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Sample records for secondary triton beam

  1. Effects of sawtooth crashes on beam ions and fusion product tritons in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, F B; Hone, M A; Jarvis, O N; Loughlin, M J; Sadler, G [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Adams, J M; Bond, D S; Watkins, N [UKAEA Harwell Lab. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Div.; Howarth, P J.A. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The effect of a sawtooth crash on the radial distribution of the slowing down fusion product tritons and on beams ions, is examined with measurements of the 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV neutron emission line-integrals before and after sawtooth crashes. In deuterium discharges, the 14 MeV neutron production was wholly attributable to burnup of the 1 MeV fusion product tritons from d-d fusion. The local emissivity of 14 MeV neutrons, and hence of the profile of thermalizing tritons, is shown to be only weakly affected by crashes in the discharges studied. This is in contradiction with the apparent behaviour of injected beam ions as deduced from a study of the considerable changes in local emissivity of the 2.5 MeV neutrons. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the fusion product tritons is consistent with the scaling of the beam injected deuterium. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  2. Effects of sawtooth crashes on beam ions and fusion product tritons in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.B.; Hone, M.A.; Jarvis, O.N.; Loughlin, M.J.; Sadler, G.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a sawtooth crash on the radial distribution of the slowing down fusion product tritons and on beams ions, is examined with measurements of the 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV neutron emission line-integrals before and after sawtooth crashes. In deuterium discharges, the 14 MeV neutron production was wholly attributable to burnup of the 1 MeV fusion product tritons from d-d fusion. The local emissivity of 14 MeV neutrons, and hence of the profile of thermalizing tritons, is shown to be only weakly affected by crashes in the discharges studied. This is in contradiction with the apparent behaviour of injected beam ions as deduced from a study of the considerable changes in local emissivity of the 2.5 MeV neutrons. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the fusion product tritons is consistent with the scaling of the beam injected deuterium. 1 ref., 6 figs

  3. Effects of sawtooth crashes on beam ions and fusion product tritons in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, F.B.; Hone, M.A.; Jarvis, O.N.; Loughlin, M.J.; Sadler, G. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Adams, J.M.; Bond, D.S.; Watkins, N. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Howarth, P.J.A. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of a sawtooth crash on the radial distribution of the slowing down fusion product tritons and on beam ions. The JET neutron emission profile monitor was used to measure the 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV neutron emission line-integrals before and after sawtooth crashes in the Joint European Torus (JET). In deuterium discharges, the 14 MeV neutron production was wholly attributable to burnup of the 1 MeV fusion product tritons from d-d fusion. It has been known for many years that the global emission of 14 MeV neutrons is not affected by sawtooth crashes. Examination of the data obtained with the profile monitor shows that the local emissivity of 14 MeV neutrons, and hence of the profile of thermalizing tritons, is only weakly affected by crashes in the discharges studied. This is in contradiction with the apparent behaviour of injected beam ions as deduced from a study of the considerable changes in local emissivity of the 2.5 MeV neutrons. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the fusion product tritons is consistent with the scaling of the beam injected deuterium. (author) 1 ref., 6 figs.

  4. Secondary beams at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubre, H.

    1992-01-01

    GANIL, a user's facility since 1983, can deliver a broad spectrum of heavy-ion beams, from He to U, to well-equipped experimental areas. Their very large intensities are to be exploited to produce secondary beams, either using the fragmentation method (beams at energy per nucleon larger than 30 MeV/u), or the ISOL method. With the latter one, these ions have to be re-accelerated. The project of a cyclotron as a post-accelerator is described. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  5. Radioactive heavy ion secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.

    1987-01-01

    The production of secondary radioactive beams at GANIL using the LISE spectrometer is reviewed. The experimental devices, and secondary beam characteristics are summarized. Production of neutron rich secondary beams was studied for the systems Ar40 + Be at 44 MeV/u, and 018 + Be at 45 and 65 MeV/u. Partial results were also obtained for the system Ne22 + Ta at 45 MeV/u. Experiments using secondary beams are classified into two categories: those which correspond to fast transfer of nuclei from the production target to a well shielded observation point; and those in which the radioactive beam interacts with a secondary target

  6. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  7. Tritons for the study of the charge-exchange reactions with the LHE streamer chamber: status and some possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, S.A.; Belikov, Yu.A.; Golokhvastov, A.I.; Kirillov, A.D.; Khorozov, S.A.; Komolov, L.N.; Lukstin'sh, Yu.; Rukoyatkin, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The 6 and 9 GeV/c secondary tritons, produced in the 4 He+A→ 3 H+X reaction, were used to study the charge-exchange reactions using a streamer chamber in magnetic field. The triton formation schemes, the beam parameters achieved as well as a way to reduce the beam momentum spread are given in the paper

  8. Production of 48V in a nuclear reactor via secondary tritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siri, S.; Cohen, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    The production of 48 V in a nuclear reactor, induced on titanium by tritons generated from the 6 Li(n, t) 4 He reaction, and eventually 7 Li(n, n't) 4 He, is described. Samples of lithium titanate were irradiated for an irradiation cycle (120 h) in the RA-3 reactor, belonging to Ezeiza Atomic Centre. After a radiochemical separation, the characteristic radiations from 48 V were identified in the gamma ray spectra of the vanadium fractions. (orig.)

  9. Production of {sup 48}V in a nuclear reactor via secondary tritons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri, S. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Gerencia de Capacitacion, Quimica Nuclear y Ciencias de la Salud, Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cohen, I.M. [Univ. Tecnologica Nacional, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-01

    The production of {sup 48}V in a nuclear reactor, induced on titanium by tritons generated from the {sup 6}Li(n, t){sup 4} He reaction, and eventually {sup 7}Li(n, n't){sup 4}He, is described. Samples of lithium titanate were irradiated for an irradiation cycle (120 h) in the RA-3 reactor, belonging to Ezeiza Atomic Centre. After a radiochemical separation, the characteristic radiations from {sup 48}V were identified in the gamma ray spectra of the vanadium fractions. (orig.)

  10. Versatile secondary beam for the meson area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, T.

    1982-03-01

    A new secondary beam design is outlined for the Meson M6 Beamline that combines versatility with economy. The beamline described will transport charged particles of either sign to 800 GeV/c and bring the beam to a focus in one of three potential experimental areas. The plan makes maximal use of existing civil construction

  11. Beam-ripple monitor with secondary electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shinji; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Noda, Koji; Takada, Eiichi; Komiyama, Akihito; Ichinohe, Ken-ichi; Sano, Yoshinobu

    1997-01-01

    To replace the scintillation-ripple monitor, we have developed a new monitor with a smaller destructive effect on the beam. In this monitor, we use secondary electrons emitted from an aluminum foil with a thickness of 2 μm. The signals of secondary electrons are amplified by an electron multiplier having a maximum gain of 10 6 . By using the new monitor, we could clearly observe the beam ripple with a beam intensity of 3.6x10 8 pps (particle per second). This monitor can also be used as an intensity monitor in the range of 10 4 - 10 9 pps. (author)

  12. A beam radiation monitoring and protection system for AGS secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    A commercially available radiation monitor using a scintillation detector was modified for charged particle beam monitoring. The device controls access to secondary beams of the AGS and limits beam intensity

  13. The optics of secondary polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Polarized protons can be produced by the parity-violating decay of either lambda or sigma hyperons. A secondary bema of polarized protons can then be produced without the difficult procedure of accelerating polarized protons. The preservation of the polarization while the protons are being transmitted to a final focus places stringent limitations on the optics of the beam line. The equations of motion of a polarized particle in a magnetic field have been solved to first order for quadrupole and dipole magnets. The lowest order terms indicate that the polarization vector will be restored to its original direction upon passage through a magnetic system if the momentum vector is unaltered. Higher-order terms may be derived by an expansion in commutators of the rotation matrix and its longitudinal derivative. The higher-order polarization rotation terms then arise from the non-commutivity of the rotation matrices by large angles in three-dimensional space. 5 refs., 3 figs

  14. Secondary beams and the synthesis of exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    With the advent of modern fast cycling synchrotrons capable of delivering high intensity heavy ion beams up to uranium, the production of secondary radioactive ion beams (RIBs) with sufficient intensity has become feasible. The basic production mechanism is the fragmentation of near relativistic heavy ion beams on light targets. The physical facts underlying the efficient conversion of stable beams into RIBs are: (1) at beam energies of several 100 MeV/A thick conversion targets (1 to 10 g/cm 2 ) can be used, which, for nuclei near stability, convert on the order of .1 to 1% of the primary beam into secondary beams, (2) the secondary beams are emitted into a narrow phase space (small transverse and longitudinal emittances), and (3) these emittances are of the correct magnitude to match the acceptances of suitably designed storage and accumulator rings. 14 refs

  15. Inclusive production of protons, anti-protons, neutrons, deuterons and tritons in p+C collisions at 158 GeV/c beam momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Baatar, B.; Bartke, J.; Betev, L.; Chvala, O.; Dolejsi, J.; Eckardt, V.; Fischer, H.G.; Fodor, Z.; Karev, A.; Kolesnikov, V.; Kowalski, M.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A.; Mateev, M.; Melkumov, G.; Rybicki, A.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Stock, R.; Tinti, G.; Varga, D.; Vesztergombi, G.; Wenig, S.

    2013-04-09

    The production of protons, anti-protons, neutrons, deuterons and tritons in minimum bias p+C interactions is studied using a sample of 385 734 inelastic events obtained with the NA49 detector at the CERN SPS at 158 GeV/c beam momentum. The data cover a phase space area ranging from 0 to 1.9 GeV/c in transverse momentum and in Feynman x from -0.80 to 0.95 for protons, from -0.2 to 0.4 for anti-protons and from 0.2 to 0.95 for neutrons. Existing data in the far backward hemisphere are used to extend the coverage for protons and light nuclear fragments into the region of intranuclear cascading. The use of corresponding data sets obtained in hadron-proton collisions with the same detector allows for the detailed analysis and model-independent separation of the three principle components of hadronization in p+C interactions, namely projectile fragmentation, target fragmentation of participant nucleons and intranuclear cascading.

  16. Triton burnup in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipsham, E.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.

    1989-01-01

    Triton burnup measurements have been made at JET using time-integrated copper activation and time-resolved silicon detector techniques. The results confirm the classical nature of both the confinement and the slowing down of the 1 MeV tritons in a plasma. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs

  17. Global Warming on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; hide

    1998-01-01

    Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

  18. P-West High Intensity Secondary Beam Area Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.; Currier, R.; Eartly, D.; Guthke, A.; Johnson, G.; Lee, D.; Dram, R.; Villegas, E.; Rest, J.; Tilles, E.; Vander Arend, P.

    1977-03-01

    This report gives the initial design parameters of a 1000 GeV High Intensity Superconducting Secondary Beam Laboratory to be situated in the Proton Area downstream of the existing Proton West experimental station. The area will provide Fermilab with a major capability for experimentation with pion and antiproton beams of intensities and of energies available at no other laboratory and with an electron beam with excellent spot size, intensity, and purity at energies far above that available at electron machines. Detailed beam design, area layouts, and cost estimates are presented, along with the design considerations.

  19. Triton beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.Y.; Wu, Y.; Ishikawa, S.; Sasakawa, T.

    1990-01-01

    Triton β-decay has been calculated using wave functions for 3 He and 3 H obtained from (Coulomb-modified) Faddeev equations for various interactions. We get a value for the Gamow-Teller matrix element of √3 (0.962±0.002) without regards to two- or three-nucleon inteactions. This value agrees with the experimental value. (orig.)

  20. Secondary beam course for the medical use at HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Torikoshi, Masami

    2003-01-01

    To verify the ion range in the cancer treatment, a positron emitter beam is a promising tool. For this purpose we have constructed an irradiation system with secondary beam, where a spot scanning technique was adopted. To measure the three dimensional dose distributions, multi-pad ionization chamber was used. Concerning the experiments with positron camera, wash-out effect of injected positron emitters were measured with rabbit. In this report current status of the beam experiments of the irradiation system are presented. (author)

  1. Secondary electrons detectors for beam tracking: micromegas and wire chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancin, J; Chaminade, T; Drouart, A; Kebbiri, M; Riallot, M; Fernandez, B; Naqvi, F

    2009-01-01

    SPIRAL2 or FAIR will be able to deliver beams of radioactive isotopes of low energy (less than 10 MeV/n). The emittance of these new beams will impose the use of beam tracking detectors to reconstruct the exact impact position of the nuclei on the experimental target. However, due to their thickness, the classical detectors will generate a lot of energy and angular straggling. A possible alternative is the SED principle (Secondary Electron Detector). It consists of an emissive foil placed in beam and a detector for the secondary electrons ejected by the passing of the nuclei through the foil. An R and D program has been initiated at CEA Saclay to study the possibility to use low pressure gaseous detectors as SED for beam tracking. Some SED have been already used on the VAMOS spectrometer at GANIL since 2004. We have constructed new detectors on this model to measure their performances in time and spatial resolution, and counting rate. Other detector types are also under study. For the first time, a test with different micromegas detectors at 4 Torr has been realized. A comparison on the time resolution has been performed between wire chamber and micromegas at very low pressure. The use of micromegas could be promising to improve the counting rate capability and the robustness of beam tracking detectors.

  2. Experimental verification of secondary effects of prestressed beam at ULS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pažma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with secondary effects of prestressing at ultimate limit state when statically indeterminate structure has changed its structural form due to development of plastic hinges in critical cross-sections. The article presents results of an experimental program which was carried out at Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava on two span continuous beams post-tensioned by two single-strand tendons subjected to experimental load which has changed structural system into kinematic mechanism.

  3. Collisional Cascades Following Triton's Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, Matija; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Stewart-Mukhopadhyay, Sarah T.

    2017-10-01

    Neptune's moon Triton is widely thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbit, most likely through binary dissociation (Agnor and Hamilton, 2006). Triton's original eccentric orbit must have been subsequently circularized by satellite tides (Goldreich et al. 1989). Cuk and Gladman (2005) found that Kozai oscillations make early tidal evolution inefficient, and have proposed that collisions between Triton and debris from pre-existing satellites was the dominant mechanism of shrinking Triton's large post-capture orbit. However, Cuk and Hamilton (DPS 2016), using numerical simulations and results of Stewart and Leinhardt (2012), have found that collisions between regular satellites are unlikely to be destructive, while collisions between prograde moons and Triton are certainly erosive if not catastrophic. An obvious outcome would be pre-existing moon material gradually grinding down Triton and making it reaccrete in the local Laplace plane, in conflict with Triton's large current inclination. We propose that the crucial ingredient for understanding the early evolution of the Neptunian system are the collisions between the moons and the prograde and retrograde debris originating from the pre-existing moons and Triton. In particular, we expect early erosive impact(s) on Triton to generate debris that will, in subsequent collisions, disrupt the regular satellites. If the retrograde material were to dominate at some planetocentric distances, the end result may be a large cloud or disk of retrograde debris that would be accreted by Triton, shrinking Triton's orbit. Some of the prograde debris could survive in a compact disk interior to Triton's pericenter, eventually forming the inner moons of Neptune. We will present results of numerical modeling of these complex dynamical processes at the meeting.

  4. Secondary Electron Emission Beam Loss Monitor for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Holzer, E B; Kramer, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is a vital part of the active protection of the LHC accelerators' elements. It should provide the number of particles lost from the primary hadron beam by measuring the radiation field induced by their interaction with matter surrounding the beam pipe. The LHC BLM system will use ionization chambers as standard detectors but in the areas where very high dose rates are expected, the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) chambers will be employed because of their high linearity, low sensitivity and fast response. The SEM needs a high vacuum for proper operation and has to be functional for up to 20 years, therefore all the components were designed according to the UHV requirements and a getter pump was included. The SEM electrodes are made of Ti because of its Secondary Emission Yield (SEY) stability. The sensitivity of the SEM was modeled in Geant4 via the Photo-Absorption Ionization module together with custom parameterization of the very low energy secondary electron production. ...

  5. A multiwire secondary emission profile monitor for small emittance beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.; Bonnard, J.; Humbert, G.; Leblond, B.; Saury, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    A secondary emission monitor using two multiwire grids separated by a positively biased collector has been constructed and tested with a 1 GeV electron beam at the Orsay Linac. The monitor installed just before the electron-positron converter has 8 gold-plated-tungsten wires of 0.1 mm diameter equally spaced 0.2 mm apart in each plane. Each wire is connected with an integrator using a low-bias current operational amplifier. The wire planes and the collector are moved into the beam by a stepping motor : that allows beam-position verification. We measured narrow profiles for 1 Amp peak current pulses of 30 nanoseconds width. Profiles are displayed on a scope and allow emittance determination by the three gradient method. Such a monitor is very useful to control the electron beam position and dimensions on the converter, because the positron source dimensions are rather bigger than those of the incident beam and the geometrical acceptance of the positron Linac is limited

  6. Escaping 1 MeV tritons in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Strachan, J.D.; Boivin, R.; Cavallo, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.; Mynick, H.E.; White, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    1 MeV tritons created by D-D reactions can simulate the 'single-particle' behavior expected with 3.5 MeV D-T alphas, since the gyroradii and slowing-down of these two particles are similar. This paper describes measurements of the flux of escaping 1 MeV tritons from the TFTR plasma during high power D 0 →D neutral beam injection, and shows that in most cases the observed triton loss is consistent with the classical (single-particle) first-orbit loss model. In this model tritons are lost if their first orbit intersects the wall due to their large banana width, while almost all tritons confined on their first orbit should stay confined until thermalized. The triton detectors are ZnS(Ag) scintillator screens housed in light-tight boxes located just outside the plasma boundary at the bottom of the TFTR vessel. They are particle 'pinhole' cameras which can resolve the triton flux vs. pitch angle (to ±5 o ), energy (to ±50 %), and time (to <20 μsec). The 2-D images of triton flux onto these scintillators are optically coupled to either an intensified TV camera or to photomultiplyer tubes for fast time resolution. The soft x-ray background in an earlier prototype has been eliminated. Although there are presently 8 such detectors in TFTR, this paper discusses results from only the detector located just below the vessel center (R=259 cm, r=102 cm). Note that the '1 MeV triton' signal discussed below also has about a 30 % contribution from 3 MeV protons; however, since these two particles have identical gyroradii they should behave alike. 5 refs., 5 figs

  7. Geomorphology of Triton's polar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1993-01-01

    One of Triton's most debated puzzles is the nature, distribution, and transport of its atmospheric volatiles. The full potential of constraints provided by detailed observations of the morphology and distribution of the polar deposits has not been realized. The objective of this study is characterization of the morphology, distribution, stratigraphy, and geologic setting of Triton's polar materials.

  8. Direct energy recovery from helium ion beams by a beam direct converter with secondary electron suppressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Toku, H.; Kobayashi, A.; Okazaki, T.

    1989-01-01

    A 5-yr study of beam direct energy conversion was performed at the Kyoto University Institute of Atomic Energy to clarify the essential features of direct energy recovery from monoenergetic ion beams so that the performance characteristics of energy recovery can be predicted reasonably well by numerical calculations. The study used an improved version of an electrostatically electron-suppressed beam direct converter. Secondary electron suppressor grids were added, and a helium ion beam was used with typical parameters of 15.4 keV, 90 mA, and 100 ms. This paper presents a comparison of experimental results with numerical results by the two-dimensional Kyoto University Advanced Dart (KUAD) code, including evaluation of atomic processes

  9. Acceleration of tritons with a compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegmann, H.; Huenges, E.; Muthig, H.; Moringa, H.

    1981-01-01

    With the compact cyclotron at the Faculty of Physics of the Technical University of Munich, tritons have been accelerated to an energy of 7 MeV. A safe and reliable operation of the gas supply for the ion source was obtained by a new tritium storage system. A quantity of 1500 Ci tritium is stored by two special Zr-Al getter pumps in a non-gaseous phase. The tritium can be released in well-defined amounts by heating the getter material. During triton acceleration the pressure in the cyclotron vacuum chamber is maintained only by a large titanium sputter-ion pump, thus forming a closed vacuum system without any exhaust of tritium contaminated gas. Any tritium contaminations in the air can be detected by an extremely sensitive tritium monitoring system. The triton beam with a maximum intensity of 30 μA has been used so far to produce neutron-rich radioisotopes such as 28 Mg, 43 K, or 72 Zn, which are successfully applied in tracer techniques in the studies of biological systems. (orig.)

  10. Monte Carlo modeling of ion beam induced secondary electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, U., E-mail: uhuh@vols.utk.edu [Biochemistry & Cellular & Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0840 (United States); Cho, W. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2100 (United States); Joy, D.C. [Biochemistry & Cellular & Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0840 (United States); Center for Nanophase Materials Science, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Ion induced secondary electrons (iSE) can produce high-resolution images ranging from a few eV to 100 keV over a wide range of materials. The interpretation of such images requires knowledge of the secondary electron yields (iSE δ) for each of the elements and materials present and as a function of the incident beam energy. Experimental data for helium ions are currently limited to 40 elements and six compounds while other ions are not well represented. To overcome this limitation, we propose a simple procedure based on the comprehensive work of Berger et al. Here we show that between the energy range of 10–100 keV the Berger et al. data for elements and compounds can be accurately represented by a single universal curve. The agreement between the limited experimental data that is available and the predictive model is good, and has been found to provide reliable yield data for a wide range of elements and compounds. - Highlights: • The Universal ASTAR Yield Curve was derived from data recently published by NIST. • IONiSE incorporated with the Curve will predict iSE yield for elements and compounds. • This approach can also handle other ion beams by changing basic scattering profile.

  11. Secondary beam line phase space measurement and modeling at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, R.; Harrison, J.; Macek, R.; Sanders, G.

    1979-01-01

    Hardware and software have been developed for precision on-line measurement and fitting of secondary beam line phase space parameters. A system consisting of three MWPC planes for measuring particle trajectories, in coincidence with a time-of-flight telescope and a range telescope for particle identification, has been interfaced to a computer. Software has been developed for on-line track reconstruction, application of experimental cuts, and fitting of two-dimensional phase space ellipses for each particle species. The measured distributions have been found to agree well with the predictions of the Monte Carlo program DECAY TURTLE. The fitted phase space ellipses are a useful input to optimization routines, such as TRANSPORT, used to search for superior tunes. Application of this system to the LAMPF Stopped Muon Channel is described

  12. Secondary particle tracks generated by ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gustavo

    2015-05-01

    The Low Energy Particle Track Simulation (LEPTS) procedure is a powerful complementary tool to include the effect of low energy electrons and positrons in medical applications of radiation. In particular, for ion-beam cancer treatments provides a detailed description of the role of the secondary electrons abundantly generated around the Bragg peak as well as the possibility of using transmuted positron emitters (C11, O15) as a complement for ion-beam dosimetry. In this study we present interaction probability data derived from IAM-SCAR corrective factors for liquid environments. Using these data, single electron and positron tracks in liquid water and pyrimidine have been simulated providing information about energy deposition as well as the number and type of interactions taking place in any selected ``nanovolume'' of the irradiated area. In collaboration with Francisco Blanco, Universidad Complutense de Madrid; Antonio Mu noz, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas and Diogo Almeida, Filipe Ferreira da Silva, Paulo Lim ao-Vieira, Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Supported by the Spanish and Portuguese governments.

  13. Magnet power supply and beam line control for a secondary beam line K6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Takasaki, M.; Minakawa, M.; Ishii, H.; Kato, Y.; Ieiri, M.; Tanaka, K.H.; Noumi, H.; Yamanoi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    K6 is a secondary separated-beam line with momentum range up to 2.0 GeV/c in the north experimental hall at the KEK 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (KEK-PS). On the construction, newly developed magnet power supplies (MPSs), in each of them a microprocessor is embedded, are introduced. The features of the MPS are as follows: 1, The MPS is connected to an upper-level beam line controller (BLC) by GPIB highway for exchanging simple messages. 2, All the operations of the MPS are supervised by the microprocessor, which has its individual parameters and fault messages. It reduces the load of the upper-level controller. 3, The MPS has functions to inspect itself and to report the result. It saves much time and labor of maintenance. (author)

  14. Photometric properties of Triton hazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, J.; Veverka, J.

    1994-01-01

    Voyager imaging observations of Triton have been used to investigate the characteristics of the atmospheric hazes on Triton at three wavelengths: violet (0.41 micrometers), blue (0.48 micrometers), and green (0.56 micrometers). The globally averaged optical depth is wavelength dependent, varying from 0.034 in green to 0.063 in violet. These photometric results are dominated by the properties of localized discrete clouds rather than by those of the thinner, more widespread haze known to occur on Triton. The cloud particles are bright, with single-scattering albedos near unity at all three wavelengths, suggestive of a transparent icy condensate. The asymmetry parameter (+0.6) and the wavelength dependence of the optical depth both indicate cloud particles 0.2-0.4 micrometers in radius. The clouds are concentrated at 50-60 deg S latitude, where opacities up to three times the global average are observed. This is the same latitude region where most of the evidence for current surface activity is found, suggesting that the clouds may be related to the plumes or at least to some process connected with the sublimation of the south polar cap. The effects of possible temporal variations in the haze opacity are examined. Increases in the haze opacity tend to redden Triton. However, the degree of reddening is not sufficient to explain the full range of observed changed in Triton over the past decade; variations in the surface properties appear to be necessary.

  15. Triton burnup in JET - profile effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Conroy, S.W.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.J.; Belle, P. van

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the 14 MeV neutron emission from triton burnup show that the 14 MeV emission profile shadows closely the 2,5 MeV profile but after a delay corresponding to the triton slowing down time. The slightly greater width of the 14 MeV neutron profile is a consequence of the finite Larmor radius of the tritons. It has not so far been possible to identify unambiguously any effects on the triton burnup that are attributable to sawtooth crashes. Finally, the time dependence of the triton profile indicates that the triton diffusion coefficient is very small ( 2 /s). (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  16. Triton's streaks as windblown dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Chyba, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Explanations for the surface streaks observed by Voyager 2 on Triton's southern hemisphere are discussed. It is shown that, despite Triton's tenuous atmosphere, low-cohesion dust trains with diameters of about 5 micron or less may be carried into suspension by aeolian surface shear stress, given expected geostrophic wind speeds of about 10 m/s. For geyser-like erupting dust plumes, it is shown that dust-settling time scales and expected wind velocities can produce streaks with length scales in good agreement with those of the streaks. Thus, both geyserlike eruptions or direct lifting by surface winds appear to be viable mechanisms for the origin of the streaks.

  17. Color and chemistry on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

    1990-01-01

    The surface of Triton is very bright but shows subtle yellow to peach hues which probably arise from the production of colored organic compounds from CH4 + N2 and other simple species. In order to investigate possible relationships between chemical processes and the observed surface distribution of chromophores, the surface units are classified according to color/albedo properties, the rates of production of organic chromophores by the action of ultraviolet light and high-energy charged particles is estimated, and rates, spectral properties, and expected seasonal redistribution processes are compared to suggest possible origins of the colors seen on Triton's surface.

  18. Proposal for secondary ion beams and update of data taking schedule for 2009-2013

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N; Andrieu, B; Anticic, T; Antoniou, N; Argyriades, J; Asryan, A G; Baatar, B; Blondel, A; Blumer, J; Boldizsar, L; Bravar, A; Brzychczyk, J; Bunyatov, S A; Choi, K U; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Cleymans, J; Derkach, D A; Diakonos, F; Dominik, W; Dumarchez, J; Engel, R; Ereditato, A; Feofilov, G A; Ferrero, A; Fodor, Z; Gazdzicki, M; Golubeva, M; Grebieszkow, K; Guber, F; Hasegawa, T; Haungs, A; Hess, M; Igolkin, S; Ivanov, A S; Ivashkin, A; Kadija, K; Katrynska, N; Kielczewska, D; Kikola, D; Kim, J H; Kobayashi, T; Kolesnikov, V I; Kolev, D; Kolevatov, R S; Kondratiev, V P; Kurepin, A; Lacey, R; Laszlo, A; Lehmann, S; Lungwitz, B; Lyubushkin, V V; Maevskaya, A; Majka, Z; Malakhov, A I; Marchionni, A; Marcinek, A; Maris, I; Matveev, V; Melkumov, G L; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Meurer, C; Mijakowski, P; Mitrovski, M; Montaruli, T; Mrówczynski, St; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Naumenko, P A; Nikolic, V; Nishikawa, K; Palczewski, T; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Peryt, W; Petridis, A; Planeta, R; Pluta, J; Popov, B A; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Rauch, W; Ravonel, M; Renfordt, R; Röhrich, D; Rondio, E; Rossi, B; Roth, M; Rubbia, A; Rybczynski, M; Sadovskii, A; Sakashita, K; Schuster, T; Sekiguchi, T; Seyboth, P; Shileev, K; Sissakian, A N; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Sorin, A S; Staszel, P; Stefanek, G; Stepaniak, J; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Szuba, M; Taranenko, A; Tsenov, R; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V V; Vesztergombi, G; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek, A; Yi, J G; Yoo, I K; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the proposal for secondary ion beams and the updated data taking schedule of the NA61 Collaboration. The modification of the original NA61 plans is necessary in order to reach compatibility between the current I-LHC and NA61 schedules. It assumes delivery of primary proton beam in 2009-2012 and of primary lead beam in 2011-2013. The primary lead beam will be fragmented into a secondary beam of lighter ions. The modified H2 beam line will serve as a fragment separator to produce the light ion species for NA61 data taking. The expected physics performance of the NA61 experiment with secondary ion beams will be sufficient to reach the primary NA61 physics goals.

  19. Production of and studies with secondary radioactive ion beams at Lise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The doubly achromatic spectrometer LISE, installed at GANIL has delivered secondary radioactive beams for the past 6 years. Essentially, it consists of by two dipole magnets selecting (in A/Z) and refocusing (achromatically) the projectile-like fragment-beams emitted at 0 0 . Important features of LISE and selected experimental results will be discussed. LISE was substantially upgraded, recently, by adding a Wien-filter, providing secondary radioactive beams of still increased intensity and isotopic purity. (6 figs)

  20. Assessment of triton potential energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Payne, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically. (author)

  1. Description of the Triton reactor; Pile Triton, rapport descriptif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-01

    The Triton reactor is an enriched uranium pool type reactor. It began operation in 1959, after a divergence made on the June 30 the same year. Devoted to studies of radiation protection, its core can be displaced in the longitudinal direction. The pool can be separated in two unequal compartments by a wall. The Triton core is placed in a small compartment, the Nereide core in the big compartment. A third compartment without water is called Naiade II, is separated by a concrete wall in which is made a window closed by an aluminium plate (2.50 m x 2.70 m). The Naiade II hole is useful for protection experiments using the Nereide core. After a complete refitting, the power of the triton reactor that reached progressively from 1.2 MW to 2 MW, then 3 MW has reached in August 1965 6.5 MW. The reactor has been specialized in irradiations in fix position, the core become fix, the nereide core has been hung mobile. Since it has been used for structure materials irradiation, for radioelements fabrication and fundamental research. The following descriptions are valid for the period after August 1965. [French] Le reacteur Triton est un reacteur piscine, a uranium enrichi. Il est entre en fonctionnement en 1959, apres une divergence effectuee le 30 juin de cette meme annee. Destine a des etudes de protection contre les rayonnements, son coeur pouvait se deplacer dans le sens longitudinal. La piscine peut etre separee en deux compartiments inegaux par un batardeau. Le coeur triton est place dans le petit compartiment, le coeur Nereide dans le grand compartiment. Un troisieme compartiment sans eau, appele Naiade II, est separe par une paroi en beton dans laquelle est amenagee une fenetre obturee par une plaque d'aluminium (2,50 m x 2,70 m). La fosse Naiade II sert a des experiences de protection utilisant le coeur nereide. Apres une refonte complete, la puissance du reacteur triton qui etait passee progressivement de 1,2 MW a 2 MW, puis 3 MW, a atteint en aout 1965 6, 5 MW. Le

  2. Description of the Triton reactor; Pile Triton, rapport descriptif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-01

    The Triton reactor is an enriched uranium pool type reactor. It began operation in 1959, after a divergence made on the June 30 the same year. Devoted to studies of radiation protection, its core can be displaced in the longitudinal direction. The pool can be separated in two unequal compartments by a wall. The Triton core is placed in a small compartment, the Nereide core in the big compartment. A third compartment without water is called Naiade II, is separated by a concrete wall in which is made a window closed by an aluminium plate (2.50 m x 2.70 m). The Naiade II hole is useful for protection experiments using the Nereide core. After a complete refitting, the power of the triton reactor that reached progressively from 1.2 MW to 2 MW, then 3 MW has reached in August 1965 6.5 MW. The reactor has been specialized in irradiations in fix position, the core become fix, the nereide core has been hung mobile. Since it has been used for structure materials irradiation, for radioelements fabrication and fundamental research. The following descriptions are valid for the period after August 1965. [French] Le reacteur Triton est un reacteur piscine, a uranium enrichi. Il est entre en fonctionnement en 1959, apres une divergence effectuee le 30 juin de cette meme annee. Destine a des etudes de protection contre les rayonnements, son coeur pouvait se deplacer dans le sens longitudinal. La piscine peut etre separee en deux compartiments inegaux par un batardeau. Le coeur triton est place dans le petit compartiment, le coeur Nereide dans le grand compartiment. Un troisieme compartiment sans eau, appele Naiade II, est separe par une paroi en beton dans laquelle est amenagee une fenetre obturee par une plaque d'aluminium (2,50 m x 2,70 m). La fosse Naiade II sert a des experiences de protection utilisant le coeur nereide. Apres une refonte complete, la puissance du reacteur triton qui etait passee progressivement de 1,2 MW a 2 MW, puis 3 MW, a atteint en aout 1965 6, 5 MW

  3. Study of a high power hydrogen beam diagnostic based on secondary electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, E., E-mail: emanuele.sartori@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, UNIPD, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Department of Management and Engineering, University di Padova strad. S. Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza (Italy); Panasenkov, A. [NRC, Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov Sq, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, UNIPD, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università n. 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Serianni, G.; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, UNIPD, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    In high power neutral beams for fusion, beam uniformity is an important figure of merit. Knowing the transverse power profile is essential during the initial phases of beam source operation, such as those expected for the ITER heating neutral beam (HNB) test facility. To measure it a diagnostic technique is proposed, based on the collection of secondary electrons generated by beam-surface and beam-gas interactions, by an array of positively biased collectors placed behind the calorimeter tubes. This measurement showed in the IREK test stand good proportionality to the primary beam current. To investigate the diagnostic performances in different conditions, we developed a numerical model of secondary electron emission, induced by beam particle impact on the copper tubes, and reproducing the cascade of secondary emission caused by successive electron impacts. The model is first validated against IREK measurements. It is then applied to the HNB case, to assess the locality of the measurement, the proportionality to the beam current density, and the influence of beam plasma.

  4. Triton's Ionosphere: Chemistry and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delitsky, Mona

    2006-09-01

    The ionosphere of Triton was observed by the Voyager spacecraft in 1989 to have a remarkably high electron density of 40,000/cc at its peak altitude. Delitsky et al. (1990) modeled this ionosphere using only N2 and CH4, the constituents of the atmosphere known at that time, and found that, at the extremely cold temperatures in the Triton atmosphere, cluster ions would form. These clusters are created when N+ or N2+ resulting from photolysis or radiolysis accrete neutral N2 molecules and form ions such as (N2+(N2)n). In these clusters, n can be very high, around 50-100, depending on temperature. Cluster ions easily sweep up electrons at the low altitudes where they form (keeping the e- content low) which leads to dissociative recombination. This neutralizes the cluster ions and releases the N2 molecules back into the atmosphere. In 1991, CO and CO2 were observed on Triton (Cruikshank et al. 1991). At Tritonian temperatures, CO will have a very high vapor pressure and could constitute up to 6% of the Triton atmosphere. Any N+ or N2+ will charge exchange with CO (and NO from chemistry) to yield CO+, NO+ and C+. These then become the core ions to the clusters (CO+(N2)n), (NO+(N2)n), or (C+(N2)n). (Delitsky et al. 1992, Delitsky, 1995). Clusters cannot form at higher altitudes and lower pressures and so at the peak altitude, the ionosphere is comprised almost totally of C+ ions. From modeling, CO + hv -> C+ (+ O) does not appear to be an important source of the C+ . Rather, the charge exchange reaction, CO+ + C -> C+ + CO produces the C+ which charge balances the electrons in the ionosphere. Ref: Cruikshank et al., BAAS, 23,1208 (1991);.. Delitsky et al. GRL, 17, 1725 (1990); ..Delitsky et al. Neptune conf, 1992; ..Delitsky, BAAS, 27, 1100 (1995)

  5. Description of the Triton reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-09-01

    The Triton reactor is an enriched uranium pool type reactor. It began operation in 1959, after a divergence made on the June 30 the same year. Devoted to studies of radiation protection, its core can be displaced in the longitudinal direction. The pool can be separated in two unequal compartments by a wall. The Triton core is placed in a small compartment, the Nereide core in the big compartment. A third compartment without water is called Naiade II, is separated by a concrete wall in which is made a window closed by an aluminium plate (2.50 m x 2.70 m). The Naiade II hole is useful for protection experiments using the Nereide core. After a complete refitting, the power of the triton reactor that reached progressively from 1.2 MW to 2 MW, then 3 MW has reached in August 1965 6.5 MW. The reactor has been specialized in irradiations in fix position, the core become fix, the nereide core has been hung mobile. Since it has been used for structure materials irradiation, for radioelements fabrication and fundamental research. The following descriptions are valid for the period after August 1965 [fr

  6. Control of secondary electrons from ion beam impact using a positive potential electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, T. P., E-mail: tpcrowley@xanthotechnologies.com; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P. J. [Xantho Technologies, LLC, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Secondary electrons emitted when an ion beam impacts a detector can amplify the ion beam signal, but also introduce errors if electrons from one detector propagate to another. A potassium ion beam and a detector comprised of ten impact wires, four split-plates, and a pair of biased electrodes were used to demonstrate that a low-voltage, positive electrode can be used to maintain the beneficial amplification effect while greatly reducing the error introduced from the electrons traveling between detector elements.

  7. Secondary magnetic field harmonics dependence on vacuum beam chamber geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Shim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The harmonic magnetic field properties due to eddy currents have been studied with respect to the geometry of the vacuum beam chamber. We derived a generalized formula enabling the precise prediction of any field harmonics generated by eddy currents in beam tubes with different cross-sectional geometries. Applying our model to study the properties of field harmonics in beam tubes with linear dipole magnetic field ramping clearly proved that the circular cross section tube generates only a dipole field from eddy currents. The elliptic tube showed noticeable magnitudes of sextupole and dipole fields. We demonstrate theoretically that it is feasible to suppress the generation of the sextupole field component by appropriately varying the tube wall thickness as a function of angle around the tube circumference. This result indicates that it is possible to design an elliptical-shaped beam tube that generates a dipole field component with zero magnitude of sextupole. In a rectangular-shaped beam tube, one of the selected harmonic fields can be prevented if an appropriate wall thickness ratio between the horizontal and vertical tube walls is properly chosen. Our generalized formalism can be used for optimization of arbitrarily complex-shaped beam tubes, with respect to suppression of detrimental field harmonics.

  8. Monte Carlo simulations of secondary electron emission due to ion beam milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahady, Kyle [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tan, Shida [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Greenzweig, Yuval [Intel Israel Ltd., Haifa (Israel); Livengood, Richard [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Raveh, Amir [Intel Israel Ltd., Haifa (Israel); Fowlkes, Jason D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rack, Philip [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We present a Monte Carlo simulation study of secondary electron emission resulting from focused ion beam milling of a copper target. The basis of this study is a simulation code which simulates ion induced excitation and emission of secondary electrons, in addition to simulating focused ion beam sputtering and milling. This combination of features permits the simulation of the interaction between secondary electron emission, and the evolving target geometry as the ion beam sputters material. Previous ion induced SE Monte Carlo simulation methods have been restricted to predefined target geometries, while the dynamic target in the presented simulations makes this study relevant to image formation in ion microscopy, and chemically assisted ion beam etching, where the relationship between sputtering, and its effects on secondary electron emission, is important. We focus on a copper target, and validate our simulation against experimental data for a range of: noble gas ions, ion energies, ion/substrate angles and the energy distribution of the secondary electrons. We then provide a detailed account of the emission of secondary electrons resulting from ion beam milling; we quantify both the evolution of the yield as high aspect ratio valleys are milled, as well as the emission of electrons within these valleys that do not escape the target, but which are important to the secondary electron contribution to chemically assisted ion induced etching.

  9. Triton burnup in JET - profile effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Conroy, S.W.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.J.; Belle, P. van (Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking); Adams, J.M.; Watkins, N. (AEA Industrial Technology, Harwell Laboratory (United Kingdom))

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the 14 MeV neutron emission from triton burnup show that the 14 MeV emission profile shadows closely the 2,5 MeV profile but after a delay corresponding to the triton slowing down time. The slightly greater width of the 14 MeV neutron profile is a consequence of the finite Larmor radius of the tritons. It has not so far been possible to identify unambiguously any effects on the triton burnup that are attributable to sawtooth crashes. Finally, the time dependence of the triton profile indicates that the triton diffusion coefficient is very small (<<0.1 m[sup 2]/s). (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Measurement of secondary particle production induced by particle therapy ion beams impinging on a PMMA target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppi M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle therapy is a technique that uses accelerated charged ions for cancer treatment and combines a high irradiation precision with a high biological effectiveness in killing tumor cells [1]. Informations about the secondary particles emitted in the interaction of an ion beam with the patient during a treatment can be of great interest in order to monitor the dose deposition. For this purpose an experiment at the HIT (Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center beam facility has been performed in order to measure fluxes and emission profiles of secondary particles produced in the interaction of therapeutic beams with a PMMA target. In this contribution some preliminary results about the emission profiles and the energy spectra of the detected secondaries will be presented.

  11. Consideration of fluctuation in secondary beam intensity of heavy ion beam probe measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Lee, S.; Hamada, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Heavy ion beam probes have capability to detect local electron density fluctuation in the interior of plasmas through the detected beam intensity fluctuation. However, the intensity fluctuation should suffer a certain degree of distortion from electron density and temperature fluctuations on the beam orbits, and as a result the signal can be quite different from the local density fluctuation. This paper will present a condition that the intensity fluctuation can be regarded as being purely local electron density fluctuation, together with discussion about the contamination of the fluctuation along the beam orbits to the beam intensity fluctuation. (author)

  12. Geometric beam coupling impedance of LHC secondary collimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasciello, Oscar; Tomassini, Sandro; Zobov, Mikhail; Salvant, Benoit; Grudiev, Alexej; Mounet, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    The High Luminosity LHC project is aimed at increasing the LHC luminosity by an order of magnitude. One of the key ingredients to achieve the luminosity goal is the beam intensity increase. In order to keep beam instabilities under control and to avoid excessive power losses a careful design of new vacuum chamber components and an improvement of the present LHC impedance model are required. Collimators are among the major impedance contributors. Measurements with beam have revealed that the betatron coherent tune shifts were higher by about a factor of 2 with respect to the theoretical predictions based on the LHC impedance model up to 2012. In that model the resistive wall impedance has been considered as the dominating impedance contribution for collimators. By carefully simulating also their geometric impedance we have contributed to the update of the LHC impedance model, reaching also a better agreement between the measured and simulated betatron tune shifts. During the just ended LHC Long Shutdown I (LSI), TCS/TCT collimators were replaced by new devices embedding BPMs and TT2-111R ferrite blocks. We present here preliminary estimations of their broad-band impedance, showing that an increase of about 20% is expected in the kick factors with respect to previous collimators without BPMs.

  13. Production of secondary radioactive beams from 44 MeV/u Ar projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.; Della Negra, S.; Aguer, P.; Bastin, G.; Anne, R.; Delagrange, H.; Hubert, F.

    1985-01-01

    Secondary beams have been produced through interaction of a 1760 MeV Ar beam with a 99 mg/cm 2 Be target. An achromatic spectrometer is used to select the magnetic rigidity corresponding to a given beam, and to transport this beam over a distance of about 18 m. The beam purity is studied using a solid state ΔE-E telescope. Beams of 38 S and 39 Cl are produced with a purity of about 80% and production rates of 1.5 10 -6 Isub(o) and 5.10 -5 Isub(o) respectively. Here Isub(o) denotes the primary beam intensity. Beams of 38 Ar, 39 Ar and 41 Kr are produced with about the same abundances as 39 Cl but with lower purities. It is shown that, by setting properly the experimental parameters, the beam production can be improved by a factor 2 to 5. This could lead to intensities of about 2.10 6 pps for 38 S and of 10 7 to 10 8 pps for the four other beams. The possibility of purifying these beams by placing a degrader between the two dipoles of the spectrometer is shown experimentally

  14. Triton Blushes: A Clue to Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, B. J.; Hicks, M. D.; Newburn, R. L., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The large Neptunian satellite Triton is a geologically active body that apparently undergoes complex seasonal changes in its 165 year journey around the sun. Because it is the vehicle for the seasonal transport of volatiles, Triton's atmosphere is expected to undergo large changes in temperature and pressure on a time scale of decades.

  15. High-stable secondary-emission monitor for accelerated electron beam current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudnikov, I.A.; Saksaganskij, G.L.; Bazhanov, E.B.; Zabrodin, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    A secondary-emission monitor for a 10 to 30 MeV electron beam (beam current is 10 -4 to 10 -2 A) is described. The monitor comprises a measuring electrode unit, titanium discharge-type pump, getter made of porous titanium, all enclosed in a metal casing. The measuring unit comprises three electrodes made of 20 μm aluminium foil. The secondary emission coefficient (5.19%+-0.06% for the electron energy of 20 MeV) is maintained stable for a long time. The monitor detects pulses of up to some nanoseconds duration. It is reliable in operation, and is recommended for a wide practical application

  16. Setup for fission and evaporation cross-section measurements in reactions induced by secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.A.; Luk'yanov, S.M.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Skobelev, N.K.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Dlouhy, Z.; Radnev, S.; Poroshin, N.V.

    2002-01-01

    A setup for studying reactions induced by secondary radioactive beams has been constructed. It allows simultaneous measurement of α-particle and fission fragment energy spectra. By measuring the α-particles, identification of evaporation residues is achieved. A set of three targets can be used so as to ensure sufficient statistics. Two silicon detectors, located at 90 degrees to the secondary beam direction, face each target, thus covering 30% of the solid angle. This experimental setup is to be used to obtain excitation functions of fusion-fission reactions and of reactions leading to evaporation residue production

  17. Contributions of secondary fragmentation by carbon ion beams in water phantom: Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, C K; Bolst, David; Tran, Linh T.; Guatelli, Susanna; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Kamil, W A

    2017-01-01

    Heavy-particle therapy such as carbon ion therapy is currently very popular because of its superior conformality in terms of dose distribution and higher Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). However, carbon ion beams produce a complex mixed radiation field, which needs to be fully characterised. In this study, the fragmentation of a 290 MeV/u primary carbon ion beam was studied using the Geant4 Monte Carlo Toolkit. When the primary carbon ion beam interacts with water, secondary light charged particles (H, He, Li, Be, B) and fast neutrons are produced, contributing to the dose, especially after the distal edge of the Bragg peak. (paper)

  18. Suppression secondary electrons from target surface under pulsed ion beams bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhen; Peng Yufei; Long Jidong; Lan Chaohui; Dong Pan; Shi Jinshui

    2012-01-01

    The producing mechanism of secondary electrons from target surface under ion beams bombardment is discussed. Several methods to suppress the secondary electrons in special vacuum devices and their advantages and disadvantages are introduced. The ways of using self-bias and curved surface target are proposed and verified in the experiment. The results show that the secondary electrons can be effectively suppressed when the self-bias is larger than 80 V. The secondary electron yield decreases by using curved surface target instead of flat target. The secondary electron yield calculated from the experimental data is about 0.67, which is slightly larger than the value (0.58) from the literature due to the impurities of the ion beam and target surface. The effect of suppressing the electron countercurrent by the self-bias method is analyzed. The result shows that the self-bias method can not only suppress the secondary electrons from target surface under ion beams bombardment, but also suppress the electron countercurrent resulting from the instability of the pulsed power source. (authors)

  19. Angular Dependence of the Ion-Induced Secondary Electron Emission for He+ and Ga+ Beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldo, V.; Withagen, J.; Hagen, C.; Kruit, P.; Van Veldhoven, E.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, novel ion sources have been designed and developed that have enabled focused ion beam machines to go beyond their use as nano-fabrication tools. Secondary electrons are usually taken to form images, for their yield is high and strongly dependent on the surface characteristics, in

  20. Fast-ion diffusion measurements from radial triton burn up studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, J.S.; Budny, R.; McCune, D.; Strachan, J.D.

