor, safety enclosure, fuel reservoir tanks, emergency fuel recovery system, primary pump pit, secondary loop, associated piping, and the post-remediation activities. Post-remedial action measurements are also included. The cost of the project including, Phase I assessment and Phase II remediation was approximately $496K. The decommissioning operation produced 533 M 3 of mixed waste

  20. Secondary Waste Form Down Selection Data Package – Ceramicrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-08-31

    As part of high-level waste pretreatment and immobilized low activity waste processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility. Currently, four waste forms are being considered for stabilization and solidification of the liquid secondary wastes. These waste forms are Cast Stone, Ceramicrete, DuraLith, and Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer. The preferred alternative will be down selected from these four waste forms. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing data packages to support the down selection process. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilization and solidification of the liquid secondary wastes. The information included will be based on information available in the open literature and from data obtained from testing currently underway. This data package is for the Ceramicrete waste form. Ceramicrete is a relatively new engineering material developed at Argonne National Laboratory to treat radioactive and hazardous waste streams (e.g., Wagh 2004; Wagh et al. 1999a, 2003; Singh et al. 2000). This cement-like waste form can be used to treat solids, liquids, and sludges by chemical immobilization, microencapsulation, and/or macroencapsulation. The Ceramicrete technology is based on chemical reaction between phosphate anions and metal cations to form a strong, dense, durable, low porosity matrix that immobilizes hazardous and radioactive contaminants as insoluble phosphates and microencapsulates insoluble radioactive components and other constituents that do not form phosphates. Ceramicrete is a type of phosphate-bonded ceramic, which are also known as chemically bonded phosphate ceramics. The Ceramicrete

  1. Management of solid wastes during decommissioning of research reactors. Evaluation of gross clearance levels and mathematical simulation of solid waste assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Sobhan Babu, K.; Sharma, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Decommissioning of nuclear facilities constitute a challenge mainly due to the huge and complex nature of radioactive waste generated during this process. In the context of management and disposal of waste and reuse/recycle of usable materials during decommissioning of reactors, clearance levels for relevant radio nuclides are of vital importance. Radionuclide specific clearance levels are developed by IAEA and such levels allow the facility for free release of materials to the environment without further regulatory consideration. An effort has been made in this paper to establish clearance levels for radionuclides associated with various system and structural components of a research reactor and rather than radionuclide specific clearance levels, these values are derived for gross activity concentration, which is more practical for radioactive waste categorization, disposal and reuse or recycle of usable materials. The first step towards the derivation of clearance levels is the calculation of annual doses relating to unit activity concentration for each nuclide using various enveloping scenarios. After the estimation of doses, the limiting enveloping scenario (the one that gives the highest dose) is identified. The clearance levels are then derived by dividing the reference dose level (10 μSv/y) by the annual dose calculated per unit activity concentration for the limiting enveloping scenario The clearance level for gross beta-gamma activity concentration is then evaluated as the product of the limiting clearance level and the number of radionuclides characterized for the structural components. Simulation studies were also carried out for the design of a monitoring system for estimation of activity concentration of the decommissioned materials, especially rubbles/ concrete, using mathematical models. Conventional solid waste assay techniques would not suffice to the requirement of decommissioning waste categorization since very low level activity

  2. Decommissioning planning of Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Gunnar; Bergh, Niklas [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The technologies required for the decommissioning work are for the most part readily proven. Taken into account that there will be many more years before the studied reactor units will undergo decommissioning, the techniques could even be called conventional at that time. This will help bring the decommissioning projects to a successful closure. A national waste fund is already established in Sweden to finance amongst others all dismantling and decommissioning work. This will assure that funding for the decommissioning projects is at hand when needed. All necessary plant data are readily available and this will, combined with a reliable management system, expedite the decommissioning projects considerably. Final repositories for both long- and short-lived LILW respectively is planned and will be constructed and dimensioned to receive the decommissioning waste from the Swedish NPP:s. Since the strategy is set and well thought-through, this will help facilitate a smooth disposal of the radioactive decommissioning waste. (orig.)

  3. Radioactive waste management: a series of bibliographies. Decontamination and decommissioning. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains information on decontamination and decommissioning added to the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from November 1982 through December 1983. The abstracts are grouped by subject category. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Fuel Reprocessing Plants/Decontamination. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, these, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  4. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollradt, J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the main questions of decommissioning of nuclear power plants will be given in the sight of German utilities (VDEW-Working group 'Stillegung'). The main topics are: 1) Definitions of decommissioning, entombment, removal and combinations of such alternatives; 2) Radioactive inventory (build up and decay); 3) Experience up to now; 4) Possibilities to dismantle are given by possibility to repair nuclear power plants; 5) Estimated costs, waste, occupational radiation dose; 6) German concept of decommissioning. (orig./HK) [de

  5. Concrete as secondary containment for interior wall embedded waste lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are numerous facilities that handle hazardous waste solutions. Secondary containment of tank systems and their ancillary piping is a major concern for existing facilities. The Idaho Division of Environmental Quality was petitioned in 1990 for an Equivalent Device determination regarding secondary containment of waste lines embedded in interior concrete walls. The petition was granted, however it expires in 1996. To address the secondary containment issue, additional studies were undertaken. One study verified the hypothesis that an interior wall pipe leak would follow the path of least resistance through the naturally occurring void found below a rigidly supported pipe and pass into an adjacent room where detection could occur, before any significant deterioration of the concrete takes place. Other tests demonstrated that with acidic waste solutions rebar and cold joints are not an accelerated path to the environment. The results from these latest studies confirm that the subject configuration meets all the requirements of secondary containment

  6. Secondary Waste Cementitious Waste Form Data Package for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cozzi, Alex D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-16

    A review of the most up-to-date and relevant data currently available was conducted to develop a set of recommended values for use in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA) to model contaminant release from a cementitious waste form for aqueous wastes treated at the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). This data package relies primarily upon recent data collected on Cast Stone formulations fabricated with simulants of low-activity waste (LAW) and liquid secondary wastes expected to be produced at Hanford. These data were supplemented, when necessary, with data developed for saltstone (a similar grout waste form used at the Savannah River Site). Work is currently underway to collect data on cementitious waste forms that are similar to Cast Stone and saltstone but are tailored to the characteristics of ETF-treated liquid secondary wastes. Recommended values for key parameters to conduct PA modeling of contaminant release from ETF-treated liquid waste are provided.

  7. Safety Assessment for Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    In the past few decades, international guidance has been developed on methods for assessing the safety of predisposal and disposal facilities for radioactive waste. More recently, it has been recognized that there is also a need for specific guidance on safety assessment in the context of decommissioning nuclear facilities. The importance of safety during decommissioning was highlighted at the International Conference on Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities held in Berlin in 2002 and at the First Review Meeting of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management in 2003. At its June 2004 meeting, the Board of Governors of the IAEA approved the International Action Plan on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (GOV/2004/40), which called on the IAEA to: ''establish a forum for the sharing and exchange of national information and experience on the application of safety assessment in the context of decommissioning and provide a means to convey this information to other interested parties, also drawing on the work of other international organizations in this area''. In response, in November 2004, the IAEA launched the international project Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety for Decommissioning of Facilities Using Radioactive Material (DeSa) with the following objectives: -To develop a harmonized approach to safety assessment and to define the elements of safety assessment for decommissioning, including the application of a graded approach; -To investigate the practical applicability of the methodology and performance of safety assessments for the decommissioning of various types of facility through a selected number of test cases; -To investigate approaches for the review of safety assessments for decommissioning activities and the development of a regulatory approach for reviewing safety assessments for decommissioning activities and as a basis for regulatory decision making; -To provide a forum

  8. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's plan to decommission and reclaim exploratory shafts and related facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenster, D.F.; Schubert, J.P.; Zellmer, S.D.; Harrison, W.; Simpson, D.G.; Busch, J.S.

    1984-07-01

    The following recommendations are made for improving the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's plan for decommissioning and reclaiming exploratory shafts and other facilities associated with site characterization: (1) Discuss more comprehensively the technical aspects of activities related to decommissioning and reclamation. More detailed information will help convince the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and others that the activities as outlined in the plan are properly structured and that the stated goals can be achieved. (2) Address in considerably greater detail how the proposed activities will satisfy specific federal, state, and local laws and regulations. (3) State clearly the precise purpose of the plan, preferably at the beginning and under an appropriate heading. (4) Also under an appropriate heading and immediately after the section on purpose, describe the scope of the plan. The tasks covered by this plan and closely related tasks covered by other appropriate plans should be clearly differentiated. (5) Discuss the possible environmental effects of drilling the exploratory shaft, excavating drifts in salt, and drilling boreholes as part of site characterization. Mitigation activities should be designed to counter specific potential impacts. High priority should be given to minimizing groundwater contamination and restoring the surface to a condition consistent with the proposed land use following completion of characterization activities at sites not chosen for repository construction. (6) Define ambiguous technical terms, either in the text when first introduced or in an appended glossary

  9. A Novel and Cost Effective Approach to the Decommissioning and Decontamination of Legacy Glove Boxes - Minimizing TRU Waste and Maximizing LLW Waste - 13634

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancake, Daniel; Rock, Cynthia M.; Creed, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A. [ANTECH Corporation 9050 Marshall Court, Westminster, CO, 80031 (United States); Norton, Christopher J.; Crosby, Daniel [Environmental Alternatives, Inc., 149 Emerald Street, Suite R, Keene, NH 03431 (United States); Nachtman, Thomas J. [InstaCote, Inc., 160 C. Lavoy Road, Erie, MI, 48133 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the process of decommissioning two gloveboxes at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that were employed for work with plutonium and other radioactive materials. The decommissioning process involved an initial phase of clearing tools and materials from the glove boxes and disconnecting them from the laboratory infrastructure. The removed materials, assessed as Transuranic (TRU) waste, were packaged into 55 gallon (200 litre) drums and prepared for ultimate disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad New Mexico. The boxes were then sampled to determine the radioactive contents by means of smears that were counted with alpha and beta detectors to determine the residual surface contamination, especially in terms of alpha particle emitters that are an indicator of TRU activity. Paint chip samples were also collected and sent for laboratory analysis in order to ascertain the radioactive contamination contributing to the TRU activity as a fixed contamination. The investigations predicted that it may be feasible to reduce the residual surface contamination and render the glovebox structure low level waste (LLW) for disposal. In order to reduce the TRU activity a comprehensive decontamination process was initiated using chemical compounds that are particularly effective for lifting and dissolving radionuclides that adhere to the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes. The result of the decontamination process was a reduction in the TRU surface activity on the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes by four orders of magnitude in terms of disintegrations per unit area (DPA). The next phase of the process involved a comprehensive assay of the gloveboxes using a combination of passive neutron and gamma ray scintillation detectors and a shielded and collimated high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma ray detector. The HPGe detector was used to obtain gamma ray spectra for a variety of measurement positions within the glovebox. The spectra were used to

  10. A Novel and Cost Effective Approach to the Decommissioning and Decontamination of Legacy Glove Boxes - Minimizing TRU Waste and Maximizing LLW Waste - 13634

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancake, Daniel; Rock, Cynthia M.; Creed, Richard; Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A.; Norton, Christopher J.; Crosby, Daniel; Nachtman, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the process of decommissioning two gloveboxes at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that were employed for work with plutonium and other radioactive materials. The decommissioning process involved an initial phase of clearing tools and materials from the glove boxes and disconnecting them from the laboratory infrastructure. The removed materials, assessed as Transuranic (TRU) waste, were packaged into 55 gallon (200 litre) drums and prepared for ultimate disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad New Mexico. The boxes were then sampled to determine the radioactive contents by means of smears that were counted with alpha and beta detectors to determine the residual surface contamination, especially in terms of alpha particle emitters that are an indicator of TRU activity. Paint chip samples were also collected and sent for laboratory analysis in order to ascertain the radioactive contamination contributing to the TRU activity as a fixed contamination. The investigations predicted that it may be feasible to reduce the residual surface contamination and render the glovebox structure low level waste (LLW) for disposal. In order to reduce the TRU activity a comprehensive decontamination process was initiated using chemical compounds that are particularly effective for lifting and dissolving radionuclides that adhere to the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes. The result of the decontamination process was a reduction in the TRU surface activity on the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes by four orders of magnitude in terms of disintegrations per unit area (DPA). The next phase of the process involved a comprehensive assay of the gloveboxes using a combination of passive neutron and gamma ray scintillation detectors and a shielded and collimated high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma ray detector. The HPGe detector was used to obtain gamma ray spectra for a variety of measurement positions within the glovebox. The spectra were used to

  11. Characterization of Iraq's remote nuclear facilities for decommissioning and waste management - 59167

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Musawi, Fouad; Jarjies, Adnan; Miller, Ross A.

    2012-01-01

    The Government of Iraq (GOI) has undertaken efforts to decommission and dismantle former nuclear facilities. The GOI has only preliminary information on some of the former nuclear facilities. This paper will highlight the challenges involved in conducting inspections of the outlying former nuclear facilities in Iraq and present a brief summary of the results of those inspections. The facilities discussed in this paper are located at various sites throughout Iraq, from locations close to Baghdad to those in the north and far western desert areas. Some of the facilities, such as those at the Al Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center have been visited and characterized. Other facilities, including the following, have not been visited or thoroughly characterized. - Al Jesira, Uranium feed stock production facility; - Adaya, Burial location for contaminated equipment; - Djerf al Naddah, Spent fuel storage facility; - Rashdiya, Centrifuge development center; - Al Qa'im, Uranium (yellowcake) production facility. The visits were conducted to develop an inventory of the buildings/structures that need to be included in decommissioning/dismantlement efforts. The number of buildings, type of construction, size and general condition of the buildings were noted. In addition, attempts were made to determine contamination levels on surfaces, equipment, rubble, etc. This information will be used to support the Iraqi decommissioning and dismantlement project. Because the facilities are scattered throughout the country of Iraq, significant planning and coordination was required to ensure personnel security. Teams consisting of individuals from the Iraqi Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) and Americans were under military escort when traveling to and visiting the sites. Because of the security issues, time on the ground at each site was limited. This paper will highlight the challenges involved in conducting the inspections of the outlying former nuclear facilities In Iraq and

  12. Secondary waste minimization in analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S.; Schilling, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The characterization phase of site remediation is an important and costly part of the process. Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are used in common analytical methods, characterization is also a source of new waste, including mixed waste. Alternative analytical methods can reduce the volume or form of hazardous waste produced either in the sample preparation step or in the measurement step. The authors are examining alternative methods in the areas of inorganic, radiological, and organic analysis. For determining inorganic constituents, alternative methods were studied for sample introduction into inductively coupled plasma spectrometers. Figures of merit for the alternative methods, as well as their associated waste volumes, were compared with the conventional approaches. In the radiological area, the authors are comparing conventional methods for gross α/β measurements of soil samples to an alternative method that uses high-pressure microwave dissolution. For determination of organic constituents, microwave-assisted extraction was studied for RCRA regulated semivolatile organics in a variety of solid matrices, including spiked samples in blank soil; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in soils, sludges, and sediments; and semivolatile organics in soil. Extraction efficiencies were determined under varying conditions of time, temperature, microwave power, moisture content, and extraction solvent. Solvent usage was cut from the 300 mL used in conventional extraction methods to about 30 mL. Extraction results varied from one matrix to another. In most cases, the microwave-assisted extraction technique was as efficient as the more common Soxhlet or sonication extraction techniques

  13. Methods for the minimization of radioactive waste from decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide Member States and their decision makers (ranging from regulators, strategists, planners and designers, to operators) with relevant information on opportunities for minimizing radioactive wastes arising from the D and D of nuclear facilities. This will allow waste minimization options to be properly planned and assessed as part of national, site and plant waste management policies. This objective will be achieved by: reviewing the sources and characteristics of radioactive materials arising from D and D activities; reviewing waste minimization principles and current practical applications, together with regulatory, technical, financial and political factors influencing waste minimization practices; and reviewing current trends in improving waste minimization practices during D and D

  14. Waste management aspects of decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    History shows that waste management concepts have generally been overlooked during the planning stages of most projects and experiments. This is resulting,in the generation of vast amounts of waste during the clean up or D ampersand D of these facilities. Managers are not only being frustrated in their waste minimization efforts (a relatively new concept) but are also facing the prospect of not being able to dispose of the waste materials at all. At the least, managers are having to budget extraordinary amounts of time, money, and effort in defending their positions that the waste materials are not only humanly and environmentally safe, but that the waste materials are in fact what management says they are. The following discussion will attempt to provide some guidance to D ampersand D managers to help them avoid many of the common pitfalls associated with the ultimate disposal of the materials generated during these projects

  15. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the plans, processes and results of the decontamination and decommissioning of the Hot Cell Facility in Building 23 at the General Atomics Torrey Pines Mesa Facility (HCF) and compares the program and cost of decommissioning HCF with the Swedish cost estimate for decontamination and decommissioning of the HM hot cell and wastes treatment facility at Studsvik in Sweden. The HCF had three main hot cells and was licensed to: Receive, handle and ship radioactive materials; Remotely handle, examine and store irradiated fuel materials; Extract tritium (engineering scale); Support new reactor production development; Develop, fabricate and inspect UO 2 - BeO fuel materials. The HM facility in Studsvik was constructed to handle and package medium-active solid and liquid wastes, prior to disposal. Central to the facility is a conventional hot cell including three work stations, serviced by master slave manipulators. Other parts of the facility include holding tanks for liquid wastes and slurries, a centrifuge room, as well as an encapsulation station where drummed wastes can be encapsulated in cement, offices, laboratories and workshops and so on, as well as building and cell ventilation systems. Decontamination and decommissioning of the HCF took place during 1993 through 2001. The objective was to obtain regulatory release of the site so that it could be used on an unrestricted basis. Based on data from extensive hazardous and radiological materials characterization, GA evaluated four decommissioning options and selected dismantling as the only option that would satisfy the decommissioning objective. The decontamination and decommissioning scope included the following actions. 1. Remove the legacy waste that consisted of radioactive wastes stored at the HCF consisting of 21,434 kg of irradiated fuel material (IFM) that was owned by the US DoE and store the waste in temporary storage set up at the GA site. 2. Actual Decontamination and Dismantlement

  16. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents the plans, processes and results of the decontamination and decommissioning of the Hot Cell Facility in Building 23 at the General Atomics Torrey Pines Mesa Facility (HCF) and compares the program and cost of decommissioning HCF with the Swedish cost estimate for decontamination and decommissioning of the HM hot cell and wastes treatment facility at Studsvik in Sweden. The HCF had three main hot cells and was licensed to: Receive, handle and ship radioactive materials; Remotely handle, examine and store irradiated fuel materials; Extract tritium (engineering scale); Support new reactor production development; Develop, fabricate and inspect UO{sub 2} - BeO fuel materials. The HM facility in Studsvik was constructed to handle and package medium-active solid and liquid wastes, prior to disposal. Central to the facility is a conventional hot cell including three work stations, serviced by master slave manipulators. Other parts of the facility include holding tanks for liquid wastes and slurries, a centrifuge room, as well as an encapsulation station where drummed wastes can be encapsulated in cement, offices, laboratories and workshops and so on, as well as building and cell ventilation systems. Decontamination and decommissioning of the HCF took place during 1993 through 2001. The objective was to obtain regulatory release of the site so that it could be used on an unrestricted basis. Based on data from extensive hazardous and radiological materials characterization, GA evaluated four decommissioning options and selected dismantling as the only option that would satisfy the decommissioning objective. The decontamination and decommissioning scope included the following actions. 1. Remove the legacy waste that consisted of radioactive wastes stored at the HCF consisting of 21,434 kg of irradiated fuel material (IFM) that was owned by the US DoE and store the waste in temporary storage set up at the GA site. 2. Actual Decontamination and

  17. NPP Decommissioning: the concept; state of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemytov, S.; Zimin, V.

    2001-01-01

    The main principles of NPP decommissioning concept in Russia are given. The conditions with fulfillment of works on NPP unit pre-decommissioning and decommissioning including: development of the normative documentation, creation of special fund for financing NPP decommissioning activities, deriving the Gosatomnadzor license for decommissioning of shut down NPP units, development of the equipment and technologies for waste and spent fuel management are presented. The decommissioning cost and labour intensity of one WWER-440 unit are shown. The practical works, executed on shut down units at Beloyarsk NPP (Unit1 and 2) and Novo Voronezh NPP (Unit 1 and 2) are outlined

  18. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key Topics / Enhanced safety and operation excellence and decommissioning experience and Waste management solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salnikova, Tatiana [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Schaffrath, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Summary report on the Key Topics ''Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence'' and ''Decommissioning Experience and Waste Management Solutions'' of the 47{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016. Other Sessions of AMNT 2016 have been and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  19. Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. K.; Ji, Y. H.; Park, J. H.; Chung, U. S.

    2010-01-01

    Basically, when a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. In this paper, it is presented a computer system for the characterization of nuclear facilities, called DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System). This system consists of four main parts: a management coding system for grouping items, a data input system, a data processing system and a data output system. All data is processed in a simplified and formatted manner in order to provide useful information to the decommissioning planner. For the hardware, PC grade computers running Oracle software on Microsoft Windows OS were selected. The characterization data results for the nuclear facility under decommissioning will be utilized for the work-unit productivity calculation system and decommissioning engineering system as basic sources of information

  20. Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. K.; Ji, Y. H.; Park, J. H.; Chung, U. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Basically, when a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. In this paper, it is presented a computer system for the characterization of nuclear facilities, called DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System). This system consists of four main parts: a management coding system for grouping items, a data input system, a data processing system and a data output system. All data is processed in a simplified and formatted manner in order to provide useful information to the decommissioning planner. For the hardware, PC grade computers running Oracle software on Microsoft Windows OS were selected. The characterization data results for the nuclear facility under decommissioning will be utilized for the work-unit productivity calculation system and decommissioning engineering system as basic sources of information

  1. Secondary Low-Level Waste Treatment Strategy Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.M. LaRue

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to identify and review potential options for processing and disposing of the secondary low-level waste (LLW) that will be generated through operation of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). An estimate of annual secondary LLW is generated utilizing the mechanism established in ''Secondary Waste Treatment Analysis'' (Reference 8.1) and ''Secondary Low-Level Waste Generation Rate Analysis'' (Reference 8.5). The secondary LLW quantities are based on the spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) arrival schedule as defined in the ''Controlled Design Assumptions Document'' (CDA) (Reference 8.6). This analysis presents estimates of the quantities of LLW in its various forms. A review of applicable laws, codes, and standards is discussed, and a synopsis of those applicable laws, codes, and standards and their impacts on potential processing and disposal options is presented. The analysis identifies viable processing/disposal options in light of the existing laws, codes, and standards, and then evaluates these options in regard to: (1) Process and equipment requirements; (2) LLW disposal volumes; and (3) Facility requirements

  2. Decommissioning a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The process of decommissioning a facility such as a nuclear reactor or reprocessing plant presents many waste management options and concerns. Waste minimization is a primary consideration, along with protecting a personnel and the environment. Waste management is complicated in that both radioactive and chemical hazardous wastes must be dealt with. This paper presents the general decommissioning approach of a recent project at Los Alamos. Included are the following technical objectives: site characterization work that provided a thorough physical, chemical, and radiological assessment of the contamination at the site; demonstration of the safe and cost-effective dismantlement of a highly contaminated and activated nuclear-fuelded reactor; and techniques used in minimizing radioactive and hazardous waste. 12 figs

  3. Planning, organizational and management issues in moving from operation to decommissioning and their impact on waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraia, M.

