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Sample records for secondary standard laboratory

  1. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL)

    Md Saion bin Salikin.

    1983-01-01

    A secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory has been established in the Tun Ismail Research Centre, Malaysia as a national laboratory for reference and standardization purposes in the field of radiation dosimetry. This article gives brief accounts on the general information, development of the facility, programmes to be carried out as well as other information on the relevant aspects of the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. (author)

  2. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratories: Development and trends

    1985-08-01

    This publication describes the work of the IAEA and the WHO in the establishment of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Membership in the SSDL network has now risen to about 50 laboratories, of which 36 are in developing countries

  3. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory at INFLPR

    Scarlat, F.; Minea, R.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Badita, E.; Sima, E.; Dumitrascu, M.; Stancu, E.; Vancea, C., E-mail: scarlat.f@gmail.com [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics - INFLPR, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR) has constructed a High Energy Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory SSDL-STARDOOR - for performing dosimetric calibrations according to ISO IEC SR/EN 17025:2005 standards. This is outfitted with UNIDOS Secondary Standard Dosimeter from PTW (Freiburg Physikalisch-Technische Werksttaten) calibrated at the PTB-Braunschweig (German Federal Institute of Physics and Metrology). A radiation beam of the quality of Q used by our laboratory as calibration source are provided by INFLPR 7 MeV electron beam linear accelerator mounted in our facility. (author)

  4. Secondary standards laboratories for ionizing radiation calibrations: the national laboratory interests

    Roberson, P.L.; Campbell, G.W.

    1984-11-01

    The national laboratories are probable candidates to serve as secondary standards laboratories for the federal sector. Representatives of the major Department of Energy laboratories were polled concerning attitudes toward a secondary laboratory structure. Generally, the need for secondary laboratories was recognized and the development of such a program was encouraged. The secondary laboratories should be reviewed and inspected by the National Bureau of Standards. They should offer all of the essential, and preferably additional, calibration services in the field of radiological health protection. The selection of secondary laboratories should be based on economic and geographic criteria and/or be voluntary. 1 ref., 2 tabs

  5. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory at the Boris Kidric Institute

    Kovacevic, M.; Velickovic, D.; Vukcevic, M.

    1989-01-01

    Essential data about Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Boris Kidric Institute are stated in this paper. The description of the laboratory is given and the possibilities of X, gamma and neutron dose measurements, as well as the basic equipment (author)

  6. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDL) story

    Eisenlohr, H.H.

    2000-01-01

    In 1976, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization formally concluded a Working Arrangement aiming at setting up a world-wide Network of SSDLs under the auspices of the two organizations. It appears that the loose term Working Arrangement was used for this joint undertaking as both IAEA and WHO did not wish to signal, at that time, a deep involvement in the project. Moreover, the two organizations pursued different routes in implementing the project. In consequence, it took many years before the programme received adequate technical and financial support. Thus, after years of reluctance, the project was considered important enough to be included into the IAEA's Technical Assistance programme. It then began to thrive though, in the course of time, WHO's initial financial support declined. Now (1999), the SSDL Network comprises 76 laboratories around the world. It is guided by a joint IAEA/WHO Secretariat which, in turn, is advised by an SSDL Scientific Committee. It is supported by 5 Collaborating Organizations and enjoys full national and international recognition. Most of the people who initiated, promoted and directed the establishment of SSDLs and the Network have by now retired from their positions in national or international institutions. Some of the early enthusiasts are no longer alive, and the names of many of them were never associated with the project, because staff of, and consultants to, international organizations are expected to work in anonymity

  7. ABACC laboratories quality assurance through Secondary Standards Exchange Program

    Guidicini, Olga Mafra; Thompson, Jay; Soriano, Michael

    2003-01-01

    In September 1999, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), with assistance from the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) of the U.S. Department of Energy, started a new cooperative activity with, among other objectives, the production and characterization of a traceable uranium secondary standard and the performance of the Third Round Robin for ABACC's laboratory network. Brazil and Argentina have fabricated UO 2 pellets for use as a secondary standard. Samples from the two batches were sent to NBL for the determination of the reference values for both uranium concentration (%U) and isotopic composition for each batch. ABACC and NBL then organized the Third ABACC Round Robin for Brazilian and Argentine laboratories that are part of the ABACC network. The laboratories comprising the network can be used to analyze real samples collected during the ABACC inspections. The Brazilian and Argentine pellets were distributed to all the laboratories together with the protocol to be followed for the uranium concentration analysis, the forms for reporting the measurement results, and natural UO 2 pellets (CETAMA OU1) to be used as reference material. For the laboratories with capability of measuring isotopics, NBL reference material CRM 125-A was provided. Several laboratories from each country provided results. As soon as the measurement results were sent to the organizers, they were statistically evaluated by NBL. During a meeting held at ABACC headquarters with the participation of NBL representatives, the ABACC technical support officer, and representatives of all the participant laboratories, the results were discussed and compared with the reference values. All the laboratories had the occasion, in an open discussion, to explain and show the difficulties and problems they faced during the exercise. ABACC had the opportunity not only to judge the quality of the measurements these laboratories performed, but also to determine

  8. Role of secondary standard dosimetry laboratory in radiation protection program

    Rahman, Sohaila; Ali, Noriah Mohd.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radiation dosimetry program is an important element of operational radiation protection. Dosimetry data enable workers and radiation protection professionals to evaluate and control work practices to eliminate unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation. The usefulness of the data produced however depends on its quality and traceability. The emphasis of the global dosimetry program is focused through the IAEA/WHO network of secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs), which aims for the determination of SI quantities through proper traceable calibration of radiation protection equipment. The responsibility of SSDL-NUCLEAR MALAYSIA to guarantee a reliable dosimetry service, which is traceable to international standards, is elucidated. It acts as the basis for harmonized occupational radiation monitoring in Malaysia.

  9. Measurement uncertainty. A practical guide for Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    2008-05-01

    The need for international traceability for radiation dose measurements has been understood since the early nineteen-sixties. The benefits of high dosimetric accuracy were recognized, particularly in radiotherapy, where the outcome of treatments is dependent on the radiation dose delivered to patients. When considering radiation protection dosimetry, the uncertainty may be greater than for therapy, but proper traceability of the measurements is no less important. To ensure harmonization and consistency in radiation measurements, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) created a Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) in 1976. An SSDL is a laboratory that has been designated by the competent national authorities to undertake the duty of providing the necessary link in the traceability chain of radiation dosimetry to the international measurement system (SI, for Systeme International) for radiation metrology users. The role of the SSDLs is crucial in providing traceable calibrations; they disseminate calibrations at specific radiation qualities appropriate for the use of radiation measuring instruments. Historically, although the first SSDLs were established mainly to provide radiotherapy level calibrations, the scope of their work has expanded over the years. Today, many SSDLs provide traceability for radiation protection measurements and diagnostic radiology in addition to radiotherapy. Some SSDLs, with the appropriate facilities and expertise, also conduct quality audits of the clinical use of the calibrated dosimeters - for example, by providing postal dosimeters for dose comparisons for medical institutions or on-site dosimetry audits with an ion chamber and other appropriate equipment. The requirements for traceable and reliable calibrations are becoming more important. For example, for international trade where radiation products are manufactured within strict quality control systems, it is

  10. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards.

  11. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards

  12. SSDL newsletter. No. 25[Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    NONE

    1986-10-01

    In April 1976 the IAEA and the WHO concluded a Working Arrangement concerning the establishment and operation of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories, based on a relationship agreement between the two organizations of 1959. This Working Arrangement was the outcome of rather lengthy consultations on the subject which rooted in recommendations of an experts' meeting on SSDL Activities, held in Rio de Janeiro 1974, and which put the bulk of responsibility for running the network on WHO. In particular, it was agreed then that WHO would provide the secretariat for the Network and be responsible for the SSDL Advisory Group of experts, the terms of reference of which were laid down in a separate document. After about ten years of operation of the SSDL Network it was felt that revision of the Working Arrangement should be considered, taking care of the actual involvement of the two organizations in the project and providing a more fairly balanced share of responsibilities between the IAEA and WHO secretaries of the Network. The new Arrangement was drafted during 1985 and signed by the two Directors General in October/November 1985. Upon recommendation of an SSDL Advisory Group which met in November 1984 the Directors General of IAEA and WHO appointed 6 scientists as members of a standing SSDL Scientific Committee. The appointment is for a period of three years. In its terms of reference the functions of this Committee are defined as follows: to provide technical advice to the Directors General of the IAEA and WHO regarding the programme of work of the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories; to assist the Network Secretariat with scientific advice and to regularly review the work undertaken by members of the SSDL Network; to make recommendations on the techniques for carrying out intercomparisons between SSDLs; to advise and make recommendations on the techniques for establishing and maintaining traceability to the Primary Standard

  13. Guidelines for Member States concerning radiation measurement standards and Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    1986-01-01

    In the early nineteen-sixties an acute need developed for higher dosimetric accuracy in radiation therapy, particularly in developing countries. This need led to the establishment of a number of dosimetry laboratories around the world, specializing in the calibration of radiation therapy dosimeters. In order to co-ordinate the provision of guidance and assistance to such laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) set up a Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) under their joint aegis, as described in the IAEA booklet 'SSDLs: Development and Trends' (1985). This publication includes detailed criteria for the establishment of these laboratories. The present guidelines deal with the functions and status of SSDLs, in particular with the need for recognition and support by the competent national authorities. (author)

  14. SSDL newsletter. No. 29[Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    NONE

    1990-04-01

    The IAEA/WHO Network of SSDLs was established 14 years ago, mainly through the efforts by H. Eisenlohr (IAEA) and W. Seelentag (WHO). They were the two first ''joint scientific secretaries'' of the network. They built up the structure that in retrospect must be considered as very successful. Of course, also a number of other persons, both within and outside the two UN organizations, contributed very much to the establishment of the network. The application fields for dose determinations are very much changing. For instance, in the 70's most of the radiotherapy was carried out with Co-60 units. Today about 5 times more linear accelerators are installed than Co-60 units. Dose calibrations are therefore needed for high energy x-ray and electron beams also in many developing countries. Furthermore, a higher accuracy is generally required. In diagnostic radiology, many new techniques have been introduced which necessitate output checks to reduce patient and personnel doses. In some countries, sterilizing or food processing plants have been taken into use and need dose calibrations. It is, therefore, reasonable that the SSDLs will have an increasing and changing role. In the present issue we have tried to analyse the status of the present network. This analysis shows that most of the SSDLs are very successful in their task. This is obvious from an analysis of the dose intercomparison results. A few SSDLs need to improve. It could of course be expected that the quality of the work should differ among 61 laboratories. Many of the SSDLs have today got extended responsibilities in new areas and the future development of the work will certainly be of great interest to follow.

  15. SSDL newsletter. No. 45[Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The first article of this issue of the SSDL Newsletter is about intercomparison of air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors between the SSDLs of Norway and Cuba. The intercomparison covered Co-60 gamma rays (for air kerma and absorbed dose to water) and x-ray beams (air kerma at medium and low energy). The results are presented in this article. The Secretariat of the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network encourages this type of exercise between the SSDLs as it reinforces confidence in the measurement system. The IAEA also provides intercomparison services to its Network members, using ionization chambers. Although the service is presently limited to Co-60 gamma rays, it will soon be expanded to cover x-ray beams. For this purpose, a consultants' meeting will be held soon in Vienna to advise the IAEA on the methodology to be adopted. The second article is a report by the SSDL of Iran on the design, construction and calibration of plane parallel ionization chambers. This article presents the design characteristics of the chambers and the results of their calibration as well as dose determination of electron beams by air kerma based and absorbed dose to water based dosimetry procedures using these chambers. The third article is a report of a Nordic dosimetry meeting (Oslo, 19 January 2001) on the implementation of the new international Code of Practice based on absorbed dose to water standards (TRS-398). This report summarizes the main discussions and conclusions of the meeting. The editor wishes to draw the attention of the readers to the recommendations adopted in section 3 of the report. In addition, the Secretariat of the Network would appreciate receiving reports or minutes of meetings organized by SSDLs and hospitals on the implementation of TRS-398. The last article is a report of a consultants' meeting, held at the IAEA Headquarters in May 2001, on the calibration of well type ionization chambers for High Dose Rate {sup 192}Ir quality. The conclusions and

  16. Air kerma standardization for diagnostic radiology in a secondary standard laboratory

    Ramos, Manoel M.O.; Peixoto, J. Guilherme P.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    The demand for calibration services and quality control in diagnostic radiology has grown in the country since the publication of the governmental regulation 453, issued by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 1998. At that time, to produce results facing the new legislation, many laboratories used different standards and radiation qualities, some of which could be inadequate. The international standards neither supplied consistent radiation qualities and standardization for the different types of equipment available. This situation changed with the publication of the new edition of the IEC 61267 standard, published in 2005. The objective of this work was to implement the standardization of the air kerma for the unatenuated qualities (RQR) of IEC 61267 in the National Laboratory of Metrology of the Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI) of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). Technical procedures were developed together with uncertainty budget. Results of interlaboratory comparisons demonstrate that the quantity is standardized and internationally traceable. (author)

  17. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center Ankara, Turkey

    Okruhlica, P.

    2014-01-01

    Turkish Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SANA) was founded in 2005. In 2014 the company PTW Freiburg in cooperation with VF Cerna Hora started the construction of a comprehensive national metrology laboratories of ionizing radiation 'Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory' (SSDL). The laboratory will be located in the area of 'Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center' in Ankara in Turkey. SSDL will be equipped with metrology departments for calibration and measurement of standard required quantities of metrology of ionizing radiation: - Neutron workplace; Gamma workplace (low-energy X-ray, gamma Standard Cs-137 and high dose rate, Co-60); - Beta workplace; - Control system of metrology laboratories and irradiation VF DARS; - Radiation monitoring system VF RMS; - Camera and security system; - Measuring instruments (ionization chambers, electrometers, monitors for environmental measurements ...) with the appropriate phantoms and other systems.

  18. The IAEA/WHO network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. SSDL network charter

    1999-04-01

    In 1976, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) together with the World Health Organization (WHO) established a Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), known as the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. This Network, through SSDLs designated by Member States, provides a direct linkage of national dosimetry standards to the international measurement system of standards traceable to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), and the dissemination of S.I. quantities and units through the proper calibration of field instruments by the SSDLs. The Network has proved to be of value in improving national capabilities for instrument calibration and the awareness of better accuracy and traceability. Fifty-eight countries have nominated SSDLs for membership in the Network. Unfortunately, some of these SSDLs do not yet function as full members, perhaps because of some uncertainty as to their obligations concerning the Network. Consequently, the Scientific Committee which advises the Network Secretariat has recommended that a Charter be drawn up explaining the privileges, rights and duties of members in the Network which would strengthen their links to the international measurement system. In addition to the duties of members in the Network and the benefits that full members can receive, the Charter also describes how the Network functions and the scope of the work of the SSDLs. In producing this Charter, the advisory group has drawn heavily on the IAEA publication 'Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories: Development and Trends' (1985) which summarizes the origin, development, status and prospects of the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. The various appendices are effectively up-dates of different parts of this earlier publication, and the original drafting and reviewing bodies are given due recognition. The revisions take into account the experience the Agency has gained in coordinating the activities of the Network for more than 20 years

  19. The IAEA/WHO network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. SSDL network charter

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    In 1976, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) together with the World Health Organization (WHO) established a Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), known as the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. This Network, through SSDLs designated by Member States, provides a direct linkage of national dosimetry standards to the international measurement system of standards traceable to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), and the dissemination of S.I. quantities and units through the proper calibration of field instruments by the SSDLs. The Network has proved to be of value in improving national capabilities for instrument calibration and the awareness of better accuracy and traceability. Fifty-eight countries have nominated SSDLs for membership in the Network. Unfortunately, some of these SSDLs do not yet function as full members, perhaps because of some uncertainty as to their obligations concerning the Network. Consequently, the Scientific Committee which advises the Network Secretariat has recommended that a Charter be drawn up explaining the privileges, rights and duties of members in the Network which would strengthen their links to the international measurement system. In addition to the duties of members in the Network and the benefits that full members can receive, the Charter also describes how the Network functions and the scope of the work of the SSDLs. In producing this Charter, the advisory group has drawn heavily on the IAEA publication 'Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories: Development and Trends' (1985) which summarizes the origin, development, status and prospects of the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. The various appendices are effectively up-dates of different parts of this earlier publication, and the original drafting and reviewing bodies are given due recognition. The revisions take into account the experience the Agency has gained in coordinating the activities of the Network for more than 20 years.

  20. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory at the Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia

    Vekic, B.; Ban, R.; Saveta, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia, was installed during the several last years. The installation of this Laboratory was strongly supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through the Technical Cooperation Project (C.R.O. 1/004/; Establishing Calibration Services). Inside the country this Technical Cooperation Project was supported by the State Office for Standardization and Metrology, State Office for Radiation Protection and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Croatia. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia was installed in two calibration rooms. The both of these calibration rooms are 9.6 meters long and 6 meters wide. In the both of these calibration rooms the proper air conditioning was installed. The walls of the both calibration rooms are thick enough (1 meter of concrete) and the entrance doors are protected by Pb to protect any radiation hazard in control rooms, in neighbouring rooms and in environment. In the first calibration room, placed in the basement, two sealed sources share the same calibration bench (produced by Hopewell Designs, Inc., USA) between them which is 6 meters long. On one side is Co -60 source of the 30 TBq activity (December 2004) for the calibration of radiotherapy ionizing chambers and the other equipment in the field of high dose rate range. On the other side is irradiation unit consists of 2 sealed sources for radiation protection purposes: (1) Cs-137 source, activity of 740 MBq (February 2004) and (2) Co- 60 source, activity of 185 MBq (February 2004). For this second source three attenuators are provided that give a nominal attenuation of *10, *100 and *1000. In the second calibration room placed just above the first one the X -ray unit (gift from P.T.B., Germany, I.S.O.V.O.L.T. 420, 40 -300 kV, 1-20 mA) is placed. In front of this are: (1.) Aperture Wheel Assembly designed to modify the beam

  1. Quality control of secondary standards and calibration systems, therapy level, of National Laboratory of Metrology from Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI)

    Cecatti, E.R.; Freitas, L.C. de

    1992-01-01

    The results of quality control program of secondary standards, therapy level, and the calibration system of clinical dosemeters were analysed from 1984, when a change in the laboratory installation occurred and new standards were obtained. The national and the international intercomparisons were emphasised. The results for graphite wall chambers were compared, observing a maximum variation of about 0,6%. In the case of Delrin (TK01) wall chambers, the maximum variation was 1,7%. The results of post intercomparisons with thermoluminescent dosemeters have presented derivations lesser than 1%, securing the standards consistence at LNMRI with the international metrological system. (C.G.C.)

  2. Report of the Intercomparison program by thermoluminescent dosimetry for Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    Papadopulos, Susana

    2000-01-01

    In this report the results of an intercomparison program within a research coordinated program are presented. This is a third phase of the study that consisted in to evaluate the implementation of the new ICRU quantities for individual monitoring by the SSDLs, their capabilities to perform irradiations in different angles and the interpretation of the standard ISO 4370-3. This phase as well the first one was coordinated by Argentina through the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear that verified the performance of the participant laboratories. The SSDL of Argentina calibrated the dosimetric system to be used, and sent a set of tld dosimeters for irradiation at the SSDL or dosimetry laboratories of nine countries of latin america

  3. Calibration of photon and beta ray sources used in brachytherapy. Guidelines on standardized procedures at Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    2004-03-01

    It has generally been recognized that international harmonization in radiotherapy dosimetry is essential. Consequently, the IAEA has given much effort to this, for example by publishing a number of reports in the Technical Reports Series (TRS) for external beam dosimetry, most notably TRS-277 and more recently TRS-398. Both of these reports describe in detail the steps to be taken for absorbed dose determination in water and they are often referred to as 'dosimetry protocols'. Similar to TRS-277, it is expected that TRS-398 will be adopted or used as a model by a large number of countries as their national protocol. In 1996, the IAEA established a calibration service for low dose rate (LDR) 137 Cs brachytherapy sources, which is the most widely used source for treatment of gynecological cancer. To further enhance harmonization in brachytherapy dosimetry, the IAEA published in 1999 IAEA-TECDOC-1079 entitled 'Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources. Guidelines on Standardized Procedures for the Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and Hospitals'. The report was well received and was distributed in a large number of copies to the members of the IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs and to medical physicists working with brachytherapy. The present report is an update of the aforementioned TECDOC. Whereas TECDOC-1079 described methods for calibrating brachytherapy sources with photon energies at or above those of 192 Ir, the current report has a wider scope in that it deals with standardization of calibration of all the most commonly used brachytherapy sources, including both photon and beta emitting sources. The latter sources have been in use for a few decades already, but their calibration methods have been unclear. Methods are also described for calibrating sources used in the rapidly growing field of cardiovascular angioplasty. In this application, irradiation of the vessel wall is done in an attempt to prevent restenosis after

  4. Evaluation of uncertainties in X radiation metrologic chain in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory/IRD-Brazilian CNEN

    Fonseca Coelho, B.C. da.

    1987-01-01

    The equipment to measure ionizing radiation used in medicine needs appropriate technical qualifications to comply with their purposes and regular calibrations to assure the correct evaluation of associated quantities. By legal requirements, the annual calibration of users' dosemeters is to be done in a Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), andthe SSDL'S standard dosemeters are refered to a Primary Standard Dosimetry (PSDL), establishing a rigourous metrological network. The SSDL network. The SSDL needs to maintain, regularly, a quality control program for short and Long term stability of standard dosemeters. The purpose of the work was to determine the uncertainties associated to technical procedures of X-rays calibration at the SSDL/IRD/IRD. To evaluate the influence of the nine main parameters that can give origin to uncertainties, specific procedures and methods are established, according to international requirements and recomendations. The methods are based on the comparison of the behaviour of the users' dosemeters, with a standard dosemeter in the many measuring conditions set up for the secondary standard used as a reference. The total uncertainty obtained was 1,81% usig a conservative procedure, to protect the users and patients. When needed to transfer the calibration factor and their uncertainty, the procedure used was to determine the uncertainty under the worsst possible operating conditions of the equipment, to obtain a superestimated value. This represents an excellent result for an SDDL of IAEA Network. (autor) [pt

  5. Analysis of uncertainties in the measurements of absorbed dose to water in a secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) 60Cobalt

    Silva, Cosme Norival Mello da; Rosado, Paulo Henrique Goncalves

    2011-01-01

    The National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI) is the laboratory designated by INMETRO in the field of Metrology of ionizing radiation and is a Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). One of its guidelines is to maintain and disseminate LNMRI absorbed dose in water used as a national standard dosimetry in radiotherapy. For this pattern is metrologically acceptable accuracy and uncertainties should be assessed over time. The objective of this study is to analyze the uncertainties involved in determining the absorbed dose rate in water and standard uncertainty of absorbed dose calibration in water from a clinical dosimeter. The largest sources of uncertainty in determining the rate of absorbed dose in water are due to: calibration coefficient of the calibration certificate supplied by the BIPM, electrometer calibration, camber stability over time, variation of pressure and humidity, strong dependence and non-uniformity of the field. The expanded uncertainty is 0.94% for k = 2. For the calibration standard uncertainty of absorbed dose in water of a dosimeter in a clinical a major source of uncertainty is due to the absorbed dose rate in water (0.94%). The value of expanded uncertainty of calibrating a clinical dosimeter is 1.2% for k = 2. (author)

  6. The GSF secondary standard dosimetry laboratory for photon and beta radiation

    Eckerl, H.; Nahrstedt, U.

    1986-03-01

    A brief outline of the laboratory's tasks and a detailed description of its layout and equipment is given. The laboratory contains a Co-60 irradiation unit, a Cs-137 irradiation unit, a panoramic irradiation unit for different nuclide sources, a 160- and 420 kV X-ray unit, a beta-irradiation unit and a measuring and control room. The calibration laboratory is equipped with reference and field dosemeters. (DG)

  7. The IAEA/WHO Network of SSDLs. Short history, activity and future trends[Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    Svensson, Hans; Zsdanszky, Kalman [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dosimtery Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1990-04-01

    In 1968 at an IAEA meeting in Caracas, Venezuela, the dosimetric requirements of radiotherapy centres were discussed. At that time many radiotherapy departments in developing countries did not have a dosimeter. Even those that had a dosimeter were seldom able to send it to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (PSDL) for proper calibration. The establishment of regional dosimeter calibration laboratories was recommended by the participating experts including representatives of WHO. There was general consent that it was not necessary to establish in every country a PSDL, which would need a very qualified staff and sophisticated equipment. Instead, the establishment of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) was found to be an adequate solution to the problem. The new idea of SSDLs and their role within the international metrology system was thoroughly discussed at a joint IAEA/WHO meeting in Rio de Janeiro (scientific secretaries: H.H. Eisenlohr, IAEA and W. Seelentag, WHO) in December 1974. Considering the fact that an SSDL cannot work in isolation the experts recommended the setting up of an international Network of SSDLs under the auspices of the IAEA and WHO. The statutes of the IAEA/WHO Network of SSDLs were laid down in a Working Arrangement between the IAEA and WHO in April 1976. Later in 1976 the two Directors General of the IAEA and WHO formally announced by circular letters to their respective member states the establishment of the IAEA/WHO Network of SSDL. The Criteria for the Establishment of a Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory were formulated by an Advisory Group and were attached to these letters. At that time there existed already 8 laboratories, which had been designated by WHO during the period 1968-1976 as regional reference centres for dosimetry. Another SSDL had been set up in Rio de Janeiro in collaboration between the Brazilian Government, the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, and the IAEA. As a consequence of the

  8. Implementation of ISO guide 25 in a medical dosimetry secondary standards calibration laboratory

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    Currently, there is a great deal of discussion among industry and government agencies about ISO 9000 accreditation. U.S. manufacturers with ISO 9000 accreditation are regarded more favorably by European countries. The principles behind the ISO 9000 accreditation are based on the Total Quality Management (TQM) principles that are being implemented in many U.S. industries. This paper will deal only with the calibration issue. There is a difference in the areas covered by ISO 9000 and ISO Guide 25 documents. ISO 9000, in particular ISO 9001 - ISO 9003, cover the open-quotes calibrationclose quotes of inspection, measuring and test equipment. This equipment is basically used for open-quotes factory calibrationsclose quotes to determine that equipment is performing within manufacturer specifications. ISO Guide 25 is specifically for open-quotes calibration and testing laboratories,close quotes generally laboratories that have painstaking procedures to reduce uncertainties and establish high accuracy of the transfer of calibration. The experience of the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory in conforming to ISO Guide 25 will be outlined. The entire laboratory staff must become familiar with the process and an individual with direct authority must become the one to maintain the quality of equipment and calibrations in the role of open-quotes quality-assurance manager.close quotes

  9. Arrangement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization concerning the establishment and operation of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    1986-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), recognizing that they have been co-operating in the operation of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (the Network), established pursuant to a Working Arrangement, dated 5 April 1976; and desiring to continue this co-operation in accordance with Article V of the relationship agreement concluded by IAEA and WHO in 1959; hereby enter a new arrangement to guide their work in operating the Network and providing assistance, when needed, to individual Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs). The purpose of this Arrangement is to set forth responsibilities of IAEA and WHO in the operation and support of the Network and to establish criteria for SSDLs

  10. Calibration of photon and beta ray sources used in brachytherapy. Guidelines on standardized procedures at Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and hospitals

    2002-03-01

    It has generally been recognized that international harmonization in radiotherapy dosimetry is essential. Consequently, the IAEA has given much effort to this, for example by publishing a number of reports in the Technical Reports Series (TRS) for external beam dosimetry, most notably TRS-277 and more recently TRS-398. Both of these reports describe in detail the steps to be taken for absorbed dose determination in water and they are often referred to as 'dosimetry protocols'. Similar to TRS-277, it is expected that TRS-398 will be adopted or used as a model by a large number of countries as their national protocol. In 1996, the IAEA established a calibration service for low dose rate (LDR) 137 Cs brachytherapy sources, which is the most widely used source for treatment of gynecological cancer. To further enhance harmonization in brachytherapy dosimetry, the IAEA published in 1999 IAEA-TECDOC-1079 entitled 'Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources. Guidelines on Standardized Procedures for the Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and Hospitals'. The report was well received and was distributed in a large number of copies to the members of the IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs and to medical physicists working with brachytherapy. The present report is an update of the aforementioned TECDOC. Whereas TECDOC-1079 described methods for calibrating brachytherapy sources with photon energies at or above those of 192 Ir, the current report has a wider scope in that it deals with standardization of calibration of all the most commonly used brachytherapy sources, including both photon and beta emitting sources. The latter sources have been in use for a few decades already, but their calibration methods have been unclear. Methods are also described for calibrating sources used in the rapidly growing field of cardiovascular angioplasty. In this application, irradiation of the vessel wall is done in an attempt to prevent restenosis after

  11. The role of Polish Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory in view of the requirements of the EC Directive 97/43 EURATOM

    Gwiazdowska, B.; Bulski, W.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the history and experience of the Polish SSDL (Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory). It also presents the propositions in the domain of quality assurance in radiotherapy in Poland, as fulfilling the requirements of the Directive 97/43 EURATOM on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure, which is obligatory for the countries of the European Union. It has been pointed out that there are, among other provisions, two concepts concerning the quality assurance in application of radiation in medicine, mentioned by the Directive, a) inspection and b) clinical audit, which should be implemented by the Member States. In the process of establishing and implementing the Directive confusion may appear as to the difference between the two concepts of external audits. The role of the SSDLs in carrying out external dosimetry audits is presented. The history of the establishment of the Polish SSDL (Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory) and its inclusion into the international network of laboratories coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization is presented as well as the resulting advantages, obligations and perspectives for further activities. The main activities of the Polish have been presented, namely maintaining a data-base on the radiotherapy infrastructure in Poland, preparation of recommendations on dosimetry procedures and quality control, calibration of dosimeters, external postal quality audits of dosimetry, etc. These activities are illustrated with the results from the period 1991-2003. Based on the solutions and results presented in this paper, the authors conclude that the Ministry of Health should grant the Polish SSDL with a suitable legal status for carrying out external audits nationwide, especially since, according to the Directive 97/43, clinical audits in radiotherapy have to include dosimetry audits. (author)

  12. Report of the third meeting of the SSDL Scientific Committee (SSC). Vienna, 19-23 September 1988[Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    The SSDL Scientific Committee (SSC) was appointed in 1985 by the Director General of the IAEA, in consultation with and the concurrence of the Director General of the WHO. As indicated in its Terms of Reference, the main objective of the SSC is to advise the Directors General of the IAEA and WHO regarding the programme of work of the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs). The first meeting of the SSC was held in May 1986 and the recommendations were reported in IAEA SSDL Newsletter No. 25, October 1986. The second meeting of the SSC was held in June 1987 and the recommendations were reported in the SSDL Newsletter No. 26, October 1987. Discussions and recommendations of this meeting are covered in this report.

  13. High-dose secondary calibration laboratory accreditation program

    Humphreys, J.C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    There is a need for high-dose secondary calibration laboratories to serve the multi-billion dollar radiation processing industry. This need is driven by the desires of industry for less costly calibrations and faster calibration-cycle response time. Services needed include calibration irradiations of routine processing dosimeters and the supply of reference standard transfer dosimeters for irradiation in the production processing facility. In order to provide measurement quality assurance and to demonstrate consistency with national standards, the high-dose secondary laboratories would be accredited by means of an expansion of an existing National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. A laboratory performance criteria document is under development to implement the new program.

  14. High-dose secondary calibration laboratory accreditation program

    Humphreys, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    There is a need for high-dose secondary calibration laboratories to serve the multi-billion dollar radiation processing industry. This need is driven by the desires of industry for less costly calibrations and faster calibration-cycle response time. Services needed include calibration irradiations of routine processing dosimeters and the supply of reference standard transfer dosimeters for irradiation in the production processing facility. In order to provide measurement quality assurance and to demonstrate consistency with national standards, the high-dose secondary laboratories would be accredited by means of an expansion of an existing National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. A laboratory performance criteria document is under development to implement the new program

  15. Productivity standards for histology laboratories.

    Buesa, René J

    2010-04-01

    The information from 221 US histology laboratories (histolabs) and 104 from 24 other countries with workloads from 600 to 116 000 cases per year was used to calculate productivity standards for 23 technical and 27 nontechnical tasks and for 4 types of work flow indicators. The sample includes 254 human, 40 forensic, and 31 veterinary pathology services. Statistical analyses demonstrate that most productivity standards are not different between services or worldwide. The total workload for the US human pathology histolabs averaged 26 061 cases per year, with 54% between 10 000 and less than 30 000. The total workload for 70% of the histolabs from other countries was less than 20 000, with an average of 15 226 cases per year. The fundamental manual technical tasks in the histolab and their productivity standards are as follows: grossing (14 cases per hour), cassetting (54 cassettes per hour), embedding (50 blocks per hour), and cutting (24 blocks per hour). All the other tasks, each with their own productivity standards, can be completed by auxiliary staff or using automatic instruments. Depending on the level of automation of the histolab, all the tasks derived from a workload of 25 cases will require 15.8 to 17.7 hours of work completed by 2.4 to 2.7 employees with 18% of their working time not directly dedicated to the production of diagnostic slides. This article explains how to extrapolate this productivity calculation for any workload and different levels of automation. The overall performance standard for all the tasks, including 8 hours for automated tissue processing, is 3.2 to 3.5 blocks per hour; and its best indicator is the value of the gross work flow productivity that is essentially dependent on how the work is organized. This article also includes productivity standards for forensic and veterinary histolabs, but the staffing benchmarks for histolabs will be the subject of a separate article. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Outcome Standards for Secondary Marketing Education.

    Stone, James R., III

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study which sought to establish outcome standards very important for secondary marketing education. Business people, former students, and marketing educators were asked to judge the standards identified from the literature in terms of importance to secondary marketing education. (CT)

  17. Tour of the Standards and Calibrations Laboratory

    Elliott, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    This tour of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's Standards and Calibrations Laboratory is intended as a guide to the capabilities of and services offered by this unique laboratory. Described are the Laboratory's ability to provide radiation fields and measurements for dosimeters, survey instruments, spectrometers, and sources and its available equipment and facilities. The tour also includes a survey of some Health Physics and interdepartmental programs supported by the Standards and Calibrations Laboratory and a listing of applicable publications

  18. Secondary standard dosimetry system with automatic dose/rate calculation

    Duftschmid, K.E.; Bernhart, J.; Stehno, G.; Klosch, W.

    1980-01-01

    A versatile and automated secondary standard instrument has been designed for quick and accurate dose/rate measurement in a wide range of radiation intensity and quality (between 1 μR and 100 kR; 0.2 nC/kg - 20C/kg) for protection and therapy level dosimetry. The system is based on a series of secondary standard ionization chambers connected to a precision digital current integrator with microprocessor circuitry for data evaluation and control. Input of measurement parameters and calibration factors stored in an exchangeable memory chip provide computation of dose/rate values in the desired units. The ionization chambers provide excellent long-term stability and energy response and can be used with internal check sources to test validity of calibration. The system is a useful tool particularly for daily measurements in a secondary standard dosimetry laboratory or radiation therapy center. (H.K.)

  19. OSHA Laboratory Standard: Driving Force for Laboratory Safety!

    Roy, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Laboratory Safety Standards as the major driving force in establishing and maintaining a safe working environment for teachers and students. (Author)

  20. Laboratory Course on "Streptomyces" Genetics and Secondary Metabolism

    Siitonen, Vilja; Räty, Kaj; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    The "'Streptomyces' genetics and secondary metabolism" laboratory course gives an introduction to the versatile soil dwelling Gram-positive bacteria "Streptomyces" and their secondary metabolism. The course combines genetic modification of "Streptomyces"; growing of the strain and protoplast preparation, plasmid…

  1. [Standardization of terminology in laboratory medicine I].

    Yoon, Soo Young; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Min, Won Ki; Lim, Hwan Sub; Song, Junghan; Chae, Seok Lae; Lee, Chang Kyu; Kwon, Jung Ah; Lee, Kap No

    2007-04-01

    Standardization of medical terminology is essential for data transmission between health-care institutions or clinical laboratories and for maximizing the benefits of information technology. Purpose of our study was to standardize the medical terms used in the clinical laboratory, such as test names, units, terms used in result descriptions, etc. During the first year of the study, we developed a standard database of concept names for laboratory terms, which covered the terms used in government health care centers, their branch offices, and primary health care units. Laboratory terms were collected from the electronic data interchange (EDI) codes from National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC), Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC) database, community health centers and their branch offices, and clinical laboratories of representative university medical centers. For standard expression, we referred to the English-Korean/ Korean-English medical dictionary of Korean Medical Association and the rules for foreign language translation. Programs for mapping between LOINC DB and EDI code and for translating English to Korean were developed. A Korean standard laboratory terminology database containing six axial concept names such as components, property, time aspect, system (specimen), scale type, and method type was established for 7,508 test observations. Short names and a mapping table for EDI codes and Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) were added. Synonym tables for concept names, words used in the database, and six axial terms were prepared to make it easier to find the standard terminology with common terms used in the field of laboratory medicine. Here we report for the first time a Korean standard laboratory terminology database for test names, result description terms, result units covering most laboratory tests in primary healthcare centers.

  2. Scientific committee of the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Report of the ninth meeting of the SSDL scientific committee, IAEA, Vienna, 13-17 November 2000

    2001-01-01

    The report of the eighth meeting (held in Oct. 1998) of the Scientific Committee (SSC) of the IAEA/WHO network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDL) was published in the SSDL Newsletter No. 40, January 1999. The ninth meeting was held in Vienna at Agency Headquarters from 13 to 17 November 2000. Opening remarks were made by Mr. S. Groth, Director, Division of Human Health (NAHU), Mr. H. Oestensen (WHO), Co-Secretary of the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network, and Mr. Ahmed Meghzifene, acting Section Head, Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics (DMRP). The Agency's DMRP sub-programme provides traceable radiation standards to the majority of developing countries over a wide range of energies and dose levels. External-beam radiation therapy and radiation processing (high dose) have a long history and robust links to international standards. Recently the DMRP has developed projects providing robust links for calibration of mammography X-ray beams, brachytherapy sources, and personnel monitoring programmes at the participating SSDLs. Efforts by the Agency and the WHO over the past 5 years have made significant improvements in the return rate and turn-around time in the postal TLD programme, effectively increasing the availability of Agency standards. Two other high-priority items promulgated by the DMRP are: (i) follow-up of quality audit measurements which fall outside the established action levels, and (ii) transfer of postal TLD programmes to national programmes and establishing and maintaining links between these programmes and the DMRP. The SSC still considers both of these as high priority items, commends the DMRP on their efforts, and encourages them to continue to develop activities in these areas. The SSC wishes to emphasize that radiation dosimetry is a necessary adjunct to many programmes that utilize ionizing radiation at various dose levels. The SSC commends the Agency for their continued support for the programmes sponsored through the Dosimetry and

  3. The need for standardization in laboratory networks.

    Peter, Trevor F; Shimada, Yoko; Freeman, Richard R; Ncube, Bekezela N; Khine, Aye-Aye; Murtagh, Maurine M

    2009-06-01

    Expanding health care services for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria has increased the demand for affordable and reliable laboratory diagnostics in resource-limited countries. Many countries are responding by upgrading their public laboratories and introducing new technology to provide expanded testing services into more regions. This expansion carries the risk of increasing the diversity of an already highly diverse technology and testing platform landscape, making it more difficult to manage laboratory networks across different levels of the health care system. To prevent this trend, countries are recommended to implement policies and guidelines that standardize test menus, technology, platforms, and commodities across multiple laboratories. The benefits of standardization include rational prioritization of resources for capacity development and more efficient supply chain management through volume-based price discounts for reagents and instrument service. Procurement procedures, including specification, prequalification, and contract negotiation, need to align with the standardization policies for maximum benefit. Standardization should be adhered to irrespective of whether procurement is centralized or decentralized or whether carried out by national bodies or development partners.

  4. Laboratory Technicians in Australian Secondary Schools

    Hackling, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    A number of reports have argued that secondary science education needs to be more inquiry oriented and involve authentic and practical investigations to develop scientific literacy and better engage students in learning science. Inquiry-oriented approaches, such as those advocated in the new science national curriculum, require that teachers have…

  5. Remote Laboratories: Bridging University to Secondary Schools

    Horácio Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available e-lab is a remote laboratory infrastructure powered by a software framework that allows the operation and data retrieve from a remote apparatus. In this demonstration we will present the e-lab interface properties and its modus operandi, giving as well some topics of complimentary software use for data interpretation and analysis.

  6. Standards in radiation protection at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory

    Czap, L.; Pernicka, F.; Matscheko, G.; Andreo, P.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 90% of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) provide users with calibrations of radiation protection instruments, and the Agency is making every necessary effort to insure that SSDLs measurements in radiation protection are traceable to Primary Standards. The IAEA provides traceable calibrations of ionization chambers in terms of air kerma at radiation protection levels and ambient dose equivalent calibrations. SSDLs are encouraged to use the calibrations available from the Agency to provide traceability for their radiation protection measurements. Measurements on diagnostic X ray generators have become increasingly important in radiation protection and some SSDLs are involved in such measurements. The IAEA has proper radiation sources available to provide traceable calibrations to the SSDLs in this field, including an X ray unit specifically for mammography dedicated to standardization procedures. The different photon beam qualities and calibration procedures available in the Agency's Dosimetry Laboratory will be described. (author)

  7. Neutron Standards Laboratory of the CIEMAT

    Guzman G, K. A.; Mendez V, R.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-08-01

    By means of a calculation series with Monte Carlo methods and the code MCNPX was characterized the neutrons field produced by the existent calibration sources in the Neutron Standards Laboratory of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT). The laboratory has two neutron calibration sources one of 241 AmBe and other 252 Cf that are stored in a water pool. A detailed three-dimensional model of the room was built with the base of stainless steel remarking in the selector to the sources that situates them to 4 m of the floor to be irradiated on the irradiation table and the storage pool. Each one of the sources was defined on the model in its double steel encapsulated. The spectra were calculated with different cases with the purpose of to calculate the contribution of each element that impacts to the neutrons transport. The spectra of the calibration sources were calculated to different distances regarding the source from 0, 15, 35, 50 to 300 cm on the base and in a same way the values of the ambient dose equivalent using the approaches of the ICRP-74. The results show clearly that the great contribution in the modification of the spectrum is attributed to the walls, and floor of the Neutron Standards Laboratory installations. (Author)

  8. Dosimetry through the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of Mexico

    Tovar M, V.M.; Alvarez R, J.T.; Medina O, V.P.; Vergara M, F.; Anaya M, R.; Cejudo A, J.; Salinas L, B.

    2004-01-01

    In the beginnings of the sixty years an urgent necessity is presented mainly in the developing countries, of improving in important form the accuracy in the dosimetry of external faces in therapy of radiations (radiotherapy centers), mainly in the calibration of c linical dosemeters . In 1976 the International Atomic Energy Agency, (IAEA), and the World Health Organization, (WHO), they carried out a mutual agreement with regard to the establishment and operation of a net of Secondary Patron Laboratories of Dosimetry, (LSCD). The necessity to establish measure patterns in the field of the dosimetry of the ionizing radiations, is necessary, to have an accuracy but high in the dosimetry of the radiation beams in therapy which is highly dependent of the dose given to the tumor of those patient with cancer. Similar levels of accuracy are required in protection measures to the radiation with an acceptable smaller accuracy, however, when the personal dosemeters are used to determine the doses received by the individuals under work conditions, such mensurations in therapy of radiations and radiological protection will have traceability through a chain of comparisons to primary or national patterns. The traceability is necessary to assure the accuracy and acceptability of the dosimetric measures, as well as, the legal and economic implications. The traceability is also necessary in the dosimetry of high dose like in the sterilization of different products. The main function of the LSCD is to provide a service in metrology of ionizing radiations, maintaining the secondary or national patterns, which have a traceability to the International System of measures, which is based for if same in the comparison of patterns in the Primary Laboratories of Dosimetry (LPD) under the auspice of the International Office of Weights and Measure (BIPM). The secondary and national patterns in the LSCD constitute in Mexico, the national patterns of the magnitudes in the dosimetry of the

  9. Radiation dosimetry and standards at the austrian dosimetry laboratory

    Leitner, A.