    1993-08-01

    A fast-ion diffusion coefficient of 0.1 ± 0.1 m 2 s -1 has been deduced from the triton burnup neutron emission profile measured by a collimated array of helium-4 spectrometers. The experiment was performed with high-power deuterium discharges produced by Princeton University's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The fast ions monitored were the 1.0 MeV tritons produced from the d(d,t)p. These tritons ''burn up'' with deuterons and emit a 14 MeV neutron by the d(t,α)n reaction. The ratio of the measured to calculated DT yield is typically 70%. The measured DT profile width is comparable to that predicted by the TRANSP transport code during neutral beam heating and narrower after the beam heating ended

  1. Did Triton Destroy Neptune's First Moons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    Neptunes moon system is not what we would expect for a gas giant in our solar system. Scientists have now explored the possibility that Neptune started its life with an ordinary system of moons that was later destroyed by the capture of its current giant moon, Triton.An Odd SystemOur current understanding of giant-planet formation predicts a period of gas accretion to build up the large size of these planets. According to models, the circumplanetary gas disks that surround the planets during this time then become the birthplaces of the giant planets satellite systems, producing systems of co-planar and prograde (i.e., orbiting in the same direction as the planets rotation) satellites similar to the many-moon systems of Jupiter or Saturn.Tritons orbit is tilted relative to the inner Neptunian satellite orbits. [NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI)]Neptune, however, is quirky. This gas giant has surprisingly few satellites only 14 compared to, say, the nearly 70 moons of Jupiter and most of them are extremely small. One of Neptunes moons is an exception to this, however: Triton, which contains 99.7% of the mass of Neptunes entire satellite system!Tritons orbit has a number of unusual properties. The orbit is retrograde Triton orbits in the opposite direction as Neptunes rotation which is unique behavior among large moons in our solar system. Tritons orbit is also highly inclined, and yet the moons path is nearly circular and lies very close to Neptune.The distribution of impact velocities in the authors simulations for primordial satellite interactions with Triton, in three cases of different satellite mass ratios. In the low-mass case a third of the mass ratio of the Uranian satellite system 88% of simulations ended with Triton surviving on its high-inclination orbit. The survival rate was only 12% in the high-mass case. [Adapted from Rufu et al. 2017]How did this monster of a satellite get its strange properties, and why is Neptunes system so odd compared to what we

  2. Matching Electron Beams Without Secondary Collimation for Treatment of Extensive Recurrent Chest-Wall Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feygelman, Vladimir; Mandelzweig, Yuri; Baral, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Matching electron beams without secondary collimators (applicators) were used for treatment of extensive, recurrent chest-wall carcinoma. Due to the wide penumbra of such beams, the homogeneity of the dose distribution at and around the junction point is clinically acceptable and relatively insensitive to positional errors. Specifically, dose around the junction point is homogeneous to within ±4% as calculated from beam profiles, while the positional error of 1 cm leaves this number essentially unchanged. The experimental isodose distribution in an anthropomorphic phantom supports this conclusion. Two electron beams with wide penumbra were used to cover the desired treatment area with satisfactory dose homogeneity. The technique is relatively simple yet clinically useful and can be considered a viable alternative for treatment of extensive chest-wall disease. The steps are suggested to make this technique more universal.

  3. Charge-independence-breaking in the triton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckle, W.; Lee, T.S.H.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    We find the effect of the observed charge-independence-breaking in 1 S 0 nucleon-nucleon scattering on the binding energy of the triton to be of order 80 keV. When corrections for this effect are made in an 18-channel momentum-space Faddeev calculation, we find the Paris and Argonne v 14 potentials triton binding energies that differ by only 20 keV

  4. Measurement of secondary radiation during ion beam therapy with the pixel detector Timepix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martišíková, Mária; Jakubek, Jan; Granja, Carlos; Hartmann, Bernadette; Opálka, Lukáš; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Jäkel, Oliver

    2011-11-01

    In ion beam therapy the finite range of the ion beams in tissue and the presence of the Bragg-peak are exploited. Unpredictable changes in the patient`s condition can alter the range of the ion beam in the body. Therefore it is desired to verify the actual ion range during the treatment, preferably in a non-invasive way. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used successfully to monitor the applied dose distributions. This method however suffers from limited applicability and low detection efficiency. In order to increase the detection efficiency and to decrease the uncertainties, in this study we investigate the possibility to measure secondary charged particles emerging from the patient during irradiation. An initial experimental study to register the particle radiation coming out of a patient phantom during the therapy was performed at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) in Germany. A static narrowly-focused beam of carbon ions was directed into a head phantom. The emerging secondary radiation was measured with the position-sensitive Timepix detector outside of the phantom. The detector, developed by the Medipix Collaboration, consists of a silicon sensor bump bonded to a pixelated readout chip (256 × 256 pixels with 55 μm pitch). Together with the USB-based readout interface, Timepix can operate as an active nuclear emulsion registering single particles online with 2D-track visualization. In this contribution we measured the signal behind the head phantom and investigated its dependence on the beam energy (corresponding to beam range in water 2-30 cm). Furthermore, the response was measured at four angles between 0 and 90 degrees. At all investigated energies some signal was registered. Its pattern corresponds to ions. Differences in the total amount of signal for different beam energies were observed. The time-structure of the signal is correlated with that of the incoming beam, showing that we register products of prompt processes. Such

  5. Measurement of secondary radiation during ion beam therapy with the pixel detector Timepix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martišíková, Mária; Hartmann, Bernadette; Jäkel, Oliver; Jakubek, Jan; Granja, Carlos; Opálka, Lukáš; Pospíšil, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    In ion beam therapy the finite range of the ion beams in tissue and the presence of the Bragg-peak are exploited. Unpredictable changes in the patient's condition can alter the range of the ion beam in the body. Therefore it is desired to verify the actual ion range during the treatment, preferably in a non-invasive way. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used successfully to monitor the applied dose distributions. This method however suffers from limited applicability and low detection efficiency. In order to increase the detection efficiency and to decrease the uncertainties, in this study we investigate the possibility to measure secondary charged particles emerging from the patient during irradiation. An initial experimental study to register the particle radiation coming out of a patient phantom during the therapy was performed at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) in Germany. A static narrowly-focused beam of carbon ions was directed into a head phantom. The emerging secondary radiation was measured with the position-sensitive Timepix detector outside of the phantom. The detector, developed by the Medipix Collaboration, consists of a silicon sensor bump bonded to a pixelated readout chip (256 × 256 pixels with 55 μm pitch). Together with the USB-based readout interface, Timepix can operate as an active nuclear emulsion registering single particles online with 2D-track visualization. In this contribution we measured the signal behind the head phantom and investigated its dependence on the beam energy (corresponding to beam range in water 2–30 cm). Furthermore, the response was measured at four angles between 0 and 90 degrees. At all investigated energies some signal was registered. Its pattern corresponds to ions. Differences in the total amount of signal for different beam energies were observed. The time-structure of the signal is correlated with that of the incoming beam, showing that we register products of prompt processes. Such

  6. Comparison of the secondary electrons produced by proton and electron beams in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: m-r-kia@aut.ac.ir; Noshad, Houshyar [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The secondary electrons produced in water by electron and proton beams are compared with each other. The total ionization cross section (TICS) for an electron impact in water is obtained by using the binary-encounter-Bethe model. Hence, an empirical equation based on two adjustable fitting parameters is presented to determine the TICS for proton impact in media. In order to calculate the projectile trajectory, a set of stochastic differential equations based on the inelastic collision, elastic scattering, and bremsstrahlung emission are used. In accordance with the projectile trajectory, the depth dose deposition, electron energy loss distribution in a certain depth, and secondary electrons produced in water are calculated. The obtained results for the depth dose deposition and energy loss distribution in certain depth for electron and proton beams with various incident energies in media are in excellent agreement with the reported experimental data. The difference between the profiles for the depth dose deposition and production of secondary electrons for a proton beam can be ignored approximately. But, these profiles for an electron beam are completely different due to the effect of elastic scattering on electron trajectory.

  7. Triton-3He relative and differential flows and the high density behavior of nuclear symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Gaochan; Li, Baoan; Chen, Liewen

    2010-01-01

    Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence after-burner we study the triton- 3 He relative and differential transverse flows in semi-central 132 Sn + 124 Sn reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. We find that the triton- 3 He pairs carry interesting information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The t- 3 He relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy. (author)

  8. Selection of K+ mesons in a secondary beam of Saturne (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rossum, L.

    1961-01-01

    The electronic device is described which permitted the determination of the number of K + mesons produced in a secondary beam of the 'Saturne' proton synchrotron. The selective criteria and the tests which allowed the identification of the K + mesons, are analysed in detail. For the ratio π + / K + = 400, and with a momentum of 600 MeV/c, less than 5 p. 100 of the detected particles corresponded to spurious events. (authors) [fr

  9. Beam profile measurement of ES-200 using secondary electron emission monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ebrahimi Basabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, different designs have been introduced for measurement beam profile accelerators. Secondary electron emission monitors (SEM are one of these devices which have been used for this purpose. In this work, a SEM has been constructed to measure beam profile of ES-200 accelerator, a proton electrostatic accelerator which is installed at SBU. Profile grid for both planes designed with 16 wires which are insulated relative to each other. The particles with maximum energy of 200 keV and maximum current of 400 μA are stopped in copper wires. Each of the wires has an individual current-to-voltage amplifier. With a multiplexer, the analogue values are transported to an ADC. The ADCs are read out by a microcontroller and finally profile of beam shows by a user interface program

  10. A study on the secondary electrons in a clinical electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krithivas, G.; Rao, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    The central axis dose of a 12 MeV clinical electron beam is investigated in terms of an axial component due to primary electrons in the central ray and a lateral component due to secondary electrons originating from multiple scattering of electrons in the off-axis rays. To this effect secondary electron fluence measurements in a polystyrene medium irradiated with a collimated beam are made with a sensitive diode detector. This leads to a construction of secondary electron depth-dose profiles for beam sizes of diameters ranging from 1.7 to 17.4 cm. The results indicate that the lateral electrons account for 25% of the dose in the therapeutic region. For these electrons, the depth of dose maximum is correlated with diffusion depth and maximum lateral excursion in the medium. Dose component due to backscatter electrons at depths is also investigated using a thin-window parallel-plate ion chamber. The role of lateral and backscatter electrons in characterising central axis per cent depth-dose is discussed. (author)

  11. Proceedings of the RCNP cascade project workshop 'heavy ion secondary beam course'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    In the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, as one of the experimental facilities utilizing the heavy ion beam from the ring cyclotron, the construction of the heavy ion secondary beam course has been in progress. This course can supply the unstable nuclei produced by a heavy ion reaction as a secondary beam, and is expected to become the powerful experimental facility for elucidating the condition of atomic nuclei in the extreme condition and their reaction mode. At present, the arrangement is advanced aiming at the utilization from the end of fiscal year 1991. Toward the start of joint utilization experiment, in order to examine the expected physics, concrete experimental plan and the preparation plan accompanying them, the workshop including the introduction of the course was held. On December 15, 1990, the workshop with the theme on the nuclear reaction by unstable nucleus beam was held, and on January 26, 1991, that with the theme on the spectroscopy of unstable nuclei was held. In each meeting, there were more than 20 participants. In this report, the gists of 18 papers are collected. (K.I.)

  12. Polarized triton scattering from 26Mg, 27Al and 28Si at 17 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardekopf, R.A.; Brown, R.E.; Correll, F.D.; Ohlsen, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    Differential-cross-section and analyzing-power angular distributions were measured for 17 MeV tritons elastically scattered from targets of 26 Mg, 27 Al, and 28 Si in the angular range 20 to 160 0 . The experiment was performed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Van de Graaff facility using the Lamb-shift polarized triton source and the supercube scattering chamber. A pair of detector telescopes with angular resolutions of +-0.4 0 detected the reaction products, with mass identification and storage performed by an on-line computer. The triton beam intensity available at the target was about 70 nA with a polarization of 0.77. The target thicknesses were about 3 mg/cm 2 , although thinner targets were used for the 27 Al forward-angle data

  13. Analysis of secondary particle behavior in multiaperture, multigrid accelerator for the ITER neutral beam injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, T; Taniguchi, M; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Tobari, H; Watanabe, K; Dairaku, M; Sakamoto, K; Inoue, T

    2010-02-01

    Heat load on acceleration grids by secondary particles such as electrons, neutrals, and positive ions, is a key issue for long pulse acceleration of negative ion beams. Complicated behaviors of the secondary particles in multiaperture, multigrid (MAMuG) accelerator have been analyzed using electrostatic accelerator Monte Carlo code. The analytical result is compared to experimental one obtained in a long pulse operation of a MeV accelerator, of which second acceleration grid (A2G) was removed for simplification of structure. The analytical results show that relatively high heat load on the third acceleration grid (A3G) since stripped electrons were deposited mainly on A3G. This heat load on the A3G can be suppressed by installing the A2G. Thus, capability of MAMuG accelerator is demonstrated for suppression of heat load due to secondary particles by the intermediate grids.

  14. Multiwire secondary-emission monitor and the emittance measurement of the AGS beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.; Chiang, I.H.; Smith, G.A.; Soukas, A.

    1983-01-01

    For CBA injection the transverse emittances and the Twiss parameters of the AGS beam have to be well defined to minimize the phase space dilution in CBA. Althoug there exists a profile monitor device at U165, there are three reasons why construction of multiwire profile monitor system at three locations from U500 to U168 is required: (1) the dispersion function is not zero at U165 which makes it harder to interpret the measurement; (2) the original single wire device takes five minutes to traverse the whole beam; (3) a three station multiwire system can provide the profile information at all locations in one pulse which makes on-line analysis possible. In summary, a set of three stations of Multiwire Secondary Emission Monitor (MSEM) has been built and installed in the fast external beam line for the measurement of beam profiles. Each unit consists of two planes each with 30 nickel wires having a diameter of 5 mils. The signal is linear within the range of 10 10 to 10 13 incident protons on the wire and the resolution of the signal is well within a few percent. A least-square fitting routine has been used to extract the emittance and phase space parameters of the beam. The emittances obtained at various intensities will help us to understand the AGS acceleration process and to choose the optimal injection scheme for CBA

  15. Current control of the electron beam formed in the magnetron gun with a secondary-emission cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovbnya, A.N.; Reshetnyak, N.G.; Zakutin, V.V.; Chertishchev, I.A.; Romas'ko, V.P.; Dovbnyan, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Data are reported on electron beam generation and beam current control in two types of secondary-emission cathode magnetron guns. The influence of the magnetic field value and field distribution on the formation of the beam and its parameters has been investigated in the electron energy range between 20 and 150 keV. The influence of local magnetic field variations on the cathode and the electron beam characteristics has been studied. The possibility to control the electron beam current in various ways has been demonstrated

  16. Non-invasive monitoring of therapeutic carbon ion beams in a homogeneous phantom by tracking of secondary ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwosch, K.; Hartmann, B.; Jakubek, J.; Granja, C.; Soukup, P.; Jäkel, O.; Martišíková, M.

    2013-06-01

    Radiotherapy with narrow scanned carbon ion beams enables a highly accurate treatment of tumours while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. Changes in the patient’s geometry can alter the actual ion range in tissue and result in unfavourable changes in the dose distribution. Consequently, it is desired to verify the actual beam delivery within the patient. Real-time and non-invasive measurement methods are preferable. Currently, the only technically feasible method to monitor the delivered dose distribution within the patient is based on tissue activation measurements by means of positron emission tomography (PET). An alternative monitoring method based on tracking of prompt secondary ions leaving a patient irradiated with carbon ion beams has been previously suggested. It is expected to help in overcoming the limitations of the PET-based technique like physiological washout of the beam induced activity, low signal and to allow for real-time measurements. In this paper, measurements of secondary charged particle tracks around a head-sized homogeneous PMMA phantom irradiated with pencil-like carbon ion beams are presented. The investigated energies and beam widths are within the therapeutically used range. The aim of the study is to deduce properties of the primary beam from the distribution of the secondary charged particles. Experiments were performed at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, Germany. The directions of secondary charged particles emerging from the PMMA phantom were measured using an arrangement of two parallel pixelated silicon detectors (Timepix). The distribution of the registered particle tracks was analysed to deduce its dependence on clinically important beam parameters: beam range, width and position. Distinct dependencies of the secondary particle tracks on the properties of the primary carbon ion beam were observed. In the particular experimental set-up used, beam range differences of 1.3 mm were detectable. In addition, variations

  17. The rapid secondary electron imaging system of the proton beam writer at CIBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udalagama, C.N.B.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kan, J.A. van; Teo, E.J.; Watt, F.

    2007-01-01

    The recent years have witnessed a proliferation of research involving proton beam (p-beam) writing. This has prompted investigations into means of optimizing the process of p-beam writing so as to make it less time consuming and more efficient. One such avenue is the improvement of the pre-writing preparatory procedures that involves beam focusing and sample alignment which is centred on acquiring images of a resolution standard or sample. The conventional mode of imaging used up to now has utilized conventional nuclear microprobe signals that are of a pulsed nature and are inherently slow. In this work, we report the new imaging system that has been introduced, which uses proton induced secondary electrons. This in conjunction with software developed in-house that uses a National Instruments DAQ card with hardware triggering, facilitates large data transfer rates enabling rapid imaging. Frame rates as much as 10 frames/s have been achieved at an imaging resolution of 512 x 512 pixels

  18. Coronary cineangiography and ionizing radiation exposure to patients: analysis of primary and secondary beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Alfredo; Leyton, Fernando; Silva, Ana Maria; Farias, Eric

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the level of exposure dose to patients during coronariographies in different areas of body. This study has presented the medical surveillance of 18 cases and the radiation monitoring of these patients by TLD in thyroid and pelvis (secondary beam) and, in the right and left scapular region (primary beam) for each one of these procedures. The ionizing radiation received was 215 ± 200 mGy in left scapular region (range 1-710) and 255±213 mGy in the right scapular region (range 22-635) p=NS. In the pelvic region the ionizing radiation was 0,22±0,06 mGy and in the thyroid region was 3,62±2,44 mGy

  19. Restaurant Training Recipe At Triton College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliano, Joseph

    1974-01-01

    The successful restaurant training program at Triton College (Illinois) involves a broadly based, two-year curriculum offering practical training in nearly all the areas associated with a comprehensive food operation--management, food preparation, menu planning, nutrition, personnel vending, dining room service, and cost control. (Author/EA)

  20. Photometric diversity of terrains on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, J.; Veverka, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Lee, P.

    1994-01-01

    Voyager disk-resolved images of Triton in the violet (0.41 micrometers) and green (0.56 micrometer wavelengths have been analyzed to derive the photometric characteristics of terrains on Triton. Similar conclusions are found using two distinct but related definitions of photometric units, one based on color ratio and albedo properties (A. S. McEwen, 1990), the other on albedo and brightness ratios at different phase angles (P. Lee et al., 1992). A significant diversity of photometric behavior, much broader than that discovered so far on any other icy satellite, occurs among Triton's terrains. Remarkably, differences in photometric behavior do not correlate well with geologic terrain boundaries defined on the basis of surface morphology. This suggests that in most cases photometric properties on Triton are controlled by thin deposits superposed on underlying geologic units. Single scattering albedos are 0.98 or higher and asymmetry factors range from -0.35 to -0.45 for most units. The most distinct scattering behavior is exhibited by the reddish northern units already identified as the Anomalously Scattering Region (ASR), which scatters light almost isotropically with g = -0.04. In part due to the effects of Triton's clouds and haze, it is difficult to constrain the value of bar-theta, Hapke's macroscopic roughness parameter, precisely for Triton or to map differences in bar-theta among the different photometric terrains. However, our study shows that Triton must be relatively smooth, with bar-theta less than 15-20 degs and suggests that a value of 14 degs is appropriate. The differences in photometric characteristics lead to significantly different phase angle behavior for the various terrains. For example, a terrain (e.g., the ASR) that appears dark relative to another at low phase angles will reverse its contrast (become relatively brighter) at larger phase angles. The photometric parameters have been used to calculate hemispherical albedos for the units and to

  1. Reduction of the energy of secondary beams down to the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yong Feng; Mittig, W.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Lewitowicz, M.; Sida, J.L.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Gillibert, A.; Volant, C.; Cabot, C.; Borcea, C.

    1993-01-01

    With the doubly achromatic spectrometer LISE at GANIL, the energy of a secondary 11 Be beam produced by the reaction of 63 MeV/nucleon 18 O with a 9 Be target has been reduced to Coulomb barrier energies using various thick targets and a thinner target plus a thick degrader. The experimental results were compared with calculations performed with the program INTENSITY and with simple analytical expressions. It was found that in the present device, the thick target method is more convenient and efficient than the achromatic degrader

  2. Test beam results of a low-pressure micro-strip gas chamber with a secondary-electron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, S.; Anderson, D.F.; Zimmerman, J.; Sbarra, C.; Salomon, M.

    1994-10-01

    We present recent results, from a beam test, on the angular dependence of the efficiency and the distribution of the signals on the anode strips of a low-pressure microstrip gas chamber with a thick CsI layer as a secondary-electron emitter. New results of CVD diamond films as secondary-electron emitters are discussed

  3. Mass spectrum of secondary ions knocked-out from copper surface by argon ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval', A.G.; Bobkov, V.V.; Klimovskij, Yu.A.; Fogel', Ya.M.

    1976-01-01

    The mass-spectrum of secondary ions was studied within a mass range of 1-400. The ions were knocked-out by the beam of ions Ar + from the copper surface with different content of oxygen and sulphur solved in the volume. The studies were conducted at three temperatures of the target. The atomic and molecular ions of the metal matrix, volumetric impurities of metal and ions of chemical compounds molecules of the metal under study with gas particles adsorbed on its surface and atoms of the metal volumetric admixtures may be observed in the mass spectrum. Detection of secondary ions of the copper multi-atomic complexes and ions of these complexes compounds with the adsorbed molecules is of interest

  4. SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF OCTYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATE NONIONICS (TRITON X-100, TRITON X-114 AND TRITON X-405 AND THE TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON THIS PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliha Sidim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface tensions and condutvities of aqueous solutions of nonionic surfactants at various concentrations were measured at diffferent temperatures.The critical micelle concentration (CMC of aqueous solutions of three different octylphenol ethoxylate nonionics(Triton X-114, Triton X-100 and Triton X-405 are determined at different temperatures.The effect of the ethylene oxide chain length and temperature on the CMC is also determined.

  5. Accurate Profile Measurement of the low Intensity Secondary Beams in the CERN Experimental Areas

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084531; Tranquille, Gerard

    2018-02-23

    The CERN accelerators deliver a wide spectrum of secondary beams to the Experimental Areas. These beams are composed of hadrons, leptons, and heavy ions that can vary greatly in momentum (1 GeV/c to 400 GeV/c) and intensity (10^2 to 10^8 particles per second). The profile, position, and intensity of these beams are measured utilising particle detectors. However, the current systems show several problems that limit the quality of this kind of monitoring. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to investigate the best detector technology that could replace the existing monitors and build a first prototype of it. A review of the existing detection techniques has led to the choice of Scintillating Fibres (SciFi) read-out with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). This detection technology has the potential to perform better in terms of material budget, range of intensities measured, and active area size. In addition, it has particle counting capabilities, which could extend its application to momentum spectrometry or Time...

  6. Multigroup and coupled forward-adjoint Monte Carlo calculation efficiencies for secondary neutron doses from proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey IV, Charles T.; Prinja, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the Monte Carlo calculation efficiency for multigroup transport relative to continuous energy transport using the MCNPX code system to evaluate secondary neutron doses from a proton beam. We consider both fully forward simulation and application of a midway forward adjoint coupling method to the problem. Previously we developed tools for building coupled multigroup proton/neutron cross section libraries and showed consistent results for continuous energy and multigroup proton/neutron transport calculations. We observed that forward multigroup transport could be more efficient than continuous energy. Here we quantify solution efficiency differences for a secondary radiation dose problem characteristic of proton beam therapy problems. We begin by comparing figures of merit for forward multigroup and continuous energy MCNPX transport and find that multigroup is 30 times more efficient. Next we evaluate efficiency gains for coupling out-of-beam adjoint solutions with forward in-beam solutions. We use a variation of a midway forward-adjoint coupling method developed by others for neutral particle transport. Our implementation makes use of the surface source feature in MCNPX and we use spherical harmonic expansions for coupling in angle rather than solid angle binning. The adjoint out-of-beam transport for organs of concern in a phantom or patient can be coupled with numerous forward, continuous energy or multigroup, in-beam perturbations of a therapy beam line configuration. Out-of-beam dose solutions are provided without repeating out-of-beam transport. (author)

  7. Analytical linear energy transfer model including secondary particles: calculations along the central axis of the proton pencil beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Mazal, A; Pouzoulet, F

    2016-01-01

    In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens’ model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec , for Wilkens’ model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec . The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens’ model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm −1 . These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis. (paper)

  8. A simple and realistic triton wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomnitz-Adler, J.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a simple triton wave function that consists of a product of three correlation operators operating on a three-body spin-isospin state. This wave function is formally similar to that used in the recent variational theories of nuclear matter, the main difference being in the long-range behavior of the correlation operators. Variational calculations are carried out with the Reid potential, using this wave function in the so-called 'symmetrized product' and 'independent pair' forms. The triton energy and density distributions obtained with the symmetrized product wave function agree with those obtained in Faddeev and other variational calculations using harmonic oscillator states. The proposed wave function and calculational methods can be easily generalized to treat the four-nucleon α-particle. (orig.)

  9. Chemical investigation of Titan and Triton tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Gene D.; Thompson, W. R.; Heinrich, Michael; Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl

    1994-01-01

    We report chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses of both Titan and Triton tholins, organic solids made from the plasma irradiation of 0.9:0.1 and 0.999:0.001 N2/CH4 gas mixtures, respectively. The lower CH4 mixing ratio leads to a nitrogen-richer tholin (N/C greater than 1), probably including nitrogen heterocyclic compounds. Unlike Titan tholin, bulk Triton tholin is poor in nitriles. From high-pressure liquid chromatography, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, and molecular weight estimation by gel filtration chromatography, we conclude that (1) several H2O-soluble fractions, each with distinct UV and IR spectral signatures, are present, (2) these fractions are not identical in the two tholins, (3) the H2O-soluble fractions of Titan tholins do not contain significant amounts of nitriles, despite the major role of nitriles in bulk Titan tholin, and (4) the H2O-soluble fractions of both tholins are mainly molcules containing about 10 to 50 (C + N) atoms. We report yields of amino acids upon hydrolysis of Titan and Triton tholins. Titan tholin is largely insoluble in the putative hydrocarbon lakes or oceans on Titan, but can yield the H2O-soluble species investigated here upon contact with transient (e.g., impact-generated) liquid water.

  10. Triton - Stratospheric molecules and organic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Singh, Sushil K.; Khare, B. N.; Sagan, Carl

    1989-01-01

    Continuous-flow plasma discharge techniques show production rates of hydrocarbons and nitriles in N2 + CH4 atmospheres appropriate to the stratosphere of Titan, and indicate that a simple eddy diffusion model together with the observed electron flux quantitatively matches the Voyager IRIS observations for all the hydrocarbons, except for the simplest ones. Charged particle chemistry is very important in Triton's stratosphere. In the more CH4-rich case of Titan, many hydrocarbons and nitriles are produced in high yield. If N2 is present, the CH4 fraction is low, but hydrocarbons and nitriles are produced in fair yield, abundances of HCN and C2H2 in Triton's stratosphere exceed 10 to the 19th molecules/sq cm per sec, and NCCN, C3H4, and other species are predicted to be present. These molecules may be detected by IRIS if the stratosphere is as warm as expected. Both organic haze and condensed gases will provide a substantial UV and visible opacity in Triton's atmosphere.

  11. Comparison endpoint study of process plasma and secondary electron beam exciter optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan Thamban, P. L.; Yun, Stuart; Padron-Wells, Gabriel; Hosch, Jimmy W.; Goeckner, Matthew J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800W Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800W Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Verity Instruments, Inc., 2901 Eisenhower Street, Carrollton, Texas 75007 (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Traditionally process plasmas are often studied and monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. Here, the authors compare experimental measurements from a secondary electron beam excitation and direct process plasma excitation to discuss and illustrate its distinctiveness in the study of process plasmas. They present results that show excitations of etch process effluents in a SF{sub 6} discharge and endpoint detection capabilities in dark plasma process conditions. In SF{sub 6} discharges, a band around 300 nm, not visible in process emission, is observed and it can serve as a good indicator of etch product emission during polysilicon etches. Based on prior work reported in literature the authors believe this band is due to SiF{sub 4} gas phase species.

  12. Local in-depth analysis of ceramic materials by neutral beam secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchardt, G.; Scherrer, H.; Weber, S.; Scherrer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Local microanalysis of non-conducting surfaces by means of modern physical methods which use charged low-energy primary particles brings about severe problems because of the electrostatic charge accumulated on the sample surface. This is also true of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) where ions are usually used as primary particles. In the present work the basic features for production of neutral primary beams in commercial SIMS instruments by a simple technique are described. With suitably high sputtering rates, surface analyses and in-depth profiles can be made in reasonable measuring times. Results are given for chemical concentration distributions in the near-surface regions of an oxide glass and for the isotopic diffusion of Si-30 in a crystalline silicate with olivine structure (Co 2 SiO 4 ). (orig.)

  13. The thermal structure of Triton's atmosphere - Pre-Voyager models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Zent, Aaron P.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Courtin, Regis

    1989-01-01

    Spectral data from earth observations have indicated the presence of N2 and CH4 on Triton. This paper outlines the use of the 1-D radiative-convective model developed for Titan to calculate the current pressure of N2 and CH4 on Triton. The production of haze material is obtained by scaling down from the Titan value. Results and predictions for the Voyager Triton encounter are as follows: A N2-CH4 atmosphere on Triton is thermodynamically self consistent and would have a surface pressure of approximately 50 millibar; due to the chemically produced haze, Triton has a hot atmosphere with a temperature of approximately 130 K; Triton's troposphere is a region of saturation of the major constituent of the atmosphere, N2.

  14. Computation of classical triton burnup with high plasma temperature and current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, P.

    1990-09-01

    For comparison with experiment, the expected production of 14-MeV neutrons from the burnup of tritons produced in the d(d,t)p reaction must be computed. An effort was undertaken to compare in detail the computer codes used for this purpose at TFTR and JET. The calculation of the confined fraction of tritons by the different codes agrees to within a few percent. The high electron temperature in the experiments has raised the critical energy of the tritons that are slowing down to near or above the peak of the D-T reactivity, making the ion drag terms more important. When the different codes use the same slowing down formulas, the calculated burnup was within 6% for a case where orbit effects are expected to be small. Then results from codes with and without the effects of finite radial orbit excursions were compared for two test cases. For medium to high current discharges the finite radius effects are only of order 10%. A new version of the TFTR burnup code using an implicit Fokker-Planck solution was written to include the effects of energy diffusion and charge exchange. These effects change the time-integrated yields by only a few percent, but can significantly affect the instantaneous rates in time. Significant populations of hot ions can affect the fusion reactivity, and this effect was also studied. In particular, the d(d,p)t rate can be 10%--15% less than the d(d, 3 He)n rate which is usually used as a direct monitor of the triton source. Finally, a finite particle confinement time for the thermalized tritons can increase the apparent ''burn-up'' either if there is a high thermal deuteron temperature or if there exists a significant beam deuteron density

  15. Calculation of triton confinement and burn-up in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Battistoni, P.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical investigation is made of the confinement and subsequent burn-up of fusion produced tritons in a deuterium Tokamak plasma. Explicit approximations are obtained for the triton confinement factor, clearly displaying the scaling with physical parameters. The importance of pitch angle scattering losses during the triton slowing down is also estimated. A comparison with experiments and numerical calculations on the FT Tokamak slows good qualitative agreement. (authors)

  16. Dose distribution of secondary radiation in a water phantom for a proton pencil beam-EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stolarczyk, L.; Trinkl, S.; Romero-Exposito, M.; Mojzeszek, N.; Ambrožová, Iva; Domingo, C.; Davídková, Marie; Farah, J.; Klodowska, M.; Kneževic, Z.; Liszka, M.; Majer, M.; Miljanic, S.; Ploc, Ondřej; Schwarz, M.; Harrison, R. M.; Olko, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 8 (2018), č. článku 085017. ISSN 0031-9155 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : passive detectors * neutron dosimetry * gamma radiation dosimetry * water phantom measurements * secondary radiation measurements * pencil beam scanning proton radiotherapy Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Radiology, nuclear medicine and medical imaging Impact factor: 2.742, year: 2016

  17. Evaluation of secondary electron filter for removing contaminant electrons from high-energy 6 MV x-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Kozo

    1988-01-01

    When using high energy X-rays, the dose increases at the skin surface and build-up region of beam contamination of secondary electrons coming out from the inner surface of the lineac head. At our radiotherapy department, many cases of external otitis from severe skin reactions, particularly resulting from whole brain irradiation of primary and metastatic brain tumors with a 6 MV X-ray lineac, have been encountered. An investigation was made of the physical aspects of a 6 MV X-ray beam using three electron filters, lead lucite, lead glass and lucite to remove secondary electrons. Transparent materials for filters should be preferable for locating the light field. The following results were obtained: 1) For removing secondary electrons, a lead lucite filter was found best. 2) The lead lucite filter proved most effective for removing secondary electrons from the area of treatment. It reduced the dose of irradiation to the skin surface and build-up region, and furthermore improved the depth dose relative to that without filters. 3) From a clinical standpoint, skin reactions such as external otitis remarkably decreased using a lead lucite filter. 4) It thus appears necessary to use a high energy X-ray with newly designed filters to reduce beam contamination of secondary electrons. (author)

  18. Effect of Film Dressing on Acute Radiation Dermatitis Secondary to Proton Beam Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimura, Takeshi; Ogino, Takashi; Yoshiura, Takashi; Toi, Yuya; Kawabata, Michiko; Chuman, Ikuko; Wada, Kiyotaka; Kondo, Naoaki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Hishikawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation dermatitis (ARD) is one of the most common adverse events of proton beam therapy (PBT), and there is currently no effective method to manage ARD. The purpose of this study was to examine the prophylactic effect of a film dressing using Airwall on PBT-induced ARD compared with standard skin managements. Methods and Materials: A total of 271 patients with prostate cancer who were scheduled for PBT at our center were divided into 2 groups based on their own requests: 145 patients (53%) chose Airwall (group A) and 126 patients (47%) received standard treatments (group B). We evaluated irradiated skin every other day during PBT and followed up once a week for a month after completion of PBT. Results: Grade 0, 1, 2, and 3 dermatitis were seen in 2, 122, 21, and 0 and 0, 65, 57, and 4 patients in groups A and B, respectively (P<.001). Numbers of days to grades 1 and 2 ARD development were 34.9 ± 14.3 and 54.7 ± 10.3 and 31.8 ± 11.3 and 54.4 ± 11.6 in groups A and B, respectively. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups. Eighteen patients (12%) in group A who experienced problems in the region covered with Airwall switched to standard skin care after peeling the film off. Conclusions: Film dressing using Airwall reduced the severity of ARD without delaying the response time of the skin to proton beam irradiation compared with standard skin management. Hence, film dressing is considered a promising measure for preventing ARD secondary to PBT.

  19. Effect of Film Dressing on Acute Radiation Dermatitis Secondary to Proton Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimura, Takeshi, E-mail: arimura-takeshi@medipolis.org [Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, Ibusuki (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Ogino, Takashi [Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, Ibusuki (Japan); Yoshiura, Takashi [Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Toi, Yuya; Kawabata, Michiko; Chuman, Ikuko; Wada, Kiyotaka; Kondo, Naoaki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Hishikawa, Yoshio [Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, Ibusuki (Japan)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation dermatitis (ARD) is one of the most common adverse events of proton beam therapy (PBT), and there is currently no effective method to manage ARD. The purpose of this study was to examine the prophylactic effect of a film dressing using Airwall on PBT-induced ARD compared with standard skin managements. Methods and Materials: A total of 271 patients with prostate cancer who were scheduled for PBT at our center were divided into 2 groups based on their own requests: 145 patients (53%) chose Airwall (group A) and 126 patients (47%) received standard treatments (group B). We evaluated irradiated skin every other day during PBT and followed up once a week for a month after completion of PBT. Results: Grade 0, 1, 2, and 3 dermatitis were seen in 2, 122, 21, and 0 and 0, 65, 57, and 4 patients in groups A and B, respectively (P<.001). Numbers of days to grades 1 and 2 ARD development were 34.9 ± 14.3 and 54.7 ± 10.3 and 31.8 ± 11.3 and 54.4 ± 11.6 in groups A and B, respectively. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups. Eighteen patients (12%) in group A who experienced problems in the region covered with Airwall switched to standard skin care after peeling the film off. Conclusions: Film dressing using Airwall reduced the severity of ARD without delaying the response time of the skin to proton beam irradiation compared with standard skin management. Hence, film dressing is considered a promising measure for preventing ARD secondary to PBT.

  20. Electron beam irradiation process applied to primary and secondary recycled high density polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Jéssica R.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Áurea B.C., E-mail: ageraldo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Plastic bags, packaging and furniture items are examples of plastic utilities always present in life. However, the end-of-life of plastics impacts the environment because of this ubiquity and also often their high degradation time. Recycling processes are important in this scenario because they offer many solutions to this problem. Basically, four ways are known for plastic recycling: primary recycling, which consists in re-extrusion of clean plastic scraps from a production plant; secondary recycling, that uses end-of-life products that generally are reduced in size by extrusion to obtain a more desirable shape for reprocessing (pellets and powder); tertiary recover which is related to thermo-chemical methods to produce fuels and petrochemical feedstock; and quaternary route, that is related to energy recovery and it is done in appropriate reactors. In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was recovered to simulate empirically the primary and secondary recycling ways using materials which ranged from pristine to 20-fold re-extrused materials. The final 20-fold recycled thermoplastic was irradiated in an electron beam accelerator under a dose rate of 22.4 kGy/s and absorbed doses of 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The characterization of HDPE in distinct levels of recovering was performed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric degradation. In the HDPE recycling, degradation and crosslinking are consecutive processes; degradation is very noticeable in the 20-fold recycled product. Despite this, the 20-fold recycled product presents crosslinking after irradiation process and the post-irradiation product presents similarities in spectroscopic and thermal degradation characteristics of pristine, irradiated HDPE. These results are discussed. (author)

  1. Electron beam irradiation process applied to primary and secondary recycled high density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Jéssica R.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Áurea B.C.

    2017-01-01

    Plastic bags, packaging and furniture items are examples of plastic utilities always present in life. However, the end-of-life of plastics impacts the environment because of this ubiquity and also often their high degradation time. Recycling processes are important in this scenario because they offer many solutions to this problem. Basically, four ways are known for plastic recycling: primary recycling, which consists in re-extrusion of clean plastic scraps from a production plant; secondary recycling, that uses end-of-life products that generally are reduced in size by extrusion to obtain a more desirable shape for reprocessing (pellets and powder); tertiary recover which is related to thermo-chemical methods to produce fuels and petrochemical feedstock; and quaternary route, that is related to energy recovery and it is done in appropriate reactors. In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was recovered to simulate empirically the primary and secondary recycling ways using materials which ranged from pristine to 20-fold re-extrused materials. The final 20-fold recycled thermoplastic was irradiated in an electron beam accelerator under a dose rate of 22.4 kGy/s and absorbed doses of 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The characterization of HDPE in distinct levels of recovering was performed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric degradation. In the HDPE recycling, degradation and crosslinking are consecutive processes; degradation is very noticeable in the 20-fold recycled product. Despite this, the 20-fold recycled product presents crosslinking after irradiation process and the post-irradiation product presents similarities in spectroscopic and thermal degradation characteristics of pristine, irradiated HDPE. These results are discussed. (author)

  2. Building a Geologic Map of Neptune's Moon Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E. S.; Patthoff, D. A.; Bland, M. T.; Watters, T. R.; Collins, G. C.; Becker, T.

    2018-06-01

    Triton serves as a bridge between KBOs and icy satellites, and characterization of its terrains is important for advancing comparative planetological studies. We aim to create a geologic map of the Neptune-facing side of Triton at a scale of 1:5M.

  3. Positronium reactions in the Triton X-100-p-nitro phenol system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Das, S.; Nandi Ganguly, B.

    1997-01-01

    The positronium reactions have been used as a probe to study the solubilization of p-nitro phenol within the micellar phase of a Triton X-100 solution and the corresponding changes in the molecular association phenomenon. The presence of p-nitro phenol resulted in an enhancement of micellization which has been corroborated by surface tension measurements. This paper also lays emphasis on the secondary aggregation phenomenon of Triton X-100 molecules at the far post-micellar stage (∼ 10-15 mM). The solubilization of p-nitro phenol at various stages of aggregation has been discussed through the interaction with positronium atoms by setting up a kinetic model and reaction equilibria. (author)

  4. Off-axis dose equivalent due to secondary neutrons from uniform scanning proton beams during proton radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. R.; Collums, T. L.; Zheng, Y.; Monson, J.; Benton, E. R.

    2013-11-01

    The production of secondary neutrons is an undesirable byproduct of proton therapy and it is important to quantify the contribution from secondary neutrons to patient dose received outside the treatment volume. The purpose of this study is to investigate the off-axis dose equivalent from secondary neutrons experimentally using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD) at ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK. In this experiment, we placed several layers of CR-39 PNTD laterally outside the treatment volume inside a phantom and in air at various depths and angles with respect to the primary beam axis. Three different proton beams with max energies of 78, 162 and 226 MeV and 4 cm modulation width, a 5 cm diameter brass aperture, and a small snout located 38 cm from isocenter were used for the entire experiment. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed based on the experimental setup using a simplified snout configuration and the FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The measured ratio of secondary neutron dose equivalent to therapeutic primary proton dose (H/D) ranged from 0.3 ± 0.08 mSv Gy-1 for 78 MeV proton beam to 37.4 ± 2.42 mSv Gy-1 for 226 MeV proton beam. Both experiment and simulation showed a similar decreasing trend in dose equivalent with distance to the central axis and the magnitude varied by a factor of about 2 in most locations. H/D was found to increase as the energy of the primary proton beam increased and higher H/D was observed at 135° compared to 45° and 90°. The overall higher H/D in air indicates the predominance of external neutrons produced in the nozzle rather than inside the body.

  5. Off-axis dose equivalent due to secondary neutrons from uniform scanning proton beams during proton radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M R; Collums, T L; Monson, J; Benton, E R; Zheng, Y

    2013-01-01

    The production of secondary neutrons is an undesirable byproduct of proton therapy and it is important to quantify the contribution from secondary neutrons to patient dose received outside the treatment volume. The purpose of this study is to investigate the off-axis dose equivalent from secondary neutrons experimentally using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD) at ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK. In this experiment, we placed several layers of CR-39 PNTD laterally outside the treatment volume inside a phantom and in air at various depths and angles with respect to the primary beam axis. Three different proton beams with max energies of 78, 162 and 226 MeV and 4 cm modulation width, a 5 cm diameter brass aperture, and a small snout located 38 cm from isocenter were used for the entire experiment. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed based on the experimental setup using a simplified snout configuration and the FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The measured ratio of secondary neutron dose equivalent to therapeutic primary proton dose (H/D) ranged from 0.3 ± 0.08 mSv Gy −1  for 78 MeV proton beam to 37.4 ± 2.42 mSv Gy −1  for 226 MeV proton beam. Both experiment and simulation showed a similar decreasing trend in dose equivalent with distance to the central axis and the magnitude varied by a factor of about 2 in most locations. H/D was found to increase as the energy of the primary proton beam increased and higher H/D was observed at 135° compared to 45° and 90°. The overall higher H/D in air indicates the predominance of external neutrons produced in the nozzle rather than inside the body. (paper)

  6. Study of electron beam effects on surfaces using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettings, M.; Coad, J.P.

    1976-02-01

    Discrepancies in the surface analyses of oxidised or heavily contaminated materials have been observed between X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and techniques using electron beams (primarily Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)). These discrepancies can be ascribed to the influence of the primary electron beam and to illustrate the various types of electron effects different materials were analysed using XPS and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) before and after large area electron bombardment. The materials used included chrome and stainless steels, nickel, platinum, glass and brass. (author)

  7. Secondary beam monitors for the NuMI facility at FNAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, S.; Bishai, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Diwan, M.; Erwin, A.R.; Harris, D.A.; Indurthy, D.; Keisler, R.; Kostin, M.; Lang, M.; MacDonald, J.; Marchionni, A.; Mendoza, S.; Morfin, J.; Naples, D.; Northacker, D.; Pavlovic, Z.; Phelps, L.; Ping, H.; Proga, M.; Vellissaris, C.; Viren, B.; Zwaska, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility is a conventional neutrino beam which produces muon neutrinos by focusing a beam of mesons into a long evacuated decay volume. We have built four arrays of ionization chambers to monitor the position and intensity of the hadron and muon beams associated with neutrino production at locations downstream of the decay volume. This article describes the chambers' construction, calibration, and commissioning in the beam

  8. The Triton: Design concepts and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meholic, Greg; Singer, Michael; Vanryn, Percy; Brown, Rhonda; Tella, Gustavo; Harvey, Bob

    1992-01-01

    During the design of the C & P Aerospace Triton, a few problems were encountered that necessitated changes in the configuration. After the initial concept phase, the aspect ratio was increased from 7 to 7.6 to produce a greater lift to drag ratio (L/D = 13) which satisfied the horsepower requirements (118 hp using the Lycoming O-235 engine). The initial concept had a wing planform area of 134 sq. ft. Detailed wing sizing analysis enlarged the planform area to 150 sq. ft., without changing its layout or location. The most significant changes, however, were made just prior to inboard profile design. The fuselage external diameter was reduced from 54 to 50 inches to reduce drag to meet the desired cruise speed of 120 knots. Also, the nose was extended 6 inches to accommodate landing gear placement. Without the extension, the nosewheel received an unacceptable percentage (25 percent) of the landing weight. The final change in the configuration was made in accordance with the stability and control analysis. In order to reduce the static margin from 20 to 13 percent, the horizontal tail area was reduced from 32.02 to 25.0 sq. ft. The Triton meets all the specifications set forth in the design criteria. If time permitted another iteration of the calculations, two significant changes would be made. The vertical stabilizer area would be reduced to decrease the aircraft lateral stability slope since the current value was too high in relation to the directional stability slope. Also, the aileron size would be decreased to reduce the roll rate below the current 106 deg/second. Doing so would allow greater flap area (increasing CL(sub max)) and thus reduce the overall wing area. C & P would also recalculate the horsepower and drag values to further validate the 120 knot cruising speed.

  9. High resolution line for secondary radioactive beams at the U400M cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodin, A.M.; Sidorchuk, S.I.; Stepantsov, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    For implementation of an experimental program for studying nuclear reactions with radioactive ion beams in the energy domain of 20 through 80 MeV · A the high resolution beam line ACCULINNA was put into commissioning on a primary beam line of the JINR U-400M cyclotron. By means of nuclear fragmentation of the 14 N beam with the energy of 51 MeV · A on the 170 mg/cm 2 carbon target radioactive beams of 6 He, 8 He and 8 B were obtained. Possibilities of further development of the set-up are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Isotope separation of relativistic projectile fragments as well as cross section measurements on 8,9,11Li secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, B.

    1991-06-01

    In the framework of this thesis the method of the 'momentum-loss achromate' was for the first time tested at relativistic energies. This experiment is presented in chapter 2 of the thesis. In a second experiment the method was then used, in order to make secondary beams of 8,9,11 Li available. With these secondary beams cross section measurements were performed, from which beside information on the nuclear radii of these nuclei also further information on the internal structure of the lithium isotopes can be derived. This experiment is described in chapter 3 of the thesis. In the framework of these two experiments for the applied heavy ions energy-loss measurements were performed. The results of these measurements are presented in chapter 4. (orig.) [de

  11. Lise: a recoil spectrometer at GANIL for the production and study of secondary radioactive beams. Present status and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    The doubly achromatic spectrometer LISE, installed at the intermediate-energy heavy-ion facility GANIL is now operating since five years. Essentially, it is composed by two dipole-magnets selecting (in A/Z) and refocusing (achromatically) the projectile-like radioactive fragment-beams emitted at 0 0 . We shall review some of the essential properties of LISE. Some selected examples will be used to demonstrate experimental results which have been obtained so far (discovery of numerous new nuclei up to the drip-lines, half-life measurements, β-γ and delayed-particle spectroscopy, spin-aligned beams, total reaction cross-sections). We shall also discuss several improvements, in particular a cross-field electrostatic/electromagnetic post separator, which are expected to provide in the near future secondary beams of still increased intensity and isotopic purity

  12. The role of Triton surfactant in anisotropic etching of {1 1 0} reflective planes on (1 0 0) silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Drago; Vrtacnik, Danilo; Aljancic, Uros; Mozek, Matej; Amon, Slavko

    2005-06-01

    Etching characteristics and properties of {1 1 0} silicon crystal planes used as 45° optical mirrors for deflecting optical beams from/to optical fibers were investigated. Fiber aligning grooves and passive mirror-like planes were realized by wet micromachining of (1 0 0) silicon in KOH IPA and TMAH IPA systems. Implementation of Triton-x-100 surfactant as an additive to 25% TMAH in anisotropic etching of {1 1 0} silicon passive mirror planes is reported and discussed. It was found that Triton-x-100 contents in the range of 10 200 ppm to the 25% TMAH water etchant significantly increase the anisotropy mostly by decreasing the {1 1 0} etch rate and retaining the {1 0 0} etch rate. It is also shown that {1 1 0} surface roughness is substantially improved compared to two other etching systems. Furthermore, efficient convex corner underetching reduction is demonstrated. The results of optical characterization of passive mirrors with 632 nm incident light show reduced scattering of reflected optical beam due to improved microroughness for mirrors made by TMAH Triton. For the reflection of the optical beam with 1.33 µm and 1.54 µm wavelengths, sputtered layer of gold is used as reflective coating on silicon mirrors thus increasing the reflected optical beam intensity by an additional 8%.