    2001-01-01

    The transition from a nuclear facility's operating phase to decommissioning is critical. A number of modifications are required during this period to adapt the facility to new objectives and requirements. There are various activities to prepare for implementation of the decommissioning strategy that may be started before final plant closure or immediately afterwards: these serve to support the decommissioning planning process and ease the burden of operating requirements. (Author)

  4. ALKALINE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF SECONDARY WASTE FROM WASTE INCINERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Mierzwiński

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper regards the possibility of using geopolymer matrix to immobilize heavy metals present in ash and slag from combustion of waste. In the related research one used the fly ash from coal combustion in one Polish CHP plant and the waste from Polish incineration plants. It was studied if the above-named waste materials are useful in the process of alkali-activation. Therefore, three sets of geopolymer mixtures were prepared containing 60, 50 and 30% of ash and slag from the combustion of waste and fly ash combustion of sewage skudge. The remaining content was fly ash from coal combustion. The alkali-activation was conducted by means of 14M solution of NaOH and sodium water glass. The samples, whose dimensions were in accordance with the PN-EN 206-1 norm, were subjected to 75°C for 24h. According to the results, the geopolymer matrix is able to immobilize heavy metals and retain compressive strength resembling that of concrete.

  5. Decommissioning - The worldwide challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, John

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Whatever the future may hold for nuclear power, there are closed or ageing nuclear facilities in many countries around the world. While these may be in safe care and maintenance at present, a sustainable long term solution is required. Facilities need to be decommissioned, contaminated land remediated, and wastes conditioned for safe storage or disposal. Practical nuclear site restoration has been demonstrated internationally. This experience has revealed generic challenges in dealing with old, often experimental, facilities. These include: Facilities not designed for ease of decommissioning; Records of plant construction and operation, and of the materials utilised and wastes produced, not to modern standards; Fuels and wastes stored for long periods in less than optimal conditions, leading to deterioration and handling problems; The historic use of experimental fuels and materials, giving rise to unique waste streams requiring unique waste management solutions; The application of modern safety and environmental standards to plant which dates from the 1940s, 50s and 60s, requiring investment before decommissioning can even commence. These problems can be tackled, as examples from UKAEA's own programme will illustrate. But two fundamental issues must be recognised and considered. First, the costs of decommissioning older facilities are very high, and may place a heavy burden on national budgets, despite using best efforts to control them. We can limit these costs by learning from one another's experience and sharing the development of new techniques and technologies. UKAEA has already initiated a programme of international collaboration, and hopes that other IAEA countries will be encouraged to follow suit. But whilst the costs of decommissioning may be high, the process normally meets with public acceptance. This is seldom the case for long term waste storage or disposal. Until waste management routes are available - either nationally or internationally

  6. Decommissioning Plan for European Spallation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a survey of the European Spallation Source initial decommissioning plan developed in compliance with Swedish Regulatory Authority requirements. The report outlines the decommissioning strategy selected and the baseline plan for decommissioning. Types and quantities of radioactive waste estimated to be generated at the final shut-down of the facility are further provided. The paper ends up with the analysis of the key elements of the decommissioning plan and the recommendations to the ESS management team..

  7. Decommissioning: the final folly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibdin, T.

    1990-01-01

    The Second International Seminar on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities held in London is reviewed. Various solutions to the reactor decommissioning, including isolating the reactor core, and turning the surrounding buildings into a theme park, are mentioned. The International Atomic Energy Agency identifies three decommissioning stages. Stage 1, defuelling; Stage 2 dismounting of non-radioactive plant with isolation of the nuclear island and Stage 3, return to a 'green field' site. The real debate is about waste management and timing of the stages - whether to defer Stage 3 for a century or so, or even whether to attempt Stage 3 at all. Cost estimation is also discussed. In the United Kingdom, the timing of completion of the deep repository for high level waste will affect the timing. (UK)

  8. Technical aspects regarding the management of radioactive waste from decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, F.; Turcanu, C.N.; Rotarescu, Gh.; Paunica, I.

    2002-01-01

    The proper application of the nuclear techniques and technologies in Romania started in 1957 with the commissioning of the VVR-S Research Reactor at IFIN-HH-Magurele. During the past 40 years, this reactor was used for thousands of nuclear applications with extremely diverse profiles (research, biology, medicine, education, agriculture, transport, all types of industry) which used radioactive sources in their activity and produced radioactive waste. The Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR) at IFIN-HH was constructed in collaboration with companies from the United Kingdom and became operational in 1975. It was the only authorized and specialized institution for the management of non-fuel cycle radioactive waste in Romania. Using the concepts existing in the 1980's concerning the final disposal of the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, and applying internal standards and international recommendations, the National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste (DNDR) was built in 1985 in Baita, Bihor county and placed into operation. Therefore, through the construction and operation of the treatment and final disposal capabilities, Romania has solved the management of the low and intermediate level radioactive waste while providing for the protection of the people and environment. (author)

  9. Joint Cementation of liquid and solid radioactive waste in decommissioning of atomic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlakov, A.; Varlakova, G.; Germanov, A.; Sukhanov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Joint cementation of liquid and solid radioactive waste (RW) directly in the containers that serve as the final packaging allows the reduction of waste amounts sent for storage and disposal. In the A.A. Bochvar Research Institute we have created a mobile unit and conducted tests on joint grouting of solid RW with the use of cement mixtures prepared on the basis of liquid RW. Two variants of void filling between the fragments of solid RW in a container: pouring and impregnation were examined. Impregnation is the so-called method suggested to be used for the solid RW with small fragments and dense filling layer. In this case the gaps between the waste are filled with the cement compound by using special technological procedures, in particular, the vibration action on the container filled with waste and the use of cement mixture with high level of penetration. It was observed that the pouring method is right for the cementation of solid RW with fragment sizes not exceeding 100-150 mm. Impregnation method can be used for the joint grouting of practically all types of solid RW regardless their size and fragments homogeneity. Cementation of densely packed and large size solid RW by impregnation guarantees the joint grouting of the lower layers of the waste in the container and can be controlled by determination of the impregnation degree and density of the cement mixture that passed through the waste layer

  10. Experience gained in the management of radioactive waste from maintenance, decontamination and partial decommissioning of a reprocessing plant and conclusions resulting for the management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hild, W.

    1983-01-01

    After a short description of the historical background of Eurochemic, its main tasks and the various operational phases, a detailed description of the waste management principles applied is presented. The practical experience in the waste treatment is reported for both the operational phase of the reprocessing plant and its decontamination and partial decommissioning after shutdown. Based on this experience and the presented data, an assessment of the practical operations is made and conclusions are drawn. Finally, recommendations are formulated both for the general waste management policy and the practical waste treatment processes in nuclear power reactors. (author)

  11. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs

  12. Money Related Decommissioning and Funding Decision Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, Lynne S.

    2008-01-01

    'Money makes the world go round', as the song says. It definitely influences decommissioning decision-making and financial assurance for future decommissioning. This paper will address two money-related decommissioning topics. The first is the evaluation of whether to continue or to halt decommissioning activities at Fermi 1. The second is maintaining adequacy of financial assurance for future decommissioning of operating plants. Decommissioning costs considerable money and costs are often higher than originally estimated. If costs increase significantly and decommissioning is not well funded, decommissioning activities may be deferred. Several decommissioning projects have been deferred when decision-makers determined future spending is preferable than current spending, or when costs have risen significantly. Decommissioning activity timing is being reevaluated for the Fermi 1 project. Assumptions for waste cost-escalation significantly impact the decision being made this year on the Fermi 1 decommissioning project. They also have a major impact on the estimated costs for decommissioning currently operating plants. Adequately funding full decommissioning during plant operation will ensure that the users who receive the benefit pay the full price of the nuclear-generated electricity. Funding throughout operation also will better ensure that money is available following shutdown to allow decommissioning to be conducted without need for additional funds

  13. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Topical Report is a synopsis of the decontamination of plant components and structures at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). The information is provided as a part of the Technology Transfer Program to document the preparation activities in support of the shipment of radioactive wastes and the unconditional release of the site and structural materials. 1 ref., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Decommissioning the WAGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, H. (UKAEA Windscale Nuclear Power Development Labs.)

    1982-11-01

    The planned decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, which will take about ten years, is discussed with especial reference to the radioactive decay of the reactor components, the problems of disposal of the resulting radioactive waste, and the planning of the necessary engineering works.

  15. Decommissioning the WAGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1982-01-01

    The planned decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, which will take about ten years, is discussed with especial reference to the radioactive decay of the reactor components, the problems of disposal of the resulting radioactive waste, and the planning of the necessary engineering works. (U.K.)

  16. Financial aspects of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Havris, A.

    2003-01-01

    European Commission adopted recently two proposals of Directives designed to pave the way for a Community approach to the safety of nuclear power plants and the processing of radioactive waste. Nuclear safety cannot be guaranteed without making available adequate financial resources. With regard, in particular, to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the Directive defines the Community rules for the establishment, management and use of decommissioning funds allocated to a body with legal personality separate from that of the nuclear operator. In order to comply with the acquis communautaire, Romanian Government issued the Emergency Ordinance no. 11/2003 which set up the National Agency for Radioactive Waste (ANDRAD) and soon will be established the financial mechanism for raising the necessary funds. Societatea Nationala 'Nuclearelectrica' S.A. operates, through one of its branches, Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and has to prepare its decommissioning strategy and to analyze the options to assure the financing for covering the future costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the financial systems' mechanisms to the satisfaction of the nuclear operator obligations, according to the disbursement schedule foreseen by decommissioning projects . The availability of cash to pay for all the decommissioning expenditure must be foreseen by setting up assets and establishing a suitable financing plan. The different practices of assets management shall be presented in this paper on the basis of the international experience. Some calculation samples shall be given as an illustration. (author)

  17. Progress of JPDR decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyota, M.; Yanagihara, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) decommissioning project is progressively achieving its final goal; the project will be finished by March 1996 to release the JPDR's site into unrestricted use in a green field condition. The new techniques which developed or improved in R and D, the first phase of this program, have been successfully applied to the actual dismantling activities. Some decommissioning wastes have been managed as the first case of onsite shallow land burial based on the new regulatory frame of radioactive waste management. The experiences and the data obtained from the JPDR dismantling activities are expected to contribute to future decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. (author)

  18. Temporal Imaging CeBr3 Compton Camera: A New Concept for Nuclear Decommissioning and Nuclear Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, A.; Snoussi, H.; Magalhaes, L. Rodrigues de; Hmissi, M. Z.; Zafiarifety, C. Tata; Tadonkeng, G. Zeufack; Morel, C.

    2018-01-01

    During nuclear decommissioning or waste management operations, a camera that could make an image of the contamination field and identify and quantify the contaminants would be a great progress. Compton cameras have been proposed, but their limited efficiency for high energy gamma rays and their cost have severely limited their application. Our objective is to promote a Compton camera for the energy range (200 keV - 2 MeV) that uses fast scintillating crystals and a new concept for locating scintillation event: Temporal Imaging. Temporal Imaging uses monolithic plates of fast scintillators and measures photons time of arrival distribution in order to locate each gamma ray with a high precision in space (X,Y,Z), time (T) and energy (E). This provides a native estimation of the depth of interaction (Z) of every detected gamma ray. This also allows a time correction for the propagation time of scintillation photons inside the crystal, therefore resulting in excellent time resolution. The high temporal resolution of the system makes it possible to veto quite efficiently background by using narrow time coincidence (system is better than 1 nSv/h in a 60 s acquisition with a 22Na source. The project TEMPORAL is funded by the ANDRA/PAI under the grant No. RTSCNADAA160019.

  19. Long-lived radioactive waste and nuclear plant decommissioning a legacy to future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAulay, I.R.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive waste is an inevitable by-product of all uses of radioactive substances. This is the case of natural radioactivity as well as for artificially produced radioactive isotopes, and it is easy to overlook the significance of the waste problem in the case of technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. Several options are available for the disposal of radioactive waste and the paper considers these in detail from the point of view of the possible future impact of radiation doses to individuals or populations. Particular consideration is given to the use of deep disposal at stable geological sites as a means of dealing with large amounts of radioactive waste. It should not be forgotten that some of what we term waste today need not necessarily always be so. Indeed, there is a good case to make for the recycling of low activity materials rather than the uneconomic expedient of burying them. The paper will consider the possible recycling of valuable materials following suitable reprocessing and dilution and mention the dose implications of examples of such re-utilisation of radioactive materials

  20. Long-lived radioactive waste and nuclear plant decommissioning a legacy to future generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAulay, I R [Trinity Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Physical Lab.

    1996-10-01

    Radioactive waste is an inevitable by-product of all uses of radioactive substances. This is the case of natural radioactivity as well as for artificially produced radioactive isotopes, and it is easy to overlook the significance of the waste problem in the case of technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. Several options are available for the disposal of radioactive waste and the paper considers these in detail from the point of view of the possible future impact of radiation doses to individuals or populations. Particular consideration is given to the use of deep disposal at stable geological sites as a means of dealing with large amounts of radioactive waste. It should not be forgotten that some of what we term waste today need not necessarily always be so. Indeed, there is a good case to make for the recycling of low activity materials rather than the uneconomic expedient of burying them. The paper will consider the possible recycling of valuable materials following suitable reprocessing and dilution and mention the dose implications of examples of such re-utilisation of radioactive materials.

  1. Updated Liquid Secondary Waste Grout Formulation and Preliminary Waste Form Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saslow, Sarah A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sahajpal, Rahul [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes the results from liquid secondary waste grout (LSWG) formulation and cementitious waste form qualification tests performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS). New formulations for preparing a cementitious waste form from a high-sulfate liquid secondary waste stream simulant, developed for Effluent Management Facility (EMF) process condensates merged with low activity waste (LAW) caustic scrubber, and the release of key constituents (e.g. 99Tc and 129I) from these monoliths were evaluated. This work supports a technology development program to address the technology needs for Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) liquid secondary waste (LSW) solidification and supports future Direct Feed Low-Activity Waste (DFLAW) operations. High-priority activities included simulant development, LSWG formulation, and waste form qualification. The work contained within this report relates to waste form development and testing and does not directly support the 2017 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). However, this work contains valuable information for use in PA maintenance past FY17, and for future waste form development efforts. The provided data should be used by (i) cementitious waste form scientists to further understanding of cementitious dissolution behavior, (ii) IDF PA modelers who use quantified constituent leachability, effective diffusivity, and partitioning coefficients to advance PA modeling efforts, and (iii) the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and decision makers as they assess the IDF PA program. The results obtained help fill existing data gaps, support final selection of a LSWG waste form, and improve the technical defensibility of long-term waste form performance estimates.

  2. Management of toxic waste resulting from decommissioning and environmental remediation of nuclear facilities in Northwest Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskij, V.L.; Nikitin, V.S.; Kulikov, K.N.; Ivanov, S.A.; Bogdanova, G.S.; Zakharov, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Integrated information on toxic wastes formed during utilization and rehabilitation of shutdown naval nuclear object at Northwest Russia is performed. Dynamics of their accumulation to 2025 is estimated. Necessity of present waste management review and search of new methods with the view of decrease of environmental risks by means of systematic reprocessing or economic favorable destruction. Several strategies are treated. Advantages and imperfections of each of them are estimated by safety factors and economic costs, and the most acceptable strategy is selected. Functional model is found. Lists of projects, technical means are given, periods, costs for its realization are evaluated. Guidelines are provided [ru

  3. Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning, ECED 2015 - Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Scientific conference deals with problems of reactor decommissioning and radioactive waste management in the Central Europe. The Conference included the following sessions: (1): Characterisation and Radioactive Waste Management; (2) Managerial Aspects of Decommissioning; (3) JAVYS Experience with Back-End of Nuclear Power Engineering - Progress in Last 2 Years; (4) Decommissioning Planning and Costing and Education; (5) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning; (6) Radioactive Waste Management; (4) Poster Session. The Book of Abstracts contains two invitation speeches and 30 abstracts.

  4. Waste Acceptance Testing of Secondary Waste Forms: Cast Stone, Ceramicrete and DuraLith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Lindberg, Michael J.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-01-01

    To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions has initiated secondary-waste-form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is conducting tests on four candidate waste forms to evaluate their ability to meet potential waste acceptance criteria for immobilized secondary wastes that would be placed in the IDF. All three waste forms demonstrated compressive strengths above the minimum 3.45 MPa (500 psi) set as a target for cement-based waste forms. Further, none of the waste forms showed any significant degradation in compressive strength after undergoing thermal cycling (30 cycles in a 10 day period) between -40 C and 60 C or water immersion for 90 days. The three leach test methods are intended to measure the diffusion rates of contaminants from the waste forms. Results are reported in terms of diffusion coefficients and a leachability index (LI) calculated based on the diffusion coefficients. A smaller diffusion coefficient and a larger LI are desired. The NRC, in its Waste Form Technical Position (NRC 1991), provides recommendations and guidance regarding methods to demonstrate waste stability for land disposal of radioactive waste. Included is a recommendation to conduct leach tests using the ANS 16.1 method. The resulting leachability index (LI) should be greater than 6.0. For Hanford secondary wastes, the LI > 6.0 criterion applies to sodium leached from the waste form. For technetium and iodine, higher targets of LI > 9 for Tc and LI > 11 for iodine have been set based on early waste-disposal risk and performance assessment analyses. The results of these three leach tests conducted for a total time between 11days (ASTM C1308) to 90 days (ANS 16.1) showed: (1) Technetium diffusivity: ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 tests indicated that

  5. Waste Acceptance Testing of Secondary Waste Forms: Cast Stone, Ceramicrete and DuraLith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Lindberg, Michael J.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-08-12

    To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions has initiated secondary-waste-form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is conducting tests on four candidate waste forms to evaluate their ability to meet potential waste acceptance criteria for immobilized secondary wastes that would be placed in the IDF. All three waste forms demonstrated compressive strengths above the minimum 3.45 MPa (500 psi) set as a target for cement-based waste forms. Further, none of the waste forms showed any significant degradation in compressive strength after undergoing thermal cycling (30 cycles in a 10 day period) between -40 C and 60 C or water immersion for 90 days. The three leach test methods are intended to measure the diffusion rates of contaminants from the waste forms. Results are reported in terms of diffusion coefficients and a leachability index (LI) calculated based on the diffusion coefficients. A smaller diffusion coefficient and a larger LI are desired. The NRC, in its Waste Form Technical Position (NRC 1991), provides recommendations and guidance regarding methods to demonstrate waste stability for land disposal of radioactive waste. Included is a recommendation to conduct leach tests using the ANS 16.1 method. The resulting leachability index (LI) should be greater than 6.0. For Hanford secondary wastes, the LI > 6.0 criterion applies to sodium leached from the waste form. For technetium and iodine, higher targets of LI > 9 for Tc and LI > 11 for iodine have been set based on early waste-disposal risk and performance assessment analyses. The results of these three leach tests conducted for a total time between 11days (ASTM C1308) to 90 days (ANS 16.1) showed: (1) Technetium diffusivity: ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 tests indicated that

  6. Radioactive waste management, decommissioning, spent fuel storage. V.2. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The aim of this book is to provide information on french technology achievements in the field of processing and conditioning of solid, liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes, through stationary or mobile units. It presents the facilities and services proposed by french industry, as well as the experience acquired. Separate abstracts were prepared for 16 papers [fr

  7. Optimizing decommissioning strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passant, F.H.

    1993-01-01

    Many different approaches can be considered for achieving satisfactory decommissioning of nuclear installations. These can embrace several different engineering actions at several stages, with time variations between the stages. Multi-attribute analysis can be used to help in the decision making process and to establish the optimum strategy. It has been used in the Usa and the UK to help in selecting preferred sites for radioactive waste repositories, and also in UK to help with the choice of preferred sites for locating PWR stations, and in selecting optimum decommissioning strategies

  8. Decommissioning of IFEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccotti, G.; Sberze, L.

    1995-05-01

    The IFEC nuclear fuel fabrication plant operated in Italy for more then thirty years and has now been successfully decommissioned. The rules and regulations relating to Quality Assurance established during the fabrication of Cirene reactor fuel have been adhered to during the decommissioning phase. The use of personnel with large experience in the nuclear field has resulted in vast majority of cares of material and apparatus to be reutilized in conventional activities without the need of calling on the assistance of external firms. The whole decontamination process was successfully completed on time and in particular the quantity of contaminated wastes was kept to eminimun

  9. Decommissioning of NPP A1 - HWGCR type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burclova, J.

    1998-01-01

    Prototype nuclear power plant A-1 located at Jaslovske Bohunice, was a HWGCR with channel type reactor KS 150 (refuelling during operation) and capacity of 143 MWe. Single unit has been constructed with reactor hall building containing reactor vessel, heavy water system and equipment for spent fuel handling. Another compartment of main building contents coolant system piping, six steam generators and six turbo compressors, the turbine hall was equipped by three turbines. Unit also shares liquid radwaste treatment and storage buildings and ventilation systems including chimney. It started operation in 1972 and was shutdown in 1977 after primary coolant system integrity accident. In 1979 a final decision was made to decommission this plant. The absence of waste treatment technologies and repository and not sufficient storage capacity affected the planning and realization of decommissioning for NPP A-1. The decommissioning policy for the first stage is for lack of regulations based on 'case by case' strategy. For these reasons and for not existence of Decommissioning Found until 1995 the preferred decommissioning option is based on differed decommissioning with safe enclosure of confinement. Transfer of undamaged spent fuel cooled in organic coolant to Russia was finished in 1990. It was necessary to develop new technology for the damaged fuel preparation for transport. The barriers check-up and dismantling of secondary circuit and cooling towers was performed during 1989/90. The complex plan for the first phase of A-1 decommissioning - the status with treated operational radwaste, removed contamination and restored treated waste and spent fuel (in case of interruption of transfer to Russia) was developed in 1993-1994. Under this project bituminization of all liquid operational radwaste (concentrates) was performed during 1995/96, vitrification of inorganic spent fuel coolant started at 1996, decontamination of spent fuel pool coolant occurs (under AEA Technology

  10. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on nuclear decommissioning was presented by Dr H. Lawton to a meeting of the British Nuclear Energy Society and Institution of Nuclear Engineers, 1986. The decommissioning work currently being undertaken on the Windscale advanced gas cooled reactor (WAGR) is briefly described, along with projects in other countries, development work associated with the WAGR operation and costs. (U.K.)