    1984-10-01

    The Austrian Dosimetry Laboratory, established and operated in cooperation between the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf and the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (Bundesamt and Eich- und Vermessungswesen) maintains the national primary standards for radiation dosimetry. Furthermore its tasks include routine calibration of dosemeters and dosimetric research. The irradiation facilities of the laboratory comprise three X-ray machines covering the voltage range from 5 kV to 420 kV constant potential, a 60 Co teletherapy unit, a circular exposure system for routine batch calibration of personnel dosemeters with four gamma ray sources ( 60 Co and 137 Cs) and a reference source system with six gamma ray sources ( 60 Co and 137 Cs). In addition a set of calibrated beta ray sources are provided ( 147 Pm, 204 Tl and 90 Sr). The dosimetric equipment consists of three free-air parallelplate ionization chambers serving as primary standards of exposure for the X-ray energy region, graphite cavity chambers with measured volume as primary standards for the gamma radiation of 137 Cs and 60 Co as well as different secondary standard ionization chambers covering the dose rate range from the natural background level up to the level of modern therapy accelerators. In addition for high energy photon and electron radiation a graphite calorimeter is provided as primary standard of absorbed dose. The principle experimental set-ups for the practical use of the standards are presented and the procedures for the calibration of the different types of dosemeters are described. (Author)

  10. Secondary Aluminum Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing sources at secondary aluminum production facilities. Includes rule history, summary, federal register citations and implementation information.

  11. The acoustic center of laboratory standard microphones

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Rasmussen, Knud; Jacobsen, Finn

    2006-01-01

    An experimental procedure is described for obtaining the effective acoustic distance between pairs of microphones coupled by a free field, leading to the determination of the position of the acoustic center of the microphones. The procedure, which is based on measuring the modulus of the electrical...... transfer impedance, has been applied to a large number of microphones. In all cases effects due to reflections from the walls of the anechoic chamber and the interference between the microphones have been removed using a time-selective technique. The procedure of determining the position of the acoustic...... center from the inverse distance law is analyzed. Experimental values of the acoustic center of laboratory standard microphones are presented, and numerical results obtained using the boundary element method supplement the experimental data. Estimated uncertainties are also presented. The results...

  12. The OSHA hazardous chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories.

    Armbruster, D A

    1991-01-01

    OSHA's chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories is an outgrowth of the previously issued Hazard Communication Standard. The standard relieves laboratories from complying with general industry standards but does require compliance with specific laboratory guidelines. The heart of the standard is the creation of a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP). The CHP addresses major issues such as safety equipment and procedures, work practices, training, the designation of a chemical hygiene officer, and the provision of medical consultation and examination for affected employees. This new standard, in full effect as of January 31, 1991, presents yet another regulatory challenge to laboratory managers but also ensures a safer environment for laboratory workers.

  13. Development of a Secondary Neutron Fluence Standard at GELINA

    Heyse, Jan; Eykens, Roger; Moens, Andre; Plompen, Arjan J.M.; Schillebeeckx, Peter; Wynants, Ruud; Anastasiou, Maria

    2013-06-01

    The MetroFission project, a Joint Research Project within the European Metrology Research Program, aims at addressing a number of metrological problems involved in the design of proposed Generation IV nuclear reactors. One of the objectives of this multidisciplinary project is the improvement of neutron cross section measurement techniques in order to arrive at uncertainties as required for the design and safety assessment of new generation power plants and fuel cycles. This objective is in line with the 'Uncertainty and target accuracy assessment for innovative systems using recent covariance data evaluations' published by a working party of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 2008. These requests are often very challenging, being at or beyond the state-of-the-art in neutron measurements, which is set by self-normalizing methods and the neutron data standards used at laboratories where the data are measured. A secondary neutron fluence standard has been developed and calibrated at the neutron time-of-flight facility GELINA of the JRC's Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM). It consists of a flux monitor, a reference ionization chamber containing a 10 B layer and a 235 U layer, and a parallel plate ionization chamber with 8 well characterized 235 U deposits. These devices are used to determine the neutron fluence, based on the well-known neutron induced fission reaction on 235 U. All deposits have been prepared and characterized at the IRMM target preparation lab. The secondary fluence standard at the GELINA facility can be used for reliable determination of the efficiency of fluence measurement devices used in neutron data measurements at IRMM and elsewhere. It is an essential tool to reliably calibrate fluence normalization devices used in neutron time-of-flight cross section measurements. (authors)

  14. Secondary School Chemistry Teacher's Current Use of Laboratory Activities and the Impact of Expense on Their Laboratory Choices

    Boesdorfer, Sarah B.; Livermore, Robin A.

    2018-01-01

    In the United States with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)'s emphasis on learning science while doing science, laboratory activities in the secondary school chemistry continues to be an important component of a strong curriculum. Laboratory equipment and consumable materials create a unique expense which chemistry teachers and schools…

  15. Interior Design Standards in the Secondary FCS Curriculum

    Katz, Shana H.; Smith, Bettye P.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a study on interior design standards in the secondary FCS curriculum. This study assessed the importance FCS teachers placed on content standards in the interior design curriculum to help determine the amount of time and emphasis to place on the units within the courses. A cover letter and questionnaire were sent…

  16. Hematology laboratory standardization: a plan for harmonization in Asia.

    Bunyaratvej, A; Tatsumi, N; Funahara, Y

    1999-01-01

    Hematology laboratory is generally required in the hospital. At the macroscale, hematology laboratories have served a large number of population. In Asia, more than 3,000 million people are potentially to use the hematology laboratory service, particularly the complete blood count. Since 1970s, automated technology has been introduced to Asia and as years passed by, technology diversity is increasing. However, there are considerable number of hematology laboratories that have no automated machine. They are still relied on manual technology which is still variable in spectrophotometer for hemoglobin determination, centrifuge for hematocrit and diluting pipet for cell counting. In particular, blood smear preparation and interpretation are very difficult to control for standardization from person to person and laboratory to laboratory. Different methodology and a large population in the huge geographical area in Asia, the agreement of standard criteria is greatly important. This report has shown strategy and action plan to reach the goal of hematology laboratory standardization in Asia.

  17. The 1998 calibration of Australian secondary standards of exposure and absorbed dose at 60Co

    Huntley, R.B.; Van der Gaast, H.

    1998-10-01

    New calibration factors are reported for several of the ionization chambers maintained at the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) and at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) as Australian secondary standards of exposure/air kerma and absorbed dose at 60 Co. These calibration factors supplement or replace the calibration factors given in earlier reports. Updated 90 Sr reference source data are given for the ARL chambers, and for two of the ANSTO chambers. These results confirm the stability of the secondary standards. A re-calibration of the ANSTO reference electrometer is reported. This was carried out using an improved method, which is fully described

  18. [Accreditation of clinical laboratories based on ISO standards].

    Kawai, Tadashi

    2004-11-01

    International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have published two international standards (IS) to be used for accreditation of clinical laboratories; ISO/IEC 17025:1999 and ISO 15189:2003. Any laboratory accreditation body must satisfy the requirements stated in ISO/IEC Guide 58. In order to maintain the quality of the laboratory accreditation bodies worldwide, the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) has established the mutual recognition arrangement (MRA). In Japan, the International Accreditation Japan (IAJapan) and the Japan Accreditation Board for Conformity Assessment (JAB) are the members of the ILAC/MRA group. In 2003, the Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (JCCLS) and the JAB have established the Development Committee of Clinical Laboratory Accreditation Program (CLAP), in order to establish the CLAP, probably starting in 2005.

  19. The role of the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory in the dissemination of standards for radiation protection

    Czap, L.; Andreo, P.; Matscheko, G.

    1998-01-01

    Approximately 90% of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) provide users with calibrations of radiation protection instruments, and the IAEA is taking every necessary effort to insure that SSDLs measurements are traceable to Primary Standards. The Agency has proper radiation sources available to provide traceable calibrations to the SSDLs involved in measurements on diagnostic x-ray generators, including an x-ray unit specifically for mammography dedicated to standardization procedures. The different photon beam qualities and calibration procedures available in the Agency's Dosimetry Laboratory are described

  20. Secondary electron images obtained with a standard PEEM set up

    Benka, O.; Zeppenfeld, P.

    2004-01-01

    Secondary electron images excited by 3 to 4.3 keV electrons are obtained with a standard photoelectron electron emission microscope (PEEM) set up equipped with an imaging energy filter (IEF). The electron gun was mounted on a standard PEEM entrance flange at an angle of 25 o with respect to the sample surface. A low extraction voltage of 500 V was used to minimize the deflection of the electron beam by the PEEM extraction electrode. The secondary electron images are compared to photoelectron images excited by a standard 4.9 eV UV lamp. In the case of a Cu pattern on a Si substrate it is found that the lateral resolution without the IEF is about the same for electron and photon excitation but that the relative electron emission intensities are very different. The use of the IEF-reduces the lateral resolution. Images for secondary electron energies between eV 1 and eV 2 were obtained by setting the IEF to -V 1 and -V 2 ∼ -(V 1 + 5V) potentials and taking the difference of both images. Images up to 100 eV electron energies were recorded. The lateral resolution is in the range of μm. The material contrast obtained in these difference images are discussed in terms of a secondary electron and photoelectron emission model and secondary electron energy spectra measured with a LEED-Auger spectrometer. (author)

  1. Modeling of secondary organic aerosol yields from laboratory chamber data

    M. N. Chan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory chamber data serve as the basis for constraining models of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. Current models fall into three categories: empirical two-product (Odum, product-specific, and volatility basis set. The product-specific and volatility basis set models are applied here to represent laboratory data on the ozonolysis of α-pinene under dry, dark, and low-NOx conditions in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol. Using five major identified products, the model is fit to the chamber data. From the optimal fitting, SOA oxygen-to-carbon (O/C and hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C ratios are modeled. The discrepancy between measured H/C ratios and those based on the oxidation products used in the model fitting suggests the potential importance of particle-phase reactions. Data fitting is also carried out using the volatility basis set, wherein oxidation products are parsed into volatility bins. The product-specific model is most likely hindered by lack of explicit inclusion of particle-phase accretion compounds. While prospects for identification of the majority of SOA products for major volatile organic compounds (VOCs classes remain promising, for the near future empirical product or volatility basis set models remain the approaches of choice.

  2. Calibration of photon and beta ray sources used in brachytherapy. Guidelines on standardized procedures at Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories; Calibracion de fuentes de fotones y rayos beta usadas en braquiterapia. Guia de procedimiento estandarizados en Laboratorios Secundarios de Calibracion Dosimetrica (LSCD) y en hospitales

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    It has generally been recognized that international harmonization in radiotherapy dosimetry is essential. Consequently, the IAEA has given much effort to this, for example by publishing a number of reports in the Technical Reports Series (TRS) for external beam dosimetry, most notably TRS-277 and more recently TRS-398. Both of these reports describe in detail the steps to be taken for absorbed dose determination in water and they are often referred to as 'dosimetry protocols'. Similar to TRS-277, it is expected that TRS-398 will be adopted or used as a model by a large number of countries as their national protocol. In 1996, the IAEA established a calibration service for low dose rate (LDR) 137 Cs brachytherapy sources, which is the most widely used source for treatment of gynecological cancer. To further enhance harmonization in brachytherapy dosimetry, the IAEA published in 1999 IAEA-TECDOC-1079 entitled 'Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources. Guidelines on Standardized Procedures for the Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and Hospitals'. The report was well received and was distributed in a large number of copies to the members of the IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs and to medical physicists working with brachytherapy. The present report is an update of the aforementioned TECDOC. Whereas TECDOC-1079 described methods for calibrating brachytherapy sources with photon energies at or above those of {sup 192}Ir, the current report has a wider scope in that it deals with standardization of calibration of all the most commonly used brachytherapy sources, including both photon and beta emitting sources. The latter sources have been in use for a few decades already, but their calibration methods have been unclear. Methods are also described for calibrating sources used in the rapidly growing field of cardiovascular angioplasty. In this application, irradiation of the vessel wall is done in an attempt to prevent restenosis

  3. The mutual recognition arrangement and primary standard dosimetry laboratory comparisons

    Allisy-Roberts, P.J.; Burns, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    the measurement capabilities of each NMI in the KCDB maintained by the BIPM. This database is available on the web at http://www.bipm.org/kcdb. The degrees of equivalence of each NMI holding national standards for a given quantity are determined from the key comparisons. These are entered into Appendix B of the MRA that is maintained as part of the KCDB. (Note that Appendix A is the list of signatories to the MRA). The results of the comparisons are analysed and presented in two ways. A graph is used to present the degree of equivalence of each NMI with the key comparison reference value (KCRV) and, secondly, a matrix is used to show the inter-laboratory degrees of equivalence taking inter-laboratory correlations into account. A CIPM key comparison is executed either by a Consultative Committee of the CIPM, such as the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI), or by the BIPM and leads to a KCRV. In certain fields, such as ionizing radiation, the BIPM maintains international standards against which NMIs (for example, the primary standards dosimetry laboratories, PSDLs that are affiliated members of the IAEA/WHO Network of SSDLs) can compare their primary standards. These comparisons may be made at any mutually convenient time and these comparisons are identified as 'BIPM ongoing key comparisons'. However, although there are over 110 comparisons listed in the field of ionizing radiation, more than 77 of these comparisons are activity comparisons (rather than dosimetry comparisons) for the many different radionuclides, that are measured using the International Reference System (SIR). The BIPM currently operates four ongoing key comparisons for ionizing radiation dosimetry. These include dosimetry comparisons for air kerma in low- and medium-energy x-ray beams and for air kerma and absorbed dose to water in 60 Co gamma radiation. The comparison result is expressed as a ratio of the NMI value for the quantity to the BIPM value and the report of the comparison

  4. The impact of laboratory quality assurance standards on laboratory operational performance

    E Ratseou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become a trend for companies to implement and be certified to various quality management systems so as to improve consistency, reliability, and quality of product delivery to customers. The most common quality management systems adopted are the ISO 9000 series of standards for manufacturing and services related organisations, with ISO 17025 and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP standards adopted specifically by laboratories as quality assurance initiatives. There are various reports on the impact of the ISO 9000 series on organisational performance but no studies or reports have been done on the performance of laboratory standards. Therefore this article reports on a study conducted to investigate the impact of ISO 17025 and GLP on the operational performance of both commercial and non-commercial laboratories. A qualitative research study was conducted to examine the impact standards on the aspects of health and safety, supplier selection and performance, human resources, customer satisfaction and profitability of the laboratory. The data collected suggest that there is no difference in laboratory operational performance with or without the standards. In other words it appears that the basic fundamental requirements inherent with laboratories are sufficient to perform both operationally and optimally. This leads to the view that standards are implemented as a customer requirement and not as an operational requirement.

  5. Improving ultrasound for appendicitis through standardized reporting of secondary signs.

    Partain, Kristin N; Patel, Adarsh U; Travers, Curtis; Short, Heather L; Braithwaite, Kiery; Loewen, Jonathan; Heiss, Kurt F; Raval, Mehul V

    2017-08-01

    Our aim was to implement a standardized US report that included secondary signs of appendicitis (SS) to facilitate accurate diagnosis of appendicitis and decrease the use of computed tomography (CT) and admissions for observation. A multidisciplinary team implemented a quality improvement (QI) intervention in the form of a standardized US report and provided stakeholders with monthly feedback. Outcomes including report compliance, CT use, and observation admissions were compared pretemplate and posttemplate. We identified 387 patients in the pretemplate period and 483 patients in the posttemplate period. In the posttemplate period, the reporting of SS increased from 5.4% to 79.5% (pappendicitis also improved in the posttemplate period. A focused QI initiative led to high compliance rates of utilizing the standardized US report and resulted in lower CT use and fewer admissions for observation. Study of a Diagnostic Test Level of Evidence: 1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recommendations concerning classification of and discharge standards for radionuclide laboratories

    1985-01-01

    In the report recommendations are made for the limitation of the radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents from radionuclide laboratories. The recommended values are based on a radiation exposure for members of a critical group in the population corresponding to 1% of the dose limit for individual members of the public as recommended by the ICRP. Based on these standards a classification of radionuclide laboratories is proposed. It is recommended to retain the present Dutch classification in A-, B-, C- and D-laboratories. The report contains appendices with detailed data about the transport routes of radionuclides in the environment and the subsequent irradiation of members of the public. (orig.)

  7. Collimation system for a laboratory of primary and secondary ionizing radiation calibration

    Oliveira, S.R.; David, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This work is part of a cooperation plan between the LNMRI/IRD and the LCR/UERJ, for the a primary calibration at the IRD and a secondary laboratory at the LCR, both calibrated for mammographic beams which will be part a Calibration National Network. For the mounting of the primary laboratory, the first step was to install two additional collimators in order to guarantee that the beam area over the ionization chamber to satisfy the calibration international standards. So, the collimators were constructed obeying the geometric rules, the first being of conic format and the second of the cylindrical format, therefore avoiding the effects of the scattering radiation on the edges. By using this collimation system it was possible to verify the uniformity of the radiation field incident the ionization chamber to be over 98% of the total area, guaranteeing better precision of the measurement

  8. Hot laboratory design on the basis of standardized components

    Cadrot, J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes the principal effects on hot laboratory design brought about over the last 15 years by the use of standardized components developed jointly with the CEA and the industrial associates of AFINE. After a rapid survey of the various advantages of standardization, the author turns to the specific case of a laboratory producing mixed plutonium and uranium oxide fuels, giving a brief description of the glove-boxes and ancillary equipment. He then deals with the design of an isotope production laboratory. The basic component is the DR 200 standard cell, which permits the civil engineering work to be effected on modular principles. Use of a safety-flow pressure regulating valve makes possible pneumatic automation of the production-cell internals. A substantial gain in output is the result. In the next section the paper refers to a pilot facility for irradiated fuel studies, and describes the components used, which require taking into account the high activities and intense radiations encountered in studies of this type. The author then demonstrates the flexibility with which standardized components can be adapted to different uses, thus solving many distinct problems, an example of which is represented by a semi-hot box for handling up to 100g of americium-241. Finally, the paper offers a rapid summary of the effects of standardization at the various stages concerned, from initial design to the commissioning of a hot laboratory. (author)

  9. DOE standard: The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program administration

    1998-12-01

    This technical standard describes the US Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP), organizational responsibilities, and the accreditation process. DOELAP evaluates and accredits personnel dosimetry and radiobioassay programs used for worker monitoring and protection at DOE and DOE contractor sites and facilities as required in Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The purpose of this technical standard is to establish procedures for administering DOELAP and acquiring accreditation

  10. SSDL newsletter. No. 27[Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This issue of the newsletter presents a report of the third meeting of the SSDL Scientific Committee. Articles on ''Absorbed dose determination in photon and electron beams'' and ''Comparison of absorbed dose determinations using the IAEA dosimetry protocol and the ferrous sulphate dosimeter'' are the major topics covered.

  11. LLNL X-ray Calibration and Standards Laboratory

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The LLNL X-ray Calibration and Standards Laboratory is a unique facility for developing and calibrating x-ray sources, detectors, and materials, and for conducting x-ray physics research in support of our weapon and fusion-energy programs

  12. Stability check source measurements with a secondary standard dosimeter in SSDL-Pakistan

    Salman, S.; Mahmoud, K.; Orfi, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The stability check source is an integral part of a Secondary Standard Dosimetry System. The purpose of the stability check source is to confirm that the overall response of the dosimeter has not changed significantly since the instrument was calibrated. In case any change in the sensitivity of the ionization chamber or measuring assembly occurs the same is reflected in the reference check source measurements. Stability check source measurements are taken in a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (PSDL) at the time of calibration of secondary standard dosimeter and mean time (in seconds) to the reference setting of 50 scale divisions with ambient conditions of air at 20 deg. C, 101.3 kPa and 50% RH is quoted in a calibration certificate. This quoted stability check source time figure is the basis for future confirmation of overall response of the secondary standard dosimeter system. This note presents the results of stability check source measurements carried out in SSDL Pakistan over a period of five years

  13. Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Professional Development Needs of Wyoming Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    McKim, Billy R.; Saucier, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Accidents happen; however, the likelihood of accidents occurring in the agricultural mechanics laboratory is greatly reduced when agricultural mechanics laboratory facilities are managed by secondary agriculture teachers who are competent and knowledgeable. This study investigated the agricultural mechanics laboratory management in-service needs…

  14. Accrediting of the OKTA Laboratory - Harmonizing with the European standards

    Denkovski, Gligor

    2004-01-01

    In the energetics of Republic of Macedonia, after 13 years of independence of the country, there is still chaos in applying of many standards that are not used any more, even in the countries from which they are taken over. Step forward is the applying of the new standards in the oil industry. Control of applying of these standards is still open question. Factory laboratories regardless their equipping are not formally authorized to perform analysis for purposes other than those for their own needs. With establishing of Accrediting Institute of Republic of Macedonia (IARM), and adopting of corresponding regulations, there are conditions for accrediting of laboratories in order of giving services to the State and other users. Subject of this work is accrediting of the laboratory of OKTA - Crude Oil Refinery, Skopje, according the international standard ISO / IEC 17025. Finally this will be beginning of the control of import of crude oil products with suspicious origin and quality, that have been on the Macedonian market for years. (Author)

  15. Immediate needs for MQA testing at state secondary calibration laboratories

    Cline, R. [Radiation Instrument Calibration Laboratory, Springfield, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Calibration Laboratory attempts to provide services that satisfy the needs and requests for a variety of customers. New needs and requests have resulted in calibration of instrumentation outside the original laboratory designs. These tasks require several changes at the laboratory and a need for new support services, especially measurement quality assurance (MQA). The MQA tests are gamma (Cs-137) below 0.5 mrem (5{mu}Sv) per hour and x-ray kVp. Modification to the current gamma (Cs-137) MQA test is recommended because lower intensity fields are commonly measured.

  16. Immediate needs for MQA testing at state secondary calibration laboratories

    Cline, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory attempts to provide services that satisfy the needs and requests for a variety of customers. New needs and requests have resulted in calibration of instrumentation outside the original laboratory designs. These tasks require several changes at the laboratory and a need for new support services, especially measurement quality assurance (MQA). The MQA tests are gamma (Cs-137) below 0.5 mrem (5μSv) per hour and x-ray kVp. Modification to the current gamma (Cs-137) MQA test is recommended because lower intensity fields are commonly measured

  17. The transfer voltage standard for calibration outside of a laboratory

    Urekar Marjan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transfer voltage standard is designed for transferring the analog voltage from a calibrator to the process control workstation for multi-electrode electrolysis process in a plating plant. Transfer voltage standard is based on polypropylene capacitors and operational amplifiers with tera-ohm range input resistance needed for capacitor self-discharging effect cancellation. Dielectric absorption effect is described. An instrument for comparison of reference and control voltages is devised, based on precise window comparator. Detailed description of the main task is given, including constraints, theoretical and practical solutions. Procedure for usage of the standard outside of a laboratory conditions is explained. Comparison of expected and realized standard characteristics is given. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-32019

  18. Lower Secondary School Students' Attitudes Toward Computer-Supported Laboratory Exercises

    Andreja Špernjak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Science teaching laboratory work is recognized as one of the cornerstones. In school science laboratory work computers can be used as computer supported laboratory (real and as virtual laboratory. In the first case “real” laboratories involve bench top experiments utilizing data acquisition systems while “virtual” laboratory entails interactive simulations and animations. Lower secondary school students in age between 11 and 15 performed three laboratory exercises (Activity of yeast, Gas exchange in breathing, Heart rate as classic, computer-supported and virtual laboratory. As a result of testing we know that all three methods are suitable even for younger students. When they were asked which method they liked the most, their first choice was computer-supported laboratory, followed by classic laboratory, and virtual laboratory at the end. Additionally recognized weak and strong sides of used methods are discussed.

  19. 40 CFR 262.103 - What is the scope of the laboratory environmental management standard?

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental management standard? 262.103 Section 262.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... University Laboratories XL Project-Laboratory Environmental Management Standard § 262.103 What is the scope of the laboratory environmental management standard? The Laboratory Environmental Management Standard...

  20. Validation of a densimeter calibration procedure for a secondary calibration laboratory

    Alpizar Herrera, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to quantify the need for calibration of a density measurement instrument at the research units at the Sede Rodrigo Facio of the Universidad de Costa Rica. A calibration procedure was documented for the instrument that presented the highest demand in the survey by the calibration service. A study of INTE-ISO/IEC 17025: 2005 and specifically in section 5.4 of this standard was done, to document the procedure for calibrating densimeters. Densimeter calibration procedures and standards were sought from different national and international sources. The method of hydrostatic weighing or Cuckow method was the basis of the defined procedure. Documenting the calibration procedure and creating other documents was performed for data acquisition log, intermediate calculation log and calibration certificate copy. A veracity test was performed using as reference laboratory a laboratory of calibration secondary national as part of the validation process of the documented procedure. The results of the E_n statistic of 0.41; 0.34 and 0.46 for the calibration points 90%, 50% and 10% were obtained for the densimeter scale respectively. A reproducibility analysis of the method was performed with satisfactory results. Different suppliers were contacted to estimate the economic costs of the equipment and materials, needed to develop the documented method of densimeter calibration. The acquisition of an analytical balance was recommended, instead of a precision scale, in order to improve the results obtained with the documented method [es

  1. A report from the AVS Standards Committee - Comparison of ion gauge calibrations by several standards laboratories

    Warshawsky, I.

    1982-01-01

    Calibrations by four U.S. laboratories of four hot-cathode ion gauges, in the range 0.07-13 mPa, showed systematic differences among laboratories that were much larger than the expected error of any one calibration. They also suggested that any of the four gauges tested, if properly packaged and shipped, was able to serve as a transfer standard with probable error of 2%. A second comparison was made of the calibrations by two U.S. laboratories of some other gauges that had also been calibrated by the National Physical Laboratory, England. Results did not permit conclusive determination of whether differences were due to the laboratories or to changes in the gauges.

  2. Upper secondary school as an innovative health laboratory

    Nielsen, Stine Frydendal

    , 2009; Heldbjerg et al., 2009) on cultural and organizational aspects of physical activity in the upper secondary school in a latemodern era. The project aims to provide knowledge about the application of a participatory approach when working with health promotion and thus be conducive to a sustainable...... a methodological study seeking to develop methods in creating organizational change regarding health policies with participation, democracy and innovation as the main focus-areas (Dahl og Juhl: 2009). This method demands involvement from Rysensteen Gymnasium and the design is structured so that ideas, discussions...

  3. Measurements of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser cutting in standard experiments

    Pilot, G.; Noel, J.P.; Leautier, R.; Steiner, H.; Tarroni, G.; Waldie, B.

    1992-01-01

    As part of an inter-facility comparison of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser-cutting techniques, standard cutting tests have been done by plasma arc underwater and in air, and by laser beam in air. The same team was commissioned to measure the secondary emissions (solid and gaseous) in each contractor's facility with the same measuring rig. 20 mm and 40 mm thick, grade 304 stainless-steel plates were cut by plasma-torch in three different facilities: Heriot Watt University of Edinburgh, Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde of Universitaet Hannover and CEA/CEN Cadarache. 10 mm and in some cases 20 mm thick, grade 304, stainless-steel plates were cut by laser beam in five different facilities: CEA-CEN Fontenay, CEA-CEN Saclay, Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde of Universitaet Hannover and ENEA/Frascati. The results obtained in the standard experiments are rather similar, and the differences that appear can be explained by the various scales of the involved facilities (semi-industrial and laboratory) and by some particularities in the cutting parameters (an additional secondary gas flow of oxygen in plasma cutting at Universitaet Hannover, for example)

  4. Measurements of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser cutting in standard experiments

    Pilot, G.; Noel, M.; Leautier, R.; Steiner, H.; Tarroni, G.; Waldie, B.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an inter-facility comparison of secondary emissions from plasma-arc and laser cutting techniques, standard cutting tests have been done by plasma arc underwater and in air and laser beam in air. The same team, CEA/DPT/SPIN, was commissioned to measure the secondary emissions (solid and gaseous) in each contractor's facility with the same measuring rig. 20 mm and 40 mm thick grade 304 stainless steel plates were cut by plasma-torch in three different facilities: Heriot Watt University of Edinburgh, Institute fuer Werkstoffkunde of Hannover and CEA/CEN Cadarache. 10 mm and sometimes 20 mm thick grade 304 stainless steel plates were cut by laser beam in four different facilities: CEA/CEN Fontenay, CEA/CEN Saclay, Institute fuer Werkstoffkunde of Hannover and ENEA/FRASCATI. The results obtained in the standard experiments are rather similar, the differences that appear can be explained by the various scales of the facilities (semi-industrial and laboratory scale) and by some particularity in the cutting parameters (additional secondary gas flow of oxygen in plasma cutting at Hannover for example). Some supplementary experiments show the importance of some cutting parameters. (author)

  5. Standard reference materials analysis for MINT Radiocarbon Laboratory

    Noraishah Othman; Kamisah Alias; Nasasni Nasrul

    2004-01-01

    As a follow-up to the setting up of the MINT Radiocarbon Dating facility. an exercise on the IAEA standard reference materials was carried out. Radiocarbon laboratories frequently used these 8 natural samples to verify their systems. The materials were either pretreated or analysed directly to determine the activity of 14 C isotopes of the five samples expressed in % Modern (pMC) terms and to make recommendations on further use of these materials. We present the results of the five materials and discuss the analyses that were undertaken. (Author)

  6. National Standards Laboratory biennial report, 1971--1973

    None

    1974-02-28

    This report describes the activities of the laboratory in: length interferometry; engineering metrology; photogrammetry; mass, volume, density, and pressure measurement: force, hardness, and materials testing machines; vibration; corrosion; time and frequency; acoustics; electrical standards; power frequency; high voltage; rf and microwave measurement; temperature measurement; optical radiometry; optics; dielectrics; magnetics; thermal and elastic properties of solids; electron transport in metals; low-energy collisions in gases; physics of the fluid state and high pressures; water vapor physics; viscometry; airglow; solar physics; and theoretical astrophysics. (DLC)

  7. The standard laboratory module approach to automation of the chemical laboratory

    Hollen, R.M.; Erkkila, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    Automation of the technology and practice of environmental laboratory automation has not been as rapid or complete as one might expect. Confined to autosamplers and limited robotic systems, our ability to apply production concepts to environmental analytical analysis is not great. With the impending remediation of our hazardous waste sites in the US, only the application of production chemistry techniques will even begin to provide those responsible with the necessary knowledge to accomplish the cleanup expeditiously and safely. Tightening regulatory requirements have already mandated staggering increases in sampling and characterization needs with the future only guaranteeing greater demands. The Contaminant Analysis Automation Program has been initiated by our government to address these current and future characterization by application of a new robotic paradigm for analytical chemistry. By using standardized modular instruments, named Standard Laboratory Modules, flexible automation systems can rapidly be configured to apply production techniques to our nations environmental problems at-site

  8. Synthetic salt cake standards for analytical laboratory quality control

    Schilling, A.E.; Miller, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The validation of analytical results in the characterization of Hanford Nuclear Defense Waste requires the preparation of synthetic waste for standard reference materials. Two independent synthetic salt cake standards have been prepared to monitor laboratory quality control for the chemical characterization of high-level salt cake and sludge waste in support of Rockwell Hanford Operations' High-Level Waste Management Program. Each synthetic salt cake standard contains 15 characterized chemical species and was subjected to an extensive verification/characterization program in two phases. Phase I consisted of an initial verification of each analyte in salt cake form in order to determine the current analytical capability for chemical analysis. Phase II consisted of a final characterization of those chemical species in solution form where conflicting verification data were observed. The 95 percent confidence interval on the mean for the following analytes within each standard is provided: sodium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, hydroxide, chromate, chloride, fluoride, aluminum, plutonium-239/240, strontium-90, cesium-137, and water

  9. Environmental Sciences Division Toxicology Laboratory standard operating procedures

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Logsdon, G.M.

    1989-09-01

    This document was developed to provide the personnel working in the Environmental Sciences Division's Toxicology Laboratory with documented methods for conducting toxicity tests. The document consists of two parts. The first part includes the standard operating procedures (SOPs) that are used by the laboratory in conducting toxicity tests. The second part includes reference procedures from the US Environmental Protection Agency document entitled Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, upon which the Toxicology Laboratory's SOPs are based. Five of the SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction test. These SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia food (SOP-3), maintaining Ceriodaphnia cultures (SOP-4), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-13), analyzing the test data (SOP-13), and conducting a Ceriodaphnia reference test (SOP-15). Five additional SOPs relate specifically to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larval survival and growth test: methods for preparing fathead minnow larvae food (SOP-5), maintaining fathead minnow cultures (SOP-6), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-9), analyzing the test data (SOP-12), and conducting a fathead minnow reference test (DOP-14). The six remaining SOPs describe methods that are used with either or both tests: preparation of control/dilution water (SOP-1), washing of glassware (SOP-2), collection and handling of samples (SOP-7), preparation of samples (SOP-8), performance of chemical analyses (SOP-11), and data logging and care of technical notebooks (SOP-16)

  10. Laboratory studies of monoterpene secondary organic aerosol formation and evolution

    Thornton, J. A.; D'Ambro, E.; Zhao, Y.; Lee, B. H.; Pye, H. O. T.; Schobesberger, S.; Shilling, J.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    We have conducted a series of chamber experiments to study the molecular composition and properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from monoterpenes under a range of photochemical and dark conditions. We connect variations in the SOA mass yield to molecular composition and volatility, and use a detailed Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) based chemical box model with dynamic gas-particle partitioning to examine the importance of various peroxy radical reaction mechanisms in setting the SOA yield and properties. We compare the volatility distribution predicted by the model to that inferred from isothermal room-temperature evaporation experiments using the FIGAERO-CIMS where SOA particles collected on a filter are allowed to evaporate under humidified pure nitrogen flow stream for up to 24 hours. We show that the combination of results requires prompt formation of low volatility SOA from predominantly gas-phase mechanisms, with important differences between monoterpenes (alpha-Pinene and delta-3-Carene) followed by slower non-radical particle phase chemistry that modulates both the chemical and physical properties of the SOA. Implications for the regional evolution of atmospheric monoterpene SOA are also discussed.

  11. Measurement of photoemission and secondary emission from laboratory dust grains

    Hazelton, Robert C.; Yadlowsky, Edward J.; Settersten, Thomas B.; Spanjers, Gregory G.; Moschella, John J.

    1995-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is experimentally determine the emission properties of dust grains in order to provide theorists and modelers with an accurate data base to use in codes that predict the charging of grains in various plasma environments encountered in the magnetospheres of the planets. In general these modelers use values which have been measured on planar, bulk samples of the materials in question. The large enhancements expected due to the small size of grains can have a dramatic impact upon the predictions and the ultimate utility of these predictions. The first experimental measurement of energy resolved profiles of the secondary electron emission coefficient, 6, of sub-micron diameter particles has been accomplished. Bismuth particles in the size range of .022 to .165 micrometers were generated in a moderate pressure vacuum oven (average size is a function of oven temperature and pressure) and introduced into a high vacuum chamber where they interacted with a high energy electron beam (0.4 to 20 keV). Large enhancements in emission were observed with a peak value, delta(sub max) = 4. 5 measured for the ensemble of particles with a mean size of .022 micrometers. This is in contrast to the published value, delta(sub max) = 1.2, for bulk bismuth. The observed profiles are in general agreement with recent theoretical predictions made by Chow et al. at UCSD.

  12. Hydrogen Field Test Standard: Laboratory and Field Performance

    Pope, Jodie G.; Wright, John D.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed a prototype field test standard (FTS) that incorporates three test methods that could be used by state weights and measures inspectors to periodically verify the accuracy of retail hydrogen dispensers, much as gasoline dispensers are tested today. The three field test methods are: 1) gravimetric, 2) Pressure, Volume, Temperature (PVT), and 3) master meter. The FTS was tested in NIST's Transient Flow Facility with helium gas and in the field at a hydrogen dispenser location. All three methods agree within 0.57 % and 1.53 % for all test drafts of helium gas in the laboratory setting and of hydrogen gas in the field, respectively. The time required to perform six test drafts is similar for all three methods, ranging from 6 h for the gravimetric and master meter methods to 8 h for the PVT method. The laboratory tests show that 1) it is critical to wait for thermal equilibrium to achieve density measurements in the FTS that meet the desired uncertainty requirements for the PVT and master meter methods; in general, we found a wait time of 20 minutes introduces errors methods, respectively and 2) buoyancy corrections are important for the lowest uncertainty gravimetric measurements. The field tests show that sensor drift can become a largest component of uncertainty that is not present in the laboratory setting. The scale was calibrated after it was set up at the field location. Checks of the calibration throughout testing showed drift of 0.031 %. Calibration of the master meter and the pressure sensors prior to travel to the field location and upon return showed significant drifts in their calibrations; 0.14 % and up to 1.7 %, respectively. This highlights the need for better sensor selection and/or more robust sensor testing prior to putting into field service. All three test methods are capable of being successfully performed in the field and give equivalent answers if proper sensors without drift are

  13. Metrological characteristics of the new BSS2 beta secondary standard system

    Reynaldo, Sibele R.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the increased interest and the importance of beta radiation dosimetry for radiation protection purposes, the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear. MG, Brazil, acquired the newest Beta Secondary Standard system (BSS2) in order to replace the old BSS1 model, with the goal of implement a beta radiation metrology laboratory and provide the corresponding reference radiation. The new system BSS2, unique in Latin America, requires operational testing and metrological characterization for reliability purposes. For this, some comparative investigations of the two systems were made. The influence of opening and closing the shutter in the final dose of radiation was identified as the highest in the BSS2 in relation to the one founded in BSS1, justified by the structural difference of the shutters of the systems and the reproducibility of source-detector geometry was better in BSS2, because of the robustness of the same

  14. Standards for radiation protection and diagnostic radiology at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory

    Pernicka, F.; Andreo, P.; Meghzifene, A.; Czap, L.; Girzikowsky, R.

    1999-01-01

    International standardization in dosimetry is essential for the successful exploitation of radiation technology. The IAEA dosimetry programme is focused into services provided to Member States through the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), to radiotherapy centres and radiation processing facilities. Radiation protection quantities defined by ICRU and ICRP are used to relate the risk due to exposure to ionizing radiation to a single quantity, irrespective of the type of radiation, which takes into account the human body as a receptor. Two types of quantities, limiting and operational, can be related to basic physical quantities which are defined without need for considering specific aspects of radiation protection, e.g. air kerma for photons and fluence for neutrons. The use of a dosimeter for measurements in radiation protection requires a calibration in terms of a physical quantity together with a conversion from physical into protection quantities by means of a factor or a coefficient

  15. Using an Online Remote Laboratory for Electrical Experiments in Upper Secondary Education

    Lars Håkansson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of remote laboratories in courses at university level has been reported in literature numerous times since the mid 90’s. In this article focus is on activities carried out by teachers and students, at the Upper Secondary School Level, using the remote laboratory VISIR (Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality. The Upper Secondary School, Katedralskolan in Lund, Sweden, cooperate with Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden, in a project that concerns the introduction of remote laboratory environment suitable for Upper Secondary School science courses. A remote laboratory in electronics has been introduced and is used as a complement to the traditional workbench in the hands-on laboratory. Significant results from the project are; 1 the great interest shown by the students for the remote experiments, 2 the students appreciation for the fact that it was not simulations but actual real experiments, 3 the remote laboratory is easy to implement for use by both teachers and students and 4 it can be used simultaneously by many students.

  16. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  17. The Value of Laboratory Tests in Diagnosing Secondary Osteoporosis at a Fracture and Osteoporosis Outpatient Clinic

    de Klerk, Gijs; Hegeman, J. Han; van der Velde, Detlef; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; ten Duis, Henk J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: As more and more patients meeting the criteria for osteoporosis are referred to a fracture and osteoporosis outpatient clinic (FO clinic), the laboratory costs to screen for secondary osteoporosis also increases. This study was conducted to determine the value of screening on underlying

  18. Evaluation of the national secondary standard response of radiodiagnosis

    Peixoto, Jose Guilherme P.; Villalobos, Josefa P.; Carlos, Marcia T.

    1996-01-01

    Before calibration in Germany Primary Laboratory / PTB the Radcal diagnostic ionization chamber repeatability was tested in the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), Brazil. Response of the chamber during experiment for repeatability demonstrate a variance in the range of 0.1%

  19. Thermal stability of morpholine, AMP and sarcosine in PWR secondary systems. Laboratory and loop experiments

    Feron, D.; Lambert, I.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory and loop tests have been carried out in order to investigate the thermal stability of three amines (morpholine, AMP and sarcosine) in PWR secondary conditions. Laboratory experiments have been performed in a titanium autoclave at 300 deg C. The results pointed out high thermal decomposition rates of AMP and sarcosine. A decomposition mechanism is proposed for the 3 amines. Loop tests have been performed in order to compare steam cycle conditioning with ammonia, morpholine and AMP. The amine concentrations and the decomposition products such as acetate and formate have been followed around the secondary circuit of the ORION loop which reproduces the main physico-chemical characteristics of a PWR secondary circuit. These concentrations are reported together with the evolution of cationic conductivities. The influence of oxygen concentration on amine thermal stability has been observed. Results are expressed also in terms of decomposition rates and of relative volatility

  20. Development of a quality assurance program for ionizing radiation secondary calibration laboratories

    Heaton, H.T. II; Taylor, A.R. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    For calibration laboratories, routine calibrations of instruments meeting stated accuracy goals are important. One method of achieving the accuracy goals is to establish and follow a quality assurance program designed to monitor all aspects of the calibration program and to provide the appropriate feedback mechanism if adjustments are needed. In the United States there are a number of organizations with laboratory accreditation programs. All existing accreditation programs require that the laboratory implement a quality assurance program with essentially the same elements in all of these programs. Collectively, these elements have been designated as a Measurement Quality Assurance (MQA) program. This paper will briefly discuss the interrelationship of the elements of an MQA program. Using the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) as an example, it will focus on setting up a quality control program for the equipment in a Secondary Calibration Laboratory

  1. Development of a quality assurance program for ionizing radiation secondary calibration laboratories

    Heaton, H.T. II; Taylor, A.R. Jr. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    For calibration laboratories, routine calibrations of instruments meeting stated accuracy goals are important. One method of achieving the accuracy goals is to establish and follow a quality assurance program designed to monitor all aspects of the calibration program and to provide the appropriate feedback mechanism if adjustments are needed. In the United States there are a number of organizations with laboratory accreditation programs. All existing accreditation programs require that the laboratory implement a quality assurance program with essentially the same elements in all of these programs. Collectively, these elements have been designated as a Measurement Quality Assurance (MQA) program. This paper will briefly discuss the interrelationship of the elements of an MQA program. Using the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) as an example, it will focus on setting up a quality control program for the equipment in a Secondary Calibration Laboratory.

  2. Electrolysis of Water in the Secondary School Science Laboratory with Inexpensive Microfluidics

    Davis, T. A.; Athey, S. L.; Vandevender, M. L.; Crihfield, C. L.; Kolanko, C. C. E.; Shao, S.; Ellington, M. C. G.; Dicks, J. K.; Carver, J. S.; Holland, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    This activity allows students to visualize the electrolysis of water in a microfluidic device in under 1 min. Instructional materials are provided to demonstrate how the activity meets West Virginia content standards and objectives. Electrolysis of water is a standard chemistry experiment, but the typical laboratory apparatus (e.g., Hoffman cell)…

  3. 42 CFR 493.1443 - Standard; Laboratory director qualifications.

    2010-10-01

    ... laboratory in the State in which the laboratory is located; or (6) For the subspecialty of oral pathology, be certified by the American Board of Oral Pathology, American Board of Pathology, the American Osteopathic... or clinical pathology, or both, by the American Board of Pathology or the American Osteopathic Board...

  4. Calibration of ARI QC ionisation chambers using the Australian secondary standards for activity

    Mo, L.; Van Der Gaast, H.A.; Alexiev, D.; Butcher, K.S.A.; Davies, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Secondary Standard Activity Laboratory (SSAL) in ANSTO routinely provides standardised radioactive sources, traceable activity measurements and custom source preparation services to customers. The most important activity carried out is the calibration of ionisation chambers located in the Quality Control (QC) section of Australian Radioisotopes (ARI). This ensures that their activity measurements are traceable to the Australian primary methods of standardisation. ARI QC ionisation chambers are calibrated for 99m Tc, 67 Ga, 131 I, 201 Tl and 153 Sm. The SSAL has a TPA ionisation chamber, which has been directly calibrated against a primary standard for a variety of radioactive nuclides. Calibration factors for this chamber were determined specifically for the actual volumes (5ml for 99m Tc, 131 I, 2ml for 67 Ga, 201 Tl and 3 ml for 153 Sm) and types of vial (Wheaton) which are routinely used at ARI. These calibration factors can be used to accurately measure the activity of samples prepared by ARI. The samples can subsequently be used to calibrate the QC ionisation chambers. QC ionisation chambers are re-calibrated biannually

  5. 76 FR 72216 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    2011-11-22

    ... accordance with the Standard's definitions for ``laboratory use of hazardous chemicals'' and ``laboratory... using hazardous chemicals; hazard-control techniques; equipment- reliability measures; worker... burden (time and costs) of the information collection requirements, including the validity of the...