  13. Evidence for the di-triton resonance in 6He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Nakayama, S.

    2002-01-01

    A di-triton cluster state at highly excited energies in 6 He has been investigated via the ( 7 Li, 7 Be) reaction with an incident energy of 65 MeV/A. Decay charged-particles from excited states in 6 He were measured in coincidence with 7 Be ejectiles using solid-state detectors. A prominent bump was observed at E x =18 MeV in the binary triton decay channel. The branching ratio of the binary triton decay channel from this bump was 100% based on the spectrum decomposition analysis. (author)

  14. A regime showing anomalous triton burnup in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.; Pillon, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of triton burnup made at JET in 1989 are in good agreement with a simple classical model of the triton slowing down, for the majority of discharges. For discharges with a long slowing down time (greater than 2 seconds), a much reduced burnup has been observed, suggesting that the tritons undergo diffusion with a diffusion constant of 0.10 m 2 s -1 . Also, the experimental 14 MeV neutron yield is 30% lower than expected for Beryllium limiter discharges. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  15. Measurement and interpretation of triton burnup in Jet deuterium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Kallne, J.; Sadler, G.; van Belle, P.; Gorini, G.; Conroy, S.; Verschuur, K.

    1989-01-01

    The confinement and slowing down of fast tritons in JET deuterium plasmas is investigated. The ratio of 14 MeV and 2.5 MeV neutron production rates is measured. This ratio is equal to the fraction of tritons which burnup. The 2.5 MeV neutron emission is obtained from a set of fission chambers for which the calibration uncertainty is about 10%. The absolute calibration of the activation technique is calculated. The comparison between experimental and theoretical burnup ratios, for JET 1987 data, is shown. The range of conditions over which measurements of triton burnup fraction were obtained, is illustrated

  16. The cedar counters for particle identification in the SPS secondary beams: A description and an operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovet, C.; Maleyran, R.; Piemontese, L.; Placci, A.; Placidi, M.

    1982-01-01

    The Cerenkov Differential counter with Achromatic Ring Focus (Cedar) has been designed and a number built at Cern for the identification (and selection) of particles in the secondary beams of a high-energy accelerator. Cedar-N can separate kaons from pions up to 300 GeV/c but can detect protons only down to 60 GeV/c; Cedar-W can flag protons of 12 GeV/c and separate kaons from pions up to 150 GeV/c. After a brief account of the relevant physics of the Cerenkov effect, this report describes Cedars with emphasis on those characteristics and construction features that are of interest to the user. Details are given of the high-precision optical system, the mechanical construction to achieve uniform temperature (0.1 K) and rigidity, and the gas handling and measurement. The layout of the Cedars in the secondary beams of the Cern Super Proton Synchrotron is described. The signals provided to the user are listed and explained, together with the programs for on-line control of the counters. Details are given of the performances attained, together with various hints and suggestions on the procedure to follow in order to set-up, tune, and operate a Cedar. The dependence of the performance on beam optics is stressed. (orig.)

  17. Imaging and characterization of primary and secondary radiation in ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granja, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.granja@utef.cvut.cz; Opalka, Lukas [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic); Martisikova, Maria; Gwosch, Klaus [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Jakubek, Jan [Advacam, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-07-07

    Imaging in ion beam therapy is an essential and increasingly significant tool for treatment planning and radiation and dose deposition verification. Efforts aim at providing precise radiation field characterization and online monitoring of radiation dose distribution. A review is given of the research and methodology of quantum-imaging, composition, spectral and directional characterization of the mixed-radiation fields in proton and light ion beam therapy developed by the IEAP CTU Prague and HIT Heidelberg group. Results include non-invasive imaging of dose deposition and primary beam online monitoring.

  18. Imaging and characterization of primary and secondary radiation in ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granja, Carlos; Opalka, Lukas; Martisikova, Maria; Gwosch, Klaus; Jakubek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Imaging in ion beam therapy is an essential and increasingly significant tool for treatment planning and radiation and dose deposition verification. Efforts aim at providing precise radiation field characterization and online monitoring of radiation dose distribution. A review is given of the research and methodology of quantum-imaging, composition, spectral and directional characterization of the mixed-radiation fields in proton and light ion beam therapy developed by the IEAP CTU Prague and HIT Heidelberg group. Results include non-invasive imaging of dose deposition and primary beam online monitoring.

  19. Simulation of the Production of Secondary Particles from a Neutron Beam on Polyethylene Targets using the GEANT4 Simulation Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, C

    2003-01-01

    In view of a beam test of RadFET semiconductor detectors and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors as on-line dosimeters for radiation monitoring purposes in the caverns of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments, a simulation on the production of secondary particles from a neutron beam on a polyethylene target was carried out. We describe the yield of recoil protons, scattered neutrons as well as electrons, positrons and photons, when neutrons of an average energy of 20 MeV hit polyethylene targets of several thicknesses. The simulation was carried out using the latest release 5.2 of the GEANT4 detector description and simulation tool, including advanced hadron interaction models.

  20. The role of charged secondaries from nonelastic nuclear interactions by therapy proton beams in a PERSPEX target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesa, Joel; Gomes, Viviam da Silva; Evseev, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    The dose distribution delivered in charged particle therapy is due to both primary and secondary particles. The inclusion of the proton induced non-elastic nuclear reactions in the absorbed dose calculations carried out in proton-therapy, can modify the absorbed dose in two ways: by changing the energy spectrum as consequence of the primary proton fluence decreasing, and by giving rise to secondary products (i.e. p, n, α, d, t, 3 He) which contribute to the absorbed energy, thus affecting the irradiated target, as well as critical organs outside the target volume, besides enhancing the biological dose due to the high LET values. In this preliminary work, the dose distributions from primary and secondary charged particles for a pencil beam of protons with energies between 100 and 200 MeV in a PERSPEX (PMMA, Polymethyl Methacrylate, Lucite or Plexiglass) target was studied theoretically in the continuous-slowing-down-approximation (CSDA) considering secondary particles energy spectra. In this sense, we have used a quite sophisticate multicollisional Monte Carlo code (MCMC) for pre-equilibrium emission, plus de-excitation of residual nucleus by fragmentation process. (author)

  1. Estimate of the shielding effect on secondary cancer risk due to cone-beam CT in image-guided radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jiwon; Baek, Taeseong; Yoon, Myonggeun [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Donghyun [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    This study evaluated the effect of a simple shielding method using a thin lead sheet on the imaging dose caused by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Reduction of secondary doses from CBCT was measured using a radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeter (RPLGD) placed inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The entire body, except for the region scanned by using CBCT, was shielded by wrapping it with a 2-mm lead sheet. Changes in secondary cancer risk due to shielding were calculated using BEIR VII models. Doses to out-of-field organs for head-and-neck, chest, and pelvis scans were decreased 15 ∼ 100%, 23 ∼ 90%, and 23 ∼ 98%, respectively, and the average reductions in lifetime secondary cancer risk due to the 2-mm lead shielding were 1.6, 11.5, and 12.7 persons per 100,000, respectively. These findings suggest that a simple, thin-lead-sheet-based shielding method can effectively decrease secondary doses to out-of-field regions for CBCT, which reduces the lifetime cancer risk on average by 9 per 100,000 patients.

  2. CATS, a low pressure multiwire proportional chamber for secondary beam tracking at GANIL

    CERN Document Server

    Ottini-Hustache, S; Auger, F; Musumarra, A; Alamanos, N; Cahan, B; Gillibert, A; Lagoyannis, A; Maillard, O; Pollacco, E; Sida, J L; Riallot, M

    1999-01-01

    A beam detector system, CATS (Chambre A Trajectoires de Saclay), was designed to provide event-by-event particle tracking in experiments with radioactive beams at GANIL. It consists of two low pressure multiwire proportional chambers with one plane of anode wires placed between two cathode planes (active area: 70x70 mm sup 2), respectively segmented into 28 vertical or horizontal strips (2.54 mm wide). The anode wires deliver a time signal allowing a time of flight measurement with an accuracy between 440 ps and 1.2 ns, depending on the energy loss of incident particles in the detector. The cathode strips are individually read out and the position of incoming particles is reconstructed using a charge centroid finding algorithm. A spatial resolution of 400 mu m (700 mu m) was achieved during in beam experiment, with a counting rate of 1.5x10 sup 5 (10 sup 6) particles per second. (author)

  3. Implementation of a secondary-ion tritium beam by means of the associated particle technique and its test on a gold target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policroniades, R.; Fernández-Arnáiz, J.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, P.; Méndez, B. [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. México-Toluca S/N, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Chávez, E.; Ortíz-Salazar, M.E.; Huerta, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 20-364, México, D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Varela-González, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 20-364, México, D.F. 01000 (Mexico)

    2014-05-21

    In this work we present the implementation and characterization of a (secondary ion) tritium beam generated through the D(d,t)p reaction, at deuteron energies of 2.0 and 1.88 MeV, tagging the tritium ions with the associated particle technique. In order to prove its utility as a projectile for scientific applications, this beam was made to impinge on a thin gold target to observe expected elastic scattering events. - Highlights: • A new secondary ion tritium beam obtained through the D(d,t)3He reaction. • Tritium beam tagging by the associated particle technique. • A low energy Tritium beam without radiation contamination of equipment. • Tritium elastic scattering on gold.

  4. Implementation of a secondary-ion tritium beam by means of the associated particle technique and its test on a gold target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policroniades, R.; Fernández-Arnáiz, J.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, P.; Méndez, B.; Chávez, E.; Ortíz-Salazar, M.E.; Huerta, A.; Varela-González, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the implementation and characterization of a (secondary ion) tritium beam generated through the D(d,t)p reaction, at deuteron energies of 2.0 and 1.88 MeV, tagging the tritium ions with the associated particle technique. In order to prove its utility as a projectile for scientific applications, this beam was made to impinge on a thin gold target to observe expected elastic scattering events. - Highlights: • A new secondary ion tritium beam obtained through the D(d,t)3He reaction. • Tritium beam tagging by the associated particle technique. • A low energy Tritium beam without radiation contamination of equipment. • Tritium elastic scattering on gold

  5. Experimental Observations of In-Situ Secondary Electron Yield Reduction in the PEP-II Particle Accelerator Beam Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders (LC) such as ILC and CLIC. To test a series of promising possible electron cloud mitigation techniques as surface coatings and grooves, in the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed several test vacuum chambers including (i) a special chamber to monitor the variation of the secondary electron yield of technical surface materials and coatings under the effect of ion, electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line; (ii) chambers with grooves in a straight magnetic-free section; and (iii) coated chambers in a dedicated newly installed 4-magnet chicane to study mitigations in a magnetic field region. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R and D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the LC damping ring, focusing on the first experimental area and on results of the reduction of the secondary electron yield due to in situ conditioning.

  6. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements and Groove Chambers Tests in the PEP-II Beam Line Straights Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M

    2008-01-01

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders such as ILC and CLIC [1, 2]. In the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed vacuum chambers with rectangular grooves in a straight magnetic-free section to test this promising possible electron cloud mitigation technique. We have also installed a special chamber to monitor the secondary electron yield of TiN and TiZrV (NEG) coating, Copper, Stainless Steel and Aluminum under the effect of electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R and D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the ILC damping ring, the latest results on in situ secondary electron yield conditioning and recent update on the groove tests in PEP-II

  7. Electron-beam-induced-current and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast with aberration-corrected electron probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Myung-Geun, E-mail: mghan@bnl.gov [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Garlow, Joseph A. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Marshall, Matthew S.J.; Tiano, Amanda L. [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Wong, Stanislaus S. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Cheong, Sang-Wook [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H. [Department of Applied Physics and Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) are demonstrated in STEM mode combined with in situ electrical biasing in a TEM. • Electrostatic potential maps in ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC data. • Simultaneous EBIC and active SE-VC performed with atomic resolution STEM are demonstrated. - Abstract: The ability to map out electrostatic potentials in materials is critical for the development and the design of nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices in modern industry. Electron holography has been an important tool for revealing electric and magnetic field distributions in microelectronics and magnetic-based memory devices, however, its utility is hindered by several practical constraints, such as charging artifacts and limitations in sensitivity and in field of view. In this article, we report electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) with an aberration-corrected electron probe in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), as complementary techniques to electron holography, to measure electric fields and surface potentials, respectively. These two techniques were applied to ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals. Electrostatic potential maps obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC to show that these techniques can be used as a complementary approach to validate quantitative results obtained from electron holography analysis.

  8. Individual analysis of nonmetallic Inclusions in Steel by using the gallium focused ion beam secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyasu, Bunbunoshin; Inami, Akihiro; Abe, Masakazu; Nihei, Yoshimasa.

    1995-01-01

    Nonmetallic inclusions frequently exert a lot of unfavorable influences on the quality of steel. The size of nonmetallic inclusions in current steel products is less than a few μm in diameter. It is desirable to make clear the origin and generation process of such small particles of nonmetallic inclusion. In order to measure the shape, size, composition and inner elemental distribution, development of characterization methods for each inclusion particle is required. By employing a gallium focused ion beam (FIB) as a primary ion beam of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), the particle analysis with high spatial resolution is easily achieved. In this paper, we present the novel individual analysis of nonmetallic inclusions in steel by gallium FIB SIMS. We analyzed in two ways the nonmetallic inclusion particles segregated by electron beam melting. (1) By cross-sectioning of the particle using a gallium FIB, elemental maps of cross-section were obtained. The elements were distributed inhomogeneously on the cross-section. (2) We carried out the compositional analysis for several particles individually. Ten particles were analyzed by the shave-off analysis and the multivariate cluster analysis. Based on the composition of each particle, the inclusions were classified into six types. (author)

  9. Triton burnup measurements in KSTAR using a neutron activation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jungmin; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.k; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, MunSeong; Rhee, T.; Kim, Junghee [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Young [Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-shi (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki-shi (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Measurements of the time-integrated triton burnup for deuterium plasma in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) have been performed following the simultaneous detection of the d-d and d-t neutrons. The d-d neutrons were measured using a {sup 3}He proportional counter, fission chamber, and activated indium sample, whereas the d-t neutrons were detected using activated silicon and copper samples. The triton burnup ratio from KSTAR discharges is found to be in the range 0.01%–0.50% depending on the plasma conditions. The measured burnup ratio is compared with the prompt loss fraction of tritons calculated with the Lorentz orbit code and the classical slowing-down time. The burnup ratio is found to increase as plasma current and classical slowing-down time increase.

  10. A thermal model for the seasonal nitrogen cycle on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Candice J.; Paige, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The seasonal N2-cycle model presently used to characterize such observed phenomena on Triton as atmospheric pressure and surface albedo features at the time of the Voyager encounter incorporates diurnal and seasonal subsurface heat conduction, and can account for the heat capacity of N2 frost deposits. The results obtained by this model differ from those of previous studies in that they do not predict the seasonal freezing-out of the Triton atmosphere; even for a wide range of input parameters, the bright southern polar cap is seen as rather unlikely to be N2. The results support the microphysical arguments for the presence of either dark or smooth translucent N2 frosts on the Triton surface.

  11. Time resolved measurements of triton burnup in JET plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.; Huxtable, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Triton production from one branch of the deuteron-deuteron fusion reaction is routinely measured at 6 ms time intervals in JET plasma discharges by recording the 2.5 MeV neutrons produced in the other branch using a set of calibrated fission chambers. The burnup of the tritons is measured by detecting the 14 MeV t-d neutrons with a 0.2 cm 3 Si(Li) diode. The 2.5 MeV neutron flux can be used in a simple time dependent calculation based on classical slowing-down theory to predict the 14 MeV neutron flux. The measured flux and the triton slowing-down time are systematically lower than the values estimated from the key plasma parameters but the differences are within the experimental errors. (author). 19 refs, 8 figs

  12. SU-F-J-202: Secondary Radiation Measurements for Charged Particle Therapy Monitoring: Fragmentation of Therapeutic He, C and O Ion Beams Impinging On a PMMA Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, A; Mancini-Terracciano, C; Paramatti, R; Pinci, D; Russomando, A; Voena, C [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Roma, Rome, Rome (Italy); Battistoni, G; Muraro, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Milano, Milano, Milano (Italy); Collamati, F; Faccini, R; Camillocci, E Solfaroli [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Roma, Italy, Dipartiment, Rome, Rome (Italy); Collini, F [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Pisa, Pisa, Pisa (Italy); De Lucia, E; Piersanti, L; Toppi, M [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (rome), Rome (Italy); Frallicciardi, P [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Rome, Rome (Italy); Marafini, M [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Roma, Museo Storico dell, Rome, Rome (Italy); Patera, V; Sciubba, A; Traini, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Sc, Rome, Rome (Italy); and others

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In Charged Particle Therapy (CPT), besides protons, there has been recently a growing interest in 4He, 12C and 16O beams. The secondary radiation produced in the interaction of those beams with a patient could be potentially used for on-line monitoring of range uncertainties in order to fully exploit the advantages of those light ions resulting from increased Radio Biological Effectiveness, reduced multiple scattering and Oxygen Enhancement Ratio. The study and precise characterization of secondary radiation (beta+, prompt gamma, charged fragments) is the cornerstone of any R&D activity aiming for online monitoring development and purpose of the analysis presented here. Methods: We present the measurements of the secondary radiation generated by He, C and O beams impinging on a beam stopping PMMA target. The data has been collected at the Heidelberg Ionbeam Therapy center (HIT), where several millions of collisions were recorded at different energies, relevant for therapeutical applications. Results: The experimental setup, as well as the analysis strategies will be reviewed. The detected particle fluxes as a function of the primary beam energy and the emission angle with respect to the beam direction will be presented and compared to the results of other available measurements. In addition, the energy spectra and emission shapes of charged secondary particles will be shown and discussed in the context of the primary beam range monitoring technique that is being developed by the ARPG collaboration, within the INSIDE project funded by the Italian research ministry. The implications for dose monitoring applications will be discussed, in the context of the current (or planned) state-of- the-art detector solutions. Conclusion: The characterization of the radiation produced by 12C, 4He and 16O beams fully supports the feasibility of on-line range monitoring in the clinical practice of CPT by means of secondary particles detection.

  13. SU-F-J-202: Secondary Radiation Measurements for Charged Particle Therapy Monitoring: Fragmentation of Therapeutic He, C and O Ion Beams Impinging On a PMMA Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, A; Mancini-Terracciano, C; Paramatti, R; Pinci, D; Russomando, A; Voena, C; Battistoni, G; Muraro, S; Collamati, F; Faccini, R; Camillocci, E Solfaroli; Collini, F; De Lucia, E; Piersanti, L; Toppi, M; Frallicciardi, P; Marafini, M; Patera, V; Sciubba, A; Traini, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In Charged Particle Therapy (CPT), besides protons, there has been recently a growing interest in 4He, 12C and 16O beams. The secondary radiation produced in the interaction of those beams with a patient could be potentially used for on-line monitoring of range uncertainties in order to fully exploit the advantages of those light ions resulting from increased Radio Biological Effectiveness, reduced multiple scattering and Oxygen Enhancement Ratio. The study and precise characterization of secondary radiation (beta+, prompt gamma, charged fragments) is the cornerstone of any R&D activity aiming for online monitoring development and purpose of the analysis presented here. Methods: We present the measurements of the secondary radiation generated by He, C and O beams impinging on a beam stopping PMMA target. The data has been collected at the Heidelberg Ionbeam Therapy center (HIT), where several millions of collisions were recorded at different energies, relevant for therapeutical applications. Results: The experimental setup, as well as the analysis strategies will be reviewed. The detected particle fluxes as a function of the primary beam energy and the emission angle with respect to the beam direction will be presented and compared to the results of other available measurements. In addition, the energy spectra and emission shapes of charged secondary particles will be shown and discussed in the context of the primary beam range monitoring technique that is being developed by the ARPG collaboration, within the INSIDE project funded by the Italian research ministry. The implications for dose monitoring applications will be discussed, in the context of the current (or planned) state-of- the-art detector solutions. Conclusion: The characterization of the radiation produced by 12C, 4He and 16O beams fully supports the feasibility of on-line range monitoring in the clinical practice of CPT by means of secondary particles detection.

  14. Diagnostic performance of cone-beam computed tomography on detection of mechanically-created artificial secondary caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charuakkra, Arnon; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Pongsirwet, Surawut; Verochana, Karune; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and bitewing images in detection of secondary caries. One hundred and twenty proximal slots of Class II cavities were randomly prepared on human premolar and molar teeth, and restored with amalgam (n=60) and composite resin (n=60). Then, artificial secondary caries lesions were randomly created using round steel No. 4 bur. The teeth were radiographed with a conventional bitewing technique and two CBCT systems; Pax-500ECT and Promax 3D. All images were evaluated by five observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Significant difference was tested using the Friedman test (p value<0.05). The mean Az values for bitewing, Pax-500ECT, and Promax 3D imaging systems were 0.882, 0.995, and 0.978, respectively. Significant differences were found between the two CBCT systems and film (p=0.007). For CBCT systems, the axial plane showed the greatest Az value. Based on the design of this study, CBCT images were better than bitewing radiographs in detection of secondary caries.

  15. Diagnostic performance of cone-beam computed tomography on detection of mechanically-created artificial secondary caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charuakkra, Arnon; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Pongsirwet, Surawut; Verochana, Karune; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and bitewing images in detection of secondary caries. One hundred and twenty proximal slots of Class II cavities were randomly prepared on human premolar and molar teeth, and restored with amalgam (n=60) and composite resin (n=60). Then, artificial secondary caries lesions were randomly created using round steel No. 4 bur. The teeth were radiographed with a conventional bitewing technique and two CBCT systems; Pax-500ECT and Promax 3D. All images were evaluated by five observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Significant difference was tested using the Friedman test (p value<0.05). The mean Az values for bitewing, Pax-500ECT, and Promax 3D imaging systems were 0.882, 0.995, and 0.978, respectively. Significant differences were found between the two CBCT systems and film (p=0.007). For CBCT systems, the axial plane showed the greatest Az value. Based on the design of this study, CBCT images were better than bitewing radiographs in detection of secondary caries.

  16. Influence of starvation, triton WR-1339 and [131I]-human serum albumin on rat liver lysosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harikumar, P.; Ninjoor, V.

    1986-01-01

    The response of rat liver lysosomes to starvation and administration of lysosomotropic agents viz. Triton WR-1339 and [ 131 I]-human serum albumin, was assessed in terms of their distribution pattern after isopycnic sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Starvation induced changes in lysosomes appeared to be similar to that produced by the detergent uptake. Both the treatments caused a distinct decline in the equilibration densities of the organelles. On the other hand, injected labelled protein failed to comigrate with the lysosomal markers in starved as well as Triton treated rats and conspicuously remained in a region of high specific gravity in the gradient. These findings indicate retarded fusion between secondary lysosomes and [ 131 I]-human serum albumin containing phagosomes in the livers of rats subjected to starvation or detergent treatment. (author)

  17. Use of resistant mutants to study the interaction of triton X-100 with Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Raychaudhuri, D; Chatterjee, A N

    1985-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus mutants resistant to the nonionic detergent Triton X-100, isolated from the wild-type strain H and the autolysin-deficient strain RUS3, could grow and divide in broth containing 5% (vol/vol) Triton X-100, while growth of the parental strains was markedly inhibited above the critical micellar concentration (0.02%) of the detergent. Growth-inhibitory concentrations of Triton X-100 killed wild-type cells without demonstrable cellular lysis. Triton X-100 stimulated autolysin...

  18. Time-resolved triton burnup measurement using the scintillating fiber detector in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Nishitani, T.; Murakami, S.; Seki, R.; Nakata, M.; Takada, E.; Kawase, H.; Pu, N.; LHD Experiment Group

    2018-03-01

    Time-resolved measurement of triton burnup is performed with a scintillating fiber detector system in the deuterium operation of the large helical device. The scintillating fiber detector system is composed of the detector head consisting of 109 scintillating fibers having a diameter of 1 mm and a length of 100 mm embedded in the aluminum substrate, the magnetic registrant photomultiplier tube, and the data acquisition system equipped with 1 GHz sampling rate analogies to digital converter and the field programmable gate array. The discrimination level of 150 mV was set to extract the pulse signal induced by 14 MeV neutrons according to the pulse height spectra obtained in the experiment. The decay time of 14 MeV neutron emission rate after neutral beam is turned off measured by the scintillating fiber detector. The decay time is consistent with the decay time of total neutron emission rate corresponding to the 14 MeV neutrons measured by the neutron flux monitor as expected. Evaluation of the diffusion coefficient is conducted using a simple classical slowing-down model FBURN code. It is found that the diffusion coefficient of triton is evaluated to be less than 0.2 m2 s-1.

  19. A convenient analytical form for the triton wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduk, C.; Green, A.M.; Sainio, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The triton wave function obtained by solving the Faddeev equations with the Reid soft core potential is parametrized in a symmetrized cluster form. As a test the 3 He charge form factor is calculated for the exact and the parametrized wave functions and reasonable agreement between the two is found. (author)

  20. New Concepts in FFAG Design for Secondary Beam Facilities and Other Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Fixed Field Alternating Gradient accelerators offer much higher acceptances and repetition rates - and therefore higher beam intensities - than synchrotrons, at the cost of more complicated magnet and rf cavity designs. Perhaps because of the difficulty and expense anticipated, early studies never progressed beyond the stage of successful electron models, but in recent years, with improvements in magnet and rf design technology, FFAGs have become the focus of renewed attention. Two proton machines have now been built, and three more, plus a muon phase rotator, are under construction. In addition, more than 20 designs are under study for the acceleration of protons, heavy ions, electrons and muons, with applications as diverse as treating cancer, irradiating materials, driving subcritical reactors, boosting high-energy proton intensity, and producing neutrinos. Moreover, it has become apparent that FFAG designs need not be restricted to the traditional 'scaling' approach, in which the orbit shape, optics and t...

  1. Secondary ion emission from cleaned surfaces bombarded by 100 MeV accelerator beams at the GSI Darmstadt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wien, K.; Becker, O.; Guthier, W.; Knippelberg, W.; Koczon, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1.4 MeV/n beam facility for the UNILAC/GSI has been used to study secondary ion emission from surfaces cleaned under UHV conditions by ion etching or cleaving of crystals. The desorption phenomena observed by means of TOF mass spectrometry can be classified as follows: (1) Clean metal surfaces emit metal ions being ejected by atomic collisions cascades. Electronic excitation of surface states seems to support ionization. (2) The desorption of contaminants adsorbed at the metal surface is strongly correlated with the electronic energy loss of the projectiles - even, if the content of impurities is very low. (3) Ion formation at the epitaxial surface of fluoride crystals as CaF 2 , MgF 2 and NaF is initiated by the electronic excitation of the crystal. At high beam energies the mass spectrum is dominated by a series of cluster ions. These cluster ions disappear below a certain energy deposit threshold, whereas small atomic ions are observed over the whole energy range

  2. Status report of the Triton/Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinks, U.

    1988-01-01

    At the Accelerator Laboratory of the Universities of Munich a booster for the existing MP-tandem is under construction. The Tritron project was finally funded in January this year. The Tritron is a cyclotron with separated orbits with both the magnets and cavities superconducting. It will increase the ion energies by a factor of 4.9, so a 12 C 6+ -beam will have a maximum energy of 21 MeV/u e.g. The cryostat has a diameter of 3.6 m. The beam is injected at a radius r 1 = 66 cm and extracted after almost 20 turns at r 2 = 145 cm. The turn separation is δR = 4 cm. The bending is made by 12 flat magnet sectors, each consisting of 20 magnetic channels of window frame type. In each channel the magnetic field (∼ 1.4 T) is adjustable individually, so that the beam always can be guided along the spiral orbit. The gradient is alternating from one sector to the next resulting in strong focusing in both transversal directions. In each second intermediate gap a wedge-shaped accelerating cavity of the reentrant type is installed for the 20 parallel beams. The radial cavity length is 1.2 m, the outside width 0.7 m. The radial length of the accelerating lips is 0.9 m, the gap width at injection radius 6 cm, at extraction radius 13 cm. The rf-frequency is ∼ 170 MHz, the maximum voltage at injection U(r 1 ) ≅ 270 kV, at extraction U(r 2 ) ≅ 540 kV per cavity. If the bunchers cross the cavity at a rf-phase with increasing accelerating voltage, they are focused longitudinally, resulting in ∼ 0.2 synchrotron oscillations per turn. The longitudinal focusing causes the rf-phase to change automatically corresponding to the necessary energy gain and to the radial characteristic of the voltage amplitude along the gap. 2 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  3. A TENTATIVE IDENTIFICATION OF HCN ICE ON TRITON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgdorf, M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Sekiguchi, T.; Nakamura, R.; Orton, G.; Quirico, E.; Schmitt, B.

    2010-01-01

    Spectra of Triton between 1.8 and 5.5 μm, obtained in 2007 May and 2009 November, have been analyzed to determine the global surface composition. The spectra were acquired with the grism and the prism of the Infrared Camera on board AKARI with spectral resolutions of 135 and 22, respectively. The data from 4 to 5 μm are shown in this Letter and compared to the spectra of N 2 , CO, and CO 2 , i.e., all the known ices on this moon that have distinct bands in this previously unexplored wavelength range. We report the detection of a 4σ absorption band at 4.76 μm (2101 cm -1 ), which we attribute tentatively to the presence of solid HCN. This is the sixth ice to be identified on Triton and an expected component of its surface because it is a precipitating photochemical product of Triton's thin N 2 and CH 4 atmosphere. It is also formed directly by irradiation of mixtures of N 2 and CH 4 ices. Here we consider only pure HCN, although it might be dissolved in N 2 on the surface of Triton because of the evaporation and recondensation of N 2 over its seasonal cycle. The AKARI spectrum of Triton also covers the wavelengths of the fundamental (1-0) band of β-phase N 2 ice (4.296 μm, 2328 cm -1 ), which has never been detected in an astronomical body before, and whose presence is consistent with the overtone (2-0) band previously reported. Fundamental bands of CO and CO 2 ices are also present.

  4. An assessment of the secondary neutron dose in the passive scattering proton beam facility of the national cancer center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Eun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Gyuseong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Byeong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the additional neutron effective dose during passive scattering proton therapy. Monte Carlo code (Monte Carlo N-Particle 6) simulation was conducted based on a precise modeling of the National Cancer Center's proton therapy facility. A three-dimensional neutron effective dose profile of the interior of the treatment room was acquired via a computer simulation of the 217.8-MeV proton beam. Measurements were taken with a 3He neutron detector to support the simulation results, which were lower than the simulation results by 16% on average. The secondary photon dose was about 0.8% of the neutron dose. The dominant neutron source was deduced based on flux calculation. The secondary neutron effective dose per proton absorbed dose ranged from 4.942 ± 0.031 mSv/Gy at the end of the field to 0.324 ± 0.006 mSv/Gy at 150 cm in axial distance.

  5. Measurements of secondary electron cross sections by the pulsed electron beam time-of-flight method. I. Molecular nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goruganthu, R.R.; Wilson, W.G.; Bonham, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The secondary electron cross sections for gaseous molecular nitrogen are reported at ejection angles of 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135 and 150 0 , for the energy range 1.5 eV to 20 eV and incident electron energy of 1 keV. The pulsed electron beam time-of-flight methd was employed. The results were placed on an absolute scale by normalization to the elastic scattering. They were compared, where possible, with those reported by Opal, Beaty, and Peterson (OBP). The agreement is somewhat better when the OBP data are divided by 0.53 + 0.47 sintheta as suggested by Rudd and DuBois. Fits of our data by Legendre-polynomial expansions are used to estimate the low-energy portion of the cross-section, dsigma/dE. This work suggests that existing experimental cross sections for secondary electron ejection as a function of angle and ejected energy may be no better known than +-40%, especially in the low energy region. 7 references, 14 figures, 2 tables

  6. SLIM (secondary emission monitor for low interception monitoring) an innovative non-destructive beam monitor for the extraction lines of a hadrontherapy centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, P.N.; Holzwarth, U.; Abbas, K.

    2005-01-01

    Real time monitoring of hadron therapy beam intensity and profile is a critical issue for the optimisation of dose delivery to carcinogenic tissue, patient safety and operation of the accelerator complex. For this purpose an innovative beam monitor, SLIM (Secondary electron emission for Low Interception Monitoring) is being developed in the framework of the EC-funded SUCIMA (Silicon Ultra-fast Cameras for electrons and gamma sources In Medical Application) project. The detector system is based on the secondary emission of electrons by a non-perturbative, sub-micron thick Al foil placed directly in the extracted beam path. The secondary electrons, accelerated by an electrostatic focusing system, are detected by a monolithic silicon position-sensitive sensor, which provides the beam intensity and its position with a precision of 1 mm at 10 kHz frame rate. The results of the laboratory tests of the first system prototype with thermoionic electrons emitted from a hot Tungsten wire are presented together with the measurements performed on a low intensity hadron beam at the Cyclotron of the Joint Research Centre in Ispra. (author)

  7. Is low-energy-ion bombardment generated X-ray emission a secondary mutational source to ion-beam-induced genetic mutation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Thopan, P.; Yaopromsiri, C. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► Detected X-ray emission from metal, plastic and biological samples. ► Characteristic X-ray emission was detected from metal but not from non-metals. ► Low-energy ion bombarded bacteria held in different sample holders. ► Bacteria held in metal holder had higher mutation rate than in plastic holder. ► Ion-beam-induced X-ray from biological sample is not a basic mutation source. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam biotechnology has achieved tremendous successes in inducing crop mutation and gene transfer. However, mechanisms involved in the related processes are not yet well understood. In ion-beam-induced mutation, ion-bombardment-produced X-ray has been proposed to be one of the secondary mutation sources, but the speculation has not yet been experimentally tested. We carried out this investigation to test whether the low-energy ion-beam-produced X-ray was a source of ion-beam-induced mutation. In the investigation, X-ray emission from 29-keV nitrogen- or argon- ion beam bombarded bacterial Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells held in a metal or plastic sample holder was in situ detected using a highly sensitive X-ray detector. The ion beam bombarded bacterial cells held in different material holders were observed for mutation induction. The results led to a conclusion that secondary X-ray emitted from ion-beam-bombarded biological living materials themselves was not a, or at least a negligible, mutational source, but the ion-beam-induced X-ray emission from the metal that made the sample holder could be a source of mutation.

  8. Is low-energy-ion bombardment generated X-ray emission a secondary mutational source to ion-beam-induced genetic mutation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongkumkoon, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Thopan, P.; Yaopromsiri, C.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Detected X-ray emission from metal, plastic and biological samples. ► Characteristic X-ray emission was detected from metal but not from non-metals. ► Low-energy ion bombarded bacteria held in different sample holders. ► Bacteria held in metal holder had higher mutation rate than in plastic holder. ► Ion-beam-induced X-ray from biological sample is not a basic mutation source. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam biotechnology has achieved tremendous successes in inducing crop mutation and gene transfer. However, mechanisms involved in the related processes are not yet well understood. In ion-beam-induced mutation, ion-bombardment-produced X-ray has been proposed to be one of the secondary mutation sources, but the speculation has not yet been experimentally tested. We carried out this investigation to test whether the low-energy ion-beam-produced X-ray was a source of ion-beam-induced mutation. In the investigation, X-ray emission from 29-keV nitrogen- or argon- ion beam bombarded bacterial Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells held in a metal or plastic sample holder was in situ detected using a highly sensitive X-ray detector. The ion beam bombarded bacterial cells held in different material holders were observed for mutation induction. The results led to a conclusion that secondary X-ray emitted from ion-beam-bombarded biological living materials themselves was not a, or at least a negligible, mutational source, but the ion-beam-induced X-ray emission from the metal that made the sample holder could be a source of mutation

  9. Viewpoint: Central adjudication of myocardial infarction in outcome-driven clinical trials--common patterns in TRITON, RECORD, and PLATO?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebruany, Victor L; Atar, Dan

    2012-09-01

    Central adjudication in randomised controlled outcome-driven trials represents a traditional approach to maintain data integrity by applying uniformed rules for assessment of clinical events. It was the purpose of this investigation to determine the patterns of myocardial infarction (MI) adjudication in the TRITON, RECORD, and PLATO trials. We were matching centrally-adjudicated MI's (CAMI's) from the official trial publication with the site-reported MI (SRMI's) count from the Food and Drug Administration's secondary analyses for the investigational compounds prasugrel (TRITON), rosiglitazone (RECORD), and ticagrelor (PLATO). CAMI numbers showed a remarkable discrepancy to SRMI's by more than a doubling of the difference: from 72 to 145 events in TRITON favoring prasugrel (from a hazard ratio [HR]=0.76, p=0.08; to a HR=0.76, p<0.001), and from 44 to 89 events in favour of ticagrelor in PLATO (from a HR=0.94, p=0.095; to a HR=0.84, p<0.001). In contrast, in the RECORD trial, the CAMI count was less than the SRMI count (from 24 to 8 events, from a HR=1.42, p=0.93; to a HR=1.14, p=0.96), in this case diminishing cardiovascular hazards in favour of rosiglitazone. In conclusion, central adjudication in the TRITON, the RECORD, and the PLATO trial turned out to have a critical impact on study outcomes. Trial publications should in the future include site-reported major efficacy and safety endpoints to preserve data integrity. The regulatory authorities should consider independent audits when there is a major disagreement between centrally adjudicated and site reported events influencing the results of a major clinical trial.

  10. Simulation of triton burn-up in JET plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughlin, M J; Balet, B; Jarvis, O N; Stubberfield, P M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents the first triton burn-up calculations for JET plasmas using the transport code TRANSP. Four hot ion H-mode deuterium plasmas are studied. For these discharges, the 2.5 MeV emission rises rapidly and then collapses abruptly. This phenomenon is not fully understood but in each case the collapse phase is associated with a large impurity influx known as the ``carbon bloom``. The peak 14 MeV emission occurs at this time, somewhat later than that of the 2.5 MeV neutron peak. The present results give a clear indication that there are no significant departures from classical slowing down and spatial diffusion for tritons in JET plasmas. (authors). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A study of triton radiative capture in some light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, Michel.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this work is to complete the knowledge of the nucleon Giant Dipole Resonance (G.D.R.) by means of the study of radiative capture of complex particles: tritons. The following reactions were studied: 12 C(t,γ 0 ) 15 N, 16 O(t,γ) 19 F, 20 Ne(t,γ) 23 Na, 24 Mg(t,γ 0 ) 27 Al, 24 Mg(t,γ 1 ) 27 Al*, 23 Na(t,γ 0 ) 26 Mg, 23 Na(t,γ) 26 Mg* between between 1.5 and 3.5MeV incident triton energy. The detector was a 25x30cm NaI(Tl) crystal [fr

  12. Pulse radiolysis of Triton X-100 aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowski, J.; Mayer, J.

    1990-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis of deaerated aqueous solutions of 4 · 10 -5 -2.4 · 10 -3 mol · dm -3 Triton X-100 gives rise to a transient species originating from the reactions of OH radicals and H atoms. The rate constants of these reactions were found to be 8.8 · 10 9 mol -1 · dm 3 · s -1 and 1.25 · 10 9 mol -1 · dm 3 · s -1 , respectively, for Triton X-100 concentrations below CMC. The corresponding transient species were found to decay according to second order kinetics. The mechanism of the reactions, including concentration effects is discussed. (author) 18 refs.; 3 figs

  13. Integral relations for the asymptotic normalization of the triton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.E.; Sander, C.; Tubis, A.

    1976-01-01

    Lehman and Gibson have recently derived an integral relation for C/sub t/, the normalization of the n-d tail of the triton wave function. We give (1) a concise alternative derivation of the Lehman-Gibson result, and (2) an explicit evaluation of C/sub t/ in momentum space for the case in which the two-body interaction is not purely local or purely separable. This evaluation in general involves a five dimensional integration

  14. Voyager radio science observations of Neptune and triton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, G.L.; Eshleman, V.R.; Gresh, D.L.; Gurrola, E.M.; Hinson, D.P.; Marouf, E.A.; Rosen, P.A.; Simpson, R.A. (Stanford Univ. (USA)); Sweetnam, D.N.; Anderson, J.D.; Borutzki, S.E.; Campbell, J.K.; Kursinski, E.R.; Levy, G.S.; Lindal, G.F.; Lyons, J.R.; Wood, G.E. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA)); Kawashima, N. (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara (Japan))

    1989-12-15

    The Voyager 2 encounter with the Neptune system included radio science investigations of the masses and densities of Neptune and Triton, the low-order gravitational harmonics of Neptune, the vertical structures of the atmospheres and ionospheres of Neptune and Triton, the composition of the atmosphere of Neptune, and characteristics of ring material. Demanding experimental requirements were met successfully, and study of the large store of collected data has begun. Neptune's atmosphere was probed to a pressure level of about 5 x 10{sup 5} pascals, and effects of a methane cloud region and probable ammonia absorption below the cloud are evident in the data. Results for the mixing ratios of helium and ammonia are still being investigated; the methane abundance below the clouds is at least 1 percent by volume. Derived temperature-pressure profiles to 1.2 x 10{sup 5} pascals and 78 kelvins (K) show a lapse rate corresponding to frozen equilibrium of the para- and ortho-hydrogen states. Neptune's ionosphere exhibits an extended topside at a temperature of 950 {plus minus} 160 K if H{sup +} is the dominant ion, and narrow ionization layers of the type previously seen at the other three giant planets. Triton has a dense ionosphere with a peak electron concentration of 46 x 10{sup 9} per cubic meter at an altitude of 340 kilometers measured during occultation egress. Its topside plasma temperature is about 80 {plus minus} 16 K in N{sub 2}{sup +} is the principal ion. The tenuous neutral atmosphere of Triton produced distinct signatures in the occultation data; however, the accuracy of the measurements is limited by uncertainties in the frequency of the spacecraft reference oscillator. Preliminary values for the surface pressure of 1.6 {plus minus} 0.3 pascals and an equivalent isothermal temperature of 48 {plus minus} 5 K are suggested, on the assumption that molecular nitrogen dominates the atmosphere.

  15. Psychoanalytic and musical ambiguity: the tritone in gee, officer krupke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee Nagel, Julie

    2010-02-01

    The poignant and timeless Broadway musical West Side Story is viewed from the standpoint of taking musical forms as psychoanalytic data. The musical configuration of notes called the tritone (or diabolus in musica) is taken as a sonic metaphor expressing ambiguity both in musical vocabulary and in mental life. The tritone, which historically and harmonically represents instability, is heard throughout the score and emphasizes the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and social dramas that unfold within and between the two gangs in West Side Story. Particular emphasis is given to the comic but exceedingly sober song Gee, Officer Krupke. Bernstein's sensitivity to the ambiguity and tension inherent in the tritone in West Side Story is conceptualized as an intersection of music theory and theories of mind; this perspective holds implications for clinical practice and transports psychoanalytic concepts from the couch to the Broadway stage and into the community to address the complexities of love, hate, aggression, prejudice, and violence. Ultimately, West Side Story cross-pollinates music and theater, as well as music and psychoanalytic concepts.

  16. Large Reactional Osteogenesis in Maxillary Sinus Associated with Secondary Root Canal Infection Detected Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Carlos; Porto, Olavo César Lyra; Costa, Nádia Lago; Garrote, Marcel da Silva; Decurcio, Daniel Almeida; Bueno, Mike R; Silva, Brunno Santos de Freitas

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory injuries in the maxillary sinus may originate from root canal infections and lead to bone resorption or regeneration. This report describes the radiographic findings of 4 asymptomatic clinical cases of large reactional osteogenesis in the maxillary sinus (MS) associated with secondary root canal infection detected using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging. Apical periodontitis, a consequence of root canal infection, may lead to a periosteal reaction in the MS and osteogenesis seen as a radiopaque structure on imaging scans. The use of a map-reading strategy for the longitudinal and sequential slices of CBCT images may contribute to the definition of diagnoses and treatment plans. Root canal infections may lead to reactional osteogenesis in the MS. High-resolution CBCT images may reveal changes that go unnoticed when using conventional imaging. Findings may help define initial diagnoses and therapeutic plans, but only histopathology provides a definitive diagnosis. Surgical enucleation of the periapical lesion is recommended if nonsurgical root canal treatment fails to control apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative calculations and parametric studies using HELIOS and TRITON. Technical report; Vergleichsrechnungen und Parameterstudien mit HELIOS und TRITON. Technischer Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Fabian

    2017-05-15

    In the frame of the project ''evaluation and feasibility of a validation for computational codes for criticality and burnout calculations for the use in systems with boiling water reactor fuel'' the burnout code HELIOS for the calculation of inventories was used which allows due to the fast routines Monte-Carlo based sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. The calculated neutron multiplication factor for the HELIOS based calculations were compared with TRITON results.

  18. Neutron-triton scattering lengths for interactions reproducing low-energy trinucleon data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levashev, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    By solving the integral equations for four nucleons the neutron-triton scattering lengths and total cross section are calculated using different S-wave rank-one separable potentials. A number of linear correlations between the neutron-triton scattering lengths and triton binding energy are found. The scattering lengths consistent with low-energy trinucleon data. The results obtained are compared with available experimental data [ru

  19. Oxygen effect in the radiolysis of triton X-100 aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowski, J.; Mayer, J.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments with Triton X-100 as a model surfactant were performed under steady-state conditions, using deoxygenated solutions as well as those saturated with N 2 O, O 2 or N 2 O/O 2 mixtures. The Triton x-100 decomposition yield was dependent on the O 2 content of the irradiated system. Oxygen promoted surfactant decomposition in aqueous solution containing only Triton X-100. (author) 13 refs.; 1 tab

  20. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Abdou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities.

  1. Removal of Bound Triton X-100 from Purified Bovine Heart Cytochrome bc1

    OpenAIRE

    Varhač, Rastislav; Robinson, Neal C.; Musatov, Andrej

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome bc1 isolated from Triton X-100 solubilized mitochondrial membranes contains up to 120 nmol of Triton X-100 bound per nmol of the enzyme. Purified cytochrome bc1 is fully active; however, protein bound Triton X-100 significantly interferes with structural studies of the enzyme. Removal of Triton X-100 bound to bovine cytochrome bc1 was accomplished by incubation with Bio-Beads SM-2 in presence of sodium cholate. Sodium cholate is critical since it does not interfere with the adsorpt...

  2. 1D numerical simulation of charge trapping in an insulator submitted to an electron beam irradiation. Part I: Computation of the initial secondary electron emission yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoufi, A.; Damamme, G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study by numerical simulation a mathematical modelling technique describing charge trapping during initial charge injection in an insulator submitted to electron beam irradiation. A two-fluxes method described by a set of two stationary transport equations is used to split the electron current j e (z) into coupled forward j e+ (z) and backward j e (z) currents and such that j e (z) = j e+ (z) - j e- (z). The sparse algebraic linear system, resulting from the vertex-centered finite-volume discretization scheme is solved by an iterative decoupled fixed point method which involves the direct inversion of a bi-diagonal matrix. The sensitivity of the initial secondary electron emission yield with respect to the energy of incident primary electrons beam, that is penetration depth of the incident beam, or electron cross sections (absorption and diffusion) is investigated by numerical simulations. (authors)

  3. Determination of average conversion coefficients between kerma in air and H⁎(10) using primary and secondary X-ray beams and transmitted in the diagnostic radiology energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josilene C.; Gonzalez, Alejandro H.L.; Costa, Paulo R.

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian regulation establishes 1.14 Sv/Gy as unique conversion coefficient to convert air-kerma into the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H⁎(10) disregarding its beam quality dependence. The present study computed mean conversion coefficients from primary, secondary and transmitted X-ray beams through barite mortar plates used in shielding of dedicated chest radiographic facilities in order to improve the current assessment of H⁎(10). To compute the mean conversion coefficients, the weighting of conversion coefficients corresponding to monoenergetic beams with the spectrum energy distribution in terms of air-kerma was considered. The maximum difference between the obtained conversion coefficients and the constant value recommended in national regulation is 53.4%. The conclusion based on these results is that a constant coefficient is not adequate for deriving the H⁎(10) from air-kerma measurements. (author)

  4. TRITON: graphic software for rational engineering of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damboský, J; Prokop, M; Koca, J

    2001-01-01

    Engineering of the catalytic properties of enzymes requires knowledge about amino acid residues interacting with the transition state of the substrate. TRITON is a graphic software package for modelling enzymatic reactions for the analysis of essential interactions between the enzyme and its substrate and for in silico construction of protein mutants. The reactions are modelled using semi-empirical quantum-mechanic methods and the protein mutants are constructed by homology modelling. The users are guided through the calculation and data analysis by wizards.