  11. Managing radioactive wastes of nuclear power plants in operation and site decommissioning phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardalani, E.; Khadivi, S.

    2008-01-01

    A large nuclear reactor annually produces about 25-50 tons consumed Uranium. These consumed materials consist of Uranium and also Plutonium and Curium. In total, about three percent of these materials are remained from fission. Existing actinides (Uranium, Plutonium, and Curium) cause long-term and short-term radiation that could have harmful effects on the environment. In order to reduce the diverse effects of radioactive wastes in Nuclear Power Plants, different procedures are employed such as compaction, chemical treatment, vitrification, canning and sealing with concrete and safe storage. In this paper, the harmful effects of nuclear wastes on the environment are introduced and a management procedure is presented to minimize its diverse effects

  12. The brief introduction to decommissioning of nuclear reactor projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shixin

    1991-01-01

    The basic concept and procedure of the decommissioning of nuclear reactor project and the three stages of decommissioning defined by IAEA are introduced. The main work of decommissioning of nuclear reactor are as following: (1) the documentary and technological preparation; (2) the site preparation of decommissioning project; (3) the dismantling of equipment piping system and components; (4) the decontamination of the piping system before and after decomminssioning; (5) the storage and disposal of the operational and decommissioning waste

  13. The brief introduction to decommissioning of nuclear reactor projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shixin, Zhao [Beijing Inst. of Nuclear Engineering (China)

    1991-08-01

    The basic concept and procedure of the decommissioning of nuclear reactor project and the three stages of decommissioning defined by IAEA are introduced. The main work of decommissioning of nuclear reactor are as following: (1) the documentary and technological preparation; (2) the site preparation of decommissioning project; (3) the dismantling of equipment piping system and components; (4) the decontamination of the piping system before and after decomminssioning; (5) the storage and disposal of the operational and decommissioning waste.

  14. Decommissioning in British Nuclear Fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colquhoun, A.

    1988-01-01

    Decommissioning projects at the BNFL Sellafield site have been selected taking the following into account; the need to gain experience in preparation for the decommissioning of the Magnox reactors and for the post Magnox stage; the need to develop larger scale projects; the need to be cost effective and to foster long term safety. The balance between prompt or delayed decommissioning has to consider operator dose uptake and radioactive waste management. The ten year plan for decommissioning at Sellafield is described briefly. Currently decommissioning is of the fuel pond and decanning plant, the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the coprecipitation plant and the uranium recovery plant. (author)

  15. Remote Decommissioning Experiences at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownridge, M.

    2006-01-01

    British Nuclear Group has demonstrated through delivery of significant decommissioning projects the ability to effectively deploy innovative remote decommissioning technologies and deliver cost effective solutions. This has been achieved through deployment and development of off-the-shelf technologies and design of bespoke equipment. For example, the worlds first fully remotely operated Brokk was successfully deployed to enable fully remote dismantling, packaging and export of waste during the decommissioning of a pilot reprocessing facility. British Nuclear Group has also successfully implemented remote decommissioning systems to enable the decommissioning of significant challenges, including dismantling of a Caesium Extraction Facility, Windscale Pile Chimney and retrieval of Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) from storage cells. The challenge for the future is to continue to innovate through utilization of the supply chain and deploy off-the-shelf technologies which have been demonstrated in other industry sectors, thus reducing implementation schedules, cost and maintenance. (authors)

  16. Decommissioning of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    In the United Kingdom the Electricity Boards, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and BNFL cooperate on all matters relating to the decommissioning of nuclear plant. The Central Electricity Generating Board's (CEGB) policy endorses the continuing need for nuclear power, the principle of reusing existing sites where possible and the building up of sufficient funds during the operating life of a nuclear power station to meet the cost of its complete clearance in the future. The safety of the plant is the responsibility of the licensee even in the decommissioning phase. The CEGB has carried out decommissioning studies on Magnox stations in general and Bradwell and Berkeley in particular. It has also been involved in the UKAEA Windscale AGR decommissioning programme. The options as to which stage to decommission to are considered. Methods, costs and waste management are also considered. (U.K.)

  17. Secondary waste characteristics and ITS filtration system on laser cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Kunio; Miyao, Hidehiko [Research Association for Facility Decommissioning (RANDEC), Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakazawa, Masaharu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Kataoka, Shinichi; Nagura, Yasumi; Saiki, Hideo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Technology of dismantling nuclear facilities has been developing in various fields for its evaluation and dismantling system. RANDEC has been studying remote dismantling system for highly activated equipments such as core internals with a laser using optical fiber. Recently a high power YAG laser having the advantage of application for remote dismantling on thick metallic material is the stage for practical use, and narrow kerf can bring the reduction of secondary waste as well. The present paper describes the experimental results and discussion on the laser cutting, including the secondary waste characteristics and its filtration system using the YAG laser. This study has been performed on consignment to RANDEC from the Science and Technology Agency of Japan. (author)

  18. Decontamination and decommissioning of the initial engine test facility and the IET two-inch hot-waste line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, F.E.

    1987-04-01

    The Initial Engine Test Decommissioning Project is described in this report. The Initial Engine Test facility was constructed and operated at the National Reactor Testing Station, now known as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, to support the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program and the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power Transient test program, circa 1950 through 1960s. Due to the severe nature of these nuclear test programs, a significant amount of radioactive contamination was deposited in various portions of the Initial Engine Test Facility. Characterizations, decision analyses, and plans for decontamination and decommissioning were prepared from 1982 through 1985. Decontamination and decommissioning activities were performed in such a way that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory remains. These decontamination and decommissioning activities began in 1985 and were completed in 1987. 13 figs

  19. Decommissioning strategy selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.

    2005-01-01

    At the end of their useful life nuclear facilities have to be decommissioned. The strategy selection on how to decommission a facility is a highly important decision at the very beginning of decommissioning planning. Basically, a facility may be subject to (a) immediate dismantling; (b) deferred dismantling after a period of ''safe enclosure'' or (c) entombment where a facility is turned into a near surface disposal facility. The first two strategies are normally applied. The third one may be accepted in countries without significant nuclear activities and hence without disposal facilities for radioactive waste. A large number of factors has to be taken into account when a decision on the decommissioning strategy is being made. Many of the factors cannot be quantified. They may be qualitative or subject to public opinion which may change with time. At present, a trend can be observed towards immediate dismantling of nuclear facilities, mainly because it is associated with less uncertainty, less local impact, a better public acceptance, and the availability of operational expertise and know how. A detailed evaluation of the various factors relevant to strategy selection and a few examples showing the situation regarding decommissioning strategy in a number of selected countries are presented in the following article. (orig.)

  20. Decommissioning and dismantling: Qualification of gamma scanning method for decontrolling measurement of radioactive wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.; Sattler, P.

    1998-01-01

    At the time being measurements for the release of buildings and parts of buildings are mainly performed with contamination monitors, free release equipment, wipe test a. s. o. The technical application of in-situ gamma-scanning systems for release measurement should be demonstrated with this research project. This method presents considerable advantages in comparison with standard procedures, as f. ex. reduction of radioactive waste or area covering investigation of the inspected building. A system with a NaI(Tl) and a HPGe-detector was applied. With the high-resolving system it can be shown that also low limit values can be kept with short measurement time. With the NaI(Tl)-detector system it was demonstrated that with limit values lower than 1 Bq/m 3 there may be problems observing the limit values. The investigation showed that especially the high-resolving system for the release measurement of buildings (f. ex. floors, walls, complete rooms) is well-suited. The in-situ gamma-scanning shows big advantages in its economy as f. ex. no sampling and only short measurement times are required. The sharp limitation of the existing contamination and the reduction of radioactive waste involved herewith are further advantages which justify the application of this measurement technique. (orig.)

  1. Use of MCNP for characterization of reactor vessel internals waste from decommissioned nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, E.F.; Pauley, K.A.; Reid, B.D.

    1995-09-01

    This study describes the use of the Monte Carlo Neutron-Photon (MCNP) code for determining activation levels of irradiated reactor vessel internals hardware. The purpose of the analysis is to produce data for the Department of Energy's Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Program. An MCNP model was developed to analyze the Yankee Rowe reactor facility. The model incorporates reactor geometry, material compositions, and operating history data acquired from Yankee Atomic Electric Company. In addition to the base activation analysis, parametric studies were performed to determine the sensitivity of activation to specific parameters. A component sampling plan was also developed to validate the model results, although the plan was not implemented. The calculations for the Yankee Rowe reactor predict that only the core baffle and the core support plates will be activated to levels above the Class C limits. The parametric calculations show, however, that the large uncertainties in the material compositions could cause errors in the estimates that could also increase the estimated activation level of the core barrel to above the Class C limits. Extrapolation of the results to other reactor facilities indicates that in addition to the baffle and support plates, core barrels may also be activated to above Class C limits; however the classification will depend on the specific operating conditions of the reactor and the specific material compositions of the metal, as well as the use of allowable concentration averaging practices in packaging and classifying the waste

  2. ECED 2013: Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning. International Conference on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities. Conference Guide and Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: (I) Opening session (2 contributions); (II) Managerial and Funding Aspects of Decommissioning (5 contributions); (III) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning I (6 contributions); (IV) Experience with Present Decommissioning Projects (4 contributions); (V) Poster Session (14 contributions); (VI) Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning - Panel Discussion; (VII) Release of Materials, Waste Management and Spent Fuel Management (6 contributions); (VIII) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning II (5 contributions).

  3. Decommissioning of multiple-reactor stations: facilitation by sequential decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.B.; Smith, R.I.; Wittenbrock, N.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reductions in cost and radiation dose can be achieved for decommissionings at multiple reactor stations because of factors not necessarily present at a single reactor station: reactors of similar design, the opportunity for sequential decommissioning, a site dedicated to nuclear power generation, and the option of either interim or permanent low-level radioactive waste storage facilities onsite. The cost and radiation dose reductions occur because comprehensive decommissioning planning need only be done once, because the labor force is stable and need only be trained once, because there is less handling of radioactive wastes, and because central stores, equipment, and facilities may be used. The cost and radiation dose reductions are sensitive to the number and types of reactors on the site, and to the alternatives selected for decommissioning. 3 tables

  4. Fiscal year 1996 decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book for the Argonne National Laboratory-East Site, Technology Development Division, Waste Management Program, Decontamination and Decommissioning Projects Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Photobriefing Book describes the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program at the Argonne National Laboratory-East Site (ANL-E) near Lemont, Illinois. This book summarizes current D and D projects, reviews fiscal year (FY) 1996 accomplishments, and outlines FY 1997 goals. A section on D and D Technology Development provides insight on new technologies for D and D developed or demonstrated at ANL-E. Past projects are recapped and upcoming projects are described as Argonne works to accomplish its commitment to, ''Close the Circle on the Splitting of the Atom.'' Finally, a comprehensive review of the status and goals of the D and D Program is provided to give a snap-shot view of the program and the direction it's taking as it moves into FY 1997. The D and D projects completed to date include: Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility; East Area Surplus Facilities; Experimental Boiling Water Reactor; M-Wing Hot Cell Facilities; Plutonium Gloveboxes; and Fast Neutron Generator

  5. Nuclear installations: decommissioning and dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of seven talks given during the 1995 EUROFORUM conference about decommissioning and dismantling of Nuclear installations in the European Community. The first two papers give a detailed description of the legal, financial and regulatory framework of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities in the European Union and a review of the currently available decommissioning techniques for inventory, disassembly, decontamination, remote operations and management of wastes. Other papers describe some legal and technical aspects of reactor and plants dismantling in UK, Germany, Spain and France. (J.S.)

  6. STORAGE AND RECOVERY OF SECONDARY WASTE COMING FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PLANTS IN UNDERGROUND MINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Korzeniowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regarding current and planned development of municipal waste incineration plants in Poland there is an important problem of the generated secondary waste management. The experience of West European countries in mining shows that waste can be stored successfully in the underground mines, but especially in salt mines. In Poland there is a possibility to set up the underground storage facility in the Salt Mine “Kłodawa”. The mine today is capable to locate over 3 million cubic meters and in the future it can increase significantly. Two techniques are proposed: 1 – storage of packaged waste, 2 – waste recovery as selfsolidifying paste with mining technology for rooms backfilling. Assuming the processing capacity of the storage facility as 100 000 Mg of waste per year, “Kłodawa” mine will be able to accept around 25 % of currently generated waste coming from the municipal waste incineration plants and the current volume of the storage space is sufficient for more than 20 years. Underground storage and waste recovery in mining techniques are beneficial for the economy and environment.

  7. Nuclear decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-02-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the UK, good progress has been made with the WAGR and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level.

  8. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-01-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the UK, good progress has been made with the WAGR and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level. (author)

  9. Decommissioning in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundqvist, K.

    1999-12-01

    This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe and waterproof conditions for a longer period of

  10. Management routes for materials arising from the decommissioning of a PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Demeulemeester, Y.; Moers, S.; Ponnet, M.

    2001-01-01

    The management of wastes from decommissioning is described for the on-going dismantling of the BR3 PWR small reactor. The incentive is put on the radionuclides characterization, the description of the various waste streams, the conditioning techniques for low radioactive waste (LAW) to high radioactive waste (RAW), the alternative evacuation routes (recycling in the nuclear, free release by decontamination) and the minimization of secondary wastes during dismantling. Finally, some considerations are given on the overall dismantling cost and on the relative costs of the various evacuation routes. (author)

  11. Toshiba's decontamination technologies for the decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yuki; Yaita, Yumi; Sakai, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    For the decommissioning, two types of decontamination process are necessary, 1) system decontamination before dismantling and 2) decontamination of dismantling waste. Toshiba has been developing the decontamination technologies for the both purposes from the viewpoint of minimizing the secondary waste. For the system decontamination before dismantling, chemical decontamination process, such as T-OZON, can be applicable for stainless steel or carbon steel piping. For the decontamination of dismantling waste, several types of process have been developed to apply variety of shapes and materials. For the simple shape materials, physical decontamination process, such as blast decontamination, is effective. We have developed new blast decontamination process with highly durable zirconia particle. It can be used repeatedly and secondary waste can be reduced compared with conventional blast particle. For the complex shape materials, chemical decontamination process can be applied that formic acid decontamination process for carbon steel and electrolytic reduction decontamination process with organic acid for stainless steel. These chemicals can be decomposed to carbon dioxide and water and amount of secondary waste can be small. (author)

  12. Decommissioning: a problem or a challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mele Irena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ageing of nuclear facilities or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. To avoid such problems, future liailities should be thoroughly estimated in drawing up the decommissioning and waste management programme for each nuclear facility in time, and financial provisions for implementing such programme should be provided. In this paper a presentation of current decommissioning experience in Slovenia is given. The main problems and difficulties in decommissioning of the Žirovski Vrh Uranium Mine are exposed and the lesson learned from this case is presented. The preparation of the decommissioning programme for the Nuclear Power Plant Krško is also described, and the situation at the TRIGA research reactor is briefly discussed.

  13. A Comparative Perspective on Reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Zelmer, R.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative perspective on decommissioning, based on facts and figures as well as the national policies, is useful in identifying mutually beneficial 'lessons learned' from various decommissioning programs. In this paper we provide such a perspective on the US and European approaches based on a review of the programmatic experience and the decommissioning projects. The European countries selected for comparison, UK, France, and Germany, have nuclear power programs comparable in size and vintage to the US program but have distinctly different policies at the federal level. The national decommissioning scene has a lot to do with how national nuclear energy policies are shaped. Substantial experience exists in all decommissioning programs and the technology is in a mature state. Substantial cost savings can result from sharing of decommissioning information, technologies and approaches among various programs. However, the Achilles' heel for the decommissioning industry remains the lack of appropriate disposal facilities for the nuclear wastes. (authors)

  14. An outsider's view of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, T.

    1996-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is not just a technical or even a financial issue. Presenting decommissioning as a technically difficult task overcome by superhuman effort on the part of the industry will not gain much credit amongst sophisticated consumers who now require that any complex technology will work and work safely. Any engineering problems are surmountable given the money to find the solution. Some of the financial aspects of decommissioning are worrying, however, given their open-ended nature. The cost of waste disposal is one of these. Despite a lapse of fifty years since the start-up of its first reactor, the United Kingdom is unlikely to have available a repository for the disposal of intermediate level waste until about 2020. Waste disposal is a large consideration in decommissioning and the industry's forecasts of cost in this area lack credibility in the light of a poor track record in financial prediction. Financial engineering in the form of the segregated fund set up in March 1996 to cover the decommissioning of nuclear power stations in the United Kingdom is likely to provide only short term reassurance in the light of doubts about a credible future for nuclear power. This lack of confidence over the wider problems of nuclear power creates particular problems for decommissioning which go beyond technical difficulties and complicate financial considerations. (UK)

  15. Managing LLRW from decommissioning of nuclear facilities - a Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donders, R E [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Hardy, D G [Frontenac Consulting Services, Deep River, ON (Canada); De, P L [Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office, Gloucester, ON (Canada)

    1994-03-01

    In Canada, considerable experience has been gained recently in decommissioning nuclear facilities and managing the resulting waste. This experience has raised important issues from both the decommissioning and waste management perspectives. This paper focuses on the waste management aspects of decommissioning. Past experience is reviewed, preliminary estimates of waste volumes and characteristics are provided, and the major technical and regulatory issues are discussed. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  16. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  17. Basic Research on Selecting ISDC Activity for Decommissioning Costing in KRR-2 Decommissioning Project Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    KAERI is performing research for calculation of expected time of a decommissioning work and evaluation of decommissioning cost and this research calculate a decommissioning work unit productivity based on the experience data of decommissioning activity for KRR-2. The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the experience data from the decommissioning activity through the Decommissioning Information Management System (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), and Decommissioning Work-unit Productivity Calculation System (DEWOCS). In this paper, the methodology was presented how select the ISDC activities in dismantling work procedures of a 'removal of radioactive concrete'. The reason to select the 'removal of radioactive concrete' is main key activity and generates the amount of radioactive waste. This data will take advantage of the cost estimation after the code for the selected items derived ISDC. There are various efforts for decommissioning costing in each country. In particular, OECD/NEA recommends decommissioning cost estimation using the ISDC and IAEA provides for Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel (CERREX) program that anyone is easy to use the cost evaluation from a limited decommissioning experience in domestic. In the future, for the decommissioning cost evaluation, the ISDC will be used more widely in a strong position. This paper has described a method for selecting the ISDC item from the actual dismantling work procedures.

  18. Project No. 8 - Final decommissioning plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Ignalina NPP should prepare the final Ignalina NPP unit 1 decommissioning plan by march 31, 2002. This plan should include the following : description of Ignalina NPP and the Ignalina NPP boundary that could be influenced by decommissioning process; decommissioning strategy selected and a logical substantiation for this selection; description of the decommissioning actions suggested and a time schedule for the actions to be performed; conceptual safety and environmental impact assessment covering ionizing radiation and other man and environment impact; description of the environmental monitoring program proposed during decommissioning process; description of the waste management proposed; assessment of decommissioning expenses including waste management, accumulated funds and other sources. Estimated project cost - 0.75 M EURO

  19. The decommissioning information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Kook; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), the Korea Research Reactor (KRR-2) and one uranium conversion plant (UCP) were decommissioned. A project was launched in 1997, for the decommissioning of KRR-2 reactor with the goal of completion by 2008. Another project for the decommissioning of the UCP was launched in 2001. The physical dismantling works were started in August 2003 and the entire project was completed by the end of 2010. KAERI has developed a computer information system, named DECOMMIS, for an information management with an increased effectiveness for decommissioning projects and for record keeping for the future decommissioning projects. This decommissioning information system consists of three sub-systems; code management system, data input system (DDIS) and data processing and output system (DDPS). Through the DDIS, the data can be directly inputted at sites to minimize the time gap between the dismantling activities and the evaluation of the data by the project staff. The DDPS provides useful information to the staff for more effective project management and this information includes several fields, such as project progress management, man power management, waste management, and radiation dose control of workers and so on. The DECOMMIS was applied to the decommissioning projects of the KRR-2 and the UCP, and was utilized to give information to the staff for making decisions regarding the progress of projects. It is also to prepare the reference data for the R and D program which is for the development of the decommissioning engineering system tools and to maintain the decommissioning data for the next projects. In this paper, the overall system will be explained and the several examples of its utilization, focused on waste management and manpower control, will be introduced. (author)

  20. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunning, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Collaborative studies are in progress in the U.K. between the U.K.A.E.A., the Generating Boards and other outside bodies, to identify the development issues and practical aspects of decommissioning redundant nuclear facilities. The various types of U.K.A.E.A. experimental reactors (D.F.R., W.A.G.R , S.G.H.W.R.) in support of the nuclear power development programme, together with the currently operating commercial 26 Magnox reactors in 11 stations, totalling some 5 GW will be retired before the end of the century and attention is focussed on these. The actual timing of withdrawal from service will be dictated by development programme requirements in the case of experimental reactors and by commercial and technical considerations in the case of electricity production reactors. Decommissioning studies have so far been confined to technical appraisals including the sequence logic of achieving specific objectives and are based on the generally accepted three stage progression. Stage 1, which is essentially a defuelling and coolant removal operation, is an interim phase. Stage 2 is a storage situation, the duration of which will be influenced by environmental pressures or economic factors including the re-use of existing sites. Stage 3, which implies removal of all active and non-active waste material and returning the site to general use, must be the ultimate objective. The engineering features and the radioactive inventory of the system must be assessed in detail to avoid personnel or environmental hazards during Stage 2. These factors will also influence decisions on the degree of Stage 2 decommissioning and its duration, bearing in mind that for Stage 3 activation may govern the waste disposal route and the associated radiation man-rem exposure during dismantling. Ideally, planning for decommissioning should be considered at the design stage of the facility. An objective of present studies is to identify features which would assist decommissioning of future systems

  1. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project Start of Physical Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crimi, F. P.