  6. 77 FR 16987 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    2012-03-23

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production AGENCY... for secondary aluminum production (77 FR 8576). The EPA is extending the deadline for written comments... from the Aluminum Association. The Aluminum Association has requested the extension in order to allow...

  7. The stellar spectroscopy laboratory and curriculum counselling for secondary-school students

    Cenadelli, D.

    2011-01-01

    The stellar spectroscopy laboratory is the flagship of a wide-ranging work of curriculum counselling fostered by the Physics Department of the Milan University and the high school 'G. Parini' in Milan. In time, valuable results were gained in setting up a new way of collaboration between the high school and university worlds and in spurring secondary-school students to embark in a scientific, and more specifically physical, career. The present work briefly discusses the contents of the laboratory, its didactical value, its role of curriculum counselling and its effectiveness in directing students to take into consideration the physical sciences as a possible university choice.

  8. Secondary standards (non-activation) for neutron data measurements above 20 MeV

    Haight, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    In addition to H(n,p) scattering and 235,238 U(n,f) reactions, secondary standards for neutron flux determination may be useful for neutron energies above 20 MeV. For experiments where gamma rays are detected, reference gamma-ray production cross sections are relevant. For neutron-induced charged particle production, standard (n,p) and (n,alpha) cross sections would be helpful. Total cross section standards would serve to check the accuracy of these measurements. These secondary standards are desirable because they can be used with the same detector systems employed in measuring the quantities of interest. Uncertainties due to detector efficiency, geometrical effects, timing and length of flight paths can therefore be significantly reduced. Several secondary standards that do not depend on activation techniques are proposed. 14 refs

  9. Proposals for new standardized general diagnostic criteria for the secondary headaches

    Olesen, J; Steiner, T; Bousser, M-G

    2009-01-01

    headache and chronic migraine. These changes made apparent a further need for broader revisions to the standard formulation of diagnostic criteria for the secondary headaches. Currently, the fourth criterion makes impossible the definitive diagnosis of a secondary headache until the underlying cause has...... propose maintaining a standard approach to the secondary headaches using a set of four criteria A, B, C and D, but we construct these so that the requirement for resolution or successful treatment is removed. The proposal for general diagnostic criteria for the secondary headaches will be entered...... classification are then foreseen for the next 10 years. Until the printing of ICHD-IIR, the printed ICHD-II criteria remain in place for all other purposes. We issue a plea to the headache community to use and study these proposed general criteria for the secondary headaches in order to provide more evidence...

  10. The Tanzania experience: clinical laboratory testing harmonization and equipment standardization at different levels of a tiered health laboratory system.

    Massambu, Charles; Mwangi, Christina

    2009-06-01

    The rapid scale-up of the care and treatment programs in Tanzania during the preceding 4 years has greatly increased the demand for quality laboratory services for diagnosis of HIV and monitoring patients during antiretroviral therapy. Laboratory services were not in a position to cope with this demand owing to poor infrastructure, lack of human resources, erratic and/or lack of reagent supply and commodities, and slow manual technologies. With the limited human resources in the laboratory and the need for scaling up the care and treatment program, it became necessary to install automated equipment and train personnel for the increased volume of testing and new tests across all laboratory levels. With the numerous partners procuring equipment, the possibility of a multitude of equipment platforms with attendant challenges for procurement of reagents, maintenance of equipment, and quality assurance arose. Tanzania, therefore, had to harmonize laboratory tests and standardize laboratory equipment at different levels of the laboratory network. The process of harmonization of tests and standardization of equipment included assessment of laboratories, review of guidelines, development of a national laboratory operational plan, and stakeholder advocacy. This document outlines this process.

  11. Differences in Anticipatory Behaviour between Rats (Rattus norvegicus Housed in Standard versus Semi-Naturalistic Laboratory Environments.

    I Joanna Makowska

    Full Text Available Laboratory rats are usually kept in relatively small cages, but research has shown that they prefer larger and more complex environments. The physiological, neurological and health effects of standard laboratory housing are well established, but fewer studies have addressed the sustained emotional impact of a standard cage environment. One method of assessing affective states in animals is to look at the animals' anticipatory behaviour between the presentation of a cue signalling the arrival of a reward and the arrival of that reward. The primary aim of this study was to use anticipatory behaviour to assess the affective state experienced by female rats a reared and housed long-term in a standard laboratory cage versus a semi-naturalistic environment, and b before and after treatment with an antidepressant or an anxiolytic. A secondary aim was to add to the literature on anticipatory behaviour by describing and comparing the frequency and duration of individual elements of anticipatory behaviour displayed by rats reared in these two systems. In all experiments, total behavioural frequency was higher in standard-housed rats compared to rats from the semi-naturalistic condition, suggesting that standard-housed rats were more sensitive to rewards and experiencing poorer welfare than rats reared in the semi-naturalistic environment. What rats did in anticipation of the reward also differed between housing treatments, with standard-housed rats mostly rearing and rats from the semi-naturalistic condition mostly sitting facing the direction of the upcoming treat. Drug interventions had no effect on the quantity or form of anticipatory behaviour, suggesting that the poorer welfare experienced by standard-housed rats was not analogous to depression or anxiety, or alternatively that the drug interventions were ineffective. This study adds to mounting evidence that standard laboratory housing for rats compromises rat welfare, and provides further

  12. Differences in Anticipatory Behaviour between Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Housed in Standard versus Semi-Naturalistic Laboratory Environments.

    Makowska, I Joanna; Weary, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory rats are usually kept in relatively small cages, but research has shown that they prefer larger and more complex environments. The physiological, neurological and health effects of standard laboratory housing are well established, but fewer studies have addressed the sustained emotional impact of a standard cage environment. One method of assessing affective states in animals is to look at the animals' anticipatory behaviour between the presentation of a cue signalling the arrival of a reward and the arrival of that reward. The primary aim of this study was to use anticipatory behaviour to assess the affective state experienced by female rats a) reared and housed long-term in a standard laboratory cage versus a semi-naturalistic environment, and b) before and after treatment with an antidepressant or an anxiolytic. A secondary aim was to add to the literature on anticipatory behaviour by describing and comparing the frequency and duration of individual elements of anticipatory behaviour displayed by rats reared in these two systems. In all experiments, total behavioural frequency was higher in standard-housed rats compared to rats from the semi-naturalistic condition, suggesting that standard-housed rats were more sensitive to rewards and experiencing poorer welfare than rats reared in the semi-naturalistic environment. What rats did in anticipation of the reward also differed between housing treatments, with standard-housed rats mostly rearing and rats from the semi-naturalistic condition mostly sitting facing the direction of the upcoming treat. Drug interventions had no effect on the quantity or form of anticipatory behaviour, suggesting that the poorer welfare experienced by standard-housed rats was not analogous to depression or anxiety, or alternatively that the drug interventions were ineffective. This study adds to mounting evidence that standard laboratory housing for rats compromises rat welfare, and provides further scientific support for

  13. 42 CFR 493.1405 - Standard; Laboratory director qualifications.

    2010-10-01

    ... degree in a chemical, physical, biological, or clinical laboratory science from an accredited institution; and (i) Be certified by the American Board of Medical Microbiology, the American Board of Clinical... certified in anatomic or clinical pathology, or both, by the American Board of Pathology or the American...

  14. Quality control of the NPL-CRC secondary standard system used for activimeters calibration at IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Martins, Elaine W.; Potiens, Maria da P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a quality control program to be applied at the NPL-CRC activimeter secondary standard system, used as reference to comparison in tests made with the work tertiary standard activimeter, Capintec basic CRC R -15BT, both belonging to the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The repeatability, reproducibility and the precision tests were performed using a sealed check source of 133 Ba, from Amersham. It was made 70 series of 10 measurements to each activimeter, totaling 1400 measurements. Considering the variation limit of 5% to precision and reproducibility tests in the nuclear medicine services, recommended by the Brazilian standard CNEN-NN-3.05, the results observed in the behavior of the IPEN activimeter were satisfactory. (author)

  15. Implantation of a new Beta Secondary Standard system at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear

    Reynaldo, Sibele Reis

    2005-01-01

    The crescent use of beta radiation sources in medical, industrial and research applications has increased the need for higher accuracy in beta dosimetry. As the first Beta Secondary Standard system (BSS1) was developed about 20 years ago, a new BSS2 system was made commercially available to fulfill new metrological demands and to follow the technological development. The BSS2 has a new positioning set-up, high activity and long half-life beta radiation sources and a special safety system. The Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear is the first laboratory in Latin America that has got a BSS2. This work describes the BSS2 and it compares its advantages in relation to BSS1; results of the beam uniformity tests of the radiation fields from 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 85 Kr and 147 Pm sources, that were measured with an ionization chamber and with thermoluminescent detectors, are also shown. Results show that the beta radiation fields are considered to be uniform for diameters between 8 and 20 cm according to the chosen source. (author)

  16. Use of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Guidelines for Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Testing in New York State Laboratories

    Kiehlbauch, Julia A.; Hannett, George E.; Salfinger, Max; Archinal, Wendy; Monserrat, Catherine; Carlyn, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    Accurate antimicrobial susceptibility testing is vital for patient care and surveillance of emerging antimicrobial resistance. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) outlines generally agreed upon guidelines for reliable and reproducible results. In January 1997 we surveyed 320 laboratories participating in the New York State Clinical Evaluation Program for General Bacteriology proficiency testing. Our survey addressed compliance with NCCLS susceptibility testing guidelines for bacterial species designated a problem (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species) or fastidious (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) organism. Specifically, we assessed compliance with guidelines for inoculum preparation, medium choice, number of disks per plate, and incubation conditions for disk diffusion tests. We also included length of incubation for S. aureus and Enterococcus species. We found overall compliance with the five characteristics listed above in 80 of 153 responding laboratories (50.6%) for S. aureus and 72 of 151 (47.7%) laboratories for Enterococcus species. The most common problem was an incubation time shortened to less than 24 h. Overall compliance with the first four characteristics was reported by 92 of 221 (41.6%) laboratories for S. pneumoniae, 49 of 163 (30.1%) laboratories for H. influenzae, and 11 of 77 (14.3%) laboratories for N. gonorrhoeae. Laboratories varied from NCCLS guidelines by placing an excess number of disks per plate. Laboratories also reported using alternative media for Enterococcus species, N. gonorrhoeae, and H. influenzae. This study demonstrates a need for education among clinical laboratories to increase compliance with NCCLS guidelines. PMID:10970381

  17. A comparison of two microscale laboratory reporting methods in a secondary chemistry classroom

    Martinez, Lance Michael

    This study attempted to determine if there was a difference between the laboratory achievement of students who used a modified reporting method and those who used traditional laboratory reporting. The study also determined the relationships between laboratory performance scores and the independent variables score on the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test, chronological age in months, gender, and ethnicity for each of the treatment groups. The study was conducted using 113 high school students who were enrolled in first-year general chemistry classes at Pueblo South High School in Colorado. The research design used was the quasi-experimental Nonequivalent Control Group Design. The statistical treatment consisted of the Multiple Regression Analysis and the Analysis of Covariance. Based on the GALT, students in the two groups were generally in the concrete and transitional stages of the Piagetian cognitive levels. The findings of the study revealed that the traditional and the modified methods of laboratory reporting did not have any effect on the laboratory performance outcome of the subjects. However, the students who used the traditional method of reporting showed a higher laboratory performance score when evaluation was conducted using the New Standards rubric recommended by the state. Multiple Regression Analysis revealed that there was a significant relationship between the criterion variable student laboratory performance outcome of individuals who employed traditional laboratory reporting methods and the composite set of predictor variables. On the contrary, there was no significant relationship between the criterion variable student laboratory performance outcome of individuals who employed modified laboratory reporting methods and the composite set of predictor variables.

  18. Review and comparison of quality standards, guidelines and regulations for laboratories

    Tjeerd A.M. Datema

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The variety and number of laboratory quality standards, guidelines and regulations (hereafter: quality documents makes it difficult to choose the most suitable one for establishing and maintaining a laboratory quality management system. Objectives: There is a need to compare the characteristics, suitability and applicability of quality documents in view of the increasing efforts to introduce quality management in laboratories, especially in clinical diagnostic laboratories in low income and middle income countries. This may provide valuable insights for policy makers developing national laboratory policies, and for laboratory managers and quality officers in choosing the most appropriate quality document for upgrading their laboratories. Method: We reviewed the history of quality document development and then selected a subset based on their current use. We analysed these documents following a framework for comparison of quality documents that was adapted from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guideline GP26 Quality management system model for clinical laboratory services. Results: Differences were identified between national and international, and non-clinical and clinical quality documents. The most salient findings were the absence of provisions on occurrence management and customer service in almost all non-clinical quality documents, a low number of safety requirements aimed at protecting laboratory personnel in international quality documents and no requirements regarding ethical behaviour in almost all quality documents. Conclusion: Each laboratory needs to investigate whether national regulatory standards are present. These are preferred as they most closely suit the needs of laboratories in the country. A laboratory should always use both a standard and a guideline: a standard sums up the requirements to a quality management system, a guideline describes how quality management can be integrated in the laboratory

  19. Standardization of irradiation values at the Radiation Calibration Laboratory

    Pham Van Dung; Hoang Van Nguyen; Phan Van Toan; Phan Dinh Sinh; Tran Thi Tuyet; Do Thi Phuong

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the theme is to determine dose rates around radiation facilities and sources in the NRI Radiation Calibration Laboratory. By improving equipment, calibrating a main dosemeter and carrying out experiments, the theme team received the following results: 1. The controller of a X-rays generator PY(-200 was improved. It permits to increase accuracy of radiation dose calibration up to 2-4 times; 2. The FAMER DOSEMETER 2570/1B with the ionization chamber NE 2575 C of the NRI Radiation Calibration Laboratory was calibrated at SSDL (Hanoi); 3. Dose rates at 4 positions around a high activity Co-60 source were determined; 4. Dose rates at 3 positions around a low activity Co-60 source were determined; 5. Dose rates at 3 positions around a low activity Cs-137 source were determined; 6. Dose rate at 1 position of a X-rays beam (Eaverage = 48 keV) was determined; 7. Dose rate at 1 position of a X-rays beam (Eaverage = 65 keV) was determined. (author)

  20. Medical laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa that meet international quality standards.

    Schroeder, Lee F; Amukele, Timothy

    2014-06-01

    A recent survey of laboratories in Kampala, Uganda, demonstrated that only 0.3% of laboratories (3/954) met international quality standards. To benchmark laboratory quality throughout the rest of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), we compiled a list of SSA laboratories meeting international quality standards. Accrediting bodies were queried via online registries or direct communication in May 2013. There were 380 laboratories accredited to international standards in SSA. Ninety-one percent were in South Africa. Thirty-seven of 49 countries had no laboratories accredited to international quality standards. Accredited laboratory density (per million people) in South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana were similar to those in many European countries. Single variable linear regression showed a correlation between accredited laboratory density and health expenditures per person (adjusted R(2) = 0.81, P clinical laboratory. For those that do, there is a strong correlation between country-specific accredited laboratory density and per-capita health expenditures. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  1. Canadian Laboratory Standards for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Best Practice Guidelines

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI continue to spread, and show no international boundaries. Diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis, which we thought were under control in Canadian populations, have increased in incidence. Sexually transmitted or associated syndromes such as cervicitis, enteric infections, epididymitis, genital ulcers, sexually related hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis and vulvovaginitis present a challenge for the physician to identify the microbial cause, treat the patient and manage contacts. During the past 10 years, new technologies developed for the diagnosis of STIs have provided a clearer understanding of the real accuracy of traditional tests for the diagnosis of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis B virus, human papillomaviruses, HIV, Haemophilus ducreyi, Trichomonas vaginalis and mycoplasmas. This has presented a major challenge to the diagnostic laboratory, namely, selecting the most sensitive and specific test matched with the most appropriate specimens to provide meaningful and timely results to facilitate optimal patient care.

  2. National BTS bronchiectasis audit 2012: is the quality standard being adhered to in adult secondary care?

    Hill, Adam T; Routh, Chris; Welham, Sally

    2014-03-01

    A significant step towards improving care of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis was the creation of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) national guidelines and the quality standard. A BTS bronchiectasis audit was conducted between 1 October and 30 November 2012, in adult patients with bronchiectasis attending secondary care, against the BTS quality standard. Ninety-eight institutions took part, submitting a total of 3147 patient records. The audit highlighted the variable adoption of the quality standard. It will allow the host institutions to benchmark against UK figures and drive quality improvement programmes to promote the quality standard and improve patient care.

  3. [The analytical reliability of clinical laboratory information and role of the standards in its support].

    Men'shikov, V V

    2012-12-01

    The article deals with the factors impacting the reliability of clinical laboratory information. The differences of qualities of laboratory analysis tools produced by various manufacturers are discussed. These characteristics are the causes of discrepancy of the results of laboratory analyses of the same analite. The role of the reference system in supporting the comparability of laboratory analysis results is demonstrated. The project of national standard is presented to regulate the requirements to standards and calibrators for analysis of qualitative and non-metrical characteristics of components of biomaterials.

  4. Excellence in clinical laboratories: the standard ISO 15189:2007

    Antonio Scipioni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available I laboratori clinici operano in stretto contatto con i pazienti e collaborano direttamente alla loro cura, in modo corresponsabile con i medici e i reparti ospedalieri. L’importanza della loro attività per la salute pubblica rende obbligatoria l’esplicitazione di alcuni punti finora spesso considerati ovvii. Ai pazienti dev’essere infatti garantito che: - i metodi di analisi utilizzati siano stati preliminarmente valutati, per confermare la loro rispondenza agli obiettivi dell’analisi stessa, verificati, per controllarne l’effettiva efficacia e, se necessario, validati per garantire che siano appropriati allo scopo; - il personale che esegue le analisi sia stato adeguatamente formato e quindi tecnicamente competente; - il laboratorio assicuri un’adeguata consulenza allo staff clinico che richiede le analisi, allo scopo di ottenere una sinergia tra il laboratorio e il clinico che ha in cura il paziente, sia nella fase di prelievo di materiale biologico, sia nella fase di interpretazione dei risultati. Tutto ciò è necessario per dimostrare ai pazienti

  5. Secondary electron images obtained with a standard photoelectron emission microscope set-up

    Benka, Oswald; Zeppenfeld, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The first results of secondary electron images excited by 3-4.3 keV electrons are presented. The images are obtained with a standard FOCUS-PEEM set-up equipped with an imaging energy filter (IEF). The electron gun was mounted on a standard PEEM entrance flange at an angle of 25 deg. with respect to the sample surface. A low extraction voltage of 500 V was used to minimize the deflection of the electron beam by the PEEM extraction electrode. The secondary electron images are compared to photoelectron images excited by a standard 4.9 eV UV lamp. In the case of a Cu pattern on a Si substrate it is found that the lateral resolution without the IEF is about the same for electron and photon excitation but that the relative electron emission intensities are very different. The use of the IEF reduces the lateral resolution. Images for secondary electron energies between eV 1 and eV 2 were obtained by setting the IEF to -V 1 and -V 2 ∼-(V 1 +5V) potentials and taking the difference of both images. Images up to 100 eV electron energies were recorded. The material contrast obtained in these difference images is discussed in terms of a secondary electron and photoelectron emission model and secondary electron energy spectra measured with a LEED-Auger spectrometer

  6. Applying Standards for Leaders to the Selection of Secondary School Principals

    Wildy, Helen; Pepper, Coral; Guanzhong, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report innovative research aimed at ascertaining whether standards for school leaders could be applied to the process of selecting senior secondary school principals for appointment. Specifically, psychometrically robust measures of performance are sought that would sufficiently differentiate performance to…

  7. Constructing Assessment Model of Primary and Secondary Educational Quality with Talent Quality as the Core Standard

    Chen, Benyou

    2014-01-01

    Quality is the core of education and it is important to standardization construction of primary and secondary education in urban (U) and rural (R) areas. The ultimate goal of the integration of urban and rural education is to pursuit quality urban and rural education. Based on analysing the related policy basis and the existing assessment models…

  8. Profile of laboratory instruction in secondary school level chemistry and indication for reform

    Wang, Mei

    This study is a profile of the laboratory component of instruction in secondary school level chemistry. As one of several companion studies, the purpose of the study is to investigate present practices related to instruction as a means of producing reform that improve cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes. Five hundred-forty students, from 18 chemistry classes taught by 12 teachers in ten high schools were involved in this study. Three schools included public and private schools, urban school, suburban schools, and rural schools. Three levels or types of chemistry courses were offered in these schools: school regular chemistry for college bound students, Chemistry in the Community or "ChemCom" for non-college bound students, and a second year of chemistry or advanced placement chemistry. Laboratory sessions in each of these three levels of courses were observed, videotaped, and later analyzed using the Modified Revised Science Teachers Behaviors Inventory (MR-STBI). The 12 chemistry teachers, eight science supervisors, and selected students were interviewed to determine their professional backgrounds and other factors that might influence how they teach, how they think, and how they learn. The following conclusions developed from the research are: (1) The three levels of chemistry courses are offered across high schools of varying sizes and locations. (2) Teachers perceive that students come to chemistry classes poorly prepared to effectively carry out laboratory experiences and/or investigations. (3) While students indicated that they are able to effectively use math skills in analyzing the results of chemistry laboratory experiments, teachers, in general, are not satisfied with the level at which students are prepared to use these skills, or to use writing skills. (4) Students working in pairs, is the typical approach. Group cooperation is sometimes used in carrying out the laboratory component of chemistry instruction in the ChemCom and AP chemistry

  9. Microbiological Standardization in Small Laboratory Animals and Recommendations for the Monitoring

    Meral Karaman

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological standardization in laboratory animal breeding is based on the classification according to the microorganisms that the animals host and consequently their upbringing environment, as well as the certification of their microbiological status and the protection of their properties. Although there are many different classifications for microbiological standardization of laboratory animals, they can be basically classified as; gnotobiotic animals, animals bred with a complete barrie...

  10. Inter-laboratory variation in DNA damage using a standard comet assay protocol

    Forchhammer, Lykke; Ersson, Clara; Loft, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    determined the baseline level of DNA strand breaks (SBs)/alkaline labile sites and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites in coded samples of mononuclear blood cells (MNBCs) from healthy volunteers. There were technical problems in seven laboratories in adopting the standard protocol...... analysed by the standard protocol. The SBs and FPG-sensitive sites were measured in the same experiment, indicating that the large spread in the latter lesions was the main reason for the reduced inter-laboratory variation. However, it remains worrying that half of the participating laboratories obtained...

  11. Secondary students in professional laboratories: Discoveries about science learning in a community of practitioners

    Song, Mary Elizabeth

    This study explores what educators may learn from the experiences of secondary students working in professional scientific laboratories. My investigation is guided by the methodology of phenomenological; I depend primarily on interviews conducted with students and professional researchers. This material is supported primarily by on-site observations, and by informal conversations between me and the study participants. My dissertation has three goals: (one) to use the work of secondary students in scientific research laboratories to consider how they know the discipline; (two) to distinguish the students' professional accomplishments from science learning at school; and, (three) to engage readers in a reflection about authority within the scientific community, and the possibility that by accomplishing research, students take their legitimate place among those who construct scientific knowledge. My methods and focus have allowed me to capture qualities of the student narratives that support the emergence of three major themes: the importance of doing "real work" in learning situations; the inapplicability of "school learning" to professional research arenas; and the inclusive nature of the scientific community. At the same time, the study is confined by the narrow pool of participants I interviewed over a short period of time. These talented students were all academically successful, articulate, "well-rounded" and in this sense, mature. They typically had strong family support, and they talked about ideas with their parents. Indeed, the students were all capable story-tellers who were anxious to share their experiences publicly. Yet they themselves remind the reader of their struggles to overcome naivete in the lab. By doing so they suggested to me that their experiences might be accessible to a broad range of young men and women; thus this study is a good beginning for further research.

  12. Microbiological Standardization in Small Laboratory Animals and Recommendations for the Monitoring

    Meral Karaman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological standardization in laboratory animal breeding is based on the classification according to the microorganisms that the animals host and consequently their upbringing environment, as well as the certification of their microbiological status and the protection of their properties. Although there are many different classifications for microbiological standardization of laboratory animals, they can be basically classified as; gnotobiotic animals, animals bred with a complete barrier system (Germ free, GF, with Colonization-Resistant Flora; CRF, animals bred with a partial barrier system (Specified Pathogen Free, SPF, and animals bred by conventional methods in units without barriers (Conventional; CV. Monitoring of microbiological standardization is carried out in two ways. One is controlling barrier systems (process control and the other is controlling laboratory animals (product control. In controlling barrier systems samples are taken routinely from ambient air, surfaces, base plate materials of animals, foods and waters, and microbiological tests are carried out. FELASA guidelines are frequently used in monitoring laboratory animals. These guidelines where the monitoring frequency, sample size, micro-organisms to be tested, vary according to the microbiological quality of the animals, and test methods and are frequently updated by FELASA and shared in their web pages. In our country, in general, laboratory animals used for experimental studies present no microbiological standardization, and follow-up protocols are not implemented. Therefore, construction of facilities for the production of microbiologically standard animals and establishment of backup laboratories testing microbiological quality should be established.

  13. The need for a quality standard for assurance in medical research laboratories

    S Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to show the results of a research study conducted to evaluate the need for a quality standard specific for medical research laboratories based on the shortfalls of ISO 15189 when used for this purpose. A qualitative research methodology was used, which comprised of collecting data from 20 well-qualified and experienced medical laboratory personnel by means of interviews based on a framework developed from a literature review. The data were analysed by means of a thematic technique and the results were verified by a team of medical researchers. The seven themes arising from the analyses were inflexibility; ambiguity; unfair requirements; inappropriate focus; inadequacy for research; renewal; and acceptance for accreditation. The results indicated that the ISO 15189 standard in its present content does not totally suit medical research laboratories and shows support for the development of a standard specific for research laboratories.

  14. 78 FR 63999 - Notice of Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) Symposium: Tools To Improve Laboratory...

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Notice of Vitamin D... Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) to those with an interest in the effort to standardize vitamin D... laboratory personnel; vitamin D researchers; and members of professional societies with clinical and public...

  15. Ethical and methodological standards for laboratory and medical biological rhythm research.

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    The main objectives of this article are to update the ethical standards for the conduct of human and animal biological rhythm research and recommend essential elements for quality chronobiological research information, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. A secondary objective is to provide for those with an interest in the results of chronobiology investigations, but who might be unfamiliar with the field, an introduction to the basic methods and standards of biological rhythm research and time series data analysis. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of all investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have adhered to the ethical standards dictated by local, national, and international laws and regulations in the conduct of investigations and to be unbiased and accurate in reporting never-before-published research findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose all potential conflicts of interest, particularly when the research is funded in part or in full by the medical and pharmaceutical industry, when the authors are stock-holders of the company that manufactures or markets the products under study, or when the authors are a recent or current paid consultant to the involved company. It is the responsibility of the authors of submitted manuscripts to clearly present sufficient detail about the synchronizer schedule of the studied subjects (i.e., the sleep-wake schedule, ambient light-dark cycle, intensity and spectrum of ambient light exposure, seasons when the research was

  16. Designing experiments on thermal interactions by secondary-school students in a simulated laboratory environment

    Lefkos, Ioannis; Psillos, Dimitris; Hatzikraniotis, Euripides

    2011-07-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of investigative activities with manipulations in a virtual laboratory on students' ability to design experiments. Sample Fourteen students in a lower secondary school in Greece attended a teaching sequence on thermal phenomena based on the use of information and communication technology, and specifically of the simulated virtual laboratory 'ThermoLab'. Design and methods A pre-post comparison was applied. Students' design of experiments was rated in eight dimensions; namely, hypothesis forming and verification, selection of variables, initial conditions, device settings, materials and devices used, process and phenomena description. A three-level ranking scheme was employed for the evaluation of students' answers in each dimension. Results A Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed a statistically significant difference between the students' pre- and post-test scores. Additional analysis by comparing the pre- and post-test scores using the Hake gain showed high gains in all but one dimension, which suggests that this improvement was almost inclusive. Conclusions We consider that our findings support the statement that there was an improvement in students' ability to design experiments.

  17. Implementing an integrated standards-based management system to ensure compliance at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Hjeresen, D.; Roybal, S.; Bertino, P.; Gherman, C.; Hosteny, B.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) is developing and implementing a comprehensive, Integrated Standards-Based Management System (ISBMS) to enhance environmental, safety, and health (ESH) compliance efforts and streamline management of ESH throughout the Laboratory. The Laboratory recognizes that to be competitive in today's business environment and attractive to potential Partnerships, Laboratory operations must be efficient and cost-effective. The Laboratory also realizes potential growth opportunities for developing ESH as a strength in providing new or improved services to its customers. Overall, the Laboratory desires to establish and build upon an ESH management system which ensures continuous improvement in protecting public health and safety and the environment and which fosters a working relationship with stakeholders. A team of process experts from the LANL Environmental Management (EM) Program Office, worked with management system consultants, and the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an ESH management systems process to compare current LANL ESH management Systems and programs against leading industry standards. The process enabled the Laboratory to gauge its performance in each of the following areas: Planning and Policy Setting; Systems and Procedures; Implementation and Education; and Monitoring and Reporting. The information gathered on ESH management systems enabled LANL to pinpoint and prioritize opportunities for improvement in the provision of ESH services throughout the Laboratory and ultimately overall ESH compliance

  18. [The challenges of standardization in clinical diagnostic laboratories of medical organizations].

    Men'shikov, V V

    2013-04-01

    The generalized data concerning the conditions of application of regulations of national standards in clinical diagnostic laboratories of medical organizations is presented. The primary information was provided by 14 regions of 6 federal administrative okrugs of Russia. The causes of challenges of application of requirements of standards are presented. They are mostly related with insufficient financial support, lacking of manpower, difficulties with reagents supply, inadequate technical maintenance of devices and absence of support of administration of medical organizations. The recommendations are formulated concerning the necessity of publishing the document of Minzdrav of Russia to determine the need in application of standards in laboratory practice.

  19. Preservice Secondary Teachers Perceptions of College-Level Mathematics Content Connections with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    Olson, Travis A.

    2016-01-01

    Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers (PSMTs) were surveyed to identify if they could connect early-secondary mathematics content (Grades 7-9) in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) with mathematics content studied in content courses for certification in secondary teacher preparation programs. Respondents were asked to…

  20. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    2010-07-01

    ... the data handling procedures for the reported data). 2.3Comparisons with the Primary and Secondary... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY...

  1. Calibration and consistency of results of an ionization-chamber secondary standard measuring system for activity

    Schrader, Heinrich

    2000-01-01

    Calibration in terms of activity of the ionization-chamber secondary standard measuring systems at the PTB is described. The measurement results of a Centronic IG12/A20, a Vinten ISOCAL IV and a radionuclide calibrator chamber for nuclear medicine applications are discussed, their energy-dependent efficiency curves established and the consistency checked using recently evaluated radionuclide decay data. Criteria for evaluating and transferring calibration factors (or efficiencies) are given

  2. Air kerma standardization for diagnostic radiology, and requirements proposal for calibration laboratories

    Ramos, Manoel Mattos Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    The demand for calibration services and quality control in diagnostic radiology has grown in the country since the publication of the governmental regulation 453, issued by the Ministry of Health in 1998. At that time, to produce results facing the new legislation, many laboratories used different standards and radiation qualities, some of which could be inadequate. The international standards neither supplied consistent radiation qualities and standardization for the different types of equipment available. This situation changed with the publication of the new edition of the IEC 61267 standard, published in 2005. A metrology network was created, but it is not yet accredited by the accreditation organism of the country, INMETRO. The objective of this work was to implement the standardization of the air kerma for the un attenuated qualities (RQR) of IEC 61267, and to develop a requirement proposal for instruments calibration laboratories. Results of interlaboratory comparisons demonstrate that the quantity is standardized and internationally traceable. A laboratory requirement proposal was finalized and it shall be submitted to INMETRO to be used as auxiliary normative document in laboratory accreditation. (author)

  3. Evaporation kinetics and phase of laboratory and ambient secondary organic aerosol

    Vaden, Timothy D.; Imre, Dan; Beránek, Josef; Shrivastava, Manish; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-01-01

    Field measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) find significantly higher mass loads than predicted by models, sparking intense effort focused on finding additional SOA sources but leaving the fundamental assumptions used by models unchallenged. Current air-quality models use absorptive partitioning theory assuming SOA particles are liquid droplets, forming instantaneous reversible equilibrium with gas phase. Further, they ignore the effects of adsorption of spectator organic species during SOA formation on SOA properties and fate. Using accurate and highly sensitive experimental approach for studying evaporation kinetics of size-selected single SOA particles, we characterized room-temperature evaporation kinetics of laboratory-generated α-pinene SOA and ambient atmospheric SOA. We found that even when gas phase organics are removed, it takes ∼24 h for pure α-pinene SOA particles to evaporate 75% of their mass, which is in sharp contrast to the ∼10 min time scale predicted by current kinetic models. Adsorption of “spectator” organic vapors during SOA formation, and aging of these coated SOA particles, dramatically reduced the evaporation rate, and in some cases nearly stopped it. Ambient SOA was found to exhibit evaporation behavior very similar to that of laboratory-generated coated and aged SOA. For all cases studied in this work, SOA evaporation behavior is nearly size-independent and does not follow the evaporation kinetics of liquid droplets, in sharp contrast with model assumptions. The findings about SOA phase, evaporation rates, and the importance of spectator gases and aging all indicate that there is need to reformulate the way SOA formation and evaporation are treated by models. PMID:21262848

  4. Intra-operative parathyroid hormone monitoring through central laboratory is accurate in renal secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Vulpio, Carlo; Bossola, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Pepe, Gilda; Nure, Eda; Magalini, Sabina; Agnes, Salvatore

    2016-05-01

    The usefulness, the methods and the criteria of intra-operative monitoring of the parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) during parathyroidectomy (PTX) for renal secondary hyperparathyroidism (rSHPT) in patients on chronic hemodialysis remain still matter of debate. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of a low cost central-laboratory second generation PTH assay to predict an incomplete resection of parathyroid glands (PTG). The ioPTH decay was determined In 42 consecutive patients undergoing PTX (15 subtotal and 27 total without auto-transplant of PTG) for rSHPT. The ioPTH monitoring included five samples: pre-intubation, post-manipulation of PTG and at 10, 20 and 30min post-PTG excision. The patients with PTH exceeding the normal value (65pg/ml) at the first postoperative week, 6 and 12months were classified as persistent rSHPT. The concentrations of ioPTH declined significantly over time in patients who received total or subtotal PTX; however, no difference was found between the two types of PTX. Irrespective of the type of PTX and the number of PTG removed, combining the absolute and percentage of ioPTH decay at 30min after PTG excision, we found high sensitivity (100%), specificity (92%), negative predictive value (100%) and accuracy (93%) in predicting the persistence of rSHPT. The monitoring of the ioPTH decline by a low cost central-laboratory second generation assay is extremely accurate in predicting the persistence of disease in patients on maintenance hemodialysis undergoing surgery for rSHPT. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Standard practice for conducting and evaluating laboratory corrosions tests in soils

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for conducting laboratory corrosion tests in soils to evaluate the corrosive attack on engineering materials. 1.2 This practice covers specimen selection and preparation, test environments, and evaluation of test results. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. International standards for tuberculosis care: Relevance and implications for laboratory professionals

    Pai M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On World Tuberculosis (TB Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are suspected of having, TB and is intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all healthcare providers in delivering high quality care for patients of all ages, including those with smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB, TB caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TB/HIV coinfection. In this article, we present the ISTC, with a special focus on the diagnostic standards and describe their implications and relevance for laboratory professionals in India and worldwide. Laboratory professionals play a critical role in ensuring that all the standards are actually met by providing high quality laboratory services for smear microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing and other services such as testing for HIV infection. In fact, if the ISTC is widely followed, it can be expected that there will be a greater need and demand for quality assured laboratory services and this will have obvious implications for all laboratories in terms of work load, requirement for resources and trained personnel and organization of quality assurance systems.

  7. A gender analysis of secondary school physics textbooks and laboratory manuals

    Kostas, Nancy Ann

    Secondary school physics textbooks and laboratory manuals were evaluated for gender balance. The textbooks and manuals evaluated were all current editions available at the time of the study with copyrights of 1988 to 1992. Illustrations, drawings and photographs were judged gender balanced based on the number of men and women, boys and girls shown in both active and passive roles. Illustrations, drawings and photographs were also evaluated by the number of male and female scientists identified by name. The curricular content of the textbooks was analyzed for gender balance by three criteria: the number of named male and female scientists whose accomplishments were described in the text; the number of careers assigned to men and women; and the number of verbal analogies assigned to girls interests, boys interests or neutral interests. The laboratory activities in the manuals were categorized as demonstrations, experiments and observations. Three of each of these types of activities from each manual were analyzed for skills and motivating factors important to girls as identified by Potter and Rosser (1992). Data were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics of frequencies, means and chi-square goodness of fit. The.05 level of significance was applied to all analyses based upon an expected frequency of 50 - 50 percentage of men and women and a 4.5 percent for women scientists to 95.5 percent for men scientists. The findings were as follows. None of the textbooks had a balance of men/women, boys/girls in the illustrations, drawings and photographs. The Hewitt (Scott-Foresman, 1989) textbook was the only textbook with no significant difference. Using the expected frequency for male and female scientists, two textbooks were gender balanced for illustrations, drawings and photographs while all textbooks were gender balanced for described accomplishments of scientists. The Hewitt (Scott Foresman, 1989) textbook had the only gender balanced representation of careers

  8. Charging of Single Micron Sized Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emission: A Laboratory Study

    Spann, James F., Jr.; Venturini, Catherine C.; Comfort, R. H.

    1998-01-01

    We present the details of a new laboratory study whose objective is to experimentally study the interaction of micron sized particles with plasmas and electromagnetic radiation. Specifically, to investigate under what conditions and to what extent do particles of various compositions and sizes become charged, or discharged, while exposed to an electron beam and ultraviolet radiation environment The emphasis is the study of the two charging mechanisms, secondary emission of electrons and photoelectric effect. The experiment uses a technique known as electrodynamic suspension of particles. With this technique, a single charged particle is electrodynamically levitated and then exposed to a controlled environment. Its charge to mass ratio is directly measured. Viscous drag measurements and the light scattering measurements characterize its size and optical characteristics. The environment to which the particle is expose may consist of room temperature and pressure or a rarefied atmosphere where only one major gaseous constituent is present, or, as in this case, a vacuum environment under electron bombardment or UV radiation . In addition, the environment can be cycled as part of the experiment. Therefore, using this technique, a single particle can be repeatedly exposed to a controlled environment and its response measured, or a single particle can be exposed to similar environments with minor differences and its response measured as a function of only the changed environmental conditions.

  9. Effect of Availability and Utilization of Physics Laboratory Equipment on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior Secondary School Physics

    Olufunke, Bello Theodora

    2012-01-01

    The study determined the available Physics Laboratory Equipment (PLE) for the teaching and learning of physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria as well as the extent of utilizing the available equipment. The research design adopted for the study was descriptive survey. The sample consisted of nine hundred students who were randomly chosen…

  10. ISO/IEC 17025 laboratory accreditation of NRC Acoustical Standards Program

    Wong, George S. K.; Wu, Lixue; Hanes, Peter; Ohm, Won-Suk

    2004-05-01

    Experience gained during the external accreditation of the Acoustical Standards Program at the Institute for National Measurement Standards of the National Research Council is discussed. Some highlights include the preparation of documents for calibration procedures, control documents with attention to reducing future paper work and the need to maintain documentation or paper trails to satisfy the external assessors. General recommendations will be given for laboratories that are contemplating an external audit in accordance to the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025.

  11. DOE standard: The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program for radiobioassay

    1998-12-01

    This technical standard describes the US Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) for Radiobioassay, for use by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE Contractor radiobioassay programs. This standard is intended to be used in conjunction with the general administrative technical standard that describes the overall DOELAP accreditation process--DOE-STD-1111-98, Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program Administration. This technical standard pertains to radiobioassay service laboratories that provide either direct or indirect (in vivo or in vitro) radiobioassay measurements in support of internal dosimetry programs at DOE facilities or for DOE and DOE contractors. Similar technical standards have been developed for other DOELAP dosimetry programs. This program consists of providing an accreditation to DOE radiobioassay programs based on successful completion of a performance-testing process and an on-site evaluation by technical experts. This standard describes the technical requirements and processes specific to the DOELAP Radiobioassay Accreditation Program as required by 10 CFR 835 and as specified generically in DOE-STD-1111-98

  12. Application of the ICRP recommendations to revised secondary radiation protection standards

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Corley, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    In 1977, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued Publication No. 26 containing its recommendations for major changes in the conceptual basis for radiation protection. The new recommendations consider total risk (to the whole body) instead of controlling (critical-organ) risk. Subsequent publications and explanatory statements most useful for providing clarification of the intent of the new recommendations have not resolved practical problems encountered in attempting to apply them to either occupational or public exposures. Some of the problems that still exist in applying these recommendations for estimating doses to members of the public include the following: allowance for age differences within an exposed population group, definition of 50-y dose versus lifetime (70-y) dose, definition of negligible risk levels for individual and collective doses, and derivation of appropriate concentration guidelines. The United States is in the process of adopting the revised recommendations of the ICRP. In addition to adopting versions of the primary radiation protection standards, both the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy have developed draft secondary standards that are similar to the Derived Air Concentration values given by the ICRP. This paper presents a brief history of the development of these revised secondary standards, discusses their technical bases, provides a comparison of them, and discusses their limitations and potential misapplication

  13. Nanotechnology Laboratory Continues Partnership with FDA and National Institute of Standards and Technology | Poster

    The NCI-funded Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL)—a leader in evaluating promising nanomedicines to fight cancer—recently renewed its collaboration with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to continue its groundbreaking work on characterizing nanomedicines and moving them toward the clinic. In

  14. Importance of the Primary Radioactivity Standard Laboratory and Implementation of its Quality Management

    Sahagia, Maria; Razdolescu, Anamaria Cristina; Luca, Aurelian; Ivan, Constantin

    2007-04-01

    The paper presents some specific aspects of the implementation of the quality management in the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory, from IFIN-HH, the owner of the primary Romanian standard in radioactivity. The description of the accreditation, according to the EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005, is presented.

  15. Importance of the Primary Radioactivity Standard Laboratory and Implementation of its Quality Management

    Sahagia, Maria; Razdolescu, Anamaria Cristina; Luca, Aurelian; Ivan, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents some specific aspects of the implementation of the quality management in the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory, from IFIN-HH, the owner of the primary Romanian standard in radioactivity. The description of the accreditation, according to the EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005, is presented

  16. 76 FR 25376 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    2011-05-04

    ...'') applies to laboratories that use hazardous chemicals in accordance with the Standard's definitions for...-reliability measures; worker information-and-training programs; conditions under which the employer must... validity of the methodology and assumptions used; The quality, utility, and clarity of the information...