  5. Nitrogen frost migration on Triton: A historical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents the results of numerical simulations of the seasonal migration of nitrogen frost on Triton, constrained by Voyager observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and albedo distribution. Most of the exposed nitrogen is probably seasonal frost, whose migration can produce major variations in atmospheric pressure. For instance, models explored here predict a tenfold pressure drop in the coming decade. The observed albedo patterns can be understood if fresh nitrogen frost is relatively dark butt brightens with increasing insolation in a manner analogous to the Martian southern CO 2 cap

  6. Extracted-beam-detection system around synchrotron saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, Remy; Milleret, Gerard; Giuliani, Arlette; Lefol, Andre; Perret, Robert; Poupard, Joseph; Trogno, Andre; Van den Bossche, Maurice; N'Guyen Sieu Viet.

    1977-07-01

    The extracted-beam-detection system working around the synchrotron Saturne is presented. The whole system is composed of about forty multiwire chambers used for beam tuning and providing beams profiles. Optic beam parameters such as position, divergence, dimension, emittance can be easily measured, or calculated with a program running on a computer. They are working in large range intensity beams (10 2 to 5.10 11 p/cm 2 /s of protons, alpha particles, deutons, pions, tritons and electrons [fr

  7. Investigation of fusion proton and triton emission in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinberger, U.

    1991-01-01

    A diagnostic method of measuring the fusion rate profile was developed on ASDEX. The collimated protons and tritons from d-d fusion reaction are simultaneously detected by a semiconductor counter at a single position in the vacuum vessel for different viewing directions. The detection efficiency profiles for these viewing directions are numerically calculated from the measured currents in the coils and assumed plasma current distributions. Folding the detection efficiency profile with a fusion rate profile yields the proton and triton fluxes to the detector. Comparison with measured fluxes allows one to find a fusion rate profile in agreement with the experimental data. In certain cases the detection efficiency profile strongly on the plasma current density profile, and information on the current distribution in the plasma can thus be achieved. It was proved that the spectra from rotating plasmas are in accordance with the theory of a rotating thermal plasma. Deviations can only be found in the case of strong vignetting of the detection efficiency by structures in the vacuum vessel. (orig.)

  8. Triton: Scattering models and surface/atmosphere constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    Modeling of Triton's spectrum indicates a bright scattering layer of optical depth τ≅3 overlying an optically deep layer of CH 4 with high absorption and little scattering. UV absorption in the spectrum indicates τ≅0.3 of red-yellow haze, although some color may also arise from complex organics partially visible on the surface. An analysis of this and other (spectro)photometric evidence indicates that Triton most likely has a bright surface, which was partially visible in 1977-1980. Geometric albedo p=0.62 +0.18 -0.12 , radius r = 1480 ± 180 km, and temperature T = 48 ± 6 K. With scattering optical depths of 0.3-3 and ∼1-10 mb of N 2 , a Mars-like atmospheric density and surface visibility pertain. Imaging with the 0.62μm CH 4 filter of the Voyager 2 wide angle camera could show ∼20% contrast between the average surface and clean exposures of CH 4 ice (which is not limited to the polar caps). Low far-infrared atmospheric opacity will in principle allow the detection of thermal gradients in the surface caused by optically transmitting but infrared opaque CH 4 and N 2 ice

  9. Level 3 decommissioning of Triton - Nereide research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, E.; Pillette-Cousin, L.

    2002-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission Center located at Fontenay-Aux-Roses has launched an extensive programme of site cleanup and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. This programme includes the level 3 decommissioning of the Triton and Nereide piles. These pool type research reactors were constructed in the late 1950's, primarily for R and D activities related to neutron physics studies, radiological shielding experiments and radioelement production. As of 1982, a level 2 decommissioning was achieved and over the the last twenty years, no activities were carried out in the facility. During 2001, there has been extensive investigation work carried out to acquire a better knowledge of the radiological status of the facility, in order to set up dismantling scenarios and to reduce the volume of generated radioactive waste. Indeed, one of the first and main operations to be carried out for dismantling Triton and Nereide piles is waste zoning, by using the facility layout, operating conditions and history, as well as the present radiological inventory. The paper describes the investigations and studies carried out to implement waste zoning. The paper also describes the preliminary dismantling operations undertaken on equipment and studies conducted to optimize the dismantling and cleanup of the facility. Finally, the paper presents the outline of the preferred dismantling and decommissioning options and the progress of the work to date. (author)

  10. On the feasibility of producing secondary radioactive nuclear beams using reactions in reversed geometries at HI-13 tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xixiang; Liu Weiping

    1993-01-01

    Some of (p,n),(d,p),(d,n) and (d, 3 He) reactions involving heavy-ions in reversed geometries are proposed for producing the kinematically compressed beams of ions such as 6 He, 7 Be, 8 Li, 11 C, 12 B, 13 N, 15 O and 17 F. A simple facility being constructed to produce and utilize these beams is briefly described

  11. Non-immunological precipitation by the neutral detergent triton X-100 in agar gel diffusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansheim, B J; Stenstrom, M L

    1980-01-01

    Triton X-100 can be used to clarify vague immunoprecipitin lines from bacterial antigens; however, non-immunological precipitation can lead to mistaken interpretation of immunodiffusion results. If Triton X-100 is added directly to the gel during preparation rather than to the antigen well, this detergent artifact can be eliminated.

  12. Retention of 241Am and 239Pu in the rat as influenced by Triton WR 1339

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruner, R.; Siedel, A.

    1976-01-01

    A lysosomotropic agent, the non-ionic detergent Triton WR 1339 (a poly-oxyethylene ether of formaldehyde polymers of octylphenol) is known to be stored in rat liver lysosomes. The results of a study made to determine whether Triton WR 1339 exerts an influence on the metabolic fate of monomeric 239 Pu and 241 Am in the rat as well as on the removal of these nuclides by DTPA, since Triton WR 1339 and transuranic elements share the same deposition site, are reported. The influence of Triton WR 1339 on the 241 Am content (per cent of 241 Am dose) of rat organs (skeleton, liver, kidneys) at different times after Triton WR 1339 injection, the influence of the time of Triton WR 1339 injection on the 241 Am content (per cent of 241 Am dose) of the same rat organs, and the influence of Triton WR 1339 Zn-DTPA and the combination of them on the retention of monomeric 239 Pu in the same rat organs (per cent of 239 Pu dose), are shown in tabular form. The mechanism whereby Triton WR 1339 appears to shorten the biological half-life of 239 Pu and 241 Am in rat liver is discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Interactions of dipeptides with Triton X-100 in aqueous solution: A volumetric and spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhenning; Wu, Shuangyan; Pan, Qi; Geng, Rui; Gu, Bixin; Wang, Jianji

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The values of V 2,ϕ o and Δ t V° are positive. • Interactions of Triton X-100 with charged and polar groups of dipeptides dominate. • Addition of dipeptide in water decreases the c cmc and the aggregation number of Triton X-100. • The affinity between dipeptide and Triton X-100 micelle increases with the increase in the length of alkyl chain of peptides. • Triton X-100 interacts with dipeptides more weakly than SDS. -- Abstract: The interactions of dipeptides with Triton X-100 in aqueous solution have been investigated by means of density, fluorescence spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy. The standard partial molar volume (V 2,ϕ o ), standard partial molar volume of transfer for dipeptide from water to aqueous Triton X-100 solution (Δ t V o ) and partial molar expansibility (E ϕ o ) have been calculated from density data. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to estimate the critical micellar concentration (c cmc ) and micelle aggregation number of Triton X-100 in aqueous dipeptide solutions. Effects of temperature and hydrocarbon chain length of dipeptides on the volumetric properties of dipeptide and critical micelle concentration (c cmc ) of Triton X-100 were examined. The pyrene fluorescence spectra were also used to study the change of micropolarity produced by the interactions of Triton X-100 with dipeptides. From the results of UV–vis absorption spectra, the binding constant between dipeptide and Triton X-100 above the c cmc was determined. The results have been interpreted in terms of solute–solvent interactions and structural changes in the mixed solutions

  14. Sample design and gamma-ray counting strategy of neutron activation system for triton burnup measurements in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jungmin [Department of Energy System Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Mun Seong [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr [Department of Energy System Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y.S. [Department of Energy System Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Sample design for triton burnup ratio measurement is carried out. • Samples for 14.1 MeV neutron measurements are selected for KSTAR. • Si and Cu are the most suitable materials for d-t neutron measurements. • Appropriate γ-ray counting strategies for each selected sample are established. - Abstract: On the purpose of triton burnup measurements in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) deuterium plasmas, appropriate neutron activation system (NAS) samples for 14.1 MeV d-t neutron measurements have been designed and gamma-ray counting strategy is established. Neutronics calculations are performed with the MCNP5 neutron transport code for the KSTAR neutral beam heated deuterium plasma discharges. Based on those calculations and the assumed d-t neutron yield, the activities induced by d-t neutrons are estimated with the inventory code FISPACT-2007 for candidate sample materials: Si, Cu, Al, Fe, Nb, Co, Ti, and Ni. It is found that Si, Cu, Al, and Fe are suitable for the KSATR NAS in terms of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) calculated based on the standard deviation of blank measurements. Considering background gamma-rays radiated from surrounding structures activated by thermalized fusion neutrons, appropriate gamma-ray counting strategy for each selected sample is established.

  15. UNUSUAL ENERGY-DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL NUCLEAR-REACTION CROSS-SECTION FOR A SECONDARY ISOMERIC NUCLEAR BEAM (F-18(M), J(PI)=5(+), E(X)=1.1 MEV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROBERTS, DA; BECCHETTI, FD; BROWN, JA; JANECKE, J; PHAM, K; ODONNELL, TW; WARNER, RE; RONNINGEN, RM; WILSCHUT, HW

    1995-01-01

    A primary O-17 beam has been used to produce a 22.3 MeV/nucleon F-18(m) isomeric secondary beam via a single nucleon transfer reaction on a carbon target. The total nuclear reaction cross sections for F-18(m) and F-18(g.s.) in silicon were measured in a stack of seven silicon solid-state detectors.

  16. Transport channel of secondary ion beam of experimental setup for selective laser ionization with gas cell GALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbekyan, G. G.; Zemlyanoy, S. G.; Bashevoy, V. V.; Ivanenko, I. A.; Kazarinov, N. Yu; Kazacha, V. I.; Osipov, N. F.

    2017-07-01

    GALS is the experimental setup intended for production and research of isobaric and isotopically pure heavy neutron-rich nuclei. The beam line consists of two parts. The initial part is used for transport of the primary 136Xe ion beam with the energy of 4.5-9.0 MeV/amu from the FLNR cyclotron U-400M to the Pb target for production of the studying ion beams. These beams have the following design parameters: the charge Z = +1, the mass A = 180-270 and the kinetic energy W = 40 keV. The second part placed after the target consists of the SPIG (QPIG) system, the accelerating gap, the electrostatic Einzel lens, 90-degree spectrometric magnet (calculated value of the mass-resolution is equal to 1400) and the beam line for the transportation of the ions from the magnet focal plane to a particle detector. The results of simulation of the particle dynamics and the basic parameters of all elements of the beam line are presented.

  17. The Sendai triton calculation with three-nucleon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.

    1986-01-01

    Where can we see the effects of quarks remains a fundamental question in nuclear theory physics. A bold approach is to try to reproduce physical quantities theoretically by utilizing a quark picture with imagination. A conservative but safer approach may be to study the triton as thoroughly as possible using realistic two- and three-nucleon potentials. We are taking the latter approach. In fact, our calculation of the EMC effect, which was one thought to be a realization of the quark-gluon picture of nuclei, suggests that we might not have to make recourse to this picture. The calculation was done for 3 He, while experimental data for 4 He are shown. We hope that an experiment for 3 He is done soon, to check whether our conservative approach actually works for the EMC effect. (orig./WL)

  18. Coronary cineangiography and ionizing radiation exposure to patients: analysis of primary and secondary beam; Cineangiografia coronaria y radiacion ionizante a pacientes. Analisis en haz primario y secundario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Alfredo; Leyton, Fernando; Silva, Ana Maria; Farias, Eric [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Hospital Clinico; Gamarra, Jorge; Oyarzun, Carlos [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN), Santiago (Chile)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the level of exposure dose to patients during coronariographies in different areas of body. This study has presented the medical surveillance of 18 cases and the radiation monitoring of these patients by TLD in thyroid and pelvis (secondary beam) and, in the right and left scapular region (primary beam) for each one of these procedures. The ionizing radiation received was 215 {+-} 200 mGy in left scapular region (range 1-710) and 255{+-}213 mGy in the right scapular region (range 22-635) p=NS. In the pelvic region the ionizing radiation was 0,22{+-}0,06 mGy and in the thyroid region was 3,62{+-}2,44 mGy.

  19. Comparison of specular H-atomic-beam intensity and C+ secondary-ion yield at thermally activated decrease of a carbon layer on a Ni(110) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaarmann, H.; Hoinkes, H.; Wilsch, H.

    1983-01-01

    The thermally activated disappearance of a carbon layer on a Ni(110) surface was investigated by the scattering of atomic hydrogen and by secondary-ion mass spectrometry. Decreasing C coverage at surface temperatures kept constant in each case at values between 650 and 750 K resulted in an exponential decrease of specular H-beam intensity as well as C + secondary-ion yield. This decrease in both cases fits first-order kinetics (presumable diffusion into the bulk) with an identical rate constant as a function of surface temperature and results finally in a preexponential frequency ν = 10/sup() 10plus-or-minus1/ s -1 and an activation energy E/sub A/ = 1.8 +- 0.2 eV

  20. Role of triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment on the morphological features of nanoporous hydroxyapatite nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyyappan, E.; Wilson, P.; Sheela, K.; Ramya, R.

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were synthesized using Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O and (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 as precursors with varying contents of non-ionic surfactant viz., triton X-100 (organic modifier) via co-precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. The prepared HA particles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX), High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Nitrogen adsorption–desorption experiments. The XRD and FTIR studies indicate the formation of HA phase in all the synthesized samples. The specific roles of triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment in dispersing and in directing the crystal growth respectively have been discussed by comparing the observations from individual experiments using triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment with that of combined protocol involving both. The plausible mechanism for the individual roles of both triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment have been proposed. - Highlights: • Nanoporous HA nanorods are synthesized via triton X-100 assisted hydrothermal treatment. • Triton X-100 hinder the agglomeration of HA primary particles • Hydrothermal treatment increase the aspect ratio of the HA particles • Oriented attachment of HA particles occurs under hydrothermal treatment facilitated by triton X-100 stabilized HA collides • The percentage of mesopore volume is higher for hydrothermally treated samples

  1. Role of triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment on the morphological features of nanoporous hydroxyapatite nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyyappan, E.; Wilson, P., E-mail: catwils@gmail.com; Sheela, K.; Ramya, R.

    2016-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were synthesized using Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} as precursors with varying contents of non-ionic surfactant viz., triton X-100 (organic modifier) via co-precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. The prepared HA particles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX), High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Nitrogen adsorption–desorption experiments. The XRD and FTIR studies indicate the formation of HA phase in all the synthesized samples. The specific roles of triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment in dispersing and in directing the crystal growth respectively have been discussed by comparing the observations from individual experiments using triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment with that of combined protocol involving both. The plausible mechanism for the individual roles of both triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment have been proposed. - Highlights: • Nanoporous HA nanorods are synthesized via triton X-100 assisted hydrothermal treatment. • Triton X-100 hinder the agglomeration of HA primary particles • Hydrothermal treatment increase the aspect ratio of the HA particles • Oriented attachment of HA particles occurs under hydrothermal treatment facilitated by triton X-100 stabilized HA collides • The percentage of mesopore volume is higher for hydrothermally treated samples.

  2. Assessment of organ dose reduction and secondary cancer risk associated with the use of proton beam therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy in treatment of neuroblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji, Hiroshi; Harada, Hideyuki; Asakura, Hirofumi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Schneider, Uwe; Ishida, Yuji; Konno, Masahiro; Yamashita, Haruo; Kase, Yuki; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Onoe, Tsuyoshi; Ogawa, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    To compare proton beam therapy (PBT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in terms of their organ doses and ability to cause secondary cancer in normal organs. Five patients (median age, 4 years; range, 2–11 years) who underwent PBT for retroperitoneal neuroblastoma were selected for treatment planning simulation. Four patients had stage 4 tumors and one had stage 2A tumor, according to the International Neuroblastoma Staging System. Two patients received 36 Gy, two received 21.6 Gy, and one received 41.4 Gy of radiation. The volume structures of these patients were used for simulations of CRT and IMRT treatment. Dose–volume analyses of liver, stomach, colon, small intestine, pancreas, and bone were performed for the simulations. Secondary cancer risks in these organs were calculated using the organ equivalent dose (OED) model, which took into account the rates of cell killing, repopulation, and the neutron dose from the treatment machine. In all evaluated organs, the mean dose in PBT was 20–80% of that in CRT. IMRT also showed lower mean doses than CRT for two organs (20% and 65%), but higher mean doses for the other four organs (110–120%). The risk of secondary cancer in PBT was 24–83% of that in CRT for five organs, but 121% of that in CRT for pancreas. The risk of secondary cancer in IMRT was equal to or higher than CRT for four organs (range 100–124%). Low radiation doses in normal organs are more frequently observed in PBT than in IMRT. Assessments of secondary cancer risk showed that PBT reduces the risk of secondary cancer in most organs, whereas IMRT is associated with a higher risk than CRT

  3. The differential role of human macrophage in triggering secondary bystander effects after either gamma-ray or carbon beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; He, Mingyuan; Tu, Wenzhi; Konishi, Teruaki; Liu, Weili; Xie, Yuexia; Dang, Bingrong; Li, Wenjian; Uchihori, Yukio; Hei, Tom K; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-07-10

    The abscopal effect could be an underlying factor in evaluating prognosis of radiotherapy. This study established an in vitro system to examine whether tumor-generated bystander signals could be transmitted by macrophages to further trigger secondary cellular responses after different irradiations, where human lung cancer NCI-H446 cells were irradiated with either γ-rays or carbon ions and co-cultured with human macrophage U937 cells, then these U937 cells were used as a bystander signal transmitter and co-cultured with human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B. Results showed that U937 cells were only activated by γ-irradiated NCI-H446 cells so that the secondary injuries in BEAS-2B cells under carbon ion irradiation were weaker than γ-rays. Both TNF-α and IL-1α were involved in the γ-irradiation induced secondary bystander effect but only TNF-α contributed to the carbon ion induced response. Further assay disclosed that IL-1α but not TNF-α was largely responsible for the activation of macrophages and the formation of micronucleus in BEAS-2B cells. These data suggest that macrophages could transfer secondary bystander signals and play a key role in the secondary bystander effect of photon irradiation, while carbon ion irradiation has conspicuous advantage due to its reduced secondary injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Utilization of Triton X-100 and polyethylene glycols during surfactant-mediated biodegradation of diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrwas, Bogdan; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Szulc, Alicja; Cyplik, Paweł; Białas, Wojciech; Szymański, Andrzej; Hołderna-Odachowska, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Efficient degradation of Triton X-100 under both aerobic and aerobic conditions. ► Triton X-100 was most likely degraded via the ‘central fission’ mechanism. ► Preferential degradation of Triton X-100 over diesel oil. ► The presence of surfactants decreased diesel oil biodegradation efficiency. - Abstract: The hypothesis regarding preferential biodegradation of surfactants applied for enhancement of microbial hydrocarbons degradation was studied. At first the microbial degradation of sole Triton X-100 by soil isolated hydrocarbon degrading bacterial consortium was confirmed under both full and limited aeration with nitrate as an electron acceptor. Triton X-100 (600 mg/l) was utilized twice as fast for aerobic conditions (t 1/2 = 10.3 h), compared to anaerobic conditions (t 1/2 = 21.8 h). HPLC/ESI-MS analysis revealed the preferential biodegradation trends in both components classes of commercial Triton X-100 (alkylphenol ethoxylates) as well as polyethylene glycols. The obtained results suggest that the observed changes in the degree of ethoxylation for polyethylene glycol homologues occurred as a consequence of the ‘central fission’ mechanism during Triton X-100 biodegradation. Subsequent experiments with Triton X-100 at approx. CMC concentration (150 mg/l) and diesel oil supported our initial hypothesis that the surfactant would become the preferred carbon source even for hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Regardless of aeration regimes Triton X-100 was utilized within 48–72 h. Efficiency of diesel oil degradation was decreased in the presence of surfactant for aerobic conditions by approx. 25% reaching 60 instead of 80% noted for experiments without surfactant. No surfactant influence was observed for anaerobic conditions.

  5. Triton burnup study using scintillating fiber detector on JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1997-09-01

    The DT fusion reactor cannot be realized without knowing how the fusion-produced 3.5 MeV {alpha} particles behave. The {alpha} particles` behavior can be simulated using the 1 MeV triton. To investigate the 1 MeV triton`s behavior, a new type of directional 14 MeV neutron detector, scintillating fiber (Sci-Fi) detector has been developed and installed on JT-60U in the cooperation with LANL as part of a US-Japan collaboration. The most remarkable feature of the Sci-Fi detector is that the plastic scintillating fibers are employed for the neutron sensor head. The Sci-Fi detector measures and extracts the DT neutrons from the fusion radiation field in high time resolution (10 ms) and wide dynamic range (3 decades). Triton burnup analysis code TBURN has been made in order to analyze the time evolution of DT neutron emission rate obtained by the Sci-Fi detector. The TBURN calculations reproduced the measurements fairly well, and the validity of the calculation model that the slowing down of the 1 MeV triton was classical was confirmed. The Sci-Fi detector`s directionality indicated the tendency that the DT neutron emission profile became more and more peaked with the time progress. In this study, in order to examine the effect of the toroidal field ripple on the triton burnup, R{sub p}-scan and n{sub e}-scan experiments have been performed. The R{sub p}-scan experiment indicates that the triton`s transport was increased as the ripple amplitude over the triton became larger. In the n{sub e}-scan experiment, the DT neutron emission showed the characteristic changes after the gas puffing injection. It was theoretically confirmed that the gas puffing was effective for the collisionality scan. (J.P.N.) 127 refs.

  6. Triton X-100 as a complete liquid scintillation cocktail for counting aqueous solutions and ionic nutrient salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Triton X-100, used alone, was found to act as a complete liquid scintillation cocktail. Triton X-100 acted as a scintillator and the effect was not due to Cerenkov radiation. A variety of other commercially available surfactants also acted as scintillators, but with different levels of efficiency. Triton X-100/water combinations were suitable for counting aqueous solutions of 33 P and 86 Rb and the count rate was stable over extended periods of time. Triton X-100/toluene combinations also yielded high counting efficiencies. Triton X-100 was more sensitive to quenching than standard cocktails containing fluors. (author)

  7. Triton-3He relative and differential flows as probes of the nuclear symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Gaochan; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Zhang Xunchao

    2009-01-01

    Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence afterburner, we study the triton- 3 He (t- 3 He) ratio with both relative and differential transverse flows in semicentral 132 Sn+ 124 Sn reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. The neutron-proton ratios with relative and differential flows are also discussed as a reference. We find that similar to the neutron-proton pairs, the t- 3 He pairs also carry interesting information regarding the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Moreover, the nuclear symmetry energy affects more strongly the t- 3 He relative and differential flows than the π - /π + ratio in the same reaction. The t- 3 He relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy.

  8. A standard 9MeV γ beam for detector calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troesch-Lasseur, G.; Bermann, F.; Gaulard, M.

    1975-01-01

    A γ capture irradiation device with beam extraction is being developed at Triton. The mean energy in the beam is 9MeV. The beam intensity has been determined from absorbed dose measurements according to ICRU specifications. The maximum dose rate taken as calibration standard is 125+-9rad/h [fr

  9. Ionization, charge exchange, and secondary electron emission in the extractor of an LBL/LLL neutral beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.; McDowell, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    Using a computer code, bombardment of the electrodes resulting from ionization, charge-exchange, and back-ion emission from the neutralizer cell is studied in the positive-ion extractor region of a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory/Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL/LLL) neutral beam source. Ion and electron trajectories are presented, grid dissipations estimated, and proposals made for future designs

  10. Determination of the secondary energy from the electron beam with a flattening foil by computer. Percentage depth dose curve fitting using the specific higher order polynomial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, H [Kyushu Univ., Beppu, Oita (Japan). Inst. of Balneotherapeutics

    1980-09-01

    A computer program written in FORTRAN is described for determining the secondary energy of the electron beam which passed through a flattening foil, using a time-sharing computer service. The procedure of this program is first to fit the specific higher order polynomial to the measured percentage depth dose curve. Next, the practical range is evaluated by the point of intersection R of the line tangent to the fitted curve at the inflection point P and the given dose E, as shown in Fig. 2. Finally, the secondary energy corresponded to the determined practical range can be obtained by the experimental equation (2.1) between the practial range R (g/cm/sup 2/) and the electron energy T (MeV). A graph for the fitted polynomial with the inflection points and the practical range can be plotted on a teletype machine by request of user. In order to estimate the shapes of percentage depth dose curves correspond to the electron beams of different energies, we tried to find some specific functional relationships between each coefficient of the fitted seventh-degree equation and the incident electron energies. However, exact relationships could not be obtained for irreguarity among these coefficients.

  11. Induced radioactivity of a GSO scintillator by secondary fragments in carbon ion therapy and its effects on in-beam OpenPET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nitta, Munetaka; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-07-07

    The accumulation of induced radioactivity within in-beam PET scanner scintillators is of concern for its long-term clinical usage in particle therapy. To estimate the effects on OpenPET which we are developing for in-beam PET based on GSOZ (Zi doped Gd2SiO5), we measured the induced radioactivity of GSO activated by secondary fragments in a water phantom irradiation by a (12)C beam with an energy of 290 MeV u(-1). Radioisotopes of Na, Ce, Eu, Gd, Nd, Pm and Tb including positron emitters were observed in the gamma ray spectra of the activated GSO with a high purity Ge detector and their absolute radioactivities were calculated. We used the Monte Carlo simulation platform, Geant4 in which the observed radioactivity was assigned to the scintillators of a precisely reproduced OpenPET and the single and coincidence rates immediately after one treatment and after one-year usage were estimated for the most severe conditions. Comparing the highest coincidence rate originating from the activated scintillators (background) and the expected coincidence rate from an imaging object (signal), we determined the expected signal-to-noise ratio to be more than 7 within 3 min and more than 10 within 1 min from the scan start time. We concluded the effects of scintillator activation and their accumulation on the OpenPET imaging were small and clinical long-term usage of the OpenPET was feasible.

  12. The T10 beam produces a few hits per event. In ALICE the SSD will have to cope with many hits per strip. In the three centimeters of aluminium the beam will produce many secondary particles. This increases the chance of multiple hits per strip, although not to the level in ALICE.

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G.

    2004-01-01

    The T10 beam produces a few hits per event. In ALICE the SSD will have to cope with many hits per strip. In the three centimeters of aluminium the beam will produce many secondary particles. This increases the chance of multiple hits per strip, although not to the level in ALICE.

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 2000-present, Buoyancy Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Buoyancy Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  14. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1987-present, Potential Density Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Potential Density Anomaly (sigma-theta) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1987-present, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1988-2015, ADCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) water currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1988-2015, ADCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) water currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA...

  20. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1991-present, Downgoing Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Downgoing Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1997-present, Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  2. Radiation chemistry connection with the positronium formation in aqueous solution of triton X-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Ganguly, B.N.

    1996-01-01

    Positronium formation bears its connection to radiation chemical phenomenon. This has been demonstrated here to probe the micelle formation and further structural changes in Triton X-100 surfactant solution. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 2000-present, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 2000-present, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 2000-present, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  6. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1977-present, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  7. Improved Simulation of the Pre-equilibrium Triton Emission in Nuclear Reactions Induced by Nucleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konobeyev, A. Yu.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P. E.; Blann, M.

    2014-04-01

    A new approach is proposed for the calculation of non-equilibrium triton energy distributions in nuclear reactions induced by nucleons of intermediate energies. It combines models describing the nucleon pick-up, the coalescence and the triton knock-out processes. Emission and absorption rates for excited particles are represented by the pre-equilibrium hybrid model. The model of Sato, Iwamoto, Harada is used to describe the nucleon pick-up and the coalescence of nucleons from exciton configurations starting from (2p,1h) states. The contribution of the direct nucleon pick-up is described phenomenologically. Multiple pre-equilibrium emission of tritons is accounted for. The calculated triton energy distributions are compared with available experimental data.

  8. Binding Of Ferrocyphen By Sds, Ctab And Triton X-100 In Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 surfactants was studied spectrophotometrically in water-ethanol medium. The equilibrium binding constant (Kb) and the number of binding sites (n) per surfactant monomer were ...

  9. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1977-present, Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Wind data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 2000-present, Buoyancy Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Buoyancy Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  11. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 2000-present, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  12. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1991-present, Net Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Net Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 2000-present, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  14. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 2000-present, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 2000-present, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1977-present, Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1980-present, Position

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Position data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1980-present, Position

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Position data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  20. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1980-present, Position

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Position data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1997-present, Evaporation Minus Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  2. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1989-present, Evaporation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Evaporation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1997-present, Evaporation Minus Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1997-present, Evaporation Minus Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1989-present, Evaporation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Evaporation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  6. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1997-present, Evaporation Minus Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  7. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1989-present, Evaporation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Evaporation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  8. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1989-present, Evaporation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Evaporation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  9. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1977-present, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1980-present, Heat Content

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Heat Content data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  11. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1988-2015, ADCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) water currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA...

  12. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1988-2015, ADCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) water currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA...

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1980-present, Position

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Position data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  14. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1992-present, Sea Surface Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Sea Surface Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1992-present, Sigma-Theta

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Sigma-Theta (Potential Density Anomaly) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  16. Photochemical assessment of UO2+2 complexation in Triton X-100 micellar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Ganguly, B.N.

    1994-01-01

    This is a report on the spectral characteristics of UO 2 +2 in the excited state in the Triton X-100 micellar medium. The downward curving of the Stern-Volmer plot explains the two kinds of populations of UO 2 +2 upon micellization. A blue shift of the quenched emission is ascribed due to the collisional encounter of UO 2 +2 with the head groups of Triton X-100. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  17. Numerical investigation of out-of-plane secondary stress in the web of floor beam of steel truss bridge. Ko torasu kyo no yukageta web ni shojiru mengai niji oryoku no suchiteki gen'in bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T. (Kisarazu National College of Technology, Chiba (Japan)); Kuranishi, S. (Kanto Gakuin Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Nakazawa, M. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Enginering)

    1994-06-20

    Comparative investigation of numerical analysis results of out-of-plane secondary stress caused in a cross beam web around scallop before reinforcement and around cutting portion of vertical stiffeners after reinforcement was carried out. In case of steel truss bridge, there exists difference in axial thrust between outside stringers which continue through a cross beam, and it was revealed that this axial thrust was the main factor which causes partial bending stress in a cross beam web plate. When the lower end of vertical stiffeners is not connected to a cross beam foot flange considering of welding, out-of-plane secondary stress was caused partially in a cross beam web plate around scallop, because of the difficult to transmit adjoining stringers axial thrust difference directly to foot flange. In case of the actual analysis, cross beam web plate around cutting portion of vertical stiffeners causes partial out-of-plane secondary stress in web plate, due to being pressed partially by comparatively high stiffness vertical stiffeners. When repair and reinforcement of steel road truss bridge are carried out, it is necessary to take close attention specially on the structure of the parts in which outside stringers is connected to cross beam. 18 refs., 16 figs.

  18. "Touching Triton": Building Student Understanding of Complex Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Madelene; East, Kelly; Hott, Adam; Lamb, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Life science classrooms often emphasize the exception to the rule when it comes to teaching genetics, focusing heavily on rare single-gene and Mendelian traits. By contrast, the vast majority of human traits and diseases are caused by more complicated interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Research indicates that students have a deterministic view of genetics, generalize Mendelian inheritance patterns to all traits, and have unrealistic expectations of genetic technologies. The challenge lies in how to help students analyze complex disease risk with a lack of curriculum materials. Providing open access to both content resources and an engaging storyline can be achieved using a "serious game" model. "Touching Triton" was developed as a serious game in which students are asked to analyze data from a medical record, family history, and genomic report in order to develop an overall lifetime risk estimate of six common, complex diseases. Evaluation of student performance shows significant learning gains in key content areas along with a high level of engagement.

  19. Solvation dynamics in triton-X-100 and triton-X-165 micelles: Effect of micellar size and hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhakar, Manoj; Nath, Sukhendu; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Pal, Haridas

    2004-09-01

    Dynamic Stokes' shift measurements using coumarin 153 as the fluorescence probe have been carried out to study solvation dynamics in two nonionic micelles, viz., triton-X-100 (TX-100) and triton-X-165 (TX-165). In both the micelles, the solvent relaxation dynamics is biexponential in nature. While the fast solvation time τs1 is seen to be almost similar for both the micelles, the slow solvation time τs2 is found to be appreciably smaller in TX-165 than in TX-100 micelle. Dynamic light scattering measurements indicate that the TX-165 micelles are substantially smaller in size than that of TX-100. Assuming similar core size for both the micelles, as expected from the similar chemical structures of the nonpolar ends for both the surfactants, the Palisade layer is also indicated to be substantially thinner for TX-165 micelles than that of TX-100. The aggregation number of TX-165 micelles is also found to be substantially smaller than that of TX-100 micelles. Fluorescence spectral studies of C153 dye in the two micelles indicate that the Palisade layer of TX-165 micelles is more polar than that of TX-100 micelles. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements indicate that the microviscosity in the Palisade layer of TX-165 micelles is also lower than that of TX-100 micelles. Based on these results it is inferred that the structure of the Palisade layer of TX-165 micelles is quite loose and have higher degree hydration in comparison to that of TX-100 micelles. Due to these structural differences in the Palisade layers of TX-165 and TX-100 micelles the solvation dynamics is faster in the former micelles than in the latter. It has been further inferred that in the present systems the collective response of the water molecules at somewhat away from the probes is responsible for the faster component of the solvation time, which does not reflect much of the structural changes of the micellar Palisade layer. On the contrary, the slower solvation time component, which is mainly due to

  20. Fluorometric sensing of Triton X-100 based organized media in water by a MOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Biswajit, E-mail: bdeychem@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mondal, Ranjan Kumar; Dhibar, Subhendu [Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun [Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235 (India); Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2016-04-15

    The fluorescent property of the aqueous solution of a metal organic framework (MOF) of Mn(II), having a sedimentary rocks like microstructure in solid-state, has been investigated. The luminescent feature of the the aqueous solution of MOF has been employed for studying the interactions of MOF with different surfactants including neutral, cationic, and anionic types in water medium. Interestingly, the MOF can very selective sense Triton X-100 based micelle in water medium. During the sensing process the fluorescent monomer of the MOF gets accommodated at the palisade layer of Triton X-100 in water medium and this has also been justified by simple fluorescence spectral and FE-SEM microstructural analysis. Thus, a MOF of Mn(II) can act as a selective fluorescent sensor for Triton X-100 based organized medium in water. - Highlights: • Microstructural and crystallographic studies of a water-soluble MOF are performed. • The luminescent property of MOF in water medium is explored. • The interaction between Triton X-100 and the MOF in water medium is studied by fluorometric and microstructural analysis. • The MOF acts as a selective fluorometric sensor for the Triton X-100 based organized media in water. • The monomer of MOF presents in the Triton X-100 micelle in water.

  1. Fluorometric sensing of Triton X-100 based organized media in water by a MOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Biswajit; Mondal, Ranjan Kumar; Dhibar, Subhendu; Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescent property of the aqueous solution of a metal organic framework (MOF) of Mn(II), having a sedimentary rocks like microstructure in solid-state, has been investigated. The luminescent feature of the the aqueous solution of MOF has been employed for studying the interactions of MOF with different surfactants including neutral, cationic, and anionic types in water medium. Interestingly, the MOF can very selective sense Triton X-100 based micelle in water medium. During the sensing process the fluorescent monomer of the MOF gets accommodated at the palisade layer of Triton X-100 in water medium and this has also been justified by simple fluorescence spectral and FE-SEM microstructural analysis. Thus, a MOF of Mn(II) can act as a selective fluorescent sensor for Triton X-100 based organized medium in water. - Highlights: • Microstructural and crystallographic studies of a water-soluble MOF are performed. • The luminescent property of MOF in water medium is explored. • The interaction between Triton X-100 and the MOF in water medium is studied by fluorometric and microstructural analysis. • The MOF acts as a selective fluorometric sensor for the Triton X-100 based organized media in water. • The monomer of MOF presents in the Triton X-100 micelle in water.

  2. Association of nerve growth factor receptors with the triton X-100 cytoskeleton of PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vale, R.D.; Ignatius, M.J.; Shooter, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Triton X-100 solubilizes membranes of PC12 cells and leaves behind a nucleus and an array of cytoskeletal filaments. Nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors are associated with this Triton X-100-insoluble residue. Two classes of NGF receptors are found on PC12 cells which display rapid and slow dissociating kinetics. Although rapidly dissociating binding is predominant (greater than 75%) in intact cells, the majority of binding to the Triton X-100 cytoskeleton is slowly dissociating (greater than 75%). Rapidly dissociating NGF binding on intact cells can be converted to a slowly dissociating form by the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). This lectin also increases the number of receptors which associate with the Triton X-100 cytoskeleton by more than 10-fold. 125 I-NGF bound to receptors can be visualized by light microscopy autoradiography in Triton X-100-insoluble residues of cell bodies, as well as growth cones and neurites. The WGA-induced association with the cytoskeleton, however, is not specific for the NGF receptor. Concentrations of WGA which change the Triton X-100 solubility of membrane glycoproteins are similar to those required to alter the kinetic state of the NGF receptor. Both events may be related to the crossbridging of cell surface proteins induced by this multivalent lectin

  3. Angular distributions of absorbed dose of Bremsstrahlung and secondary electrons induced by 18-, 28- and 38-MeV electron beams in thick targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masashi; Kosako, Kazuaki; Oishi, Koji; Nakamura, Takashi; Sato, Kouichi; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    2013-03-01

    Angular distributions of absorbed dose of Bremsstrahlung photons and secondary electrons at a wide range of emission angles from 0 to 135°, were experimentally obtained using an ion chamber with a 0.6 cm(3) air volume covered with or without a build-up cap. The Bremsstrahlung photons and electrons were produced by 18-, 28- and 38-MeV electron beams bombarding tungsten, copper, aluminium and carbon targets. The absorbed doses were also calculated from simulated photon and electron energy spectra by multiplying simulated response functions of the ion chambers, simulated with the MCNPX code. Calculated-to-experimental (C/E) dose ratios obtained are from 0.70 to 1.57 for high-Z targets of W and Cu, from 15 to 135° and the C/E range from 0.6 to 1.4 at 0°; however, the values of C/E for low-Z targets of Al and C are from 0.5 to 1.8 from 0 to 135°. Angular distributions at the forward angles decrease with increasing angles; on the other hand, the angular distributions at the backward angles depend on the target species. The dependences of absorbed doses on electron energy and target thickness were compared between the measured and simulated results. The attenuation profiles of absorbed doses of Bremsstrahlung beams at 0, 30 and 135° were also measured.

  4. Preparation of nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/polyethylene separator crosslinked by electron beam irradiation for lithium secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Young-Chang; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa; Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Yoon-Mook; Kang, Phil-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Although micro-porous membranes made of polyethylene (PE) offer excellent mechanical strength and chemical stability, they exhibit large thermal shrinkage at high temperature, which causes a short circuit between positive and negative electrodes in cases of unusual heat generation. We tried to develop a new technology to reduce the thermal shrinkage of PE separators by introducing γ-Al2O3 particles treated with coupling agent on PE separators. Nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators were prepared by the dip coating of polyethylene(PE) separators in γ-Al2O3/poly(vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/crosslinker (1,3,5-trially-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1 H,3 H,5 H)-trione (TTT) solution with humidity control followed by electron beam irradiation. γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT (95/5/2)-coated PE separator showed the highest electrolyte uptake (157%) and ionic conductivity (1.3 mS/cm). On the basis of the thermal shrinkage test, the nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators containing TTT irradiated by electron beam exhibited a higher thermal resistance. Moreover, a linear sweep voltammetry test showed that the irradiated nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators have electrochemical stabilities of up to 5.0 V. In a battery performance test, the coin cell assembled with γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT-coated PE separator showed excellent discharge cycle performance.

  5. Triton burnup study using scintillating fiber detector on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harano, Hideki

    1997-09-01

    The DT fusion reactor cannot be realized without knowing how the fusion-produced 3.5 MeV α particles behave. The α particles' behavior can be simulated using the 1 MeV triton. To investigate the 1 MeV triton's behavior, a new type of directional 14 MeV neutron detector, scintillating fiber (Sci-Fi) detector has been developed and installed on JT-60U in the cooperation with LANL as part of a US-Japan collaboration. The most remarkable feature of the Sci-Fi detector is that the plastic scintillating fibers are employed for the neutron sensor head. The Sci-Fi detector measures and extracts the DT neutrons from the fusion radiation field in high time resolution (10 ms) and wide dynamic range (3 decades). Triton burnup analysis code TBURN has been made in order to analyze the time evolution of DT neutron emission rate obtained by the Sci-Fi detector. The TBURN calculations reproduced the measurements fairly well, and the validity of the calculation model that the slowing down of the 1 MeV triton was classical was confirmed. The Sci-Fi detector's directionality indicated the tendency that the DT neutron emission profile became more and more peaked with the time progress. In this study, in order to examine the effect of the toroidal field ripple on the triton burnup, R p -scan and n e -scan experiments have been performed. The R p -scan experiment indicates that the triton's transport was increased as the ripple amplitude over the triton became larger. In the n e -scan experiment, the DT neutron emission showed the characteristic changes after the gas puffing injection. It was theoretically confirmed that the gas puffing was effective for the collisionality scan. (J.P.N.) 127 refs

  6. The influence of secondary reconstruction slice thickness on NewTom 3G cone beam computed tomography-based radiological interpretation of sheep mandibular condyle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Yigit; Guven, Koray; Horasan, Sinan; Sencan, Sabri; Bakir, Baris; Barut, Oya; Tanyel, Cem; Aral, Ali; Firat, Deniz

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of the different secondary reconstruction slice thicknesses of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) on artificially created mandibular condyle fractures. A total of 63 sheep heads with or without condylar fractures were scanned with a NewTom 3G CBCT scanner. Multiplanar reformatted (MPR) views in 0.2-mm, 1-mm, 2-mm, and 3-mm secondary reconstruction slice thicknesses were evaluated by 7 observers. Inter- and intraobserver agreements were calculated with weighted kappa statistics. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to statistically compare the area under the curve (AUC) of each slice thickness. The kappa coefficients varied from fair and to excellent. The AUCs of 0.2-mm and 1-mm slice thicknesses were found to be significantly higher than those of 2 mm and 3 mm for some type of fractures. CBCT was found to be accurate in detecting all variants of fractures at 0.2 mm and 1 mm. However, 2-mm and 3-mm slices were not suitable to detect fissure, complete, and comminuted types of mandibular condyle fractures. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of the Metrological Characteristics of the FBX Dosimeter in the Photon Beam using a Secondary Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussous, O.; Yahiche, K.; Medjadj, T.

    2008-01-01

    The metrological characteristics of the dosimetric system containing 0.20 m M ferrous ammonium sulphate, 5.0 m M benzoic acid and 0.20 m M xyelenol orange in 0.05 N sulphuric acid. (FBX dosimeter) was investigated. The wavelength and absorbance linearity calibration of the spectrophotometer were checked using NBS Standard Reference Material. The molar absorption coefficient ε of the dosimeter solution was determined using carefully prepared standard solution. The G-value for the ferric-xylenol orange complex when this dosimeter is exposed in air to gamma radiation was determined using a secondary standard (ionization chamber). The dosimetric solutions could be stored for about 2 weeks before irradiations and up to 2 days after irradiations without any significant error in dose estimations. The linearity of the absorbed dose with the increases in absorbance of the dosimeter solution has been checked. For this purpose, the dosimeter solutions were irradiated to a series of different absorbed doses (3 to 11 Gy). The quality data, as judged from the correlation coefficient, demonstrate that the curve is linear in the range investigated. The stability and reproducibility of response are such that this system should be used to measure the low doses. The reproducibility allowed us to determine the lower detection limit of the FBX dosimeter, which is around 5 Gy

  8. A photochemical study of uranyl ion interaction with the Triton X-100 micellar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Ganguly, B.N.

    1996-01-01

    This is a report on the spectroscopic characteristics of UO 2 2+ in the excited state in Triton X-100 micellar medium. It also indicates some important results of viscosity and surface tension measurements of the system which have direct relevance to the spectroscopic investigation in the excited state. The quenching of the UO 2 2+ fluorescence due to Triton X-100, upon micellization in the aqueous medium, reveals two kinds of microenvironments of the fluorophore from the Stern-Volmer plot. This has been verified by flash photolytic measurements. A blue shift of the quenched emission spectrum is ascribed to the collisional encounter of UO 2 1 + with the head groups of Triton X-100

  9. Implementation of stage 3 decommissioning and optimization of radioactive waste generation, Triton facility, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The CEA centre of Fontenay-aux-Roses was created in 1946, when the French nuclear energy programme started. Two generations of facilities have been built and operated. The first generation remained operational for 15 years and was dismantled in the late 1950s. It was replaced by a new generation of facilities, as part of the French electronuclear programme, and these included the Triton and Nereide research reactors (hereafter called the Triton facility). In accordance with the CEA strategy and taking into account its urban location, in 1998 the CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses centre decided to launch an extensive cleanup programme to be implemented from 2010 onwards. This included the Stage 3 decommissioning of the Triton facility. In the frame of this decommissioning project, a decommissioning strategy was developed making it possible to optimize the volume of radioactive waste generated

  10. Transfer reactions at the neutron dripline with triton target

    CERN Multimedia

    Two-neutron transfer to $^{9}$Li will populate the ground state of $^{11}$Li as well as low-lying resonances in a way that is complementary to studies of these states performed at higher beam energies. We aim at detecting the charged particles from the transfer reactions as well as neutrons coming from the decay of possible $^{11}$Li resonances.

  11. Transfer reactions at the neutron dripline with triton target

    CERN Document Server

    Borge, M J G; Fynbo, H O U; Gomez Camacho, J; Johansen, J; Johansson, H T; Jonson, B; Krücken, R; Kurcewicz, J; Martel, I; Moro, A; Mücher, D; Nilsson, T; Nyman, G; Raabe, R; Randisi, G; Riisager, K; Sambi, S; Sanchez-Benitez, AM; Tengblad, O

    2012-01-01

    Two-neutron transfer to $^{9}$Li will populate the ground state of $^{11}$Li as well as low-lying resonances in a way that is complementary to studies of these states performed at higher beam energies. We aim at detecting the charged particles from the transfer reactions as well as neutrons coming from the decay of possible $^{11}$Li resonances.

  12. Four-channel ZnS scintillator measurements of escaping tritons in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.

    1988-10-01

    A four-channel scintillation detector capable of measuring tritons, protons, and alphas escaping from a tokamak plasma was operated during the 1986 run period of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Signals consistent with the expected 1 MeV triton behavior have been observed during deuterium operation. Backgrounds associated with neutrons, gammas, and soft x-rays have been evaluated in situ. Such a detector should be capable of measuring escaping alphas during the D/T phase of TFTR. 16 refs., 10 figs

  13. Four-channel ZnS scintillator measurements of escaping tritons in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.

    1988-10-01

    A four-channel scintillation detector capable of measuring tritons, protons, and alphas escaping from a tokamak plasma was operated during the 1986 run period of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Signals consistent with the expected 1 MeV triton behavior have been observed during deuterium operation. Backgrounds associated with neutrons, gammas, and soft x-rays have been evaluated in situ. Such a detector should be capable of measuring escaping alphas during the D/T phase of TFTR. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Modeling of the water gap in BWR fuel elements using SCALE/TRITON; Modellierung des Wasserspalts bei SWR-BE mit SCALE/TRITON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittelbach, S.; Chernykh, M. [WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The authors show that an adequate modeling of the water gap in BWR fuel element models using the code TRITON requires an explicit consideration of the Dancoff factors. The analysis of three modeling options reveals that considering the moderating effects of the water gap coolant for the peripheral fuel elements the resulting deviations of the U-235 and Pu-239 concentrations are significantly reduced. The increased temporal calculation efforts are justified with respect to the burnup credits for criticality safety analyses.