    1987-01-01

    The Shippingport Atomic Power Station consists of the nuclear steam supply system and associated radioactive waste processing systems, which are owned by the United States Department of Energy, and the turbine-generator and balance of plant, which is owned by the Duquesne Light Company. The station is located at Shippingport, Pennsylvania on seven acres of land leased by DOE from Duquesne Light Company. The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project is being performed under contract to the DOE by the General Electric Company and its integrated subcontractor, Morrison-Knudsen Company. as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This paper describes the current status of the physical decommissioning work, which started September 1985. The preparations required to start a major decommissioning work effort in a safe and cost effective manner are discussed including the development and implementation of a cost/schedule control system. The detailed plan required to ensure that people, property, and procedures are ready in sufficient time to support the start of physical decommissioning is also discussed. The total estimated cost of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project should be $98.3 M, with the Project scheduled for completion in April 1990. As the decommissioning of the first commercial-scale nuclear power plant, the Shippingport Project is expected to set the standard for safe, cost-effective demolition of nuclear plants

  2. The Canadian approach to nuclear codes and standards. A CSA forum for development of standards for CANDU: radioactive waste management and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, T.; Azeez, S.; Dua, S.

    2006-01-01

    Together with the Canadian Standards Association (CSA), industry stakeholders, governments, and the public have developed a suite of standards for CANDU nuclear power plants that generate electricity in Canada and abroad. In this paper, we will describe: CSA's role in national and international nuclear standards development; the key issues and priority projects that the nuclear standards program has addressed; the new CSA nuclear committees and projects being established, particularly those related to waste management and decommissioning; the hierarchy of nuclear regulations, nuclear, and other standards in Canada, and how they are applied by AECL; the standards management activities; and the future trends and challenges for CSA and the nuclear community. CSA is an accredited Standards Development Organization (SDO) and part of the international standards system. CSA's Nuclear Strategic Steering Committee (NSSC) provides leadership, direction, and support for a standards committee hierarchy comprised of members from a balanced matrix of interests. The NSSC strategically focuses on industry challenges; a new nuclear regulatory system, deregulated energy markets, and industry restructuring. As the first phase of priority projects is nearing completion, the next phase of priorities is being identified. These priorities address radioactive waste management, environmental radiation management, decommissioning, structural, and seismic issues. As the CSA committees get established in the coming year, members and input will be solicited for the technical committees, subcommittees, and task forces for the following related subjects: Radioactive Waste Management; a) Dry Storage of Irradiated Fuel; b) Short-Term Radioactive Waste Management; c) Long-Term Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Waste. 2. Decommissioning Nuclear Power is highly regulated, and public scrutiny has focused Codes and Standards on public and worker safety. Licensing and regulation serves to control

  3. Research in decommissioning techniques for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in JNC. 7. JWTF decommissioning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru

    1999-02-01

    Decommissioning techniques such as radiation measuring and monitoring, decontamination, dismantling and remote handling in the world were surveyed to upgrading technical know-how database for decommissioning of Joyo Waste Treatment Facility (JWTF). As the result, five literatures for measuring and monitoring techniques, 14 for decontamination and 22 for dismantling feasible for JWTF decommissioning were obtained and were summarized in tables. On the basis of the research, practical applicability of those techniques to decommissioning of JWTF was evaluated. This report contains brief surveyed summaries related to JWTF decommissioning. (H. Itami)

  4. Technical studying on design and manufacturing of the container for low level radioactive solid waste from the KRR 1 and 2 decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Kook; Chung, Un Soo; Yang, Sung Hong; Lee, Dong Gyu; Jung Ki Jung

    2000-12-01

    The design requirement and manufacturing criteria have been proposed on the container for the package, storage and transportation of low level radioactive solid waste from decommissioning of KRR 1 and 2. The structure analysis was carried out based on the design criteria, and the safety of the container was assessed. The container with its capacity of 4m 3 was selected for the radioactive solid waste storage. The proposed container was satisfied the criteria of ISO 1496/1 and the packaging standard of Atomic Energy Act. Manufacturing and testing standards of IAEA were also applied to the container. Stress distribution and deformation were analyzed under given condition using ANSYS code, and the maximum stress was verified to be within the yield stress without any structural deformation. From the results of lifting tests which were lifting from the four top corner fittings and fork-lift pockets, it was verified that this container was safe

  5. The melting treatment of bulk scrap from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Junxian; Deng Feng

    2014-01-01

    Large amount of radioactive scrap will come out from reactor decommissioning. The melting treatment can be used for the volume reduction, the recycle and reuse of the radioactive scrap to reduce the mass of the radioactive waste disposal and to reuse most of the metal. The melting treatment has the advantages in volume reduction, conditioning, radionuclide confinement, reduction of radioactivity concentration, easy monitoring of radioactivity; and the effective of decontamination for several radionuclide. Therefore to use the melting technology other decontamination technology should be performed ahead, the decontamination effect of the melting should be predicted, the utility of recycle and reuse should be defined, and the secondary waste should be controlled effectively. (authors)

  6. Challenges for decommissioning policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riotte, H.

    2007-01-01

    In the coming years, OECD member countries will be increasingly faced with the need to make appropriate provisions, in terms of policy, finance and management, for all aspects of decommissioning. Decommissioning requires regulatory approval and oversight, the directions of which are guided by national policy. In several instances, governments have only recently begun to address their approaches to decommissioning policy and regulation in national legislation, and international overviews of such approaches, which may eventually lead to international harmonization, are only now beginning to emerge. In parallel, policy and regulation have been evolving and a broadened competence has developed in relevant regulatory authorities. The challenge lying ahead is to establish a framework that will allow for the growth of nuclear industrial activities in competitive, globalized markets, while maintaining and assuring the safety of decommissioning for the public and for workers. Within this context, institutional arrangements, stakeholder issues, costs and funding, waste management and policies for release from regulatory control, as well as the availability of technologies and skills, need to be reviewed. (author)

  7. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opelka, J.H.; Mundis, R.L.; Marmer, G.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Siskind, B.; Kikta, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  8. Human resource development for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarized the features of decommissioning work and the methods how to develop human resources. The general flow of decommissioning includes the following steps: (1) evaluation of facility characteristics, (2) planning, (3) decontamination and disassembly of equipment and structures contaminated with radioactivity, (4) radioactivity measurement, (5) treatment and disposal of radioactive waste, and (6) release from legal restrictions (termination of decommissioning). For this purpose, techniques in various fields are required. In the evaluation of facility characteristics, radiation measurement and calculation of activation amount in the core part are required. In decontamination and dismantling, cutting technology (mechanical cutting, thermal cutting, etc.), decontamination technology, and remote control technology are required. In the nuclear power education in the past, the fields related to design, construction, operation, and maintenance among the plant life cycle were the main parts. Much attention was not payed to decommissioning and the treatment/disposal of radioactive waste in the second half of life cycle. As university education, Hokkaido University and Fukui University have lectures on decommissioning. Furthermore, the education and research for students are proceeding at seven universities, with a focus on common reactors including those of Fukushima Daiichi Power Station. It is a key for promoting decommissioning, to incorporate project management, risk analysis, cost evaluation, and decision making into education, and to foster human resources heading toward challenging problems including social problems. (A.O.)

  9. Methodology for evaluating radiological consequences of the management of very low-level solide waste arising from decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.M.; Hemming, C.R.; Clark, J.M.; Chapuis, A.M.; Garbay, H.

    1985-01-01

    In this report a methodology is described, and illustrated by examples, for the evaluation of individual doses and collective dose commitments arising as a result of various management modes for very low-level solid wastes arising from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Estimates have been made of the masses of materials activated and contaminated to within three concentration limits, 0.37, 3.7 and 37 Bq g-1, at three times after reactor shutdown, 5 y, 25 y and 100 y. The disposal options considered are shallow land burial, at a municipal landfill site or at the reactor site, and disposal on the seabed in coastal waters or the deep ocean. It is assumed that there is no special treatment to reduce or eliminate the potential radiological hazard. Consideration has also been given to the radiological impact of recycling of contaminated steel. The radiological impacts of all the management options for the wastes considered were found to be small. It may therefore be acceptable to allow such very low-level wastes to be disposal of without special restrictions provided that the level and type of activity of the wastes can be verified. In addition the health detriment cost associated with all the management options is small, so it is likely that other factors such as transport and engineering costs will be more important in final decisions about the management of these wastes

  10. Approaches of the state committee on the environment protection to development of ecological requirements for radioactive wastes management generated in the decommissioning of nuclear submarines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechkurov, A. V.; Shusharina, N.M

    1999-07-01

    According to this presentation, handling of radioactive waste from the Russian nuclear submarines (NS) is complex because of a lack of sufficient infrastructure for the management of such wastes. The considerable part of decommissioned NSs is located at the main bases of the North and Pacific Navies and at the territories of the enterprises dealing with building and maintenance of NSs. Existing stationary and floating facilities for radioactive wastes are practically filled up completely and there is no adequate reserve facilities. Norway and the USA render their assistance in increasing the existing capacity of the liquid radioactive waste reprocessing facility of Atomflot, and Japan assists in the creation of a floating facility at Zvezda in the far east. The coastal infrastructure created in the 1960s for radioactive waste processing and long-term storage at the Fleet was not commissioned. The present storage facilities, particularly of trench and open type, are dangerous contamination sources for the environment. Realisation of the full-scaled and complex disposal scheme for reactor compartments of disposed NSs requires the solution of a large number of problems and the fundamental requirements on this work are outlined.

  11. Approaches of the state committee on the environment protection to development of ecological requirements for radioactive wastes management generated in the decommissioning of nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechkurov, A. V.; Shusharina, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    According to this presentation, handling of radioactive waste from the Russian nuclear submarines (NS) is complex because of a lack of sufficient infrastructure for the management of such wastes. The considerable part of decommissioned NSs is located at the main bases of the North and Pacific Navies and at the territories of the enterprises dealing with building and maintenance of NSs. Existing stationary and floating facilities for radioactive wastes are practically filled up completely and there is no adequate reserve facilities. Norway and the USA render their assistance in increasing the existing capacity of the liquid radioactive waste reprocessing facility of Atomflot, and Japan assists in the creation of a floating facility at Zvezda in the far east. The coastal infrastructure created in the 1960s for radioactive waste processing and long-term storage at the Fleet was not commissioned. The present storage facilities, particularly of trench and open type, are dangerous contamination sources for the environment. Realisation of the full-scaled and complex disposal scheme for reactor compartments of disposed NSs requires the solution of a large number of problems and the fundamental requirements on this work are outlined

  12. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-01-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the United Kingdom, good progress has been made with the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level. (author)

  13. Benchmarking of DFLAW Solid Secondary Wastes and Processes with UK/Europe Counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Elvie E. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, David J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Surman, J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Kay, R. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, K. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-08

    This report provides information and background on UK solid wastes and waste processes that are similar to those which will be generated by the Direct-Feed Low Activity Waste (DFLAW) facilities at Hanford. The aim is to further improve the design case for stabilizing and immobilizing of solid secondary wastes, establish international benchmarking and review possibilities for innovation.

  14. Interim Storage Facility decommissioning. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Speed, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of the Interim Storage Facility were completed. Activities included performing a detailed radiation survey of the facility, removing surface and imbedded contamination, excavating and removing the fuel storage cells, restoring the site to natural conditions, and shipping waste to Hanford, Washington, for burial. The project was accomplished on schedule and 30% under budget with no measurable exposure to decommissioning personnel

  15. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, J.R.; Moos, L.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and facility dismantlement projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized; however, there are significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced by careful planning and execution. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling, segregation of waste types, and reducing generation of secondary waste

  16. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 3: Technology evaluation data sheets; Part B: Decontamination, robotics/automation, waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD uses information from the Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram, and a previous Hanford logic diagram. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. This report consists of the decontamination, robotics/automation, and WM data sheets

  17. Decommissioning Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. W.; Kang, Y. A.; Kim, G. H.

    2007-06-01

    It is predicted that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant would happen in Korea since 2020 but the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension still has been on an increasing trend and its domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project we developed following several essential technologies as a decommissioning R and D. The measurement technology for in-pipe radioactive contamination was developed for measuring alpha/beta/gamma emitting nuclides simultaneously inside a in-pipe and it was tested into the liquid waste transfer pipe in KRR-2. And the digital mock-up system for KRR-1 and 2 was developed for choosing the best scenarios among several scenarios on the basis of various decommissioning information(schedule, waste volume, cost, etc.) that are from the DMU and the methodology of decommissioning cost estimation was also developed for estimating a research reactor's decommissioning cost and the DMU and the decommissioning cost estimation system were incorporated into the decommissioning information integrated management system. Finally the treatment and management technology of the irradiated graphites that happened after decommissioning KRR-2 was developed in order to treat and manage the irradiated graphites safely

  18. Decommissioning Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. W.; Kang, Y. A.; Kim, G. H. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    It is predicted that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant would happen in Korea since 2020 but the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension still has been on an increasing trend and its domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project we developed following several essential technologies as a decommissioning R and D. The measurement technology for in-pipe radioactive contamination was developed for measuring alpha/beta/gamma emitting nuclides simultaneously inside a in-pipe and it was tested into the liquid waste transfer pipe in KRR-2. And the digital mock-up system for KRR-1 and 2 was developed for choosing the best scenarios among several scenarios on the basis of various decommissioning information(schedule, waste volume, cost, etc.) that are from the DMU and the methodology of decommissioning cost estimation was also developed for estimating a research reactor's decommissioning cost and the DMU and the decommissioning cost estimation system were incorporated into the decommissioning information integrated management system. Finally the treatment and management technology of the irradiated graphites that happened after decommissioning KRR-2 was developed in order to treat and manage the irradiated graphites safely.

  19. Nuclear decommissioning planning, execution and international experience

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    A title that critically reviews the decommissioning and decontamination processes and technologies available for rehabilitating sites used for nuclear power generation and civilian nuclear facilities, from fundamental issues and best practices, to procedures and technology, and onto decommissioning and decontamination case studies.$bOnce a nuclear installation has reached the end of its safe and economical operational lifetime, the need for its decommissioning arises. Different strategies can be employed for nuclear decommissioning, based on the evaluation of particular hazards and their attendant risks, as well as on the analysis of costs of clean-up and waste management. This allows for decommissioning either soon after permanent shutdown, or perhaps a long time later, the latter course allowing for radioactivity levels to drop in any activated or contaminated components. It is crucial for clear processes and best practices to be applied in decommissioning such installations and sites, particular where any ...

  20. Fort St. Vrain defueling ampersand decommissioning considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warembourg, D.

    1994-01-01

    Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station (FSV) is one of the first commercial reactors to be decommissioned under NRC's decommissioning rule. The defueling and decommissioning of this 330 MWe High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has involved many challenges for Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC) including defueling to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI), establishing decommissioning funding, obtaining regulatory approvals, arranging for waste disposal, and managing a large fixed price decommissioning contract. In 1990, a team comprised of the Westinghouse Corporation and Morrison Knudsen Corporation, with the Scientific Ecology Group as a major subcontractor, was contracted by PSC to perform the decommissioning under a fixed price contract. Physical work activities began in August 1992. Currently, physical dismantlement activities are about 45% complete, the project is on schedule, and is within budget

  1. A Review of the Decommissioning Plan and Cost Estimate for the Studsvik Rock Facility (AM) for the Storage of Low and Intermediate Level Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff

    2004-03-01

    The AM facility is a storage facility for packaged wastes that have been conditioned at the Studsvik site. It is located inside a rock mass on the Studsvik industrial site. The task of the facility is to store the wastes on an interim basis before dispatch to a repository. The waste packages sentenced for storage in AM include: Low-level waste (LLW) packages that do not need any special protection against ionising radiation; Intermediate-level waste (ILW) packages that must be handled with a protective shield and using remote controlled equipment. In all cases the waste packages delivered to AM do not have any surface radioactive contamination. To date no release of contamination has been known to occur. The AM decommissioning cost estimate prepared for SVAFO addresses a Main Case (all wastes removed) and an Alternate Case (in which the scope of removal of equipment is unclear). The cost estimates for the Main Case and the Alternate case are MSEK 16.8 and MSEK 10.0 respectively. The overall program, comprising preparation, dismantling and concluding work, is projected to take 24 months. There are a number of aspects of the program that are not clear in the AB SVAFO report. For example, the assumed route for the disposition of wastes generated in dismantling process equipment and building materials is unclear. In addition, the detailed schedule of program items (Section A items in cost estimate) is somewhat confusing with the possibility that several cost elements have been omitted. AM normalised unit costs for selected, individual decommissioning activities have been derived and compared with relevant benchmark data from other recent decommissioning cost estimate analyses performed for SKI. Taking into account that there is very good access at AM, the results of these analyses give some comfort that the AM equipment dismantling estimate is in the correct ballpark. Regarding resources needed for project planning and management, the AM ratio of man-hours to project

  2. A state-of-the art on decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Kook; Kim, Hee Reyoung; Chung, Un Soo; Jung, Ki Jung

    2002-05-01

    While proceeding the KRR-1 and 2 decommissioning project, we are carried out study for the state of the art on decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Japan. Also, we are studied for the research reactors and commercial power plant that has the object of decommissioning, and for the government and the organization related on decommissioning operation. We are investigated for decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities achieved by JAERI, and collected the information and data for decommissioning techniques and computational system through the JPDR(Japan Power Demonstration Reactor) decommissioning activities. Such techniques are applying for Tokai Power Station began the decommissioning project from last year, and for Fugen Nuclear Power Station to be planned the decommissioning from 2003. Recent techniques for decommissioning was acquired by direct contact. The status of the treatment for decommissioning waste and the disposal facility for the very low-level radioactive concrete wastes was grasped

  3. In-house developed methodologies and tools for decommissioning projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilleux, Michel; Centner, Baudouin

    2007-01-01

    , algorithms allow to estimate, on the basis of local inputs, radiological exposures of the operators (collective and individual doses), production of primary, secondary and tertiary waste and their characterization, production of conditioned waste, release of effluents,... and enable the calculation and the presentation (histograms) of the global results for all activities together. An example of application in the frame of the Ignalina decommissioning project is given. (authors)

  4. Review of Potential Candidate Stabilization Technologies for Liquid and Solid Secondary Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2010-01-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.

  5. Health physics considerations in decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    These proceedings contain papers on legal considerations, environmental aspects, decommissioning equipment and methods, instrumentation, applied health physics, waste classification and disposal, and project experience. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

  6. Technical report on natural evaporation system for radioactive liquid waste treatment arising from TRIGA research reactors' decontamination and decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J. S.; Jung, K. J.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, U. S.; Park, S. K.; Jung, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    This technical report described that radioactive liquid waste treatment for dismantling/decontamination of TRIGA Mark research reactor in Seoul. That is, we try safety treatment of operation radioactive liquid waste during of operating TRIGA Mark research reactor and dismantling radioactive liquid waste during R and D of research reactor hereafter, and by utilizing of new natural evaporation facility with describing design criteria of new natural evaporation facility. Therefore, this technical report described the quantity of present radioactive liquid waste and dismantling radioactive liquid waste hereafter, analysis the status of radial-rays/radioactivity, and also treatment method of this radioactive liquid waste. Also, we derived the method that the safeguard of outskirts environment and the cost down of radioactive liquid waste treatment by minimize of the radioactive liquid waste quantities, through-out design/operation of new natural evaporation facility for treatment of operation radioactive liquid waste and dismantling radioactive liquid waste. (author). 6 refs., 12 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Principles of record keeping for decommissioning purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraia, M.

    2003-01-01

    At the siting and conceptual design stage of a nuclear facility the first records pertaining to that facility are produced and stored. Subsequent phases in the facility's life cycle (detailed design, construction, commissioning, operation and shutdown) will include the production and retention of a large variety of records. Design, as-built drawings and operational records are essential for safe and efficient operation of any nuclear facility. This set of records is constantly updated and augmented during operation. Records from all phases of a nuclear facility are important for planning its decommissioning. Although not all of these records need to be included explicitly in the decommissioning plan itself, the process of initial, ongoing and final planning utilizes pertinent records for, and ultimately achieves, safe and cost effective decommissioning. When a nuclear facility is shutdown for decommissioning, current operating experience may be lost. Therefore, one important element of planning is to identify, secure and store appropriate operational records to support decommissioning. This process is preferably initiated during the design and construction phase and continues throughout operation including shutdown. Part of the records inventory from operation will become records for decommissioning and it is cost effective to identify these records before final facility shutdown. Experience shows that lack of attention to record keeping may result in an undue waste of time, other resources and additional costs. The newly established Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management recognizes the importance of keeping decommissioning-related records. In addition, the systematic management of records is an essential part of quality assurance and is often a licence condition. A good comprehensive decommissioning records management system (RMS) is one specific application of the broader concepts of 'Protection

  8. Improvement of a separation method for the reduction of secondary waste from the water-jet abrasive suspension cutting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandauer, M.; Gentes, S.; Heneka, A.; Krauss, C.O.; Geckeis, H.; Plaschke, M.; Schild, D.; Tobie, W.