  17. Performance of the RAD-57 pulse CO-oximeter compared with standard laboratory carboxyhemoglobin measurement.

    Touger, Michael; Birnbaum, Adrienne; Wang, Jessica; Chou, Katherine; Pearson, Darion; Bijur, Polly

    2010-10-01

    We assess agreement between carboxyhemoglobin levels measured by the Rad-57 signal extraction pulse CO-oximeter (RAD), a Food and Drug Administration-approved device for noninvasive bedside measurement, and standard laboratory arterial or venous measurement in a sample of emergency department (ED) patients with suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. The study was a cross-sectional cohort design using a convenience sample of adult and pediatric ED patients in a Level I trauma, burn, and hyperbaric oxygen referral center. Measurement of RAD carboxyhemoglobin was performed simultaneously with blood sampling for laboratory determination of carboxyhemoglobin level. The difference between the measures for each patient was calculated as laboratory carboxyhemoglobin minus carboxyhemoglobin from the carbon monoxide oximeter. The limits of agreement from a Bland-Altman analysis are calculated as the mean of the differences between methods ±1.96 SDs above and below the mean. Median laboratory percentage carboxyhemoglobin level was 2.3% (interquartile range 1 to 8.5; range 0% to 38%). The mean difference between laboratory carboxyhemoglobin values and RAD values was 1.4% carboxyhemoglobin (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2% to 2.6%). The limits of agreement of differences of measurement made with the 2 devices were -11.6% and 14.4% carboxyhemoglobin. This range exceeded the value of ±5% carboxyhemoglobin defined a priori as clinically acceptable. RAD correctly identified 11 of 23 patients with laboratory values greater than 15% carboxyhemoglobin (sensitivity 48%; 95% CI 27% to 69%). There was one case of a laboratory carboxyhemoglobin level less than 15%, in which the RAD device gave a result greater than 15% (specificity of RAD 96/97=99%; 95% CI 94% to 100%). In the range of carboxyhemoglobin values measured in this sample, the level of agreement observed suggests RAD measurement may not be used interchangeably with standard laboratory measurement. Copyright © 2010 American

  18. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  19. Development of indicators for patient care and monitoring standards for secondary health care services of Mumbai.

    Malik, Seema S; D'Souza, Roshni Cynthia; Pashte, Pramod Mukund; Satoskar, Smita Manohar; D'Souza, Remilda Joyce

    2015-01-01

    The Qualitative aspect of health care delivery is one of the major factors in reducing morbidity and mortality in a health care setup. The expanding suburban secondary health care delivery facilities of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai are an important part of the healthcare backbone of Mumbai and therefore the quality of care delivered here needed standardization. The project was completed over a period of one year from Jan to Dec, 2013 and implemented in three phases. The framework with components and sub-components were developed and formats for data collection were standardized. The benchmarks were based on past performance in the same hospital and probability was used for development of normal range. An Excel spreadsheet was developed to facilitate data analysis. The indicators comprise of 3 components--Statutory Requirements, Patient care & Cure and Administrative efficiency. The measurements made, pointed to the broad areas needing attention. The Indicators for patient care and monitoring standards can be used as a self assessment tool for health care setups for standardization and improvement of delivery of health care services.

  20. Electronic laboratory quality assurance program: A method of enhancing the prosthodontic curriculum and addressing accreditation standards.

    Moghadam, Marjan; Jahangiri, Leila

    2015-08-01

    An electronic quality assurance (eQA) program was developed to replace a paper-based system and to address standards introduced by the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) and to improve educational outcomes. This eQA program provides feedback to predoctoral dental students on prosthodontic laboratory steps at New York University College of Dentistry. The purpose of this study was to compare the eQA program of performing laboratory quality assurance with the former paper-based format. Fourth-year predoctoral dental students (n=334) who experienced both the paper-based and the electronic version of the quality assurance program were surveyed about their experiences. Additionally, data extracted from the eQA program were analyzed to identify areas of weakness in the curriculum. The study findings revealed that 73.8% of the students preferred the eQA program to the paper-based version. The average number of treatments that did not pass quality assurance standards was 119.5 per month. This indicated a 6.34% laboratory failure rate. Further analysis of these data revealed that 62.1% of the errors were related to fixed prosthodontic treatment, 27.9% to partial removable dental prostheses, and 10% to complete removable dental prostheses in the first 18 months of program implementation. The eQA program was favored by dental students who have experienced both electronic and paper-based versions of the system. Error type analysis can yield the ability to create customized faculty standardization sessions and refine the didactic and clinical teaching of the predoctoral students. This program was also able to link patient care activity with the student's laboratory activities, thus addressing the latest requirements of the CODA regarding the competence of graduates in evaluating laboratory work related to their patient care. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The spectra of the standard x-ray qualities used in STUK's Radiation Metrology Laboratory

    Tapiovaara, T.; Tapiovaara, M.; Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.

    2008-02-01

    This report presents the fluence spectra of the standard x-radiation qualities used in the Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory of Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The spectra were measured in August 2007. The radiation qualities characterised in the report are the ISO Narrow spectrum series (ISO N10-N200, ISO 4037-1:1996) and both of the RQR-spectrum series specified by the IEC (IEC 1267:1994 and IEC 61267:2005). The measurements were made using a high purity Ge-detector and the measured pulse height spectra were corrected to fluence spectra. Spectral characteristics were computed from the spectral data and compared to the requirements in the standards and to the values given in the quality manual of the laboratory. (orig.)

  2. Services of the CDRH X-ray calibration laboratory and their traceability to National Standards

    Cerra, F.; Heaton, H.T. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) provides calibration services for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The instruments calibrated are used by FDA and contract state inspectors to verify compliance with federal x-ray performance standards and for national surveys of x-ray trends. In order to provide traceability of measurements, the CDRH XCL is accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for reference, diagnostic, and x-ray survey instrument calibrations. In addition to these accredited services, the CDRH XCL also calibrates non-invasive kVp meters in single- and three-phase x-ray beams, and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips used to measure CT beam profiles. The poster illustrates these services and shows the traceability links back to the National Standards.

  3. Standard guide for qualification of measurement methods by a laboratory within the nuclear industry

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidance for selecting, validating, and qualifying measurement methods when qualification is required for a specific program. The recommended practices presented in this guide provide a major part of a quality assurance program for the laboratory data (see Fig. 1). Qualification helps to assure that the data produced will meet established requirements. 1.2 The activities intended to assure the quality of analytical laboratory measurement data are diagrammed in Fig. 1. Discussion and guidance related to some of these activities appear in the following sections: Section Selection of Measurement Methods 5 Validation of Measurement Methods 6 Qualification of Measurement Methods 7 Control 8 Personnel Qualification 9 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitati...

  4. Services of the CDRH X-ray calibration laboratory and their traceability to National Standards

    Cerra, F.; Heaton, H.T.

    1993-01-01

    The X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) provides calibration services for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The instruments calibrated are used by FDA and contract state inspectors to verify compliance with federal x-ray performance standards and for national surveys of x-ray trends. In order to provide traceability of measurements, the CDRH XCL is accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for reference, diagnostic, and x-ray survey instrument calibrations. In addition to these accredited services, the CDRH XCL also calibrates non-invasive kVp meters in single- and three-phase x-ray beams, and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips used to measure CT beam profiles. The poster illustrates these services and shows the traceability links back to the National Standards

  5. Food intake in laboratory rats provided standard and fenbendazole-supplemented diets.

    Vento, Peter J; Swartz, Megan E; Martin, Lisa Be; Daniels, Derek

    2008-11-01

    The benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ) is a common and effective treatment for pinworm infestation in laboratory animal colonies. Although many investigators have examined the potential for deleterious biologic effects of FBZ, more subtle aspects of the treatment remain untested. Accordingly, we evaluated differences in food intake when healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided a standard nonmedicated laboratory rodent chow or the same chow supplemented with FBZ. We also tested for a preference for either food type when subjects were provided a choice of the 2 diets. Data from these experiments showed no differences in food intake or body weight when rats were maintained on either standard or FBZ-supplemented chow. When the rats were given access to both the standard and FBZ-supplemented diets, they showed a clear preference for the standard diet. The preference for the standard diet indicates that the rats can discriminate between the 2 foods and may avoid the FBZ-supplemented chow when possible. Investigators conducting experiments during treatment with FBZ in which differences in food preference are relevant should be aware of these data and plan their studies accordingly.

  6. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    Scot Martin

    2013-01-31

    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    2010-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data.... Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone. 2.1 Data Reporting and Handling Conventions... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of...

  8. Microfluidic cartridges for DNA purification and genotyping processed in standard laboratory instruments

    Focke, Maximilian; Mark, Daniel; Stumpf, Fabian; Müller, Martina; Roth, Günter; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2011-06-01

    Two microfluidic cartridges intended for upgrading standard laboratory instruments with automated liquid handling capability by use of centrifugal forces are presented. The first microfluidic cartridge enables purification of DNA from human whole blood and is operated in a standard laboratory centrifuge. The second microfluidic catridge enables genotyping of pathogens by geometrically multiplexed real-time PCR. It is operated in a slightly modified off-the-shelf thermal cycler. Both solutions aim at smart and cost-efficient ways to automate work flows in laboratories. The DNA purification cartridge automates all liquid handling steps starting from a lysed blood sample to PCR ready DNA. The cartridge contains two manually crushable glass ampoules with liquid reagents. The DNA yield extracted from a 32 μl blood sample is 192 +/- 30 ng which corresponds to 53 +/- 8% of a reference extraction. The genotyping cartridge is applied to analyse isolates of the multi-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA) by real-time PCR. The wells contain pre-stored dry reagents such as primers and probes. Evaluation of the system with 44 genotyping assays showed a 100% specificity and agreement with the reference assays in standard tubes. The lower limit of detection was well below 10 copies of DNA per reaction.

  9. Syringe calibration factors and volume correction factors for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator

    Tyler, D K

    2002-01-01

    The activity assay of a radiopharmaceutical administration to a patient is normally achieved via the use of a radionuclide calibrator. Because of the different geometries and elemental compositions between plastic syringes and glass vials, the calibration factors for syringes may well be significantly different from those for the glass containers. The magnitude of these differences depends on the energies of the emitted photons. For some radionuclides variations have been observed of 70 %, it is therefore important to recalibrate for syringes or use syringe calibration factors. Calibration factors and volume correction factors have been derived for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator, for a variety of commonly used syringes and needles, for the most commonly used medical radionuclide.

  10. Quantization of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data using external and internal standards

    Gnaser, H.

    1983-01-01

    Some aspects of multi-dimensional characterization of solids by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are given. A theoretical part discusses methods for the quantization of SIMS data and the most prominent effects of ion-solid interactions as related to SIMS. After a description of the instrument used for experiments (a quadrupole-equipped ion microprobe featuring a liquid metal ion source in addition to the standard duoplasmatron gas ion source) the first experimental section is devoted to the determination of practical sensitivities and relative sensitivity factors for selected pure elements, binary and treary alloys and multicomponent systems. For 23 pure elements practical sensitivities under O + 2 bombardment also have been compared to those under In + -bombardment; it was shown that on oxygen saturated surfaces yields under In + -bombardment are higher, this making feasible use of submicron In-beams for surface analysis. In the second experimental section boron implants in silicon have been used for studying depth profiling capabilities of the instrument. Sputtering yields of Si and degrees of ionization of both B and Si have been measured. It has been shown that implantation profiles may deviate considerably from Gaussian but can be described by means of mathematical distribution functions. In the third experimental section depth resolution of the erosion process has been studied by profiling a Ni/Cr multilayer sample (100 A single layer) and been found to be approximately constant over the depth range investigated. Quantization of depth profiles, usually distorted by matrix effects, has been attempted using the primary beam species (In) as internal implantation standard. Some problems in connection with the conversion of secondary ion micrographs to concentration maps are discussed. Elemental detection limits in multidimensional SIMS analysis are given in dependence of primary beam size and total eroded depth. (Author)

  11. Standardization of the calibration of brachytherapy sources at the IAEA dosimetry laboratory

    Shanta, A.; Andreo, P.

    1996-01-01

    A new service to SSDLs has been initiated at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory for providing calibrations of well-type ionisation chambers, used in brachytherapy applications, which are traceable to the International Measurement System. Considering that the most common radionuclide used in the developing countries is 137 Cs, two such sources of the type used for gynaecological intracavitary applications have been purchased by the Agency and calibrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA. These 137 Cs reference sources together with a well-type ionization chamber constitute the IAEA brachytherapy dosimetry standard. Based on the recommendations by a group of experts, a method has been developed for transferring calibrations to SSDLs which is described in this paper. The method is based on the acquisition by the SSDLs of sources and equipment similar to those at the IAEA. The well-type chamber is to be calibrated at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory, and this will be used at the SSDL to calibrate its own reference sources. These sources can in turn by used to calibrate well-type chambers from hospital users and to calibrate other type of sources by performing measurements in air. In order to standardize the procedures for the two methods and to provide guidance to the SSDLs, measurements have been carried out at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory. The reproducibility of the two type of measurements has been found to be better than 0.5%, and the uncertainty of calibrations estimated to be less than 1.5% (one standard deviation). (author). 8 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Neutron Standards Laboratory of the CIEMAT; Laboratorio de Patrones Neutronicos del CIEMAT

    Guzman G, K. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C. Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Mendez V, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: karen.guzman.garcia@alumnos.upm.es [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    By means of a calculation series with Monte Carlo methods and the code MCNPX was characterized the neutrons field produced by the existent calibration sources in the Neutron Standards Laboratory of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT). The laboratory has two neutron calibration sources one of {sup 241}AmBe and other {sup 252}Cf that are stored in a water pool. A detailed three-dimensional model of the room was built with the base of stainless steel remarking in the selector to the sources that situates them to 4 m of the floor to be irradiated on the irradiation table and the storage pool. Each one of the sources was defined on the model in its double steel encapsulated. The spectra were calculated with different cases with the purpose of to calculate the contribution of each element that impacts to the neutrons transport. The spectra of the calibration sources were calculated to different distances regarding the source from 0, 15, 35, 50 to 300 cm on the base and in a same way the values of the ambient dose equivalent using the approaches of the ICRP-74. The results show clearly that the great contribution in the modification of the spectrum is attributed to the walls, and floor of the Neutron Standards Laboratory installations. (Author)

  13. The role of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric calibration in the implementation of the dosimetric magnitudes with radiological protection aims

    Perez Medina O, V.; Alvarez R, J.T.; Tovar M, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    It is very well-known the paper of the net of secondary laboratories of dosimetric calibration of the OAS in the dissemination of the traceability of the dosimetric magnitudes: kerma in air and absorbed dose in water, to the radiotherapy departments, given the high accuracy and precision that require the radiotherapy treatments. However the LSCD has other important areas at least for the development, implementation and evaluation of dosimetric magnitudes denominated operative magnitudes with ends of radiological protection: environmental equivalent dose H*(10), directional equivalent dose H'(0.07) and personal equivalent dose Hp. In the case of radiological protection the LSCD-ININ has been implementing the infrastructure to give service of personal dosimetry for photons and beta particles in terms of the operative magnitudes. For photons: X and gamma rays, it account with a secondary pattern camera PTW T34035 gauged in H * and Hp in the primary laboratory of Germany PTB. For the case of beta radiation its account with an extrapolation camera PTW 23392 with a secondary pattern kit of sources of the type I, gauged in terms of H'(0.07) in the PTB. (Author)

  14. A fish-feeding laboratory bioassay to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms.

    Marty, Micah J; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-11

    Marine chemical ecology is a young discipline, having emerged from the collaboration of natural products chemists and marine ecologists in the 1980s with the goal of examining the ecological functions of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. The result has been a progression of protocols that have increasingly refined the ecological relevance of the experimental approach. Here we present the most up-to-date version of a fish-feeding laboratory bioassay that enables investigators to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. Organic metabolites of all polarities are exhaustively extracted from the tissue of the target organism and reconstituted at natural concentrations in a nutritionally appropriate food matrix. Experimental food pellets are presented to a generalist predator in laboratory feeding assays to assess the antipredatory activity of the extract. The procedure described herein uses the bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum, to test the palatability of Caribbean marine invertebrates; however, the design may be readily adapted to other systems. Results obtained using this laboratory assay are an important prelude to field experiments that rely on the feeding responses of a full complement of potential predators. Additionally, this bioassay can be used to direct the isolation of feeding-deterrent metabolites through bioassay-guided fractionation. This feeding bioassay has advanced our understanding of the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine invertebrates on Caribbean coral reefs and may inform investigations in diverse fields of inquiry, including pharmacology, biotechnology, and evolutionary ecology.

  15. Developing an Implementation Guideline to International Standard School for Schools under Secondary Educational Service Area Office 25

    Worawut Poltree

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of developing an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 were ; 1 to study present and problem an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 and 2 to develop an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25. There were 68 samples ; administrators, deputy administrators, head of quality management systems, and academic teachers by purposive sampling. The tools used to collect the data were the five level scale questionnaire and structured interviews. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and descriptive analysis. The researcher set the research by 2 phase. The first phase educated present and problem an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25. The research was assessed feasibility of developing an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 by 5 experts. The research results were: 1. The present and problem an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 found that the overall present were at the high level and each one was at the high level. The overall problem were at the low and each one was at the moderate 2 aspects ; The leadership and the focus on personnel. Then it was at the low level. 2. Developing an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 found that 1 the leadership had set with the vision, values, performance of the school’s senior leadership, including good governance of the school, implementation of the ethics law, and responsibility for the community, 2 strategic

  16. Characterization of the neutron sources storage pool of the Neutron Standards Laboratory, using Montecarlo Techniques

    Campo Blanco, X.

    2015-01-01

    The development of irradiation damage resistant materials is one of the most important open fields in the design of experimental facilities and conceptual nucleoelectric fusion plants. The Neutron Standards Laboratory aims to contribute to this development by allowing the neutron irradiation of materials in its calibration neutron sources storage pool. For this purposes, it is essential to characterize the pool itself in terms of neutron fluence and spectra due to the calibration neutron sources. In this work, the main features of this facility are presented and the characterization of the storage pool is carried out. Finally, an application is shown of the obtained results to the neutron irradiation of material.

  17. Importance of pharmaceutical laboratory compliance with international standard requirements in respect of raising their competitiveness

    Božanić Vojislav N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP being a legal regulation in developed countries will become a legal regulation in Republic of Serbia starting with March 2010. In this paper comparative analysis between requirements of standard ISO/IEC 17025 and requirements of cEU GMP is shown. Considering the fact that in Republic of Serbia no pharmaceutical industry laboratory has been accredited according to requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, while keeping in mind that more than 90% of these laboratories have not fulfilled cEU GMP requirements, this paper aimed at pointing to the possibility of fulfilling both of mentioned requirements at the same time, which would open the way to different types of interlaboratory cooperation for pharmaceutical quality control laboratories and contribute to improving competitiveness of pharmaceutical companies. Accreditation, especially in the case of pharmaceutical quality control laboratories, is important because it guaranties the level of organizational and technical competency. It could easily be said that accreditation is becoming a must in quality control of products in order for the organization to be able to gain a leading role in the global market. Both accreditation and cGMP show the organization's commitment to having products of highest quality level. Considering the above mentioned facts, it is of greatest advantage for pharmaceutical quality control laboratories to fulfill both requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 and cGMP and reach total compliance. The aim of doing this lies in an easier acceptance of pharmaceutical products in different markets, overcoming technical barriers and affirmation of quality as key factor in reaching competitiveness, while keeping in mind the importance of strategic and competitive positioning in the global market.

  18. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  19. Intra-building telecommunications cabling standards for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Adams, R.L.

    1993-08-01

    This document establishes a working standard for all telecommunications cable installations at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. It is based on recent national commercial cabling standards. The topics addressed are Secure and Open/Restricted Access telecommunications environments and both twisted-pair and optical-fiber components of communications media. Some of the state-of-the-art technologies that will be supported by the intrabuilding cable infrastructure are Circuit and Packet Switched Networks (PBX/5ESS Voice and Low-Speed Data), Local Area Networks (Ethernet, Token Ring, Fiber and Copper Distributed Data Interface), and Wide Area Networks (Asynchronous Transfer Mode). These technologies can be delivered to every desk and can transport data at rates sufficient to support all existing applications (such as Voice, Text and graphics, Still Images, Full-motion Video), as well as applications to be defined in the future.

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns for New Instrument Standards

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  1. Comparison of a commercial blood cross-matching kit to the standard laboratory method for establishing blood transfusion compatibility in dogs.

    Guzman, Leo Roa; Streeter, Elizabeth; Malandra, Allison

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a commercial blood transfusion cross-match kit when compared to the standard laboratory method for establishing blood transfusion compatibility. A prospective observational in intro study performed from July 2009 to July 2013. Private referral veterinary center. Ten healthy dogs, 11 anemic dogs, and 24 previously transfused dogs. None. Forty-five dogs were enrolled in a prospective study in order to compare the standard blood transfusion cross-match technique to a commercial blood transfusion cross-matching kit. These dogs were divided into 3 different groups that included 10 healthy dogs (control group), 11 anemic dogs in need of a blood transfusion, and 24 sick dogs that were previously transfused. Thirty-five dogs diagnosed with anemia secondary to multiple disease processes were cross-matched using both techniques. All dogs cross-matched via the kit had a compatible major and minor result, whereas 16 dogs out of 45 (35%) had an incompatible cross-match result when the standard laboratory technique was performed. The average time to perform the commercial kit was 15 minutes and this was 3 times shorter than the manual cross-match laboratory technique that averaged 45-50 minutes to complete. While the gel-based cross-match kit is quicker and less technically demanding than standard laboratory cross-match procedures, microagglutination and low-grade hemolysis are difficult to identify by using the gel-based kits. This could result in transfusion reactions if the gel-based kits are used as the sole determinant of blood compatibility prior to transfusion. Based on our results, the standard manual cross-match technique remains the gold standard test to determine blood transfusion compatibility. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  2. Synthesis of amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles for preparation of new laboratory standards

    Alvarez-Toral, Aitor; Fernández, Beatriz; Malherbe, Julien; Claverie, Fanny; Pecheyran, Christophe; Pereiro, Rosario

    2017-12-01

    Platinum group elements (PGEs) are particularly interesting analytes in different fields, including environmental samples as well as high cost materials that contain them, such as for example automotive catalysts. This type of solid samples could be analysed by laser ablation (LA) coupled to ICP-MS, which allow to significantly reducing the analysis time since the time-consuming processes for sample preparation are not required. There is a considerable demand of standards with high PGEs concentration for quantification purposes, which cannot be carried out easily using LA-ICP-MS because the available standards (i.e. NIST SRM 61 × series) do not have such analytes in the same concentration range. In this paper, a new strategy is proposed for the synthesis of homogeneous laboratory standards with Pt, Pd and Rh concentrations that range from 77 μg/g of Pd up to 2035 μg/g of Rh. The proposed strategy is based on the synthesis of monodisperse amino-functionalized amorphous silica nanoparticles, which can retain metal ions. In addition to Pt, Pd and Rh, three lanthanides were also added to the nanoparticles (La, Ce, Nd). Sturdy pressed pellets can be made from the resulting nanopowder without the use of any binder. Elemental composition of standards made of nanoparticles was analysed by conventional nebulization ICP-MS and their homogeneity was successfully evaluated by LA-ICP-MS.

  3. Standardization and integration of ecological and human risk assessments at Department of Energy national laboratories

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Berry, D.

    1995-01-01

    In 1990, the directors of twelve national laboratories operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a steering group to address DOE's concerns about the effectiveness of any regulations driving the cost of environmental restoration and waste management. The goal of this presentation is to inform and to seek collaboration on the challenge of standardizing ecological and human health risk assessment approaches and development of an approach to address the differences between environmental remediation and restoration activities at DOE's waste management sites across the country. Recent changes in risk related regulations and budget cuts have prompted significant changes in DOE's approach to conducting and standardizing risk-based approaches for waste management. The steering group was established in 1990 to organize a broad, long-term educational outreach and research program focused on better science and public understanding of the risks associated with hazardous agents (chemical, biological, radiological, and physical) in the environment and the workplace. This presentation discusses the group's goal to (1) act as one resource for providing the technical basis for health and environmental standards; (2) catalyze a national effort to improve public understanding of risk and the importance of cost benefit analysis in evaluating mitigation of risk; (3) catalyze improvements in understanding of health and environmental effects of hazardous agents; and (4) analyze with regulatory agencies, industry, and the public the potential for evolution of risk-based consensus standard into federal and state environmental and occupational/public health regulations. Major accomplishments will be presented along with the group's agenda for standardizing risk, environmental, and occupational/public health standards

  4. Photovoltaic Device Performance Evaluation Using an Open-Hardware System and Standard Calibrated Laboratory Instruments

    Jesús Montes-Romero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a complete characterization system for photovoltaic devices designed to acquire the current-voltage curve and to process the obtained data. The proposed system can be replicated for educational or research purposes without having wide knowledge about electronic engineering. Using standard calibrated instrumentation, commonly available in any laboratory, the accuracy of measurements is ensured. A capacitive load is used to bias the device due to its versatility and simplicity. The system includes a common part and an interchangeable part that must be designed depending on the electrical characteristics of each PV device. Control software, developed in LabVIEW, controls the equipment, performs automatic campaigns of measurements, and performs additional calculations in real time. These include different procedures to extrapolate the measurements to standard test conditions and methods to obtain the intrinsic parameters of the single diode model. A deep analysis of the uncertainty of measurement is also provided. Finally, the proposed system is validated by comparing the results obtained from some commercial photovoltaic modules to the measurements given by an independently accredited laboratory.

  5. Transport of lead in secondary systems of PWR plants: laboratory and plant investigations

    Feron, D.; Rocher, A.; Nordmann, F.

    1992-01-01

    Both in France and abroad, abnormally high lead concentrations have been found in the deposits on certain steam generator tubes subject to combined inter and transgranular corrosion on the secondary side. Many potential sources of lead have been identified in PWR steam-water system, mainly at the turbine level. Tests on a loop (ORION) have shown that lead (as Pb or PbO) can transport from the condenser to the steam generator and that the contaminant mainly concentrates in flow restricted areas of steam generators

  6. The Relationship between Computer and Internet Use and Performance on Standardized Tests by Secondary School Students with Visual Impairments

    Zhou, Li; Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Kelley, Pat; Banda, Devender R.; Lan, William Y.; Parker, Amy T.; Smith, Derrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here explored the relationship between computer and Internet use and the performance on standardized tests by secondary school students with visual impairments. Methods: With data retrieved from the first three waves (2001-05) of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the correlational study focused on…

  7. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section 50.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL...

  8. Advances in absorbed dose measurement standards at the australian radiation laboratory

    Boas, J.F.; Hargrave, N.J.; Huntley, R.B.; Kotler, L.H.; Webb, D.V.; Wise, K.N. [Australian Radiation Laboratory, Yallambie, VIC (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The applications of ionising radiation in the medical and industrial fields require both an accurate knowledge of the amount of ionising radiation absorbed by the medium in question and the capability of relating this to National and International standards. The most useful measure of the amount of radiation is the absorbed dose which is defined as the energy absorbed per unit mass. For radiotherapy, the reference medium is water, even though the measurement of the absorbed dose to water is not straightforward. Two methods are commonly used to provide calibrations in absorbed dose to water. The first is the calibration of the chamber in terms of exposure in a Cobalt-60 beam, followed by the conversion by a protocol into dose to water in this and higher energy beams. The other route is via the use of a graphite calorimeter as a primary standard device, where the conversion from absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose in water is performed either by theoretical means making use of cavity ionisation theory, or by experiment where the graphite calorimeter and secondary standard ionisation chamber are placed at scaled distances from the source of the radiation beam (known as the Dose-Ratio method). Extensive measurements have been made at Cobalt-60 at ARL using both the exposure and absorbed dose to graphite routes. Agreement between the ARL measurements and those based on standards maintained by ANSTO and NPL is within {+-} 0.3%. Absorbed dose measurements have also been performed at ARL with photon beams of nominal energy 16 and 19 MeV obtained from the ARL linac. The validity of the protocols at high photon energies, the validity of the methods used to convert from absorbed dose in graphite to absorbed dose in water and the validity of the indices used to specify the beams are discussed. Brief mention will also be made of the establishment of a calibration facility for neutron monitors at ARL and of progress in the development of ERP dosimetry.

  9. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition

    Haydary, J., E-mail: juma.haydary@stuba.sk [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Susa, D.; Dudáš, J. [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis of aseptic packages was carried out in a laboratory flow reactor. ► Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields was obtained. ► Composition of the pyrolysis products was estimated. ► Secondary thermal and catalytic decomposition of tars was studied. ► Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

  10. Laboratory Experiments and Modeling for Interpreting Field Studies of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Using an Oxidation Flow Reactor

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This grant was originally funded for deployment of a suite of aerosol instrumentation by our group in collaboration with other research groups and DOE/ARM to the Ganges Valley in India (GVAX) to study aerosols sources and processing. Much of the first year of this grant was focused on preparations for GVAX. That campaign was cancelled due to political reasons and with the consultation with our program manager, the research of this grant was refocused to study the applications of oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) for investigating secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and organic aerosol (OA) processing in the field and laboratory through a series of laboratory and modeling studies. We developed a gas-phase photochemical model of an OFR which was used to 1) explore the sensitivities of key output variables (e.g., OH exposure, O3, HO2/OH) to controlling factors (e.g., water vapor, external reactivity, UV irradiation), 2) develop simplified OH exposure estimation equations, 3) investigate under what conditions non-OH chemistry may be important, and 4) help guide design of future experiments to avoid conditions with undesired chemistry for a wide range of conditions applicable to the ambient, laboratory, and source studies. Uncertainties in the model were quantified and modeled OH exposure was compared to tracer decay measurements of OH exposure in the lab and field. Laboratory studies using OFRs were conducted to explore aerosol yields and composition from anthropogenic and biogenic VOC as well as crude oil evaporates. Various aspects of the modeling and laboratory results and tools were applied to interpretation of ambient and source measurements using OFR. Additionally, novel measurement methods were used to study gas/particle partitioning. The research conducted was highly successful and details of the key results are summarized in this report through narrative text, figures, and a complete list of publications acknowledging this grant.

  11. [Implementation of the technical requirements of the UNE-EN-ISO 15189 quality standard in a mycobacterial laboratory].

    Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Ocete Mochón, M Dolores; Lahiguera, M José; Bresó, M Carmen; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2013-02-01

    The UNE-EN-ISO 15189:2007 standard defines the requirements for quality and competence that must be met by medical laboratories. These laboratories should use this international standard to develop their own quality management systems and to evaluate their own competencies; in turn, this standard will be used by accreditation bodies to confirm or recognize the laboratories' competence. In clinical microbiology laboratories, application of the standard implies the implementation of the technical and specific management requirements that must be met to achieve optimal quality when carrying out microbiological tests. In Spain, accreditation is granted by the Spanish Accreditation Body (Entidad Nacional de Acreditación). This review aims to discuss the practical application of the standard's technical requirements in mycobacterial laboratory. Firstly, we define the scope of accreditation. Secondly, we specify how the items of the standard on personnel management, control of equipment, environmental facilities, method validation, internal controls and customer satisfaction surveys were developed and implemented in our laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. The International Atomic Energy Agency circulation of laboratory air standards for stable isotope comparisons: Aims, preparation and preliminary results

    Allison, C.E.; Francey, R.J.; Steele, L.P.

    2002-01-01

    Ten air standards in high-pressure aluminium cylinders were prepared, covering a specified range of CO 2 concentration and δ 13 C and δ 18O isotopic composition, to be used for laboratory intercomparisons with the primary aim of merging global atmospheric CO 2 δ 13 C data sets. After establishing the stability of the standards, five were circulated between four laboratories with established high precision global monitoring networks to quantify differences between the measurement scales used in the laboratories. Measurements of CO 2 concentration in three of the four laboratories showed agreement to better than 0.2 ppm for the five standards. Measurements of N 2 O concentration reported by three of the laboratories agreed to better than 3 ppb after correction for known scaling factor differences, but a fourth laboratory reported results for two cylinders lower by about 20 ppb, contributing a δ 13 C uncertainty of about 0.012 per mille for these two cylinders. The reported measurements of the δ 13 C and δ 18O of CO 2 extracted from the air in the five standards showed large offsets between the laboratories of up to 0.1 per mille in δ 13 C and up to 1 per mille in δ 18O . Analysis of the results shows that about 40% of the offsets arises from differences in the procedures used in each laboratory to calculate the δ 13 C and δ 18 O values from the raw measurements and that the remainder arises from the pre-concentration step. Using one of the circulated standards to 'normalise' the others removes most of the inter-laboratory differences but there remains a non-linear response in one or more laboratories. The differences in δ 13 C that remain after normalisation are larger than the target precision of 0.01 per mille. (author)

  13. X radiation qualities characterization following the standard IEC 61267 recommendations at the calibration laboratory of IPEN

    Franciscatto, Priscila Cerutti

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a methodology for the X radiation qualities characterization following the new recommendations of the standard 61267 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) to establish a new procedure for calibration of dosimetric systems used in the field of diagnostic radiology. The reference qualities radiation of IEC 61267: RQR 2 to RQR 10, RQA 2 to RQA 10, RQB 2 to RQB 10 and RQN 2 to RQN 10 were implanted at the calibration laboratory of IPEN (LCI). Their characteristics were analyzed through measurements of beam parameters such as: Practical peak voltage (PPV), specific additional filtrations for each qualities (high purity aluminum of about 99.9%), 1st and 2nd Half Value Layers, homogeneity coefficient. The inherent filtration of the X ray tube was also determined. With the establishment of these radiation qualities, the LCI will be ready to calibrate the measuring instruments of radiation in the new qualities, allowing an improvement in radiological services offered by IPEN. (author)

  14. New measurements of G using the measurement standards laboratory torsion balance

    Armstrong, T.R.; Fitzgerald, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    This Letter presents the results of a series of measurements of the Newtonian gravitational constant G using the compensated torsion balance developed at the Measurement Standards Laboratory. Since our last published result using the torsion balance in the compensated mode of operation [Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 439 (1999)], several improvements have been made to reduce the uncertainty in the final result. The new measurements have used both stainless steel and copper large masses. The values of G for the two sets of masses are in good agreement. After combining all of the measurements we get a value of G=6.673 87(0.000 27)x10 -11 m 3 kg -1 s -2 . This new value is 5 parts in 10 5 smaller than our previous published values

  15. Laboratory and field temperature preference and avoidance data of fish related to the establishment of standards

    Stauffer, J.R.; Cherry, D.S.; Dickson, K.L.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Temperature preferences for important fish species in the New River in the vicinity of Appalachian Power Company's Glen Lyn, Virginia plant were determined independently by both field and laboratory studies. A relationship was demonstrated between the temperature preference data generated by the two approaches. Based on the temperature preference data the responses of fish to the thermal discharges can be predicted. From these data and from other data on the fish community structure, it was possible to determine that the thermal discharge was causing no appreciable harm to the fish community. Based on these studies it was concluded that the most reasonable approach to establishing thermal standards is to couple temperature preference studies with site specific studies. (U.S.)

  16. Microarray-based genotyping of Salmonella: Inter-laboratory evaluation of reproducibility and standardization potential

    Grønlund, Hugo Ahlm; Riber, Leise; Vigre, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial food-borne infections in humans caused by Salmonella spp. are considered a crucial food safety issue. Therefore, it is important for the risk assessments of Salmonella to consider the genomic variationamong different isolates in order to control pathogen-induced infections. Microarray...... critical methodology parameters that differed between the two labs were identified. These related to printing facilities, choice of hybridization buffer,wash buffers used following the hybridization and choice of procedure for purifying genomic DNA. Critical parameters were randomized in a four......DNA and different wash buffers. However, less agreement (Kappa=0.2–0.6) between microarray results were observed when using different hybridization buffers, indicating this parameter as being highly criticalwhen transferring a standard microarray assay between laboratories. In conclusion, this study indicates...

  17. Monte Carlo analysis of the Neutron Standards Laboratory of the CIEMAT

    Vega C, H. R.; Mendez V, R.; Guzman G, K. A.

    2014-10-01

    By means of Monte Carlo methods was characterized the neutrons field produced by calibration sources in the Neutron Standards Laboratory of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT). The laboratory has two neutron calibration sources: 241 AmBe and 252 Cf which are stored in a water pool and are placed on the calibration bench using controlled systems at distance. To characterize the neutrons field was built a three-dimensional model of the room where it was included the stainless steel bench, the irradiation table and the storage pool. The sources model included double encapsulated of steel, as cladding. With the purpose of determining the effect that produces the presence of the different components of the room, during the characterization the neutrons spectra, the total flow and the rapidity of environmental equivalent dose to 100 cm of the source were considered. The presence of the walls, floor and ceiling of the room is causing the most modification in the spectra and the integral values of the flow and the rapidity of environmental equivalent dose. (Author)

  18. The Role of the National Laboratory in Improving Secondary Science Education

    White,K.; Morris, M.; Stegman, M.

    2008-10-20

    While the role of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teachers in our education system is obvious, their role in our economic and national security system is less so. Our nation relies upon innovation and creativity applied in a way that generates new technologies for industry, health care, and the protection of our national assets and citizens. Often, it is our science teachers who generate the excitement that leads students to pursue science careers. While academia provides these teachers with the tools to educate, the rigors of a science and technology curriculum, coupled with the requisite teaching courses, often limit teacher exposure to an authentic research environment. As the single largest funding agency for the physical sciences, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science plays an important role in filling this void. For STEM teachers, the DOE Academies Creating Teacher Scientists program (ACTS) bridges the worlds of research and education. The ACTS program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), one of several across the country, exemplifies the value of this program for participating teachers. Outcomes of the work at BNL as evidenced by the balance of this report, include the following: (1) Teachers have developed long-term relationships with the Laboratory through participation in ongoing research, and this experience has both built enthusiasm for and enriched the content knowledge of the participants. (2) Teachers have modified the way they teach and are more likely to engage students in authentic research and include more inquiry-based activities. (3) Teachers have reported their students are more interested in becoming involved in science through classes, extra-curricular clubs, and community involvement. (4) Teachers have established leadership roles within their peer groups, both in their own districts and in the broader teaching community. National laboratories are making an important contribution to the

  19. Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone reaction with HVAC filters

    Destaillats, Hugo; Chen, Wenhao; Apte, Michael; Li, Nuan; Spears, Michael; Almosni, Jeremie; Zhang, Jianshun Jensen; Fisk, William J.

    2009-01-01

    We used Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional sampling methods to monitor and identify trace level organic pollutants formed in heterogeneous reactions between ozone and HVAC filters in real time. Experiments were carried out using a bench-scale flow tube reactor operating with dry air and humidified air (50% RH), at realistically high ozone concentrations (150 ppbv). We explored different filter media (i.e., fiberglass and cotton/polyester blends) and different particle loadings (i.e., clean filter and filters loaded with particles for 3 months at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Port of Oakland, CA). Detailed emission dynamics of very low levels of certain organic pollutants from filter media upon ozone exposure in the presence of moisture have been obtained and analyzed.

  20. Evaporation Kinetics of Laboratory Generated Secondary Organic Aerosols at Elevated Relative Humidity

    Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Imre, D.; Beranek, Josef; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2015-01-06

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) dominate atmospheric organic aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and health. Recent studies indicate that, contrary to previously held assumptions, at low relative humidity (RH) these particles are semi-solid and evaporate orders of magnitude slower than expected. Elevated relative humidity has the potential to affect significantly formation, properties, and atmospheric evolution of SOA particles. Here we present a study of the effect of RH on the room-temperature evaporation kinetics of SOA particles formed by ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene. Experiments were carried out on SOA particles generated, evaporated, and aged at 0%, 50% and 90% RH. We find that in all cases evaporation begins with a relatively fast phase, during which 30% to 70% of the particle mass evaporates in 2 hours, followed by a much slower evaporation rate. Evaporation kinetics at 0% and 50% RH are nearly the same, while at 90% RH a slightly larger fraction evaporates. In all cases, aging the particles prior to inducing evaporation reduces the evaporative losses, with aging at elevated RH leading to more significant effect. In all cases, SOA evaporation is nearly size-independent, providing direct evidence that oligomers play a crucial role in determining the evaporation kinetics.

  1. Standard Test Method for Calibration of Non-Concentrator Photovoltaic Secondary Reference Cells

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers calibration and characterization of secondary terrestrial photovoltaic reference cells to a desired reference spectral irradiance distribution. The recommended physical requirements for these reference cells are described in Specification E1040. Reference cells are principally used in the determination of the electrical performance of a photovoltaic device. 1.2 Secondary reference cells are calibrated indoors using simulated sunlight or outdoors in natural sunlight by reference to a primary reference cell previously calibrated to the same desired reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 Secondary reference cells calibrated according to this test method will have the same radiometric traceability as the of the primary reference cell used for the calibration. Therefore, if the primary reference cell is traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR, see Test Method E816), the resulting secondary reference cell will also be traceable to the WRR. 1.4 This test method appli...

  2. Secondary Aluminum National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Applicability Flowcharts

    This March 2003 document contains three diagrams that that are intended to assist you in determining whether you own or operate any equipment that is subject to the NESHAP for Secondary Aluminum Production Facilities.

  3. Advances in absorbed dose measurement standards at the australian radiation laboratory

    Boas, J.F.; Hargrave, N.J.; Huntley, R.B.; Kotler, L.H.; Webb, D.V.; Wise, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    The applications of ionising radiation in the medical and industrial fields require both an accurate knowledge of the amount of ionising radiation absorbed by the medium in question and the capability of relating this to National and International standards. The most useful measure of the amount of radiation is the absorbed dose which is defined as the energy absorbed per unit mass. For radiotherapy, the reference medium is water, even though the measurement of the absorbed dose to water is not straightforward. Two methods are commonly used to provide calibrations in absorbed dose to water. The first is the calibration of the chamber in terms of exposure in a Cobalt-60 beam, followed by the conversion by a protocol into dose to water in this and higher energy beams. The other route is via the use of a graphite calorimeter as a primary standard device, where the conversion from absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose in water is performed either by theoretical means making use of cavity ionisation theory, or by experiment where the graphite calorimeter and secondary standard ionisation chamber are placed at scaled distances from the source of the radiation beam (known as the Dose-Ratio method). Extensive measurements have been made at Cobalt-60 at ARL using both the exposure and absorbed dose to graphite routes. Agreement between the ARL measurements and those based on standards maintained by ANSTO and NPL is within ± 0.3%. Absorbed dose measurements have also been performed at ARL with photon beams of nominal energy 16 and 19 MeV obtained from the ARL linac. The validity of the protocols at high photon energies, the validity of the methods used to convert from absorbed dose in graphite to absorbed dose in water and the validity of the indices used to specify the beams are discussed. Brief mention will also be made of the establishment of a calibration facility for neutron monitors at ARL and of progress in the development of ERP dosimetry

  4. Bioassay Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  5. Use of secondary sewage water as a culture medium for Chaetoceros gracilis and Thalassiosira Sp (Chrysophyceae in laboratory conditions

    Rauquírio André Albuquerque Marinho da Costa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in order to test the efficiency of additions of secondary sewage as a culture medium for Chaetoceros gracilis and Thalassiosira sp (Chrysophyceae under laboratory conditions. These algae were cultivated in sea water with concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of wastewater. The results were compared with those obtained by the nutritive medium f2 of Guillard (1975. The best results in terms of cellular densities were observed at 40% additions. There were significant differences (significance levels of 5% between the nutritive medium f2 and the 40% additions for both the species. Maximum cellular densities observed for all additions tested were, 4,125.00 x 10³ cells/ml for Chaetoceros gracilis on the ninth day and 834.00 x 10³ cells/ml for Thalassiosira sp on the fifth day. Biomass was higher in the nutritive medium f2 than in the other treatments, reaching average values of 2,363μg/ml for Chaetoceros gracilis. At all experimental units, the best results were registered at 40% addition for Chaetoceros gracilis, where average values of 0.768μg/ml were observed on the fifth day, and at 30% additions for Thalassiosira sp where 0.883μg/ml were observed on the thirteenth day. It was concluded that secondary sewage could be used as a culture medium for the species tested here, after large scale tests.

  6. Standardization of 8-color flow cytometry across different flow cytometer instruments: A feasibility study in clinical laboratories in Switzerland.