  15. Permeabilization and lysis of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes cells by triton X-100 for efficient production of D-malate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der; Hartmans, S.; Tweel, W.J.J. van den

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes can only form d-malate from maleate after incubation of the cells with a solvent or a detergent. The effect of the detergent Triton X-100 on d-malate production was studied in more detail. The longer the cells were incubated with Triton X-100, the higher was the

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1977-present, 20C Isotherm Depth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily 20C Isotherm Depth data (the depth at which the ocean temperature is 20C) from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/...

  17. Tuning intermicellar potential of Triton X-100– anthranilic acid mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural parameters of micelles formed by Triton X-100 in the presence of solubilized anthranilic acid at different pH values was investigated using light scattering and small angle neutron scattering. Analysis of the SANS data indicate that micelles are oblate ellipsoidal in nature with little variation in the dimensions, in the ...

  18. Thermophysical and spectroscopic studies of room temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in Tritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Bansal, Shafila; Mehta, S.K.; Ahluwalia, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermophysical studies of new formulations of [BMIM][PF 6 ]+TX(45,100) have been made. ► Strong intermolecular interactions between [BMIM][PF 6 ] and TX (45, 100) is observed. ► Magnitude of interactions increases with the addition of oxyethylene groups in TX. ► With rise in temperature, intermolecular interactions increases. ► Spectroscopic studies show that interactions are via aromatic rings of RTIL and TX. - Abstract: The thermophysical properties viz. density ρ, speed of sound u, and specific conductivity κ of pure room temperature ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) and its binary formulations with Triton X-45 and Triton X-100 have been studied over the entire composition range at different temperatures (293.15 to 323.15) K. Excess molar volume V E , deviation in isentropic compressibility ΔK S , partial molar excess volume V i E , deviation in partial molar isentropic compressibility ΔK S,i , deviation in specific conductivity Δκ have also been estimated and analysed. Spectroscopic properties (IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR) of these mixtures have been investigated in order to understand the structural and interactional behaviour of formulations studied. The magnitude of interactions between the two components increases with addition of number of oxyethylene groups in Tritons and with rise in temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that interactions are mainly taking place through the five member ring of room temperature ionic liquid and six member ring of Tritons.

  19. Role of triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment on the morphological features of nanoporous hydroxyapatite nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyappan, E; Wilson, P; Sheela, K; Ramya, R

    2016-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were synthesized using Ca(NO3)2·4H2O and (NH4)2HPO4 as precursors with varying contents of non-ionic surfactant viz., triton X-100 (organic modifier) via co-precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. The prepared HA particles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX), High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments. The XRD and FTIR studies indicate the formation of HA phase in all the synthesized samples. The specific roles of triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment in dispersing and in directing the crystal growth respectively have been discussed by comparing the observations from individual experiments using triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment with that of combined protocol involving both. The plausible mechanism for the individual roles of both triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment have been proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Photometric Monitoring of Triton at Sommers-Bausch Observatory in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. A.; Bullock, M. A.; Colwell, W. B.; Durda, D. D.; Gleason, K.; Parker, J. W.; Stern, S. A.; Terrell, D.; Young, E. F.

    2001-01-01

    We undertook pilot program to develop an observing and analysis strategy that can be used to measure Triton's B and V albedos with 0.05 magnitude accuracy at moderate-to-small telescopes, under moderate-to-poor seeing conditions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Beam-Beam Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W; Pieloni, T

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities

  2. One-nucleon transfer reactions induced by secondary beam of 11Be: study of the nuclear structure of the exotic nuclei 11Be and 10Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pita, S.

    2000-09-01

    The structure of the neutron rich light nuclei 11 Be and 10 Li has been investigated by means of one nucleon transfer reactions. The experiments have been carried out at GANIL in inverse kinematics using 11 Be secondary beams. The 11 Be(p,d) 10 Be reaction bas been studied at 35.3 MeV/u. The 10 Be ejectiles were analyzed by the spectrometer SPEG, and coincident deuterons were detected in the position sensitive silicon detector CHARISSA. Transfer cross sections to 0 + 1 and 2 + 1 , states in 10 Be were measured up to θ CM = 16 deg. and compared to DWBA and CRC predictions. The effects of neutron-cure couplings on reaction form factors have been studied by solving coupled equations in the framework of a vibrational model. It is shown that the rate of core excitation 10 Be 2+ in the 11 Be gs wave function is overestimated by a standard analysis with form factors given by the usual Separation Energy prescription. The former model predicts a rate of core excitation of 16% and leads to theoretical cross sections which are in good agreement with the experimental data. The aim of the 11 Be(d, 3 He) 10 Li experiment, realized at 37 MeV/u, was to measure the distribution of the 2s neutron strength in the unbound nucleus 10 Li. The energy spectrum was deduced from the 3 He energy and angle measured by the silicon strip detector array MUST. An asymmetric peak is clearly observed near the threshold, with a maximum at -S n = 130 keV. This constitutes a direct proof of the inversion of 2s and 1p 1/2 shells in 10 Li, which was until now a controversial question in spite of many experimental efforts. On the other band the analysis of the 11 Be(d,t) 10 Be reaction studied in the same experiment confirms the results obtained in the 11 Be(p,d) 10 Be reaction concerning the 11 Be gs structure. This work shows the interest and feasibility of studies of the shell properties of exotic nuclei using transfer reactions induced by radioactive beams and constitutes the beginning of a program

  3. High purity radioactive beams at the bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.; Chatterjee, A.; Tobias, C.A.

    1979-03-01

    Peripheral nuclear fragmentation reactions of primary Bevalac heavy ion beams are used to produce secondary beams of radioactive nuclei. The large cross section and small deflection of the projectile fragments lead to high production and delivery efficiency for these beams. Dispersive beam transport allows good separation and purification of the desired secondary beams. 11 C and 19 Ne beams of high purity and good intensity (almost 0.2% of the primary beam current) are presently being used for biomedical experiments

  4. Negative ion beam processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, T.D.; Lawrence, G.P.; Bentley, R.F.; Malanify, J.J.; Jackson, J.A.

    1975-06-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory fiscal year 1975 work on production of intense, very bright, negative hydrogen (H - ), ion beams and conversion of a high-energy (a few hundred MeV) negative beam into a neutral beam are described. The ion source work has used a cesium charge exchange source that has produced H - ion beams greater than or equal to 10 mA (about a factor of 10 greater than those available 1 yr ago) with a brightness of 1.4 x 10 9 A/m 2 -rad 2 (about 18 times brighter than before). The high-energy, neutral beam production investigations have included measurements of the 800-MeV H - -stripping cross section in hydrogen gas (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 4 x 10 -19 cm 2 ), 3- to 6-MeV H - -stripping cross sections in a hydrogen plasma (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 2 to 4 x 10 -16 cm 2 ), and the small-angle scattering that results from stripping an 800-MeV H - ion beam to a neutral (H 0 ) beam in hydrogen gas. These last measurements were interrupted by the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility shutdown in December 1974, but should be completed early in fiscal year 1976 when the accelerator resumes operation. Small-angle scattering calculations have included hydrogen gas-stripping, plasma-stripping, and photodetachment. Calculations indicate that the root mean square angular spread of a 390-MeV negative triton (T - ) beam stripped in a plasma stripper may be as low as 0.7 μrad

  5. Synthesis and characterization of novel N-substituted poly aniline by Triton X-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsalani, N.; Khavei, M.; Entezami, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    A new N-substituted poly aniline is synthesized by insertion of polyether chain in the form of Triton X-100 onto the poly aniline backbone. In the preparation method, firstly the emeraldine base poly aniline was reacted with Na H to produce the N-anionic doped poly aniline and then contacted with chlorinated Triton X-100. The prepared N-substituted poly aniline was characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, 1 H NMR spectroscopy techniques and elemental analysis. The physical properties of synthesized polymer such as electrical conductivity, thermal and electro activity properties were also studied. The prepared polymer has good solubility in common organic solvents such as T HF and chloroform

  6. Radiolytic syntheses of hollow UO2 nanospheres in Triton X-100-based lyotropic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongming; Chen, Qingde; Shen, Xinghai

    2017-01-01

    Hollow nanospheres (φ: 60-80 nm, wall thickness: 10-20 nm), consisted of UO 2 nanoparticles (φ: 3-5 nm), were successfully prepared in a Triton X-100-water (50:50, w/w) hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) by γ-irradiation, where water soluble ammonium uranyl tricarbonate was added as precursor. The product was stable at least up to 300 C. Furthermore, whether the nanospheres were hollow or not, and the wall thickness of the hollow nanospheres could be easily controlled via adjusting dose rate. While in the Triton X-100 based micellar systems, only solid nanospheres were obtained. At last, a possible combination mechanism containing adsorption, aggregation and fracturing processes was proposed.

  7. Precise CCD positions of Triton in 2014-2016 from the Gaia DR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Peng, Q. Y.; Peng, H. W.; Zhang, Q. F.

    2018-04-01

    755 CCD observations during the years 2014-2016 have been reduced to derive the precise positions of Triton, the first satellite of Neptune. The observations were made by the 1 m telescope at Yunnan Observatory over 15 nights during the years 2014-2016. The theoretical position of Triton was retrieved from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Horizons system. Our results show that when the newest Gaia catalogue (Gaia DR1) is referred to the mean O-Cs (observed minus computed) residuals are about 0.042 and -0.006 arcsec, the dispersions are 0.012 and 0.012 arcsec in right ascension and declination, respectively. The dispersions are improved very significantly when the Gaia DR1 is referred to. However, the agreement in right ascension is not so good as that in declination, the reason might come from the uncertainty of planet ephemeris. More observations are needed to confirm this.

  8. Tritons and tritides as the solute and diffusing species in ceramic tritium breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, A.K.; Johnson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Intragranular diffusion of tritium is an inherent participant in the process of releasing tritium from lithium-containing ceramics that are used to breed tritium in a fusion reactor. The nature of this transport is reviewed in terms of the understanding established for the mechanism of hydrogen migration in other oxides, namely, that the diffusing species is the proton and that it moves from oxide ion to oxide ion, thereby giving rise to apparent hydroxide migration. Analogously, the triton, transiently bonded to successive oxides and forming successive tritoxides, is taken to be the dominant migrating species in ceramic breeders. In addition, tritide becomes a significant participant at low oxygen activity. The relationship of tritons and tritides as the migrating species to the observed release of both reduced and oxidized forms can be understood in terms of the thermodynamic conditions that prevail. Mechanisms exist that can be proposed to rationalize the participation of these species

  9. Adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate on granular activated carbon from date pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzougui, Z.; Nedjah, S.; Azoudj, Y.; Addoun, F. [Laboratoire d' etude physic-chimique des materiaux et application a l' environnement, Faculte de Chimie, USTHB (Algeria)], E-mail: zmerzougi@yahoo.fr

    2011-07-01

    Activated carbons, thanks to their versatility, are being used in the water treatment sector to absorb pollutants. Several factors influence the adsorption capacity of activated carbon and the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the porous texture and chemical nature of activated carbons on the adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate. Activated carbons used in this study were prepared from date pits with ZnCl2, KOH and H3PO4 by carbonization without adjuvant and adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate was conducted at 298K. Results showed that activated carbons prepared from date pits have a great potential for removing organic and inorganic pollutants from water and that the adsorption potential depends on the degree of activation of the activated carbons and on the compounds to absorb. This study highlighted that an increase of the carbon surface area and porosity results in a better adsorption capacity.

  10. A rare case of malignant triton tumor in the cerebellopontine angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Li

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant triton tumor (MTT is defined as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. Intracranial MTT is extremely rare, and only four cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of MTT occurring in the cerebellopontine angle, and describe its histopathological characteristics, immunohistochemical features, and prognosis. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1336227313684480

  11. A rare case of malignant triton tumor in the cerebellopontine angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Li; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Wen-Dong; Han, Xiu-Juan; Yao, Li; Zhu, Shao-Jun; Lan, Miao; Li, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Wei

    2012-04-19

    Malignant triton tumor (MTT) is defined as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. Intracranial MTT is extremely rare, and only four cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of MTT occurring in the cerebellopontine angle, and describe its histopathological characteristics, immunohistochemical features, and prognosis. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1336227313684480.

  12. Solid methane on Triton and Pluto - 3- to 4-micron spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John R.; Buie, Marc W.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

    1990-01-01

    Methane has been identified in the Pluto/Charon system on the basis of absorption features in the reflectance spectrum at 1.5 and 2.3 microns; attention is presently given to observations of a 3.25 micron-centered deep absorption feature in Triton and Pluto/Charon system reflectance spectra. This absorption may indicate the presence of solid methane, constituting either the dominant surface species or a mixture with a highly transparent substance, such as N2 frost.

  13. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirin Dejan M; Poša Mihalj M; Krstonošić Veljko S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100) or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate) surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, ...

  14. Delivery of Optical Contrast Agents using Triton-X100, Part 1: Reversible permeabilization of live cells for intracellular labeling

    OpenAIRE

    van de Ven, Anne L; Adler-Storthz, Karen; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Effective delivery of optical contrast agents into live cells remains a significant challenge. We sought to determine whether Triton-X100, a detergent commonly used for membrane isolation and protein purification, could be used to effectively and reversibly permeabilize live cells for delivery of targeted optical contrast agents. Although Triton-X100 is widely recognized as a good cell permeabilization agent, no systematic study has evaluated the efficiency, reproducibility, and reversibility...

  15. A rare case of retroperitoneal malignant triton tumor invading renal vein and small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović Žaklina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant Triton tumor is a very rare malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. Most of those tumors occur in patients with von Recklinghausen’s disease or as a late complication of irradiation and commonly seen in the head, neck, extremities and trunk. Case report. We reported retroperitoneal malignant Triton tumor in a 57-year-old female patient. Skin lesions were not present, and there was no family history of neurofibromatosis or previous irradiation. The presented case is one of a few recorded in the specialized literature that occurs in the retroperitoneal space in sporadic form. In this case, tumor consisted of a multilobular mass was in close relation with the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava and involved the renal vein with gross invasion of the small intestine. The patient underwent total resection of the tumor and left nefrectomy was performed. The small intestine 10 cm in length was also resected and end-to-end anastomosis was conducted. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital ten days after the surgery. Conclusion. Diagnostically, it is crucial to recognize this uncommon histological variant because malignant Triton tumor has a worse prognosis than classic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor does. The use of the immunohistochemistry is essential in making the correct diagnosis. Only appropriate pathological evaluation supported by immunostaining with S-100 protein and desmin confirmed the diagnosis. Aggressive surgical management treatment improves the prognosis of such cases with adjuvant radiotherapy.

  16. Secondary radiation measurements for particle therapy applications: charged particles produced by 4He and 12C ion beams in a PMMA target at large angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, A.; Battistoni, G.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Faccini, R.; Frallicciardi, P. M.; Mancini-Terracciano, C.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Muraro, S.; Paramatti, R.; Piersanti, L.; Pinci, D.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Toppi, M.; Traini, G.; Voena, C.; Patera, V.

    2018-03-01

    Proton and carbon ion beams are used in the clinical practice for external radiotherapy treatments achieving, for selected indications, promising and superior clinical results with respect to x-ray based radiotherapy. Other ions, like \

  17. Spectra of the linear energy transfer measured with a track etch spectrometer in the beam of 1 GeV protons and the contribution of secondary charged particles to the dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Vlcek, B.; Bamblevskij, V.P.; Timoshenko, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    A spectrometer of the linear energy transfer (LET) on the base of CR-39 detector was used to establish the spectra of LET in the beam of protons with the primary energy of 1 GeV. It was found out that the LET spectra of secondary charged particles between 100 and 7000 MeV cm 2 g -1 do not depend on the radiator. The average quality factors for the LET region mentioned were obtained about 11.6 with ICRP 26 quality factors and about 14.0 with ICRP 60 quality factors. The spectra obtained permitted to calculate the contributions of these secondary charged particles to the dosimetric quantities. It was observed that these contributions were about 7.0% for the total absorbed dose of protons and close 90% in the case of the equivalent doses. It is more than it was found out for few hundred MeV protons

  18. Aftereffects of Spectrally Similar and Dissimilar Spectral Motion Adaptors in the Tritone Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Malek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Shepard tones consist of octave-spaced components, whose amplitudes are generated under a fixed bell-shaped spectral envelope. They are well defined in pitch chroma, but generate octave confusions that in turn can produce ambiguities in the perceived relative pitch heights when their chromas are exactly a tritone apart (the tritone paradox. This study examined the effects of tonal context on relative pitch height judgments using adaptor sequences followed by target sequences (pairs of Shepard tones of different chromas separated by a tritone. Listeners judged whether the second target Shepard tone was higher or lower than the first. Adaptor sequences consisted of rising or falling scales (43 s at the beginning of each block, 4 s before each target sequence. Two sets of Shepard tones were used for adaptors and targets that were generated under spectral envelopes centered at either A3 (220 Hz and C6 (1,046 Hz. Pitch direction judgments (rising vs. falling to spectrally consistent (A3–A3, C6–C6 and inconsistent (A3–C6, C6–A3 adaptor-target combinations were studied. Large significant contrastive aftereffects (0.08–0.21 change in fraction of pitch direction responses were only found for the Shepard tones that were judged as higher in the control condition (judgments about the target sequences without adaptor sequences for the consistent adaptor-target conditions (A3–A3, C6–C6. The experiments rule out explanations based on non-sensory decision making processes. Possible explanations in terms of perceptual aftereffects caused by adaptation in central auditory frequency-motion detectors are discussed.

  19. Dengue virus inactivation by minipool TnBP/Triton X-45 treatment of plasma and cryoprecipitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnouf, T; Chou, M-L; Cheng, L-H; Li, Z-R; Wu, Y-W; El-Ekiaby, M; Tsai, K-H

    2013-01-01

    A minipool solvent/detergent (S/D; 1% TnBP/1% Triton X-45; 31°C) process was developed for viral inactivation of plasma and cryoprecipitate used for transfusion. The goal of this study was to determine the rate and extent of inactivation of dengue virus (DENV) during this process. DENV-1 was propagated using C6/36 mosquito cells to an infectivity titre close to 9 log and spiked (10% v/v) into individual plasma and cryoprecipitate samples from two distinct donors. Samples were taken right after spiking and during viral inactivation treatment by 1% TnBP-1% Triton X-45 at 31°C. DENV-1 infectivity was assessed on Vero E6 cells by a focus-forming assay (FFA). Culture medium and complement-inactivated plasma were used as experimental controls. Experiments were done in duplicate. DENV-1 infectivity was 7·5 log in spiked plasma and 7·1 and 7·3 log in spiked cryoprecipitate. There was no loss of DENV-1 infectivity in the spiked materials, nor in the controls not subjected to S/D treatment. No infectivity was found in plasma and cryoprecipitate subjected to S/D treatment at the first time-point evaluated (10 min). DENV-1 was strongly inactivated in plasma and cryoprecipitate, respectively, within 10 min of 1% TnBP/1% Triton X-45 treatment at 31°C. These data provide a reassurance of the safety of such S/D-treated plasma and cryoprecipitate with regard to the risk of transmission of all DENV serotypes and other flaviviruses. © 2012 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2012 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  20. TRITON vs POLARIS. Comparison Between Two Modules for LWRs Modelling in SCALE 6.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labarile, A.; Barrachina, T.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.

    2015-07-01

    -One of them challenges more important in the research of reactors nuclear is the development of codes of best estimate that allow decrease them uncertainties of them calculations increasing the reliability of the results. You will also need sensitivity and uncertainty analysis and validation of the implemented code. This work offers a comparison of two modules of SCALE-6.2 for the case of a reactor's water to pressure (PWR). Based is in data from plant of the reactor Three thousands Island-1 is has calculated the keff and the cross sections effective with two modules in two dimensions (2-D) of the program SCALE: TRITON and POLARIS. TRITON is a module already validated for the calculation of the transport as POLARIS is located in distribution from end of the 2014. The objective is to compare the results of keff and cross sections of two simulations, and carry out a sensitivity analysis and uncertainty of the results. In TRITON and POLARIS calculations have been made to fuel elements of the PWR Three thousand Island-1, in two different configurations (with and without control rods), condition of stop in hot (HZP) and condition of full power (HFP). The results are presented in this work. A good correlation between the results of two simulations has found and, in addition, POLARIS module has presented less computational time and good stability in the parameters. After having compared the results obtained, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to confirm the validation of two modules and study the influence of uncertainties in the calculation of the fuel element. (Author)

  1. Effects of Triton X-100 and Quillaya Saponin on the ex situ bioremediation of a chronically polychlorobiphenyl-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fava, F.; Di Gioia, D. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Material Science

    1998-12-31

    The possibility of enhancing the ex situ bioremediation of a chronically polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil by using Triton X-100 or Quillaya Saponin, a synthetic and a biogenic surfactant, respectively, was studied. The soil, which contained about 350 mg/kg of PCBs and indigenous aerobic bacteria capable of growing on biphenyl or on monochlorobenzoic acids, was amended with inorganic nutrients and biphenyl, saturated with water and treated in aerobic batch slurry- and fixed-phase reactors. Triton X-100 and Quillays Saponin were added to the reactors at a final concentration of 10 g/l at the 42nd day of treatment, and at the 43rd and 100th day, respectively. Triton X-100 was not metabolised by the soil microflora and it exerted inhibitory effects on the indigenous bacteria. Quillaya Saponin, on the contrary, was readily metabolised by the soil microflora. Under slurry-phase conditions, Triton X-100 negatively influenced the soil bioremediation process by affecting the availability of the chlorobenzoic acid degrading indigenous bacteria, wheres Quillays Saponin slightly enhanced the biological degradation and dechlorination of the soil PCBs. In the fixed-phase reactors, where both the surfactant availability and the mixing of the soil were lower, Triton X-100 did not exert inhibitory effects on the soil biomass and enhanced significantly the soil PCB depletion, whereas Quillays Saponin did not influence the bioremediation process. (orig.)

  2. Hypolipidemic action of chrysin on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in female C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Stéfani Zarzecki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone is a flavonoid, natural component of traditional medicinal herbs, present in honey, propolis and many plant extracts. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypolipidemic properties of chrysin on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in female C57BL/6 mice. Triton WR-1339 was administered intraperitoneally (400 mg/kg to overnight-fasted mice to develop acute hyperlipidemia. Chrysin was administered orally (10 mg/kg 30 min before Triton WR-1339. At 24 h after Triton WR-1339 injection, blood samples were collected to measure plasma lipid levels. The hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, carbonyl content, non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH and ascorbic acid (AA levels, as well as catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were recorded. Chrysin administration significantly decreased total cholesterol levels. In addition, it partially decreased non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides levels in plasma of hyperlipidaemic mice. In addition chrysin administration prevented the increase on TBARS levels and prevented the decrease in SOD activity induced by Triton WR-1339. These findings indicated that chrysin was able to decrease plasma lipids concentration and that its antioxidant properties was, at least in part, involved in the hypolipidaemic action of chrysin.

  3. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: Role of tween 80 and triton X in ascitic fluid cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver, portal hypertension with hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP was admitted in an obtunded condition. Attempts at delineating the aetiology of the SBP using conventional cultures as well as automated systems were not successful. The use of non-anionic surfactant agents such as Tween 80-incorporated blood agar and Triton X treatment of the specimens facilitated the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae from the ascitic fluid, which otherwise would have been concluded to represent culture-negative neutrocytic ascites. Thus, the use of the aforementioned agents could be explored in elucidating the aetiology of body cavity infections when conventional methods fail.

  4. Degradation of Triton X-100 surfactant/lipid regulator systems by ionizing radiation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, Gergely; Obuda-University, Budapest; Csay, Tamas; Takacs, Erzsebet; Wojnarovits, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    The radiolytic degradation of Triton X-100 surfactant was investigated at concentrations below and above the critical micelle concentration (CMC, ∼ 0.23 mmol dm -3 ) in air saturated aqueous solutions. At low concentrations the degradation took place both on the aromatic head and on the polyethoxylates chain, while above CMC it was shifted towards the chain. The CMC was higher in irradiated solutions at 10 Gy by a factor of 2, at 20 kGy by a factor of 3 than in the un-irradiated solution. The degradation of clofibric acid in the presence of TX-100 was more effective outside the micelles than inside them. (author)

  5. Retroperitoneal "triton" tumor. Report of a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Acosta José Martín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The triton tumor was described in 1932 by Masson, as a peripheral nerve sheath malignancy with rabdomioblástica differentiation. The retroperitoneal location is extremely rare, only nine cases have been reported in children. The clinical picture depends on the size of the tumor and the organs involved, their retroperitoneal location is usually asymptomatic. The mainstay of treatment is the surgical excision of the tumor. We report the case of a child with retroperitoneal location of the tumor. A complete resection of it was performed. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. He is currently under control. There is no evidence of relapse.

  6. Comparison of scale/triton and helios burnup calculations for high burnup LWR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittelbach, S.; Mispagel, T.; Phlippen, P.W. [WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The presented analyses provide information about the suitability of the lattice burnup code HELIOS and the recently developed code SCALE/TRITON for the prediction of isotopic compositions of high burnup LWR fuel. The accurate prediction of the isotopic inventory of high burnt spent fuel is a prerequisite for safety analyses in and outside of the reactor core, safe loading of spent fuel into storage casks, design of next generation spent fuel casks and for any consideration of burnup credit. Depletion analyses are performed with both burnup codes for PWR and BWR fuel samples which were irradiated far beyond 50 GWd/t within the LWR-PROTEUS Phase II project. (orig.)

  7. HIBP primary beam detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    A position measuring detector was fabricated for the Heavy Ion Beam Probe. The 11 cm by 50 cm detector was a combination of 15 detector wires in one direction and 63 copper bars - .635 cm by 10 cm to measure along an orthogonal axis by means of a current divider circuit. High transmission tungsten meshes provide entrance windows and suppress secondary electrons. The detector dimensions were chosen to resolve the beam position to within one beam diameter

  8. Revised data taking schedule with ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gazdzicki, Marek; Aduszkiewicz, A; Andrieu, B; Anticic, T; Antoniou, N; Argyriades, J; Asryan, A G; Baatar, B; Blondel, A; Blumer, J; Boldizsar, L; Bravar, A; Brzychczyk, J; Bubak, A; Bunyatov, S A; Choi, K U; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Cleymans, J; Derkach, D A; Diakonos, F; Dominik, W; Dumarchez, J; Engel, R; Ereditato, A; Feofilov, G A; Fodor, Z; Ferrero, A; Gazdzicki, M; Golubeva, M; Grebieszkow, K; Grzeszczuk, A; Guber, F; Hasegawa, T; Haungs, A; Igolkin, S; Ivanov, A S; Ivashkin, A; Kadija, K; Katrynska, N; Kielczewska, D; Kikola, D; Kisiel, J; Kobayashi, T; Kolesnikov, V I; Kolev, D; Kolevatov, R S; Kondratiev, V P; Kowalski, S; Kurepin, A; Lacey, R; Laszlo, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Majka, Z; I Malakhov, A; Marchionni, A; Marcinek, A; Maris, I; Matveev, V; Melkumov, G L; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Mijakowski, P; Mitrovski, M; Montaruli, T; Mrówczynski, St; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Naumenko, P A; Nikolic, V; Nishikawa, K; Palczewski, T; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Peryt, W; Planeta, R; Pluta, J; Popov, B A; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Rauch, W; Ravonel, M; Renfordt, R; Röhrich, D; Rondio, E; Rossi, B; Roth, M; Rubbia, A; Rybczynski, M; Sadovskii, A; Sakashita, K; Schuster, T; Sekiguchi, T; Seyboth, P; Shibata, M; Sissakian, A N; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Sorin, A S; Staszel, P; Stefanek, G; Stepaniak, J; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Szuba, M; Tada, M; Taranenko, A; Tsenov, R; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V V; Vesztergombi, G; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek, A; Zipper, W; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the revised data taking schedule of NA61 with ion beams. The revision takes into account limitations due to the new LHC schedule as well as final results concerning the physics performance with secondary ion beams. It is proposed to take data with primary Ar and Xe beams in 2012 and 2014, respectively, and to test and use for physics a secondary B beam from primary Pb beam fragmentation in 2010, 2011 and 2013.

  9. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100 or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. Results The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. Conclusion It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  10. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirin, Dejan M; Poša, Mihalj M; Krstonošić, Veljko S

    2011-12-29

    In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100) or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate) surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  11. Bioavailability of hydrocarbons to bacterial consortia during Triton X-100 mediated biodegradation in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pęziak, Daria; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Marecik, Roman; Lisiecki, Piotr; Woźniak, Marta; Szulc, Alicja; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of Triton X-100 on the biodegradation efficiency of hexadecane and phenanthrene carried out by two bacterial consortia. It was established that the tested consortia were not able to directly uptake compounds closed in micelles. It was observed that in micellar systems the nonionic synthetic surfactant was preferentially degraded (the degradation efficiency of Triton X-100 after 21 days was 70% of the initial concentration - 500 mg/l), followed by a lesser decomposition of hydrocarbon released from the micelles (30% for hexadecane and 20% for phenanthrene). However, when hydrocarbons were used as the sole carbon source, 70% of hexadecane and 30% of phenanthrene were degraded. The degradation of the surfactant did not contribute to notable shifts in bacterial community dynamics, as determined by Real-Time PCR. The obtained results suggest that if surfactant-supplementation is to be used as an integral part of a bioremediation process, then possible bioavailability decrease due to entrapment of the contaminant into surfactant micelles should also be taken into consideration, as this phenomenon may have a negative impact on the biodegradation efficiency. Surfactant-induced mobilization of otherwise recalcitrant hydrocarbons may contribute to the spreading of contaminants in the environment and prevent their biodegradation.

  12. Heat transfer in nucleate pool boiling of aqueous SDS and triton X-100 solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasekar, Vivek M. [Tata Steel Limited, Department of Research and Development, Jamshedpur (India)

    2009-09-15

    Variation in degree of surface wettability is presented through the application of Cooper's correlative approach (h{proportional_to}M{sup -0.5}q{sub w}''0.67) for computing enhancement ({phi}) in nucleate pool boiling of aqueous solutions of SDS and Triton X-100 and its presentation with Marangoni parameter ({chi}) that represents the dynamic convection effects due to surface tension gradients. Dynamic spreading coefficient defined as {sigma} {sub dyn}N{sub a}, which relates spreading and wetting characteristics with the active nucleation site density on the heated surface and bubble evolution process, represents cavity filling and activation process and eliminates the concentration dependence of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer in boiling of aqueous surfactant solutions. Using the dynamic spreading coefficient ({sigma}{sub dyn}N{sub a}=0.09q{sub w}''0.71), correlation predictions within {+-}15% for both SDS and triton X-100 solutions for low heat flux boiling condition (q{sub w}''{<=} 100 kW/m {sup 2}) characterised primarily by isolated bubble regime are presented. (orig.)

  13. Hypolipidemic activity of Phellinus rimosus against triton WR-1339 and high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rony, K A; Ajith, T A; Nima, N; Janardhanan, K K

    2014-03-01

    Patients with the risk for atherosclerotic disease will be targeted to reduce the existing hyperlipidemia. The hypolipidemic activity of Phellinus rimosus was studied using triton WR-1339 and high cholesterol diet (HCD) induced models. The triton induced elevated lipid profile was attenuated by P. rimosus or standard drug atorvastatin. Similarly, administration of P. rimosus along with HCD significantly decline serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, with elevating the high-density lipoprotein. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances in heart and liver significantly decreased; where as activity of enzymatic antioxidants and level of reduced glutathione were significantly increased. In both models, P. rimosus extract showed a significant ameliorative effect on the elevated atherogenic index as well as LDL/HDL-C ratio. The hypolipidemic activity of P. rimosus can be ascribed to its inhibitory effect on the liver HMG CoA reductase activity. The results suggest the possible therapeutic potential of this fungus as hypolipidemic agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. SCALE Continuous-Energy Monte Carlo Depletion with Parallel KENO in TRITON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goluoglu, Sedat; Bekar, Kursat B.; Wiarda, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system is a powerful and robust tool for performing multigroup (MG) reactor physics analysis using either the 2-D deterministic solver NEWT or the 3-D Monte Carlo transport code KENO. However, as with all MG codes, the accuracy of the results depends on the accuracy of the MG cross sections that are generated and/or used. While SCALE resonance self-shielding modules provide rigorous resonance self-shielding, they are based on 1-D models and therefore 2-D or 3-D effects such as heterogeneity of the lattice structures may render final MG cross sections inaccurate. Another potential drawback to MG Monte Carlo depletion is the need to perform resonance self-shielding calculations at each depletion step for each fuel segment that is being depleted. The CPU time and memory required for self-shielding calculations can often eclipse the resources needed for the Monte Carlo transport. This summary presents the results of the new continuous-energy (CE) calculation mode in TRITON. With the new capability, accurate reactor physics analyses can be performed for all types of systems using the SCALE Monte Carlo code KENO as the CE transport solver. In addition, transport calculations can be performed in parallel mode on multiple processors.

  15. Effect of the treatment with Euterpe oleracea Mart. oil in rats with Triton-induced dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Souza, Belmira S Faria; Carvalho, Helison O; Ferreira, Irlon M; da Cunha, Edilson L; Barros, Albenise Santana; Taglialegna, Talisson; Carvalho, José C T

    2017-06-01

    Dyslipidemias are defined as changes in lipid metabolism that have abnormal concentrations of lipids or lipoproteins in the bloodstream. Chronic increase in triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c) levels are known as risk factors for the atherogenesis process as well as other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The magnitude of the problems caused by dyslipidemias impels research by new agents that act in the prevention and control. Thus, products from the Amazonian biodiversity, such as Euterpe oleracea oil (OFEO), rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), constitutes a study source for the treatment of alterations in lipid metabolism. The present study aims to investigate the effect of OFEO treatment in rats with Triton-induced dyslipidemia (Tyloxapol WR1339). The physicochemical and chromatographic results confirmed the chemical composition of OFEO with a predominance of UFAs (67.83%), with Oleic acid being the majority (54.32%). At Triton-induced dyslipidemia, the animals treated with OFEO and Simvastatin showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol levels, with values ​​of 121.7±29.5 (pdyslipidemia, acting as antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertriglyceridemic, thus possibly contributing as a preventive agent for CVDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrochemical study on PVDF-HFP/silylated AI2O3-coated PE separators using the electron beam irradiation for lithium secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Joon Yong; Shin, Jun Hwa; Nho, Young Chang

    2010-01-01

    PVDF-HFP (binder)/silylated alumina (inorganic particle)-coated PE (polyethylene)separators were with various compositions of binder and inorganic particle were prepared by a dip-coating process with humidity control (R.H. 25% and 50%) using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of the coated PVDF-HFP/AI 2 O 3 layer with various compositions of PVDF-HFP and AI 2 O 3 , and humidity condition was found to be an important factor in determining ionic conductivity of the prepared separators. The PVDF-HFP/AI 2 O 3 (5/5)-coated PE separator prepared at R.H. 50% followed by electron beam irradiation at 200 kGy was applied for lithium-ion polymer battery and cell test results showed improved high-rate discharge performance and better cyclic stability compared to the cells with the bare PE and the PVDF-HFP-coated PE separators

  17. Triton X-100 inhibits agonist-induced currents and suppresses benzodiazepine modulation of GABA(A) receptors in Xenopus oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Ebert, Bjarke; Klaerke, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Changes in lipid bilayer elastic properties have been proposed to underlie the modulation of voltage-gated Na(+) and L-type Ca(2+) channels and GABA(A) receptors by amphiphiles. The amphiphile Triton X-100 increases the elasticity of lipid bilayers at micromolar concentrations, assessed from its...... by flunitrazepam at alpha(1)beta(3)gamma(2S) receptors. All effects were independent of the presence of a gamma(2S) subunit in the GABA(A) receptor complex. The present study suggests that Triton X-100 may stabilize open and desensitized states of the GABA(A) receptor through changes in lipid bilayer elasticity....

  18. Secondary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary hypertension Overview Secondary hypertension (secondary high blood pressure) is high blood pressure that's caused by another medical condition. Secondary hypertension can be caused by conditions that affect your kidneys, ...

  19. Purification and Identification of Membrane Proteins from Urinary Extracellular Vesicles using Triton X-114 Phase Partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuiwang; Musante, Luca; Tataruch, Dorota; Xu, Xiaomeng; Kretz, Oliver; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Luo, Haihua; Zou, Hequn; Jiang, Yong; Holthofer, Harry

    2018-01-05

    Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) have become a promising source for biomarkers accurately reflecting biochemical changes in kidney and urogenital diseases. Characteristically, uEVs are rich in membrane proteins associated with several cellular functions like adhesion, transport, and signaling. Hence, membrane proteins of uEVs should represent an exciting protein class with unique biological properties. In this study, we utilized uEVs to optimize the Triton X-114 detergent partitioning protocol targeted for membrane proteins and proceeded to their subsequent characterization while eliminating effects of Tamm-Horsfall protein, the most abundant interfering protein in urine. This is the first report aiming to enrich and characterize the integral transmembrane proteins present in human urinary vesicles. First, uEVs were enriched using a "hydrostatic filtration dialysis'' appliance, and then the enriched uEVs and lysates were verified by transmission electron microscopy. After using Triton X-114 phase partitioning, we generated an insoluble pellet fraction and aqueous phase (AP) and detergent phase (DP) fractions and analyzed them with LC-MS/MS. Both in- and off-gel protein digestion methods were used to reveal an increased number of membrane proteins of uEVs. After comparing with the identified proteins without phase separation as in our earlier publication, 199 different proteins were detected in DP. Prediction of transmembrane domains (TMDs) from these protein fractions showed that DP had more TMDs than other groups. The analyses of hydrophobicity revealed that the GRAVY score of DP was much higher than those of the other fractions. Furthermore, the analysis of proteins with lipid anchor revealed that DP proteins had more lipid anchors than other fractions. Additionally, KEGG pathway analysis showed that the DP proteins detected participate in endocytosis and signaling, which is consistent with the expected biological functions of membrane proteins. Finally

  20. Beam diagnostics for low energy beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Harasimowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-energetic ion and antimatter beams are very attractive for a number of fundamental studies. The diagnostics of such beams, however, is a challenge due to low currents down to only a few thousands of particles per second and significant fraction of energy loss in matter at keV beam energies. A modular set of particle detectors has been developed to suit the particular beam diagnostic needs of the ultralow-energy storage ring (USR at the future facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research, accommodating very low beam intensities at energies down to 20 keV. The detectors include beam-profile monitors based on scintillating screens and secondary electron emission, sensitive Faraday cups for absolute intensity measurements, and capacitive pickups for beam position monitoring. In this paper, the design of all detectors is presented in detail and results from beam measurements are shown. The resolution limits of all detectors are described and options for further improvement summarized. Whilst initially developed for the USR, the instrumentation described in this paper is also well suited for use in other low-intensity, low-energy accelerators, storage rings, and beam lines.

  1. Thresholds and Q values of nuclear reactions induced by neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, 3He ions, alpha particles, and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howerton, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The 1977 Wapstra and Bos nuclear mass data tables were used to derive tables for thresholds and Q values of nuclear reactions induced by neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, 3 He ions, alpha particles, and photons. The tables are displayed on microfiche included with the report

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT: TRITON SYSTEMS, LLC SOLID BOWL CENTRIFUGE, MODEL TS-5000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Triton Systems, LLC Solid Bowl Centrifuge Model TS-5000 (TS-5000) was conducted at the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory Swine Educational Unit in Raleigh, North Carolina. The TS-5000 was 48" in diameter and 30" deep, with a bowl capacity of 16 ft3. ...

  3. Triton X-114 cloud point extraction to subfractionate blood plasma proteins for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Flemming; Wulff, Tune

    2015-01-01

    -sterol acyltransferase, serum amyloid A, and serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1, which are proteins of a hydrophobic nature, as in plasma they relate to lipoprotein particles. Thus, Triton X-114-based CPE is a simple plasma prefractionation tool, attractive for detailed 2DE studies of hydrophobic plasma proteins...

  4. Measurements of confined alphas and tritons in the MHD quiescent core of TFTR plasmas using the pellet charge exchange diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Budny, R.V.; Mansfield, D.K.

    1996-05-01

    The energy distributions and radial density profiles of the fast confined trapped alpha particles in DT experiments on TFTR are being measured in the energy range 0.5--3.5 MeV using a Pellet Charge eXchange (PCX) diagnostic. A brief description of the measurement technique which involves active neutral particle analysis using the ablation cloud surrounding an injected impurity pellet as the neutralizer is presented. This paper focuses on alpha and triton measurements in the core of MHD quiescent TFTR discharges where the expected classical slowing down and pitch angle scattering effects are not complicated by stochastic ripple diffusion and sawtooth activity. In particular, the first measurement of the alpha slowing down distribution up to the birth energy, obtained using boron pellet injection, is presented. The measurements are compared with predictions using either the TRANSP Monte-Carlo code and/or a Fokker-Planck Post-TRANSP processor code, which assumes that the alphas and tritons are well confined and slow down classically. Both the shape of the measured alpha and triton energy distributions and their density ratios are in good agreement with the code calculations. The authors conclude that the PCX measurements are consistent with classical thermalization of the fusion-generated alphas and tritons

  5. Determination of the ratio of axial-vector-to-vector weak coupling constants for beta decay of triton

    CERN Document Server

    Akulov, Y A

    2002-01-01

    Data on the chemical shifts of half-lives for atomic and molecular tritium were used to determine the ratio of axial-vector-to-vector weak coupling constants for beta decay of triton (G sub A /G sub V) sub t = -1.2646 +- 0.0035

  6. Polypyrrole nanoparticles fabricated via Triton X-100 micelles template approach and their acetone gas sensing property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fake; Li, Hang [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Jiang, Hongmin [26th Research Institute, Chinese Electronics Scientific and Technical Group Company, Chongqing 400060 (China); Zhang, Kejun; Chang, Kai; Jia, Shuangrong; Jiang, Wenbin; Shang, Ya; Lu, Weiping [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Deng, Shaoli, E-mail: dengsl072@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Chen, Ming, E-mail: chenming1971@yahoo.com [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Nano-scaled polypyrrole (PPy) particles have been successfully synthesized with the help of Triton X-100 micelles via soft template approach. The polypyrrole nanoparticles have been spin-coated on surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers to demonstrate their sensing capability toward acetone gas exposure. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopes (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy have been utilized to characterize these PPy nanoparticles. The PPy nanoparticles have an average diameter of 95 nm. The responses of the sensors are linearly associated with the acetone concentrations in the range from 5.5 ppm to 80 ppm. In response to 5.5 ppm acetone exposure, the response and recovery time are 9 s and 8.3 s, respectively. SAW sensors coated with PPy nanoparticles were potentially useful to detect acetone.

  7. Polypyrrole nanoparticles fabricated via Triton X-100 micelles template approach and their acetone gas sensing property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fake; Li, Hang; Jiang, Hongmin; Zhang, Kejun; Chang, Kai; Jia, Shuangrong; Jiang, Wenbin; Shang, Ya; Lu, Weiping; Deng, Shaoli; Chen, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Nano-scaled polypyrrole (PPy) particles have been successfully synthesized with the help of Triton X-100 micelles via soft template approach. The polypyrrole nanoparticles have been spin-coated on surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers to demonstrate their sensing capability toward acetone gas exposure. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopes (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy have been utilized to characterize these PPy nanoparticles. The PPy nanoparticles have an average diameter of 95 nm. The responses of the sensors are linearly associated with the acetone concentrations in the range from 5.5 ppm to 80 ppm. In response to 5.5 ppm acetone exposure, the response and recovery time are 9 s and 8.3 s, respectively. SAW sensors coated with PPy nanoparticles were potentially useful to detect acetone.

  8. Secondary growth mechanism of SiGe islands deposited on a mixed-phase microcrystalline Si by ion beam co-sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, S Y; Yang, J; Qiu, F; Wang, Z Q; Wang, C; Yang, Y

    2015-11-06

    We discuss the SiGe island co-sputtering deposition on a microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si) buffer layer and the secondary island growth based on this pre-SiGe island layer. The growth phenomenon of SiGe islands on crystalline silicon (c-Si) is also investigated for comparison. The pre-SiGe layer grown on μc-Si exhibits a mixed-phase structure, including SiGe islands and amorphous SiGe (a-SiGe) alloy, while the layer deposited on c-Si shows a single-phase island structure. The preferential growth and Ostwald ripening growth are shown to be the secondary growth mechanism of SiGe islands on μc-Si and c-Si, respectively. This difference may result from the effect of amorphous phase Si (AP-Si) in μc-Si on the island growth. In addition, the Si-Ge intermixing behavior of the secondary-grown islands on μc-Si is interpreted by constructing the model of lateral atomic migration, while this behavior on c-Si is ascribed to traditional uphill atomic diffusion. It is found that the aspect ratios of the preferential-grown super islands are higher than those of the Ostwald-ripening ones. The lower lateral growth rate of super islands due to the lower surface energy of AP-Si on the μc-Si buffer layer for the non-wetting of Ge at 700 °C and the stronger Si-Ge intermixing effect at 730 °C may be responsible for this aspect ratio difference.

  9. Beam-beam phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    In colliding beam storage rings the beam collision regions are generally so short that the beam-beam interaction can be considered as a series of evenly spaced non-linear kicks superimposed on otherwise stable linear oscillations. Most of the numerical studies on computers were carried out in just this manner. But for some reason this model has not been extensively employed in analytical studies. This is perhaps because all analytical work has so far been done by mathematicians pursuing general transcendental features of non-linear mechanics for whom this specific model of the specific system of colliding beams is too parochial and too repugnantly physical. Be that as it may, this model is of direct interest to accelerator physicists and is amenable to (1) further simplification, (2) physical approximation, and (3) solution by analogy to known phenomena

  10. A comparison study of the 1MeV triton burn-up in JET using the HECTOR and SOCRATE codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini, G.; Kovanen, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The burn-up of the 1MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas has been measured in JET for various plasma conditions. To interpret these measurements the containment, slowing down and burn-up of fast tritons needs to be modelled with a reasonable accuracy. The numerical code SOCRATE has been written for this specific purpose and a second code, HECTOR, has been adapted to study the triton burn-up problem. In this paper we compare the results from the two codes in order to exclude possible errors in the numerical models, to assess their accuracy and to study the sensitivity of the calculation to various physical effects. (author)

  11. Modelling the line shape of very low energy peaks of positron beam induced secondary electrons measured using a time of flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, A J; Chirayath, V A; Gladen, R W; Chrysler, M D; Koymen, A R; Weiss, A H

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present results of numerical modelling of the University of Texas at Arlington’s time of flight positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectrometer (UTA TOF-PAES) using SIMION® 8.1 Ion and Electron Optics Simulator. The time of flight (TOF) spectrometer measures the energy of electrons emitted from the surface of a sample as a result of the interaction of low energy positrons with the sample surface. We have used SIMION® 8.1 to calculate the times of flight spectra of electrons leaving the sample surface with energies and angles dispersed according to distribution functions chosen to model the positron induced electron emission process and have thus obtained an estimate of the true electron energy distribution. The simulated TOF distribution was convolved with a Gaussian timing resolution function and compared to the experimental distribution. The broadening observed in the simulated TOF spectra was found to be consistent with that observed in the experimental secondary electron spectra of Cu generated as a result of positrons incident with energy 1.5 eV to 901 eV, when a timing resolution of 2.3 ns was assumed. (paper)

  12. Comparison of serpent and triton generated FEW group constants for APR1400 nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsawi, Mohamed A.; Alnoamani, Zainab

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of full-core reactor power calculations using diffusion codes is strongly dependent on the quality of the homogenized cross sections and other few-group constants generated by lattice codes. For many years, deterministic lattice codes have been used to generate these constants using different techniques: the discrete ordinates, collision probability or the method of characteristics, just to name a few. These codes, however, show some limitations, for example, on complex geometries or near heavy absorbers as in modern pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs like the Korean Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) core. The use of continuous-energy Monte Carlo (MC) codes to produce nuclear constants can be seen as an attractive option when dealing with fuel or reactor types that lie beyond the capabilities of conventional deterministic lattice transport codes. In this paper, the few-group constants generated by two of the state-of-the-art reactor physics codes, SERPENT and SCALE/TRITON, will be critically studied and their reliability for being used in subsequent diffusion calculations will be evaluated. SERPENT is a 3D, continuous-energy, Monte Carlo reactor physics code which has a built-in burn-up calculation capability. It has been developed at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) since 2004. SCALE/TRITON, on the other hand, is a control module developed within the framework of SCALE package that enables performing deterministic 2-D transport calculations on nuclear reactor core lattices. The approach followed in this paper is as follows. First, the few-group nuclear constants for the APR1400 reactor core were generated using SERPENT (version 2.1.22) and NEWT (in SCALE version 6.1.2) codes. For both codes, the critical spectrum, calculated using the B1 method, was used as a weighting function. Second, 2-D diffusion calculations were performed using the US NRC core simulator PARCS employing the two few-group constant sets generated in the first

  13. Beam intensity monitoring for the external proton beam at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.J.; Anderson, B.D.; Willard, H.B.; Anderson, A.N.; Jarmie, N.