    2017-01-01

    microscopic analysis. In addition, the microscopic analyses showed that abrasive particles are considerably larger than steel particles. Therefore, the grade of separation is related to the particle size distribution. For this reason, a measurement device was installed to measure the particle size distribution during the separation process. Based on the particle size distribution a good estimate of the separation grade could be given during the separation process. However, further optimization and additional understanding of the separation process is still needed to improve the performance of the setup. This is the main goal of the subsequent project MASK ('Magnetic Separation of granular mixtures from water-jet cutting to minimize secondary waste from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities', funded by BMBF), i.e. the improvement of the separation grade. For this purpose, a numerical simulation of the fluid flow inside the magnetic filter unit will be performed. Furthermore, experimental studies using radioactive abrasive-steel grain mixtures are envisaged, to demonstrate the applicability of the method to real radioactive contaminated secondary waste. For this purpose, a small scale separation device for the use in a radioactive controlled area will be constructed and tested. In this presentation the MASK separation device and the experimental procedures will be explained. In addition, new results obtained with the NENAWAS separation device will be presented. (authors)

  9. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: RECLAMATION OF LEAD FROM SUPERFUND WASTE MATERIAL USING SECONDARY LEAD SMELTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This process involves incorporating lead-contaminated Superfund waste with the regular feed to a secondary lead smelter. Since secondary lead smelters already recover lead from recycled automobile batteries, it seems likely that this technology could be used to treat waste from ...

  10. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, M.E.; Montoya, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m 3 of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m 3 of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Decommissioning Cost Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labor, Bea

    2012-03-01

    The future costs for dismantling, decommissioning and handling of associated radioactive waste of nuclear installations represents substantial liabilities. It is the generations that benefits from the use of nuclear installations that shall carry the financial burden. Nuclear waste programmes have occasionally encountered set-backs related to the trust from society. This has resulted in delayed, redirected or halted activities, which has the common denominator of costs increases. In modern democratic countries, information sharing, knowledge transfer and open communication about costs for the management of radioactive waste are prerequisites for the task to develop modern methods for public participation and thus to develop well-founded and justified confidence for further development of nuclear energy. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role to provide unbiased information on any health, safety, financial and environmental related issues. This task requires a good understanding of the values and opinion of the public, and especially those of the younger generation

  12. Decommissioning activities for Salaspils research reactor - 59055

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenkovs, A.; Malnacs, J.

    2012-01-01

    In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR). The reactor is out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study for the decommissioning of SRR has been carried out by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH at 1998-1999. The Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to 'green field' in October 26, 1999. The upgrade of decommissioning and dismantling plan was performed in 2003-2004 years, which change the main goal of decommissioning to the 'brown field'. The paper deals with the SRR decommissioning experience during 1999-2010. The main decommissioning stages are discussed including spent fuel and radioactive wastes management. The legal aspects and procedures for decommissioning of SRR are described in the paper. It was found, that the involvement of stakeholders at the early stages significantly promotes the decommissioning of nuclear facility. Radioactive waste management's main efforts were devoted to collecting and conditioning of 'historical' radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside of reactor hall. All radioactive materials (more than 96 tons) were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in the radioactive wastes repository 'Radons' at Baldone site. The dismantling of contaminated and activated components of SRR systems is discussed in paper. The cementation of dismantled radioactive wastes in concrete containers is discussed. Infrastructure of SRR, including personal protective and radiation measurement equipment, for decommissioning purposes was upgraded significantly. Additional attention was devoted to the free release measurement's technique. The certified laboratory was installed for supporting of all decommissioning activities. All non-radioactive equipments and materials outside of reactor buildings were released for clearance and dismantled for reusing or conventional disposing. Weakly contaminated materials from reactor hall were collected

  13. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 6: Closure and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains eight papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics include: site closure; ground cover; alternate cap designs; performance monitoring of waste trenches; closure options for a mixed waste site; and guidance for environmental monitoring. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  14. The IAEA Safety Regime for Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The International Atomic Energy Agency is developing an international framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities that consists of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, and a hierarchy of Safety Standards applicable to decommissioning. The Joint Convention entered into force on 18 June 2001 and as of December 2001 had been ratified by 27 IAEA Member States. The Joint Convention contains a number of articles dealing with planning for, financing, staffing and record keeping for decommissioning. The Joint Convention requires Contracting Parties to apply the same operational radiation protection criteria, discharge limits and criteria for controlling unplanned releases during decommissioning that are applied during operations. The IAEA has issued Safety Requirements document and three Safety Guides applicable to decommissioning of facilities. The Safety Requirements document, WS-R-2, Pre-disposal Management of Radioactive Waste, including Decommissioning, contains requirements applicable to regulatory control, planning and funding, management of radioactive waste, quality assurance, and environmental and safety assessment of the decommissioning process. The three Safety Guides are WS-G-2.1, Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors, WS-G-2.2, Decommissioning of Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities, an WS-G-2.4, Decommissioning of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities. They contain guidance on how to meet the requirements of WS-R-2 applicable to decommissioning of specific types of facilities. These Standards contain only general requirements and guidance relative to safety assessment and do not contain details regarding the content of the safety case. More detailed guidance will be published in future Safety Reports currently in preparation within the Waste Safety Section of the IAEA. Because much material arising during the decommissioning

  15. Planning and management for reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiko

    2001-01-01

    This report describes decommissioning strategy, planning process, regulation, management and organization, radiological characterization and safety. Planning is used to identify, define and organize the requirements for decommissioning including decommissioning options, items to be accomplished (objective, scope), to solve problems of how it is to be accomplished (methods, means and procedures), questions of who will execute it (resources, organization and responsibilities, interfacing), and time when it will be executed (schedule for meeting the objectives). A plan is highly dependent on the quality of the management team assembled to carry it out. Radiological characterization involves a survey of existing data, calculation, in situ measurements and/or sampling and analyses. Using this databases decommissioning planner may assess options, considering: decontamination processes, dismantling procedures, tools required, radiological protection of workers and public/environment, waste classification, and resulting costs. Comparison and optimization of these factors will lead to selection of a decommissioning strategy, i.e. typically, immediate or deferred dismantling. The planning and implementation of decommissioning for nuclear reactors should be referred both recent dismantling techniques and many decommissioning experiences. The technical lessons learned from many projects will help in the planning for future decommissioning projects. And systematic planning and management are essential to successful completion of a decommissioning project. (author)

  16. Human resource development for management of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    This paper described the contents of 'Human resource development for the planning and implementation of safe and reasonable nuclear power plant decommissioning' as the nuclear human resource development project by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant takes 30 to 40 years for its implementation, costing tens of billions of yen. As the period of decommissioning is almost the same as the operation period, it is necessary to provide a systematic and continuous supply of engineers who understand the essence of the decommissioning project. The engineers required here should have project management ability to take charge of preparation, implementation, and termination of decommissioning, and have the ability to perform not only technology, but also factor management, cost management, and the like. As the preconditions of these abilities, it is important to develop human resources who possess qualities that can oversee decommissioning in the future. The contents of human resource education are as follows; (1) desk training (teaching materials: facilities of nuclear power plants, management of nuclear fuels, related laws, decommissioning work, decontamination, dismantling, disposal of waste, etc.), (2) field training (simulators, inspection of power station under decommissioning, etc.), (3) practical training (radiation inventory evaluation, and safety assessment), and (4) inspection of overseas decommissioning, etc. (A.O.)

  17. KONTEC 2013. 11{sup th} international symposium on 'Conditioning of radioactive operational and decommissioning waste' and 11{sup th} BMBF status report on 'Decommissioning and demolition of nuclear facilities'; KONTEC 2013. 11. internationales Symposium 'Konditionierung radioaktiver Betriebs- und Stilllegungsabfaelle' einschliesslich 11. Statusbericht des BMBF 'Stilllegung und Rueckbau kerntechnischer Anlagen'. Veranstaltungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-06-15

    KONTEC 2013 was held in Dresden on 13 to 15 March 2013. The 11{sup th} event organized under this heading dealt with the subjects of 'Conditioning of Radioactive Operational and Decommissioning Waste' and 'Decommissioning and Demolition of Nuclear Facilities' including the R and D Status Report by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) on the same subject. The conference was attended by an international audience from 19 countries. The program included plenary sessions on these 4 key topics: - Disposal of Radioactive Residues from Nuclear Facilities' Operation and Decommissioning. - Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities. - Facilities and Systems for the Conditioning of Operational and Decommissioning Wastes. - Transport, Interim and Final Storage of Non-heat Generating Wastes (i.e. Konrad). These sessions were accompanied by poster sessions and short presentations under the heading of 'Kontec Direct.' The best presentations of the categories Plenary Session Presentation, Poster Presentation and Kontec-Direct have been awarded. In detail, 'Dismantling of Russian nuclear powered submarines' by Detlef Mietann, 'Requalification of 'Old Packages' for the Konrad Repository Described for the Model Case of Packages from Storage Annex A and Repackaging of Containers Holding Compacts in Hall 2 of the GNS Plant' by Martina Koessler, Sebastian Schwall and Pascal Budriks, and 'Electrochemical process development for cleaning organic, C-14-labelled waste solutions' by Hans-Juergen Friedrich. (orig.)

  18. Workshop on decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broden, K.

    2005-12-01

    A Nordic workshop on decommissioning of nuclear facilities was held at Risoe in Denmark September 13-15, 2005. The workshop was arranged by NKS in cooperation with the company Danish Decommissioning, DD, responsible for decommissioning of nuclear facilities at Risoe. Oral presentations were made within the following areas: International and national recommendations and requirements concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities Authority experiences of decommissioning cases Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Denmark Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Sweden Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Norway Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Finland Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in German and the UK Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union Results from research and development A list with proposals for future work within NKS has been prepared based on results from group-work and discussions. The list contains strategic, economical and political issues, technical issues and issues regarding competence and communication. (au)

  19. Development of computer program for estimating decommissioning cost - 59037

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak-Soo; Park, Jong-Kil

    2012-01-01

    The programs for estimating the decommissioning cost have been developed for many different purposes and applications. The estimation of decommissioning cost is required a large amount of data such as unit cost factors, plant area and its inventory, waste treatment, etc. These make it difficult to use manual calculation or typical spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel. The cost estimation for eventual decommissioning of nuclear power plants is a prerequisite for safe, timely and cost-effective decommissioning. To estimate the decommissioning cost more accurately and systematically, KHNP, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd, developed a decommissioning cost estimating computer program called 'DeCAT-Pro', which is Decommission-ing Cost Assessment Tool - Professional. (Hereinafter called 'DeCAT') This program allows users to easily assess the decommissioning cost with various decommissioning options. Also, this program provides detailed reporting for decommissioning funding requirements as well as providing detail project schedules, cash-flow, staffing plan and levels, and waste volumes by waste classifications and types. KHNP is planning to implement functions for estimating the plant inventory using 3-D technology and for classifying the conditions of radwaste disposal and transportation automatically. (authors)

  20. Transfer of financial obligations for the disposal of nuclear waste and decommissioning of German NPP's. Legal aspects of a trust model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schewe, Markus; Wiesendahl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear power plant operators have to bear the costs associated with the closure and the decommissioning of the German nuclear power plants as well as the costs for the disposal of nuclear waste. For that purpose, the operators have to build up sufficient reserves for the decommissioning phase. These reserves at the end of 2013 amounted to approximately 36 billion Euro. Changing this system is discussed very so often. Last in May 2014, a public debate started dealing with the so called trust model (''Stiftungsmodell''). The press published deliberations of several operators to transfer their entire nuclear business to the Federal Republic of Germany. Under this deliberation the current nuclear power plant operations, as well as closure obligations would be contributed to trust. Further, also the reserves should be ''transferred'' to the trust. RAG-Foundation (RAG-Stiftung) - which will assume the financial obligations in connection with Germany's closure of underground coal mining activities - sometimes is cited as a role model. The article covers elements of German trust law and atomic energy law regarding such deliberations. In trust law e.g. it can be debated whether the trust should be established under public or - as in the case of RAG-Foundation - under private law. In this context we will set out the major differences between those two options. In the public law part we will notably address issues arising from individual licensing requirements for nuclear power plants and focus on questions concerning reliability, requisite qualification and organizational structures.

  1. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: Summary status report: Three Mile Island Unit 2 radioactive waste and laundry shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerge, D.H.; Haffner, D.R.

    1988-06-01

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 through April 19, 1987. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order

  2. Radiation safety for decommissioning projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    Decommissioning of redundant nuclear facilities is a growth area in the UK at the present time. NUKEM Nuclear Limited is a leading-edge nuclear decommissioning and waste management contractor (with its own in-house health physics and safety department), working for a variety of clients throughout the UK nuclear industry. NUKEM Nuclear is part of the prestigious, international NUKEM group, a world-class organization specializing in nuclear engineering and utilities technologies. NUKEM Nuclear is involved in a number of large, complex decommissioning projects, both in its own right and as part of consortia. This paper explores the challenges presented by such projects and the interfaces of contractor, client and subcontractors from the point of view of a radiation protection adviser. (author)

  3. The Preliminary Decommissioning Plan of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Pham Van; Vien, Luong Ba; Vinh, Le Vinh; Nghiem, Huynh Ton; Tuan, Nguyen Minh; Phuong, Pham Hoai [Nuclear Research Institute, Da Lat (Viet Nam)

    2013-08-15

    Recently, after 25 years of operation, a preliminary decommissioning plan for the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) has been produced but as yet it has not been implemented due to the continued operations of the reactor. However, from the early phases of facility design and construction and during operation, the aspects that facilitate decommissioning process have been considered. This paper outlines the DNRR general description, the organization that manages the facility, the decommissioning strategy and associated project management, and the expected decommissioning activities. The paper also considers associated cost and funding, safety and environmental issues and waste management aspects amongst other considerations associated with decommissioning a nuclear research reactor. (author)

  4. Decommissioning of Salaspils Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenkovs, A.; Popelis, A.; Abramenkova, G

    2008-01-01

    The Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR) is out of operation since July 1998 and the decommissioning of SRR was started in 1999 according to the decision of the Government of Latvia. The main decommissioning activities up to 2006 were connected with collecting and conditioning of historical radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside of reactor hall. The total amount of dismantled materials was about 700 tons, more than 77 tons were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in repository. The radioactive wastes management technology is discussed in the paper. It was found, that additional efforts must be spent for immobilization of radionuclides in cemented matrix to be comply with the wastes acceptance criteria. The investigations of mechanical stability of water-cement matrix are described and discussed in the paper

  5. Decommissioning of Ukrainian NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skripov, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    The decision about the development of 'Decommissioning Concept of Ukrainian NPPs' being on commercial operational stage was approved by NAEK 'Energoatom' Board of Administration by way of the decommissioning activity effective planning. The Concept will be the branch document, containing common approaches formulations on problem decisions according to the units decommissioning with generated resources, and RAW and SNF management strategy during decommissioning

  6. The curious accountancy of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Financial provision for the decommissioning and waste management of the United Kingdom Magnox and AGR reactor is discussed. In the last set of accounts prior to privatisation a decommissioning provision of Pound 8.34 bn was indicated whereas previous figures had only shown Pound 2.88. It is suggested that the increase was only achieved on paper, without real financial provision. Estimates of decommissioning costs for the Magnox stations have increased greatly. Cost estimates for AGR decommissioning have still to be released but it is expected that the post-privatisation owners of the nuclear power industry, Nuclear Electric, will have to find Pound 6-7 bn to dismantle its own reactors. Much of this it hopes to put off for over 100 years. The South of Scotland Electicity Board has made much more realistic provision for its own Magnox and two AGR stations. Reprocessing costs for AGR reactor fuel is uncertain and high reprocessing and decommissioning costs will mean increases in the price of nuclear electricity. (UK)

  7. Nuclear Decommissioning R and D: a successful history that goes on. Evolution of R and D for nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraia, Michele; )

    2017-01-01

    Research and Development (R and D) in Nuclear Decommissioning date back to the 1980's and 1990's. At that time, decommissioning was a relatively new, sporadic activity; technologies were mostly imported from the non-nuclear field and adapted to nuclear uses (a trend that continues to this day and should not be looked down). R and D were first applied to a laboratory scale, and later on expanded to prototype and pilot installations. The European Commission launched a series of multi-year R and D programmes, ultimately covering the full-scale decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other large installations. Certain installations (especially the BR-3 reactor at Mol, Belgium), were used to test and compare different technologies and assign a ranking based on various factors. In parallel, the US Department of Energy was active in a number of R and D activities, culminating in a number of topical publications until around the year 2000 and the explosive growth of the decommissioning market. In Japan in early 1990's the decommissioning of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) was used to test almost all dismantling techniques being available at that time: the spin-offs of JPDR work were still flowing into the nuclear community until recently. It has to be also highlighted that the Chernobyl accident boosted a spate of decommissioning R and D aimed at solving practical problems in the aftermath of that severe accident. Although R and D in this field peaked around the year 2000, R and D efforts have continued to this day. While decommissioning is not 'rocket science' and it can be safely stated that this industry has reached maturity, there are areas (e.g. management of secondary waste, access, characterization and dismantling in 'difficult' environments) that require further efforts to optimize processes and reduce the still high costs. The IAEA has contributed to these advances in various ways. For example, some 50 topical reports on the decommissioning of

  8. Regulatory Strategies To Minimize Generation Of Regulated Wastes From Cleanup, Continued Use Or Decommissioning Of Nuclear Facilities Contaminated With Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) - 11198

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, N.

    2010-01-01

    . Allowable options must be evaluated carefully in order to reduce compliance risks, protect personnel, limit potential negative impacts on facility operations, and minimize the generation of wastes subject to TSCA. This paper will identify critical factors in selecting the appropriate TSCA regulatory path in order to minimize the generation of radioactive PCB waste and reduce negative impacts to facilities. The importance of communicating pertinent technical issues with facility staff, regulatory personnel, and subsequently, the public, will be discussed. Key points will be illustrated by examples from five former production reactors at the DOE Savannah River Site. In these reactors a polyurethane sealant was used to seal piping penetrations in the biological shield walls. During the intense neutron bombardment that occurred during reactor operation, the sealant broke down into a thick, viscous material that seeped out of the piping penetrations over adjacent equipment and walls. Some of the walls were painted with a PCB product. PCBs from the paint migrated into the degraded sealant, creating PCB 'spill areas' in some of these facilities. The regulatory cleanup approach selected for each facility was based on its operational status, e.g., active, inactive or undergoing decommissioning. The selected strategies served to greatly minimize the generation of radioactive liquid PCB waste. It is expected that this information would be useful to other DOE sites, DOD facilities, and commercial nuclear facilities constructed prior to the 1979 TSCA ban on most manufacturing and uses of PCBs.

  9. The Importance of Experience Based Decommissioning Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Hedin, Gunnar; Bergh, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Decommissioning of a nuclear facility is an extensive and multidisciplinary task, which involves the management and technical actions associated with ceasing operation and thereafter the step-by-step transfer of the facility from an operating plant to an object under decommissioning. The decommissioning phase includes dismantling of systems and components, decontamination and clearance, demolition of buildings, remediation of any contaminated ground and finally a survey of the site. Several of these activities generate radioactive or potentially radioactive waste, which has to be managed properly prior to clearance or disposal. What makes decommissioning of nuclear installations unique is to large extent the radioactive waste management. No other industries have that complex regulatory framework for the waste management. If decommissioning project in the nuclear industry does not consider the waste aspects to the extent required, there is a large risk of failure causing a reduced trust by the regulators and other stakeholders as well as cost and schedule overruns. This paper will give an overview of important aspects and findings gathered during decades of planning and conducting decommissioning and nuclear facility modernization projects. (authors)

  10. Progress of the decommissioning programme – completion of the construction of the Dry Spent Fuel Storage Facility and progress of the establishment of the decommissioning and waste management infrastructure at the Kozloduy site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribarski, V.

    2011-01-01

    All of the Infrastructure Projects associated with Decommissioning have been identified. All the major projects are either in Contract or have the Tender Packages prepared and are being managed/implemented through the EBRD Procurement Process. We find that it is most important and strategically significant to maximally increase the active dismantling in: •Turbine hall of units 3 and 4 (dismantling of equipment and systems category) before the defueling of the reactors ponds and receiving a decommissioning license; •The reactor compartments of units 1-4 – since the beginning of 2014 after commissioning of the repository for contaminated equipment and materials (transitional RAW). We also take a significant challenge to reduce the deadlines for decommissioning of units 1-4 with five years and finalize the process in 2030 (instead of 2035). We rely on additional financial support which would contribute to creating the conditions that guarantee the success of our efforts

  11. Development of safety-relevant components for the transport and handling of final storage casks for waste from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruening, D.; Geiser, H.; Kloeckner, F.; Rittscher, D.; Schlesinger, H.J.

    1992-10-01

    The aim of the study was the development, construction and testing of a transportation system that is able to transport cylindrical waste containers as well as containers from the deliverer to the 'KONRAD' final repository. A transport palette has been developed that can carry two cylindrical waste containers with type B requirement or classification II. An Open-All-Container for the transport of palettes and 'KONRAD' containers has been developed. A storage of cylindrical waste containers and containers in the final repository is possible with the newly developed transportation system. Safety specifications of the transportation system have been passed successfully. (orig.). 30 refs., 8 tabs., 74 figs [de

  12. Decommissioning of AECL Whiteshell laboratories - 16311

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroll, Grant W.; Bilinsky, Dennis M.; Swartz, Randall S.; Harding, Jeff W.; Rhodes, Michael J.; Ridgway, Randall W.