    Glier, Hana; Heijnen, Ingmar; Hauwel, Mathieu; Dirks, Jan; Quarroz, Stéphane; Lehmann, Thomas; Rovo, Alicia; Arn, Kornelius; Matthes, Thomas; Hogan, Cassandra; Keller, Peter; Dudkiewicz, Ewa; Stüssi, Georg; Fernandez, Paula

    2017-07-29

    The EuroFlow Consortium developed a fully standardized flow cytometric approach from instrument settings, through antibody panel, reagents and sample preparation protocols, to data acquisition and analysis. The Swiss Cytometry Society (SCS) promoted a study to evaluate the feasibility of using such standardized measurements of 8-color data across two different flow cytometry platforms - Becton Dickinson (BD) FACSCanto II and Beckman Coulter (BC) Navios, aiming at increasing reproducibility and inter-laboratory comparability of immunophenotypic data in clinical laboratories in Switzerland. The study was performed in two phases, i.e. a learning phase (round 1) and an analytical phase (rounds 2 and 3) consisting of a total of three rounds. Overall, 10 laboratories using BD FACSCanto II (n=6) or BC Navios (n=4) flow cytometers participated. Each laboratory measured peripheral blood samples from healthy donors stained with a uniform antibody panel of reagents - EuroFlow Lymphoid Screening Tube (LST) - applying the EuroFlow standardized protocols for instrument setup and sample preparation (www.EuroFlow.org). All data files were analyzed centrally and median fluorescence intensity (MedFI) values for individual markers on defined lymphocyte subsets were recorded; variability from reference MedFI values was assessed using performance scores. Data troubleshooting and discussion of the results with the participants followed after each round at SCS meetings. The results of the learning phase demonstrated that standardized instrument setup and data acquisition are feasible in routine clinical laboratories without previous experience with EuroFlow. During the analytical phase, highly comparable data were obtained at the different laboratories using either BD FACSCanto II or BC Navios. The coefficient of variation of MedFI for 7 of 11 markers performed repeatedly below 30%. In the last study round, 89% of participants scored over 90% MedFI values within the acceptance criteria

  7. Characterization and qualification of diclofenac sodium as a secondary standard - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i1.11654

    Paulo Roberto Stoef

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to characterize and qualify a secondary standard of diclofenac sodium as a reference standard in the quality control of medicines. The identity of the candidate was confirmed through infrared spectroscopy and the content (99.63% determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC by comparing with the compendial primary standard. The quality of the secondary standard was also supported by redox titration in non-aqueous media, related substances and UV spectrum by HPLC. 

  8. Secondary calibration laboratory for dosimetry in levels of therapy at the University of Santiago

    Gomez Rodriguez, F.; Gonzalez Castano, D. M.; Pazos Alvarez, A.

    2011-01-01

    A basic inherent benefits provided by the existence of a traceability chain radiation in any application, add the legal requirement for hospitals as pointed to by the RO. 1566/1998, which sets quality standards in radiotherapy. The decree attributed to hospital specialists radio physics in article 10 the responsibility for determining the acceptance and initial reference state of radiation generating equipment for therapeutic purposes, and the establishment and implementation of quality control programs associated and technical and physical aspects of radiation dosimetry. Different international organizations such as ICRU and IAEA recommendations on maintaining the accuracy of the dose delivered to patients in general, should be placed at least 5% considering the whole chain irradiation. In order to achieve this purpose it is necessary to establish programs of quality control and calibration dosimetric regular basis. The protocol of the IAEA TRS398 recommended dose calibration in water because it is a quantity of interest closest to clinical use and allows a relative uncertainty in the calibration environment reduced to 1%.. (Author)

  9. Dosimetry through the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of Mexico; Dosimetria a traves del Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica de Mexico

    Tovar M, V.M.; Alvarez R, J.T.; Medina O, V.P.; Vergara M, F.; Anaya M, R.; Cejudo A, J.; Salinas L, B. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In the beginnings of the sixty years an urgent necessity is presented mainly in the developing countries, of improving in important form the accuracy in the dosimetry of external faces in therapy of radiations (radiotherapy centers), mainly in the calibration of ''clinical dosemeters''. In 1976 the International Atomic Energy Agency, (IAEA), and the World Health Organization, (WHO), they carried out a mutual agreement with regard to the establishment and operation of a net of Secondary Patron Laboratories of Dosimetry, (LSCD). The necessity to establish measure patterns in the field of the dosimetry of the ionizing radiations, is necessary, to have an accuracy but high in the dosimetry of the radiation beams in therapy which is highly dependent of the dose given to the tumor of those patient with cancer. Similar levels of accuracy are required in protection measures to the radiation with an acceptable smaller accuracy, however, when the personal dosemeters are used to determine the doses received by the individuals under work conditions, such mensurations in therapy of radiations and radiological protection will have traceability through a chain of comparisons to primary or national patterns. The traceability is necessary to assure the accuracy and acceptability of the dosimetric measures, as well as, the legal and economic implications. The traceability is also necessary in the dosimetry of high dose like in the sterilization of different products. The main function of the LSCD is to provide a service in metrology of ionizing radiations, maintaining the secondary or national patterns, which have a traceability to the International System of measures, which is based for if same in the comparison of patterns in the Primary Laboratories of Dosimetry (LPD) under the auspice of the International Office of Weights and Measure (BIPM). The secondary and national patterns in the LSCD constitute in Mexico, the national patterns of the magnitudes in the

  10. Sweat test for cystic fibrosis: Wearable sweat sensor vs. standard laboratory test.

    Choi, Dong-Hoon; Thaxton, Abigail; Jeong, In Cheol; Kim, Kain; Sosnay, Patrick R; Cutting, Garry R; Searson, Peter C

    2018-03-23

    Sweat chloride testing for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) involves sweat induction, collection and handling, and measurement in an analytical lab. We have developed a wearable sensor with an integrated salt bridge for real-time measurement of sweat chloride concentration. Here, in a proof-of-concept study, we compare the performance of the sensor to current clinical practice in CF patients and healthy subjects. Sweat was induced on both forearms of 10 individuals with CF and 10 healthy subjects using pilocarpine iontophoresis. A Macroduct sweat collection device was attached to one arm and sweat was collected for 30 min and then sent for laboratory analysis. A sensor was attached to the other arm and the chloride ion concentration monitored in real time for 30 min using a Bluetooth transceiver and smart phone app. Stable sweat chloride measurements were obtained within 15 min following sweat induction using the wearable sensor. We define the detection time as the time at which the standard deviation of the real-time chloride ion concentration remained below 2 mEq/L for 5 min. The sweat volume for sensor measurements at the detection time was 13.1 ± 11.4 μL (SD), in many cases lower than the minimum sweat volume of 15 μL for conventional testing. The mean difference between sweat chloride concentrations measured by the sensor and the conventional laboratory practice was 6.2 ± 9.5 mEq/L (SD), close to the arm-to-arm variation of about 3 mEq/L. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the two measurements was 0.97 highlighting the excellent agreement between the two methods. A wearable sensor can be used to make real-time measurements of sweat chloride within 15 min following sweat induction, requiring a small sweat volume, and with excellent agreement to standard methods. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN CLINICAL LABORATORIES ACCORDING TO THE ISO 15189:2007 STANDARD - EVALUATION OF THE BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTATION IN AN ASSISTED REPRODUCTION LABORATORY

    A.D. Sialakouma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical science is a sensitive discipline and presents unique challenges due to its social character, continuous development and competitiveness. The issue of quality management systems and accreditation is gaining increasing interest in this sector. All over Europe, Health Services Units have started to introduce quality management systems and harmonization of criteria for accreditation is of increasing importance. Moreover, clinical laboratories, like the Assisted Reproduction laboratories and biochemical laboratories are required to apply a Quality Management System in order to ensure their correct, scientific and effective operation. Ultimately, it is a moral obligation for every health care organisation to supply the best possible care for the patient. The specific features and the diversity of clinical laboratories led to the introduction (2003 and, recently to the revision (2007 of the international standard ISO 15189, which is the first international standard developed specifically to address the requirements for accreditation of this type of laboratory. The basic principles for the quality assurance in the clinical laboratories are: x Complete and unambiguous standardized operating procedures. x Complete and unambiguous directives of operation. x Obligatory detailed written documentation, i.e., how each action is done, who will do it, where will this action take place and when. x Suitable scheduling of calibration/control/preventive maintenance of laboratory equipment and recording of each activity. x Distribution of responsibilities among the staff and continuous education and briefing according to current scientific data. x Complete and informed record file keeping. x Continuous improvement which is monitored with the adoption of quantified indicators. x Internal and external audit of all activities. x Troubleshooting. All these principles should be supported by the Management in order that the necessary adaptations should be made

  12. School lunches v. packed lunches: a comparison of secondary schools in England following the introduction of compulsory school food standards.

    Stevens, Lesley; Nicholas, Jo; Wood, Lesley; Nelson, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To compare food choices and nutrient intakes of pupils taking a school lunch or a packed lunch in eighty secondary schools in England, following the introduction of the food-based and nutrient-based standards for school food. Cross-sectional data collected between October 2010 and April 2011. Pupils' lunchtime food choices were recorded over five consecutive days. Secondary schools, England. A random selection of 5925 pupils having school lunches and 1805 pupils having a packed lunch in a nationally representative sample of eighty secondary schools in England. The differences in the specific types of food and drink consumed by the two groups of pupils are typical of differences between a hot and cold meal. On average, school lunches as eaten contained significantly more energy, carbohydrate, protein, fibre, vitamin A, folate, Fe and Zn than packed lunches, and 8 % less Na. Although neither school lunches nor packed lunches provided the balance of nutrients required to meet the nutrient-based standards (based on about one-third of daily energy and nutrient requirements), school lunches generally had a healthier nutrient profile, with lower Na and percentage of energy from fat, and higher fibre and micronutrient content. These differences were greater than those reported prior to the introduction of compulsory standards for school lunches. In order to ensure more pupils have a healthy lunch, schools could introduce and enforce a packed lunch policy or make school meals the only option at lunchtime.

  13. Teacher-Reported Use of Empirically Validated and Standards-Based Instructional Approaches in Secondary Mathematics

    Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Maccini, Paula

    2007-01-01

    A random sample of 167 secondary special and general educators who taught math to students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and learning disabilities (LD) responded to a mail survey. The survey examined teacher perceptions of (a) definition of math; (b) familiarity with course topics; (c) effectiveness of methods courses; (d)…

  14. Upgrading the Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory Towards ISO/IEC 17025: Radiation Standards and Calibration in Diagnostic Radiology

    Asmaliza Hashim; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Norhayati Abdullah; Shahrul Azlan Azizan; Siti Sara Deraman; Nor Azlin Azraai; Md Khairusalih Md Zin

    2010-01-01

    Calibration of quality control (QC) test tools used in diagnostic radiology is legally required under the Ministry of Health (MOH) requirement. The Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory of the Malaysian Nuclear Agency is the national focal point for the calibration of quality control test tools used in diagnostic radiology. The Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory has measurement traceability to primary standard dosimetry laboratory (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)), thus providing an interface between the primary standard dosimetry laboratory and Malaysian hospitals, clinics and license class H holder. The Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory facility is comprised of a constant potential x-ray system with a capability of 160 kV tube and a series of reference and working standard ion chambers. The stability of reference and working standard ion chambers was measured using strontium-90. Dosimetric instruments used in diagnostic radiology is calibrated in terms of air kerma to comply with an International Code of Practices of dosimetry for example IAEA's Technical Report Series number 457. The new series of standard radiation qualities was established based on ISO/IEC 61267. The measurement of beam homogeneity was measured using film and ion chamber to define the field size at certain distance and kV output was measured using the spectrometer and non-invasive kVp meter. The uncertainties measurement was determined with expended uncertainties to a level of confidence of approximately 95% (coverage factor k=2). This paper describes the available facility and the effort of the Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory to upgrade the laboratory towards ISO/IEC 17025. (author)

  15. A Comprehensive Subcellular Proteomic Survey of Salmonella Grown under Phagosome-Mimicking versus Standard Laboratory Conditions

    Brown, Roslyn N.; Sanford, James A.; Park, Jea H.; Deatherage, Brooke L.; Champion, Boyd L.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2012-06-01

    Towards developing a systems-level pathobiological understanding of Salmonella enterica, we performed a subcellular proteomic analysis of this pathogen grown under standard laboratory and infection-mimicking conditions in vitro. Analysis of proteins from cytoplasmic, inner membrane, periplasmic, and outer membrane fractions yielded coverage of over 30% of the theoretical proteome. Confident subcellular location could be assigned to over 1000 proteins, with good agreement between experimentally observed location and predicted/known protein properties. Comparison of protein location under the different environmental conditions provided insight into dynamic protein localization and possible moonlighting (multiple function) activities. Notable examples of dynamic localization were the response regulators of two-component regulatory systems (e.g., ArcB, PhoQ). The DNA-binding protein Dps that is generally regarded as cytoplasmic was significantly enriched in the outer membrane for all growth conditions examined, suggestive of moonlighting activities. These observations imply the existence of unknown transport mechanisms and novel functions for a subset of Salmonella proteins. Overall, this work provides a catalog of experimentally verified subcellular protein location for Salmonella and a framework for further investigations using computational modeling.

  16. New Standards Require Teaching More Statistics: Are Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers Ready?

    Lovett, Jennifer N.; Lee, Hollylynne S.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics teacher education programs often need to respond to changing expectations and standards for K-12 curriculum and accreditation. New standards for high school mathematics in the United States include a strong emphasis in statistics. This article reports results from a mixed methods cross-institutional study examining the preparedness of…

  17. Calibration of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator for the new 10R Schott, Type 1+ vials

    Baker, M.

    2005-01-01

    For many years, P6 vials have been used for the distribution of a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic radioactive solutions. The activity measurements were performed in this geometry and, in time, the UK calibration system for nuclear medicine was based on this container as a standard. However, one major supplier of radiopharmaceuticals has replaced the P6 vial with the 10R Type 1+ Schott vial. As the dimensions of the new vial are different from those of the P6 vial and the responses of radionuclide calibrators are known to be container dependent, the need for re-calibration became apparent. Preliminary measurements made on some typical radionuclide calibrators for 125 I solution indicated a difference in response of about 10% between the two vials. The master ionisation chamber of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator has been re-calibrated and new calibration factors and volume correction factors for 10R Schott vials have been derived for the relevant medical radionuclides. The standard holder was also modified to accommodate the new larger vial. The complete list of factors and the method used to determine them is presented in this paper. The availability of these new factors will improve the quality of activity measurements in nuclear medicine, as calibration services can now be provided by NPL for the new container. These factors can also be employed for all commercial NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrators (now known as the NPL-CRC and previously as the 671 or ISOCAL IV)

  18. Secondary side IGA/IGSCC of SG alloys 600, 690 and 800 : R and D program in EDF Laboratories

    Vaillant, F.; DeBouvier, O.; Bouchacourt, M.; Stutzmann, A.; Lemaire, P.

    1998-01-01

    Many steam generators (SGs) equipped with 'mill-annealed' (MA) Alloy 600 tubings suffer significant secondary side corrosion. Until now, no degradation has been observed with either Alloy 600 TT or Alloy 690 for new SGs. The understanding of IGA/SCC of Alloy 600 MA in plants and the development of predictive models have become an important challenge to assess the life span and to reduce the maintenance costs of SGs. As degradation occurs in crevice environments which are varied and little known, EDF has undertaken an important program to improve the knowledge of crevice environments which lead to cracking. Corrosion tests are performed on Alloys 600 MA (also on 600 TT) in various environments in order to reproduce the deposits and the cracking observed on pulled tubes in laboratory conditions. Other corrosion tests are conducted in environments containing some pollutants identified by analyses of secondary water after hideout-return (sulfates) or oxidizing compounds : the influences of pH and potential are evaluated on Alloy 600 (MA or TT) and also on Alloys 690 and 800. A comprehensive model is proposed using IGA/SCC results of Alloy 600 in caustic environments. The thermomechanical parameters of the tubes and the field environmental conditions, introduced in the model, confirm some important features of SGs tubings. The model will be improved to include other detrimental environments. It will provide a useful tool to predict the life span (then steam generator replacements) and to optimize the maintenance policy of SGs still equipped with Alloys 600 MA and particularly with 600 TT (frequency and best locations of inspections). Margins will also be assessed for new SGs equipped with Alloy 690, and a comparison will be performed with Alloy 800. (author)

  19. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Record Number 673 (Naval Research Laboratories)

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinate by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  20. Model analysis of secondary organic aerosol formation by glyoxal in laboratory studies: the case for photoenhanced chemistry.

    Sumner, Andrew J; Woo, Joseph L; McNeill, V Faye

    2014-10-21

    The reactive uptake of glyoxal by atmospheric aerosols is believed to be a significant source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Several recent laboratory studies have been performed with the goal of characterizing this process, but questions remain regarding the effects of photochemistry on SOA growth. We applied GAMMA (McNeill et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 8075-8081), a photochemical box model with coupled gas-phase and detailed aqueous aerosol-phase chemistry, to simulate aerosol chamber studies of SOA formation by the uptake of glyoxal by wet aerosol under dark and irradiated conditions (Kroll et al. J. Geophys. Res. 2005, 110 (D23), 1-10; Volkamer et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2009, 9, 1907-1928; Galloway et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2009, 9, 3331- 306 3345 and Geophys. Res. Lett. 2011, 38, L17811). We find close agreement between simulated SOA growth and the results of experiments conducted under dark conditions using values of the effective Henry's Law constant of 1.3-5.5 × 10(7) M atm(-1). While irradiated conditions led to the production of some organic acids, organosulfates, and other oxidation products via well-established photochemical mechanisms, these additional product species contribute negligible aerosol mass compared to the dark uptake of glyoxal. Simulated results for irradiated experiments therefore fell short of the reported SOA mass yield by up to 92%. This suggests a significant light-dependent SOA formation mechanism that is not currently accounted for by known bulk photochemistry, consistent with recent laboratory observations of SOA production via photosensitizer chemistry.

  1. Standard guide for establishing a quality assurance program for analytical chemistry laboratories within the nuclear industry

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the establishment of a quality assurance (QA) program for analytical chemistry laboratories within the nuclear industry. Reference to key elements of ANSI/ISO/ASQC Q9001, Quality Systems, provides guidance to the functional aspects of analytical laboratory operation. When implemented as recommended, the practices presented in this guide will provide a comprehensive QA program for the laboratory. The practices are grouped by functions, which constitute the basic elements of a laboratory QA program. 1.2 The essential, basic elements of a laboratory QA program appear in the following order: Section Organization 5 Quality Assurance Program 6 Training and Qualification 7 Procedures 8 Laboratory Records 9 Control of Records 10 Control of Procurement 11 Control of Measuring Equipment and Materials 12 Control of Measurements 13 Deficiencies and Corrective Actions 14

  2. Standardization of a model to study revaccination against Marek's disease under laboratory conditions.

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Witter, Richard L; Cortes, Aneg L; Reddy, Sanjay M; Pandiri, Arun R

    2012-01-01

    Revaccination, the practice of administering Marek's disease (MD) vaccine a second time, has been used in commercial poultry flocks for many years. The rationale is largely anecdotal as the few published reports have failed to provide support for the value of the practice. In the present work, we have standardized a model to study MD revaccination under laboratory conditions. Nine bird experiments were conducted to evaluate homologous revaccination (same vaccine administered twice) and heterologous revaccination (administration of two different vaccines) with various challenge models. Our results demonstrated that heterologous revaccination (with a second vaccine more protective than the first vaccine) but not homologous revaccination provided a beneficial increase in protection. Administration of the first vaccine at 18 days of embryonation followed by a more protective second vaccine at hatch reproduced systematically the benefits of revaccination. In addition, our results show that revaccination protocols might aid in solving major drawbacks associated with various highly protective experimental MD vaccines; that is, lymphoid organ atrophy and residual virulence. Strain RM1 is one of the most protective vaccines against early challenge with highly virulent MD virus but it induces severe lymphoid atrophy in chickens lacking maternal antibodies against MD virus. In this study, strain RM1 did not induce lymphoid organ atrophy when administered as second vaccine in a revaccination protocol. Similarly, strain 648A100/BP5 maintains residual virulence in chickens lacking maternal antibodies against MD virus but did not induce any lesions when used as a second vaccine. Until now, arbitrary revaccination protocols have been occasionally proven useful to the poultry industry. The model developed in this study will allow for a better understanding of this phenomenon and its optimization. A more rational use of this practice will be of great help to control MD outbreaks

  3. Characterization of the storage pool of the Neutron Standards Laboratory of CIEMAT, using Monte Carlo techniques

    Campo B, X.; Mendez V, R.; Embid S, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Sanz G, J., E-mail: xandra.campo@ciemat.es [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, C. Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Neutron Standards Laboratory of CIEMAT in Spain is a brand new irradiation facility, with {sup 241}Am-Be (185 GBq) and {sup 252}Cf (5 GBq) calibrated neutron sources which are stored in a water pool with a concrete cover. From this storage place an automated system is able to take the selected source and place it in the irradiation position, 4 m over the ground level and in the geometrical center of the Irradiation Room with 9 m (length) x 7.5 m (width) x 8 m (height). For calibration or irradiation purposes, detectors or materials can be placed on a bench but it is possible to use the pool (1.0 m x 1.5 m and more than 1.0 m depth) for long time irradiations in thermal neutron fields. For this reason it is essential to characterize the pool itself in terms of neutron spectrum. In this document, the main features of this facility are presented and the characterization of the storage pool in terms of neutron fluence rate and neutron spectrum has been carried out using simulations with MCNPX-2.7.e code. The MCNPX-2.7.e model has been validated using experimental measurements outside the pool (Bert hold LB6411). Inside the pool, the fluence rate decreases and the spectra is thermalized with the distance to the {sup 252}Cf source. This source predominates and the effect of the {sup 241}Am-Be source in these magnitudes is not shown until positions closer than 20 cm from it. (author)

  4. Characterization of the storage pool of the Neutron Standards Laboratory of CIEMAT, using Monte Carlo techniques

    Campo B, X.; Mendez V, R.; Embid S, M.; Vega C, H. R.; Sanz G, J.

    2014-08-01

    Neutron Standards Laboratory of CIEMAT in Spain is a brand new irradiation facility, with 241 Am-Be (185 GBq) and 252 Cf (5 GBq) calibrated neutron sources which are stored in a water pool with a concrete cover. From this storage place an automated system is able to take the selected source and place it in the irradiation position, 4 m over the ground level and in the geometrical center of the Irradiation Room with 9 m (length) x 7.5 m (width) x 8 m (height). For calibration or irradiation purposes, detectors or materials can be placed on a bench but it is possible to use the pool (1.0 m x 1.5 m and more than 1.0 m depth) for long time irradiations in thermal neutron fields. For this reason it is essential to characterize the pool itself in terms of neutron spectrum. In this document, the main features of this facility are presented and the characterization of the storage pool in terms of neutron fluence rate and neutron spectrum has been carried out using simulations with MCNPX-2.7.e code. The MCNPX-2.7.e model has been validated using experimental measurements outside the pool (Bert hold LB6411). Inside the pool, the fluence rate decreases and the spectra is thermalized with the distance to the 252 Cf source. This source predominates and the effect of the 241 Am-Be source in these magnitudes is not shown until positions closer than 20 cm from it. (author)

  5. Laboratory Measurements on Charging of Individual Micron-Size Apollo-11 Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Observations made during Apollo missions, as well as theoretical models indicate that the lunar surface and dust grains are electrostatically charged, levitated and transported. Lunar dust grains are charged by UV photoelectric emissions on the lunar dayside and by the impact of the solar wind electrons on the nightside. The knowledge of charging properties of individual lunar dust grains is important for developing appropriate theoretical models and mitigating strategies. Currently, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size size lunar dust grains in particular by low energy electron impact. However, experimental results based on extensive laboratory measurements on the charging of individual 0.2-13 micron size lunar dust grains by the secondary electron emissions (SEE) have been presented in a recent publication. The SEE process of charging of micron-size dust grains, however, is found to be very complex phenomena with strong particle size dependence. In this paper we present some examples of the complex nature of the SEE properties of positively charged individual lunar dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB), and show that they remain unaffected by the variation of the AC field employed in the above mentioned measurements.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories Facilities Management and Operations Center Design Standards Manual

    Peterson, Timothy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico (SNL/NM), the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities is guided by industry standards, a graded approach, and the systematic analysis of life cycle benefits received for costs incurred. The design of the physical plant must ensure that the facilities are "fit for use," and provide conditions that effectively, efficiently, and safely support current and future mission needs. In addition, SNL/NM applies sustainable design principles, using an integrated whole-building design approach, from site planning to facility design, construction, and operation to ensure building resource efficiency and the health and productivity of occupants. The safety and health of the workforce and the public, any possible effects on the environment, and compliance with building codes take precedence over project issues, such as performance, cost, and schedule. These design standards generally apply to all disciplines on all SNL/NM projects. Architectural and engineering design must be both functional and cost-effective. Facility design must be tailored to fit its intended function, while emphasizing low-maintenance, energy-efficient, and energy-conscious design. Design facilities that can be maintained easily, with readily accessible equipment areas, low maintenance, and quality systems. To promote an orderly and efficient appearance, architectural features of new facilities must complement and enhance the existing architecture at the site. As an Architectural and Engineering (A/E) professional, you must advise the Project Manager when this approach is prohibitively expensive. You are encouraged to use professional judgment and ingenuity to produce a coordinated interdisciplinary design that is cost-effective, easily contractible or buildable, high-performing, aesthetically pleasing, and compliant with applicable building codes. Close coordination and development of civil, landscape, structural, architectural, fire

  7. The 1993 QUASIMEME laboratory-performance study: chlorobiphenyls in fish oil and standard solutions

    Wells, D.E.; Boer, de J.

    1994-01-01

    A laboratory-performance study has been undertaken to improve the measurement of chlorobiphenyls in marine biota as part of the QUASIMEME (EU - Measurement and Testing) project. Fifty-two laboratories were invited to participate, of which 47 returned data on nine congeners in iso-octane solution and

  8. Laboratory diagnosis of creatine deficiency syndromes: a technical standard and guideline of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.

    Sharer, J Daniel; Bodamer, Olaf; Longo, Nicola; Tortorelli, Silvia; Wamelink, Mirjam M C; Young, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    Disclaimer: These ACMG Standards and Guidelines are intended as an educational resource for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to these standards and guidelines is voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. These Standards and Guidelines should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of others that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, clinical laboratory geneticists should apply their professional judgment to the specific circumstances presented by the patient or specimen. Clinical laboratory geneticists are encouraged to document in the patient's record the rationale for the use of a particular procedure or test, whether or not it is in conformance with these Standards and Guidelines. They also are advised to take notice of the date any particular guideline was adopted, and to consider other relevant medical and scientific information that becomes available after that date. It also would be prudent to consider whether intellectual property interests may restrict the performance of certain tests and other procedures.Cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes are neurometabolic conditions characterized by intellectual disability, seizures, speech delay, and behavioral abnormalities. Several laboratory methods are available for preliminary and confirmatory diagnosis of these conditions, including measurement of creatine and related metabolites in biofluids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, enzyme activity assays in cultured cells, and DNA sequence analysis. These guidelines are intended to standardize these procedures to help optimize the diagnosis of creatine deficiency syndromes. While biochemical methods are emphasized, considerations for confirmatory molecular testing are also discussed

  9. Assessment of three medical and research laboratories using WHO AFRO_SLIPTA Quality Standards in Southwestern Uganda: a long way to go.

    Taremwa, Ivan Mugisha; Ampaire, Lucas; Iramiot, Jacob; Muhwezi, Obed; Matte, Aloysius; Itabangi, Herbert; Mbabazi, Hope; Atwebembeire, Jeninah; Kamwine, Monicah; Katawera, Victoria; Mbalibulha, Yona; Orikiriza, Patrick; Boum, Yap

    2017-01-01

    While the laboratory represents more than 70% of clinical diagnosis and patient management, access to reliable and quality laboratory diagnostics in sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge. To gain knowledge and suggest evidence based interventions towards laboratory improvement in Southwestern Uganda, we assessed the baseline laboratory quality standards in three medical and research laboratories in Southwestern Uganda. We conducted a cross sectional survey from October, 2013 to April, 2014. Selected laboratories, including one private research, one private for profit and one public laboratory, were assessed using the WHO AFRO_SLIPTA checklist and baseline scores were determined. The three laboratories assessed met basic facility requirements, had trained personnel, and safety measures in place. Sample reception was properly designed and executed with a well designated chain of custody. All laboratories had sufficient equipment for the nature of work they were involved in. However, we found that standard operating procedures were incomplete in all three laboratories, lack of quality audit schemes by two laboratories and only one laboratory enrolled into external quality assurance schemes. The SLIPTA scores were one star for the research laboratory and no star for both the public and private-for-profit laboratories. While most of the laboratory systems were in place, the low scores obtained by the assessed laboratories reflect the need for improvement to reach standards of quality assured diagnostics in the region. Therefore, routine mentorship and regional supportive supervision are necessary to increase the quality of laboratory services.

  10. Standardization of Lower Secondary Civic Education and Inequality of the Civic and Political Engagement of Students

    Witschge, Jacqueline; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the relation between the standardization of civic education and the inequality of civic engagement is examined. Using data from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2009 among early adolescents and Eurydice country-level data, three-level analysis and variance function regression are applied to examine whether…

  11. Critical Review of Commercial Secondary Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Standards

    Jones, Harry P.; Chapin, Thomas, J.; Tabaddor, Mahmod

    2010-09-01

    The development of Li-ion cells with greater energy density has lead to safety concerns that must be carefully assessed as Li-ion cells power a wide range of products from consumer electronics to electric vehicles to space applications. Documented field failures and product recalls for Li-ion cells, mostly for consumer electronic products, highlight the risk of fire, smoke, and even explosion. These failures have been attributed to the occurrence of internal short circuits and the subsequent thermal runaway that can lead to fire and explosion. As packaging for some applications include a large number of cells, the risk of failure is likely to be magnified. To address concerns about the safety of battery powered products, safety standards have been developed. This paper provides a review of various international safety standards specific to lithium-ion cells. This paper shows that though the standards are harmonized on a host of abuse conditions, most lack a test simulating internal short circuits. This paper describes some efforts to introduce internal short circuit tests into safety standards.

  12. 77 FR 555 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting

    2012-01-05

    ... 331492 0205 \\a\\ North American Industry Classification System. \\b\\ Maximum Achievable Control Technology... protective. NRDC v. EPA, 529 F.3d 1077, 1083 (DC Cir. 2008). On May 19, 2011, the EPA published a proposed... dioxin formation. Finalizing work practice standards for mercury. Revising the requirements in the NESHAP...

  13. Student Perceptions of Chemistry Laboratory Learning Environments, Student-Teacher Interactions and Attitudes in Secondary School Gifted Education Classes in Singapore

    Lang, Quek Choon; Wong, Angela F. L.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the chemistry laboratory classroom environment, teacher-student interactions and student attitudes towards chemistry among 497 gifted and non-gifted secondary-school students in Singapore. The data were collected using the 35-item Chemistry Laboratory Environment Inventory (CLEI), the 48-item Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) and the 30-item Questionnaire on Chemistry-Related Attitudes (QOCRA). Results supported the validity and reliability of the CLEI and QTI for this sample. Stream (gifted versus non-gifted) and gender differences were found in actual and preferred chemistry laboratory classroom environments and teacher-student interactions. Some statistically significant associations of modest magnitude were found between students' attitudes towards chemistry and both the laboratory classroom environment and the interpersonal behaviour of chemistry teachers. Suggestions for improving chemistry laboratory classroom environments and the teacher-student interactions for gifted students are provided.

  14. Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust: Effects of Engine Technology, Cold Start, and Emission Certification Standard.

    Zhao, Yunliang; Lambe, Andrew T; Saleh, Rawad; Saliba, Georges; Robinson, Allen L

    2018-02-06

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from dilute exhaust from 16 gasoline vehicles was investigated using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) oxidation flow reactor during chassis dynamometer testing using the cold-start unified cycle (UC). Ten vehicles were equipped with gasoline direct injection engines (GDI vehicles) and six with port fuel injection engines (PFI vehicles) certified to a wide range of emissions standards. We measured similar SOA production from GDI and PFI vehicles certified to the same emissions standard; less SOA production from vehicles certified to stricter emissions standards; and, after accounting for differences in gas-particle partitioning, similar effective SOA yields across different engine technologies and certification standards. Therefore the ongoing, dramatic shift from PFI to GDI vehicles in the United States should not alter the contribution of gasoline vehicles to ambient SOA and the natural replacement of older vehicles with newer ones certified to stricter emissions standards should reduce atmospheric SOA levels. Compared to hot operations, cold-start exhaust had lower effective SOA yields, but still contributed more SOA overall because of substantially higher organic gas emissions. We demonstrate that the PAM reactor can be used as a screening tool for vehicle SOA production by carefully accounting for the effects of the large variations in emission rates.

  15. Establishing the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory in accordance with ISO/IEC 17025:2005 standard

    Nguyen Thi Hong Thinh; Ha Lan Anh; Vo Thi Anh; Dinh Thi Bich Lieu; Vo Thi Tuong Hanh

    2013-01-01

    The ISO/IEC 17025:2005 General requirements for the competence calibration laboratories is basis for the accreditation body of the country in general and VILAS in particular recognizing the competence of laboratories. With the desire to prove that we have sufficient technical , management capacity , and the ability to provide the legally recognized and technically valuable test results, the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory have developed a quality management system in accordance with ISO / IEC 17025:2005, in which the laboratory quality manual has been developed. It describes the laboratory management system , scope of activities related to quality assurance of 13 major ions and tritium content measurement services in water samples. Under quality management system, there are management and technical procedures, analysis procedures, work instructions, technical documentation, file and form system. These documents define the roles, responsibilities, powers, detailed instructions for applying and maintaining effective quality management system. Isotope Hydrology Laboratory received a certificate of accreditation issued by Bureau of Accreditation which recognized the laboratory in accordance with ISO 17025:2005 with VILAS 670 accreditation code. Scope of recognition is analyzed 14 parameters: F - , Cl - , NO 2 - , NO 3 - , Br - , PO 4 3- , SO 4 2- , Li + , Na + , NH 4 + , K + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and 3 H in water by ion chromatography and liquid scintillator counting method. (author)

  16. Los Alamos National Laboratory new generation standard nuclear material storage container - the SAVY4000 design

    Stone, Timothy Amos

    2010-01-01

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based standard involving storage of nuclear material (RD003). This RD003 requirements document has sense been updated to reflect requirements as identified with recently issued DOE M 441.1-1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual'. The new packaging manual was issued at the encouragement of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board with a clear directive for protecting the worker from exposure due to loss of containment of stored materials. The Manual specifies a detailed and all inclusive approach to achieve a high level of protection; from package design and performance requirements, design life determinations of limited life components, authorized contents evaluations, and surveillance/maintenance to ensure in use package integrity over time. Materials in scope involve those stored outside an approved engineered-contamination barrier that would result in a worker exposure of in excess of 5 rem Committed Effective Does Equivalent (CEDE). Key aspects of meeting the challenge as developed around the SAVY-3000 vented storage container design will be discussed. Design performance and acceptance criteria against the manual, bounding conditions as established that the user must ensure are met to authorize contents in the package (based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide), interface as a safety class system within the facility under the LANL plutonium facility DSA, design life determinations for limited life components, and a sense of design specific surveillance program

  17. How to achieve ultrasound-guided femoral venous access: the new standard of care in the electrophysiology laboratory.

    Wiles, Benedict M; Child, Nicholas; Roberts, Paul R

    2017-06-01

    Bedside vascular ultrasound machines are increasingly available. They are used to facilitate safer vascular access across a number of different specialties. In the electrophysiology laboratory however, where patients are frequently anticoagulated and require the insertion of multiple venous sheaths, anatomical landmark techniques predominate. Despite the high number of vascular complications associated with electrophysiological procedures and the increasing evidence to support its use in electrophysiology, ultrasound remains underutilised. A new standard of care is required. A comprehensive technical report, providing a detailed explanation of this important technique, will provide other electrophysiology centres with the knowledge and justification for adopting ultrasound guidance as their standard practice. We review the increasing body of evidence which demonstrates that routine ultrasound usage can substantially improve the safety of femoral venous access in the electrophysiology laboratory. We offer a comprehensive technical report to guide operators through the process of ultrasound-guided venous access, with a specific focus on the electrophysiology laboratory. Additionally, we detail a novel technique which utilises real-time colour Doppler ultrasound to accurately identify needle tip location during venous puncture. The use of vascular ultrasound to guide femoral venous cannulation is rapid, inexpensive and easily learnt. Ultrasound is readily available and offers the potential to significantly reduce vascular complications in the unique setting of the electrophysiology laboratory. Ultrasound guidance to achieve femoral venous access should be the new standard of care in electrophysiology.

  18. [Standardization in laboratory hematology by participating in external quality assurance programs].

    Nazor, Aida; Siftar, Zoran; Flegar-Mestrić, Zlata

    2011-09-01

    Since 1985, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Merkur University Hospital, Zagreb, has been participating in the International External Quality Assessment Scheme for Hematology (IEQAS-H) organized by the World Health Organization (WHO). Owing to very good results, in 1987 the Department received a certificate of participation in this control scheme. Department has been cooperating in the external quality assessment program in laboratory hematology which has been continuously performed in Croatia since 1986 by the Committee for External Quality Assessment Schemes under the auspices of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemists and School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb. Nowadays, 186 medical biochemical laboratories are included in the National External Quality Assessment program, which is performed three times per year. Our Department has participated in the international projects of the European Committee for External Quality Assurance Programs in Laboratory Medicine (EQALM).

  19. Time and Frequency Activities at the Lithuanian National Time Standard Laboratory

    Miskinis, Rimantas

    2007-01-01

    ...), the Datum 2001 and SyncServer S250 NTP servers are used. Laboratory activities on coordination of the BALTICTIME project Reinforcing e-Government services in Baltic States through legal and accountable Digital Time Stamps...

  20. Exploitation of secondary standard for calibration in units of Dw,1cm and assessment of several HDR brachytherapy planning systems

    Gabris, F.; Zeman, J.; Valenta, J.; Gabris, F.; Selbach, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    A secondary standard of the BEV, calibrated at the PTB in terms of D w,1c m, was used for calibration of the well-type chamber-based measuring systems used in clinics. In addition to the calibration, we tried to employ it for assessment of treatment planning systems (TPS) used for each particular after-loader. The dose to water at 1 cm distance from the source position was calculated by the TPS, using reference data from the source producer certificate. The values were compared directly with the dose measured at the same distance from the source. The comparison has been carried out for GammaMed Plus and MicroSelectron HDR sources. Differences of secondary standard measurements and TPS calculations were lower than ±5%, which is below the achievable uncertainty of both dose measurement and dose determination by the TPS. Nevertheless, it is higher than generally accepted in the case of external beam radiotherapy. Additional direct measurements in terms of D w,1c m may improve the safety and reliability of patient treatment. (authors)

  1. Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

    British Standards Institution. London

    1998-01-01

    Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

  2. New way of demonstrating the competence of a laboratory measuring radionuclides - The international draft standard ISO/IEC DIS 17025

    Palsson, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest, and even need, amongst laboratories performing measurements of radionuclides to obtain accreditation. It has been discussed how this could be achieved with maximum flexibility for the laboratories and with minimum effort. The issuing of a new draft international standard, the ISO/IEC DIS 17025, created speculations whether it could offer a new and better way for laboratories to obtain accreditation. It was decided within the NKS/BOK-1.1 project to explore possible options for obtaining accreditation and what possibilities the new standard could offer. The benefits of computerised document control systems were also explored. The results were reported at the 12th Annual Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, 23-27 August 1999. Since then the final version of the standard has been published. The voting will continue until November 16th 1999 and is not clear at present whether the standard will be accepted or not. The original version of this paper was updated to reflect these recent developments. (au)

  3. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry

    Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joel, E-mail: jsavarino@lgge.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LGGE, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-06-28

    Post-depositional processes alter nitrate concentration and nitrate isotopic composition in the top layers of snow at sites with low snow accumulation rates, such as Dome C, Antarctica. Available nitrate ice core records can provide input for studying past atmospheres and climate if such processes are understood. It has been shown that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack plays a major role in nitrate loss and that the photolysis products have a significant influence on the local troposphere as well as on other species in the snow. Reported quantum yields for the main reaction spans orders of magnitude – apparently a result of whether nitrate is located at the air-ice interface or in the ice matrix – constituting the largest uncertainty in models of snowpack NO{sub x} emissions. Here, a laboratory study is presented that uses snow from Dome C and minimizes effects of desorption and recombination by flushing the snow during irradiation with UV light. A selection of UV filters allowed examination of the effects of the 200 and 305 nm absorption bands of nitrate. Nitrate concentration and photon flux were measured in the snow. The quantum yield for loss of nitrate was observed to decrease from 0.44 to 0.003 within what corresponds to days of UV exposure in Antarctica. The superposition of photolysis in two photochemical domains of nitrate in snow is proposed: one of photolabile nitrate, and one of buried nitrate. The difference lies in the ability of reaction products to escape the snow crystal, versus undergoing secondary (recombination) chemistry. Modeled NO{sub x} emissions may increase significantly above measured values due to the observed quantum yield in this study. The apparent quantum yield in the 200 nm band was found to be ∼1%, much lower than reported for aqueous chemistry. A companion paper presents an analysis of the change in isotopic composition of snowpack nitrate based on the same samples as in this study.

  4. From Topos to Oikos: The Standardization of Glass Containers as Epistemic Boundaries in Modern Laboratory Research (1850-1900).

    Espahangizi, Kijan

    2015-09-01

    Glass vessels such as flasks and test tubes play an ambiguous role in the historiography of modern laboratory research. In spite of the strong focus on the role of materiality in the last decades, the scientific glass vessel - while being symbolically omnipresent - has remained curiously neglected in regard to its materiality. The popular image or topos of the transparent, neutral, and quasi-immaterial glass container obstructs the view of the physico-chemical functionality of this constitutive inner boundary in modern laboratory environments and its material historicity. In order to understand how glass vessels were able to provide a stable epistemic containment of spatially enclosed experimental phenomena in the new laboratory ecologies emerging in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, I will focus on the history of the material standardization of laboratory glassware. I will follow the rise of a new awareness for measurement errors due to the chemical agency of experimental glass vessels, then I will sketch the emergence of a whole techno-scientific infrastructure for the improvement of glass container quality in late nineteenth-century Germany. In the last part of my argument, I will return to the laboratory by looking at the implementation of this glass reform that created a new oikos for the inner experimental milieus of modern laboratory research.

  5. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared 11: Comparison of (alpha) Boo and 1 Ceres with a Laboratory Standard

    Witteborn, Fred C.; Cohen, Martin; Bregman, Jess D.; Wooden, Diane; Heere, Karen; Shirley, Eric L.

    1998-01-01

    Infrared spectra of two celestial objects frequently used as flux standards are calibrated against an absolute laboratory flux standard at a spectral resolving power of 100 to 200. The spectrum of the K1.5III star, alpha Boo, is measured from 3 microns to 30 microns and that of the C-type asteroid, 1 Ceres, from 5 microns to 30 microns. While these 'standard' spectra do not have the apparent precision of those based on calculated models, they do not require the assumptions involved in theoretical models of stars and asteroids. Specifically they provide a model-independent means of calibrating celestial flux in the spectral range from 12 microns to 30 microns where accurate absolute photometry is not available. The agreement found between the spectral shapes of alpha Boo and Ceres based on laboratory standards, and those based on observed ratios to alpha CMa (Sirius) and alpha Lyr (Vega), flux calibrated by theoretical modeling of these hot stars strengthens our confidence in the applicability of the stellar models as primary irradiance standards.

  6. Standard testing procedures for optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair at Sandia National Laboratories

    Adams, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    This document will establish a working standard for testing optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair cables included in the Lab-wide telecommunications cabling system. The purpose of these standard testing procedures is to deliver to all Sandians a reliable, low-maintenance, state-of-the-art, ubiquitous telecommunications cabling infrastructure capable of satisfying all current and future telecommunication needs.

  7. Liquid scintillation systems and apparatus for measuring high-energy radiation emitted by samples in standard laboratory test tubes

    Benvenutti, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Liquid scintillation detection system employs improved sample holders in which the cap of a glass vial is provided with a well for receiving a standard laboratory test tube containing a radioactive sample. The well is immersed in a liquid scintillator in the vial, the scintillator containing lead acetate solution to enhance its efficiency. A commercially available beta-counting liquid scintillation apparatus is modified to provide gamma-counting with the improved sample holders

  8. Establishment and intra-/inter-laboratory validation of a standard protocol of reactive oxygen species assay for chemical photosafety evaluation.