    1975-07-01

    Three different intensity monitors were tested in the external proton beam at LAMPF, and together cover the entire range of beam currents available. A 800 kg Faraday cup was installed and used to measure the absolute intensity to better than 1 percent for beam currents up to several nanoamperes. A high gain ion chamber was used as part of the calibration procedure for the Faraday cup, and was found to be useful when monitoring very small beam intensities, being reliable down to the few picoampere level. A secondary emission monitor was also tested, calibrated, and found to be trustworthy only for beams of greater than 50 pA intensity. (auth)

  14. Radiolytic syntheses of hollow UO{sub 2} nanospheres in Triton X-100-based lyotropic liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yongming; Chen, Qingde; Shen, Xinghai [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Fundamental Science on Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry Lab.

    2017-08-01

    Hollow nanospheres (φ: 60-80 nm, wall thickness: 10-20 nm), consisted of UO{sub 2} nanoparticles (φ: 3-5 nm), were successfully prepared in a Triton X-100-water (50:50, w/w) hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) by γ-irradiation, where water soluble ammonium uranyl tricarbonate was added as precursor. The product was stable at least up to 300 C. Furthermore, whether the nanospheres were hollow or not, and the wall thickness of the hollow nanospheres could be easily controlled via adjusting dose rate. While in the Triton X-100 based micellar systems, only solid nanospheres were obtained. At last, a possible combination mechanism containing adsorption, aggregation and fracturing processes was proposed.

  15. Comparison of triton bound-state properties using different separable representations of realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schadow, W; Haidenbauer, J; Nogga, A

    2000-01-01

    The quality of two different separable expansion methods (W-matrix and Ernst-Shakin-Thaler) is investigated. We compare the triton binding energies and components of the triton wave functions obtained in this way with the results of the direct two-dimensional treatment. The Paris, Bonn A and Bonn B potentials are employed as underlying two-body interactions, their total angular momenta being incorporated up to j <= 2. It is found that the most accurate results based on the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler method agree within 1.5 % or better with the two-dimensional calculations, whereas the results for the W-matrix representation are less accurate. Refs. 29 (author)

  16. Bacterial properties changing under Triton X-100 presence in the diesel oil biodegradation systems: from surface and cellular changes to mono- and dioxygenases activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sałek, Karina; Kaczorek, Ewa; Guzik, Urszula; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Triton X-100, as one of the most popular surfactants used in bioremediation techniques, has been reported as an effective agent enhancing the biodegradation of hydrocarbons. However efficient, the surfactant's role in different processes that together enable the satisfying biodegradation should be thoroughly analysed and verified. In this research, we present the interactions of Triton X-100 with the bacterial surfaces (hydrophobicity and zeta potential), its influence on the enzymatic properties (considering mono- and dioxygenases) and profiles of fatty acids, which then all together were compared with the biodegradation rates. The addition of various concentrations of Triton X-100 to diesel oil system revealed different cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of the tested strains. The results demonstrated that for Pseudomonas stutzeri strain 9, higher diesel oil biodegradation was correlated with hydrophilic properties of the tested strain and lower Triton X-100 biodegradation. Furthermore, an increase of the branched fatty acids was observed for this strain.

  17. Monitor of SC beam profiles

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution secondary emission grid for the measurement of SC beam profiles. Modern techniques of metal-ceramic bonding, developed for micro-electronics, have been used in its construction. (See Annual Report 1977 p. 105 Fig. 12.)

  18. GANIL beam profile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribouillard, C.

    1997-01-01

    In the design phase of GANIL which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beamlines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The assembly of installed detectors (around 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beam extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beam, secondary ion beams from the production target of the LISE and SPEG spectrometers, different SPIRAL project lines. All of these detectors are based on standard characteristics: - standard flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; - identical analog electronics for all the detectors, with networking; - unique display system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (beam profile and ion packet lengths) make possible in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability. (author)

  19. The adsorption properties of short chain alcohols and Triton X-100 mixtures at the water-air interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziennicka, Anna

    2009-07-15

    The adsorption behaviour at the water-air interface of aqueous solutions of Triton X-100 and methanol (ethanol) mixtures at constant Triton X-100 (TX-100) concentration equal to 10(-7), 10(-6), 10(-5), 10(-4), 6x10(-4) and 10(-3)M, respectively, in a wide range of alcohol concentration was investigated by surface tension measurements of solutions. The obtained values of the surface tension of aqueous solutions of "pure" methanol and ethanol and their mixtures with TX-100, as well as the values of propanol solutions and their mixtures with TX-100 as a function of alcohol concentration taken from the literature were compared with those calculated from the Szyszkowski, Connors and Fainerman and Miller equations. On the basis of this comparison it was stated that these equations can be useful for description of the solution surface tension in the wide range of alcohol concentration, but only at the concentrations of Triton X-100 corresponding to its unsaturated layer in the absence of alcohol. It was also stated that the Connors equation is more adequate for concentrated aqueous organic solutions. The measured values of the surface tension were used in the Gibbs equation to determine the surface excess concentration of Triton X-100 and alcohol. Next, on the basis of Gibbs adsorption isotherms those of Guggenheim and Adam and real adsorption isotherms were established. From the obtained adsorption isotherms it results that alcohol influences the shape of TX-100 isotherms in the whole range of alcohol and TX-100 concentration, but TX-100 influences the alcohol isotherms only at TX-100 concentration at which the saturated monolayer at the solution-air interface is formed in the absence of alcohol. This conclusion was confirmed by analysis of the composition of the surface layer in comparison to the composition of the bulk phase in the equilibrium state.

  20. The hypolipidemic activity of Ayurvedic medicine, Arogyavardhini vati in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats: A comparison with fenofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gajendra; Srivastava, Amita; Sharma, Surinder Kumar; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor of coronary heart disease. Currently available hypolipidemic drugs have been associated with number of side effects. Arogyavardhini vati, an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation has been used for liver disorders. Therefore, present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Arogyavardhini vati in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity evaluation of Arogyavardhini vati against Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Overnight fasted male Wistar rats (150-200 g) were randomly divided into normal control group [4% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), i.p.], positive control group (Triton WR-1339 in 4% DMSO, 400 mg/kg, i.p.), standard drug treated (fenofibrate 65 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days after inducing hyperlipidemia) and Arogyavardhini vati treated (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days after inducing hyperlipidemia). Rat doses were calculated by extrapolating the equivalent human dose (therapeutic dose, sub-maximum, and maximum dose). Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein HDL, liver malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated at end of experiments. Arogyavardhini vati significantly decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and significantly increased serum HDL in a dose-dependent manner. Decreased MDA and increased GSH levels in liver were observed at all doses of Arogyavardhini vati (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) and fenofibrate-treated groups when compared with Triton-treated group. Atherogenic Index (AI) level was significantly decreased in fenofibrate and Arogyavardhini vati (200 mg/kg) treated rats when compared with normal control. Arogyavardhini vati, a traditionally used Ayurvedic medicine may be a useful therapy for hypercholesterolemia through reducing oxidative stress (decreasing MDA and increasing GSH) and lipid levels.

  1. TRITON, 3-D Multi-Region Neutron Diffusion Burnup with Criticality Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: TRITON is a multigroup diffusion depletion program in three dimensions (x,y,z). In addition to the straight K eff calculation, three types of criticality searches are possible - diluted control isotope search, region-wise smeared control isotope search, region-wise smeared control isotope search, region-wise smeared control isotope boundary search (the control isotope can be smeared over one region or over a group of regions called a control bank). The depletion equations are solved region-wise. More than one microscopic cross section library can be used in the various regions of the reactor. The same is true for self-shielding factors. Such sets of data can be changed at pre-determined time steps. 2 - Method of solution: The mathematical model employed for the solution of the finite difference equations, which is derived from a seven-point approximation of diffusion equations, is an on-line Chebyshev semi- iterative method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of: library sets: 1; self-shielding sets: 10; compositions: 100; self-shielding coefficients: 6000; groups: 10; fuel isotopes: 30; fission products: 29; isotopes: 50; burnable isotopes: 40; control banks: 100; mesh points: 15000; regions: 400; time steps: 100; control areas: 100; small time steps: 200; elements in the control list: 400; x planes: 100; y planes: 100; z planes: 100

  2. Dielectric properties of water in Triton X-100 (nonionic detergent)-water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Koji

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric measurements were carried out for mixtures of Triton X-100 (TX, a nonionic detergent with a poly(ethylene oxide) chain) and water with or without electrolytes over a frequency range of 1 MHz to 10 GHz to study the structure and dynamics of water molecules in the mixtures. Dielectric relaxation was found above 100 MHz, being assigned to the dielectric relaxation of water. The intensity of the dielectric relaxation was proportional to the water content above 0 deg. C. Below the freezing temperature of bulk water, the relaxation intensity decreased at TX concentrations (C TX ) below 50 wt% at -10 deg. Cand below 60 wt% at -20 deg. Cbecause frozen water shifts the dielectric relaxation to a frequency region far below 1 MHz. This indicated that there is no bulk water at C TX above 50 wt% and that at least two water molecules per ethylene oxide (EO) unit are tightly associated with the ethylene oxide chain. The low-frequency conductivity of the mixtures of TX and electrolyte solutions was well represented by Bruggeman's mixture equation at C TX below 40 wt%, if two water molecules per EO unit form an insulating shell surrounding TX micelles

  3. Triton, deuteron and proton responses of the CR-39 track detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Hiroyoshi; Oda, Keiji [Kobe Univ. of Mercantile Marine (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In the present study, we assessed the response of the CR-39 detector to proton, deuteron and triton from their etch-pit growth curves obtained by multi-step etching technique and the difference among their track registration properties was discussed. In order to avoid incorrect evaluation due to the missing track effect, particle irradiation was performed at various incident energies. The response function, S(R), etch rate ratio, S, as a function of the residual range, R, was experimentally evaluated for all hydrogen isotopes by this method. In the next, we obtained another form of response functions of S(E), S({beta}) and S(LET{sub 200}), which were presented as functions of the particle energy, E, the particle velocity, {beta}(=v/c), and the linear energy transfer in the case where the cut-off energy is 200 eV, LET{sub 200}, respectively. These information will be useful also in understanding the fundamentals of the latent track formation mechanism in the plastic track detectors. (J.P.N.)

  4. Enhancement of antitumor activity of OK-432 (picibanil) by Triton X-114 phase partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masahito; Takashige, Katsuhiro; Furuyashiki, Maiko; Yoshidome, Keitaro; Sano, Ryoko; Kawamura, Yutaka; Ijichi, Shinji; Morioka, Hirofumi; Koide, Hiroyuki; Oku, Naoto; Moriya, Yoichiro; Kusumoto, Shoich; Suda, Yasuo

    2008-01-01

    OK-432 (Picibanil), a Streptococcal immunotherapeutic agent, has been used for immunotherapy of various cancers as a biological response modifier (BRM). However, OK-432 contains multiple components consisting of immunotherapeutic ones and contaminants which may weaken the effects or exert side-effects. In this study, we investigated extraction of contaminants from OK-432 using Triton X-114 (TX-114)-water phase partitioning and examined an antitumor effect of the resulting preparation. OK-432 was subjected to TX-114 partitioning to give residual precipitate designated as OK-TX-ppt. OK-TX-ppt exerted no TLR2-mediated activity, but induced interleukin (IL)-6 in human PBMC. OK-TX-ppt also induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-10, IL-12, and interferon (IFN)-gamma in PBMC. Moreover, IFN-gamma-inducing activity of OK-TX-ppt was significantly higher and IL-10 production was lower than that of OK-432. In tumor-bearing mice model, administration of OK-TX-ppt i.p. extended the survival time of Meth-A-bearing mice compared to OK-432. OK-TX-ppt also increased the levels of IL-12 and IFN-gamma in mouse spleen cells in vitro. These results indicated that TX-114 partitioning removed some contaminants, which attenuates the antitumor effect, from OK-432 and increase the immunotherapeutic effects of OK-432.

  5. Subsurface energy storage and transport for solar-powered geysers on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Randolph L.; Soderblom, Laurence A.; Brown, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    The location of active geyser-like eruptions and related features close to the current subsolar latitude on Triton suggests a solar energy source for these phenomena. Solid-state greenhouse calculations have shown that sunlight can generate substantially elevated subsurface temperatures. A variety of models for the storage of solar energy in a subgreenhouse layer and for the supply of gas and energy to a geyser are examined. 'Leaky greenhouse' models with only vertical gas transport are inconsistent with the observed upper limit on geyser radius of about 1.5 km. However, lateral transport of energy by gas flow in a porous N2 layer with a block size on the order of a meter can supply the required amount of gas to a source region about 1 km in radius. The decline of gas output to steady state may occur over a period comparable with the inferred active geyser lifetime of 5 earth years. The required subsurface permeability may be maintained by thermal fracturing of the residual N2 polar cap. A lower limit on geyser source radius of about 50 to 100 m predicted by a theory of negatively buoyant jets is not readily attained.

  6. Triton X-100 functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawali, Santosh L.; Madan, Devendra P.; Barick, K. C.; Somani, R.; Hassan, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    We report the preparation of Triton X-100 functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (TXMNPs) and investigated their potential application in hyperthermia therapy. The formation of highly crystalline, spinel-structured Fe3O4 nanoparticles of average size of about 10 nm was evident from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectroscopy and zeta-potential measurements suggest the successful functionalization of nanoparticles with TX-100. These TXMNPs exhibit good colloidal stabilization in aqueous medium and show protein resistance characteristic in physiological medium. They showed excellent heating efficacy under AC magnetic field (AMF) with specific absorption rate (SAR) values of 146 and 260 W/g of Fe for 1.25 and 0.625 mg/ml of Fe, respectively at an applied AMF of 507 Oe and frequency of 300 kHz. Thus, these nanoparticles can be used as effective thermoseed for hyperthermia treatment of cancer.

  7. OECD benchmark a of MOX fueled PWR unit cells using SAS2H, triton and mocup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganda, F.; Greenspan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Three code systems are tested by applying them to calculate the OECD PWR MOX unit cell benchmark A. The codes tested are the SAS2H code sequence of the SCALE5 code package using 44 group library, MOCUP (MCNP4C + ORIGEN2), and the new TRITON depletion sequence of SCALE5 using 238 group cross sections generated using CENTRM with continuous energy cross sections. The burnup-dependent k ∞ and actinides concentration calculated by all three code-systems were found to be in good agreement with the OECD benchmark average results. Limited results were calculated also with the WIMS-ANL code package. WIMS-ANL was found to significantly under-predict k ∞ as well as the concentration of Pu 242 , consistently with the predictions of the WIMS-LWR reported by two of the OECD benchmark participants. Additionally, SAS2H is benchmarked against MOCUP for a hydride fuel containing unit cell, giving very satisfactory agreement. (authors)

  8. A Case of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor with Rhabdomyoblastic Differentiation: Malignant Triton Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Mae

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST constitute a rare variety of soft tissue sarcomas thought to originate from Schwann cells or pluripotent cells of the neural crest. Malignant triton tumor (MTT, a very rare, highly aggressive soft tissue tumor, is a subgroup of MPNST and is comprised of malignant Schwann cells coexisting with malignant rhabdomyoblasts. We herein report the case of a 24-year-old man who presented a subcutaneous mass in his right thigh. The mass was removed surgically in its entirety and radiation therapy was applied locally to prevent tumor regrowth. Nonetheless, the patient died 10 months after surgery from metastases to the lung and brain. He presented neither cafe-au-lait spots nor cutaneous neurofibromas. The histopathology showed a transition from a neurofibroma to an MTT, making this the second report of an MTT arising from a neurofibroma without neurofibromatosis type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder with which 50-70% of tumors reported in previous studies were associated. A histopathological examination using immunostaining with desmin confirmed this diagnosis. MTT has a poorer prognosis than MPNST and should therefore be regarded as a distinct clinical entity.

  9. Radioactive beam production at the Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.; Feinberg, B.; Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; McMahan, M.A.; Tanihata, I.

    1989-10-01

    At the Bevalac radioactive beams are routinely produced by the fragmentation process. The effectiveness of this process with respect to the secondary beam's emittance, intensity and energy spread depends critically on the nuclear reaction kinematics and the magnitude of the incident beam energy. When this beam energy significantly exceeds the energies of the nuclear reaction process, many of the qualities of the incident beam can be passed on to the secondary beam. Factors affecting secondary beam quality are discussed along with techniques for isolating and purifying a specific reaction product. The on-going radioactive beam program at the Bevalac is used as an example with applications, present performance and plans for the future. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausse, G.J.; Gram, P.A.M.

    1978-05-01

    A system used to monitor secondary beam profiles at the LAMPF Linac for channel tune-up and diagnostics is described. The multiwire proportional chamber design is discussed, and descriptions and drawings of the gate card, the amplifier/multiplexer card, the output amplifier card, and the overall system are given

  11. Some inner satellites of giant planets are still outgassing: Triton, Enceladus, Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    Process of atmospheric formation in the Solar system continues. There are three celestial bodies (except Earth) still emitting considerable amounts of volatiles though these bodies' masses do not allow keeping appreciable amounts of emitted volatiles in their vicinity and creating real atmospheres. It was earlier shown that the wave oscillations in form of stationary waves more or less rapidly changing their phases (plus to minus and inversely) sweep out volatiles from planetary depths [1]. These stationary waves, proportional in their amplitudes to the radii of tectonic granules (Mercury πR/16, Venus πR/6, Earth πR/4, Mars πR/2) and inversely proportional to orbital frequencies, form the planetary surface relief range of which increases with the solar distance [2]. In the opposite direction increases the sweeping out force of these waves and, consequently, atmospheric masses increase [3]. In the satellite systems of the outer giant planets this regularity is preserved in that the inner satellites (even small as Enceladus) surprisingly continue to push out volatiles. To do so, really very thorough washing out of entire body should be executed by very fine oscillations. Very fast orbits (Triton - 5.9 days; Enceladus - 1.37 d.; Io - 1.769 d.) secure this. Titan with rather fast orbit (16 d.) has enough mass and gravity to create and keep an atmosphere. Triton has a tenuous nitrogen atmosphere with small amounts of methane. A part of its crust (the southern "continental" segment) is dotted with geysers believed to erupt nitrogen with some admixture of dust entrained from beneath the surface. The geyser plumes are up to 8 km high. There are many streaks of dark material laid down by the geyser activity. Enceladus spews out icy material from the south pole region called "Tiger stripes". Some of the tiny ice particles go into Saturn orbit, forming the doughnut-shaped E ring ("detached Enceladus' atmosphere"). Io has at the moment more than 150 active volcanoes making

  12. Coherent beam-beam effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    There are two physical pictures that describe the beam-beam interaction in a storage ring collider: The weak-strong and the strong-strong pictures. Both pictures play a role in determining the beam-beam behavior. This review addresses only the strong-strong picture. The corresponding beam dynamical effects are referred to as the coherent beam-beam effects. Some basic knowledge of the weak-strong picture is assumed. To be specific, two beams of opposite charges are considered. (orig.)

  13. Thermodynamics of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100-cationic surfactants mixtures at the cloud point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batigoec, Cigdem; Akbas, Halide; Boz, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Non-ionic surfactants are used as emulsifier and solubilizate in such as textile, detergent and cosmetic. → Non-ionic surfactants occur phase separation at temperature as named the cloud point in solution. → Dimeric surfactants have attracted increasing attention due to their superior surface activity. → The positive values of ΔG cp 0 indicate that the process proceeds nonspontaneous. - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of gemini and conventional cationic surfactants on the cloud point (CP) of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) in aqueous solutions. Instead of visual observation, a spectrophotometer was used for measurement of the cloud point temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of these mixtures were calculated at different cationic surfactant concentrations. The gemini surfactants of the alkanediyl-α-ω-bis (alkyldimethylammonium) dibromide type, on the one hand, with different alkyl groups containing m carbon atoms and an ethanediyl spacer, referred to as 'm-2-m' (m = 10, 12, and 16) and, on the other hand, with -C 16 alkyl groups and different spacers containing s carbon atoms, referred to as '16-s-16' (s = 6 and 10) were synthesized, purified and characterized. Additions of the cationic surfactants to the TX-100 solution increased the cloud point temperature of the TX-100 solution. It was accepted that the solubility of non-ionic surfactant containing polyoxyethylene (POE) hydrophilic chain was a maximum at the cloud point so that the thermodynamic parameters were calculated at this temperature. The results showed that the standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG cp 0 ), the enthalpy (ΔH cp 0 ) and the entropy (ΔS cp 0 ) of the clouding phenomenon were found positive in all cases. The standard free energy (ΔG cp 0 ) increased with increasing hydrophobic alkyl chain for both gemini and conventional cationic surfactants; however, it decreased with increasing surfactant concentration.

  14. Time-dependent association between platelet-bound fibrinogen and the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerschke, E.I.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies indicated a correlation between the formation of EDTA-resistant (irreversible) platelet-fibrinogen interactions and platelet cytoskeleton formation. The present study explored the direct association of membrane-bound fibrinogen with the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeleton of aspirin-treated, gel-filtered platelets, activated but not aggregated with 20 mumol/L adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or 150 mU/mL human thrombin (THR) when bound fibrinogen had become resistant to dissociation by EDTA. Conversion of exogenous 125I-fibrinogen to fibrin was prevented by adding Gly-Pro-Arg and neutralizing THR with hirudin before initiating binding studies. After 60 minutes at 22 degrees C, the cytoskeleton of ADP-treated platelets contained 20% +/- 12% (mean +/- SD, n = 14) of membrane-bound 125I-fibrinogen, representing 10% to 50% of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding. The THR-activated cytoskeleton contained 45% +/- 15% of platelet bound fibrinogen, comprising 80% to 100% of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding. 125I-fibrinogen was not recovered with platelet cytoskeletons if binding was inhibited by the RGDS peptide, excess unlabeled fibrinogen, or disruption of the glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complex by EDTA-treatment. Both development of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding and fibrinogen association with the cytoskeleton were time dependent and reached maxima 45 to 60 minutes after fibrinogen binding to stimulated platelets. Although a larger cytoskeleton formed after platelet stimulation with thrombin as compared with ADP, no change in cytoskeleton composition was noted with development of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding

  15. Membrane-surfactant interactions. The role of surfactant in mitochondrial complex III-phospholipid-Triton X-100 mixed micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valpuesta, J.M.; Arrondo, J.L.; Barbero, M.C.; Pons, M.; Goni, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) was purified from beef heart mitochondria in the form of protein-phospholipid-Triton X-100 mixed micelles (about 1:80:100 molar ratio). Detergent may be totally removed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the resulting lipoprotein complexes retain full enzyme activity. In order to understand the role of surfactant in the mixed micelles, and the interaction of Triton X-100 with integral membrane proteins and phospholipid bilayers, both the protein-lipid-surfactant mixed micelles and the detergent-free lipoprotein system were examined from the point of view of particle size and ultrastructure, enzyme activity, tryptophan fluorescence quenching, 31P NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NMR and IR spectroscopic studies show that surfactant withdrawal induces a profound change in phospholipid architecture, from a micellar to a lamellar-like phase. However, electron microscopic observations fail to reveal the existence of lipid bilayers in the absence of detergent. We suggest that, under these conditions, the lipid:protein molar ratio (80:1) is too low to permit the formation of lipid bilayer planes, but the relative orientation and mobility of phospholipids with respect to proteins is similar to that of the lamellar phase. Protein conformational changes are also detected as a consequence of surfactant removal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates an increase of peptide beta-structure in the absence of Triton X-100; changes in the amide II/amide I intensity ratio are also detected, although the precise meaning of these observations is unclear

  16. Inhibitory effect of non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series on the corrosion of carbon steel in sulphuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs-Godec, R.

    2007-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition characteristics of non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series, known as TRITON-X-100 and TRITON-X-405, on stainless steel (SS) type X4Cr13 in sulphuric acid were investigated by potentiodynamic polarisation measurements. It was found that these surfactants act as good inhibitors of the corrosion of stainless steel in 2 mol L -1 H 2 SO 4 solution, but the inhibition efficiency strongly depends on the electrode potential. The polarisation data showed that the non-ionic surfactants used in this study acted as mixed-type inhibitors and adsorb on the stainless steel surface, in agreement with the Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherm. Calculated ΔG ads values are -57.79 kJ mol -1 for TRITON-X-100, and -87.5 kJ mol -1 for TRITON-X-405. From the molecular structure it can be supposed that these surfactants adsorb on the metal surface through two lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atoms of the hydrophilic head group, suggesting a chemisorption mechanism

  17. [Secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice.

  18. Study of the triton-burnup process in different JET scenarios using neutron monitor based on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemtsev, G., E-mail: g.nemtsev@iterrf.ru; Amosov, V.; Meshchaninov, S.; Rodionov, R. [Institution “Project center ITER,” Moscow (Russian Federation); Popovichev, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Collaboration: EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    We present the results of analysis of triton burn-up process using the data from diamond detector. Neutron monitor based on CVD diamond was installed in JET torus hall close to the plasma center. We measure the part of 14 MeV neutrons in scenarios where plasma current varies in a range of 1-3 MA. In this experiment diamond neutron monitor was also able to detect strong gamma bursts produced by runaway electrons arising during the disruptions. We can conclude that CVD diamond detector will contribute to the study of fast particles confinement and help predict the disruption events in future tokamaks.

  19. Lead preconcentration in synthetic samples with triton x-114 in the cloud point extraction and analysis by atomic absorption (EAAF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zegarra Pisconti, Marixa; Cjuno Huanca, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    A methodology was developed about lead preconcentration in water samples that were added dithizone as complexing agent, previously dissolved in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114, until the formation of the critical micelle concentration and the cloud point temperature. The centrifuged system gave a precipitate with high concentrations of Pb (II) that was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy with flame (EAAF). The method has proved feasible to be implemented as a method of preconcentration and analysis of Pb in aqueous samples with concentrations less than 1 ppm. Several parameters were evaluated to obtain a percentage recovery of 89.8%. (author)

  20. Secondary emission monitor (SEM) grids.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    A great variety of Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM) are used all over the PS Complex. At other accelerators they are also called wire-grids, harps, etc. They are used to measure beam density profiles (from which beam size and emittance can be derived) in single-pass locations (not on circulating beams). Top left: two individual wire-planes. Top right: a combination of a horizontal and a vertical wire plane. Bottom left: a ribbon grid in its frame, with connecting wires. Bottom right: a SEM-grid with its insertion/retraction mechanism.

  1. Micelle size modulation and phase behavior in MEGA-10/Triton X-100 mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naous, M., E-mail: elzahraadz@yahoo.fr; Molina-Bolívar, J.A.; Ruiz, C. Carnero, E-mail: ccarnero@uma.es

    2014-12-20

    Highlights: • The size of micelles was studied as a function of the micellar composition, NaCl addition and temperature. • Cloud point can be modulated by changing both micellar composition and NaCl addition. • The energetic quantities at the cloud point were evaluated and discussed. - Abstract: This paper reports the effect of temperature and NaCl addition on micelle size and phase behavior in mixtures of N-decanoyl-N-methylglucamide (MEGA-10) and p-tert-octyl-phenoxy polyethylene (9.5) ether (Triton X-100 or TX100). The size of mixed micelles, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), was found to increase with temperature but to be less pronounced at higher proportions of MEGA-10 in the solution. The cloud point was found to increase with an initial increase in the percentage of sugar-based surfactant in the mixture. This phase separation was sensitive to the presence of NaCl in the micellar solution, which induced a cloud point depression, thereby suggesting that the presence of electrolyte produces a marked alteration of the hydration layer of micelles. A thermodynamic analysis was performed assuming the clouding phenomenon to be a liquid–liquid phase-separation process. The resulting ΔG{sub CP}{sup 0} values were positive for all solutions. The cloud point process was exothermic in nature for the mixed micellar system, as proven by the negative value of ΔH{sub CP}{sup 0}. The process was more exothermic as the proportion of sugar-based surfactant in the mixed micelle increased (with and without NaCl in the solution). Furthermore, the negative values of ΔS{sub CP}{sup 0} indicate that the association of micelles in the clouding phenomenon is entropically unfavorable. It was observed from the enthalpy–temperature plots that the change in heat capacity is negative, thus indicating the important role played by dehydration in this thermodynamic process. This study found that the enthalpy–entropy compensation relationship holds for this

  2. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from Triton X-100 to 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol: Varying FRET efficiency with CMC of the donor (Triton X-100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Karmakar, Saswati; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    A heterocyclic compound viz., 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol (4B2YP) has been synthesized and its photophysics have been examined through steady-state absorption, emission and time resolved emission spectroscopic techniques, in brief. Then 4B2YP has been exploited as an acceptor in the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) process from photoexcited benzene aromatic nucleus of Triton X-100 (TX-100) surfactant. Dependence of the energy transfer efficiency on the donor concentration with respect to its critical micelle concentration (CMC) is clearly reflected in the study. High values of Stern–Volmer constant (K SV ) for quenching of the donor fluorescence in the presence of the acceptor suggest the operation of long-range dipole–dipole interaction in the course of energy transfer process, while the inference is aptly supported from time resolved fluorescence decay results. Experimental results show maximum FRET efficiency at the CMC of the donor (TX-100). -- Highlights: • FRET from neutral surfactant Triton X-100 to chromophore 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol. • Steady state and time resolved spectroscopy. • Long-range dipole–dipole interaction responsible for FRET. • FRET efficiency as a measure of CMC of surfactant

  3. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from Triton X-100 to 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol: Varying FRET efficiency with CMC of the donor (Triton X-100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar, E-mail: bijan.paul.chem.cu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India); Ganguly, Aniruddha [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India); Karmakar, Saswati [Department of Chemistry, Sree Chaitanya College, Habra, North 24 Parganas (India); Guchhait, Nikhil, E-mail: nguchhait@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India)

    2013-11-15

    A heterocyclic compound viz., 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol (4B2YP) has been synthesized and its photophysics have been examined through steady-state absorption, emission and time resolved emission spectroscopic techniques, in brief. Then 4B2YP has been exploited as an acceptor in the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) process from photoexcited benzene aromatic nucleus of Triton X-100 (TX-100) surfactant. Dependence of the energy transfer efficiency on the donor concentration with respect to its critical micelle concentration (CMC) is clearly reflected in the study. High values of Stern–Volmer constant (K{sub SV}) for quenching of the donor fluorescence in the presence of the acceptor suggest the operation of long-range dipole–dipole interaction in the course of energy transfer process, while the inference is aptly supported from time resolved fluorescence decay results. Experimental results show maximum FRET efficiency at the CMC of the donor (TX-100). -- Highlights: • FRET from neutral surfactant Triton X-100 to chromophore 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol. • Steady state and time resolved spectroscopy. • Long-range dipole–dipole interaction responsible for FRET. • FRET efficiency as a measure of CMC of surfactant.

  4. High current density ion beam measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W.C.; Sawatzky, E.

    1976-01-01

    High ion beam current measurements are difficult due to the presence of the secondary particles and beam neutralization. For long Faraday cages, true current can be obtained only by negative bias on the target and by summing the cage wall and target currents; otherwise, the beam will be greatly distorted. For short Faraday cages, a combination of small magnetic field and the negative target bias results in correct beam current. Either component alone does not give true current

  5. Secondary Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Thomas D.

    Secondary evaluations, in which an investigator takes a body of evaluation data collected by a primary evaluation researcher and examines the data to see if the original conclusions about the program correspond with his own, are discussed. The different kinds of secondary evaluations and the advantages and disadvantages of each are pointed out,…

  6. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni [Shoreham, NY; Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Setauket, NY

    2009-10-13

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  7. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  8. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendelbury, J.M.; Smith, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Studies with directed collision-free beams of particles continue to play an important role in the development of modern physics and chemistry. The deflections suffered by such beams as they pass through electric and magnetic fields or laser radiation provide some of the most direct information about the individual constituents of the beam; the scattering observed when two beams intersect yields important data about the intermolecular forces responsible for the scattering. (author)

  9. Modeling of neutron emission spectroscopy in JET discharges with fast tritons from (T)D ion cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.; Andersson Sunden, E.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Kaellne, J.; Ronchi, E.; Sjoestrand, H.; Weiszflog, M.; Johnson, T.; Lamalle, P. U.

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of fast ion populations is one of the diagnostic capabilities provided by neutron emission spectroscopy (NES). NES measurements were carried out during JET trace tritium campaign with the magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer. A favorable plasma scenario is (T)D where the resulting 14 MeV neutron yield is dominated by suprathermal emission from energetic tritons accelerated by radio frequency at their fundamental cyclotron frequency. Information on the triton distribution function has been derived from NES data with a simple model based on two components referred to as bulk (B) and high energy (HE). The HE component is based on strongly anisotropic tritium distribution that can be used for routine best-fit analysis to provide tail temperature values (T HE ). This article addresses to what extent the T HE values are model dependent by comparing the model above with a two-temperature (bi-) Maxwellian model featuring parallel and perpendicular temperatures. The bi-Maxwellian model is strongly anisotropic and frequently used for radio frequency theory

  10. A calculational procedure for neutronic and depletion analysis of Molten-Salt reactors based on SCALE6/TRITON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, R.J.; Chang, J.S.; Liu, Y.-W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Molten-Salt Reactors (MSRs) represent one of the selected categories in the GEN-IV program. This type of reactor is distinguished by the use of liquid fuel circulating in and out of the core, which makes it possible for online refueling and salt processing. However, this operation characteristic also complicates the modeling and simulation of reactor core behaviour using conventional neutronic codes. The TRITON sequence in the SCALE6 code system has been designed to provide the combined capabilities of problem-dependent cross-section processing, rigorous treatment of neutron transport, and coupled with the ORIGEN-S depletion calculations. In order to accommodate the simulation of dynamic refueling and processing scheme, an in-house program REFRESH together with a run script are developed for carrying out a series of stepwise TRITON calculations, that makes the work of analyzing the neutronic properties and performance of a MSR core design easier. As a demonstration and cross check, we have applied this method to reexamine the conceptual design of Molten Salt Actinide Recycler & Transmuter (MOSART). This paper summarizes the development of the method and preliminary results of its application on MOSART. (author)

  11. The ideal neutrino beams

    CERN Document Server

    Lindroos, Mats

    2009-01-01

    The advance in neutrino oscillation physics is driven by the availability of well characterized and high flux neutrino beams. The three present options for the next generation neutrino oscillation facility are super beams, neutrino factories and beta-beams. A super-beam is a very high intensity classical neutrino beam generated by protons impinging on a target where the neutrinos are generated by the secondary particles decaying in a tunnel down streams of the target. In a neutrino factory the neutrinos are generated from muons decaying in a storage ring with long straight sections pointing towards the detectors. In a beta-beam the neutrinos are also originating from decay in a storage ring but the decaying particles are radioactive ions rather than muons. I will in this presentation review the three options and discuss the pros and cons of each. The present joint design effort for a future high intensity neutrino oscillation in Europe within a common EU supported design study, EURONU, will also be presented....

  12. The ideal neutrino beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, Mats

    2009-06-01

    The advance in neutrino oscillation physics is driven by the availability of well characterized and high flux neutrino beams. The three present options for the next generation neutrino oscillation facility are super beams, neutrino factories and beta-beams. A super-beam is a very high intensity classical neutrino beam generated by protons impinging on a target where the neutrinos are generated by the secondary particles decaying in a tunnel down streams of the target. In a neutrino factory the neutrinos are generated from muons decaying in a storage ring with long straight sections pointing towards the detectors. In a beta-beam the neutrinos are also originating from decay in a storage ring but the decaying particles are radioactive ions rather than muons. I will in this presentation review the three options and discuss the pros and cons of each. The present joint design effort for a future high intensity neutrino oscillation in Europe within a common EU supported design study, EURONU, will also be presented. The design study will explore the physics reach, the detectors, the feasibility, the safety issues and the cost for each of the options so that the the community can take a decision on what to build when the facilities presently under exploitation and construction have to be replaced.

  13. Beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the open-quotes Boosterclose quotes and open-quotes ATLASclose quotes linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates

  14. Secondary Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the medical history or examination to suggest secondary headache. Headache can be caused by general medical conditions such as severe hypertension, or by conditions that affect the brain and ...

  15. THE SECONDARY EXTINCTION CORRECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariasen, W. H.

    1963-03-15

    It is shown that Darwin's formula for the secondary extinction correction, which has been universally accepted and extensively used, contains an appreciable error in the x-ray diffraction case. The correct formula is derived. As a first order correction for secondary extinction, Darwin showed that one should use an effective absorption coefficient mu + gQ where an unpolarized incident beam is presumed. The new derivation shows that the effective absorption coefficient is mu + 2gQ(1 + cos/sup 4/2 theta )/(1 plus or minus cos/sup 2/2 theta )/s up 2/, which gives mu + gQ at theta =0 deg and theta = 90 deg , but mu + 2gQ at theta = 45 deg . Darwin's theory remains valid when applied to neutron diffraction. (auth)

  16. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Sayed, Mostafa M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    . In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary

  17. High energy high intensity coherent photon beam for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    What is proposed for the 20 TeV protons hitting a fixed target is to make a tertiary electron beam similar to that which is the basis of the tagged photon beam at Fermilab. Briefly, a zero degree neutral beam is formed by sweeping out the primary proton beam and any secondary charged particles. Then the photons, from the decay of π 0 in the neutral beam, are converted to e + e - pairs in a lead converter and a high quality electron beam is formed. This beam is brought to the target area where it is converted to a photon beam by Bremsstrahlung in a radiator

  18. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of cyanide by means of the colour reaction of silver with cadion 2B in presence of triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Rui, Z; Fu-Sheng, W; Fang, Y

    1983-10-01

    Silver gives a colour reaction with cadion 2B in the presence of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100, and the suppression of the colour by competitive complexation of the silver can be used for the spectrophotometric determination of cyanide. Cyanide in waste water can be separated by distillation from other ions that also interfere, and then determined.

  19. Molecular basis of interactions between mitochondrial proteins and hydroxyapatite in the presence of Triton X-100, as revealed by proteomic and recombinant techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takenori; Tamaki, Haruna; Katsuda, Chie; Nakatani, Kiwami; Terauchi, Satsuki; Terada, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Yasuo

    2013-08-02

    Hydroxyapatite chromatography is a very important step in the purification of voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) and several members of solute carrier family 25 (Slc25) from isolated mitochondria. In the presence of Triton X-100, VDACs and Slc25 members present a peculiar property, i.e., a lack of interaction with hydroxyapatite, resulting in their presence in the flow-through fraction of hydroxyapatite chromatography. This property has allowed selective isolation of VDACs and Slc25 members from a mixture of total mitochondrial proteins. However, the reason why only these few proteins are selectively obtained in the presence of Triton X-100 from the flow-though fraction of hydroxyapatite chromatography has not yet been adequately understood. In this study, when we examined the protein species in the flow-through fractions by proteomic analysis, VDAC isoforms, Slc25 members, and some other membrane proteins were identified. All the mitochondrial proteins had in common high hydrophobicity over their entire protein sequences. When the proteins were fused to soluble proteins, the fused proteins showed affinity for hydroxyapatite even in the presence of Triton X-100. Based on these results, we discussed the molecular basis of the interactions between proteins and hydroxyapatite in the presence of Triton X-100. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Triton X-114 based cloud point extraction: a thermoreversible approach for separation/concentration and dispersion of nanomaterials in the aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-fu; Liu, Rui; Yin, Yong-guang; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2009-03-28

    Capable of preserving the sizes and shapes of nanomaterials during the phase transferring, Triton X-114 based cloud point extraction provides a general, simple, and cost-effective route for reversible concentration/separation or dispersion of various nanomaterials in the aqueous phase.

  1. Theoretical analysis of the total cross section of hyper-triton-nucleus interaction in the framework of the three-cluster diffraction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlanov, M.V.; Sokolov, A.M.; Tartakovskij, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    Using numerical calculations the investigation of the influence of triple scattering, finite-range of nuclear Λd and np forces and general structure of the hyper-triton on the total cross section of diffraction interaction of Λ 3 H with different nuclei at high energies is performed. It is shown that the factors mentioned above can noticeably influence the cross section

  2. Secondary electron emission from insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, K.; Ono, S.; Ishigaki, F.

    1978-01-01

    The high yield of secondary electron emission from insulators due to electron bombardment may be the result of an increase of the depth of escape. The free-electron scattering theory is applied to the high energy of primary beams, but cannot be applied to the low energy of secondary escaping beams because of the large energy gap of the insulators. The plasmon loss with the valence electron is considered when the secondary electrons escape. Based on the energy retardation power formula of the penetration and energy loss of an electron probe into solid targets, secondary electron emissions from insulators are calculated from the assumptions that the distribution of the secondary electrons due to both incident and back-scattered electrons within the target is isotropic and that it follows the absorption law of the Lenard type. The universal yield-energy curve of the secondary electron emission, which is deduced as a function of three parameters such as ionisation potential, valence electron and the back-scattered coefficient in addition to the free-electron density effect, is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  3. Cloud point extraction for the determination of heavy metals by nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 and PAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera Puig, I.; Perez Gramatges, A.

    2006-01-01

    A novel methodology for extraction and preconcentration of trace metals based on cloud point phenomenon was applied to the analysis of Co(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) y Ni(II) in a certified reference material (CRM), using Triton X-100 as nonionic surfactant, and AAS for the determination. Different parameters that can influence the extraction efficiency were studied, such as pH and ionic strength of the solution. The precision, accuracy and detection limits of the method were determined using a CRM from the Environmental Analysis Laboratory of InSTEC. We applied our methodology to the detection of the metals in naturals waters (Almendares river and tap water) . The data obtained presented in this work is part of the validation file of the proposed analytical procedure for the determination of heavy metals

  4. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  5. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  6. Standard beam PWC for Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenker, H.

    1983-02-01

    As one of its projects the Fermilab Experimental Areas Department has been designed and tested a relatively small proportional wire chamber for use in the secondary beam lines. It is intended to supplement the variety of detectors known in the vernacular as SWICS that are used to obtain profiles for beam tuning. The new detector, described in this report, operates in the limited proportional mode and allows experimenters to use a standard, lab supported device for associating trajectories of individual beam particles with events triggering their own experiment's apparatus. A completed triple plane module is shown

  7. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of a Gaussian beam (GB) into a symmetrical higher order TEMp0 Laguerre Gaussian beam (LGB) intensity distribution of which is further rectified and transformed into a Gaussian intensity distribution in the plane of a converging...

  8. Performance of the KTeV high-energy neutral kaon beam at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocean, V.

    1998-01-01

    The performance of the primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E832 and E799-II is reviewed. The beam was commissioned in the summer of 1996 and initially operated for approximately one year. The report includes results on the primary beam, target station including primary beam dump and muon sweeping system, neutral beam collimation system, and alignment

  9. Design of a new low momentum kaon beam for the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The low momentum beam described is to be a unique source of antiprotons as well as kaons. The discussion covers (1) choice of production angle; (2) secondary beams; (3) the use of sector dipole magnets for minimizing aberrations; (4) beam bending magnets; (5) beam separators; and (6) beam acceptance

  10. Coherent beam-beam effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.; Keil, E.

    1979-06-01

    The stability of the coherent beam-beam effect between rigid bunches is studied analytically and numerically for a linear force by evaluating eigenvalues. For a realistic force, the stability is investigated by following the bunches for many revolutions. 4 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Numerical simulation of electron beam welding with beam oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushnikov, D. N.; Permyakov, G. L.

    2017-02-01

    This research examines the process of electron-beam welding in a keyhole mode with the use of beam oscillations. We study the impact of various beam oscillations and their parameters on the shape of the keyhole, the flow of heat and mass transfer processes and weld parameters to develop methodological recommendations. A numerical three-dimensional mathematical model of electron beam welding is presented. The model was developed on the basis of a heat conduction equation and a Navier-Stokes equation taking into account phase transitions at the interface of a solid and liquid phase and thermocapillary convection (Marangoni effect). The shape of the keyhole is determined based on experimental data on the parameters of the secondary signal by using the method of a synchronous accumulation. Calculations of thermal and hydrodynamic processes were carried out based on a computer cluster, using a simulation package COMSOL Multiphysics.

  12. Secondary-electron-bremsstrahlung imaging for proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Mitsutaka; Nagao, Yuto [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Quantum Beam Science Research Directorate, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan); Ando, Koki; Yamamoto, Seiichi [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-Ku, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Toshito, Toshiyuki [Department of Proton Therapy Physics, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, 1-1-1 Hirate-cho, Kita-Ku, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Kataoka, Jun [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kawachi, Naoki [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Quantum Beam Science Research Directorate, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    2016-10-11

    A feasibility study on an imaging technique of a therapeutic proton-beam trajectory using a gamma camera by measuring secondary electron bremsstrahlung (SEB) was performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and a beam-irradiation experiment. From the simulation and experimental results, it was found that a significant amount of SEB yield exists between the beam-injection surface and the range position along the beam axis and the beam trajectory is clearly imaged by the SEB yield. It is concluded that the SEB imaging is a promising technique for monitoring of therapeutic proton-beam trajectories.

  13. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  14. Secondary osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, C; Martini, G; Nuti, R

    1998-06-01

    Generalized osteoporosis currently represents a heterogeneous group of conditions with many different causes and pathogenetic mechanisms, that often are variably associated. The term "secondary" is applied to all patients with osteoporosis in whom the identifiable causal factors are other than menopause and aging. In this heterogeneous group of conditions, produced by many different pathogenetic mechanisms, a negative bone balance may be variably associated with low, normal or increased bone remodeling states. A consistent group of secondary osteoporosis is related to endocrinological or iatrogenic causes. Exogenous hypercortisolism may be considered an important risk factor for secondary osteoporosis in the community, and probably glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most common type of secondary osteoporosis. Supraphysiological doses of corticosteroids cause two abnormalities in bone metabolism: a relative increase in bone resorption, and a relative reduction in bone formation. Bone loss, mostly of trabecular bone, with its resultant fractures is the most incapacitating consequence of osteoporosis. The estimated incidence of fractures in patients prescribed corticosteroid is 30% to 50%. Osteoporosis is considered one of the potentially serious side effects of heparin therapy. The occurrence of heparin-induced osteoporosis appeared to be strictly related to the length of treatment (over 4-5 months), and the dosage (15,000 U or more daily), but the pathogenesis is poorly understood. It has been suggested that heparin could cause an increase in bone resorption by increasing the number of differentiated osteoclasts, and by enhancing the activity of individual osteoclasts. Hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with loss of trabecular and cortical bone; the enhanced bone turnover that develops in thyrotoxicosis is characterized by an increase in the number of osteoclasts and resorption sites, and an increase in the ratio of resorptive to formative bone

  15. Comparison of results for burning with BWR reactors CASMO and SCALE 6.2 (TRITON / NEWT); Comparacion de los resultados de quemado para reactores BWR con CASMO y SCALE 6.2 (TRITON/NEWT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesado, C.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we compare the results from two codes burned, CASMO and SCALE 6.2 (TRITON). To do this, is simulated all segments corresponding to a boiling water reactor (BWR) using both codes. In addition, to account for different working points, simulations changing the instantaneous variables, these are repeated: void fractions (6 points), fuel temperature (6 points) and control rods (two points), with a total of 72 possible combinations of different instantaneous variables for each segment. After all simulations are completed for each segment, we can reorder the obtained cross sections, as SCALE CASMO both, to create a library of compositions nemtab format. This format is accepted by the neutronic code of nodal diffusion, PARCS v2.7. Finally compares the results obtained with PARCS and with the SIMULATE3 -SIMTAB methodology to level of full reactor. Also, we have made use of the KENO-VI and MCDANCOFF modules belonging to SCALE. The first is a Monte Carlo transport code with which you can validate the value of the multiplier, the second has been used to obtain values of Dancoff factor and increase the accuracy of model SCALE. (Author)

  16. Secondary osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, I T

    1993-10-01

    Osteoporosis with attendant increased fracture risk is a common complication of many other diseases. Indeed, almost all chronic diseases make some impact on life-style, usually by restricting physical activity and hence reducing the anabolic effect of exercise and gravitational strains on the skeleton. Restricted appetite and modified gastrointestinal tract function is another commonplace finding that has an impact on bone nutrition and synthesis, as on other systems. Sex hormone status is of particular importance for the maintenance of the normal skeleton, and the postmenopausal woman is at particular risk for most causes of secondary osteoporosis. In dealing with secondary osteoporosis in the hypo-oestrogenic woman, the question of giving hormone replacement therapy in addition to other disease-specific therapy should always be considered, as, for example, in a young amenorrhoeic woman with Crohn's disease. Similarly, in hypogonadal men the administration of testosterone is useful for bone conservation. The wider availability of bone densitometry ought to make us more aware of the presence of osteoporosis in the many disease states discussed above. This is particularly important as the life span of such patients is now increased by improved management of the underlying disease process in many instances. Even in steroid-induced osteoporosis--one of the commonest and most severe forms of osteoporosis--we now have some effective therapy in the form of the bisphosphonates and other anti-bone-resorbing drug classes. The possibility of prophylaxis against secondary osteoporosis has therefore become a possibility, although the very long-term effects of such drug regimens are still unknown. In some situations, such as thyrotoxicosis, Cushing's syndrome and immobilization, spontaneous resolution of at least part of the osteoporosis is possible after cure of the underlying problem. The shorter the existence of the basic problem, the more successful the restoration of the

  17. High-Yield and Sustainable Production of Phosphatidylserine in Purely Aqueous Solutions via Adsorption of Phosphatidylcholine on Triton-X-100-Modified Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Binglin; Wang, Jiao; Li, Huanyu; Zhao, Binxia

    2017-12-13

    Triton X-100 was covalently bound to a surface of silica and acted as an anchor molecule to facilitate the adsorption of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in a purely aqueous solution. The silica-adsorbed PC obtained was successfully used for phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated transphosphatidylation in the production of phosphatidylserine (PS). Organic solvents were completely avoided in the whole production process. The PC loading and PS yield reached 98.9 and 99.0%, respectively. Two adsorption models were studied, and the relevant parameters were calculated to help us understand the adsorption and reaction processes deeply. In addition, the silica-adsorbed PC provides a promising way to continuously biosynthesize PS. A packed-bed reactor was employed to demonstrate the process flow of the continuous production of PS. The recyclability and stability of the Triton-X-100-modified silica were excellent, as demonstrated by its use 30 times during continuous operation without any loss of the productivity.