    2009-01-01

    Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a Nuclear Research and Test Establishment near Winnipeg, Canada, operated by AECL since the early 1960's and now under decommissioning. WL occupies approximately 4400 hectares of land and employed more than 1000 staff up to the late-1990's, when the closure decision was made. Nuclear facilities at WL included a research reactor, hot cell facilities and radiochemical laboratories. Programs carried out at the WL site included high level nuclear fuel waste management research, reactor safety research, nuclear materials research, accelerator technology, biophysics, and industrial radiation applications. In preparation for decommissioning, a comprehensive environmental assessment was successfully completed [1] and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission issued a six-year decommissioning licence for WL starting in 2003 - the first decommissioning licence issued for a Nuclear Research and Test Establishment in Canada. This paper describes the progress in this first six-year licence period. A significant development in 2006 was the establishment of the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP), by the Government of Canada, to safely and cost effectively reduce, and eventually eliminate the nuclear legacy liabilities and associated risks, using sound waste management and environmental principles. The NLLP endorsed an accelerated approach to WL Decommissioning, which meant advancing the full decommissioning of buildings and facilities that had originally been planned to be decontaminated and prepared for storage-with-surveillance. As well the NLLP endorsed the construction of enabling facilities - facilities that employ modern waste handling and storage technology on a scale needed for full decommissioning of the large radiochemical laboratories and other nuclear facilities. The decommissioning work and the design and construction of enabling facilities are fully underway. Several redundant non-nuclear buildings have been removed and redundant

  13. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Feasibility, needs and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Reactor decommissioning activities generally are considered to begin after operations have ceased and the fuel has been removed from the reactor, although in some countries the activities may be started while the fuel is still at the reactor site. The three principal alternatives for decommissioning are described. The factors to be considered in selecting the decommissioning strategy, i.e. a stage or a combination of stages that comprise the total decommissioning programme, are reviewed. One presents a discussion of the feasibility of decommissioning techniques available for use on the larger reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The numbers and types of facilities to be decommissioned and the resultant waste volumes generated for disposal will then be projected. Finally, the costs of decommissioning these facilities, the effect of these costs on electricity generating costs, and alternative methods of financing decommissioning are discussed. The discussion of decommissioning draws on various countries' studies and experience in this area. Specific details about current activities and policies in NEA Member Countries are given in the short country specific Annexes. The nuclear facilities that are addressed in this study include reactors, fuel fabrication facilities, reprocessing facilities, associated radioactive waste storage facilities, enrichment facilities and other directly related fuel cycle support facilities. The present study focuses on the technical feasibility, needs, and costs of decommissioning the larger commercial facilities in the OECD member countries that are coming into service up to the year 2000. It is intended to inform the public and to assist in planning for the decommissioning of these facilities

  14. Survey of decontamination and decommissioning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusler, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reports and articles on decommissioning have been reviewed to determine the current technology status and also attempt to identify potential decommissioning problem areas. It is concluded that technological road blocks, which limited decommissioning facilities in the past have been removed. In general, techniques developed by maintenance in maintaining the facility have been used to decommission facilities. Some of the more promising development underway which will further simplify decommissioning activities are: electrolytic decontamination which simplifies some decontaminating operations; arc saw and vacuum furnace which reduce the volume of metallic contaminated material by a factor of 10; remotely operated plasma torch which reduces personnel exposure; and shaped charges, water cannon and rock splitters which simplify concrete removal. Areas in which published data are limited are detailed costs identifying various components included in the total cost and also the quantity of waste generated during the decommissioning activities. With the increased awareness of decommissioning requirements as specified by licensing requirements, design criteria for new facilities are taking into consideration final decommissioning of buildings. Specific building design features will evolve as designs are evaluated and implemented

  15. Brief Assessment of Krsko NPP Decommissioning Costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanata, D.; Medakovic, S.; Debrecin, N.

    2000-01-01

    The first part of the paper gives a brief description of decommissioning scenarios and models of financing the decommissioning of NPPs. The second part contains a review of decommissioning costs for certain PWR plants with a brief description of methods used for that purpose. The third part of the paper the authors dedicated to the assessment of decommissioning costs for Krsko NPP. It does not deal with ownership relations and obligations ensuing from them. It starts from the simple point that decommissioning is an structure of the decommissioning fund is composed of three basic cost items of which the first refers to radioactive waste management, the second to storage and disposal of the spent nuclear fuel and the third to decommissioning itself. The assessment belongs to the category of preliminary activities and as such has a limited scope and meaning. Nevertheless, the authors believe that it offers a useful insight into the basic costs that will burden the decommissioning fund of Krsko NPP. (author)

  16. Review of Impact Factors on Decommissioning Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Taesik; Jung, Hyejin; Kim, Younggook [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This article is prepared to factor out decommissioning strategies mostly appropriate to the decommissioning Kori-1 nuclear power plant. Terms used to delineate the lifetime of an authorized facility and of the associated licensing process consists of six core stages such as siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning. The term decommissioning implies the administrative and technical actions taken to allow the removal of some or all of the regulatory controls from a facility except for the part of a disposal facility in which the radioactive waste is emplaced. Whole range of each process of decommissioning should be considered throughout the other five stages. The decommissioning process is typically composed of its planning, conducting actions and terminating the authorization. In order to achieve the successful decommissioning, the impact factor on the strategy should be analyzed and evaluated to optimally apply to Kori-1 project. From my perspective, among eight factor, stakeholder’s consideration and spent fuel management are considered the key elements we have to concentrate on to smoothly go ahead for successful decommissioning of Kori-1.

  17. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Helena; Anunti, Aake; Edelborg, Mathias

    2013-06-01

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

  18. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias

    2013-06-01

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

  19. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Helena; Anunti, Aake; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  20. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  1. Decommissioning and disposal costs in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurkinden, Auguste

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Goal: Secure sufficient financial resources. Question: How much money is needed? Mean: Concrete plans for decommissioning and waste disposal. - It is the task of the operators to elaborate these plans and to evaluate the corresponding costs - Plans and costs are to be reviewed by the authorities Decommissioning Plans and Costs - Comprise decommissioning, dismantling and management (including disposal) of the waste. - New studies 2001 for each Swiss nuclear power plant (KKB 2 x 380 MWe, KKM 370 MWe, KKG 1020 MWe, KKL 1180 MWe). - Studies performed by NIS (D). - Last developments taken into account (Niederaichbach, Gundremmingen, Kahl). Decommissioning: Results and Review Results: Total cost estimates decreasing (billion CHF) 1994 1998 2001 13.7 13.1 11.8 Lower costs for spent fuel conditioning and BE/HAA/LMA repository (Opalinus Clay) Split in 2025: 5.6 bil. CHF paid by NPP 6.2 billion CHF in Fund Review: Concentrates on disposal, ongoing

  2. Knowledge Management Aspects of Decommissioning. Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pironkov, Lyubomir

    2017-01-01

    Kozloduy NPP: Units 5&6, type VVER-1000 - in operation. SE RAW SD “Decommissioning of units 1-4” (type VVER-440); SD “Radioactive Waste – Kozloduy”; SD “National Repository for Radioactive Waste“; SD “Permanent Repository for Radioactive Waste – Novi Han”. Decommissioning Strategy: Strategy Target: “Brown Field”. Initial Version: Safe enclosure – completing by 2050. Updated Version: Continuous dismantling of equipment; Completing the process of Decommissioning of Units 1-4 by 2030. Major Phases: 1.Pre-decommissioning activities; 2.Facility shutdown activities; 3.Procurement of equipment; 4.Dismantling activities; 5.Treatment of RAM and RAW and delivery for disposal; 6.Site management and support; 7.Project management and engineering; 8.Management of SNF and activated materials

  3. Planning the Decommissioning of Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlaha, J., E-mail: pod@ujv.cz [Nuclear Research Institute Rez, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2013-08-15

    In the Czech Republic, three research nuclear reactors are in operation. According to the valid legislation, preliminary decommissioning plans have been prepared for all research reactors in the Czech Republic. The decommissioning plans shall be updated at least every 5 years. Decommissioning funds have been established and financial resources are regularly deposited. Current situation in planning of decommissioning of research reactors in the Czech Republic, especially planning of decommissioning of the LVR-15 research reactor is described in this paper. There appeared new circumstances having wide impact on the decommissioning planning of the LVR-15 research reactor: (1) Shipment of spent fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing and (2) preparation of processing of radioactive waste from reconstruction of the VVR-S research reactor (now LVR-15 research reactor). The experience from spent fuel shipment to the Russian Federation and from the process of radiological characterization and processing of radioactive waste from reconstruction of the VVR-S research reactor (now the LVR-15 research reactor) and the impact on the decommissioning planning is described in this paper. (author)

  4. Automatized material and radioactivity flow control tool in decommissioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, I.; Vasko, M.; Daniska, V.; Schultz, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the automatized material and radioactivity flow control tool in decommissioning process is discussed. It is concluded that: computer simulation of the decommissioning process is one of the important attributes of computer code Omega; one of the basic tools of computer optimisation of decommissioning waste processing are the tools of integral material and radioactivity flow; all the calculated parameters of materials are stored in each point of calculation process and they can be viewed; computer code Omega represents opened modular system, which can be improved; improvement of the module of optimisation of decommissioning waste processing will be performed in the frame of improvement of material procedures and scenarios.

  5. SGDes project. Decommissioning management system of Enresa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Lopez, M.; Julian, A. de

    2013-01-01

    ENRESA, the public company responsible for managing radioactive waste produced in spain and nuclear facilities decommissioning work, has developed a management information system (SGDes) for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, critical for the company. SGDes system is capable of responding to operational needs for efficient, controlled and secure way. Dismantling activities require a rigorous operations control within highly specialized, process systematization and safety framework, both the human and technological point of view. (Author)

  6. Exploring Secondary School Students' Understanding and Practices of Waste Management in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifegbesan, Ayodeji

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the level of awareness, knowledge and practices of secondary schools students with regard to waste management. Few studies have captured waste management problems in Nigerian educational institutions, particularly the views of students. Using a structured, self-administered questionnaire, 650 students were surveyed from six…

  7. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  8. Development of the Decommissioning Project Management System, DECOMMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B.

    2007-03-01

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The management of the projects can be defined as 'the decision of the changes of the decommissioning methodologies for the more efficient achievement of the project at an adequate time and to an improved method'. The correct decision comes from the experiences on the decommissioning project and the systematic experiences can be obtained from the good management of the decommissioning information. For this, a project management tool, DECOMMIS, was developed in the D and D Technology Division, which has the charge of the decommissioning projects at the KAERI, and its purpose was extended to following fields; generation of reports on the dismantling waste for WACID, record keeping for the next decommissioning projects of nuclear facilities, provision of fundamental data for the R and D of the decommissioning technologies

  9. Development of the Decommissioning Project Management System, DECOMMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

    2007-03-15

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The management of the projects can be defined as 'the decision of the changes of the decommissioning methodologies for the more efficient achievement of the project at an adequate time and to an improved method'. The correct decision comes from the experiences on the decommissioning project and the systematic experiences can be obtained from the good management of the decommissioning information. For this, a project management tool, DECOMMIS, was developed in the D and D Technology Division, which has the charge of the decommissioning projects at the KAERI, and its purpose was extended to following fields; generation of reports on the dismantling waste for WACID, record keeping for the next decommissioning projects of nuclear facilities, provision of fundamental data for the R and D of the decommissioning technologies.

  10. Decommissioning and safety issues of liquid-mercury waste generated from high power spallation sources with particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Chiriki, S; Odoj, R; Moormann, R; Hinssen, H. K; Bukaemskiy, A

    2009-01-01

    Large spallation sources are intended to be constructed in Europe (EURISOL nuclear physics facility and ESS-European Spallation Source). These facilities accumulate more than 20 metric tons of irradiated mercury in the target, which has to be treated as highly radioactive and chemo-toxic waste. Because solids are the only appropriate (immobile) form for this radiotoxic and toxic type of waste solidification is required for irradiated mercury. Our irradiation experimental studies on mercury waste revealed that mercury sulfide is a reasonable solid for disposal and shows larger stability in assumed accidents with water ingress in a repository compared to amalgams. For preparation of mercury sulfide a wet process is more suitable than a dry one. It is easier to perform under hot cell conditions and allows complete Hg-conversion. Embedding HgS in a cementitious matrix increases its stability.

  11. DuraLith geopolymer waste form for Hanford secondary waste: Correlating setting behavior to hydration heat evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hui; Gong, Weiliang; Syltebo, Larry; Lutze, Werner; Pegg, Ian L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantitative correlations firstly established for cementitious waste forms. • Quantitative correlations firstly established for geopolymeric materials. • Ternary DuraLith geopolymer waste forms for Hanford radioactive wastes. • Extended setting times which improve workability for geopolymer waste forms. • Reduced hydration heat release from DuraLith geopolymer waste forms. - Abstract: The binary furnace slag-metakaolin DuraLith geopolymer waste form, which has been considered as one of the candidate waste forms for immobilization of certain Hanford secondary wastes (HSW) from the vitrification of nuclear wastes at the Hanford Site, Washington, was extended to a ternary fly ash-furnace slag-metakaolin system to improve workability, reduce hydration heat, and evaluate high HSW waste loading. A concentrated HSW simulant, consisting of more than 20 chemicals with a sodium concentration of 5 mol/L, was employed to prepare the alkaline activating solution. Fly ash was incorporated at up to 60 wt% into the binder materials, whereas metakaolin was kept constant at 26 wt%. The fresh waste form pastes were subjected to isothermal calorimetry and setting time measurement, and the cured samples were further characterized by compressive strength and TCLP leach tests. This study has firstly established quantitative linear relationships between both initial and final setting times and hydration heat, which were never discovered in scientific literature for any cementitious waste form or geopolymeric material. The successful establishment of the correlations between setting times and hydration heat may make it possible to efficiently design and optimize cementitious waste forms and industrial wastes based geopolymers using limited testing results

  12. Nuclear power plant decommissioning. The nature of problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, Yaziz

    1986-04-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large-scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane.

  13. Some studies related to decommissioning of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, C.; Menon, S.

    1990-02-01

    Decommissioning of large nuclear reactors has not yet taken place in the Nordic countries. Small nuclear installations, however, have been dismantled. This NKA-programme has dealt with some interesting and important factors which have to be analysed before a large scale decommissioning programme starts. Prior to decommissioning, knowledge is required regarding the nuclide inventory in various parts of the reactor. Measurements were performed in regions close to the reactor tank and the biological shield. These experimental data are used to verify theoretical calculations. All radioactive waste generated during decommissioning will have to be tansported to a repository. Studies show that in all the Nordic countries there are adequate transport systems with which decommissioning waste can be transported. Another requirement for orderly decommissioning planning is that sufficient information about the plant and its operation history must be available. It appears that if properly handled and sorted, all such information can be extracted from existing documentation. (authors)

  14. Preparatory activities of the Fugen decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Y.; Tajiri, T.; Kiyota, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Thermal Reactor Fugen is a 165 MWe, heavy water moderated, light-water cooled, pressure-tube type reactor. In February 1998, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan introduced a new policy that development and research of decommissioning of Fugen should be promoted in order to carry out the decommissioning smoothly after the shutdown. The Fugen reactor was shut down definitely in March 2003, and Fugen has been preparing for the project, including necessary development of technologies. The development of decommissioning for Fugen is divided into two areas. One area is the development of unique technology for dismantling special components such as the reactor core and the heavy water system. Another area is the improvement and enhancement of existing technologies. Especially the former area requires effort and comprises development of the reactor dismantlement, tritium decontamination of heavy water system and engineering support systems. The activities are as follows: the density and amount of radioactive nuclides in all equipment or concrete including the reactor core need to be evaluated for the decommissioning. To prepare for decommissioning, analysis, measurement and evaluation of the neutron flux density have been executed during reactor operation. Special dismantling process is necessary for the heavy water system and the reactor that are unique to Fugen. Some studies and tests are going on for the safe dismantling based on existing technologies and their combination. Systems engineering approach is necessary in order to optimize the work load, exposure dose, waste mass and cost by selecting appropriate dismantling process at the planning stage of the decommissioning. For this reason, in order to make a decommissioning plan efficiently, we have been developing an Engineering Support System for decommissioning by adopting new information technologies such as three-dimensional computer-aided design system and virtual reality system. Moreover, the

  15. IDMT, Integrated Decommissioning Management Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemberti, A.; Castagna, P.; Marsiletti, M.; Orlandi, S.; Perasso, L.; Susco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant decommissioning requires a number of demolition activities related to civil works and systems as well as the construction of temporary facilities used for treatment and conditioning of the dismantled parts. The presence of a radiological, potentially hazardous, environment due to the specific configuration and history of the plant require a professional, expert and qualified approach approved by the national safety authority. Dismantling activities must be designed, planned and analysed in detail during an evaluation phase taking into account different scenarios generated by possible dismantling sequences and specific waste treatments to be implemented. The optimisation process of the activities becomes very challenging taking into account the requirement of the minimisation of the radiological impact on exposed workers and people during normal and accident conditions. While remote operated equipment, waste treatment and conditioning facilities may be designed taking into account this primary goal also a centralised management system and corresponding software tools have to be designed and operated in order to guarantee the fulfilment of the imposed limits as well as the traceability of wastes. Ansaldo Nuclear Division has been strongly involved in the development of a qualified and certified software environment to manage the most critical activities of a decommissioning project. The IDMT system (Integrated Decommissioning Management Tools) provide a set of stand alone user friendly applications able to work in an integrated configuration to guarantee waste identification, traceability during treatment and conditioning process as well as location and identification at the Final Repository site. Additionally, the system can be used to identify, analyse and compare different specific operating scenarios to be optimised in term of both economical and radiological considerations. The paper provides an overview of the different phases of

  16. Experience of TTR-1 decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Nobuoka, Yoshishige; Yoshimura, Yukio; Homma, Hitoshi; Nakai, Masaru

    2005-01-01

    Toshiba Training Reactor-1 (TTR-1) was planned for improvement of technical level from the standpoint of nuclear reactor manufacturer, training of a nuclear engineer, and research of nuclear physics, radiochemistry, radiation shielding and others. TTR-1 was permitted for construction in May 1960, attained at the first criticality in March 1962 and has continued to operate over 40 years. TTR-1 was permanently shut down in March 2001, accomplishing the planned target. From the initial criticality to the shut down, total operating time amounts to 15,300 hours and 31 MWds. Decommissioning plan was submitted to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology on August 8, 2001 and dismantling work was started. The spent fuel was transported outside the laboratory, and the first phase and the second phase dismantling work were completed at the end of February 2004. Some of the reactor equipments continue maintaining their performance, and waste materials generated from dismantling work are under the state of managed storage, until disposal of the dismantling radioactive waste becomes clear, when the third phase of dismantling work will be started. At the end of the third phase work, all the TTR-1 equipments are dismantled and all waste materials are removed from TTR-1, then decommissioning of TTR-1 is completed. The outline of the decommissioning plan, the actually performed dismantling work, and spent fuel transportation work is briefly described. (author)

  17. Planning for the decommissioning of a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, W.J.; Isakari, H.H.; Munro, J.F.; Lim, T.H.; Denton, M.M.; Vernig, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the steps that must be taken and the uncertainties and potential pitfalls that can be encountered in decommissioning a research reactor, whether owned by private industry, a university, or a government agency. The paper is based on the experience in preparing for decommissioning the TRIGA Mark III Berkeley Research Reactor (BRR). Six topics of interest to an owner-operator are addressed: task and schedule planning, decommissioning organization, cost estimating, health and safety considerations, waste management, and regulatory concerns

  18. Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement in Consideration of Decommissioning

    OpenAIRE

    Won-Jun Choi; Myung-Sub Roh; Chang-Lak Kim

    2017-01-01

    A new concept termed the Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement (INBA) strategy is a new nuclear power plant building arrangement method which encompasses upfront consideration of more efficient decommissioning. Although existing decommissioning strategies such as immediate dismantling and differed dismantling has the advantage of either early site restoration or radioactive decommissioning waste reduction, the INBA strategy has the advantages of both strategies. In this research...

  19. Utility planning for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

  20. Options for Steam Generator Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Gregor; Amcoff, Bjoern; Robinson, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the best option for decommissioning steam generators is a key consideration in preparing for decommissioning PWR nuclear power plants. Steam Generators represent a discrete waste stream of large, complex items that can lend themselves to a variety of options for handling, treatment, recycling and disposal. Studsvik has significant experience in processing full size Steam Generators at its metal recycling facility in Sweden, and this paper will introduce the Studsvik steam generator treatment concept and the results achieved to date across a number of projects. The paper will outline the important parameters needed at an early stage to assess options and to help consider the balance between off-site and on-site treatment solutions, and the role of prior decontamination techniques. The paper also outlines the use of feasibility studies and demonstration projects that have been used to help customers prepare for decommissioning. The paper discusses physical, radiological and operational history data, Pro and Contra factors for on- and off-site treatment, the role of chemical decontamination prior to treatment, planning for off-site shipments as well as Studsvik experience This paper has an original focus upon the coming challenges of steam generator decommissioning and potential external treatment capacity constraints in the medium term. It also focuses on the potential during operations or initial shut-down to develop robust plans for steam generator management. (authors)

  1. A Decommissioning Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. K.; Hong, S. B.; Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In 1996, it was determined that research reactors, the KRR-1 and the KRR-2, would be shut down and dismantled. A project for the decommissioning of these reactors was launched in January 1997 with the goal of a completion by 2008. The total budget of the project was 19.4 million US dollars, including the cost for the waste disposal and for the technology development. The work scopes during the decommissioning project were the dismantling of all the facilities and the removal of all the radioactive materials from the reactor site. After the removal of the entire radioactivity, the site and buildings will be released for an unconditional use. A separate project for the decommissioning of the uranium conversion plant was initiated in 2001. The plant was constructed for the development of the fuel manufacturing technologies and the localization of nuclear fuels in Korea. It was shut downed in 1993 and finally it was concluded in 2000 that the plant would be decommissioned. The project will be completed by 2008 and the total budget was 9.2 million US dollars. During this project, all vessels and equipment will be dismantled and the building surface will be decontaminated to be utilized as general laboratories.

  2. Decommissioning and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadoumont, J.; Cantrel, E.; Valenduc, P.; Noynaert, L.

    2009-01-01

    The SCK-CEN has built a large know-how in decommissioning and decontamination, thanks to its BR3 decommissioning project. In 2007, the decommissioning activities at BR3 have been continued according to the strategy. This article discusses main realisations the following domains: decommissioning of the neutron shield tank and installation of new ventilation for the controlled area, dismantling of the former one and characterization of the stack

  3. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: Feasibility, needs and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaney, E.G.; Mickelson, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency's Working Group on Decommissioning is preparing a study entitled ''Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities: Feasibility, Needs and Costs.'' The study addresses the economics, technical feasibility and waste management aspects of decommissioning larger commercial reactors and nuclear support facilities. Experience on decommissioning small reactors and fuel cycle facilities shows that current technology is generally adequate. Several major projects that are either underway or planned will demonstrate decommissioning of the larger and more complex facilities. This experience will provide a framework for planning and engineering the decommissioning of the larger commercial reactors and fuel cycle facilities. Several areas of technology development are desired for worker productivity improvement, occupational exposure reduction, and waste volume reduction. In order to assess and plan for the decommissioning of large commercial nuclear facilities, projections have been made of the capacity of these facilities that may be decommissioned in the future and the radioactive waste that would be produced from the decommissioning of these facilities. These projections through the year 2025 are based on current data and the OECD reactor capacity forecast through the year 2000. A 25-year operating lifetime for electrical power generation was assumed. The possibilities of plant lifetime extension and the deferral of plant dismantlement make this projection very conservative

  4. SGN's Dismantling and Decommissioning engineering, projects experience and capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destrait, L.