    Onoue, Satomi; Hosoi, Kazuhiro; Wakuri, Shinobu; Iwase, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Toshinobu; Matsuoka, Naoko; Nakamura, Kazuichi; Toda, Tsuguto; Takagi, Hironori; Osaki, Naoto; Matsumoto, Yasuhiro; Kawakami, Satoru; Seto, Yoshiki; Kato, Masashi; Yamada, Shizuo; Ohno, Yasuo; Kojima, Hajime

    2013-11-01

    A reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay was previously developed for photosafety evaluation of pharmaceuticals, and the present multi-center study aimed to establish and validate a standard protocol for ROS assay. In three participating laboratories, two standards and 42 coded chemicals, including 23 phototoxins and 19 nonphototoxic drugs/chemicals, were assessed by the ROS assay according to the standardized protocol. Most phototoxins tended to generate singlet oxygen and/or superoxide under UV-vis exposure, but nonphototoxic chemicals were less photoreactive. In the ROS assay on quinine (200 µm), a typical phototoxic drug, the intra- and inter-day precisions (coefficient of variation; CV) were found to be 1.5-7.4% and 1.7-9.3%, respectively. The inter-laboratory CV for quinine averaged 15.4% for singlet oxygen and 17.0% for superoxide. The ROS assay on 42 coded chemicals (200 µm) provided no false negative predictions upon previously defined criteria as compared with the in vitro/in vivo phototoxicity, although several false positives appeared. Outcomes from the validation study were indicative of satisfactory transferability, intra- and inter-laboratory variability, and predictive capacity of the ROS assay. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Standard methods for maintaining adult Apis mellifera in cages under in vitro laboratory conditions

    Williams, G.R.; Alaux, C.; Costa, C.; Csaki, C.; Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Adult honey bees are maintained in vitro in laboratory cages for a variety of purposes. For example, researchers may wish to perform experiments on honey bees caged individually or in groups to study aspects of parasitology, toxicology, or physiology under highly controlled conditions, or they may

  10. 42 CFR 493.1406 - Standard; Laboratory director qualifications on or before February 28, 1992.

    2010-10-01

    ... Medical Microbiology, the American Board of Clinical Chemistry, the American Board of Bioanalysis, or... exists; and (b) The laboratory director must: (1) Be a physician certified in anatomical or clinical... biological science as a major subject and (i) Is certified by the American Board of Medical Microbiology, the...

  11. Cellular Cultivation: Growing HeLa Cells Using Standard High School Laboratory Equipment.

    Woloschak, Gayle; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes experiments to culture cells in a laboratory that provide students with hands-on experience in manipulating cells and a chance to observe cell growth characteristics first hand. Exposes students to sterile technique, cell culture, cell growth concepts, and eukaryotic cell structure. (JRH)

  12. 46 CFR 159.010-3 - Independent laboratory: Standards for acceptance.

    2010-10-01

    ... engaged, as a regular part of its business, in performing inspections and tests that are the same as or... manufacturer; (4) Not be dependent on Coast Guard acceptance under this subchapter to remain in business; and (5) Not advertise or promote the manufacturer's equipment or material that the laboratory inspects...

  13. Study of the Metrological Characteristics of the FBX Dosimeter in the Photon Beam using a Secondary Standard

    Moussous, O.; Yahiche, K.; Medjadj, T.

    2008-01-01

    The metrological characteristics of the dosimetric system containing 0.20 m M ferrous ammonium sulphate, 5.0 m M benzoic acid and 0.20 m M xyelenol orange in 0.05 N sulphuric acid. (FBX dosimeter) was investigated. The wavelength and absorbance linearity calibration of the spectrophotometer were checked using NBS Standard Reference Material. The molar absorption coefficient ε of the dosimeter solution was determined using carefully prepared standard solution. The G-value for the ferric-xylenol orange complex when this dosimeter is exposed in air to gamma radiation was determined using a secondary standard (ionization chamber). The dosimetric solutions could be stored for about 2 weeks before irradiations and up to 2 days after irradiations without any significant error in dose estimations. The linearity of the absorbed dose with the increases in absorbance of the dosimeter solution has been checked. For this purpose, the dosimeter solutions were irradiated to a series of different absorbed doses (3 to 11 Gy). The quality data, as judged from the correlation coefficient, demonstrate that the curve is linear in the range investigated. The stability and reproducibility of response are such that this system should be used to measure the low doses. The reproducibility allowed us to determine the lower detection limit of the FBX dosimeter, which is around 5 Gy

  14. Implementation of the OECD principles of good laboratory practice in test facilities complying with a quality system accredited to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard.

    Feller, Etty

    2008-01-01

    Laboratories with a quality system accredited to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard have a definite advantage, compared to non-accredited laboratories, when preparing their facilities for the implementation of the principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Accredited laboratories have an established quality system covering the administrative and technical issues specified in the standard. The similarities and differences between the ISO/IEC 17025 standard and the OECD principles of GLP are compared and discussed.

  15. From laboratory to the sky: Th-Ar wavelength standards for the cryogenic infrared echelle spectrograph (CRIRES)

    Kerber, Florian; Bristow, Paul [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nave, Gillian; Sansonetti, Craig J [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)], E-mail: fkerber@eso.org, E-mail: gillian.nave@nist.gov, E-mail: craig.sansonetti@nist.gov, E-mail: bristowp@eso.org

    2009-05-15

    We report on the collaborative effort of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to establish-through laboratory measurements-wavelength standards in the near-infrared (IR) emission line spectrum of a low current Th-Ar hollow cathode lamp. These standards are now routinely used for the wavelength calibration of the cryogenic infrared echelle spectrograph (CRIRES) operated at one of the unit telescopes of the very large telescope (VLT) at ESO's La Silla Paranal Observatory in Chile. The availability of highly accurate wavelength standards from a commercially available calibration source permits a shift to a new operational paradigm for high-resolution IR spectroscopy. Wavelength calibration no longer has to rely on atmospheric features but can make use of laboratory traceable reference data as is normally done in the ultraviolet and visible regions. This opens the door for more quantitative spectroscopic work in the near-IR. To illustrate the potential impact of this development, we briefly review the current state of affairs in IR astronomy and its projected future. With the advent of the next generation of extremely large ground-based telescopes the IR region will become the most powerful window on the universe within the next 10-15 years. We conclude with a short outlook on the contribution atomic physics can make to this evolution.

  16. Standard test method for laboratory evaluation of magnesium sacrificial anode test specimens for underground applications

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure that measures the two fundamental performance properties of magnesium sacrificial anode test specimens operating in a saturated calcium sulfate, saturated magnesium hydroxide environment. The two fundamental properties are electrode (oxidation potential) and ampere hours (Ah) obtained per unit mass of specimen consumed. Magnesium anodes installed underground are usually surrounded by a backfill material that typically consists of 75 % gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), 20 % bentonite clay, and 5 % sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The calcium sulfate, magnesium hydroxide test electrolyte simulates the long term environment around an anode installed in the gypsum-bentonite-sodium sulfate backfill. 1.2 This test method is intended to be used for quality assurance by anode manufacturers or anode users. However, long term field performance properties may not be identical to property measurements obtained using this laboratory test. Note 1—Refer to Terminology G 15 for terms used ...

  17. Use of standard laboratory methods to obviate routine dithiothreitol treatment of blood samples with daratumumab interference.

    Lintel, Nicholas J; Brown, Debra K; Schafer, Diane T; Tsimba-Chitsva, Farai M; Koepsell, Scott A; Shunkwiler, Sara M

    2017-01-01

    Daratumumab is an antibody currently used in the treatment of patients with refractory multiple myeloma. Blood samples from patients being treated with daratumumab may show panreactivity during pre-transfusion testing. To facilitate the provision of blood components for such patients, it is recommended that a baseline phenotype or genotype be established prior to starting treatment with daratumumab. If patient red blood cells (RBCs) require phenotyping after the start of daratumumab treatment, dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment of the patient's RBCs should be performed. The medical charts of four patients treated with daratumumab were reviewed. The individual number of doses ranged from 1 to 14; patient age ranged from 55 to 78 years; two men and two women were included in the review. Type and screen data were obtained from samples collected over 33 encounters with a range of 1 to 13 encounters per patient. All samples were tested initially by automated solid-phase testing. Any reactivity with solid phase led to tube testing with either low-ionic-strength saline, polyethylene glycol, or both. If incubation failed to eliminate the reactivity, the sample was sent to a reference laboratory for DTT treatment and phenotyping. Of the 33 samples tested, 23 (69.7%) samples had reactivity in solid-phase testing. In 8 of the 10 samples that did not react in solid-phase, testing was conducted more than four half-lives after the last dose of daratumumab. Of the 23 that had reactivity in solid-phase, 16 (69.6%) samples demonstrated loss of reactivity using common laboratory methods. For the seven patients whose sample reactivity was not initially eliminated, six were provided with phenotypically matched blood based on prior molecular testing. Only one sample was sent out for DTT treatment. These results suggest that daratumumab interference with pre-transfusion testing can be addressed using common laboratory methods. This finding could save time and money for laboratories that do

  18. Quality control of the NPL-CRC secondary standard system used for activimeters calibration at IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil;Ccontrole de qualidade do sistema padrao secundario NPL-CRC utilizado na calibracao de ativimetros no IPEN

    Martins, Elaine W.; Potiens, Maria da P.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a quality control program to be applied at the NPL-CRC activimeter secondary standard system, used as reference to comparison in tests made with the work tertiary standard activimeter, Capintec basic CRC{sup R}-15BT, both belonging to the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The repeatability, reproducibility and the precision tests were performed using a sealed check source of {sup 133}Ba, from Amersham. It was made 70 series of 10 measurements to each activimeter, totaling 1400 measurements. Considering the variation limit of 5% to precision and reproducibility tests in the nuclear medicine services, recommended by the Brazilian standard CNEN-NN-3.05, the results observed in the behavior of the IPEN activimeter were satisfactory. (author)

  19. Overview of groundwater and surface water standards pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 3

    Lundahl, A.L.; Williams, S.; Grizzle, B.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document presents an overview of groundwater- and surface water-related laws, regulations, agreements, guidance documents, Executive Orders, and DOE orders pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This document is a summary and is intended to help readers understand which regulatory requirements may apply to their particular circumstances. However, the document is not intended to be used in lieu of applicable regulations. Unless otherwise noted, the information in this report reflects a summary and evaluation completed July 1, 1995. This document is considered a Living Document, and updates on changing laws and regulations will be provided.

  20. Comparison of a New Cobinamide-Based Method to a Standard Laboratory Method for Measuring Cyanide in Human Blood

    Swezey, Robert; Shinn, Walter; Green, Carol; Drover, David R.; Hammer, Gregory B.; Schulman, Scott R.; Zajicek, Anne; Jett, David A.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    Most hospital laboratories do not measure blood cyanide concentrations, and samples must be sent to reference laboratories. A simple method is needed for measuring cyanide in hospitals. The authors previously developed a method to quantify cyanide based on the high binding affinity of the vitamin B12 analog, cobinamide, for cyanide and a major spectral change observed for cyanide-bound cobinamide. This method is now validated in human blood, and the findings include a mean inter-assay accuracy of 99.1%, precision of 8.75% and a lower limit of quantification of 3.27 µM cyanide. The method was applied to blood samples from children treated with sodium nitroprusside and it yielded measurable results in 88 of 172 samples (51%), whereas the reference laboratory yielded results in only 19 samples (11%). In all 19 samples, the cobinamide-based method also yielded measurable results. The two methods showed reasonable agreement when analyzed by linear regression, but not when analyzed by a standard error of the estimate or paired t-test. Differences in results between the two methods may be because samples were assayed at different times on different sample types. The cobinamide-based method is applicable to human blood, and can be used in hospital laboratories and emergency rooms. PMID:23653045

  1. Proposed quality control guidelines for National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Susceptibility Tests using the veterinary antimicrobial agent tiamulin.

    Pfaller, M A; Jones, R N; Walter, D H

    2001-01-01

    Quality control guidelines for standardized antimicrobial susceptibility test methods are critical for the continuing accuracy of these clinical tests. In this report, quality control limits were proposed for the veterinary antimicrobial agent tiamulin with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of three or four log(2) dilution steps in two different medium formulations. Disk diffusion zone diameter ranges were proposed for tiamulin tested against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ATCC 27090 (12-18 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (25-32 mm). The data from eight participating laboratories produced 100% of results within proposed MIC limits (8-32 microg/mL), and 95.8-97.0% of zones were found within suggested zone diameter QC guidelines. These proposed QC ranges should be validated by in-use results from veterinary clinical laboratories.

  2. Photoactivated toxicity of PAH to endangered fishes and standard laboratory test species

    Buckler, D.R.; Mount, D.R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been detected in water and sediment from the San Juan River Basin, located in the Four Corners area of the southwestern US. In addition to possessing extensive oil and gas deposits, the San Juan contains several threatened or endangered fish species such as Colorado squawfish and razorback suckers. Proposed expansion of oil and gas development in the basin has sparked concerns that potential increases in PAH loading may jeopardize these and other native fishes. In response, the authors conducted laboratory exposures of threatened and endangered species to various PAH both with and without accompanying exposure to UV light. As predicted from the literature, exposure to UV light caused a marked photo-activated toxicity response in all species; however, the sensitivity to PAH both with and without UV exposure varied among species and lifestages. Supplemental studies were conducted to evaluate the physiological mechanisms for variation in sensitivity between species and lifestage

  3. Quantification of Soil Physical Properties by Using X-Ray Computerized Tomography (CT) and Standard Laboratory (STD) Methods

    Sanchez, Maria Ambert [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-12-12

    The implementation of x-ray computerized tomography (CT) on agricultural soils has been used in this research to quantify soil physical properties to be compared with standard laboratory (STD) methods. The overall research objective was to more accurately quantify soil physical properties for long-term management systems. Two field studies were conducted at Iowa State University's Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm near Nashua, IA using two different soil management strategies. The first field study was conducted in 1999 using continuous corn crop rotation for soil under chisel plow with no-till treatments. The second study was conducted in 2001 and on soybean crop rotation for the same soil but under chisel plow and no-till practices with wheel track and no-wheel track compaction treatments induced by a tractor-manure wagon. In addition, saturated hydraulic (K{sub s}) conductivity and the convection-dispersion (CDE) model were also applied using long-term soil management systems only during 2001. The results obtained for the 1999 field study revealed no significant differences between treatments and laboratory methods, but significant differences were found at deeper depths of the soil column for tillage treatments. The results for standard laboratory procedure versus CT method showed significant differences at deeper depths for the chisel plow treatment and at the second lower depth for no-till treatment for both laboratory methods. The macroporosity distribution experiment showed significant differences at the two lower depths between tillage practices. Bulk density and percent porosity had significant differences at the two lower depths of the soil column. The results obtained for the 2001 field study showed no significant differences between tillage practices and compaction practices for both laboratory methods, but significant differences between tillage practices with wheel track and no-wheel compaction treatments were found along the soil

  4. Effects of acute gamma-irradiation on reproduction of the collembolan (Folsomia candida) in a standard laboratory test

    Nakamori, Taizo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Ban-nai, Tadaaki

    2006-01-01

    The abstract of this study was to provide data for radiological protection of the environment, the dose-effect relationship of acute gamma irradiation on the reproduction of the soil invertebrate Folsomia candida (Collembola) was studied according to a standard laboratory test. Juvenile collembolans were exposed to 137 Cs gamma-radiation at a dose range of 4-110 Gy. After four weeks' rearing, the number of neonate juveniles was compared with that of the non-irradiated control. The value of the 10% effective dose for reproduction was estimated to be 7.1 Gy. (author)

  5. Developing a Soil Aggregate Stability Standard For Use in Laboratory Proficiency Testing

    Smith, Mackenzie

    2018-01-01

    Soil health is an important part of agriculture and is becoming an issue to which more and more people are paying attention. In evaluating soil health there are many factors proposed to determine healthy soils, and one of the most reliable indicators, as identified by both academic and soil testing industry experts, is macro-aggregate stability. There is a great need for a method to make standard macro-aggregate stability soil samples for commercial and public labs and other facilities to use...

  6. Suitability of the echo-time-shift method as laboratory standard for thermal ultrasound dosimetry

    Fuhrmann, Tina; Georg, Olga; Haller, Julian; Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound therapy is a promising, non-invasive application with potential to significantly improve cancer therapies like surgery, viro- or immunotherapy. This therapy needs faster, cheaper and more easy-to-handle quality assurance tools for therapy devices as well as possibilities to verify treatment plans and for dosimetry. This limits comparability and safety of treatments. Accurate spatial and temporal temperature maps could be used to overcome these shortcomings. In this contribution first results of suitability and accuracy investigations of the echo-time-shift method for two-dimensional temperature mapping during and after sonication are presented. The analysis methods used to calculate time-shifts were a discrete frame-to-frame and a discrete frame-to-base-frame algorithm as well as a sigmoid fit for temperature calculation. In the future accuracy could be significantly enhanced by using continuous methods for time-shift calculation. Further improvements can be achieved by improving filtering algorithms and interpolation of sampled diagnostic ultrasound data. It might be a comparatively accurate, fast and affordable method for laboratory and clinical quality control.

  7. Avaliação laboratorial da estabilidade do padrão calibrador de bilirrubina Laboratorial evaluation of standard bilirubin stability

    Maria das Graças da Cunha Leite

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O preparo do padrão calibrador de bilirrubina é essencial para um controle adequado das dosagens laboratoriais da bilirrubinemia, visto que estas estão sujeitas a grande variabilidade nos resultados, dependendo do método de dosagem escolhido e da falta de padronização rigorosa na sua execução. Uma vez preparado, este padrão calibrador deve ser dividido em alíquotas e estocado para ser utilizado de rotina. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos de diferentes condições de armazenamento de um padrão calibrador de bilirrubina sobre sua estabilidade, com finalidade de calibração de equipamentos utilizados na determinação da bilirrubinemia em neonatos. Material e métodos: Após o preparo de um padrão calibrador com 25mg/dl de bilirrubina, este foi armazenado a 4°C, congelado a - 20°C e a - 70°C. Durante nove meses foram feitas dosagens consecutivas da bilirrubina da solução padrão, as quais foram analisadas através da análise de variância de duas vias com blocagem. Resultados: As amostras congeladas a - 70°C não sofreram degradação significativa nos nove meses estudados, enquanto que, no período de três meses, as congeladas a - 20°C e a 4°C sofreram uma degradação de 5% e 24,18%, respectivamente, dos níveis iniciais de bilirrubina. Conclusão: A estocagem do padrão calibrador de bilirrubina a - 70°C é a recomendada para a preservação dos níveis de bilirrubina.Background: The preparation of a standard bilirubin is essential for an adequate quality control of laboratorial bilirubinemia measurements because they are subjected to a large variability in results depending on the dosage method used and the lack of a rigorous standardization of its performance. Once prepared, this standard solution has to be divided in aliquots and stored to be routinely used. Objective: To evaluate the effect of different conditions of the standard solution storage in the stability of bilirubin with the purpose of using it for

  8. Searching for beyond the minimal supersymmetric standard model at the laboratory and in the sky

    Kim, Ju Min

    2010-09-15

    We study the collider signals as well as Dark Matter candidates in supersymmetric models. We show that the collider signatures from a supersymmetric Grand Unification model based on the SO(10) gauge group can be distinguishable from those from the (constrained) minimal supersymmetric Standard Model, even though they share some common features. The N=2 supersymmetry has the characteristically distinct phenomenology, due to the Dirac nature of gauginos, as well as the extra adjoint scalars. We compute the cold Dark Matter relic density including a class of one-loop corrections. Finally, we discuss the detectability of neutralino Dark Matter candidate of the SO(10) model by the direct and indirect Dark Matter search experiments. (orig.)

  9. Searching for beyond the minimal supersymmetric standard model at the laboratory and in the sky

    Kim, Ju Min

    2010-09-01

    We study the collider signals as well as Dark Matter candidates in supersymmetric models. We show that the collider signatures from a supersymmetric Grand Unification model based on the SO(10) gauge group can be distinguishable from those from the (constrained) minimal supersymmetric Standard Model, even though they share some common features. The N=2 supersymmetry has the characteristically distinct phenomenology, due to the Dirac nature of gauginos, as well as the extra adjoint scalars. We compute the cold Dark Matter relic density including a class of one-loop corrections. Finally, we discuss the detectability of neutralino Dark Matter candidate of the SO(10) model by the direct and indirect Dark Matter search experiments. (orig.)

  10. Experimental comparison between total calibration factors and components calibration factors of reference dosemeters used in secondary standard laboratory dosemeters

    Silva, T.A. da.

    1981-06-01

    A quantitative comparison of component calibration factors with the corresponding overall calibration factor was used to evaluate the adopted component calibration procedure in regard to parasitic elements. Judgement of significance is based upon the experimental uncertainty of a well established procedure for determination of the overall calibration factor. The experimental results obtained for different ionization chambers and different electrometers demonstrate that for one type of electrometer the parasitic elements have no influence on its sensitivity considering the experimental uncertainty of the calibration procedures. In this case the adopted procedure for determination of component calibration factors is considered to be equivalent to the procedure of determination of the overall calibration factor and thus might be used as a strong quality control measure in routine calibration. (Author) [pt

  11. Coupling crevice chemistry with a corrosion model in laboratory: A first application to the analysis of secondary side corrosion in service

    Pavageau, E.M.; Vaillant, D.; Dimpre, S.; Bouchacourt, M.; Millet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Secondary side corrosion of tubes in Alloy 600 develops in flow-restricted areas between tubes and tubesheet or tube support plates since pollutants of the secondary water can concentrate under heat flux. So EDF has undertaken an important effort of modeling the degradation (intergranular attack IGA and intergranular stress corrosion cracking IGSCC). Three models of corrosion are available or under development depending on the type of crevice environment that could be deduced from the analysis of secondary water and from pulled tube examinations: the first one in strongly alkaline environments (sodium hydroxide environments), the second one in sulfate environments, sulfate being one of the main species analyzed in water after hideout return, the third one in complex environments that could duplicate the deposits, films and degradation observed on pulled tubes. The crevice chemistry during operation was first evaluated using analyses of secondary water after hideout return and the MULTEQ code. The local chemical conditions were introduced into the corrosion model generated in laboratory and gave results which were compared to field experience. Encouraging results were found with the sodium hydroxide model for some of the old French plant units in the early period of operation. A similar approach is under investigation with the sulfate corrosion model for the entire time of operation and for the other plant units. (authors)

  12. Characterization of secondary solid waste anticipated from the treatment of trench water from Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A.

    1992-09-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that new liquid waste streams, generated as a consequence of closure activities at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6, can be treated adequately by existing wastewater treatment facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) without producing hazardous secondary solid wastes. Previous bench-scale treatable studies indicated that ORNL treatment operations will adequately remove the contaminants although additional study was required in order to characterize the secondary waste materials produced as a result of the treatment A 0.5-L/min pilot plant was designed and constructed to accurately simulate the treatment capabilities of ORNL fill-scale (490 L/min) treatment facilities-the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). This new test system was able to produce secondary wastes in the quantities necessary for US Environmental Protection Agency toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) testing. The test system was operated for a 45-d test period with a minimum of problems and downtime. The pilot plant operating data verified that the WAG 6 trench waters can be treated at the PWTP and NRWTP to meet the discharge limits. The results of TCLP testing indicate that none of the secondary solid wastes will be considered hazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  13. Standard-based comprehensive detection of adverse drug reaction signals from nursing statements and laboratory results in electronic health records.

    Lee, Suehyun; Choi, Jiyeob; Kim, Hun-Sung; Kim, Grace Juyun; Lee, Kye Hwa; Park, Chan Hee; Han, Jongsoo; Yoon, Dukyong; Park, Man Young; Park, Rae Woong; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Ju Han

    2017-07-01

    We propose 2 Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities-enabled pharmacovigilance algorithms, MetaLAB and MetaNurse, powered by a per-year meta-analysis technique and improved subject sampling strategy. This study developed 2 novel algorithms, MetaLAB for laboratory abnormalities and MetaNurse for standard nursing statements, as significantly improved versions of our previous electronic health record (EHR)-based pharmacovigilance method, called CLEAR. Adverse drug reaction (ADR) signals from 117 laboratory abnormalities and 1357 standard nursing statements for all precautionary drugs ( n   = 101) were comprehensively detected and validated against SIDER (Side Effect Resource) by MetaLAB and MetaNurse against 11 817 and 76 457 drug-ADR pairs, respectively. We demonstrate that MetaLAB (area under the curve, AUC = 0.61 ± 0.18) outperformed CLEAR (AUC = 0.55 ± 0.06) when we applied the same 470 drug-event pairs as the gold standard, as in our previous research. Receiver operating characteristic curves for 101 precautionary terms in the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms were obtained for MetaLAB and MetaNurse (0.69 ± 0.11; 0.62 ± 0.07), which complemented each other in terms of ADR signal coverage. Novel ADR signals discovered by MetaLAB and MetaNurse were successfully validated against spontaneous reports in the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System database. The present study demonstrates the symbiosis of laboratory test results and nursing statements for ADR signal detection in terms of their system organ class coverage and performance profiles. Systematic discovery and evaluation of the wide spectrum of ADR signals using standard-based observational electronic health record data across many institutions will affect drug development and use, as well as postmarketing surveillance and regulation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American

  14. Development and operation of a quality assurance system for deviations from standard operating procedures in a clinical cell therapy laboratory.

    McKenna, D; Kadidlo, D; Sumstad, D; McCullough, J

    2003-01-01

    Errors and accidents, or deviations from standard operating procedures, other policy, or regulations must be documented and reviewed, with corrective actions taken to assure quality performance in a cellular therapy laboratory. Though expectations and guidance for deviation management exist, a description of the framework for the development of such a program is lacking in the literature. Here we describe our deviation management program, which uses a Microsoft Access database and Microsoft Excel to analyze deviations and notable events, facilitating quality assurance (QA) functions and ongoing process improvement. Data is stored in a Microsoft Access database with an assignment to one of six deviation type categories. Deviation events are evaluated for potential impact on patient and product, and impact scores for each are determined using a 0- 4 grading scale. An immediate investigation occurs, and corrective actions are taken to prevent future similar events from taking place. Additionally, deviation data is collectively analyzed on a quarterly basis using Microsoft Excel, to identify recurring events or developing trends. Between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 over 2500 products were processed at our laboratory. During this time period, 335 deviations and notable events occurred, affecting 385 products and/or patients. Deviations within the 'technical error' category were most common (37%). Thirteen percent of deviations had a patient and/or a product impact score > or = 2, a score indicating, at a minimum, potentially affected patient outcome or moderate effect upon product quality. Real-time analysis and quarterly review of deviations using our deviation management program allows for identification and correction of deviations. Monitoring of deviation trends allows for process improvement and overall successful functioning of the QA program in the cell therapy laboratory. Our deviation management program could serve as a model for other laboratories in

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Transportation Task Report On Achieving Moderator Exclusion And Supporting Standardized Transportation

    Morton, D.K.; Carlsen, B.W.; Alsaed, H.

    2011-01-01

    Following the defunding of the Yucca Mountain Project, it is reasonable to assume that commercial used fuel will remain in storage for the foreseeable future. This report proposes supplementing the ongoing research and development work related to potential degradation of used fuel, baskets, poisons, and storage canisters during an extended period of storage with a parallel path. This parallel path can assure criticality safety during transportation by implementing a concept that achieves moderator exclusion (no in-leakage of moderator into the used fuel cavity). Using updated risk assessment insights for additional technical justification and relying upon a component inside of the transportation cask that provides a watertight function, a strong argument can be made that moderator intrusion is not credible and should not be a required assumption for criticality evaluations during normal conditions of transportation. A demonstrating testing program supporting a detailed analytical effort as well as updated risk assessment insights can provide the basis for moderator exclusion during hypothetical accident conditions. This report also discusses how this engineered concept can support the goal of standardized transportation.

  16. Update of the Picker C9 irradiator control system of the gamma II room of the secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration

    Simon S, L. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Picker C9 irradiator is responsible for the calibration of different radiological equipment and the control system that maintains it in operation is designed in the graphical programming software LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench), being its major advantages: the different types of communication, easy interconnection with other software and the recognition of different hardware devices, among others. Operation of the irradiator control system is performed with the NI-Usb-6008 (DAQ) data acquisition module of the National Instruments Company. The purpose of this work is to update the routines that make the Picker C9 control system of the gamma II room of the secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration, using the graphic programming software LabVIEW, as well as to configure the new acquisition hardware of data that is implemented to control the Picker C9 irradiator system and ensure its operation. (Author)

  17. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

  18. Efficacy of standard and intensive statin treatment for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in diabetes patients : A meta-analysis

    De Vries, Folgerdiena M.; Kolthof, Johan; Postma, Maarten J.; Denig, Petra; Hak, Eelko

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the efficacy of standard and intensive statin treatment in the secondary prevention of major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in diabetes patients. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in Medline over the years 1990 to September 2013. Randomized, double-blind,

  19. Experience of steam generator tube examination in the hot laboratory of EDF: analysis of recent events concerning the secondary side

    Thebault, Y.; Bouvier, O. de; Boccanfuso, M.; Coquio, N.; Barbe, V.; Molinie, E.

    2011-01-01

    Until 2010, more than 60 steam generator (SG) tubes have been removed and analysed in the EDF hot laboratory of CEIDRE/Chinon. This article is particularly related to three recent events that lead to the extraction of several tubes dedicated to laboratory destructive examinations. The first event that constitutes a first occurrence on the EDF Park, concerns the detection of a circumferential crack on the external surface of a tube located at tube support plate elevation. After this observation, several tubes have been extracted from Bugey 3 and Fessenheim 2 nuclear power plants with steam generators equipped with 600 MA bundle. The other two events concern the consequences of chemical cleaning of the tube bundle steam generators. The examples chosen are from Cruas 4 et Chinon B2 units whose tubes were extracted following non destructive testing performed immediately after or at the completion of cycle following the chemical cleaning. In the case of Cruas 4, Eddy Current Testing (ET) were performed for requalification of steam Generators after chemical cleaning. They allowed the detection of an indication located at the bottom of tube for a large number of tubes; the ET signal was similar to that corresponding to 'deposit' corrosion. Moreover, inspections of Chinon-B2 SGs at the end of the operation cycle following the chemical cleaning, showed the presence of conductor deposits at the bottom of some tubes. The first part of this document presents the major results of laboratory examinations of the pulled tubes of Bugey 3 and Fessenheim 2 and their analysis. Hypothesis concerning damage mechanisms of the tubes are also proposed. The second part of the paper relates the results of the laboratory examinations of the pulled tubes of Cruas 4 and Chinon B 2 after chemical cleaning and their analysis. (authors)

  20. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry

    Meusinger, Carl; Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    undergoing secondary (recombination) chemistry. Modeled NOx emissions may increase significantly above measured values due to the observed quantum yield in this study. The apparent quantum yield in the 200 nm band was found to be ∼ 1%, much lower than reported for aqueous chemistry. A companion paper...... are understood. It has been shown that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack plays a major role in nitrate loss and that the photolysis products have a significant influence on the local troposphere as well as on other species in the snow. Reported quantum yields for the main reaction spans orders of magnitude...

  1. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides. Annual report

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions

  2. Standardization of glycohemoglobin results and reference values in whole blood studied in 103 laboratories using 20 methods.

    Weykamp, C W; Penders, T J; Miedema, K; Muskiet, F A; van der Slik, W

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of calibration with lyophilized calibrators on whole-blood glycohemoglobin (glyHb) results. One hundred three laboratories, using 20 different methods, determined glyHb in two lyophilized calibrators and two whole-blood samples. For whole-blood samples with low (5%) and high (9%) glyHb percentages, respectively, calibration decreased overall interlaboratory variation (CV) from 16% to 9% and from 11% to 6% and decreased intermethod variation from 14% to 6% and from 12% to 5%. Forty-seven laboratories, using 14 different methods, determined mean glyHb percentages in self-selected groups of 10 nondiabetic volunteers each. With calibration their overall mean (2SD) was 5.0% (0.5%), very close to the 5.0% (0.3%) derived from the reference method used in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. In both experiments the Abbott IMx and Vision showed deviating results. We conclude that, irrespective of the analytical method used, calibration enables standardization of glyHb results, reference values, and interpretation criteria.

  3. The Potential of Non-Formal Laboratory Environments for Innovating the Chemistry Curriculum and Promoting Secondary School Level Students Education for Sustainability

    Nicole Garner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing skills and attitudes among students in terms of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD requires that educators address issues of sustainability in both formal and non-formal education. However, up to now, ESD seems to have been insufficiently implemented in secondary science education in many countries in general, and in high school chemistry learning in particular. A lack of suitable experiments, coupled with missing teaching and learning materials and insufficient teacher professional development have been identified as the reasons for this gap. This paper describes a project of innovation and research in the field of ESD for secondary school chemistry education. Within the project, both half- and full-day learning environments have been developed for non-formal, laboratory-based learning of secondary level students at the university. The research-based development focuses on teaching-learning modules which link formal and non-formal learning. The pedagogy employed is both learner-centered and inquiry-based. All the modules focus on sustainability issues in chemistry-related contexts. Data was collected by questionnaires from teachers and students both prior to and after the visit of the non-formal learning environment. Likert-items were analyzed statistically and the evaluation of the open-ended questions was done by Qualitative Content Analysis. An overview of the project, a case from the non-formal laboratory setting, and findings from accompanying research and evaluation are discussed in this paper. Potential impacts on teacher professional development and curriculum innovation are also outlined.

  4. Gateway to the Future. Skill Standards for the Bioscience Industry for Technical Workers in Pharmaceutical Companies, Biotechnology Companies, and Clinical Laboratories.

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Bioscience Industry Skills Standards Project (BISSP) is developing national, voluntary skill standards for technical jobs in biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and clinical laboratories in hospitals, universities, government, and independent settings. Research with employees and educators has pinpointed three issues underscoring the…

  5. Student understanding development in chemistry concepts through constructivist-informed laboratory and science camp process in secondary school

    Pathommapas, Nookorn

    2018-01-01

    Science Camp for Chemistry Concepts was the project which designed to provide local students with opportunities to apply chemistry concepts and thereby developing their 21st century skills. The three study purposes were 1) to construct and develop chemistry stations for encouraging students' understandings in chemistry concepts based on constructivist-informed laboratory, 2) to compare students' understandings in chemistry concepts before and after using chemistry learning stations, and 3) to study students' satisfactions of using their 21st century skills in science camp activities. The research samples were 67 students who attended the 1-day science camp. They were levels 10 to 11 students in SumsaoPittayakarn School, UdonThani Province, Thailand. Four constructivist-informed laboratory stations of chemistry concepts were designed for each group. Each station consisted of a chemistry scenario, a question, answers in tier 1 and supporting reasons in tier 2, and 4 sets of experimental instruments. Four to five-member subgroups of four student groups parallel participated in laboratory station for an hour in each station. Student activities in each station concluded of individual pretest, group prediction, experimental design, testing out and collection data, interpreting the results, group conclusion, and individual post-test. Data collection was done by station mentors using two-tier multiple choice questions, students' written work and interviews. Data triangulation was used for interpreting and confirming students' understandings of chemistry concepts which divided into five levels, Sound Understanding (SU), Partial Understanding (PU), Specific Misconception (SM), No Understanding (NU) and No Response (NR), before and after collaborating at each station. The study results found the following: 1) four constructivist-laboratory stations were successfully designed and used to investigate student' understandings in chemistry concepts via collaborative workshop of

  6. Characterization of Secondary Solid Wastes in Trench Water in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Taylor, P.A.; Kent, T.E.

    1994-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that new liquid waste streams, generated as a consequence of closure activities at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 and other sites, can be treated at the existing wastewater treatment facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to meet discharge requirements without producing hazardous secondary solid wastes. Previous bench and pilot-scale treatability studies have shown that ORNL treatment operations will adequately remove the contaminants and that the secondary solid wastes produced were not hazardous when treating water from two trenches in WAG 6. This study used WAG 6 trench water spiked with the minimum concentration of Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) constituents (chemicals that can make a waste hazardous) found in any groundwater samples at ORNL. The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility (WTTF), a 0.5 L/min pilot plant that simulates the treatment capabilities of the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWPT) and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP), was used for this test. This test system, which is able to produce secondary wastes in the quantities necessary for TCLP testing, was operated for a 59-d test period with a minimum of problems and downtime. The pilot plant operating data verified that WAG 6 trench waters, spiked with the minimum concentration of TCLP contaminants measured to date, can be treated at the PWTP and NRWTP to meet current discharge limits. The results of the TCLP analysis indicated that none of the secondary solid wastes produced during the treatment of these wastewaters will be considered hazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  7. Validation of simple and inexpensive algometry using sphygmomanometer cuff and neuromuscular junction monitor with standardized laboratory algometer

    Durga, Padmaja; Wudaru, Sreedhar Reddy; Khambam, Sunil Kumar Reddy; Chandra, Shobha Jagadish; Ramachandran, Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The availability, ergonomics and economics prohibit the routine use of algometers in clinical practice and research by the anesthesiologists. A simple bedside technique of quantitative pain measurement would enable the routine use of algometry. We proposed to validate simple pain provocation using sphygmomanometer cuff and the electric stimulation of neuromuscular junction monitor (TOF-guard, Organon Teknika) to measure pain against a standardized laboratory pressure algometer. Material and Methods: Pain detection threshold (Pdt) and pain tolerance threshold (Ptt) were measured in forty healthy volunteers of both genders, using the above three techniques. All measurements were repeated three times. The co-efficient of inter-rater reliability (or consistency) between three independent measurements obtained from each of the techniques was determined by Cronbach's co-efficient alpha (α C). The correlation between the mean Pdt and Ptt values recorded by standardized algometer and the sphygmomanometer technique and nerve stimulator technique was performed using Pearson Correlation. An r >0.5 and a two-tailed significance of algometer and the tested techniques. Results: There was a good inter-rater reliability (α C > 0.7) for the three techniques. There was a good correlation with r >0.65 (P algometer and the two techniques being tested as alternatives for algometer to measure pain. Conclusion: The sphygmomanometer cuff technique and electrical stimulation with the peripheral nerve stimulator to measure pain threshold and tolerance provide a simple, efficient, repeatable measure of pain intensity and can be used as suitable alternatives to standard algometers. PMID:27006546

  8. ENSURING THERMAL REGIME FOR THE SUPPLY DISTRIBUTED DEVICES IN THE COMPOSITION OF THE SHIP'S SECONDARY POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS ON THE BASE OF THE STANDARDIZED UNITS

    T. A. Ismailov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article deals with the problem of constructing the power supply devices in the composition of the ship's secondary power systems based on standardized blocks and securing their thermal regime.Methods. It is stated that with the advent of modern power electronics multifunctional components the secondary power supply developers got possibilities to improve the quality of secondary power supply and to upgrade the existing systems.Results. The advantages of unified power units, having a function of parallel operation are revealed. Heat transfer processes in a vertical channel with free convection, and the calculation of the minimum width of the channel, which provides efficient heat removal have been analyzed.Conclusion.A model is proposed for determining the minimum distance between the blocks without deterioration of heat transfer in the channel formed by the walls of adjacent blocks.

  9. Growth Status of First Secondary Students of Tabriz city Based on WHO 2007 and CDC 2000 Standards

    F. Mahmoodpoor

    2012-07-01

    Conclusion: Different types of malnutrition in adolescents of Tabriz city are prevalent. Mention of standard name in assessment of malnutrition and obesity is necessary. WHO 2007 is valid standard to assessment nutritional status of children and adolescents. Using CDC 2000 standard underestimates obesity.

  10. Feasibility of establishing a biosafety level 3 tuberculosis culture laboratory of acceptable quality standards in a resource-limited setting: an experience from Uganda.

    Ssengooba, Willy; Gelderbloem, Sebastian J; Mboowa, Gerald; Wajja, Anne; Namaganda, Carolyn; Musoke, Philippa; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Joloba, Moses Lutaakome

    2015-01-15

    Despite the recent innovations in tuberculosis (TB) and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) diagnosis, culture remains vital for difficult-to-diagnose patients, baseline and end-point determination for novel vaccines and drug trials. Herein, we share our experience of establishing a BSL-3 culture facility in Uganda as well as 3-years performance indicators and post-TB vaccine trials (pioneer) and funding experience of sustaining such a facility. Between September 2008 and April 2009, the laboratory was set-up with financial support from external partners. After an initial procedure validation phase in parallel with the National TB Reference Laboratory (NTRL) and legal approvals, the laboratory registered for external quality assessment (EQA) from the NTRL, WHO, National Health Laboratories Services (NHLS), and the College of American Pathologists (CAP). The laboratory also instituted a functional quality management system (QMS). Pioneer funding ended in 2012 and the laboratory remained in self-sustainability mode. The laboratory achieved internationally acceptable standards in both structural and biosafety requirements. Of the 14 patient samples analyzed in the procedural validation phase, agreement for all tests with NTRL was 90% (P 80% in all years from NTRL, CAP, and NHLS, and culture was 100% for CAP panels and above regional average scores for all years with NHLS. Quarterly DST scores from WHO-EQA ranged from 78% to 100% in 2010, 80% to 100% in 2011, and 90 to 100% in 2012. From our experience, it is feasible to set-up a BSL-3 TB culture laboratory with acceptable quality performance standards in resource-limited countries. With the demonstrated quality of work, the laboratory attracted more research groups and post-pioneer funding, which helped to ensure sustainability. The high skilled experts in this research laboratory also continue to provide an excellent resource for the needed national discussion of the laboratory and quality management systems.

  11. Air kerma standardization for diagnostic radiology, and requirements proposal for calibration laboratories; Padronizacao da grandeza Kerma no ar para radiodiagnostico e proposta de requisitos para laboratorios de calibracao

    Ramos, Manoel Mattos Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    The demand for calibration services and quality control in diagnostic radiology has grown in the country since the publication of the governmental regulation 453, issued by the Ministry of Health in 1998. At that time, to produce results facing the new legislation, many laboratories used different standards and radiation qualities, some of which could be inadequate. The international standards neither supplied consistent radiation qualities and standardization for the different types of equipment available. This situation changed with the publication of the new edition of the IEC 61267 standard, published in 2005. A metrology network was created, but it is not yet accredited by the accreditation organism of the country, INMETRO. The objective of this work was to implement the standardization of the air kerma for the un attenuated qualities (RQR) of IEC 61267, and to develop a requirement proposal for instruments calibration laboratories. Results of interlaboratory comparisons demonstrate that the quantity is standardized and internationally traceable. A laboratory requirement proposal was finalized and it shall be submitted to INMETRO to be used as auxiliary normative document in laboratory accreditation. (author)

  12. Morphological study on dental caries induced in WBN/KobSlc rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed a standard laboratory diet.

    Fukuzato, Yoko; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Kodama, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Akihito; Okamura, Sumie; Suido, Hirohisa; Torii, Kayo; Makino, Taketoshi; Narama, Isao

    2009-10-01

    In our previous studies, WBN/KobSlc was characterized as a rat strain in which only males began to develop pancreatitis, and then presented with diabetic symptoms. In the course of studying their pancreatic inflammation, we detected molar caries in prediabetic males feeding on a standard diet (CRF-1) widely used for experimental animals. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether the WBN/KobSlc strain is caries-susceptible to the diet reported to be non-cariogenic, and to examine the effect of a prediabetic condition on their dental caries. For a morphological study, 25 male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 3.2-7.8 months and 24 females of the same strain aged 3.3-6.6 months were used, along with 10 males and 10 females of 8.2-month-old F344 rats. Marked dental caries were detected in the mandibular molars of male and female WBN/KobSlc rats regardless of pancreatitis, although no similar changes were observed in any teeth of the F344 strain fed the same diet. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the caries began in the crown and progressed horizontally and vertically, and that a severe radiolucent lesion extensively expanded to the entire crown, corresponding to a macroscopically deleted molar. The caries had gradually developed mainly in the second mandibular molar from more than 3.5 months of age, while none were seen in any rats before that time. The WBN/KobSlc rats were caries-susceptible even to the standard laboratory diet, and pancreatitis was not directly associated with the onset of dental caries in this strain.