  18. The Equilibrium and Pre-equilibrium Triton Emission Spectra of Some Target Nuclei for ( n, xt) Reactions up to 45 MeV Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, E.; Kaplan, A.; Aydın, A.; Özkorucuklu, S.; Büyükuslu, H.; Yıldırım, G.

    2010-08-01

    Although there have been significant research and development studies on the inertial and magnetic fusion reactor technology, there is still a long way to go to penetrate commercial fusion reactors to the energy market. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. So, working out the systematics of ( n,t) reaction cross sections and triton emission differential data are important for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at different energies. In this study, ( n,xt) reactions for some target nuclei as 16O, 27Al, 59Co and 209Bi have been investigated up to 45 MeV incident neutron energy. In the calculations of the triton emission spectra, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been used. The calculated results have been compared with the experimental data taken from the literature.

  19. Physical profile data collected in the Equatorial Pacific during cruises to service the TAO/TRITON array, a network of deep ocean moored buoys, February 23 - December 16, 2005 (NODC Accession 0002644)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 2005, CTD data were collected in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during cruises to service the TAO/TRITON array, a network of deep ocean moored buoys to support...

  20. Physical profile and meteorological data from CTD casts during cruises to service the TAO/TRITON buoys in the equatorial Pacific from 02 March 2002 to 22 November 2002 (NODC Accession 0000945)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical profile data and meteorological data were collected from CTD casts in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during cruises to to service the TAO/TRITON buoy array....

  1. Mass spectroscopy investigation of the effect of gamma irradiation on the mean value of the number of ethoxy groups in the triton X-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdés Díaz, Gilmer; Rodríguez Calvo, Simón; Pérez Gramatges, Aurora; Fernández Lima, Francisco Alberto; Rapado Paneque, Manuel; Ponciano, Cassia Ribero R.; Frota da Silveira, Enio

    2007-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation from a 60 Co source on the structure of a nonionic surfactant, namely TRITON X-100, was investigated. Three main regions can be distinguished in the behavior of the mean value of ethoxy groups with an increase in the absorbed dose. However just a slightly decrease on this mean value was obtained when the dose range from 0 to 70 kGy. (author)

  2. Light charged particle production in fast neutron-induced reactions on carbon (En=40 to 75 MeV) (II). Tritons and alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufauquez, C.; Slypen, I.; Benck, S.; Meulders, J.P.; Corcalciuc, V.

    2000-01-01

    Double-differential cross sections for fast neutron-induced triton and alpha-particle production on carbon are reported at six incident neutron energies between 40 and 75 MeV. Angular distributions were measured at laboratory angles between 20 deg. and 160 deg. . Energy-differential, angle-differential and total cross sections are also reported. Experimental cross sections are compared to existing experimental data and to theoretical model calculations

  3. Production of an {sup 15}O beam using a stable oxygen ion beam for in-beam PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Akram, E-mail: mohammadi.akram@qst.go.jp; Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inaniwa, Taku; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-03-21

    In advanced ion therapy, the {sup 15}O ion beam is a promising candidate to treat hypoxic tumors and simultaneously monitor the delivered dose to a patient using PET imaging. This study aimed at production of an {sup 15}O beam by projectile fragmentation of a stable {sup 16}O beam in an optimal material, followed by in-beam PET imaging using a prototype OpenPET system, which was developed in the authors’ group. The study was carried out in three steps: selection of the optimal target based on the highest production rate of {sup 15}O fragments; experimental production of the beam using the optimal target in the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Chiba (HIMAC) secondary beam course; and realization of in-beam PET imaging for the produced beam. The optimal target evaluations were done using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS. The fluence and mean energy of the secondary particles were simulated and the optimal target was selected based on the production rate of {sup 15}O fragments. The highest production rate of {sup 15}O was observed for a liquid hydrogen target, 3.27% for a 53 cm thick target from the {sup 16}O beam of 430 MeV/u. Since liquid hydrogen is not practically applicable in the HIMAC secondary beam course a hydrogen-rich polyethylene material, which was the second optimal target from the simulation results, was selected as the experimental target. Three polyethylene targets with thicknesses of 5, 11 or 14 cm were used to produce the {sup 15}O beam without any degrader in the beam course. The highest production rate was measured as around 0.87% for the 11 cm thick polyethylene target from the {sup 16}O beam of 430 MeV/u when the angular acceptance and momentum acceptance were set at ±13 mrad and ±2.5%, respectively. The purity of the produced beam for the three targets were around 75%, insufficient for clinical application, but it was increased to 97% by inserting a wedge shape aluminum degrader with a thickness of 1.76 cm into the beam course and that is

  4. Production of an 15O beam using a stable oxygen ion beam for in-beam PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Akram; Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inaniwa, Taku; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-03-01

    In advanced ion therapy, the 15O ion beam is a promising candidate to treat hypoxic tumors and simultaneously monitor the delivered dose to a patient using PET imaging. This study aimed at production of an 15O beam by projectile fragmentation of a stable 16O beam in an optimal material, followed by in-beam PET imaging using a prototype OpenPET system, which was developed in the authors' group. The study was carried out in three steps: selection of the optimal target based on the highest production rate of 15O fragments; experimental production of the beam using the optimal target in the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Chiba (HIMAC) secondary beam course; and realization of in-beam PET imaging for the produced beam. The optimal target evaluations were done using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS. The fluence and mean energy of the secondary particles were simulated and the optimal target was selected based on the production rate of 15O fragments. The highest production rate of 15O was observed for a liquid hydrogen target, 3.27% for a 53 cm thick target from the 16O beam of 430 MeV/u. Since liquid hydrogen is not practically applicable in the HIMAC secondary beam course a hydrogen-rich polyethylene material, which was the second optimal target from the simulation results, was selected as the experimental target. Three polyethylene targets with thicknesses of 5, 11 or 14 cm were used to produce the 15O beam without any degrader in the beam course. The highest production rate was measured as around 0.87% for the 11 cm thick polyethylene target from the 16O beam of 430 MeV/u when the angular acceptance and momentum acceptance were set at ±13 mrad and ±2.5%, respectively. The purity of the produced beam for the three targets were around 75%, insufficient for clinical application, but it was increased to 97% by inserting a wedge shape aluminum degrader with a thickness of 1.76 cm into the beam course and that is sufficiently high. In-beam PET imaging was also

  5. Understanding fuel magnetization and mix using secondary nuclear reactions in magneto-inertial fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, P F; Knapp, P F; Hansen, S B; Gomez, M R; Hahn, K D; Sinars, D B; Peterson, K J; Slutz, S A; Sefkow, A B; Awe, T J; Harding, E; Jennings, C A; Chandler, G A; Cooper, G W; Cuneo, M E; Geissel, M; Harvey-Thompson, A J; Herrmann, M C; Hess, M H; Johns, O; Lamppa, D C; Martin, M R; McBride, R D; Porter, J L; Robertson, G K; Rochau, G A; Rovang, D C; Ruiz, C L; Savage, M E; Smith, I C; Stygar, W A; Vesey, R A

    2014-10-10

    Magnetizing the fuel in inertial confinement fusion relaxes ignition requirements by reducing thermal conductivity and changing the physics of burn product confinement. Diagnosing the level of fuel magnetization during burn is critical to understanding target performance in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) implosions. In pure deuterium fusion plasma, 1.01 MeV tritons are emitted during deuterium-deuterium fusion and can undergo secondary deuterium-tritium reactions before exiting the fuel. Increasing the fuel magnetization elongates the path lengths through the fuel of some of the tritons, enhancing their probability of reaction. Based on this feature, a method to diagnose fuel magnetization using the ratio of overall deuterium-tritium to deuterium-deuterium neutron yields is developed. Analysis of anisotropies in the secondary neutron energy spectra further constrain the measurement. Secondary reactions also are shown to provide an upper bound for the volumetric fuel-pusher mix in MIF. The analysis is applied to recent MIF experiments [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] on the Z Pulsed Power Facility, indicating that significant magnetic confinement of charged burn products was achieved and suggesting a relatively low-mix environment. Both of these are essential features of future ignition-scale MIF designs.

  6. High intensity beam profile monitors for the LAMPF primary beam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.W.; Macek, R.J.; van Dyck, O.; Lee, D.; Harvey, A.; Bridge, J.; Cainet, J.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of beam profile monitors are in use at LAMPF to measure the properties of the 800 MeV, 500 μA proton beam external to the linac. Both types use secondary electron emission from a wire to produce a current signal proportional to the amount of proton beam that intercepts the wire. The wire scanner system uses a pair of orthogonal wires which are passed through the beam and the harp system uses two fixed planes of parallel wires. Most of the harps are not retractable and are exposed continuously to the primary beam. The high beam intensities available lead to a number of technical problems for instruments that intercept the beam or are close to primary beam targets. The thermal, electrical, radiation-damage, and material selection problems encountered, and some solutions which have been implemented are discussed

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on phase behaviour and critical micelle concentration of Triton X-100 aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Diaz, G.; Rodriguez-Calvo, S.; Perez-Gramatges, A.; Rapado-Paneque, M.; Fernandez-Lima, F. A.; Ponciano, C. R.; Silveira, E. F. . E-mail. apgram@instec.cu

    2007-01-01

    Ionising radiation used for sterilisation can have an effect on the physico-chemical properties of pharmaceutically relevant excipient systems, affecting therefore the stability of the formulation. The effect of gamma irradiation on the phase behaviour (cloud point - CP) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) of aqueous solutions of Triton X-100, used as a model nonionic surfactant, is investigated in this paper. Micellar solutions irradiated with ?-rays in a dose range between 0 and 70 kGy, including the sterilisation range of pharmaceutical preparations, were analysed using mass spectrometry. Results show a slight shift in molecular mass distribution of ethoxylated surfactant, which indicates degradation of polyethoxylated chains by water radical attacks. This fact, combined with the formation of cross-linked species, is considered to be responsible for the decrease observed in CP and CMC values of micellar solutions at all absorbed doses. There is no spectroscopic evidence of radiation damage to aromatic ring or hydrocarbon tail of surfactant. Models based on Flory-Huggins theory were employed to estimate CP from changes in mass distribution and to obtain cross-linking fractions. (Author)

  8. Study of the He3 breakup reaction and the triton production spectra at 283 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain Obid, R.

    1988-01-01

    The breakup of He3 ions at 94MeV/nucleon was studied in inclusive experiments on nuclei ranging from C12 to Pb208, and in coincidence experiments (γd) and (γt) on an A127 target. The inclusive spectra of protons and deuterons show an important contribution of the He3 breakup reaction to the reaction cross section (80%). Analysis of the dependence as a function of A confirms a peripheral mechanism. The coincidence experiment gives a proportion of inelastic breakup in the inclusive cross section of 40 %. Examination of triton spectra reveals that at 94 MeV the dominant reaction is not breakup transfer as at lower energies, but charge exchange. The spectra peak at energies of 20MeV, compatible with the excitation of a mixture of L=1 and L=2 states. The variation of the cross section following an A 1/3 law indicates a peripheral mechanism for the (He3,t) reaction too. The (γ-t) coincidence reaction showing residual nucleus production near the target nucleus reinforces this result [fr

  9. UV-A photooxidation of β-carotene in Triton X-100 micelles by nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, G.L.; Hogan, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Photooxidation of β-carotene in Triton X-100 micelles was stimulated by lipophilic nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides at concentrations as low as 5 μM after 15 min in UV radiation (UV-A between 315 and 400 nm). Bleaching of β-carotene by acifluorfen-methyl [methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoate] was proportional to UV-A intensity and independent of pH. White light (400-700 nm) alone was without effect. At pH 6.5, 100 μM acifluorfen [sodium 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoate], a water-soluble nitrodiphenyl ether, stimulated photooxidation of β-carotene after 15 min in UV-A radiation. Activity of 200 μM acifluorfen was enhanced at pHs between 3.5 and 6.5. The chlorodiphenyl ether analogue of acifluorfen-methyl, methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-chlorobenzoate, exhibited little activity at 200 μM and 200 μM phenyl ether was without effect. Activation energy for acifluorfen-methyl stimulated β-carotene photooxidation near 20 and 30 0 C was 40.3 and 5.6 kJ mol -1 , respectively. Subsequent to UV-A exposure and placement into darkness no further bleaching of β-carotene was detected, indicating that reactive species were generated only in light and consumed quickly in darkness

  10. Streamlined Membrane Proteome Preparation for Shotgun Proteomics Analysis with Triton X-100 Cloud Point Extraction and Nanodiamond Solid Phase Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh D. Pham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available While mass spectrometry (MS plays a key role in proteomics research, characterization of membrane proteins (MP by MS has been a challenging task because of the presence of a host of interfering chemicals in the hydrophobic protein extraction process, and the low protease digestion efficiency. We report a sample preparation protocol, two-phase separation with Triton X-100, induced by NaCl, with coomassie blue added for visualizing the detergent-rich phase, which streamlines MP preparation for SDS-PAGE analysis of intact MP and shot-gun proteomic analyses. MP solubilized in the detergent-rich milieu were then sequentially extracted and fractionated by surface-oxidized nanodiamond (ND at three pHs. The high MP affinity of ND enabled extensive washes for removal of salts, detergents, lipids, and other impurities to ensure uncompromised ensuing purposes, notably enhanced proteolytic digestion and down-stream mass spectrometric (MS analyses. Starting with a typical membranous cellular lysate fraction harvested with centrifugation/ultracentrifugation, MP purities of 70%, based on number (not weight of proteins identified by MS, was achieved; the weight-based purity can be expected to be much higher.

  11. Design and operation of the pellet charge exchange diagnostic for measurement of energetic confined alphas and tritons on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Duong, H.H.

    1996-05-01

    Radially-resolved energy and density distributions of the energetic confined alpha particles in D-T experiments on TFTR are being measured by active neutral particle analysis using low-Z impurity pellet injection. When injected into a high temperature plasma, an impurity pellet (e.g. Lithium or Boron) rapidly ablates forming an elongated cloud which is aligned with the magnetic field and moves with the pellet. This ablation cloud provides a dense target with which the alpha particles produced in D-T fusion reactions can charge exchange. A small fraction of the alpha particles incident on the pellet ablation cloud will be converted to helium neutrals whose energy is essentially unchanged by the charge transfer process. By measuring the resultant helium neutrals escaping from the plasma using a mass and energy resolving charge exchange analyzer, this technique offers a direct measurement of the energy distribution of the incident high-energy alpha particles. Other energetic ion species can be detected as well, such as tritons generated in D-D plasmas and H or He 3 RF-driven minority ion tails. The diagnostic technique and its application on TFTR are described in detail

  12. BWR modeling capability and Scale/Triton lattice-to-core integration of the Nestle nodal simulator - 331

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, J.; Hernandez, H.; Maldonado, G.I.; Jessee, M.; Popov, E.; Clarno, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the status of recent and substantial enhancements made to the NESTLE nodal core simulator, a code originally developed at North Carolina State University (NCSU) of which version 5.2.1 has been available for several years through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) software repository. In its released and available form, NESTLE is a seasoned, well-developed and extensively tested code system particularly useful to model PWRs. In collaboration with NCSU, University of Tennessee (UT) and ORNL researchers have recently developed new enhancements for the NESTLE code, including the implementation of a two-phase drift-flux thermal hydraulic and flow redistribution model to facilitate modeling of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) as well as the development of an integrated coupling of SCALE/TRITON lattice physics to NESTLE so to produce an end-to-end capability for reactor simulations. These latest advancements implemented into NESTLE as well as an update of other ongoing efforts of this project are herein reported. (authors)

  13. The influence of Triton X-100 surfactant on the morphology and properties of zinc sulfide nanoparticles for applications in azo dyes degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumbrava, Anca, E-mail: adumbrava@univ-ovidius.ro [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ovidius University of Constanta, 124 Mamaia Blvd., Constanta 900527 (Romania); Berger, Daniela, E-mail: danaberger01@yahoo.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Polizu Street 1-7, Bucharest 011061 (Romania); Prodan, Gabriel [Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Ovidius University of Constanta, 124 Mamaia Blvd., Constanta 900527 (Romania); Matei, Cristian [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Polizu Street 1-7, Bucharest 011061 (Romania); Moscalu, Florin [Department of Physics, Ovidius University of Constanta, 124 Mamaia Blvd., Constanta 900527 (Romania); Diacon, Aurel [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Bioresources and Polymer Science, Polizu Street 1-7, Bucharest 011061 (Romania)

    2017-06-01

    Herein we report the synthesis, by two different routes, of ZnS nanoparticles capped with Triton X-100 (TX), which were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and surface area measurements. The TX-capped ZnS nanopowders have a very good photocatalytic activity and high specific surface area, depending on the synthesis route; e.g. an azo dye solution is almost complete photobleached in only 60 min (a photocatalytic activity of 97.79%) using TX-capped ZnS nanopowder, with specific surface area of 191 m{sup 2}/g, and further a photocatalytic activity of 99.75% was achieved in 120 min. Based on the photocatalytic results, the ZnS nanopowders can be considered suitable catalysts for a green, very efficient and quick strategy for removing of organic pollutants from wastewaters. - Highlights: • Triton X-100 was used as surfactant in ZnS nanopowders synthesis by two methods. • Triton X-capped ZnS nanoparticles with high specific surface area were synthesized. • A very high capacity for bleaching an azo dye solution was evidenced. • Some of ZnS powders properties were crucially modified by the synthesis technique.

  14. The influence of Triton X-100 surfactant on the morphology and properties of zinc sulfide nanoparticles for applications in azo dyes degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbrava, Anca; Berger, Daniela; Prodan, Gabriel; Matei, Cristian; Moscalu, Florin; Diacon, Aurel

    2017-01-01

    Herein we report the synthesis, by two different routes, of ZnS nanoparticles capped with Triton X-100 (TX), which were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and surface area measurements. The TX-capped ZnS nanopowders have a very good photocatalytic activity and high specific surface area, depending on the synthesis route; e.g. an azo dye solution is almost complete photobleached in only 60 min (a photocatalytic activity of 97.79%) using TX-capped ZnS nanopowder, with specific surface area of 191 m 2 /g, and further a photocatalytic activity of 99.75% was achieved in 120 min. Based on the photocatalytic results, the ZnS nanopowders can be considered suitable catalysts for a green, very efficient and quick strategy for removing of organic pollutants from wastewaters. - Highlights: • Triton X-100 was used as surfactant in ZnS nanopowders synthesis by two methods. • Triton X-capped ZnS nanoparticles with high specific surface area were synthesized. • A very high capacity for bleaching an azo dye solution was evidenced. • Some of ZnS powders properties were crucially modified by the synthesis technique.

  15. Phase behaviour and microstructure of the micro-emulsions composed of cholinium-based ionic liquid, Triton X-100 and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Yuanchao; Huang, Yanjie; Li, Lin; Wang, Jianji

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The microemulsions composed of cholinium-based ionic liquid, Triton X-100 and water have been prepared and characterised. • Ternary phase diagrams of the microemulsions have been established at T = 298.15 K. • The microemulsions exhibit IL-in-water, bicontinuous and water-in-IL microstructures. • Droplets with the size smaller than 20 nm are formed in these IL-based microemulsions. - Abstract: In this paper, micro-emulsions composed of cholinium-based ionic liquids (ILs), octylphenol ethoxylate (Triton X-100) and water were prepared. These ternary systems were found to be stable over 12 months at room temperature. Their phase behaviour was investigated by using cloud titrations, and their microstructures were characterised by means of cyclic voltammetry and electrical conductance measurements at T = 298.15 K. It was shown that the micro-emulsions exhibited IL-in-water, bi-continuous and water-in-IL microstructures. Dynamic light scattering data suggest that Triton X-100 forms micelles in water, which were swelled by the ILs added. Droplets with the size about 20 nm were formed in these IL-based micro-emulsions, and the droplet size increased with the increase of the IL concentrations. These IL-based micro-emulsions may have potential in drug delivery, chemical reactions and nanomaterial preparation as a new type of nanoreactors

  16. Quantum beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    Present state and future prospect are described on quantum beams for medical use. Efforts for compactness of linac for advanced cancer therapy have brought about the production of machines like Accuray's CyberKnife and TOMOTHERAPY (Tomo Therapy Inc.) where the acceleration frequency of X-band (9-11 GHz) is used. For cervical vein angiography by the X-band linac, a compact hard X-ray source is developed which is based on the (reverse) Compton scattering through laser-electron collision. More intense beam and laser are necessary at present. A compact machine generating the particle beam of 10 MeV-1 GeV (laser-plasma accelerator) for cancer therapy is also developed using the recent compression technique (chirped-pulse amplification) to generate laser of >10 TW. Tokyo University is studying for the electron beam with energy of GeV order, for the laser-based synchrotron X-ray, and for imaging by the short pulse ion beam. Development of advanced compact accelerators is globally attempted. In Japan, a virtual laboratory by National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), a working group of universities and research facilities through the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, started in 2001 for practical manufacturing of the above-mentioned machines for cancer therapy and for angiography. Virtual Factory (Inc.), a business venture, is to be stood in future. (N.I.)

  17. Secondary reactions as a tool to produce exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, J.P.; Fleury, A.; Bimbot, R.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of using secondary reactions as tool to produce new isotopes is considered. This question is renewed with the emergence of intense beams of energetic heavy ions in the range of 20 to 100 MeV/nucleon. Three different methods are considered. They involve either the 'in situ' production of a secondary radioactive target, which interacts with the primary beam, or the production of a radioactive secondary beam by an inverse fusion or a fragmentation process. Very heavy or very neutron deficient isotopes can be produced by these methods

  18. Importance of beam-beam tune spread to collective beam-beam instability in hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Lihui; Shi Jicong

    2004-01-01

    In hadron colliders, electron-beam compensation of beam-beam tune spread has been explored for a reduction of beam-beam effects. In this paper, effects of the tune-spread compensation on beam-beam instabilities were studied with a self-consistent beam-beam simulation in model lattices of Tevatron and Large Hodron Collider. It was found that the reduction of the tune spread with the electron-beam compensation could induce a coherent beam-beam instability. The merit of the compensation with different degrees of tune-spread reduction was evaluated based on beam-size growth. When two beams have a same betatron tune, the compensation could do more harm than good to the beams when only beam-beam effects are considered. If a tune split between two beams is large enough, the compensation with a small reduction of the tune spread could benefit beams as Landau damping suppresses the coherent beam-beam instability. The result indicates that nonlinear (nonintegrable) beam-beam effects could dominate beam dynamics and a reduction of beam-beam tune spread by introducing additional beam-beam interactions and reducing Landau damping may not improve the stability of beams

  19. Beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abell, D; Adelmann, A; Amundson, J; Dragt, A; Mottershead, C; Neri, F; Pogorelov, I; Qiang, J; Ryne, R; Shalf, J; Siegerist, C; Spentzouris, P; Stern, E; Venturini, M; Walstrom, P

    2006-01-01

    We describe some of the accomplishments of the Beam Dynamics portion of the SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology project. During the course of the project, our beam dynamics software has evolved from the era of different codes for each physical effect to the era of hybrid codes combining start-of-the-art implementations for multiple physical effects to the beginning of the era of true multi-physics frameworks. We describe some of the infrastructure that has been developed over the course of the project and advanced features of the most recent developments, the interplay betwen beam studies and simulations and applications to current machines at Fermilab. Finally we discuss current and future plans for simulations of the International Linear Collider

  20. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory at INFLPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlat, F.; Minea, R.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Badita, E.; Sima, E.; Dumitrascu, M.; Stancu, E.; Vancea, C., E-mail: scarlat.f@gmail.com [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics - INFLPR, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR) has constructed a High Energy Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory SSDL-STARDOOR - for performing dosimetric calibrations according to ISO IEC SR/EN 17025:2005 standards. This is outfitted with UNIDOS Secondary Standard Dosimeter from PTW (Freiburg Physikalisch-Technische Werksttaten) calibrated at the PTB-Braunschweig (German Federal Institute of Physics and Metrology). A radiation beam of the quality of Q used by our laboratory as calibration source are provided by INFLPR 7 MeV electron beam linear accelerator mounted in our facility. (author)

  1. Beam-plasma discharge in a Kyoto beam-plasma-ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, J.; Takagi, T.

    1983-01-01

    A beam-plasma type ion source employing an original operating principle has been developed by the present authors. The ion source consists of an ion extraction region with an electron gun, a thin long drift tube as the plasma production chamber, and a primary electron beam collector. An electron beam is effectively utilized for the dual purpose of high density plasma production as a result of beam-plasma discharge, and high current ion beam extraction with ion space-charge compensation. A high density plasma of the order of 10 11 --10 13 cm -3 was produced by virtue of the beam-plasma discharge which was caused by the interaction between a space-charge wave on the electron beam and a high frequency plasma wave. The plasma density then produced was 10 2 --10 3 times the density produced only by collisional ionization by the electron beam. In order to obtain a stable beam-plasma discharge, a secondary electron beam emitted from the electron collector should be utilized. The mechanism of the beam-plasma discharge was analyzed by use of a linear theory in the case of the small thermal energy of the electron beam, and by use of a quasilinear theory in the case of the large thermal energy. High current ion beams of more than 0.1 A were extracted even at a low extraction voltage of 1--5 kV

  2. A test beam upgrade based on the BEPC-LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiacai; Wu Yuanming; Cui Xiangzong; Zhang Liangsheng; Zhou Baoqing; Liu Zhengquan; Zhang Shaoping; Sun Changchun; Zhang Zhuxiang; Zhang Caidi; Zheng Linsheng; Liu Shixing; Shen Ji; Yin Zejie; Zhang Yongming; Chen Ziyu

    2004-01-01

    A total of three beam lines, E1, E2 and E3 have based on the LINAC of BEPC. The E1 beam is to be used for intense slow-positron facility. The E2 is a primary positron or electron beam with an energy of 1.3-1.5 GeV. The E3 is a secondary electron or pion test beam with a momentum can be adjustable continuously. The position accuracy of a detected particle is 0.2-0.4 mm with an event rate of 3 - 4 Hz. This beam has been successfully used for some detectors beam test. (author)

  3. Temperature-dependent magnetic field effect study on exciplex luminescence: probing the triton X-100 reverse micelle in cyclohexane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Doyel; Nath, Deb Narayan

    2007-09-20

    The microenvironment within the reverse micelle of the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) in cyclohexane has been investigated by studying the magnetic field effect (MFE) on pyrene-dimethylaniline exciplex luminescence. The nature of exciplex fluorescence and its behavior in the presence of a magnetic field have been found to vary significantly with the water content of the medium. Results are discussed in light of multiple exciplex formation within the micelle which is further supported by the fluorescence lifetime measurements. Those exciplexes emitting at longer wavelength are found to be magnetic field sensitive while those emitting toward the blue region of the spectrum are insensitive toward magnetic field. Since the exciplex's emission characteristics and magnetic field sensitivity depend on its immediate surrounding, it has been concluded that the environment within the micelle is nonuniform. With an increase in hydration level, different zones of varying polarity are created within the reverse micelle. It has been pointed out that the magnetic field sensitive components reside inside the polar core of the micelle while those located near the hydrocarbon tail are field insensitive. However it has been presumed that an interconversion between the different types of exciplexes is possible. The environment within the reverse micelle is found to be largely affected by the change in temperature, and this is reflected in the exciplex emission property and the extent of magnetic field effect. Interestingly, the variation of MFE with temperature follows different trends in the dry and the wet reverse micelle. A comparison has been drawn with the reverse micelle of the ionic surfactant to get an insight into the difference between the various types of micellar environment.

  4. Trichobothrial mediation of an aquatic escape response: Directional jumps by the fishing spider, Dolomedes triton, foil frog attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Suter

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Fishing spiders (Pisauridae frequent the surfaces of ponds and streams and thereby expose themselves to predation by a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic vertebrates. To assess the possibility that the impressive jumps of fishing spiders from the water surface function in evading attacks by frogs, attacks by bullfrogs (Rana catesbiana and green frogs (R. clamitans on Dolomedes triton were studied. Both the attack dynamics of the frogs and the evasive behaviors of the spiders were recorded at 250 frames per second. A freeze-dried bullfrog, propelled toward spiders with acceleration, posture, and position that approximated the natural attack posture and dynamics, was used to assess the spiders' behavior. Qualitatively, the spiders responded to these mock-attacks just as they had to attacks by live frogs: jumping (N=29 jumps, 56.9% of instances, rearing the legs nearest the attacking frog (N=15, 29.4%, or showing no visible response (N=7, 13.7%. Spiders that jumped always did so away (in the vertical plane from the attack (mean =137° vs. vertical at 90° or horizontally toward the frog at 0°. The involvement of the trichobothria (leg hairs sensitive to air movements, and the eyes as sensory mediators of the evasion response was assessed. Spiders with deactivated trichobothria were significantly impaired relative to intact and sham-deactivated spiders, and relative to spiders in total darkness. Thus, functional trichobothria, unlike the eyes, are both necessary and sufficient mediators of the evasion response. Measurements of air flow during frog attacks suggest that an exponential rise in flow velocity is the airborne signature of an attack.

  5. Emittance growth due to space charge compensation and beam intensity instabilities in negative ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Valerio-Lizarraga

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The need to extract the maximum beam intensity with low transversal emittance often comes with the drawback of operating the ion source to limits where beam current instabilities arise, such fluctuations can change the beam properties producing a mismatch in the following sections of the machine. The space charge compensation (SCC generated by the beam particles colliding with the residual gas reaches a steady state after a build-up time. This paper shows how once in the steady state, the beam ends with a transversal emittance value bigger than the case without compensation. In addition, we study how the beam intensity variation can disturb the SCC dynamics and its impact on the beam properties. The results presented in this work come from 3-D simulations using tracking codes taking into account the secondary ions to estimate the degree of the emittance growth due to space charge and SCC.

  6. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The beam diagnostic components for both the transfer and the high-energy beamlines perform well except for some of the scanners whose noise pick-up has become a problem, especially at low beam intensities. This noise pick-up is primarily due to deterioration of the bearings in the scanner. At some locations in the high-energy beamlines, scanners were replaced by harps as the scanners proved to be practically useless for the low-intensity beams required in the experimental areas. The slits in the low-energy beamline, which are not water-cooled, have to be repaired at regular intervals because of vacuum leaks. Overheating causes the ceramic feedthroughs to deteriorate resulting in the vacuum leaks. Water-cooled slits have been ordered to replace the existing slits which will later be used in the beamlines associated with the second injector cyclotron SPC2. The current-measurement system will be slightly modified and should then be much more reliable. 3 figs

  7. Characteristics of Sissi primary beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nghiem, P.; Payet, J.; Tkatchenko, A.

    1994-01-01

    This study concerns the definition of the Sissi primary beam characteristics. The calculations have been carried out in two steps : -a study of primary and secondary order with the help of BETA matrix code -a study of superior orders with the help of ZGOUBI code which is able to take into consideration the measured fields and in which the movement equations are integrated numerically. (O.L.). 9 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Directional Secondary Emission of a Semiconductor Microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the time-resolved secondary emission of a homogeneously broadened microcavity after resonant excitation. The sample consists of a 25nm GaAs single quantum well (QW) in the center of a wedged ¥ë cavity with AlAs/AlGaAs Bragg reflectors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. At zero detun...

  9. Design of the radioactive ion beam facility at the LNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migneco, E.; Alba, R.; Calabretta, L.; Ciavola, G.; Cuttone, G.; Di Giacomo, M.; Gammino, S.; Gmaj, P.; Moscatello, M.H.; Raia, G.

    1992-01-01

    At the Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud the existing 15 MV Tandem will be coupled to the Superconducting Cyclotron booster, which will provide light and heavy ion beams in the energy range 100-20 MeV/n. Using these beams, secondary radioactive beams can be produced by projectile fragmentation. A fragment separator will collect the secondary beam produced at energies near that of the projectile and deliver it into the experimental areas. The possibility of using an ECRIS source for the axial injection into the Cyclotron and producing radioactive ions on a thick source placed inside the Tandem preinjector is also discussed. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Radioactive ion beam facilities at INFN LNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifuggiato, D; Calabretta, L; Celona, L; Chines, F; Cosentino, L; Cuttone, G; Finocchiaro, P; Pappalardo, A; Re, M; Rovelli, A

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams are produced at INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) by means of the two operating accelerators, the Tandem and the Superconducting Cyclotron (CS), originally designed to accelerate stable beams. Both the ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) and the IFF (In-Flight Fragmentation) methods are exploited to produce RIBs in two different ways at different energies: in the first case, the Cyclotron is the primary accelerator and the Tandem accelerates the secondary beams, while in the second case radioactive fragments are produced by the Cyclotron beam in a thin target with energies comparable to the primary beam energy. The ISOL facility is named EXCYT (Exotics at the Cyclotron and Tandem) and was commissioned in 2006, when the first radioactive beam ( 8 Li) has been produced. The IFF installation is named FRIBs (in Flight Radioactive Ion Beams), and it has started to produce radioactive beams in 2001, placing a thin target in the extraction beam line of the Cyclotron. The development of both facilities to produce and accelerate radioactive ion beams at LNS, is briefly described, with some details on the future prospects that are presently under consideration or realization.

  11. Multinuclear NMR characterization of CTAB-hexanol-water, sodium oleate-butanol-water and triton X-100-decanol-water microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, J.B.; Bodart-Ravet, I.; Derouane, E.G.; Gourgue, A.; Verfaillie, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Multinuclear NMR is a very valuable tool to characterize micellar systems or microemulsions. It allows one to determine c.m.c. values, to study the dissolution of organic molecules, the solvation of cations and anions, the structural changes occurring in a ternary diagram, the mobility of the molecules, etc. This review paper essentially deals with the characterization of cationic (CTAB-hexanol-water), anionic (sodium oleate-butanol-water) and neutral (Triton X-100-decanol-water) reversed micelles. The use of paramagnetic ions [Ni(II), CO(II), Fe(III), etc.] is particularly emphasized to characterize the site of solubilization and their interaction with surfactant and cosurfactant molecules 13 C-NMR). It is concluded, that the metallic ions are basically solvated in the inner water cores and one or more hexanol molecules are included in their first coordination shells in the CTAB-hexanol-water microemulsions. In the Triton X-100-decanol-water microemulsions, both decanol and Triton X-100 molecules enter the first coordination shell of Co(II) ions which are dissolved in both aqeous water cores and the organic medium. 19 F-NMR of a fluorinated probe molecule is particularly useful to study the size of the inner water cores. The method is based on the partition of the molecules between the interface and the organic medium. However, this method has to be applied with great care, and the computed data have to be compared to other physico-chemical results. Both 19 F- and 23 Na-NMR results show a great variation of the behaviour of the sodium oleate-butanol-water system in the so-called bicontinuous region. The Na + ions are oriented independently on a hypothetical inverse micellar droplet. (author). 43 refs.; 18 figs.; 7 tabs

  12. Beam divergence scaling in neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main considerations in the design of neutral beam injectors is to monimize the divergence of the primary ion beam and hence maximize the beam transport and minimize the input of thermal gas. Experimental measurements of the divergence of a cylindrical ion beam are presented and these measurements are used to analyze the major components of ion beam divergence, namely: space charge expansion, gas-ion scattering, emittance and optical aberrations. The implication of these divergence components in the design of a neutral beam injector system is discussed and a method of maximizing the beam current is described for a given area of source plasma

  13. Dynamical chaos and beam-beam models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izrailev, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of the nonlinear dynamics of beam-beam interaction for simple one-dimensional and two-dimensional models of round and flat beams are discussed. The main attention is paid to the stochasticity threshold due to the overlapping of nonlinear resonances. The peculiarities of a round beam are investigated in view of using the round beams in storage rings to get high luminosity. 16 refs.; 7 figs

  14. The fast neutron facility at the research reactor Munich. Determination of the beam quality and medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F. M.; Koester, L.

    1990-01-01

    At the research reactor FRM, fast and epithermal neutron beams are generated by a thermal-to-fast neutron converter and/or near core scatterers. The dosimetry and spectroscopy of the resulting intense mixed beams of neutron and gamma radiation with a wide range of energies set spetial tasks for neutron dosimetry and spectroscopy. The twin chamber method and some others are briefly described. Neutron spectroscopy is performed by a Li-6 sandwich spectrometer covering the full neutron spectrum of a well-collimated mixed beam from about 20 keV to 8 MeV. The data registration is assisted by a microcomputer which generates sum and triton spectra on-line. Sum analysis is applied to neutron energies greater than 0.3 MeV; the intermediate neutron spectrum is evaluated by unfolding of the triton spectrum. Moreover, a brief overview of the reactor neutron therapy (RENT) at the FRM is given. After a number of animal experiments for the determination of the biological effectiveness relative to X-rays, clinical irradiations have been started in 1985. The most important indications for RENT are listed. 140 patients with bad prognoses have been treated since. The average tumour control rate of 60% is surprisingly high. Possibilities for an assisting Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) are shown. 8 figs., 23 refs

  15. Beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    The main part of this thesis consists of 15 published papers, in which the numerical Beam Propagating Method (BPM) is investigated, verified and used in a number of applications. In the introduction a derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is presented to connect the beginning of the soliton papers with Maxwell's equations including a nonlinear polarization. This thesis focuses on the wide use of the BPM for numerical simulations of propagating light and particle beams through different types of structures such as waveguides, fibers, tapers, Y-junctions, laser arrays and crystalline solids. We verify the BPM in the above listed problems against other numerical methods for example the Finite-element Method, perturbation methods and Runge-Kutta integration. Further, the BPM is shown to be a simple and effective way to numerically set up the Green's function in matrix form for periodic structures. The Green's function matrix can then be diagonalized with matrix methods yielding the eigensolutions of the structure. The BPM inherent transverse periodicity can be untied, if desired, by for example including an absorptive refractive index at the computational window edges. The interaction of two first-order soliton pulses is strongly dependent on the phase relationship between the individual solitons. When optical phase shift keying is used in coherent one-carrier wavelength communication, the fiber attenuation will suppress or delay the nonlinear instability. (orig.)

  16. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  17. Isomeric Targets and Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Karamyan, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    One of the main topics of modern nuclear physics is the investigation of exotic nuclei including hyper-nuclei, trans fermium elements, proton and neutron rich isotopes near drip lines as well as high-spin excited states and states with anomalous deformation. The isomerism of nuclei is closely related with such phenomena as the alignment of single-particle orbitals, the coexistence of various deformations and the manifestation of intruder-levels from neighbouring shells. The investigation of electromagnetic and nuclear interactions of isomers could give important information on their shell structure and its role in the mechanism of nuclear reactions. For such experiments one can either make isomeric targets (sufficiently long-lived) or use the methods of acceleration of isomeric nuclei. Recently, an exotic 16 + four-quasiparticle isomer of 178 Hf m 2 was produced in a micro weight quantity and the first nuclear reactions on it were successfully observed. The talk describes these experiments as well as new ideas for the continuation of the studies and some advantageous ways for the isomeric beams production by the method of direct acceleration or by the secondary beam method. 35 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs

  18. A comparison of protocols for external beam radiotherapy beam calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed Al-Ahbabi, Salma; Bradley, D.A.; Beyomi, M.; Alkatib, Z.; Adhaheri, S.; Darmaki, M.; Nisbet, A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of codes of practice (CoP) for electron and photon radiotherapy beam dosimetry are currently in use. Comparison is made of the more widely used of these, specifically those of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA TRS-398), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM TG-51) and the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM 2003). All are based on calibration of ionization chambers in terms of absorbed dose to water, each seeking to reduce uncertainty in delivered dose, providing an even stronger system of primary standards than previous air-kerma based approaches. They also provide a firm, traceable and straight-forward formalism. Included in making dose assessments for the three CoP are calibration coefficients for a range of beam quality indices. Measurements have been performed using clinical photon and electron beams, the absorbed dose to water being obtained following the recommendations given by each code. Electron beam comparisons have been carried out using measurements for electron beams of nominal energies 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV. Comparisons were also carried out for photon beams of nominal energies 6 and 18 MV. For photon beams use was made of NE2571 cylindrical graphite walled ionization chambers, cross-calibrated against an NE2611 Secondary Standard; for electron beams, PTW Markus and NACP-02 plane-parallel chambers were used. Irradiations were made using Varian 600C/2100C linacs, supported by water tanks and Virtual Water™ phantoms. The absorbed doses for photon and electron beams obtained following these CoP are all in good agreement, with deviations of less than 2%. A number of studies have been carried out by different groups in different countries to examine the consistency of dosimetry codes of practice or protocols. The aim of these studies is to confirm that the goal of those codes is met, namely uniformity in establishment of dosimetry of all radiation beam types used in cancer therapy in the world

  19. Electron beam spectrum monitor using synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagan, D.; Hostetler, T.E.

    1979-03-01

    This instrument shows the positions, widths, and shapes of momentum spectra of SLAC beams. It uses synchrotron light produced when the beam is deflected by a magnet. Some of the light is focused on the face of an image splitter consisting of acrylic light pipes. The light pipes illuminate twelve photomultiplier tubes. Pulses from the PM tubes are integrated, multiplexed, and displayed on an oscilloscope. The resolution of the instrument is usually better than 0.2%. It has some advantages over the secondary emitter foil spectrum monitors (SEM's) currently in use at SLAC. It need never be put out of service to avoid disturbing the beam. It is as sensitive as the most sensitive SLAC SEM. (Its performance has been optimized for high-current beams; it can easily be made much more sensitive.) It provides information on a pulse-to-pulse basis and, with better cables, could indicate electron beam pulse shapes

  20. Beam damage of self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, P.C.; Baer, D.R.; Fryxell, G.E.; Engelhard, M.H.; Porter, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    X-ray and electron beam damage studies were performed on Br-terminated and methyl-terminated alkylsilane self-assembled monolayers. X-ray beam initiated damage was primarily limited to removal of the labile Br group and did not significantly damage the hydrocarbon chain. Some of the x-ray beam damage could be attributed to low-energy electrons emitted by the non-monochromatic source, but further damage was attributed to secondary electrons produced in the sample by x-ray exposure. Electron beams caused significant damage to the hydrocarbon chains. Maximum damage occurred with a beam energy of 600 eV and a dosage of 6x10 -3 C/cm 2

  1. Overview of LHC Beam Loss Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Fadakis, E; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Kruk, G; Kurfuerst, C; Marsili, A; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Priebe, A; Roderick, C; Sapinski, M; Zamantzas, C; Grishin, V; Griesmayer, E

    2011-01-01

    The LHC beam loss monitoring system provides measurements with an update rate of 1 Hz and high time resolution data by event triggering. These informations are used for the initiation of beam aborts, fixed displays and the off line analysis. The analysis of fast and localized loss events resulted in the determination of its rate, duration, peak amplitudes, its scaling with intensity, number of bunches and beam energy. The calibration of the secondary shower beam loss signal in respect to the needed beam energy deposition to quench the magnet coil is addressed at 450GeV and 3.5T eV . The adjustment of collimators is checked my measuring the loss pattern and its variation in the collimation regions of the LHC. Loss pattern changes during a fill allow the observation of non typical fill parameters.

  2. The influence of beam divergence on ion-beam induced surface patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kree, R.; Yasseri, T.; Hartmann, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    We present a continuum theory and a Monte Carlo model of self-organized surface pattern formation by ion-beam sputtering including effects of beam profiles. Recently, it has turned out that such secondary ion-beam parameters may have a strong influence on the types of emerging patterns. We first discuss several cases, for which beam profiles lead to random parameters in the theory of pattern formation. Subsequently we study the evolution of the averaged height profile in continuum theory and find that the typical Bradley-Harper scenario of dependence of ripple patterns on the angle of incidence can be changed qualitatively. Beam profiles are implemented in Monte Carlo simulations, where we find generic effects on pattern formation. Finally, we demonstrate that realistic beam profiles, taken from experiments, may lead to qualitative changes of surface patterns.

  3. Thermal neutron flux distribution in the ET R R-1 reactor core as experimentally measured and theoretically calculated by the code triton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imam, M [National center for nuclear safety and radiation control, atomic energy authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Thermal neutron flux distributions that were measured earlier at the ET-R R-1 reactor are compared with those calculated by the three dimensional diffusion code Triton. This comparison was made for the horizontal and vertical flux distributions. The horizontal thermal flux distributions considered in this comparison were along the core diagonals at two planes of different heights from core bottom, where one at a level passing through the control rod at core center and the other at a level below this control rod. In the meantime all the control rods were taken into consideration. The effect of the existence of a water cavity inside the core as well as the influence of the control rods on the thermal flux are illustrated in this work. The vertical thermal flux distributions considered in the comparison were at two positions in core namely; one along the core height the horizontal reactor power distribution along the core height and the horizontal reactor power distribution along the core diagonal as calculated by the code Triton are also given this work. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride, Proxel LV, P3 Hypochloran, Triton X-100 and DOWFAX 63N10 on anaerobic digestion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores, German Antonio Enriquez; Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the individual and synergistic toxicity of the following xenobiotics: Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC), Proxel LV (PRX), P3 Hypochloran (HPC), Triton X-100 (TRX), and DOWFAX 63N10 (DWF), on anaerobic digestion (AD) process, was assessed. The experiments were performed in batch and conti......In this study, the individual and synergistic toxicity of the following xenobiotics: Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC), Proxel LV (PRX), P3 Hypochloran (HPC), Triton X-100 (TRX), and DOWFAX 63N10 (DWF), on anaerobic digestion (AD) process, was assessed. The experiments were performed in batch...... and continuous (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB) reactors with biochemical-industrial wastewater, as substrate. In batch experiments, half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for the tested xenobiotics were found to be 13.1, 1003, 311.5 and 24.3 mg L1 for BKC, PRX, DWF and TRX, respectively while HPC...... observed from the batch reactors. Oppositely, TRX showed no inhibition in continuous mode, while inhibition was detected at batch mode....

  5. Comparison of depletion results for a boiling water reactor fuel element with CASMO and SCALE 6.1 (TRITON/NEWT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesado, C.; Morera, D.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.; Soler, Amparo; Melara, Jose

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the results of depletion calculations with CASMO and SCALE 6.1 (TRITON) are compared. To achieve it, a region of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel element is modeled, using both codes. To take into account different operating conditions, the simulations are repeated with different void fraction, ranging from null void fraction to a void fraction closed to one. Special care was used to keep in mind that the homogenization of the materials and the two group approach was the same in both codes. Additionally, KENO-VI and MCDANCOFF modules are used. The k-effective calculated by KENO-VI is used to ensure that the starting point was correct and MCDANCOFF module is used to calculate the Dancoff factors in order to improve the model accuracy. To validate the whole process, a comparison of k eff , and cross-sections collapsed and homogenized is shown. The results show a very good agreement, with an average error around the 1.75%. Furthermore, an automatic process for translating CASMO data to SCALE input decks was developed. The reason for the translation is the fact that SCALE's TRITON module is a new code very powerful and continuously being developed. Thus, great advantage can be taken from the current and future SCALE features. This is hoped to produce more realistic models, and hence, increase the accuracy of neutronic libraries. (author)

  6. Enhanced efficiency and air-stability of NiOX-based perovskite solar cells via PCBM electron transport layer modification with Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kisu; Ryu, Jaehoon; Yu, Haejun; Yun, Juyoung; Lee, Jungsup; Jang, Jyongsik

    2017-11-02

    We modified phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) for use as a stable, efficient electron transport layer (ETL) in inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs). PCBM containing a surfactant Triton X-100 acts as the ETL and NiO X nanocrystals act as a hole transport layer (HTL). Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images showed that surfactant-modified PCBM (s-PCBM) forms a high-quality, uniform, and dense ETL on the rough perovskite layer. This layer effectively blocks holes and reduces interfacial recombination. Steady-state photoluminescence and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses confirmed that Triton X-100 improved the electron extraction performance of PCBM. When the s-PCBM ETL was used, the average power conversion efficiency increased from 10.76% to 15.68%. This improvement was primarily caused by the increases in the open-circuit voltage and fill factor. s-PCBM-based PSCs also showed good air-stability, retaining 83.8% of their initial performance after 800 h under ambient conditions.