    1998-01-01

    Its experience in waste treatment, conditioning, storage and disposal, its cooperation with CEA and COGEMA Group in license agreements give SGN expertise in the decommissioning field. SGN's experience and background in all areas of nuclear facility decommissioning, such as chemical and mechanical cells, nuclear advanced reactors, reprocessing facilities result in fruitful references to the customers. The poster is presenting different achievements and projects with SGN's participation such as: - The decommissioning of Windscale Advanced Gas cooled Reactors (WAGR), in particular providing methodology and equipment to dismantle the Pressure and Insulation Vessel of the reactor. - The decommissioning plan of Ignalina (Lithuania) and Paldiski (Estonia), defining strategies, scenarios, necessary equipments and tools and choosing the best solutions to decommission the site under different influencing parameters such as cost, dose rate exposure, etc... - Th One Site Assistance Team (OSAT) at Chernobyl regarding the preparation works for the waste management and decommissioning of the plant. - The decommissioning of French nuclear facilities such as reprocessing (UP1) and reactor (EL4) plants. The important experience acquired during the facility management and during the first dismantling and decommissioning operations is an important factor for the smooth running of these techniques for the future. The challenge to come is to control all the operations, the choice of strategies, the waste management, the efficiency of tools and equipments, and to provide nuclear operators with a full range of proven techniques to optimise costs and minimize decommissioning personnel exposure. (Author)

  5. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, A.K.; Kirkham, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates

  6. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.; Kirkham, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.

    2002-09-26

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  7. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Techology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Kirkham, Robert John; Losinski, Sylvester John

    2001-09-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  8. Decommissioning of reactor facilities (2). Required technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Decommissioning of reactor facilities was planned to perform progressive dismantling, decontamination and radioactive waste disposal with combination of required technology in a safe and economic way. This article outlined required technology for decommissioning as follows: (1) evaluation of kinds and amounts of residual radioactivity of reactor facilities with calculation and measurement, (2) decontamination technology of metal components and concrete structures so as to reduce worker's exposure and production of radioactive wastes during dismantling, (3) dismantling technology of metal components and concrete structures such as plasma arc cutting, band saw cutting and controlled demolition with mostly remote control operation, (3) radioactive waste disposal for volume reduction and reuse, and (4) project management of decommissioning for safe and rational work to secure reduction of worker's exposure and prevent the spreading of contamination. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Mound's decommissioning experience, tooling, and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, A.B.; Davis, W.P.; Elswick, T.C.; Garner, J.M.; Geichman, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC), which operates Mound for the Department of Energy (DOE), has been decommissioning radioactively contaminated facilities since 1949. We are currently decommissioning three plutonium-238 contaminated facilities (approximately 50,000 ft 2 ) that contained 1100 linear ft of gloveboxes; 900 linear ft of conveyor housing; 2650 linear ft of dual underground liquid waste lines; and associated contaminated piping, services, equipment, structures, and soil. As of June 1982, over 29,000 Ci of plutonium-238 have been removed in waste and scrap residues. As a result of the current and previous decommissioning projects, valuable experience has been gained in tooling and techniques. Special techniques have been developed in planning, exposure control, contamination control, equipment removal, structural decontamination, and waste packaging

  10. Technical survey of decommissioning of commercial power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    The technical survey of decommissioning of commercial power reactors had been carried out from 1982 to 2003. The investigation items are scenarios, procedures, simplification and recycling. On the scenarios, the case studies on the decommissioning steps (1983 to 1984), evaluation of the prior conditions of case studies (1994 to 1998), evaluation of rationalization of the scenarios of decommissioning steps (1999 to 2001) and evaluation of the effects of investigation of clearance level (1999 to 2002) are described. Procedures (1985 to 1996) and simplification (1985 to 1987) of decommissioning are investigated. On the recycling, survey on recycle of waste produced by the decommissioning step (1985 to 1993) and recycle of demolition waste (1997 to 2002) are reported. Recycle of radioactive waste has to be controlled under lows. (S.Y.)

  11. The decommissioning of Berkeley II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the decommissioning progress at the Magnox site at Berkeley in Gloucestershire.Throughout the work at Berkeley the emphasis has been on conducting decommissioning safely. This has been reflected in the progress of decommissioning starting with removal of the fuel from site and thus much greater than 99% of the radioactive inventory. The major radioactive hazard is the Intermediate Level Waste in the form of fuel element debris (graphite struts and extraneous magnox components removed to increase the packing density of fuel elements in flasks going to Sellafield), miscellaneous activated components, sludges and resins. Approximately 1500 m 3 of such material exists and is stored in underground waste vaults on site. Work is underway to recover and encapsulate the waste in cement so rendering it 'passively safe'. All work on site is covered by a nuclear safety case which has a key objective of minimising the radiological exposures that could accrue to workers. Reflecting this an early decision has been taken to leave work on the Reactor Pressure Vessels themselves for several decades. Also important in protection of the workforce has been control of asbestos.Much material has been removed with redundant plant and equipment, but a programme of remediation in line with government legislation has been required to ensure personnel safety throughout the decommissioning period and into Care and Maintenance.In addition to health and safety matters the site approach to environmental issues has been consistent. Formally such standards as ISO 14001 have been adhered to and the appropriate certification maintained. At a working level the principles of reduce, reuse and recycle have been inculcated

  12. Westinghouse integrated cementation facility. Smart process automation minimizing secondary waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrmann, H.; Jacobs, T.; Aign, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Westinghouse Cementation Facility described in this paper is an example for a typical standardized turnkey project in the area of waste management. The facility is able to handle NPP waste such as evaporator concentrates, spent resins and filter cartridges. The facility scope covers all equipment required for a fully integrated system including all required auxiliary equipment for hydraulic, pneumatic and electric control system. The control system is based on actual PLC technology and the process is highly automated. The equipment is designed to be remotely operated, under radiation exposure conditions. 4 cementation facilities have been built for new CPR-1000 nuclear power stations in China

  13. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-01-01

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted

  14. Decommissioning and demolition of the Greifswald nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterner, H.; Leushacke, D.; Rittscher, D.

    1995-01-01

    The unexpected decision to decommission the plants in Greifswald makes the management and disposal of fuels and plant waste a major issue to be solved as a precondition for decommissioning and dismantling. The decisive point in waste management is the existence of an interim store or repository of sufficient capacity to accept both the nuclear fuel and the plant waste and the considerable volumes of radioactive residues arising in dismantling. Current major activities include planning for decommissioning and demolition, and drafting of the licensing documents; removal of the fuel elements from the reactor units; construction of the northern interim store for fuel elements and residues. (orig./HP)

  15. Planning of the BN-350 reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepikov, A.Kh.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.; Zhantikin, T.M.; Baldov, A.N.; Nazarenko, P.I.; Koltyshev, S.M.; Wells, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental and commercial BN-350 NPP equipped with a fast neutron sodium cooled reactor is located in Kazakhstan near the Aktau city on the Caspian Sea coast. It was commissioned in 1973 and intended for weapon-grade plutonium production and as stream supply to a water desalination facility and the turbines of the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex. Taking into account technical, financial and political issues, the Government of Kazakhstan enacted the Decree no. 456 'On Decommissioning of the Reactor BN-350 in the Aktau City of the Mangystau Region'. Because the decision on reactor decommissioning was adopted before the end of scheduled operation (2003), the plan to decommission the BN-350 reactor has not yet been developed. To determine the activities required for ensuring reactor safety and in preparation for decommission in the period prior, the development and ensuring approval by the Republic of Kazakhstan Government of the decommissioning plan, a 'Plan of Priority Actions for BN-350 Reactor Decommissioning' was developed and approved. Actions provided for in the plan include the following: Development of BN-350 Reactor Decommissioning Plan; Accident prevention during the period of transition; Unloading nuclear fuel from reactor and draining the coolant from the heat exchange circuits. Decommission is defined as a complex of administrative and technical actions taken to allow the removal of some or all of regulatory controls over a nuclear facility. These actions involve decontamination, dismantling and removal of radioactive materials, waste, components and structures. They are carried out to achieve a progressive and systematic reduction in radiological hazards and are undertaken on the basis of planning and assessment in order to ensure safety decommissioning operations. In accordance with the decision of Kazakhstan Government, three basic stages for BN-350 reactor decommissioning are envisaged: First stage - Placement of BN-350 into long-term storage

  16. Radionuclide Retention Mechanisms in Secondary Waste-Form Testing: Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Yang, Jungseok; Engelhard, Mark H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Parker, Kent E.; Wang, Guohui; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-26

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate candidate stabilization technologies that have the potential to successfully treat liquid secondary waste stream effluents produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). WRPS is considering the design and construction of a Solidification Treatment Unit (STU) for the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. The ETF, a multi-waste, treatment-and-storage unit that has been permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed wastewaters for treatment. The STU needs to be operational by 2018 to receive secondary liquid waste generated during operation of the WTP. The STU will provide the additional capacity needed for ETF to process the increased volume of secondary waste expected to be produced by WTP. This report on radionuclide retention mechanisms describes the testing and characterization results that improve understanding of radionuclide retention mechanisms, especially for pertechnetate, {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in four different waste forms: Cast Stone, DuraLith alkali aluminosilicate geopolymer, encapsulated fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) product, and Ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramic. These data and results will be used to fill existing data gaps on the candidate technologies to support a decision-making process that will identify a subset of the candidate waste forms that are most promising and should undergo further performance testing.

  17. Backfill composition for secondary barriers in nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Gary W.; Allard, Bert M.

    1982-01-01

    A backfill composition for sorbing and retaining hazardous elements of nuclear wastes comprises 50-70% by weight of quartz, 10-30% by weight of montmorillonite, 1-10% by weight of phosphate mineral, 1-10% by weight of ferrous mineral, 1-10% by weight of sulfate mineral and 1-10% by weight of attapulgite.

  18. Decommissioning and decontamination (burial ground stabilization) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The decommissioning and decontamination of retired Hanford facilities and the future use of surrounding landscapes require isolation of contaminated wastes from the biosphere. Burial ground stabilization studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of physical barriers for isolating contaminated wastes in shallow-land burial sites from plants and animals. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of using a layer of loose rock between the waste and the surface soil covering to prevent both plant root and animal penetrations

  19. Decommissioning and disposal of foreign uranium mine and mill facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie; Xue Jianxin; Yuan Baixiang; Xu Lechang

    2012-01-01

    Disposal techniques in decommissioning of foreign uranium mine and mill facilities are systematically discussed, including covering of uranium tailing impoundment, drainaging and consolidation of uranium tailing, and treatment of mining waste water and polluted groundwater, and the costs associated with disposal are analyzed. The necessity of strengthening the decommissioning disposal technology research and international exchanges and cooperation is emphasized. (authors)

  20. Decommissioning of a tritium-contaminated laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.R.; Garde, R.

    1982-01-01

    A tritium laboratory facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decommissioned in 1979. The project involved dismantling the laboratory equipment and disposing of the equipment and debris at an on-site waste disposal/storage area. The laboratory, constructed in 1953, was in service for tritium research and fabrication of lithium tritide components until 1974. The major features of the laboratory included 25 meters of gloveboxes and hoods, associated vacuum lines, utility lines, exhaust ducts, electrodryers, blowers, and laboratory benches. This report presents details on the decommissioning, health physics, waste management, environmental surveillance, and costs for the operation

  1. A nationwide modelling approach to decommissioning - 16182

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Bernard; Lowe, Andy; Mort, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a proposed UK national approach to modelling decommissioning. For the first time, we shall have an insight into optimizing the safety and efficiency of a national decommissioning strategy. To do this we use the General Case Integrated Waste Algorithm (GIA), a universal model of decommissioning nuclear plant, power plant, waste arisings and the associated knowledge capture. The model scales from individual items of plant through cells, groups of cells, buildings, whole sites and then on up to a national scale. We describe the national vision for GIA which can be broken down into three levels: 1) the capture of the chronological order of activities that an experienced decommissioner would use to decommission any nuclear facility anywhere in the world - this is Level 1 of GIA; 2) the construction of an Operational Research (OR) model based on Level 1 to allow rapid what if scenarios to be tested quickly (Level 2); 3) the construction of a state of the art knowledge capture capability that allows future generations to learn from our current decommissioning experience (Level 3). We show the progress to date in developing GIA in levels 1 and 2. As part of level 1, GIA has assisted in the development of an IMechE professional decommissioning qualification. Furthermore, we describe GIA as the basis of a UK-Owned database of decommissioning norms for such things as costs, productivity, durations etc. From level 2, we report on a pilot study that has successfully tested the basic principles for the OR numerical simulation of the algorithm. We then highlight the advantages of applying the OR modelling approach nationally. In essence, a series of 'what if...' scenarios can be tested that will improve the safety and efficiency of decommissioning. (authors)

  2. Hungarian Experience in Decommissioning Planning for the Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danko, G.; Takats, F. [Golder Associates, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-08-15

    Preparations for the decommissioning planning, and the legal background are described in the first part, followed by a review of possible decommissioning strategies and the present reference scenario. Specific issues of financing the future decommissioning and the anticipated radioactive wastes and their activities are described in the latter part of the report. (author)

  3. Secondary phases formed during nuclear waste glass-water interactions: Thermodynamic and derived properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, W.F.

    1992-08-01

    The thermodynamic properties of secondary phases observed to form during nuclear waste glass-water interactions are of particular interest as it is with the application of these properties together with the thermodynamic properties of other solid phases, fluid phases, and aqueous species that one may predict the environmental consequences of introducing radionuclides contained in the glass into groundwater at a high-level nuclear waste repository. The validation of these predicted consequences can be obtained from laboratory experiments and field observations at natural analogue sites. The purpose of this report is to update and expand the previous compilation (McKenzie, 1991) of thermodynamic data retrieved from the literature and/or estimated for secondary phases observed to form (and candidate phases from observed chemical compositions) during nuclear waste glass-water interactions. In addition, this report includes provisionally recommended thermodynamic data of secondary phases

  4. Economic aspects of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenne, C.

    1988-01-01

    Two viewpoints on decommissioning are quoted; the first suggests that decommissioning can be viewed as a technical detail that is of limited relevance whereas the second suggests that decommissioning is a key financial issue. Both are specifically relevant to United Kingdom nuclear power stations. This paper attempts to reconcile the two views. It suggests that decommissioning does raise some important issues for regulation and financing of a privatised industry but, despite this, the economics of nuclear do remain insensitive. The paper begins by examining the significance of decommissioning costs in a number of contexts, including nuclear unit generating costs and financing requirements. It then addresses the degree of uncertainty in the decommissioning cost estimates. With privatisation on the horizon, the paper considers the significance of decommissioning and the associated uncertainty for the investor; this last section considers regulatory issues raised in relation to funding, accounting policy and electricity pricing. (author)

  5. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming As A Supplementary Treatment For Hanford's Low Activity Waste And Secondary Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides

  6. Magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of secondary polyolefins from waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Di Maio, F.; Hu, B.; Houzeaux, G.; Baltes, L.; Tierean, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the researches made on the FP7 project „Magnetic Sorting and Ultrasound Sensor Technologies for Production of High Purity Secondary Polyolefins from Waste” in order to develop a magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) from polymers mixed

  7. Regulatory experience in nuclear power station decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.M.; Waters, R.E.; Taylor, F.E.; Burrows, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    In the UK, decommissioning on a licensed nuclear site is regulated and controlled by HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive. The same legislative framework used for operating nuclear power stations is also applied to decommissioning activities and provides a continuous but flexible safety regime until there is no danger from ionising radiations. The regulatory strategy is discussed, taking into account Government policy and international guidance for decommissioning and the implications of the recent white paper reviewing radioactive waste management policy. Although each site is treated on a case by case basis as regulatory experience is gained from decommissioning commercial nuclear power stations in the UK, generic issues have been identified and current regulatory thinking on them is indicated. Overall it is concluded that decommissioning is an evolving process where dismantling and waste disposal should be carried out as soon as reasonably practicable. Waste stored on site should, where it is practical and cost effective, be in a state of passive safety. (Author)

  8. Decommissioning Challenges, strategy and programme development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potier, J.M.; Laraie, M.; Dinner, P. [Waste Technology Section, Dept. of Nuclear Energy, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Pescatore, C.; O' Sullivan [Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency, 75 - Paris (France); Dupuis, M.C. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Szilagyi, A.; Collazo, Y.; Negin, Ch. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-11-15

    This document gathers 4 short articles. The first one presents the IAEA decommissioning activities. These activities include: -) the development and implementation of the international action on decommissioning, -) the provision of experts and equipment to assist member states, -) networking activities such as training or exchange of knowledge and experience. The second article presents the work program of the Nea (nuclear energy agency) in the field of decommissioning and reports on the lessons that have been learnt. Among these lessons we can quote: -) selecting a strategy for decommissioning and funding it adequately, -) regulating the decommissioning of nuclear activities, -) thinking of the future in terms of reusing materials, buildings and sites, -) involving local and regional actors in the decommissioning process from decision-making to dismantling work itself, and -) increasing transparency in decision-making in order to build trust. The third article presents the management of radioactive wastes in France. This management is based on the categorization of wastes in 6 categories according to both the activity level and the radioactive half-life T: 1) very low activity, 2) low activity and T < 31 years, 3) low activity and T > 31 years, 4) intermediate activity and T < 31 years, 5) intermediate activity and T > 31 years, and 6) high activity. For categories 1, 2, 3 and 5, the waste treatment process and the disposal places have been operating for a long time while for categories 4 and 6, the disposal places are still being studied: low-depth repository and deep geological repository respectively. The last article presents the action of the US Department of energy in decommissioning activities and environmental remediation, the example of the work done at the ancient nuclear site of Rocky Flats gives an idea of the magnitude and complexity of the operations made. (A.C.)

  9. Decontamination of alpha contaminated metallic waste by cerium IV redox process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.G.; Dhami, P.S.; Gandhi, P.M.; Wattal, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Decontamination of alpha contaminated metallic waste is an important aspect in the management of waste generated during dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Present work on cerium redox process targets decontamination of alpha contaminated metallic waste till it qualifies for the non alpha waste category for disposal in near surface disposal facility. Recovery of the alpha radio nuclides and cerium from aqueous secondary waste streams was also studied deploying solvent extraction process and established. The alpha-lean secondary waste stream has been immobilised in cement based matrix for final disposal. (author)

  10. Policies and Strategies for the Decommissioning of Nuclear and Radiological Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication presents the main elements of policies and strategies for decommissioning activities of nuclear and radiological facilities. It is intended to help in facilitating proper and systematic planning, and safe, timely and cost effective implementation of all decommissioning activities. The policy establishes the principles for decommissioning and the strategy contains the approaches for the implementation of the policy. The publication will be a useful guide for strategic planners, waste managers, operators of facilities under decommissioning, regulators and other stakeholders.

  11. International Atomic Energy Agency activities in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenweaver, D W.; )

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been addressing the safety and technical issues of decommissioning for over 20 years, but their focus has been primarily on planning. Up to know, the activities have been on an ad hoc basis and sometimes, important issues have been missed. A new Action Plan on the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities has recently been approved by the Agency's board of Governors which will focus the Agency's efforts and ensure that our Member States' concerns are addressed. The new initiatives associated with this Action Plan will help ensure that decommissioning activities in the future are performed in a safe and coherent manner. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been preparing safety and technical documents concerning decommissioning since the mid-1980's. There have been over 30 documents prepared that provide safety requirements, guidance and supporting technical information. Many of these documents are over 10 years old and need updating. The main focus in the past has been on planning for decommissioning. During the past five years, a set of Safety Standards have been prepared and issued to provide safety requirements and guidance to Member States. However, decommissioning was never a real priority with the Agency, but was something that had to be addressed. To illustrate this point, the first requirements documents on decommissioning were issued as part of a Safety Requirements [1] on pre-disposal management of radioactive waste. It was felt that decommissioning did not deserve its own document because it was just part of the normal waste management process. The focus was mostly on waste management. The Agency has assisted Member States with the planning process for decommissioning. Most of these activities have been focused on nuclear power plants and research reactors. Now, support for the decommissioning of other types of facilities is being requested. The Agency is currently providing technical

  12. Decommissioning of DR 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strufe, N.

    2009-02-15

    This report describes the work of dismantling and demolishing reactor DR 2, the waste volumes generated, the health physical conditions and the clearance procedures used for removed elements and waste. Since the ultimate goal for the decommissioning project was not clearance of the building, but downgrading the radiological classification of the building with a view to converting it to further nuclear use, this report documents how the lower classification was achieved and the known occurrence of remaining activity. The report emphasises some of the deliberations made and describes the lessons learned through this decommissioning project. The report also intends to contribute towards the technical basis and experience basis for further decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in Denmark. (au)

  13. Decommissioning Planning during the Operation of the Loviisa NPP. Planning, Management and Organizational Aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuunanen, J. P.; Eurajoki, T. E.E., [Fortum Power and Heat Ltd, Nuclear Waste Espoo (Finland)

    2013-08-15

    The first decommissioning plan for Loviisa nuclear power plant was written already in 1980's, when the plant had just started operation. The plan has been updated in 5-6 years intervals and this work still continues towards the final decommissioning plan. The decommissioning plan is based on immediate dismantling option and final disposal of decommissioning waste to the extension of the on site final disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste. The decommissioning planning has been organized as an independent project, which is realised in close cooperation with Fortum's research programme on radioactive waste management. The plant personnel are involved in the planning work through providing operating experience on contamination and activation of systems, structures and components. Later in the decommissioning phase the plant personnel will form the main part of the decommissioning organization. (author)

  14. Data Package for Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection-Cast Stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Available literature on Cast Stone and Saltstone was reviewed with an emphasis on determining how Cast Stone and related grout waste forms performed in relationship to various criteria that will be used to decide whether a specific type of waste form meets acceptance criteria for disposal in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at Hanford. After the critical review of the Cast Stone/Saltstone literature, we conclude that Cast Stone is a good candidate waste form for further consideration. Cast stone meets the target IDF acceptance criteria for compressive strength, no free liquids, TCLP leachate are below the UTS permissible concentrations and leach rates for Na and Tc-99 are suiteably low. The cost of starting ingredients and equipment necessary to generate Cast Stone waste forms with secondary waste streams are low and the Cast Stone dry blend formulation can be tailored to accommodate variations in liquid waste stream compositions. The database for Cast Stone short-term performance is quite extensive compared to the other three candidate waste solidification processes. The solidification of liquid wastes in Cast Stone is a mature process in comparison to the other three candidates. Successful production of Cast Stone or Saltstone has been demonstrated from lab-scale monoliths with volumes of cm3 through m3 sized blocks to 210-liter sized drums all the way to the large pours into vaults at Savannah River. To date over 9 million gallons of low activity liquid waste has been solidified and disposed in concrete vaults at Savannah River.