  13. Chemistry Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  14. Propulsion Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  15. Behavior of sulfur species in steam generator conditions of PWRs - towards an update of the secondary side corrosion cracking model based on laboratory tests in sulfate environments

    Mansour, C.; Legras, L.; Catalette, H.; Lefevre, G.; Fedoroff, M.; Pavageau, E.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Secondary side corrosion cracking affects Mill Annealed Alloy 600 steam generator (SG) tubes of PWRs in flow restricted areas where pollutants, such as sulfate, can concentrate and form various aggressive local environments. The 'sulfate model', based on laboratory tests in sulfate environments, was developed to predict the degradation of SG tubes. Such prediction is aimed to be done after having evaluated the chemistry in the flow restricted areas where the degradation occurs. For such purpose, a better knowledge of the behavior of sulfur species in SG conditions is needed. After a brief description of the sulfate model, this paper focuses on the latest experimental results that have been obtained : sorption of sulfur species over magnetite in SG temperature conditions, thermodynamical calculations as well as transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations of magnetite after sorption and C-Ring specimens tested in sulfate environments. Then, all these results are discussed in order to contribute to a better understanding of the secondary side corrosion cracking of SG tubes. (author)

  16. Web-Enhanced, Standards-Oriented Teaching Units on Post-Wall Germany for the Secondary School Classroom.

    Van Handle, Donna C.; Ayres, Evelyn; Cimino, Ellen; Dunn, Bryan; Foell, Kimberly; McCarthy, Jennifer K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the creation and use of Web sites developed by secondary school teachers of German and European history who participated in an NEH-sponsored summer institute titled "Post-Wall Germany: Integrating Post-Unification German Culture into the High School Curriculum. Teacher participants also offer suggestions for using sites they created…

  17. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  18. A laboratory study on formation of oil-SPM aggregates using the NIST standard reference material 1941b. Volume 1

    Khelifa, A.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z.; Yang, C.; Landriault, M.; Fingas, M.; Brown, C.E.; Gamble, L.; Pjontek, D.

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion of spilled oil in water can be enhanced by a natural process in which suspended particulate matter (SPM) combines with oil droplets to form Oil-SPM aggregates (OSA). A laboratory setup and procedure were developed in this study to examine the formation of OSAs in which the sediment (Standard Reference Material 1941b) was mixed with Arabian Medium, Alaska North Slope and South Louisiana crudes at concentrations varying from 25 to 300 mg/L. The OSAs were separated from the bulk water using a newly developed procedure. Gas chromatography combined with flame ionization analysis was used to measure the oil trapped in the OSAs. The sediment trapped in the sinking OSAs was then isolated for gravimetric quantification. This procedure has the potential to isolate sinking OSAs with minimum alteration with dispersed oil. Oil mass of less than 2 mg trapped in OSAs was measured with 0.8 mg uncertainty at a 95 per cent confidence level. This setup was capable of imaging droplets of 0.1 μg and up in size. The study showed that formation of sinking OSAs reaches maximum efficiency at an optimum oil to sediment ratio that decreases from 0.5 to approximately 0.1 when the ratio between oil density and the water density increases from 0.84 to 0.97. The percentage of oil trapped in sinking OSAs increases quickly from approximately 0.5 per cent to 30 per cent of the initial oil mass when sediment concentration increases from 25 to 100 mg/l. The highest trapping efficiency was found to decrease exponentially with oil density. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

  19. UK Transfusion Laboratory Collaborative: minimum standards for staff qualifications, training, competency and the use of information technology in hospital transfusion laboratories 2014.

    Chaffe, B; Glencross, H; Jones, J; Staves, J; Capps-Jenner, A; Mistry, H; Bolton-Maggs, P; McQuade, M; Asher, D

    2014-12-01

    The SHOT Adverse Incident Reporting Scheme has consistently reported an unacceptably high level of errors originating in the laboratory setting. In 2006 an initiative was launched in conjunction with the IBMS, SHOT, RCPath, BBTS, UK NEQAS, the NHSE NBTC and the equivalents in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland that led to the formation of the UK TLC. The UK TLC in considering the nature and spread of the errors documented by SHOT concluded that a significant proportion of these errors were most likely to be related to either the use of information technology or staff education, staffing levels, skill mix, training and competency issues. In the absence of any formal guidance on these matters, the UK TLC developed a series of recommendations using the results of two laboratory surveys conducted in 2007 and 2008.

  20. State-of-the art comparability of corrected emission spectra. 2. Field laboratory assessment of calibration performance using spectral fluorescence standards.

    Resch-Genger, Ute; Bremser, Wolfram; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Spieles, Monika; Hoffmann, Angelika; DeRose, Paul C; Zwinkels, Joanne C; Gauthier, François; Ebert, Bernd; Taubert, R Dieter; Voigt, Jan; Hollandt, Jörg; Macdonald, Rainer

    2012-05-01

    In the second part of this two-part series on the state-of-the-art comparability of corrected emission spectra, we have extended this assessment to the broader community of fluorescence spectroscopists by involving 12 field laboratories that were randomly selected on the basis of their fluorescence measuring equipment. These laboratories performed a reference material (RM)-based fluorometer calibration with commercially available spectral fluorescence standards following a standard operating procedure that involved routine measurement conditions and the data evaluation software LINKCORR developed and provided by the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM). This instrument-specific emission correction curve was subsequently used for the determination of the corrected emission spectra of three test dyes, X, QS, and Y, revealing an average accuracy of 6.8% for the corrected emission spectra. This compares well with the relative standard uncertainties of 4.2% for physical standard-based spectral corrections demonstrated in the first part of this study (previous paper in this issue) involving an international group of four expert laboratories. The excellent comparability of the measurements of the field laboratories also demonstrates the effectiveness of RM-based correction procedures.

  1. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Conceptions from a Mathematical Modeling Activity and Connections to the Common Core State Standards

    Stohlmann, Micah; Maiorca, Cathrine; Olson, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an essential integrated piece of the Common Core State Standards. However, researchers have shown that mathematical modeling activities can be difficult for teachers to implement. Teachers are more likely to implement mathematical modeling activities if they have their own successful experiences with such activities. This…

  2. The use of laboratory sand, soil and crushed-glass filter columns for polishing domestic-strength synthetic wastewater that has undergone secondary treatment.

    Healy, M G; Burke, P; Rodgers, M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of intermittently loaded, 150 mm-diameter stratified filter columns of 2 depths (0.65 and 0.375 m) comprising different media--sand, crushed glass and soil--in polishing the effluent from a laboratory horizontal flow biofilm reactor (HFBR) treating synthetic domestic-strength wastewater. The HFBR has been successfully used to remove organic carbon and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) from domestic wastewater. In this treatment method, wastewater is allowed to flow over and back along a stack of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets. Biofilms on the sheets reduce organic carbon, suspended matter, and nutrients in the wastewater, but to achieve the quality of a septic tank system, additional treatment is required. In all filters, at a hydraulic loading rate of 100 L m(-2) d(-1), 40-65% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and practically 100% of total suspended solids (TSS) were removed, nitrification was complete, and bacterial numbers were reduced by over 80%, with best removals achieved in the soil filters (93%). Soil polishing filters with the depth of 0.65 m performed best in terms of organic carbon, total nitrogen (Tot-N) and bacterial removal. Data from this preliminary study are useful in the design of treatment systems to polish secondary wastewaters with similar water quality characteristics.

  3. 75 FR 45128 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    2010-08-02

    .../CSAP, Room 2-1042, One Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857; 240-276-2600 (voice), 240-276-2610... Analytics Inc., NOVAMANN (Ontario), Inc.) MedTox Laboratories, Inc., 402 W. County Road D, St. Paul, MN...

  4. Laboratories new to the ICRM

    Karam, Lisa; Anagnostakis, Marios J.; Gudelis, Arunas; Marsoem, Pujadi; Mauring, Alexander; Wurdiyanto, Gatot; Yücel, Ülkü

    2012-01-01

    The Scientific Committee of the ICRM decided, for the 2011 Conference, to present laboratories that are at a key developmental stage in establishing, expanding or applying radionuclide metrology capabilities. The expansion of radionuclide metrology capabilities is crucial to meet evolving and emerging needs in health care, environmental monitoring, and nuclear energy. Five laboratories (from Greece, Lithuania, Indonesia, Norway and Turkey) agreed to participate. Each laboratory is briefly introduced, and examples of their capabilities and standardization activities are discussed. - Highlights: ► Four laboratories in radionuclide metrology are described. ► Health, environment, and energy applications are motivators. ► Facilities and resources supporting research activities are discussed. ► Activities in primary and secondary standardizations are also discussed.

  5. Development of standardized laboratory methods and quality processes for a phase III study of the RTS, S/AS01 candidate malaria vaccine

    Carter Terrell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A pivotal phase III study of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine is ongoing in several research centres across Africa. The development and establishment of quality systems was a requirement for trial conduct to meet international regulatory standards, as well as providing an important capacity strengthening opportunity for study centres. Methods Standardized laboratory methods and quality assurance processes were implemented at each of the study centres, facilitated by funding partners. Results A robust protocol for determination of parasite density based on actual blood cell counts was set up in accordance with World Health Organization recommendations. Automated equipment including haematology and biochemistry analyzers were put in place with standard methods for bedside testing of glycaemia, base excess and lactacidaemia. Facilities for X-rays and basic microbiology testing were also provided or upgraded alongside health care infrastructure in some centres. External quality assurance assessment of all major laboratory methods was established and method qualification by each laboratory demonstrated. The resulting capacity strengthening has ensured laboratory evaluations are conducted locally to the high standards required in clinical trials. Conclusion Major efforts by study centres, together with support from collaborating parties, have allowed standardized methods and robust quality assurance processes to be put in place for the phase III evaluation of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine. Extensive training programmes, coupled with continuous commitment from research centre staff, have been the key elements behind the successful implementation of quality processes. It is expected these activities will culminate in healthcare benefits for the subjects and communities participating in these trials. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619

  6. Beverages and snacks available in vending machines from a subset of Ontario secondary schools: Do offerings align with provincial nutrition standards?

    Orava, Taryn; Manske, Steve; Hanning, Rhona

    2016-12-27

    As part of an evaluation of Ontario's School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150) in a populous Ontario region, this research aimed to: 1) identify, describe and categorize beverages and snacks available for purchase in secondary school vending machines according to P/PM 150 standards; and 2) compare the number and percentage of beverages and snacks within P/PM 150 categories (Sell Most, Sell Less, Not Permitted) from Time I (2012/2013) to Time II (2014). Representatives from consenting secondary schools assisted researchers in completing a Food Environmental Scan checklist in Times I and II. Sourced nutritional content information (calories, fats, sodium, sugars, ingredients and % daily values) was used to categorize products. The number and percentage of products in P/PM 150 categories were compared between Times by paired t-tests. Of 26 secondary schools participating in total, 19 participated in both Time periods and were included in the study. There were 75 beverages identified (59 Time I, 45 Time II), mostly water, juices and milk-based beverages; and 132 types of snacks (87 Time I, 103 Time II), mostly grain-based snacks, vegetable/fruit chips, and baked goods. A majority of schools offered one or more Not Permitted beverages (47% Time I, 58% Time II) or snacks (74% Time I, 53% Time II). Significantly more schools met P/PM 150 standards for snacks (p = 0.02) but not beverages in Time II. Full P/PM 150 compliance was achieved by few schools, indicating that schools, school boards, public health, and food services need to continue to collaborate to ensure nutrient-poor products are not sold to students in school settings.

  7. Comparison of different methods for ectoparasite infestation detection in Laboratory bred animals and standardization of their health certificate

    mohammad Abdigoudarzi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study external parasites of laboratory reared animals at Razi institute, different methods including brushing of animal's surface body, cellophane tape of body surface, peri-anal cellophane tape test (CTT and skin scrapings and digestive method were applied and collected samples were studied. In addition, field collected rats were tested using brushing method. One mouse had been infested by some mites. Rabbits, rats, mice and guinea pigs had not been infested with external parasites. Field collected rats had been highly infested with mites from the family Laelapidae. The, brushing method was confirmed to be a useful method for mite detection. According to the methods used in this study and these recommended by SOP from international animal breeding centers the CTT method was proposed to be useful for preparing health certificate of laboratory animals at the department of laboratory animal breading at Razi institute.

  8. Construction and equipment requirements for installations and laboratories handling unsealed radioactive materials in low and medium activity - Proposal of an Israeli standard

    Ben-Shlomo, A; Schlesinger, T; Barshad, M [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne (Israel)

    1993-10-01

    Working with unsealed radioactive materials involves risks of internal or external exposure to ionizing radiation. Exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation involves adverse health effects and must be prevented or at least reduced to reasonable levels. Radiation sources in this work are unsealed radioactive materials, that may be solids, liquid or in gaseous states, and in varying toxic levels. Various works and actions that are performed on the unsealed radioactive materials have varying potentials of dispersion, contamination and exposure, so that the combination of the type of work activity, isotope characteristics and physical state dictate the internal and external exposure risks. In order to limit the exposure of the personnel of installations and laboratories which deals with unsealed radioactive materials, national and international authorities and organizations standards and procedures for the requirements of construction and equipment of such installations and laboratories. This document means to be a proposal for an Israeli standard requirements for equipment and construction of installations working with low and medium activity unsealed radioactive materials. The targets for defining the, construction and equipment, requirements are: a. Safety and proper protection of personnel and public from external and internal exposure while the work is done properly. Proper protection against the risk of contaminating the environment. c. Standardization of requirements. d. Proper design of installations and laboratories. e. Supply means for evaluation and reduction of construction costs.The equipment detailed here refers to fixed (none movable) equipment which is a part of the construction of the laboratory or installation, unless specified otherwise. The document starts with a review of the recommendations of some international organizations (WHO, IAEA, NRPB) for construction and equipment requirements for these laboratories and installations. Then the

  9. Implementing the Science Assessment Standards: Developing and validating a set of laboratory assessment tasks in high school biology

    Saha, Gouranga Chandra

    Very often a number of factors, especially time, space and money, deter many science educators from using inquiry-based, hands-on, laboratory practical tasks as alternative assessment instruments in science. A shortage of valid inquiry-based laboratory tasks for high school biology has been cited. Driven by this need, this study addressed the following three research questions: (1) How can laboratory-based performance tasks be designed and developed that are doable by students for whom they are designed/written? (2) Do student responses to the laboratory-based performance tasks validly represent at least some of the intended process skills that new biology learning goals want students to acquire? (3) Are the laboratory-based performance tasks psychometrically consistent as individual tasks and as a set? To answer these questions, three tasks were used from the six biology tasks initially designed and developed by an iterative process of trial testing. Analyses of data from 224 students showed that performance-based laboratory tasks that are doable by all students require careful and iterative process of development. Although the students demonstrated more skill in performing than planning and reasoning, their performances at the item level were very poor for some items. Possible reasons for the poor performances have been discussed and suggestions on how to remediate the deficiencies have been made. Empirical evidences for validity and reliability of the instrument have been presented both from the classical and the modern validity criteria point of view. Limitations of the study have been identified. Finally implications of the study and directions for further research have been discussed.

  10. Standardization of collection requirements for fasting samples: for the Working Group on Preanalytical Phase (WG-PA) of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM).

    Simundic, A M; Cornes, M; Grankvist, K; Lippi, G; Nybo, M

    2014-05-15

    Standardized protocols for patient preparation for laboratory testing are currently lacking. Moreover, a great heterogeneity exists in the definitions of "fasting" currently being used among healthcare workers and in the literature. Marked metabolic and hormonal changes occur after food ingestion, mainly due to the absorption of fluids, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and other food constituents. This postprandial response varies markedly in response to numerous factors, such as eating behavior, food composition, fasting duration, time of the day, chronic and acute smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption. It is therefore crucial to minimize the total variability by controlling as many of these modifying factors as possible. Control of the abovementioned effects on postprandial response can only be achieved by standardizing the way patients are prepared for laboratory testing, i.e. by defining the fasting duration, as well as what is and what is not allowed (e.g., coffee, tea, smoking, water) during the period of fasting prior to sample collection. The aim of this article is to describe the range of effects of different approaches to fasting on laboratory tests, and to provide a framework for the harmonization of definitions for fasting requirements for laboratory tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Do English NHS Microbiology laboratories offer adequate services for the diagnosis of UTI in children? Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership (HQIP) Audit of Standard Operational Procedures.

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Verlander, Neville Q; Moore, Philippa C L; Larcombe, James; Dudley, Jan; Banerjee, Jaydip; Jadresic, Lyda

    2015-09-01

    The National Institute of Care Excellence (NICE) 2007 guidance CG54, on urinary tract infection (UTI) in children, states that clinicians should use urgent microscopy and culture as the preferred method for diagnosing UTI in the hospital setting for severe illness in children under 3 years old and from the GP setting in children under 3 years old with intermediate risk of severe illness. NICE also recommends that all 'infants and children with atypical UTI (including non-Escherichia coli infections) should have renal imaging after a first infection'. We surveyed all microbiology laboratories in England with Clinical Pathology Accreditation to determine standard operating procedures (SOPs) for urgent microscopy, culture and reporting of children's urine and to ascertain whether the SOPs facilitate compliance with NICE guidance. We undertook a computer search in six microbiology laboratories in south-west England to determine urine submissions and urine reports in children under 3 years. Seventy-three per cent of laboratories (110/150) participated. Enterobacteriaceae that were not E. coli were reported only as coliforms (rather than non-E. coli coliforms) by 61% (67/110) of laboratories. Eighty-eight per cent of laboratories (97/110) provided urgent microscopy for hospital and 54% for general practice (GP) paediatric urines; 61% of laboratories (confidence interval 52-70%) cultured 1 μl volume of urine, which equates to one colony if the bacterial load is 106 c.f.u. l(-1). Only 22% (24/110) of laboratories reported non-E. coli coliforms and provided urgent microscopy for both hospital and GP childhood urines; only three laboratories also cultured a 5 μl volume of urine. Only one of six laboratories in our submission audit had a significant increase in urine submissions and urines reported from children less than 3 years old between the predicted pre-2007 level in the absence of guidance and the 2008 level following publication of the NICE guidance. Less than a

  12. Uncertainty and minimum detectable concentrations using relative, absolute and K*0-IAEA standardization for the INAA laboratory of the ETRR-2

    Khalil, M. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) Laboratory of Egypt Second Training and Research Reactor (ETRR-2) is increasingly requested to perform multi-element analysis to large number of samples from different origins. The INAA laboratory has to demonstrate competence by conforming to appropriate internationally and nationally accepted standards. The objective of this work is to determine the uncertainty budget and sensitivity of the INAA laboratory measurements. Concentrations of 9 elements; Mn, Na, K, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, and Cs, were measured against a certified test sample. Relative, absolute, and Ko-IAEA standardization methods were employed and results compared. The flux was monitored using cadmium covered gold method, and multifoil (gold, nickel and zirconium) method. The combined and expanded uncertainties were estimated. Uncertainty of concentrations ranged between 2-21% depending on the standardization method used. The relative method, giving the lowest uncertainty, produced uncertainty budget between 2 and 11%. The minimum detectable concentration was the lowest for Cs ranging between 0.36 and 0.59 ppb and the highest being for K in the range of 0.32 to 8.64 ppm

  13. Characterizing source fingerprints and ageing processes in laboratory-generated secondary organic aerosols using proton-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) analysis and HPLC HULIS determination

    Zanca, Nicola; Lambe, Andrew T.; Massoli, Paola; Paglione, Marco; Croasdale, David R.; Parmar, Yatish; Tagliavini, Emilio; Gilardoni, Stefania; Decesari, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    The study of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in laboratory settings has greatly increased our knowledge of the diverse chemical processes and environmental conditions responsible for the formation of particulate matter starting from biogenic and anthropogenic volatile compounds. However, characteristics of the different experimental setups and the way they impact the composition and the timescale of formation of SOA are still subject to debate. In this study, SOA samples were generated using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) oxidation flow reactor using α-pinene, naphthalene and isoprene as precursors. The PAM reactor facilitated exploration of SOA composition over atmospherically relevant photochemical ageing timescales that are unattainable in environmental chambers. The SOA samples were analyzed using two state-of-the-art analytical techniques for SOA characterization - proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy and HPLC determination of humic-like substances (HULIS). Results were compared with previous Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements. The combined 1H-NMR, HPLC, and AMS datasets show that the composition of the studied SOA systems tend to converge to highly oxidized organic compounds upon prolonged OH exposures. Further, our 1H-NMR findings show that only α-pinene SOA acquires spectroscopic features comparable to those of ambient OA when exposed to at least 1 × 1012 molec OH cm-3 × s OH exposure, or multiple days of equivalent atmospheric OH oxidation. Over multiple days of equivalent OH exposure, the formation of HULIS is observed in both α-pinene SOA and in naphthalene SOA (maximum yields: 16 and 30 %, respectively, of total analyzed water-soluble organic carbon, WSOC), providing evidence of the formation of humic-like polycarboxylic acids in unseeded SOA.

  14. Characterizing source fingerprints and ageing processes in laboratory-generated secondary organic aerosols using proton-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR analysis and HPLC HULIS determination

    N. Zanca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of secondary organic aerosol (SOA in laboratory settings has greatly increased our knowledge of the diverse chemical processes and environmental conditions responsible for the formation of particulate matter starting from biogenic and anthropogenic volatile compounds. However, characteristics of the different experimental setups and the way they impact the composition and the timescale of formation of SOA are still subject to debate. In this study, SOA samples were generated using a potential aerosol mass (PAM oxidation flow reactor using α-pinene, naphthalene and isoprene as precursors. The PAM reactor facilitated exploration of SOA composition over atmospherically relevant photochemical ageing timescales that are unattainable in environmental chambers. The SOA samples were analyzed using two state-of-the-art analytical techniques for SOA characterization – proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy and HPLC determination of humic-like substances (HULIS. Results were compared with previous Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements. The combined 1H-NMR, HPLC, and AMS datasets show that the composition of the studied SOA systems tend to converge to highly oxidized organic compounds upon prolonged OH exposures. Further, our 1H-NMR findings show that only α-pinene SOA acquires spectroscopic features comparable to those of ambient OA when exposed to at least 1  ×  1012 molec OH cm−3  ×  s OH exposure, or multiple days of equivalent atmospheric OH oxidation. Over multiple days of equivalent OH exposure, the formation of HULIS is observed in both α-pinene SOA and in naphthalene SOA (maximum yields: 16 and 30 %, respectively, of total analyzed water-soluble organic carbon, WSOC, providing evidence of the formation of humic-like polycarboxylic acids in unseeded SOA.

  15. STANDARDIZATION OF GLYCOHEMOGLOBIN RESULTS AND REFERENCE VALUES IN WHOLE-BLOOD STUDIED IN 103 LABORATORIES USING 20 METHODS

    WEYKAMP, CW; PENDERS, TJ; MUSKIET, FAJ; VANDERSLIK, W

    We investigated the effect of calibration with lyophilized calibrators on whole-blood glycohemoglobin (glyHb) results. One hundred three laboratories, using 20 different methods, determined glyHb in two lyophilized calibrators and two whole-blood samples. For whole-blood samples with low (5%) and

  16. 75 FR 62842 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    2010-10-13

    ..., Room 2-1042, One Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857; 240-276-2600 (voice), 240-276-2610 (fax...., NOVAMANN (Ontario), Inc.) MedTox Laboratories, Inc., 402 W. County Road D, St. Paul, MN 55112, 651-636-7466...

  17. 75 FR 32950 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    2010-06-10

    .../CSAP, Room 2-1042, One Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857; 240-276-2600 (voice), 240-276-2610...., 402 W. County Road D, St. Paul, MN 55112. 651-636-7466/800-832-3244. MetroLab-Legacy Laboratory...

  18. 75 FR 5088 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    2010-02-01

    .../CSAP, Room 2-1042, One Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857; 240-276-2600 (voice), 240-276-2610...., NOVAMANN (Ontario), Inc.). MedTox Laboratories, Inc., 402 W. County Road D, St. Paul, MN 55112, 651-636...

  19. 75 FR 154 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    2010-01-04

    .../CSAP, Room 2-1042, One Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857; 240-276-2600 (voice), 240-276-2610... Laboratories, Inc., 402 W. County Road D, St. Paul, MN 55112, 651-636-7466/800-832-3244. MetroLab-Legacy...

  20. 75 FR 39023 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    2010-07-07

    .../CSAP, Room 2-1042, One Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857; 240-276-2600 (voice), 240-276-2610..., Inc., 402 W. County Road D, St. Paul, MN 55112, 651-636-7466/800-832-3244. MetroLab-Legacy Laboratory...

  1. 75 FR 27348 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    2010-05-14

    .../CSAP, Room 2-1042, One Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857; 240-276-2600 (voice), 240-276-2610...., 402 W. County Road D, St. Paul, MN 55112, 651-636-7466/800-832-3244. MetroLab-Legacy Laboratory...

  2. 75 FR 9229 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    2010-03-01

    .../CSAP, Room 2-1042, One Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857; 240-276-2600 (voice), 240-276-2610... (Ontario), Inc.) MedTox Laboratories, Inc., 402 W. County Road D, St. Paul, MN 55112, 651-636-7466/800-832...

  3. 75 FR 55795 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    2010-09-14

    .../CSAP, Room 2-1042, One Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857; 240-276-2600 (voice), 240-276-2610..., Inc., 402 W. County Road D, St. Paul, MN 55112, 651-636-7466/800-832-3244. MetroLab-Legacy Laboratory...

  4. 75 FR 16813 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    2010-04-02

    .../CSAP, Room 2-1042, One Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857; 240-276-2600 (voice), 240-276-2610..., Inc., 402 W. County Road D, St. Paul, MN 55112, 651-636-7466/800-832-3244; MetroLab-Legacy Laboratory...

  5. 75 FR 75485 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    2010-12-03

    ..., Room 2-1042, One Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857; 240-276-2600 (voice), 240-276-2610 (fax...., NOVAMANN (Ontario), Inc.). MedTox Laboratories, Inc., 402 W. County Road D, St. Paul, MN 55112. 651-636...

  6. Factors predicting the development of pressure ulcers in an at-risk population who receive standardized preventive care: secondary analyses of a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Demarre, Liesbet; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann; Clays, Els; Grypdonck, Maria; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2015-02-01

    To identify predictive factors associated with the development of pressure ulcers in patients at risk who receive standardized preventive care. Numerous studies have examined factors that predict risk for pressure ulcer development. Only a few studies identified risk factors associated with pressure ulcer development in hospitalized patients receiving standardized preventive care. Secondary analyses of data collected in a multicentre randomized controlled trial. The sample consisted of 610 consecutive patients at risk for pressure ulcer development (Braden Score Pressure ulcers in category II-IV were significantly associated with non-blanchable erythema, urogenital disorders and higher body temperature. Predictive factors significantly associated with superficial pressure ulcers were admission to an internal medicine ward, incontinence-associated dermatitis, non-blanchable erythema and a lower Braden score. Superficial sacral pressure ulcers were significantly associated with incontinence-associated dermatitis. Despite the standardized preventive measures they received, hospitalized patients with non-blanchable erythema, urogenital disorders and a higher body temperature were at increased risk for developing pressure ulcers. Improved identification of at-risk patients can be achieved by taking into account specific predictive factors. Even if preventive measures are in place, continuous assessment and tailoring of interventions is necessary in all patients at risk. Daily skin observation can be used to continuously monitor the effectiveness of the intervention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Analytical performance evaluation of a high-volume hematology laboratory utilizing sigma metrics as standard of excellence.

    Shaikh, M S; Moiz, B

    2016-04-01

    Around two-thirds of important clinical decisions about the management of patients are based on laboratory test results. Clinical laboratories are required to adopt quality control (QC) measures to ensure provision of accurate and precise results. Six sigma is a statistical tool, which provides opportunity to assess performance at the highest level of excellence. The purpose of this study was to assess performance of our hematological parameters on sigma scale in order to identify gaps and hence areas of improvement in patient care. Twelve analytes included in the study were hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red cell distribution width (RDW), total leukocyte count (TLC) with percentages of neutrophils (Neutr%) and lymphocytes (Lymph %), platelet count (Plt), mean platelet volume (MPV), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen (Fbg). Internal quality control data and external quality assurance survey results were utilized for the calculation of sigma metrics for each analyte. Acceptable sigma value of ≥3 was obtained for the majority of the analytes included in the analysis. MCV, Plt, and Fbg achieved value of performed poorly on both level 1 and 2 controls with sigma value of <3. Despite acceptable conventional QC tools, application of sigma metrics can identify analytical deficits and hence prospects for the improvement in clinical laboratories. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Differences in serum thyroglobulin measurements by 3 commercial immunoradiometric assay kits and laboratory standardization using Certified Reference Material 457 (CRM-457).

    Lee, Ji In; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Hee Kyung; Jang, Hye Won; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Wook

    2010-09-01

    Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is essential in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). However, interchangeability and standardization between Tg assays have not yet been achieved, even with the development of an international Tg standard (Certified Reference Material 457 [CRM-457]). Serum Tg from 30 DTC patients and serially diluted CRM-457 were measured using 3 different immunoradiometric assays (IRMA-1, IRMA-2, IRMA-3). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) method was used to describe the concordance of each IRMA to CRM-457. The serum Tg measured by 3 different IRMAs correlated well (r > .85, p CRM-457, showed the best ICC (p(1) = .98) for the CRM-457. Hospitals caring for patients with DTC should either set their own cutoffs for IRMAs for Tg based on their patient pools, or adopt IRMAs standardized to CRM-457 and calibrate their laboratory using CRM-457.

  9. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  10. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

  11. The succinonitrile triple-point standard: a fixed point to improve the accuracy of temperature measurements in the clinical laboratory.

    Mangum, B W

    1983-07-01

    In an investigation of the melting and freezing behavior of succinonitrile, the triple-point temperature was determined to be 58.0805 degrees C, with an estimated uncertainty of +/- 0.0015 degrees C relative to the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 (IPTS-68). The triple-point temperature of this material is evaluated as a temperature-fixed point, and some clinical laboratory applications of this fixed point are proposed. In conjunction with the gallium and ice points, the availability of succinonitrile permits thermistor thermometers to be calibrated accurately and easily on the IPTS-68.

  12. Laboratory studies of the chemical composition and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA and oxidized primary organic aerosol (OPOA

    A. T. Lambe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA and oxidized primary organic aerosol (OPOA were produced in laboratory experiments from the oxidation of fourteen precursors representing atmospherically relevant biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The SOA and OPOA particles were generated via controlled exposure of precursors to OH radicals and/or O3 in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM flow reactor over timescales equivalent to 1–20 days of atmospheric aging. Aerosol mass spectra of SOA and OPOA were measured with an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. The fraction of AMS signal at m/z = 43 and m/z = 44 (f43, f44, the hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C ratio, and the oxygen-to-carbon (O/C ratio of the SOA and OPOA were obtained, which are commonly used to characterize the level of oxidation of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA. The results show that PAM-generated SOA and OPOA can reproduce and extend the observed f44f43 composition beyond that of ambient OOA as measured by an AMS. Van Krevelen diagrams showing H/C ratio as a function of O/C ratio suggest an oxidation mechanism involving formation of carboxylic acids concurrent with fragmentation of carbon-carbon bonds. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity of PAM-generated SOA and OPOA was measured as a function of OH exposure and characterized as a function of O/C ratio. CCN activity of the SOA and OPOA, which was characterized in the form of the hygroscopicity parameter κorg, ranged from 8.4×10−4 to 0.28 over measured O/C ratios ranging from 0.05 to 1.42. This range of κorg and O/C ratio is significantly wider than has been previously obtained. To first order, the κorg-to-O/C relationship is well represented by a linear function of the form κorg = (0.18±0.04 ×O/C + 0.03, suggesting that a simple, semi-empirical parameterization of OOA hygroscopicity and

  13. The role of European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase in standardization and harmonization of the preanalytical phase in Europe

    Cornes, Michael P; Church, Stephen; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety is a leading challenge in healthcare and from the laboratory perspective it is now well established that preanalytical errors are the major contributor to the overall rate of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. To address this, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Labor......Patient safety is a leading challenge in healthcare and from the laboratory perspective it is now well established that preanalytical errors are the major contributor to the overall rate of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. To address this, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry...... and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) was established to lead in standardization and harmonization of preanalytical policies and practices at a European level. One of the key activities of the WG-PRE is the organization of the biennial EFLM-BD conference on the preanalytical...... summarises the work that has and will be done in these areas. The goal of this initiative is to ensure the EFLM WG-PRE produces work that meets the needs of the European laboratory medicine community. Progress made in the identified areas will be updated at the next preanalytical phase conference and show...

  14. Standard Practice for Laboratory Screening of Metallic Containment Materials for Use With Liquids in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1980-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers several laboratory test procedures for evaluating corrosion performance of metallic containment materials under conditions similar to those that may occur in solar heating and cooling systems. All test results relate to the performance of the metallic containment material only as a part of a metal/fluid pair. Performance in these laboratory test procedures, taken by itself, does not necessarily constitute an adequate basis for acceptance or rejection of a particular metal/fluid pair in solar heating and cooling systems, either in general or in a particular design. This practice is not intended to preclude the use of other screening tests, particularly when those tests are designed to more closely simulate field service conditions. 1.2 This practice describes apparatus and procedures for several tests, any one or more of which may be used to evaluate the deterioration of the metallic containment material in a metal/fluid pair. The procedures are designed to permit simulation, heating...

  15. Experiences of a secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration from the radiation protection and hygiene center CPHR in its first year of work and the procedures for quality assessment used in the calibration and quality control service

    Morales, J.A.; Campa, R.; Jova Sed, L.

    1996-01-01

    Experiences of a secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration from the Radiation Protection and Hygiene Center (CPHR) in first year of work and the procedures for quality assessment used in the calibration and quality control service of radiotherapeutic equipment. For the yield calibration of the calibrated sources an ionometric method was used using ionizing chambers coupled to electrometers. Those determination were based on dosimetric American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM)

  16. The evaluation of accuracy of NAA method used by P2TRR laboratory with food standard reference material analysis

    Rina M, Th.; Sri-Wardhani; Sunarko

    2003-01-01

    The NAA method is the analysis method with high precision and accuracy level. The precision and accuracy of NAA laboratory in P2TRR had been evaluated with SRM 1573a Tomato Leaf and CRM No.9 Sargasso. Samples were irradiated in RSG-GAS's rabbit system and counted with gamma spectrometry. The results obtained from this research are for the SRM 1573a sample the test could analyze 17 elements of the 40 certified elements, and for CRM No.9 sample the test could analyze 16 elements of the 30 certified elements. The result of quantitative analysis indicate the different deviation of each element between 2 -10.5 % compared to the certificate data. This deviation value <15%, this value shows that the precision and accuracy level is good enough

  17. Worker Safety and Health Issues Associated with the DOE Environmental Cleanup Program: Insights From the DOE Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public health Standards Steering Group

    M.C. Edelson; Samuel C. Morris; Joan M. Daisey

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public Health Standards Steering Group (or ''SSG'') was formed in 1990. It was felt then that ''risk'' could be an organizing principle for environmental cleanup and that risk-based cleanup standards could rationalize clean up work. The environmental remediation process puts workers engaged in cleanup activities at risk from hazardous materials and from the more usual hazards associated with construction activities. In a real sense, the site remediation process involves the transfer of a hypothetical risk to the environment and the public from isolated contamination into real risks to the workers engaged in the remediation activities. Late in its existence the SSG, primarily motivated by its LANL representative, Dr. Harry Ettinger, actively investigated issues associated with worker health and safety during environmental remediation activities. This paper summarizes the insights noted by the SSG. Most continue to be pertinent today

  18. Computer Assisted Fluid Power Instruction: A Comparison of Hands-On and Computer-Simulated Laboratory Experiences for Post-Secondary Students

    Wilson, Scott B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of utilizing a combination of lecture and computer resources to train personnel to assume roles as hydraulic system technicians and specialists in the fluid power industry. This study compared computer simulated laboratory instruction to traditional hands-on laboratory instruction,…

  19. NVLAP activities at Department of Defense calibration laboratories

    Schaeffer, D.M. [Defense Nuclear Agency, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    There are 367 active radiological instrument calibration laboratories within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Each of the four services in DoD manages, operates, and certifies the technical proficiency and competency of those laboratories under their cognizance. Each service has designated secondary calibration laboratories to trace all calibration source standards to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Individual service radiological calibration programs and capabilities, present and future, are described, as well as the measurement quality assurance (MQA) processes for their traceability. National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) programs for dosimetry systems are briefly summarized. Planned NVLAP accreditation of secondary laboratories is discussed in the context of current technical challenges and future efforts.

  20. NVLAP activities at Department of Defense calibration laboratories

    Schaeffer, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    There are 367 active radiological instrument calibration laboratories within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Each of the four services in DoD manages, operates, and certifies the technical proficiency and competency of those laboratories under their cognizance. Each service has designated secondary calibration laboratories to trace all calibration source standards to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Individual service radiological calibration programs and capabilities, present and future, are described, as well as the measurement quality assurance (MQA) processes for their traceability. National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) programs for dosimetry systems are briefly summarized. Planned NVLAP accreditation of secondary laboratories is discussed in the context of current technical challenges and future efforts

  1. Critical issues for implementation of the standard NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005 in Testing and Calibration Laboratory: case study at a public institution

    Castro, Denise Confar Carvalho de

    2013-01-01

    The public institution aims to promote excellence in public management to contribute to the quality of services provided to its customers and to increase competitiveness in the country, as well as its international projection. A technical barrier to trade that can lead to dissatisfaction and achieve the reputation of the institution is failing the test or calibration results and measurement data, thereby accreditation is regarded as the first essential step to facilitate the mutual acceptance of test results and calibration or measurement data. For recognition, laboratories need to demonstrate full compliance with both the sections of ISO/IEC 17025:2005, i.e. management and technical requirements. This research aims to discuss the critical aspects for implementation of ABNT NBR ISO / IEC 17025:2005 for calibration and testing of a Public Institution seeking accreditation of its laboratories with INMETRO, national accreditation body Laboratories. Besides getting preventive, corrective and improvement actions continues guidelines. Furthermore, the methodology used was to conduct a literature search and apply a questionnaire to identify the degree of agreement / disagreement of the foundations of the standard servers. Analysis of the results showed that the critical issues were: commitment, training, resources (infrastructure, human) and culture. (author)

  2. The dissipation and microbial ecotoxicity of tebuconazole and its transformation products in soil under standard laboratory and simulated winter conditions.

    El Azhari, Najoi; Dermou, Eftychia; Barnard, Romain L; Storck, Veronika; Tourna, Maria; Beguet, Jérémie; Karas, Panagiotis A; Lucini, Luigi; Rouard, Nadine; Botteri, Lucio; Ferrari, Federico; Trevisan, Marco; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2018-05-12

    Tebuconazole (TBZ) is a widely used triazole fungicide at EU level on cereals and vines. It is relatively persistent in soil where it is transformed to various transformation products (TPs) which might be environmentally relevant. We assessed the dissipation of TBZ in soil under contrasting incubation conditions (standard vs winter simulated) that are relevant to its application scheme, determined its transformation pathway using advanced analytical tools and 14 C-labeled TBZ and assessed its soil microbial toxicity. Mineralization of 14 C-triazole-ring-labeled TBZ was negligible but up to 11% of 14 C-penyl-ring-labeled TBZ evolved as 14 CO 2 within 150 days of incubation. TBZ persistence increased at higher dose rates (×10 compared to the recommended agronomical dose ×1) and under winter simulated conditions compared to standard incubation conditions (at ×1 dose rate DT 50 of 202 and 88 days, respectively). Non-target suspect screening enabled the detection of 22 TPs of TBZ, among which 17 were unknown. Mass spectrometry analysis led to the identification of 1-(4-chlorophenyl) ethanone, a novel TP of TBZ, the formation of which and decay in soil was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Three hypothetical transformation pathways of TBZ, all converging to 1H-1,2,4-triazole are proposed based on suspect screening. The ecotoxicological effect of TBZ and of its TPs was assessed by measuring by qPCR the abundance of the total bacteria and the relative abundance of 11 prokaryotic taxa and 4 functional groups. A transient impact of TBZ on the relative abundance of all prokaryotic taxa (except α-proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes) and one functional microbial group (pcaH-carrying microorganisms) was observed. However the direction of the effect (positive or negative) varied, and in certain cases, depended on the incubation conditions. Proteobacteria was the most responsive phylum to TBZ with recovery observed 20 days after treatment. The

  3. Secondary Hypertension

    Secondary hypertension Overview Secondary hypertension (secondary high blood pressure) is high blood pressure that's caused by another medical condition. Secondary hypertension can be caused by conditions that affect your kidneys, ...

  4. Validation of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing assay with 49 SNPs for forensic genetic testing in a laboratory accredited according to the ISO 17025 standard

    Børsting, Claus; Rockenbauer, Eszter; Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    cases and 33 twin cases were typed at least twice for the 49 SNPs. All electropherograms were analysed independently by two expert analysts prior to approval. Based on these results, detailed guidelines for analysis of the SBE products were developed. With these guidelines, the peak height ratio...... of a heterozygous allele call or the signal to noise ratio of a homozygous allele call is compared with previously obtained ratios. A laboratory protocol for analysis of SBE products was developed where allele calls with unusual ratios were highlighted to facilitate the analysis of difficult allele calls......A multiplex assay with 49 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for human identification was validated for forensic genetic casework and accredited according to the ISO 17025 standard. The multiplex assay was based on the SNPforID 52plex SNP assay [J.J. Sanchez, C. Phillips, C...

  5. Supplementing the Braden scale for pressure ulcer risk among medical inpatients: the contribution of self-reported symptoms and standard laboratory tests.

    Skogestad, Ingrid Johansen; Martinsen, Liv; Børsting, Tove Elisabet; Granheim, Tove Irene; Ludvigsen, Eirin Sigurdssøn; Gay, Caryl L; Lerdal, Anners

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate medical inpatients' symptom experience and selected laboratory blood results as indicators of their pressure ulcer risk as measured by the Braden scale. Pressure ulcers reduce quality of life and increase treatment costs. The prevalence of pressure ulcers is 6-23% in hospital populations, but literature suggests that most pressure ulcers are avoidable. Prospective, cross-sectional survey. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients admitted to medical wards in an acute hospital in Oslo, Norway consented to participate. Data were collected on 10 days between 2012-2014 by registered nurses and nursing students. Pressure ulcer risk was assessed using the Braden scale, and scores indicated pressure ulcer risk. Skin examinations were categorised as normal or stages I-IV using established definitions. Comorbidities were collected by self-report. Self-reported symptom occurrence and distress were measured with 15 items from the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and pain was assessed using two numeric rating scales. Admission laboratory data were collected from medical records. Prevalence of pressure ulcers was 11·9, and 20·4% of patients were identified as being at risk for developing pressure ulcers. Multivariable analysis showed that pressure ulcer risk was positively associated with age ≥80 years, vomiting, severe pain at rest, urination problems, shortness of breath and low albumin and was negatively associated with nervousness. Our study indicates that using patient-reported symptoms and standard laboratory results as supplemental indicators of pressure ulcer risk may improve identification of vulnerable patients, but replication of these findings in other study samples is needed. Nurses play a key role in preventing pressure ulcers during hospitalisation. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may improve the quality of care. Knowledge about symptoms associated with pressure ulcer risk may contribute to a faster clinical judgment of

  6. Monte Carlo analysis of the Neutron Standards Laboratory of the CIEMAT; Analisis Monte Carlo del Laboratorio de Patrones Neutronicos del CIEMAT

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez V, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Guzman G, K. A., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, C. Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    By means of Monte Carlo methods was characterized the neutrons field produced by calibration sources in the Neutron Standards Laboratory of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT). The laboratory has two neutron calibration sources: {sup 241}AmBe and {sup 252}Cf which are stored in a water pool and are placed on the calibration bench using controlled systems at distance. To characterize the neutrons field was built a three-dimensional model of the room where it was included the stainless steel bench, the irradiation table and the storage pool. The sources model included double encapsulated of steel, as cladding. With the purpose of determining the effect that produces the presence of the different components of the room, during the characterization the neutrons spectra, the total flow and the rapidity of environmental equivalent dose to 100 cm of the source were considered. The presence of the walls, floor and ceiling of the room is causing the most modification in the spectra and the integral values of the flow and the rapidity of environmental equivalent dose. (Author)

  7. Comparison of the laboratory standard washing using CIPAC washing agent and the domestic washing on three recommended types of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets.

    Ouattara, Jean Pierre Nabléni; Louwagie, Johanna; Pigeon, Olivier; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is "Savon de Marseille", because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54(th) Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC) Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized "CIPAC washing agent". The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1) and a domestic washing (method-2) on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient. Interceptor®, Permanet®2.0 and Netprotect® nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography. The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor® and Permanet®2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect® nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide. Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect® nets. All net types seemed to be effectively

  8. Comparison of the laboratory standard washing using CIPAC washing agent and the domestic washing on three recommended types of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets.