  7. Applications of ion beam analysis workshop. Workshop handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A workshop on applications of ion beam analysis was held at ANSTO, immediate prior to the IBMM-95 Conference in Canberra. It aims was to review developments and current status on use of ion beams for analysis, emphasizing the following aspects: fundamental ion beam research and secondary effects of ion beams; material sciences, geological, life sciences, environmental and industrial applications; computing codes for use in accelerator research; high energy heavy ion scattering and recoil; recent technological development using ion beams. The handbook contains the workshop's program, 29 abstracts and a list of participants

  8. Simple beam profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelbart, W.; Johnson, R. R.; Abeysekera, B. [ASD Inc. Garden Bay, BC (Canada); Best Theratronics Ltd Ottawa Ontario (Canada); PharmaSpect Ltd., Burnaby BC (Canada)

    2012-12-19

    An inexpensive beam profile monitor is based on the well proven rotating wire method. The monitor can display beam position and shape in real time for particle beams of most energies and beam currents up to 200{mu}A. Beam shape, position cross-section and other parameters are displayed on a computer screen.

  9. Crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Ions in a storage ring are confined to a mean orbit by focusing elements. To a first approximation these may be described by a constant harmonic restoring force: F = -Kr. If the particles in the frame moving along with the beam have small random thermal energies, then they will occupy a cylindrical volume around the mean orbit and the focusing force will be balanced by that from the mutual repulsion of the particles. Inside the cylinder only residual two-particle interactions will play a significant role and some form of ordering might be expected to take place. The results of some of the first MD calculations showed a surprising result: not only were the particles arranged in the form of a tube, but they formed well-defined layers: concentric shells, with the particles in each shell arranged in a hexagonal lattice that is characteristic of two-dimensional Coulomb systems. This paper discusses the condense layer structure

  10. Beam-Beam Interaction Studies at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumann, Michaela; Alemany Fernandez, R

    2011-01-01

    The beam-beam force is one of the most important limiting factors in the performance of a collider, mainly in the delivered luminosity. Therefore, it is essential to measure the effects in LHC. Moreover, adequate understanding of LHC beam-beam interaction is of crucial importance in the design phases of the LHC luminosity upgrade. Due to the complexity of this topic the work presented in this thesis concentrates on the beam-beam tune shift and orbit effects. The study of the Linear Coherent Beam-Beam Parameter at the LHC has been determined with head-on collisions with small number of bunches at injection energy (450 GeV). For high bunch intensities the beam-beam force is strong enough to expect orbit effects if the two beams do not collide head-on but with a crossing angle or with a given offset. As a consequence the closed orbit changes. The closed orbit of an unperturbed machine with respect to a machine where the beam-beam force becomes more and more important has been studied and the results are as well ...

  11. Calculated intensity of high-energy neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.; Back, B.B.

    2004-01-01

    The flux, energy and angular distributions of high-energy neutrons produced by in-flight spallation and fission of a 400 MeV/A 238 U beam and by the break-up of a 400 MeV/A deuteron beam are calculated. In both cases very intense secondary neutron beams are produced, peaking at zero degrees, with a relatively narrow energy spread. Such secondary neutron beams can be produced with the primary beams from the proposed rare isotope accelerator driver linac. The break-up of a 400 kW deuteron beam on a liquid-lithium target can produce a neutron flux of >10 10 neutrons/cm 2 /s at a distance of 10 m from the target

  12. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  13. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e + - e - colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II)

  14. Physical properties of charged particle beams for use in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The physical properties of the possible charged particle beams used for cancer radiotherapy are reviewed. Each property is discussed for all interesting particles (π, p, α, Ne ion) and the differences are emphasized. This is followed by a short discussion of the several beam delivery systems used in particle therapy today, emphasizing the differences in the problems for the several different radiations, particularly the differences between the accelerated particle beams and those of a secondary nature. Dose calculation techniques are described

  15. Manufacturing prepainted steel sheet by electron beam curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Joji

    1987-01-01

    Several advantages are offered by electron beam curing. A formidably hard and stain resistant paint film which is difficult to obtain by heat curing paint is developed. As a result, a unique new prepainted steel is produced. Four technologies are involved: development high-quality paint, selection of optimum electron beam processor, technology to control electron beam processing atmosphere and secondary X-ray shield technology. These technologies are described in detail. (A.J.)

  16. Experimental study of the stability of a neutralized electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudelainen, V.I.; Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Pestrikov, D.V.

    1983-01-01

    Results are reported from measurements of the spectral properties of a long neutralized electron beam in the NAP-M proton storage ring. It is shown that when the number of secondary electrons is small, both the longitudinal and the transverse oscillations are strongly damped, so that beam instability is suppressed. The current density of the neutralized electron beam produced in the experiments was approx.10 2 times greater than the theoretical value determined from the instability threshold for nonaxisymmetric oscillations

  17. Pion beam development for the LAMPF biomedical project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paciotti, M.; Amols, H.; Bradbury, J.; Rivera, O.; Hogstrom, K.; Smith, A.; Inoue, H.; Laubacher, D.; Sandford, S.

    1979-01-01

    Common to both static and dynamic patient irradiations at the LAMPF linac is the problem of maintaining good quality control of beams form a secondary channel. A major contributor to therapy beam variation has been change in electron contamination due to the change in target geometry and proton beam steering. The electron variation problem is described and a solution is presented that has been realized as a result o a new target geometry that allows some control of the electron fraction

  18. Experiments with neutron-rich isomeric beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, K.; Lewitowicz, M.; Pfuetzner, M.

    1998-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained on microsecond-isomeric states in neutron-rich nuclei produced in fragmentation reactions and studied with SISSI-Alpha-LISE3 spectrometer system at GANIL Caen is given. The perspectives of experiments based on secondary reactions with isomeric beams are presented

  19. Production of hypernuclei in relativistic ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, H.; Sano, M.; Wakai, M.; Zofka, J.

    1988-05-01

    The hypernuclear formation in collisions of relativistic beams of 4 He, 7 Li, 12 C and 19 F with target of 12 C is calculated at energies used in the recent Dubna experiment. The hyperfragments optimal for observation are pointed out and the secondary (π + K + ) formation is evaluated and found to be nonnegligible. (author)

  20. Beam Loss Detection at Radiation Source ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, P; Schurig, R; Langenhagen, H

    2003-01-01

    The Rossendorf superconducting Electron Linac of high Brilliance and low Emittance (ELBE) delivers an 40 MeV, 1 mA cw-beam for different applications such as bremsstrahlung production, electron channelling, free-electron lasers or secondary particle beam generation. In this energy region in case of collisions of the electron beam with the pipe nearly all beam power will be deposited into the pipe material. Therefore a reliable beam loss monitoring is essential for machine protection at ELBE. Different systems basing on photo multipliers, compton diodes and long ionization chambers were studied. The pros and cons of the different systems will be discussed. Ionization chambers based on air-isolated RF cables installed some cm away parallel to the beam line turned out to be the optimal solution. The beam shut-off threshold was adjusted to 1 μC integral charge loss during a 100 ms time interval. Due to the favourable geometry the monitor sensitivity varies less than ±50% along the beam line (di...

  1. Short bunch length detector for ion beam with high bunch density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tron, A.M.; Shako, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The secondary electron rf monitors for short ion bunch phase distribution measurements are presented. Construction particularities of the monitors, influence of space charge of both the primary and the secondary electron beams on the phase resolution, thermal regime of the target during beam-target interaction are considered

  2. IFR code for secondary particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, M.R.; Yu, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    A numerical simulation has been constructed to obtain a detailed, quantitative estimate of the electromagnetic fields and currents existing in the Advanced Test Accelerator under conditions of laser guiding. The code treats the secondary electrons by particle simulation and the beam dynamics by a time-dependent envelope model. The simulation gives a fully relativistic description of secondary electrons moving in self-consistent electromagnetic fields. The calculations are made using coordinates t, x, y, z for the electrons and t, ct-z, r for the axisymmetric electromagnetic fields and currents. Code results, showing in particular current enhancement effects, will be given

  3. Experimental study on secondary electron emission characteristics of Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shenghua; Liu, Yudong; Wang, Pengcheng; Liu, Weibin; Pei, Guoxi; Zeng, Lei; Sun, Xiaoyang

    2018-02-01

    Secondary electron emission (SEE) of a surface is the origin of the multipacting effect which could seriously deteriorate beam quality and even perturb the normal operation of particle accelerators. Experimental measurements on secondary electron yield (SEY) for different materials and coatings have been developed in many accelerator laboratories. In fact, the SEY is just one parameter of secondary electron emission characteristics which include spatial and energy distribution of emitted electrons. A novel experimental apparatus was set up in China Spallation Neutron Source, and an innovative method was applied to obtain the whole characteristics of SEE. Taking Cu as the sample, secondary electron yield, its dependence on beam injection angle, and the spatial and energy distribution of secondary electrons were achieved with this measurement device. The method for spatial distribution measurement was first proposed and verified experimentally. This contribution also tries to give all the experimental results a reasonable theoretical analysis and explanation.

  4. A symplectic coherent beam-beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    1989-05-01

    We consider a simple one-dimensional model to study the effects of the beam-beam force on the coherent dynamics of colliding beams. The key ingredient is a linearized beam-beam kick. We study only the quadrupole modes, with the dynamical variables being the 2nd-order moments of the canonical variables q, p. Our model is self-consistent in the sense that no higher order moments are generated by the linearized beam-beam kicks, and that the only source of violation of symplecticity is the radiation. We discuss the round beam case only, in which vertical and horizontal quantities are assumed to be equal (though they may be different in the two beams). Depending on the values of the tune and beam intensity, we observe steady states in which otherwise identical bunches have sizes that are equal, or unequal, or periodic, or behave chaotically from turn to turn. Possible implications of luminosity saturation with increasing beam intensity are discussed. Finally, we present some preliminary applications to an asymmetric collider. 8 refs., 8 figs

  5. Antihydrogen Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yasunori; Doser, Michael; Pérez, Patrice

    2018-03-01

    Why does our universe consist purely of matter, even though the same amount of antimatter and matter should have been produced at the moment of the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago? One of the most potentially fruitful approaches to address the mystery is to study the properties of antihydrogen and antiprotons. Because they are both stable, we can in principle make measurement precision as high as we need to see differences between these antimatter systems and their matter counterparts, i.e. hydrogen and protons. This is the goal of cold antihydrogen research. To study a fundamental symmetry-charge, parity, and time reversal (CPT) symmetry-which should lead to identical spectra in hydrogen and antihydrogen, as well as the weak equivalence principle (WEP), cold antihydrogen research seeks any discrepancies between matter and antimatter, which might also offer clues to the missing antimatter mystery. Precision tests of CPT have already been carried out in other systems, but antihydrogen spectroscopy offers the hope of reaching even higher sensitivity to violations of CPT. Meanwhile, utilizing the Earth and antihydrogen atoms as an experimental system, the WEP predicts a gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter that is identical to that between any two matter objects. The WEP has been tested to very high precision for a range of material compositions, but no such precision test using antimatter has yet been carried out, offering hope of a telltale inconsistency between matter and antimatter. In this Discovery book, we invite you to visit the frontiers of cold antimatter research, focusing on new technologies to form beams of antihydrogen atoms and antihydrogen ions, and new ways of interrogating the properties of antimatter.

  6. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-01-01

    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization

  7. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-04-24

    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization.

  8. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  9. A Survey about Protective Effect of Echinococcus Granulosus Protoscolices Surface Antigens in Preventing Secondary Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Yousofi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Hydatid cyst is located in human and some animal visceral organs such as liver and lung. The disease is considered as a medical, veterinary and economical problem in endemic area. When the hydatid cyst is ruptured, protoscolices from inside the cyst may spread out to other parts of the body and develops a new cyst named secondary hydatid cyst. In this research in an attempt to prevent secondary hydatid cyst, protective potential of protoscolices surface antigens extracted with different detergents has been investigated in animal model. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, groups of Balb/c mice were immunized intra-peritoneally with protoscolices homogenate and three detergent (SDS, Tween and Triton x–100 extracted protoscolices surface antigens and alum as adjuvant. These mice were then boosted two times with the same antigens fortnightly. Control mice were simultaneously injected with alum alone. Two weeks following the last injection all the mice in cases and control groups were challenged with live protoscolices. Three months afterward all the mice in case and control groups were sacrificed and their peritoneal cavities were explored for hydatid cysts. Results: The mean of developed cyst number in mice injected with protoscolices homogenate was 3±2, while in control group the mean of developed cysts number was 5.8 ± 1.7 (p< 0.02. The mean of developed cyst number in mice injected with SDS, Tween and Triton x–100 extracted protoscolices surface antigens was 3, 3.6 and 3.4, respectively, while the mean of developed cyst number in control group was 5.8. Conclusion: The mean of cyst number in cases and control groups was different and this difference was statistically significant. Results of this investigation revealed that protoscolices homogenate antigens and some detergent extracted antigens are protective against secondary hydatid cyst infection

  10. Proton, deuteron, and triton emission at target rapidity in Au+Au collisions at 10.20A GeV: Spectra and directed flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashktorab, K.; Beavis, D.; Chasman, C.; Chen, Z.; Chu, Y.Y.; Cumming, J.B.; Debbe, R.; Gonin, M.; Gushue, S.; Levine, M.; Moskowitz, B.; Olness, J.; Remsberg, L.P.; Tannenbaum, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Zhu, F.; Crawford, H.J.; Engelage, J.; Judd, E.; Chang, J.; Eldredge, W.; Fung, S.Y.; Seto, R.; Xu, G.; Zhu, Q.; Chi, C.; Cole, B.A.; Moulson, M.; Nagamiya, S.; Nayak, T.K.; Wang, F.Q.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y.; Zajc, W.A.; Akiba, Y.; Hamagaki, H.; Homma, S.; Sako, H.; Kaneko, H.; Britt, H.C.; Cianciolo, V.; Luke, J.; Namboodiri, M.N.; Sangster, T.C.; Soltz, R.; Thomas, J.H.; Tonse, S.R.; Ahle, L.; Baker, M.D.; Heintzelman, G.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Steadman, S.G.; Stephans, G.S.; Sung, T.; Woodruff, D.S.; Zachary, D.; Hayano, R.S.; Shigaki, K.; Kumagai, A.; Kurita, K.; Miake, Y.; Ueno-Hayashi, S.; Yagi, K.; Kang, J.H.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Hansen, A.G.; Hansen, L.

    1998-01-01

    Systematic results are presented on proton, deuteron, and triton emission from the target spectator region in collisions of 10.20A GeV gold projectiles with a gold target. A forward hodoscope utilizes detection of projectile spectator fragments to determine the orientation of the reaction plane, event by event. The directed flow left-angle p x right-angle is determined as a function of pseudorapidity. Projectile spectator energy is used to estimate impact parameters. Results are compared to current theoretical models ARC, ART, and RQMD. In all cases good agreement with theory is obtained for calculations utilizing a pure cascade without nuclear potential contributions. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  11. Validation of the U.S. NRC coupled code system TRITON/TRACE/PARCS with the special power excursion reactor test III (SPERT III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R. C.; Xu, Y.; Downar, T. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 (United States); Hudson, N. [RES Div., U.S. NRC, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Special Power Excursion Reactor Test III (SPERT III) was a series of reactivity insertion experiments conducted in the 1950's. This paper describes the validation of the U.S. NRC Coupled Code system TRITON/PARCS/TRACE to simulate reactivity insertion accidents (RIA) by using several of the SPERT III tests. The work here used the SPERT III E-core configuration tests in which the RIA was initiated by ejecting a control rod. The resulting super-prompt reactivity excursion and negative reactivity feedback produced the familiar bell shaped power increase and decrease. The energy deposition during such a power peak has important safety consequences and provides validation basis for core coupled multi-physics codes. The transients of five separate tests are used to benchmark the PARCS/TRACE coupled code. The models were thoroughly validated using the original experiment documentation. (authors)

  12. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of trace quantities of cadmium in water samples after cloud point extraction in Triton X-114 without added chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Siampour, Hajar

    2006-01-01

    A new micell-mediated phase separation method for preconcentration of ultra-trace quantities of cadmium as a prior step to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry has been developed. The method is based on the cloud point extraction (CPE) of cadmium in iodide media with Triton X-114 in the absence of any chelating agent. The optimal extraction and reaction conditions (e.g., acid concentration, iodide concentration, effect of time) were studied, and the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limit of detection, linear range, preconcentration, and improvement factors) were obtained. Linearity was obeyed in the range of 3-300 ng mL -1 of cadmium. The detection limit of the method is 1.0 ng mL -1 of cadmium. The interference effect of some anions and cations was also tested. The method was applied to the determination of cadmium in tap water, waste water, and sea water samples

  13. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper, Nickel, and Zinc Using 1-(2-Thiazolylazo)-2-Naphthol in the Presence of Triton X-100 Using Chemometric Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Kah Hin; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Abas, Mhd. Radzi; Misran, Misni; Mohd, Mustafa Ali

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate models were developed for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of copper (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) in water with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol as chromogenic reagent in the presence of Triton X-100. To overcome the drawback of spectral interferences, principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS) multivariate calibration approaches were applied. Performances were validated with several test sets, and their results were then compared. In general, no significant difference in analytical performance between PLS and PCR models. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) using three components for Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ were 0.018, 0.010, 0.011 ppm, respectively. Figures of merit such as sensitivity, analytical sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD) were also estimated. High reliability was achieved when the proposed procedure was applied to simultaneous determination of Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ in synthetic mixture and tap water

  14. Separation of Cr(III) from Cr(VI) by Triton X-100 Cerium (Iv) Phosphate as a Surface Active Ion Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Azony, K.M.; Ismail Aydia, M.; El-Mohty, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new and simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection has been developed for the determination of both Cr (III) and Cr (VI) ions. Chromium species were determined by HPLC using a stationary phase consisting of a reversed phase column (Nucleosil phenyl column; 250 mm x 4.6 mm,5 μm), and a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of methanol: water(70 : 30 v/v), in which the complexing agent di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA) was dissolved. The UV detection was carried out at wavelength 650 nm. Separation of Cr (III) from Cr (VI) on Triton X-100 cerium(IV) phosphate(TX-100 CeP) as a surface active ion exchanger was investigated. TX-100 CeP has been synthesized, characterized using IR, X-Ray, TGA/DTA and elemental analysis. The ion exchange capacity and chemical stability in different HCl concentration have been studied

  15. Cloud point extraction and speciation of iron(3) of 10-7-10-6 M level using 8-quinolinol derivatives and triton X-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, K.; Ougiyanagi, J.; Choi, S.Y.; Ito, H.; Imura, H.

    2001-01-01

    The cloud point extraction behaviour, specification, and determination of traces of iron(III) with 8-quinolinol derivatives (HA), such as 8-quinolinol (HQ), 2-methyl-8-quinolinol (HMQ), and 2-methyl-5-octyl-oxy-methyl-8-quinolinol (HMO 8 Q) were investigated. Above pH 4.0, more than 95% of iron(III) was extracted with 5.00 x 10 -2 M HQ, HMQ, and HMO 8 Q in 4 (v/v)% Triton X-100. The proposed method was applied to the determination of iron(III) in the Riverine Water Reference (JAC 0031 and JAC 0032) by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The results agreed well with the certified values within 2% of the RSD. (authors)

  16. Conductometric study of sodium dodecyl sulfate - nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 mixed micelles in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc of mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate with one of five nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 from conductance measurements. Based on the calculated values of the β parameters we have noticed that SDS-nonionic surfactants mostly showed strong synergistic effect. It was found that nonionic surfactants with mainly longer and more hydrophobic tail show stronger interactions with hydrophobic part of SDS, thus expressing stronger synergism. In SDS-Tween 80 binary system the strongest synergistic effect was noticed. SDS-Tween 85 micellar system showed antagonistic effect, most probably because the presence of the double bond in its three hydrophobic tails (three C18 tails makes it sterically rigid.

  17. Comparative proteomics of Staphylococcus aureus and the response of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive strains to Triton X-100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordwell, Stuart J; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Cole, Rebecca T

    2002-01-01

    profiles of S. aureus strains COL (methicillin-resistant) and 8325 (methicillin-sensitive). Reference mapping via this approach identified 377 proteins that corresponded to 266 distinct ORFs. Amongst these identified proteins were 14 potential virulence factors. The production of 41 'hypothetical' proteins....... Comparative maps were used to characterize the S. aureus response to treatment with Triton X-100 (TX-100), a detergent that has been shown to reduce methicillin resistance independently of an interaction with the mecA-encoded penicillin-binding protein 2a. In response to growth of the bacteria in the presence...... of TX-100, 44 protein spots showed altered levels of abundance, and 11 of these spots were found only in COL. The products of genes regulated by sigma(B) (the alternative sigma factor), including Asp23 and three proteins of unknown function, and SarA (a regulator of virulence genes) were shown...

  18. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...

  19. Telecommunication using muon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location

  20. Two-step preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles using Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhengkun; Jiang, Feihong [College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Lee, Tung-Ching, E-mail: lee@aesop.rutgers.edu [Department of Food Science, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Yue, Tianli, E-mail: yuetl305@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •A new two-step route for nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles preparation. •Triton X-100 reversed-phase microemulsion system was used for chitosan coating. •Narrow size distribution of magnetic chitosan nanoparticles was achieved. •Quantitative evaluation of recoverability for the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles. -- Abstract: A new two-step route for the preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles has been developed, different from reported one-step in situ preparation and two-step preparation method of reversed-phase suspension, Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion encapsulation method was employed in coating the pre-prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with chitosan. The resultant magnetic chitosan particles owned a narrow size distribution ranging from 50 to 92 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) indicated that the chitosan coating procedure did not change the spinal structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that the chitosan was coated on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and its average mass content was ∼50%. The saturated magnetization of the magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/chitosan nanoparticles reached 18.62 emu/g, meanwhile, the nanoparticles showed the characteristics of superparamagnetism. The magnetic chitosan nanoparticles showed a high recoverability of 99.99% in 10 min when pH exceeded 4. The results suggested that the as-prepared magnetic chitosan particles were nano-scaled with a narrow size distribution and a high recoverability.

  1. Two-step preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles using Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhengkun; Jiang, Feihong; Lee, Tung-Ching; Yue, Tianli

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A new two-step route for nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles preparation. •Triton X-100 reversed-phase microemulsion system was used for chitosan coating. •Narrow size distribution of magnetic chitosan nanoparticles was achieved. •Quantitative evaluation of recoverability for the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles. -- Abstract: A new two-step route for the preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles has been developed, different from reported one-step in situ preparation and two-step preparation method of reversed-phase suspension, Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion encapsulation method was employed in coating the pre-prepared Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with chitosan. The resultant magnetic chitosan particles owned a narrow size distribution ranging from 50 to 92 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) indicated that the chitosan coating procedure did not change the spinal structure of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that the chitosan was coated on Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and its average mass content was ∼50%. The saturated magnetization of the magnetic Fe 3 O 4 /chitosan nanoparticles reached 18.62 emu/g, meanwhile, the nanoparticles showed the characteristics of superparamagnetism. The magnetic chitosan nanoparticles showed a high recoverability of 99.99% in 10 min when pH exceeded 4. The results suggested that the as-prepared magnetic chitosan particles were nano-scaled with a narrow size distribution and a high recoverability

  2. BEAM web server: a tool for structural RNA motif discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrosanto, Marco; Adinolfi, Marta; Casula, Riccardo; Ausiello, Gabriele; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela

    2018-03-15

    RNA structural motif finding is a relevant problem that becomes computationally hard when working on high-throughput data (e.g. eCLIP, PAR-CLIP), often represented by thousands of RNA molecules. Currently, the BEAM server is the only web tool capable to handle tens of thousands of RNA in input with a motif discovery procedure that is only limited by the current secondary structure prediction accuracies. The recently developed method BEAM (BEAr Motifs finder) can analyze tens of thousands of RNA molecules and identify RNA secondary structure motifs associated to a measure of their statistical significance. BEAM is extremely fast thanks to the BEAR encoding that transforms each RNA secondary structure in a string of characters. BEAM also exploits the evolutionary knowledge contained in a substitution matrix of secondary structure elements, extracted from the RFAM database of families of homologous RNAs. The BEAM web server has been designed to streamline data pre-processing by automatically handling folding and encoding of RNA sequences, giving users a choice for the preferred folding program. The server provides an intuitive and informative results page with the list of secondary structure motifs identified, the logo of each motif, its significance, graphic representation and information about its position in the RNA molecules sharing it. The web server is freely available at http://beam.uniroma2.it/ and it is implemented in NodeJS and Python with all major browsers supported. marco.pietrosanto@uniroma2.it. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Overview of in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy at the RIBF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doornenbal, Pieter [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-07-07

    At the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory stable primary beams are accelerated up to 345 MeV/u and incident on a primary target to produce cocktail secondary beams with the fragment separator BigRIPS ranging from the lightest nuclei up to the lead region. For in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy, the secondary beams impinge on a reaction target at energies between 100 and 300 MeV/u. Reaction residues are identified with the ZeroDegree spectrometer and γ-rays detected with the NaI(Tl) based DALI2 array. This conference paper outlines the experimental setup and presents recent exemplary results.

  4. Application of Beam Diagnostics for Intense Heavy Ion Beams at the GSI UNILAC

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, W; Glatz, J; Groening, L; Richter, S; Yaramishev, S

    2003-01-01

    With the new High Current Injector (HSI) of the GSI UNILAC the beam pulse intensity had been increased by approximately two orders of magnitudes. The HSI was mounted and commissioned in 1999; since this time the UNILAC serves as an injector for the synchrotron SIS, especially for high uranium intensities. Considering the high beam power of up to 1250 kW and the short stopping range for the UNILAC beam energies (≤12 MeV/u), accelerator components could be destroyed, even during a single beam pulse. All diagnostic elements had to be replaced preferably by non-destructive devices. The beam current is mainly measured by beam transformers instead of Faraday cups, beam positions are measured with segmented capacitive pick-ups and secondary beam monitors instead of profile harps. The 24 installed pick-ups are also used to measure intensities, widths and phase of the bunches, as well beam energies by evaluating pick-ups at different positions. The residual gas ionization monitors allow on-line measurements ...

  5. Development of focused ion beam systems with various ion species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Qing; Leung, K.-N.; King, Tsu-Jae; Jiang Ximan; Appleton, Bill R.

    2005-01-01

    Conventional focused ion beam systems employ a liquid-metal ion source (LMIS) to generate high-brightness beams, such as Ga + beams. Recently there has been an increased need for focused ion beams in areas like biological studies, advanced magnetic-film manufacturing and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In this article, status of development on focused ion beam systems with ion species such as O 2 + , P + , and B + will be reviewed. Compact columns for forming focused ion beams from low energy (∼3keV), to intermediate energy (∼35keV) are discussed. By using focused ion beams, a SOI MOSFET is fabricated entirely without any masks or resist

  6. Safe LHC beam commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uythoven, J.; Schmidt, R.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the large amount of energy stored in magnets and beams, safety operation of the LHC is essential. The commissioning of the LHC machine protection system will be an integral part of the general LHC commissioning program. A brief overview of the LHC Machine Protection System will be given, identifying the main components: the Beam Interlock System, the Beam Dumping System, the Collimation System, the Beam Loss Monitoring System and the Quench Protection System. An outline is given of the commissioning strategy of these systems during the different commissioning phases of the LHC: without beam, injection and the different phases with stored beam depending on beam intensity and energy. (author)

  7. LANSCE beam current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  8. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  9. Ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strehl, P.

    1994-04-01

    This report is an introduction to ion beam diagnosis. After a short description of the most important ion beam parameters measurements of the beam current by means of Faraday cups, calorimetry, and beam current transformers and measurements of the beam profile by means of viewing screens, profile grids and scanning devices, and residual gas ionization monitors are described. Finally measurements in the transverse and longitudinal phase space are considered. (HSI)

  10. One-nucleon transfer reactions induced by secondary beam of {sup 11}Be: study of the nuclear structure of the exotic nuclei {sup 11}Be and {sup 10}Li; Reactions de transfert d'un nucleon induites par un faisceau secondaire de {sup 11}Be: etude de la structure des noyaux exotiques {sup 11}Be et {sup 10}Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pita, S

    2000-09-01

    The structure of the neutron rich light nuclei {sup 11}Be and {sup 10}Li has been investigated by means of one nucleon transfer reactions. The experiments have been carried out at GANIL in inverse kinematics using {sup 11}Be secondary beams. The {sup 11}Be(p,d){sup 10}Be reaction bas been studied at 35.3 MeV/u. The {sup 10}Be ejectiles were analyzed by the spectrometer SPEG, and coincident deuterons were detected in the position sensitive silicon detector CHARISSA. Transfer cross sections to 0{sup +}{sub 1} and 2{sup +}{sub 1}, states in {sup 10}Be were measured up to {theta}{sub CM} = 16 deg. and compared to DWBA and CRC predictions. The effects of neutron-cure couplings on reaction form factors have been studied by solving coupled equations in the framework of a vibrational model. It is shown that the rate of core excitation {sup 10}Be{sub 2+} in the {sup 11}Be{sub gs} wave function is overestimated by a standard analysis with form factors given by the usual Separation Energy prescription. The former model predicts a rate of core excitation of 16% and leads to theoretical cross sections which are in good agreement with the experimental data. The aim of the {sup 11}Be(d,{sup 3}He){sup 10}Li experiment, realized at 37 MeV/u, was to measure the distribution of the 2s neutron strength in the unbound nucleus {sup 10}Li. The energy spectrum was deduced from the {sup 3}He energy and angle measured by the silicon strip detector array MUST. An asymmetric peak is clearly observed near the threshold, with a maximum at -S{sub n} = 130 keV. This constitutes a direct proof of the inversion of 2s and 1p{sub 1/2} shells in {sup 10}Li, which was until now a controversial question in spite of many experimental efforts. On the other band the analysis of the {sup 11}Be(d,t){sup 10}Be reaction studied in the same experiment confirms the results obtained in the {sup 11}Be(p,d){sup 10}Be reaction concerning the {sup 11}Be{sub gs} structure. This work shows the interest and feasibility

  11. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, P.K.

    1975-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) which is primarily a method for investigating the chemical composition of the uppermost atomic layer of solid surfaces is explained. In this method, the specimen is bombarded with a primary positive ion beam of small current density monolayer. Positive and negative ions sputtered from the specimen are mass analysed to give the surface chemical composition. The analytical system which consists of a primary ion source, a target manipulator and a mass spectrometer housed in an ultrahigh vacuum system is described. This method can also be used for profile measurements in thin films by using higher current densities of the primary ions. Fields of application such as surface reactions, semiconductors, thin films emission processes, chemistry, metallurgy are touched upon. Various aspects of this method such as the sputtering process, instrumentation, and applications are discussed. (K.B.)

  12. Accelerator development for a radioactive beam facility based on ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-01-01

    The existing superconducting linac ATLAS is in many respects an ideal secondary beam accelerator for an ISOL (Isotope separator on-line) type radioactive beam facility. Such a facility would require the addition of two major accelerator elements: a low charge state injector for the existing heavy ion linac, and a primary beam accelerator providing 220 MV of acceleration for protons and light ions. Development work for both of these elements, including the option of superconducting cavities for the primary beam accelerator is discussed

  13. Failure analysis of prestressed concrete beam under impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, N.; Sonoda, Y.; Kobayashi, N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a failure analysis of prestressed concrete (PC) beam under impact loading. At first, the failure analysis of PC beam section is performed by using the discrete section element method in order to obtain the dynamic bending moment-curvature relation. Secondary, the failure analysis of PC beam is performed by using the rigid panel-spring model. Finally, the numerical calculation is executed and is compared with the experimental results. It is found that this approach can simulate well the experiments at the local and overall failure of the PC beam as well as the impact load and the displacement-time relations. (author)

  14. Commissioning of polarized-proton and antiproton beams at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1988-01-01

    The author described the polarized-proton and polarized-antiproton beams up to 200 GeV/c at Fermilab. The beam line, called MP, consists of the 400-m long primary and 350-m long secondary beam line followed by 60-m long experimental hall. We discuss the characteristics of the polarized beams. The Fermilab polarization projects are designated at E-581/704 initiated and carried out by an international collaboration, Argonne (US), Fermilab (US), Kyoto-Kyushu-Hiroshima-KEK (Japan), LAPP (France), Northwestern University (US), Los Alamos Laboratory (US), Rice (US), Saclay (France), Serpukhov (USSR), INFN Trieste (Italy), and University of Texas (US)

  15. Accelerator development for a radioactive beam facility based on ATLAS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-01-08

    The existing superconducting linac ATLAS is in many respects an ideal secondary beam accelerator for an ISOL (Isotope separator on-line) type radioactive beam facility. Such a facility would require the addition of two major accelerator elements: a low charge state injector for the existing heavy ion linac, and a primary beam accelerator providing 220 MV of acceleration for protons and light ions. Development work for both of these elements, including the option of superconducting cavities for the primary beam accelerator is discussed.

  16. Study of the formation and of the distribution of dissolved gases and hydrogen peroxide in water from a swimming-pool reactor (triton) (1961); Etude de la formation et de la repartition des gaz dissous et de l'eau oxygenee dans l'eau d'un reacteur piscine (triton) (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J; Rozenberg, J; Dolle, L; Dirian, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    In order to determine experimentally the amount of radiolysis in the swimming-pool reactor Triton, direct measurements have been made of the quantity of radiolysis gas and hydrogen peroxide in the water, at the entry and exit of the core. The concentration distribution of these gases in the reactor was also determined. An explanation is given as to why no gases evolution is seen in the swimming-pool reactors of the C.E.A. The overall amount of radiolysis is zero, and a simple interpretation of this result is possible. The real amount of radiolysis occurring in the reactor core can be calculated. This is in satisfactory agreement with certain measurement mad elsewhere. (authors) [French] Pour determiner experimentalement le taux de radiolyse dans la pile piscine Triton, des mesures directes de la quantite de gaz de radiolyse et d'eau oxygenee dans l'eau a l'entree et a la sortie du coeur ont ete faites. La repartition de la concentration de ces gaz dans la piscine a egalement ete determinee. On explique pourquoi aucun degagement gazeux n'est observe dans les piles piscines du CE.A. Le taux de radiolyse global est nul, et une interpretation simple de ce resultat est possible. Un taux de radiolyse reel dans le coeur du reacteur peut etre calcule. Celui-ci est en accord satisfaisant avec certaines determinations faites ailleurs. (auteurs)

  17. Secondary hazards of high power laser beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulmeister, K.; Schmitzer, C.; Duftschmid, K.; Liedl, G.; Schroeder, K.; Schuoecker, D.

    1996-01-01

    Hazardous UV-radiation and short-wavelength visible (blue) light is emitted by the high temperature plasma above the welding-keyhole. Ozone and NO x is produced due to UV-induced photodissociation of oxygen and high temperature gas-phase reactions. Spectral measurements of the plasma emission show that the allowed dose for UV-radiation and blue light exposure per work day can be exceeded in as short as a few seconds. Similarly, measurements and models of the ozone and NO x concentration show that the maximum workplace concentrations might be reached quickly if no appropriate exhaust and filter system is installed. (author)

  18. Studies of the beam-beam interaction for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnagopal, S.; Furman, M.A.; Turner, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have used the beam-beam simulation code CBI to study the beam-beam interaction for the LHC. We find that for nominal LHC parameters, and assuming only one bunch per beam, there are no collective (coherent) beam-beam instabilities. We have investigated the effect of sweeping one of the beams around the other (a procedure that could be used as a diagnostic for head-on beam-beam collisions). We find that this does not cause any problems at the nominal current, though at higher currents there can be beam blow-up and collective beam motion. consequence of quadrupole collective effects

  19. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A; Laird, J S; Bardos, R A; Legge, G J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T; Sekiguchi, H [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1994-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Exposure parameters in proton beam writing for hydrogen silsesquioxane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.A. van; Zhang, F.; Zhang, C.; Bettiol, A.A.; Watt, F.

    2008-01-01

    In proton beam writing (PBW) a focused MeV proton beam is scanned in a predetermined pattern over a resist (e.g. PMMA, SU-8 or HSQ), which is subsequently chemically developed. In e-beam writing as well as p-beam writing the energy loss of the primary beam is dominated by energy transfer to substrate electrons. Unlike the high energy secondary electrons generated during e-beam writing the secondary electrons induced by the primary proton beam have low energy and therefore a limited range, resulting in minimal proximity effects. The low proximity effects exhibited by p-beam writing coupled with the straight trajectory and high penetration of the proton beam enables the production of high aspect ratio, high density 3D micro and nanostructures with well defined smooth side walls to be directly written into resist materials. This property together with the stability and focusing power of the end station ensures even exposures with nm smoothness and allows fabrication of details down to the 20 nm level. In this paper, we present results like contrast and sensitivity for PBW using, hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) and XR-1541, both are non-C based resists. Unlike PMMA and SU-8 resist HSQ shows aging effects, requiring optimized processing parameters in PBW

  2. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spädtke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation

  3. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  4. Electron beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.; Alberti, S.; Hogge, J.P.; Tran, M.Q.; Tran, T.M.

    1997-10-01

    Electron beam instabilities occurring in a gyrotron electron beam can induce an energy spread which might significantly deteriorate the gyrotron efficiency. Three types of instabilities are considered to explain the important discrepancy found between the theoretical and experimental efficiency in the case of quasi-optical gyrotrons (QOG): the electron cyclotron maser instability, the Bernstein instability and the Langmuir instability. The low magnetic field gradient in drift tubes of QOG makes that the electron cyclotron maser instability can develop in the drift tube at very low electron beam currents. Experimental measurements show that with a proper choice of absorbing structures in the beam tunnel, this instability can be suppressed. At high beam currents, the electrostatic Bernstein instability can induce a significant energy spread at the entrance of the interaction region. The induced energy spread scales approximately linearly with the electron beam density and for QOG one observes that the beam density is significantly higher than the beam density of an equivalent cylindrical cavity gyrotron. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  5. Successful Beam-Beam Tuneshift Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishofberger, Kip Aaron [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The performance of synchrotron colliders has been limited by the beam-beam limit, a maximum tuneshift that colliding bunches could sustain. Due to bunch-to-bunch tune variation and intra-bunch tune spread, larger tuneshifts produce severe emittance growth. Breaking through this constraint has been viewed as impossible for several decades. This dissertation introduces the physics of ultra-relativistic synchrotrons and low-energy electron beams, with emphasis placed on the limits of the Tevatron and the needs of a tuneshift-compensation device. A detailed analysis of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) is given, comparing theoretical models to experimental data whenever possible. Finally, results of Tevatron operations with inclusion of the TEL are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the TEL provides a way to shatter the previously inescapable beam-beam limit.

  6. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  7. Glow-discharge-created electron beams and beam-excited lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Efficiently created glow discharge electron beams have been developed and studied in detail. The beam mode of operation occurs in the abnormal glow adjacent to the glow-to-arc transition regime. In contrast to electron beams generated in high vacuum from thermionic electron emitting sources, this type of discharge creates electrons directly in soft vacuum by secondary electron emission from cold cathode surfaces following the bombardment of the cathode surface by fast ions and neutral atoms. Factors influencing the efficient electron emission from cold cathodes are presented with emphasis on cathode materials. Sintered ceramic-metal cathodes and oxide-coated cathodes are presented, both of which can produce high power, efficiently generated, d.c. electron beams with discharge currents up to 1 amp (∼130 mA/cm 2 ) at volt ages of up to 6 kV. Novel cathode designs and discharge geometries are presented with specific emphasis on both self-focussed beams emitted from circular cathodes and line-source electron beams emitted from rectangular cathodes forming a thin sheet of electrons. Electrostatically focussed line-source electron beams are spatially characterized by experimentally measuring the effect of discharge parameters and cathode design upon the focussed beam width, focal point, and uniformity. This is achieved by scanning a current collecting detector in three dimensions in order to profile the distribution of electron beam current. Discharge electron beams are further characterized by their electron energy distribution. Measured electron flux energy distributions of transmitted beam electrons in the negative glow are compared to theoretical models. The relative effects of elastic and inelastic collisions mechanisms upon both the overall form and detailed structure of the energy distribution are discussed

  8. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  9. Charged corpuscular beam detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikawa, H; Nishikawa, Y

    1970-09-29

    The present invention relates to a charged particle beam detector which prevents transient phenomena disturbing the path and focusing of a charged particle beam travelling through a mounted axle. The present invention provides a charged particle beam detector capable of decreasing its reaction to the charge in energy of the charged particle beam even if the relative angle between the mounted axle and the scanner is unstable. The detector is characterized by mounting electrically conductive metal pieces of high melting point onto the face of a stepped, heat-resistant electric insulating material such that the pieces partially overlap each other and individually provide electric signals, whereby the detector is no longer affected by the beam. The thickness of the metal piece is selected so that an eddy current is not induced therein by an incident beam, thus the incident beam is not affected. The detector is capable of detecting a misaligned beam since the metal pieces partially overlap each other.

  10. A possible method to produce a polarized antiproton beam at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.; Vaandering, E.W.; Hofmann, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    A feasible and conservative design for a medium energy polarized antiproton beam has been presented. The design requires an intense beam of unpolarized antiprotons (≥ 10 7 /sec) from a typical secondary beam line in order to achieve reasonable anti pp elastic scattering count rates. All three beam spin directions can be achieved. Methods were discussed to reverse the spin directions in modest times, and to change to a polarized proton beam if desired. It is expected that experiments with such a beam would have a profound effect on the understanding of the anti NN interaction at intermediate energies

  11. Monitoring corrosion and corrosion control of iron in HCl by non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series - Part III. Immersion time effects and theoretical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Mohammed A.; Ahmed, M.A.; Arida, H.A.; Kandemirli, Fatma; Saracoglu, Murat; Arslan, Taner; Basaran, Murat A.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: . Display Omitted Research highlights: → The inhibition effect of TX-100, TX-165 and TX-305 on iron corrosion in 1.0 M HCl was studied. → TX-305 inhibited iron corrosion more effectively than TX-100 and TX-165. → In most cases, inhibition efficiency increased with time during the first 60 min of immersion, then decreased. → Calculated quantum chemical parameters confirmed the experimental inhibition efficiencies of the tested surfactants. - Abstract: The inhibition performance of three selected non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series, namely TRITONX-100 (TX-100), TRITON-X-165 (TX-165) and TRITON-X-305 (TX-305), on the corrosion of iron was studied in 1.0 M HCl solutions as a function of inhibitor concentration (0.01-0.20 g L -1 ) and immersion time (0.0-8 h) at 298 K. Measurements were conducted based on Tafel polarization, LPR and impedance studies. At high frequencies, the impedance spectrum showed a depressed capacitive loop in the complex impedance plane, whose diameter is a function of the immersion time and the type and concentration of the introduced surfactant. In all cases, an inductive loop was observed in the low frequency and this could be attributed to the adsorption behavior. The inhibition efficiency increased with immersion time, reached a maximum and then decreased. This was attributed to the orientation change of adsorbed surfactant molecules. TX-305 inhibited iron corrosion more effectively than TX-100 and TX-165. The frontier orbital energies, the energy gap between frontier orbitals, dipole moments (μ), charges on the C and O atoms, the polarizabilities, and the quantum chemical descriptors were calculated. The quantum chemical calculation results inferred that for the HOMO representing the condensed Fukui function for an electrophilic attack (f k + ), the contributions belong to the phenyl group and the oxygen atom attached to the phenyl group for each tested surfactant. Quantitative structure

  12. The enrichment secondary market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einbund, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper will addresses two topics: the background to the present status of the enrichment secondary market and the future outlook of the secondary market in enrichment services, and the viability of the nuclear fuel brokerage industry. These two topics are inevitably connected, as most secondary market activity, not only in enrichment but also in natural uranium, has traditionally been conducted with the participation of brokers. Therefore, the author interrelates these topics

  13. Advanced electron beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    After 100 years from the time of discovery of electron, we now have many applications of electron beam in science and technology. In this report, we review two important applications of electron beam: electron microscopy and pulsed-electron beam. Advanced electron microscopy techniques to investigate atomic and electronic structures, and pulsed-electron beam for investigating time-resolved structural change are described. (author)

  14. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  15. Crossed beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolder, K.T.

    1976-01-01

    Many natural phenomena can only be properly understood if one has a detailed knowledge of interactions involving atoms, molecules, ions, electrons or photons. In the laboratory these processes are often studied by preparing beams of two types of particle and observing the reactions which occur when the beams intersect. Some of the more interesting of these crossed beam experiments and their results are discussed. Proposals to extend colliding beam techniques to high energy particle physics are also outlined. (author)

  16. Controlled Roof Collapse during Secondary Mining in Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh Hutchinson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem considered is an investigation of the possible collapse of the roof between the pillar next to be mined in secondary coal mining and the first line of pillar remnants called snooks. The roof rock between the pillar, which is the working face, and the snook is modelled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam acted on at each end by a horizontal force and by its weight per unit length. The beam is clamped at the pillar and simply supported (hinged at the snook. The dimensionless differential equation for the beam and the boundary conditions depend on one dimensionless number . We consider the range of values of before the displacement and curvature first become singular at =1. The model predicts that for all practical purposes, the beam will break at the clamped end at the pillar. The failure of the beam for values of greater than 1 is investigated computationally.

  17. Quantitative secondary electron detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Joy, David C.; Nayak, Subuhadarshi

    2018-05-08

    Quantitative Secondary Electron Detection (QSED) using the array of solid state devices (SSD) based electron-counters enable critical dimension metrology measurements in materials such as semiconductors, nanomaterials, and biological samples (FIG. 3). Methods and devices effect a quantitative detection of secondary electrons with the array of solid state detectors comprising a number of solid state detectors. An array senses the number of secondary electrons with a plurality of solid state detectors, counting the number of secondary electrons with a time to digital converter circuit in counter mode.

  18. Radioactive nuclear beam facilities based on projectile fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrill, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    The production of radioactive beams using direct separation techniques is discussed. The reaction mechanisms which can be used to produce radioactive beams with these techniques can be broadly divided into three groups, projectile fragmentation, nucleon transfer, and Coulomb disassociation. Radioactive nuclei produced in these ways have large forward momenta with relatively sharp angular distributions peaked near zero degrees which are suitable for collection with magnetic devices. Secondary beam intensities of up to a few percent of the primary beam intensity are possible, although depending on the production mechanism the beam emittance may be poor. Further beam purification can be achieved using atomic processes with profiled energy degraders. The features of the production reaction mechanism, separation techniques, and a review of world wide efforts are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are presented, with discussion of techniques to overcome some of the disadvantages. (Author)

  19. Beam Loss Patterns at the LHC Collimators Measurements & Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Böhlen, Till Tobias

    2008-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) detects particle losses of circulating beams and initiates an emergency extraction of the beam in case that the BLM thresholds are exceeded. This protection is required as energy deposition in the accelerator equipment due to secondary shower particles can reach critical levels; causing damage to the beam-line components and quenches of superconducting magnets. Robust and movable beam line elements, so-called collimators, are the aperture limitations of the LHC. Consequently, they are exposed to the excess of lost beam particles and their showers. Proton loss patterns at LHC collimators have to be determined to interpret the signal of the BLM detectors and to set adequate BLM thresholds for the protection of collimators and other equipment in case of unacceptably increased loss rates. The first part of this work investigates the agreement of BLM detector measurements with simulations for an LHC-like collimation setup. The setup consists ...

  20. Beam Collimation Studies for the ILC Positron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozhdin, A.; /Fermilab; Nosochkov, Y.; Zhou, F.; /SLAC

    2008-06-26

    Results of the collimation studies for the ILC positron source beam line are presented. The calculations of primary positron beam loss are done using the ELEGANT code. The secondary positron and electron beam loss, the synchrotron radiation along the beam line and the bremsstrahlung radiation in the collimators are simulated using the STRUCT code. The first part of the collimation system, located right after the positron source target (0.125 GeV), is used for protection of the RF Linac sections from heating and radiation. The second part of the system is used for final collimation before the beam injection into the Damping Ring at 5 GeV. The calculated power loss in the collimation region is within 100 W/m, with the loss in the collimators of 0.2-5 kW. The beam transfer efficiency from the target to the Damping Ring is 13.5%.