  15. Data Package for Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection—Cast Stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-05

    Available literature on Cast Stone and Saltstone was reviewed with an emphasis on determining how Cast Stone and related grout waste forms performed in relationship to various criteria that will be used to decide whether a specific type of waste form meets acceptance criteria for disposal in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at Hanford. After the critical review of the Cast Stone/Saltstone literature, we conclude that Cast Stone is a good candidate waste form for further consideration. Cast stone meets the target IDF acceptance criteria for compressive strength, no free liquids, TCLP leachate are below the UTS permissible concentrations and leach rates for Na and Tc-99 are suiteably low. The cost of starting ingredients and equipment necessary to generate Cast Stone waste forms with secondary waste streams are low and the Cast Stone dry blend formulation can be tailored to accommodate variations in liquid waste stream compositions. The database for Cast Stone short-term performance is quite extensive compared to the other three candidate waste solidification processes. The solidification of liquid wastes in Cast Stone is a mature process in comparison to the other three candidates. Successful production of Cast Stone or Saltstone has been demonstrated from lab-scale monoliths with volumes of cm3 through m3 sized blocks to 210-liter sized drums all the way to the large pours into vaults at Savannah River. To date over 9 million gallons of low activity liquid waste has been solidified and disposed in concrete vaults at Savannah River.

  16. IDMT an integrated system to manage decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsiletti, M.; Mini, G.; Orlandi, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the frame of decommissioning activities Ansaldo has developed a set of Integrated Decommissioning Management Tools (IDMT) addressed to dismantling work as well as to management of the wastes. The tools MIRAD and DECOM arise from the project of dismantling Italian NPPs (e.g. Caorso) as described in this paper. MIRAD is an integration between a 3 D CAD Model of the NPP in as build configuration and a computerized database (presently an MS Access application) which stores the information related to the radiological measurements detected through in field monitoring associated to any item present in the plant. DECOM is an integration system between a 3 D CAD Model of the NPP (as minimum for the controlled zone) in as-built configuration and a computerized database (presently an MS Access application) which stores the information associated to primary and secondary wastes produced during operation, dismantling or treatment activities.The IDMT system is currently used in the following NPPs in Italy: Caorso NPP (Mark II GE Containment BWR), Garigliano NPP (Dual Cycle GE BWR) and Trino NPP (Westinghouse PWR Plant). (authors)

  17. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. Twenty-five-year retrievability, decommissioning cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This estimate covers decommissioning costs of facilities for the receipt, handling, and storage in bedded salt of canistered spent fuel assemblies from both BWR and PWR commercial power plants. The estimate includes all decommissioning costs for a repository, based on 25-year retrievability, constructed in accordance with the design shown in Conceptual Design Report (CDR), as modified by Special Study No. 1 (KE Report No. 78-60-RE) and decommissioned in accordance with the program outlined in the Conceptual Design Description Report, KE Report No. 78-58-R. Costs for Operating Contractor personnel on the site at this time are included in this report and not in the Operating Cost Estimate (KE Report 78-63-RE). The operating cost estimates end with the completion of storage room backfilling. The three major elements of decommissioning are: demolition of surface facilities, backfilling of main entries and airways, and shaft liner removal and shaft plugging. EDIT, ECON, and DELOX computer programs and a chart of accounts were furnished by UCC-ND under direction of the Government and the line item-capital-cost estimate was prepared according to the prescribed format. The decommissioning cost estimate referenced herein is in the same format as its companion line item-capital-cost estimate KE Report 78-62-RE

  18. Experimental Boiling Water Reactor decontamination and decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellhauer, C.

    1995-01-01

    The author begins by discussing the problems encountered during decontamination and decommissioning. Next, he discusses waste packaging and recycling. His last topic of lessons learned is subdivided into prevention and early detection, recovery issues, management issues, and noteworthy practices

  19. Planning activities for ANPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaryan, K.G.

    2002-01-01

    The Armenian NPP consists of two WWER-440, model 270 pressurized water reactors. After an earthquake in northern Armenia in December 1988 both units were shut down for safety reasons: Unit 1 in February 1988, Unit 2 in March 1989, respectively. Unit 2 was restarted in November 1995 after a number of safety upgrades. Unit 1 remains in a long-term shutdown mode. The design lifetime of Unit 2 expires in 2015. Opportunity to shutdown earlier has been discussed in the last years. In particular a statement has been issued by EC asking for an early shutdown of Unit 2 in exchange for the TACIS support in implementing the safety upgrades in a short term. Currently the safety improvement program is being successfully implemented in the framework of US DOE and TACIS assistance. At the moment the date of the permanent plant shutdown is not specified. As with many older reactors throughout the world, a decommissioning plan has not been developed for Armenian NPP at the design stage. After shutdown of ANPP in 1988-1989 the radiological characterization campaign at Unit 1 had been carried out. Recently two studies in the decommissioning area have been performed for ANPP. The first one has been carried out under the US DOE Assistance Program. The purpose of this study was to identify and evaluate feasible decommissioning options for ANPP. Some critical issues related to the waste management had been specified and the near-term activities within this project will be focused on issues of waste characterization and information data base creation as an important prerequisite to manage waste safely. The model used to calculate many of the decommissioning costs was NRC CECP reprogrammed for WWER NPPs. The second study had been carried out in the framework of TACIS project 'Assistance to Energy Strategic Center'. The purpose of the study was to select the best strategy to phase-out and decommission the ANPP and evaluate conditions, implications and consequence of this decision. A

  20. Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor (WAGR) decommissioning project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattinson, A.

    2003-01-01

    The current BNFL reactor decommissioning projects are presented. The projects concern power reactor sites at Berkely, Trawsfynydd, Hunterstone, Bradwell, Hinkley Point; UKAEA Windscale Pile 1; Research reactors within UK Scottish Universities at East Kilbride and ICI (both complete); WAGR. The BNFL environmental role include contract management; effective dismantling strategy development; implementation and operation; sentencing, encapsulation and transportation of waste. In addition for the own sites it includes strategy development; baseline decommissioning planning; site management and regulator interface. The project objectives for the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) are 1) Safe and efficient decommissioning; 2) Building of good relationships with customer; 3) Completion of reactor decommissioning in 2005. The completed WAGR decommissioning campaigns are: Operational Waste; Hot Box; Loop Tubes; Neutron Shield; Graphite Core and Restrain System; Thermal Shield. The current campaign is Lower Structures and the remaining are: Pressure vessel and Insulation; Thermal Columns and Outer Vault Membrane. An overview of each campaign is presented

  1. Safety in decommissioning of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Guide covers the technical and administrative considerations relevant to the nuclear aspects of safety in the decommissioning of reactors, as they apply to the reactor and the reactor site. While the treatment, transport and disposal of radioactive wastes arising from decommissioning are important considerations, these aspects are not specifically covered in this Guide. Likewise, other possible issues in decommissioning (e.g. land use and other environmental issues, industrial safety, financial assurance) which are not directly related to radiological safety are also not considered. Generally, decommissioning will be undertaken after planned final shutdown of the reactor. In some cases a reactor may have to be decommissioned following an unplanned or unexpected event of a series or damaging nature occurring during operation. In these cases special procedures for decommissioning may need to be developed, peculiar to the particular circumstances. This Guide could be used as a basis for the development of these procedures although specific consideration of the circumstances which create the need for them is beyond its scope

  2. ENGINEERING STUDY FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY (ETF) SECONDARY WASTE TREATMENT OF PROJECTED FUTURE WASTE FEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents an engineering study conducted to evaluate alternatives for treating secondary waste in the secondary treatment train (STT) of the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The study evaluates ETF STT treatment alternatives and recommends preferred alternatives for meeting the projected future missions of the ETF. The preferred alternative(s) will process projected future ETF influents to produce a solid waste acceptable for final disposal on the Hanford Site. The main text of this report summarizes the ETF past and projected operations, lists the assumptions about projected operations that provide the basis for the engineering evaluation, and summarizes the evaluation process. The evaluation process includes identification of available modifications to the current ETF process, screens those modifications for technical viability, evaluates the technically viable alternatives, and provides conclusions and recommendations based on that evaluation

  3. Training for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietzold, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plants entering decommissioning face many challenges One of the most important is the challenge of training for decommissioning This is important because: The facility operators and management have spent many years successfully operating the facility; The facility management arrangements are geared to operation; Decommissioning will include non-nuclear specialists and other stakeholders; Other skills are needed to decommission successfully. UKAEA has decommissioned many facilities at its sites in Dounreay, Windscale, Harwell and Winfrith in the UK. We have faced all of the challenges previously described and have developed many training methods for ensuring the challenges are met safely and effectively. We have developed courses for specialised skills such as safety cases which can be deployed to support any decommissioning. (author)

  4. Decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, K.M.; Jenkins, C.E.; Waite, D.A.; Brooksbank, R.E.; Lunis, B.C.; Nemec, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the currently accepted alternatives for decommissioning retired light water reactor fuel cycle facilities and the current state of decommissioning technology. Three alternatives are recognized: Protective Storage; Entombment; and Dismantling. Application of these alternatives to the following types of facilities is briefly described: light water reactors; fuel reprocessing plants, and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants. Brief descriptions are given of decommissioning operations and results at a number of sites, and recent studies of the future decommissioning of prototype fuel cycle facilities are reviewed. An overview is provided of the types of operations performed and tools used in common decontamination and decommissioning techniques and needs for improved technology are suggested. Planning for decommissioning a nuclear facility is dependent upon the maximum permitted levels of residual radioactive contamination. Proposed guides and recently developed methodology for development of site release criteria are reviewed. 21 fig, 32 references

  5. Risk Management of Large Component in Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Ku; Kim, Tae Ryong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The need for energy, especially electric energy, has been dramatically increasing in Korea. Therefore, a rapid growth in nuclear power development has been achieved to have about 30% of electric power production. However, such a large nuclear power generation has been producing a significant amount of radioactive waste and other matters such as safety issue. In addition, owing to the severe accidents at the Fukushima in Japan, public concerns regarding NPP and radiation hazard have greatly increased. In Korea, the operation of KORI 1 has been scheduled to be faced with end of lifetime in several years and Wolsong 1 has been being under review for extending its life. This is the reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life-cycle of a nuclear facility and during decommissioning operation, one of the most important management in decommissioning is how to deal with the disused large component. Therefore, in this study, the risk in large component in decommissioning is to be identified and the key risk factor is to be analyzed from where can be prepared to handle decommissioning process safely and efficiently. Developing dedicated acceptance criteria for large components at disposal site was analyzed as a key factor. Acceptance criteria applied to deal with large components like what size of those should be and how to be taken care of during disposal process strongly affect other major works. For example, if the size of large component was not set up at disposal site, any dismantle work in decommissioning is not able to be conducted. Therefore, considering insufficient time left for decommissioning of some NPP, it is absolutely imperative that those criteria should be laid down.

  6. Risk Management of Large Component in Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Ku; Kim, Tae Ryong

    2014-01-01

    The need for energy, especially electric energy, has been dramatically increasing in Korea. Therefore, a rapid growth in nuclear power development has been achieved to have about 30% of electric power production. However, such a large nuclear power generation has been producing a significant amount of radioactive waste and other matters such as safety issue. In addition, owing to the severe accidents at the Fukushima in Japan, public concerns regarding NPP and radiation hazard have greatly increased. In Korea, the operation of KORI 1 has been scheduled to be faced with end of lifetime in several years and Wolsong 1 has been being under review for extending its life. This is the reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life-cycle of a nuclear facility and during decommissioning operation, one of the most important management in decommissioning is how to deal with the disused large component. Therefore, in this study, the risk in large component in decommissioning is to be identified and the key risk factor is to be analyzed from where can be prepared to handle decommissioning process safely and efficiently. Developing dedicated acceptance criteria for large components at disposal site was analyzed as a key factor. Acceptance criteria applied to deal with large components like what size of those should be and how to be taken care of during disposal process strongly affect other major works. For example, if the size of large component was not set up at disposal site, any dismantle work in decommissioning is not able to be conducted. Therefore, considering insufficient time left for decommissioning of some NPP, it is absolutely imperative that those criteria should be laid down

  7. Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities

  8. Decommissioning of the Northrop TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozens, George B.; Woo, Harry; Benveniste, Jack; Candall, Walter E.; Adams-Chalmers, Jeanne

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the administrative and operational aspects of decommissioning and dismantling the Northrop Mark F TRIGA Reactor, including: planning and preparation, personnel requirements, government interfacing, costs, contractor negotiations, fuel shipments, demolition, disposal of low level waste, final survey and disposition of the concrete biological shielding. (author)

  9. The decommissioning of a small nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neset, K.; Christensen, G.C.; Lundby, J.E.; Roenneberg, G.A.

    1990-02-01

    The JEEP II reactor at Kjeller, Norway has been used as a model for a study of the decommissioning of a small research reactor. A radiological survey is given and a plan for volume reducing, packaging, certifying, classifying and shipping of the radioactive waste is described. 23 refs., 4 figs

  10. Decommissioning of NPP A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the Operation history of A1 NPP, Project 'Decommissioning of A1 NPP' - I stage, Project 'Decommissioning of A1 NPP ' - II stage and Next stages of Project 'Decommissioning of A1 NPP ' are discussed.

  11. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review focuses on bio-extraction of metals from solid wastes of industries and consumer goods. ► Bio-processing of certain effluents/wastewaters with metals is also included in brief. ► Quantity/composition of wastes are assessed, and microbes used and leaching conditions included. ► Bio-recovery using bacteria, fungi and archaea is highlighted for resource recycling. ► Process methodology/mechanism, R and D direction and scope of large scale use are briefly included. - Abstract: Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted.

  12. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities; Le demantelement des installations nucleaires de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niel, J.Ch.; Rieu, J.; Lareynie, O.; Delrive, L.; Vallet, J.; Girard, A.; Duthe, M.; Lecomte, C.; Rozain, J.P.; Nokhamzon, J.G.; Davoust, M.; Eyraud, J.L.; Bernet, Ph.; Velon, M.; Gay, A.; Charles, Th.; Leschaeva, M.; Dutzer, M.; Maocec, Ch.; Gillet, G.; Brut, F.; Dieulot, M.; Thuillier, D.; Tournebize, F.; Fontaine, V.; Goursaud, V.; Birot, M.; Le Bourdonnec, Th.; Batandjieva, B.; Theis, St.; Walker, St.; Rosett, M.; Cameron, C.; Boyd, A.; Aguilar, M.; Brownell, H.; Manson, P.; Walthery, R.; Wan Laer, W.; Lewandowski, P.; Dorms, B.; Reusen, N.; Bardelay, J.; Damette, G.; Francois, P.; Eimer, M.; Tadjeddine, A.; Sene, M.; Sene, R

    2008-11-15

    This file includes five parts: the first part is devoted to the strategies of the different operators and includes the following files: the decommissioning of nuclear facilities Asn point of view, decommissioning of secret nuclear facilities, decommissioning at the civil Cea strategy and programs, EDF de-construction strategy, Areva strategy for decommissioning of nuclear facilities; the second one concerns the stakes of dismantling and includes the articles as follow: complete cleanup of buildings structures in nuclear facilities, decommissioning of nuclear facilities and safety assessment, decommissioning wastes management issues, securing the financing of long-term decommissioning and waste management costs, organizational and human factors in decommissioning projects, training for the decommissioning professions: the example of the Grenoble University master degree; the third part is devoted to the management of dismantling work sites and includes the different articles as follow: decommissioning progress at S.I.C.N. plant, example of decommissioning work site in Cea Grenoble: Siloette reactor decommissioning, matters related to decommissioning sites, decommissioning of french nuclear installations: the viewpoint of a specialist company, specificities of inspections during decommissioning: the Asn inspector point of view; the fourth part is in relation with the international approach and includes as follow: IAEA role in establishing a global safety regime on decommissioning, towards harmonization of nuclear safety practices in Europe: W.E.N.R.A. and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, EPA superfund program policy for decontamination and decommissioning, progress with remediation at Sellafield, progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Belgium, activities of I.R.S.N. and its daughter company Risk-audit I.r.s.n./G.r.s. international in the field of decommissioning of nuclear facilities in eastern countries

  13. Preliminary nuclear decommissioning cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissingh, R.A.P.

    1981-04-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant may involve one or more of three possible options: storage with surveillance (SWS), restricted site release (RSR), and unrestricted site use(USU). This preliminary study concentrates on the logistical, technical and cost aspects of decommissioning a multi-unit CANDU generating station using Pickering GS as the reference design. The procedure chosen for evaluation is: i) removal of the fuel and heavy water followed by decontamination prior to placing the station in SWS for thiry years; ii) complete dismantlement to achieve a USU state. The combination of SWS and USU with an interim period of surveillance allows for radioactive decay and hence less occupational exposure in achieving USU. The study excludes the conventional side of the station, assumes waste disposal repositories are available 1600 km away from the station, and uses only presently available technologies. The dismantlement of all systems except the reactor core can be accomplished using Ontario Hydro's current operating, maintenance and construction procedures. The total decommissioning period is spread out over approximately 40 years, with major activities concentrated in the first and last five years. The estimated dose would be approximately 1800 rem. Overall Pickering GS A costs would be $162,000,000 (1980 Canadian dollars)

  14. Decommissioning? Why not use a robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bares, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Tasks which may be accomplished by robots alone or in conjunction with human workers in decommissioning nuclear facilities include: routine surveillance in contaminated areas; radiation surveys and sampling; preparation of work area; decontamination of walls and floors; disassembly of contaminated equipment and piping; internal decontamination of piping and waste storage/processing tanks; sorting materials; removal of large activated/contaminated structures; asbestos removal and packaging; transport of waste from disassembly areas; tending waste processing equipment; waste packaging for storage. The status of the technology is briefly reviewed and examples of the use of robots in decommissioning work in the USA are described. Although the use of robots in this field is not extensive so far, that use is increasing and information on its costs and benefits are becoming available. (UK)

  15. Decommissioning analyzis of a university cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.X.; Buls, N.; Hermanne, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the widespread use of some medical nuclear facilities, such as cyclotrons for isotope production, Life cycle analyzis, including decommissioning, was not taken into account. The structural materials of an accelerator and the concrete shielding of the bunker are activated by neutrons. This could yield a considerable volume of nuclear waste and needs radiation protection concern for occupational workers and the environment during some decennia. At the university of Brussels (WB) a prospective radiation protection and waste analyzis is being made for the later decommissioning of their cyclotron. Only few similar studies have been published. In Belgium future nuclear dismantling operations will be submitted to a radiation protection authorization procedure. Meanwhile the nuclear waste authorities insist on dismantling planning, including financial provisioning. An optimization exercise was made at the VUB-cyclotron, taking into account international trends to clearance levels for low level nuclear waste. Conceptual prevention opportunities e.g. selective material choice could be identified for future accelerator constructions. (author)

  16. The European community's programme of research on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants: objectives, scope and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, B.

    1984-01-01

    The European Community's research activities on the decommissioning of nuclear installations are aimed at developing effective techniques and procedures for ensuring the protection of man and his environment against the potential hazards from nuclear installations that have been withdrawn from service. The first five-year (1979-1983) programme of research on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants has comprised seven R and D projects concerning the following areas: maintaining disused plants in safe condition; surface decontamination for decommissioning purposes; dismantling techniques; treatment of the main waste materials arising in decommissioning, i.e. steel, concrete and graphite; large containers for decommissioning waste; arisings and characteristics of decommissioning waste; plant design features facilitating decommissioning. The research work was carried out by organizations and companies in the Member States under 51 research contracts, most of them cost-sharing. The Commission is now launching a new five-year (1984-1988) programme of research on the decommissioning of nuclear installations. (author)

  17. Solid secondary waste testing for maintenance of the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment - FY 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Ralph L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, Kenneth L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being constructed to treat 56 million gallons of radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford site. Operation of the WTP will generate several solid secondary waste (SSW) streams including used process equipment, contaminated tools and instruments, decontamination wastes, high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), carbon adsorption beds, silver mordenite iodine sorbent beds, and spent ion exchange resins (IXr) all of which are to be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). An applied research and development program was developed using a phased approach to incrementally develop the information necessary to support the IDF PA with each phase of the testing building on results from the previous set of tests and considering new information from the IDF PA calculations. This report contains the results from the exploratory phase, Phase 1 and preliminary results from Phase 2. Phase 3 is expected to begin in the fourth quarter of FY17.

  18. Decontamination and decommissioning project for the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Paik, S. T.; Park, S. W. (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The final goal of this project is to complete the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 and no. 2(KRR-1 and 2) and uranium conversion plant safely and successfully. The goal of this project in 2006 is to complete the decontamination of the inside reactor hall of the KRR-2 which will be operating as a temporary storage for the radioactive waste until the construction and operation of the national repository site. Also the decommissioning work of the KRR-1 and auxiliary facilities is being progress. As the compaction of decommissioning project is near at hand, a computer information system was developed for a systematically control and preserve a technical experience and decommissioning data for the future reuse. The nuclear facility decommissioning, which is the first challenge in Korea, is being closed to the final stages. We completed the decommissioning of all the bio-shielding concrete for KRR-2 in 2005 and carried out the decontamination and waste material grouping of the roof, wall and bottom of the reactor hall of the KRR-2. The decommissioning for nuclear facility were demanded the high technology, remote control equipment and radioactivity analysis. So developed equipment and experience will be applied at the decommissioning for new nuclear facility in the future.