    Jean Pierre Nabléni Ouattara

    Full Text Available One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is "Savon de Marseille", because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54(th Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized "CIPAC washing agent". The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1 and a domestic washing (method-2 on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient.Interceptor®, Permanet®2.0 and Netprotect® nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography.The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor® and Permanet®2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect® nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide.Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect® nets. All net types seemed to be

  9. Clinical and laboratory findings in 220 children with recurrent abdominal pain

    Gijsbers, C. F. M.; Benninga, M. A.; Büller, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the clinical and laboratory findings in children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). Methods: Consecutive patients with RAP (Apley criteria), age 4-16 years, referred to a secondary medical centre were evaluated by a standardized history, physical examination and laboratory

  10. Influence of natural substrates and co-occurring marine bacteria on the production of secondary metabolites by Photobacterium halotolerans

    Månsson, Maria; Giobergia, Sonia; Møller, Kirsten A.

    Genome sequences reveal that our current standard laboratory conditions only support a fraction of the potential secondary metabolism in bacteria. Thus, we must rethink cultivation, detection, and isolation strategies for bacterial secondary metabolites in order to explore the huge, so far...

  11. Comparison of the peripheral blood eosinophil count using near-patient testing and standard automated laboratory measurement in healthy, asthmatic and COPD subjects

    Hambleton K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsty Hambleton, Clare M Connolly, Catherine Borg, Joanne H Davies, Helen P Jeffers, Richard EK Russell, Mona Bafadhel Respiratory Medicine Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Abstract: Near-patient testing (NPT allows clinical decisions to be made in a rapid and convenient manner and is often cost effective. In COPD the peripheral blood eosinophil count has been demonstrated to have utility in providing prognostic information and predicting response to treatment during an acute exacerbation. For this potential to be achieved having a reliable NPT of blood eosinophil count would be extremely useful. Therefore, we investigated the use of the HemoCue® WBC Diff System and evaluated its sensitivity and specificity in healthy, asthmatic and COPD subjects. This method requires a simple skin prick of blood and was compared to standard venepuncture laboratory analysis. The HemoCue® WBC Diff System measured the peripheral blood eosinophil count in healthy, asthma and COPD subjects with very close correlation to the eosinophil count as measured by standard venepuncture. The correlations were unaffected by disease status. This method for the measurement of the peripheral blood eosinophil count has the potential to provide rapid near-patient results and thus influence the speed of management decisions in the treatment of airway diseases. Keywords: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eosinophils, near-patient testing

  12. Radiological Calibration and Standards Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL maintains a state-of-the-art Radiological Calibration and Standards Laboratory on the Hanford Site at Richland, Washington. Laboratory staff provide expertise...

  13. Production of trichothecenes and other secondary metabolites by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium equiseti on common laboratory media and a soil organic matter agar: An ecological interpretation

    Hestbjerg, H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Thrane, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    trichothecene production was detected for 94 of 102 F culmorum isolates, only 8 of 57 F equiseti isolates were positive. Profiles of secondary metabolites were compared by following growth on yeast extract sucrose agar (YES), potato sucrose agar (PSA), and an agar medium, prepared from soil organic matter (SOM......), which was included to simulate growth, conditions in soil. SOM supported the production of chrysogine by F culmorum. The two species utilized the media differently. F culmorum produced zearalenone (ZEA) on YES, whereas some F. equiseti isolates produced ZEA on PSA. Other F. equiseti isolates produced...

  14. Laboratory implantation for well type ionization chambers calibration

    Vianello, E.A.; Dias, D.J.; Almeida, C.E. de

    1998-01-01

    The Radiological Science Laboratory is implanting a service for calibration of well type chambers by IAEA training program. The kerma rate in the air (mu Gy/h) of the linear Cs-137 reference source CDCS-J4 have been determined using a well type chamber Standard Imaging HDR-1000 model, which have been calibrated at Secondary Standard Laboratory Calibration of IAEA, whereas two HDR-1000 Plus chambers were calibrated too, following the same standards. The results were compared with Wisconsin University calibration certification and has demonstrated that well type ionization chamber calibration can be used in brachytherapy for several kinds of radionuclides. (Author)

  15. Measuring maximum and standard metabolic rates using intermittent-flow respirometry: a student laboratory investigation of aerobic metabolic scope and environmental hypoxia in aquatic breathers.

    Rosewarne, P J; Wilson, J M; Svendsen, J C

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rate is one of the most widely measured physiological traits in animals and may be influenced by both endogenous (e.g. body mass) and exogenous factors (e.g. oxygen availability and temperature). Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) are two fundamental physiological variables providing the floor and ceiling in aerobic energy metabolism. The total amount of energy available between these two variables constitutes the aerobic metabolic scope (AMS). A laboratory exercise aimed at an undergraduate level physiology class, which details the appropriate data acquisition methods and calculations to measure oxygen consumption rates in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, is presented here. Specifically, the teaching exercise employs intermittent flow respirometry to measure SMR and MMR, derives AMS from the measurements and demonstrates how AMS is affected by environmental oxygen. Students' results typically reveal a decline in AMS in response to environmental hypoxia. The same techniques can be applied to investigate the influence of other key factors on metabolic rate (e.g. temperature and body mass). Discussion of the results develops students' understanding of the mechanisms underlying these fundamental physiological traits and the influence of exogenous factors. More generally, the teaching exercise outlines essential laboratory concepts in addition to metabolic rate calculations, data acquisition and unit conversions that enhance competency in quantitative analysis and reasoning. Finally, the described procedures are generally applicable to other fish species or aquatic breathers such as crustaceans (e.g. crayfish) and provide an alternative to using higher (or more derived) animals to investigate questions related to metabolic physiology. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Standards for Quality Programs in Agricultural Occupations in the Secondary Schools and Area Vocational Centers of Illinois. Phase II. A Progress Report.

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    The purpose of this project was to prepare materials to be used in the review and evaluation of an agricultural occupations program. Based on standards validated by Illinois agricultural occupations teachers, a standards workbook was developed that included standards specific to agricultural production, agricultural sales and service, agricultural…

  17. Smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis and AFB examination practices according to the standard checklist of WHO's tuberculosis laboratory assessment tool in three governmental hospitals, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Mekonnen, Abiyu

    2014-05-13

    Using the Directly Observed Treatment-Short course (DOTS) program the World Health Organization's global target was to detect 70% of new sputum-smear positive PTB cases. Smear positive PTB cases are more infectious than the smear negative cases. The TB case detection rate remains very low in Ethiopia, but there are increases in smear-negative PTB diagnosis which could be attributed to several factors including poor quality of sputum smear-microscopy. A five years retrospective record review of data between September, 2007 and August, 2012 and an in-depth assessment of AFB staining practices of sputum smear using a standard checklist were made. The proportion of smear positive cases relative to overall Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) screened was determined over a five year period to indicate the overall prevalence and the trend. Odds ratio with 95 percent confidence interval was calculated for categorical variables using multivariate Logistic Regression model to assess the strength of association. A total of 1266 individuals' data were reviewed. The majority of the study participants were male, 704 (55.6%), and rural residents, 690 (54.5%). The overall prevalence rate of smear positive PTB was 21.6%. Age categories between 15-24 and 25-34 years were independent predictors of smear positive PTB with adjusted odds ratio of 2.246 [95% CI (1.098-4.597)] and 2.267 [95% CI (1.107-4.642)], respectively. More males were affected by PTB than females with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.426 [95% CI (1.083-1.879)]. An in-depth interview with the respective laboratory chiefs showed that quality control measures for sputum smear microscopy were used at different levels of the testing activities; however, equipment function verification as a quality control measure was not accomplished regularly in all of the study hospital laboratories. The smear positive PTB case detection rate indicated in this study is significantly lower than the countries which met the 70% target of the World Health

  18. Establishment of qualities mammography according to the standard IEC-61267 in the laboratory of metrology of ionizing radiation of the National Center of Dosimetry and enlargement of the accreditation by ENAC

    Roig Petit, F.; Mestre de Juan, V.; Alabau Albors, J.; Palma Copete, J.; Ruiz Rodriguez, J. C.; Pons Mocholi, S.

    2013-01-01

    The extension of the accreditation of the laboratory of the National Center Dosimetry (No. 58/LC10.036) by the national accreditation entity (ENAC), according to the ISO 17025 standard [2], for the standard qualities of mammography by the IEC 61267 comes to meet part of the needs that demand our health care environment in terms of radiation measuring instruments calibration. This work intends to publicize this enlargement commenting on the different phases of the process to get the accreditation. (Author)

  19. Laboratory investigations on the corrosion rate of A42 carbon steel in various secondary circuit chemistries representative of hydraulic tests conditions

    Brussieux, C.; Clinard, M.H.; Guillodo, M.; Alos-Ramos, O.

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia and hydrazine are currently used in the chemical conditioning of steam generators hydraulic test medium to minimize the corrosion rate of carbon steels. However, hydrazine is classified carcinogenic by the European Commission. Significant effort is therefore ongoing to limit its use or even replace it. The results presented in this paper were obtained in the frame of an EDF and AREVA research program on the subject. The corrosion rate of carbon steel in alkaline media with hydrazine was thoroughly studied. However, most studies concern polished coupons and very few data are available for carbon steel covered with oxides layer(s) representative of the layer(s) which can be found in a SG after operation. In this context, the corrosion rate at 25°C of carbon steel pre-oxidized by an autoclave treatment was studied. The tests coupons were submitted to a secondary circuit chemical conditioning treatment in an autoclave at 280°C during 30 days prior to the corrosion rate measurement. The corrosion rates were measured during two months by an electrochemical method (polarization resistance) in test media composed with deionized water, ammonia and hydrazine under an air blanket at 25°C. Similitudes with steam generators' volume/surface ratios were respected during these tests. The coupons submitted to an autoclave treatment were covered by a duplex magnetite layer. After exposure to hydrazine and ageing, the structure of the magnetite layer contains bigger crystallites than after ageing without exposure to hydrazine. The corrosion rate of passive A42 steel exposed to hydrazine was stable and low even after the complete consumption of hydrazine during at least 50 days. The corrosion rate of passive A42 steel not exposed to hydrazine grew steadily to reach the same corrosion rates as polished carbon steels within 50 days. The hydrazine consumption rate observed in the presence of magnetite covered A42 carbon steel was found higher than 1mg/kg/hour. To explain

  20. Characterization of XR-RV3 GafChromic{sup ®} films in standard laboratory and in clinical conditions and means to evaluate uncertainties and reduce errors

    Farah, J., E-mail: jad.farah@irsn.fr; Clairand, I.; Huet, C. [External Dosimetry Department, Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), BP-17, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Trianni, A. [Medical Physics Department, Udine University Hospital S. Maria della Misericordia (AOUD), p.le S. Maria della Misericordia, 15, 33100 Udine (Italy); Ciraj-Bjelac, O. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences (VINCA), P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); De Angelis, C. [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Delle Canne, S. [Fatebenefratelli San Giovanni Calibita Hospital (FBF), UOC Medical Physics - Isola Tiberina, 00186 Rome (Italy); Hadid, L.; Waryn, M. J. [Radiology Department, Hôpital Jean Verdier (HJV), Avenue du 14 Juillet, 93140 Bondy Cedex (France); Jarvinen, H.; Siiskonen, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Negri, A. [Veneto Institute of Oncology (IOV), Via Gattamelata 64, 35124 Padova (Italy); Novák, L. [National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI), Bartoškova 28, 140 00 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Pinto, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti (ENEA-INMRI), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, I-00123 Santa Maria di Galeria (RM) (Italy); Knežević, Ž. [Ruđer Bošković Institute (RBI), Bijenička c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the optimal use of XR-RV3 GafChromic{sup ®} films to assess patient skin dose in interventional radiology while addressing the means to reduce uncertainties in dose assessment. Methods: XR-Type R GafChromic films have been shown to represent the most efficient and suitable solution to determine patient skin dose in interventional procedures. As film dosimetry can be associated with high uncertainty, this paper presents the EURADOS WG 12 initiative to carry out a comprehensive study of film characteristics with a multisite approach. The considered sources of uncertainties include scanner, film, and fitting-related errors. The work focused on studying film behavior with clinical high-dose-rate pulsed beams (previously unavailable in the literature) together with reference standard laboratory beams. Results: First, the performance analysis of six different scanner models has shown that scan uniformity perpendicular to the lamp motion axis and that long term stability are the main sources of scanner-related uncertainties. These could induce errors of up to 7% on the film readings unless regularly checked and corrected. Typically, scan uniformity correction matrices and reading normalization to the scanner-specific and daily background reading should be done. In addition, the analysis on multiple film batches has shown that XR-RV3 films have generally good uniformity within one batch (<1.5%), require 24 h to stabilize after the irradiation and their response is roughly independent of dose rate (<5%). However, XR-RV3 films showed large variations (up to 15%) with radiation quality both in standard laboratory and in clinical conditions. As such, and prior to conducting patient skin dose measurements, it is mandatory to choose the appropriate calibration beam quality depending on the characteristics of the x-ray systems that will be used clinically. In addition, yellow side film irradiations should be preferentially used since they showed a lower

  1. SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOLIDARITY IN STRICT POST-GRADUATION: EXPERIENCING THE LABORATORY "SCIENTIFIC WAKE FOR THE FUTURE" (PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION).

    Noronha, Silvana Aparecida Alves Corrêa de; Bernardes, Linda; Noronha, Samuel Marcos Ribeiro de; Nascimento, Fernanda Amorim de Morais; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To stimulate and awakening the interest of students of high school or elementary public schools in research and science through scientific initiation stages in the Postgraduate Program in Translational Surgery. To stimulate and awakening the interest of students of high school or elementary public schools in research and science through scientific initiation stages in the Postgraduate Program in Translational Surgery. The target audience for the development of scientific activities were students enrolled in mid-level course (second year initially) and have approval of their participation in this project by the school and by legal guardians. The inclusion criteria were: physical proximity to the higher education institution, signing the consent form by the legal responsible for the students, and for the board of the school unit and the researcher. Initially, students performed diagnostic evaluation about the prior knowledge of biology, science and scientific research. From there, the classes were prepared based on the result of this test, then started the activities of Junior Scientific Initiation in basic education. The school chosen for this initial phase of the pilot project was the State School Rui Bloem which has 13 classrooms for the second year of medium education in a total of 390 students. Of these, 160 (41%) were interested but only 16 (10%) were eligible to start the pilot project in Translational Surgery Laboratory of Unifesp. These students showed average yield of 50% in diagnostic test and should start the next training in cell and molecular biology laboratory and also to attend scientific meetings. In the initial phase of the project, was observed the great student interest in scientific career, but at the same time, a great need for improvement. The choice of public school was for access to university and proximity. In addition, these students have more shortcomings and deficiencies. But this does not mean that the fascination for scientific career

  2. Point of care technology or standard laboratory service in an emergency department: is there a difference in time to action? A randomised trial

    Backer Mogensen, Christian; Borch, Anders; Brandslund, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    services. However, the question is if the time to clinical action is also reduced if a decisive laboratory answer is available during the first contact between the patient and doctor. The present study addresses this question: Does a laboratory answer, provided by POCT to the doctor who first attends...

  3. Performance study of the primary standard ionization chamber for deployment of the diagnostic radiology qualities

    Cardoso, Ricardo de Souza; Bossio, Francisco; Quaresma, Daniel da Silva; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Activities radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and radiation protection, require knowledge of physical and dosimetric parameters, to be applied safely. Aiming to meet demand in Brazil, the National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionising Radiation - LNMRI - is deploying the primary standard for the calibration of secondary standard chambers, used in quality control in hospitals, clinics and industries. (author)

  4. Concept for a primary Romanian radon standard

    Sahagia, M.; Stanga, D.; Waetjen, A.C.; Luca, A.; Toro, L.; Varlam, C.; Cassette, P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of a complex system, aimed to assure the traceability of 222 Rn measurements, from the absolute (primary) standardization to the preparation and delivery of secondary standards, gas vials. The system will contain a solid 226 Ra source, a gas radon circuit, connections with a liquid scintillator vial and with glass vials. The absolute standardization of the 222 Rn, in equilibrium with all the short half life daughters, will be performed by the method of the Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). The system, and method, will allow our laboratory to take part in future international 222 Rn comparisons. The transfer of activity unit from the primary to the secondary standardization will be performed by the preparation of vials with 222 Rn gas, comparative measurements by LSC and a GeHP gamma-ray spectrometry system, or a well type NaI(Tl) crystal, and their link. The secondary standards will be used for the calibration of measurement instruments, for assurance of controlled radon atmosphere in 'radon chambers', and for the validation of some calculation models for various detectors efficiency. The range of activities for secondary standards is in agreement with the national measurement necessities. (author)

  5. (Re)implantation of quality system of LCR (Laboratory for Radiation Sciences) for accreditation in the standard ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005

    Leite, Sandro P.; Fernandes, Elisabeth O.; David, Mariano G.; Pires, Evandro J.; Alves, Carlos F.E.; Almeida, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents preparing procedure of the metrology laboratory (LABMETRO), which belongs Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas of Rio de Janeiro , for postulating accreditation of its services metrology to INMETRO. This process, supported by the Technological Services Network SIBRATEC/FINEP for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Technological Services, had as one of its aims to avoid possible technical barriers to the purchase services in the area of ionizing radiation laboratories. Accreditation will also enable the integration of services such laboratories in Brazilian Calibration Network (RBC). (author)

  6. Selecting clinical quality indicators for laboratory medicine.

    Barth, Julian H

    2012-05-01

    Quality in laboratory medicine is often described as doing the right test at the right time for the right person. Laboratory processes currently operate under the oversight of an accreditation body which gives confidence that the process is good. However, there are aspects of quality that are not measured by these processes. These are largely focused on ensuring that the most clinically appropriate test is performed and interpreted correctly. Clinical quality indicators were selected through a two-phase process. Firstly, a series of focus groups of clinical scientists were held with the aim of developing a list of quality indicators. These were subsequently ranked in order by an expert panel of primary and secondary care physicians. The 10 top indicators included the communication of critical results, comprehensive education to all users and adequate quality assurance for point-of-care testing. Laboratories should ensure their tests are used to national standards, that they have clinical utility, are calibrated to national standards and have long-term stability for chronic disease management. Laboratories should have error logs and demonstrate evidence of measures introduced to reduce chances of similar future errors. Laboratories should make a formal scientific evaluation of analytical quality. This paper describes the process of selection of quality indicators for laboratory medicine that have been validated sequentially by deliverers and users of the service. They now need to be converted into measureable variables related to outcome and validated in practice.

  7. Quality control at the Regional Centre of Nuclear Sciences chemical dosimetry laboratory

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Melo, Roberto T. de; Silva, Danubia B. da; Pedroza, Eryka H.; Rodrigues, Kelia R.G.; Cunha, Manuela S. da; Figueiredo, Marcela D.C. de [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Oliveira, Aristides, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: rtmelo@cnen.gov.b [Hospital de Cancer de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Standards for accreditation of laboratories as in ISO 9001 in section: 4.11 require inspection, measuring and equipment testing; likewise, IEC 17025: 2005 in section: 5.5.2 requires the equipment to be calibrated or verified before being put into use. In our laboratory, quality control is often accomplished by standards set done by the laboratory scientists themselves; however, at present, Hellma secondary calibration standards (4026 - Holmium oxide - Filters: F0, F2, F3, F4 and filter didymium - F7) have been used in order to verify if errors in the laboratory have been close to the 1-2% margin. Control graphs were made by using the results of synthetically prepared standards and standardized spectral calibration certificates. The set of secondary calibration standards permits to check the accuracy of the spectrophotometers used in research for both the absorbance in the visible spectrum (at 440, 465, 546, 590 and 635 nm wavelengths) and for the wavelengths (270, 280, 300, 320 nm) of the ultraviolet light. Filters (F0, F2, F3, F4 and F7) are stable and do not suffer the influence of temperature (the influence is negligible), the F0 filter was being used as a blank. The purpose is to verify whether the spectrometer needs adjustments, an important procedure to check absorbance stability, baseline flatness, slit width accuracy and stray radiation. The calibration tests are performed annually in our laboratory and recalibration of Hellma secondary standards is recommended every two years. The results show that the Chemical Dosimetry Laboratory in CRCN has a calibrated spectrophotometer and their synthetic standards for Fricke dosimetry could be used as an alternative method for testing the proficiency and competence of calibration laboratories in accordance with the regulations and standards. (author)

  8. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    2010-07-01

    ... a daily maximum hourly average ozone measurement that is greater than the level of the standard... determining the expected number of annual exceedances relate to accounting for incomplete sampling. In general... measurement. In some cases, a measurement might actually have been missed but in other cases no measurement...

  9. An Examination of Secondary School Teachers' Technology Integration Recommended by ISTE's National Educational Technology Standards for Teachers and School Principal Support for Teacher Technology Efforts

    Esposito, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The National Educational Technology Standards for teachers (NETS-T) was adopted by New York State, and was critical to the development of students entering a global society. This study examines teachers' use of digital tools to promote student learning and reflection, promote digital citizenship, communicate and collaborate with parents and…

  10. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  11. Main results of the standardization through anti-coincident from the Brazilian Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiations - LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ in the last 8 years

    Silva, Carlos J. da

    2014-01-01

    The LNMRI implemented in 2006 a system of time keeping in anticoincidence live in this time and dead time extensible today 18 radionuclides were standardized. To store the results of these primary standardization the LNMRI/IRD reference with ionization chamber were calibrated with these standards. In this work will be discussed the main operational difficulties and components of uncertainty and the main results. (author)

  12. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. XVI. Improved Accuracy in the Infrared Spectra of the Secondary and Tertiary Standard Calibration Stars

    2006-10-01

    resolution ( AlA ). -, 400) spectroscopy obtained on infrared standard stars by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on the Infrared Space Observatory with high...1995): 2.1-2.4 pm Strecker et al. (1979): 1.22-2.4 pm 6 See http://vizier.hia.nrc.ca/viz-bin/VizieR. REFERENCES Alonso, A., Salaris, M., Arribas , S...Haddock, D. J., Arribas , S., Leggett, S. K., & Mountain, C. M. 1988, A&AS, 74, 127

  13. The Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Activity Concentration Measurements at PSI; Das Referenzlabor fuer Radongas-Konzentrationsmessungen am PSI

    Schuler, Christoph

    1998-09-01

    Active or passive radon gas measuring instruments are exposed during intercomparison exercises in the radon chamber of the Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Concentration Measurements at Paul Scherrer Institut: The traceability of radon gas measurements to nationally and internationally acknowledged standards is inspected in the reference atmosphere of the chamber with calibrated {sup 222}Rn activity concentration. The use of secondary standards guarantees the traceability of the radon chamber reference atmosphere. Besides the principal secondary standard, a radon gas standard (secondary standard I), a {sup 226}Ra standard solution (secondary standard II) and a {sup 222}Rn emanation standard (secondary standard III) are used. The {sup 222}Rn activity delivered by one of these standards is quantitatively transferred into a reference volume and hence converted to an activity concentration serving for the calibration of a measuring instrument transfer standard consisting of scintillation cell and counter. By this way, the transfer standard calibration is related and traceable to the internationally acknowledged primary standard laboratories National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (U.S.A.) or National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex (UK). The calibrated transfer standard is then used to calibrate the radon gas activity concentration in the radon chamber. For a single grab sampling determination of the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration in the radon chamber with the transfer standard, the estimation of Type A and Type B uncertainties yields a relative expanded uncertainty (95% confidence level) of minimum 3% for high concentration levels (10 kBqm{sup -3}) and maximum 30% for low concentration levels (0.2 kBqm{sup -3}). Extended evaluations of the reproducibility of calibration factor measurements obtained by calibration of the transfer standard with the secondary standards I, II and III show a very good reproducibility quality

  14. [Secondary hypertension].

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice.

  15. Comparison of a new rapid plasma reagin card test with the standard rapid plasma reagin 18-mm circle card test and the venereal disease research laboratory slide test for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    Hambie, E A; Larsen, S A; Perryman, M W; Pettit, D E; Mullally, R L; Whittington, W

    1983-01-01

    The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test manufactured by Beckman Instruments, Inc., was compared, qualitatively and quantitatively, with the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test and the standard RPR 18-mm circle card tests for the serodiagnosis of syphilis. Sera from 638 individuals were used in this study. Two pilot lots and two production lots of antigen were submitted by Beckman Instruments, Inc., for evaluation. Qualitative agreement among the three RPR card tests was 98....

  16. On the development of standardization methods for measuring the degree of graphitization of industrial materials, correlation of scientific characterization with the industrially relevant secondary properties of graphitic material

    Fitzer, E.; Koechling, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The completed research roject comprised the development of standardization methods for measuring the degree of graphitization of industrial materials, the testing of characterization methods with regard to significance, the correlation of scientific characterization with industrially relevant material properties and the resultant modification of industrial processes for the manufacture of coke raw materials and graphitic materials. Also targeted within the scope of this project were the grouping of comparable characterization methods and the drawing up of unequivocal terminology for scientific and industrial-commercial usage, with both aims based on intensified national and international teamwork. (orig./WL) [de

  17. The role of European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase in standardization and harmonization of the preanalytical phase in Europe

    Cornes, Michael P.; Church, Stephen; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell; Guimarães, João T.; Ibarz, Mercedes; Kovalevskaya, Svetlana; Kristensen, Gunn Bb; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Sprongl, Ludek; Sumarac, Zorica; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety is a leading challenge in healthcare and from the laboratory perspective it is now well established that preanalytical errors are the major contributor to the overall rate of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. To address this, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and

  18. The Causal Effect of Student Mobility on Standardized Test Performance: A Case Study with Possible Implications for Accountability Mandates within the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Arielle Selya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a limited case study examining the causal inference of student mobility on standardized test performance, within one middle-class high school in suburban Connecticut. Administrative data were used from a district public high school enrolling 319 10th graders in 2010. Propensity score methods were used to estimate the causal effect of student mobility on Math, Science, Reading, and Writing portions of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT, after matching mobile vs. stable students on gender, race/ethnicity, eligibility for free/reduced lunches, and special education status. Analyses showed that mobility was associated with lower performance in the CAPT Writing exam. Follow-up analyses revealed that this trend was only significant among those who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches, but not among eligible students. Additionally, mobile students who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches had lower performance in the CAPT Science exam according to some analyses. Large numbers of students transferring into a school district may adversely affect standardized test performance. This is especially relevant for policies that affect student mobility in schools, given the accountability measures in the No Child Left Behind that are currently being re-considered in the recent Every Student Succeeds Act.

  19. The Causal Effect of Student Mobility on Standardized Test Performance: A Case Study with Possible Implications for Accountability Mandates within the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

    Selya, Arielle S; Engel-Rebitzer, Eden; Dierker, Lisa; Stephen, Eric; Rose, Jennifer; Coffman, Donna L; Otis, Mindy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a limited case study examining the causal inference of student mobility on standardized test performance, within one middle-class high school in suburban Connecticut. Administrative data were used from a district public high school enrolling 319 10th graders in 2010. Propensity score methods were used to estimate the causal effect of student mobility on Math, Science, Reading, and Writing portions of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT), after matching mobile vs. stable students on gender, race/ethnicity, eligibility for free/reduced lunches, and special education status. Analyses showed that mobility was associated with lower performance in the CAPT Writing exam. Follow-up analyses revealed that this trend was only significant among those who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches, but not among eligible students. Additionally, mobile students who were ineligible for free/reduced lunches had lower performance in the CAPT Science exam according to some analyses. Large numbers of students transferring into a school district may adversely affect standardized test performance. This is especially relevant for policies that affect student mobility in schools, given the accountability measures in the No Child Left Behind that are currently being re-considered in the recent Every Student Succeeds Act.

  20. Standardization of clinical enzyme analysis using frozen human serum pools with values assigned by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures.

    Tong, Qing; Chen, Baorong; Zhang, Rui; Zuo, Chang

    Variation in clinical enzyme analysis, particularly across different measuring systems and laboratories, represents a critical but long-lasting problem in diagnosis. Calibrators with traceability and commutability are imminently needed to harmonize analysis in laboratory medicine. Fresh frozen human serum pools were assigned values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by six laboratories with established International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures. These serum pools were then used across 76 laboratories as a calibrator in the analysis of five enzymes. Bias and imprecision in the measurement of the five enzymes tested were significantly reduced by using the value-assigned serum in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration. The median (interquartile range) of the relative biases of ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH were 2.0% (0.6-3.4%), 0.8% (-0.8-2.3%), 1.0% (-0.5-2.0%), 0.2% (-0.3-1.0%) and 0.2% (-0.9-1.1%), respectively. Before calibration, the interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVs) in the analysis of patient serum samples were 8.0-8.2%, 7.3-8.5%, 8.1-8.7%, 5.1-5.9% and 5.8-6.4% for ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH, respectively; after calibration, the CVs decreased to 2.7-3.3%, 3.0-3.6%, 1.6-2.1%, 1.8-1.9% and 3.3-3.5%, respectively. The results suggest that the use of fresh frozen serum pools significantly improved the comparability of test results in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration.

  1. Secondary Evaluations.

    Cook, Thomas D.

    Secondary evaluations, in which an investigator takes a body of evaluation data collected by a primary evaluation researcher and examines the data to see if the original conclusions about the program correspond with his own, are discussed. The different kinds of secondary evaluations and the advantages and disadvantages of each are pointed out,…

  2. Twenty years of an international nuclear laboratory

    Suschny, O.

    1982-01-01

    The laboratories of the International Atomic Energy Agency were started in 1959 with a physics laboratory, a chemistry laboratory and an electronics workshop. Early work centred on absolute radionuclide calibrations and on assessments of the consequences of radioactive fallout from atomic weapons testing on the health of the people in Member States. Subsequently, work was started on the use of radioactive and stable isotopes in agriculture, in hydrology, in medical applications, in pest and insect control and with the entry into force of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty a Safeguard Analytical Laboratory was established to provide support for the Agency's safeguards inspection responsibilities. Together with WHO a network of 43 Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories were set up in Member States to improve dosimetric accuracy in medicine and radiation protection worldwide. Throughout their history, the laboratories of the IAEA have lent great importance on their training programmes that have enabled many workers in nuclear or nuclear related research to gain experience. This emphasis on training has been stressed particularly to benefit research workers from developing countries

  3. Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility (Building 7503) standards/requirements identification document adherence assessment plan at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    1996-02-01

    This is the Phase 2 (adherence) assessment plan for the Building 7503 Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Facility standards/requirements identification document (S/RID). This document outlines the activities to be conducted from FY 1996 through FY 1998 to ensure that the standards and requirements identified in the MSRE S/RID are being implemented properly. This plan is required in accordance with the Department of Energy Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-2, November 9, 1994, Attachment 1A. This plan addresses the major aspects of the adherence assessment and will be consistent with Energy Systems procedure QA-2. 7 ''Surveillances.''

  4. Appraisal of within- and between-laboratory reproducibility of non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay using flow cytometry, LLNA:BrdU-FCM: comparison of OECD TG429 performance standard and statistical evaluation.

    Yang, Hyeri; Na, Jihye; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Jun-Young; Heo, Yong; Yeo, Kyung-Wook; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2015-05-05

    Mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA, OECD TG429) is an alternative test replacing conventional guinea pig tests (OECD TG406) for the skin sensitization test but the use of a radioisotopic agent, (3)H-thymidine, deters its active dissemination. New non-radioisotopic LLNA, LLNA:BrdU-FCM employs a non-radioisotopic analog, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and flow cytometry. For an analogous method, OECD TG429 performance standard (PS) advises that two reference compounds be tested repeatedly and ECt(threshold) values obtained must fall within acceptable ranges to prove within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. However, this criteria is somewhat arbitrary and sample size of ECt is less than 5, raising concerns about insufficient reliability. Here, we explored various statistical methods to evaluate the reproducibility of LLNA:BrdU-FCM with stimulation index (SI), the raw data for ECt calculation, produced from 3 laboratories. Descriptive statistics along with graphical representation of SI was presented. For inferential statistics, parametric and non-parametric methods were applied to test the reproducibility of SI of a concurrent positive control and the robustness of results were investigated. Descriptive statistics and graphical representation of SI alone could illustrate the within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. Inferential statistics employing parametric and nonparametric methods drew similar conclusion. While all labs passed within- and between-laboratory reproducibility criteria given by OECD TG429 PS based on ECt values, statistical evaluation based on SI values showed that only two labs succeeded in achieving within-laboratory reproducibility. For those two labs that satisfied the within-lab reproducibility, between-laboratory reproducibility could be also attained based on inferential as well as descriptive statistics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding Laboratory Tests

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development and marketing of all laboratory tests that use test kits ... Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy ...

  6. Secondary Headaches

    ... in the medical history or examination to suggest secondary headache. Headache can be caused by general medical conditions such as severe hypertension, or by conditions that affect the brain and ...

  7. Radioactivity standardization in South Africa

    Simpson, BRS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's national radioactivity measurement standard is maintained at a satellite laboratory in Cape Town by the National Metrology Laboratory (NML) of the Council-for Scientific and Industrial Research. Standardizations are undertaken by a...

  8. Construction of a laboratory for the implantation of primary standardization of the magnitude kerma in the air for the X-ray beams used in mammography

    Cardozo, W.L.; Magalhes, L.A.A.M.F.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aiming to diminish the uncertainty in each phase of the metrological chain, and the uncertainty in dosimetry processed at the X-ray beam applied in the mammography, is necessary that the LNMRI/IRD to develop a reference primary standard for the absolute form to the magnitude kerma in the air

  9. Biological durability of wood in relation to end-use - Part 1. Towards a European standard for laboratory testing of the biological durability of wood

    Acker, Van J.; Stevens, M.; Carey, J.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Militz, H.; Bayon, Le I.; Kleist, G.; Peek, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    The determination of biological durability of wood is an issue requiring sufficient reliability regarding end-use related prediction of performance. Five test institutes joined efforts to check standard test methods and to improve methodology and data interpretation for assessment of natural

  10. Initial laboratory experience with a novel ultrasound probe for standard and single-port robotic kidney surgery: increasing console surgeon autonomy and minimizing instrument clashing.

    Yakoubi, Rachid; Autorino, Riccardo; Laydner, Humberto; Guillotreau, Julien; White, Michael A; Hillyer, Shahab; Spana, Gregory; Khanna, Rakesh; Isaac, Wahib; Haber, Georges-Pascal; Stein, Robert J; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel ultrasound probe specifically developed for robotic surgery by determining its efficiency in identifying renal tumors. The study was carried out using the Da Vinci™ surgical system in one female pig. Renal tumor targets were created by percutaneous injection of a tumor mimic mixture. Single-port and standard robotic partial nephrectomy were performed. Intraoperative ultrasound was performed using both standard laparoscopic probe and the new ProART™ Robotic probe. Probe maneuverability and ease of handling for tumor localization were recorded. The standard laparoscopic probe was guided by the assistant. Significant clashing with robotic arms was noted during the single-port procedure. The novel robotic probe was easily introduced through the assistant trocar, and held by the console surgeon using the robotic Prograsp™ with no registered clashing in the external operative field. The average time for grasping the new robotic probe was less than 10 s. Once inserted and grasped, no limitation was found in terms of instrument clashing during the single-port procedure. This novel ultrasound probe developed for robotic surgery was noted to be user-friendly when performing porcine standard and especially single-port robotic partial nephrectomy. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [Modularization by the open standard. (II)].

    Muto, M; Takaha, Y; Chiba, N

    2000-10-01

    In recent years, accompanied by the marvelous development and spread of Laboratory Automation System(LAS), the NCCLS is now proposing five international standards for laboratory automation. We have based our laboratory on these "NCCLS standards of laboratory automation", we take these standards ahead first, and we now propose an open standard called "Open LA 21", to establish more detailed standard replacing the NCCLS laboratory automation standards.

  12. Underground laboratories in Europe

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  13. NVLAP calibration laboratory program

    Cigler, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the progress up to April 1993 in the development of the Calibration Laboratories Accreditation Program within the framework of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  14. NVLAP calibration laboratory program

    Cigler, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the progress up to April 1993 in the development of the Calibration Laboratories Accreditation Program within the framework of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

  15. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  16. Accreditation experience of radioisotope metrology laboratory of Argentina

    Iglicki, A. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)]. E-mail: iglicki@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Mila, M.I. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)]. E-mail: mila@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Furnari, J.C. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Arenillas, P. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Cerutti, G. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Carballido, M. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Guillen, V. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Araya, X. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Bianchini, R. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)

    2006-10-15

    This work presents the experience developed by the Radioisotope Metrology Laboratory (LMR), of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), as result of the accreditation process of the Quality System by ISO 17025 Standard. Considering the LMR as a calibration laboratory, services of secondary activity determinations and calibration of activimeters used in Nuclear Medicine were accredited. A peer review of the ({alpha}/{beta})-{gamma} coincidence system was also carried out. This work shows in detail the structure of the quality system, the results of the accrediting audit and gives the number of non-conformities detected and of observations made which have all been resolved.

  17. Accreditation experience of radioisotope metrology laboratory of Argentina

    Iglicki, A.; Mila, M.I.; Furnari, J.C.; Arenillas, P.; Cerutti, G.; Carballido, M.; Guillen, V.; Araya, X.; Bianchini, R.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents the experience developed by the Radioisotope Metrology Laboratory (LMR), of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), as result of the accreditation process of the Quality System by ISO 17025 Standard. Considering the LMR as a calibration laboratory, services of secondary activity determinations and calibration of activimeters used in Nuclear Medicine were accredited. A peer review of the (α/β)-γ coincidence system was also carried out. This work shows in detail the structure of the quality system, the results of the accrediting audit and gives the number of non-conformities detected and of observations made which have all been resolved

  18. Photometrics Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  19. Blackroom Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  20. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  1. [Accreditation of medical laboratories].

    Horváth, Andrea Rita; Ring, Rózsa; Fehér, Miklós; Mikó, Tivadar

    2003-07-27

    In Hungary, the National Accreditation Body was established by government in 1995 as an independent, non-profit organization, and has exclusive rights to accredit, amongst others, medical laboratories. The National Accreditation Body has two Specialist Advisory Committees in the health care sector. One is the Health Care Specialist Advisory Committee that accredits certifying bodies, which deal with certification of hospitals. The other Specialist Advisory Committee for Medical Laboratories is directly involved in accrediting medical laboratory services of health care institutions. The Specialist Advisory Committee for Medical Laboratories is a multidisciplinary peer review group of experts from all disciplines of in vitro diagnostics, i.e. laboratory medicine, microbiology, histopathology and blood banking. At present, the only published International Standard applicable to laboratories is ISO/IEC 17025:1999. Work has been in progress on the official approval of the new ISO 15189 standard, specific to medical laboratories. Until the official approval of the International Standard ISO 15189, as accreditation standard, the Hungarian National Accreditation Body has decided to progress with accreditation by formulating explanatory notes to the ISO/IEC 17025:1999 document, using ISO/FDIS 15189:2000, the European EC4 criteria and CPA (UK) Ltd accreditation standards as guidelines. This harmonized guideline provides 'explanations' that facilitate the application of ISO/IEC 17025:1999 to medical laboratories, and can be used as a checklist for the verification of compliance during the onsite assessment of the laboratory. The harmonized guideline adapted the process model of ISO 9001:2000 to rearrange the main clauses of ISO/IEC 17025:1999. This rearrangement does not only make the guideline compliant with ISO 9001:2000 but also improves understanding for those working in medical laboratories, and facilitates the training and education of laboratory staff. With the

  2. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures | Bioenergy | NREL

    Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures NREL develops laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) for standard biomass analysis. These procedures help scientists and analysts understand more about the chemical composition of raw biomass

  3. Comparison of Gasoline Direct-Injection (GDI) and Port Fuel Injection (PFI) Vehicle Emissions: Emission Certification Standards, Cold-Start, Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Potential, and Potential Climate Impacts.

    Saliba, Georges; Saleh, Rawad; Zhao, Yunliang; Presto, Albert A; Lambe, Andrew T; Frodin, Bruce; Sardar, Satya; Maldonado, Hector; Maddox, Christine; May, Andrew A; Drozd, Greg T; Goldstein, Allen H; Russell, Lynn M; Hagen, Fabian; Robinson, Allen L

    2017-06-06

    Recent increases in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards have led to widespread adoption of vehicles equipped with gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines. Changes in engine technologies can alter emissions. To quantify these effects, we measured gas- and particle-phase emissions from 82 light-duty gasoline vehicles recruited from the California in-use fleet tested on a chassis dynamometer using the cold-start unified cycle. The fleet included 15 GDI vehicles, including 8 GDIs certified to the most-stringent emissions standard, superultra-low-emission vehicles (SULEV). We quantified the effects of engine technology, emission certification standards, and cold-start on emissions. For vehicles certified to the same emissions standard, there is no statistical difference of regulated gas-phase pollutant emissions between PFIs and GDIs. However, GDIs had, on average, a factor of 2 higher particulate matter (PM) mass emissions than PFIs due to higher elemental carbon (EC) emissions. SULEV certified GDIs have a factor of 2 lower PM mass emissions than GDIs certified as ultralow-emission vehicles (3.0 ± 1.1 versus 6.3 ± 1.1 mg/mi), suggesting improvements in engine design and calibration. Comprehensive organic speciation revealed no statistically significant differences in the composition of the volatile organic compounds emissions between PFI and GDIs, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Therefore, the secondary organic aerosol and ozone formation potential of the exhaust does not depend on engine technology. Cold-start contributes a larger fraction of the total unified cycle emissions for vehicles meeting more-stringent emission standards. Organic gas emissions were the most sensitive to cold-start compared to the other pollutants tested here. There were no statistically significant differences in the effects of cold-start on GDIs and PFIs. For our test fleet, the measured 14.5% decrease in CO 2 emissions from GDIs was much greater than

  4. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1999-09-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  5. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory equipment to outside universities, industrial researchers, and elementary and secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics, but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations

  6. Use of CRM's as mutual calibrating materials and control of synthetic multielement standards as used in INAA

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1986-01-01

    The comparability of analytical results from different laboratories requires accurately known concentrations in the applied standards. Dilution effects of different multielement synthetic standard solutions have been studied by measuring 10 - 12 different concentrations of the same solution. Peak area comparison of four Certified Reference Materials (CRM's) using one value for the evaluation of the other three repetitively led to the intercomparison (degree of compatibility) of the certified values. The idea of the preparation of each laboratory's ''secondary reference standard'' by comparison of synthetic multielement standards with as many CRM's as practically feasible is advocated to improve the reliability of analytical results. (author)

  7. Laboratory implantation for well type ionization chambers calibration; Implantacao de um laboratorio para calibracao de camaras de ionizacao tipo poco

    Vianello, E.A.; Dias, D.J.; Almeida, C.E. de [Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas- LCR- DBB (UERJ). R. Sao Francisco Xavier, 524- Pav. HLC, sala 136 terreo- CEP 20.550-013. Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The Radiological Science Laboratory is implanting a service for calibration of well type chambers by IAEA training program. The kerma rate in the air (mu Gy/h) of the linear Cs-137 reference source CDCS-J4 have been determined using a well type chamber Standard Imaging HDR-1000 model, which have been calibrated at Secondary Standard Laboratory Calibration of IAEA, whereas two HDR-1000 Plus chambers were calibrated too, following the same standards. The results were compared with Wisconsin University calibration certification and has demonstrated that well type ionization chamber calibration can be used in brachytherapy for several kinds of radionuclides. (Author)

  8. Computational Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  9. National laboratories

    Moscati, G.

    1983-01-01

    The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Geomechanics Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geomechanics Laboratory allows its users to measure rock properties under a wide range of simulated service conditions up to very high pressures and complex load...

  11. Synthesis and production of potassium dichromate as a secondary standard dosimeter; Investigation of its comparative properties with Fricke and clear perspex dosimeters in comprehensive dose mapping of IR-136 Gamma Irradiator

    Taimoori Seechani; Behzad.

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of the absorbed dose is the principle mode or means of quality control in various application of radiation processing. Specially, the cumulative absorbed dose and its variation in different density product boxes (dose mapping) are often required. Proper discharge of these task would require the use of dosimeters having sufficient degree of accuracy and precision. The secondary standard potassium dichromate dosimeter is synthesized for the first time in Iran. The properties of this dosimeter such as dose response, dose rate dependency, reproducibility, molar extinction coefficient, reduction yield and effect of silver ions on reduction yield of dosimetry solution, irradiation temperature effect as well as pre- and post-irradiation stability of the dosimetry solution have been studied. The comparison of the results of this work with that of the ASTM standard of potassium dichromate has shown very good agreement. The produced dichromate dosimeters were used for comprehensive dose mapping or commissioning of the IR-136 irradiator. The non-uniformity ratio and the isodose lines in various product densities in the IR-136 have been measured. Cumulative dose values were obtained for different rows and levels of the IR-136 irradiator system. The results of dichromate dosimetry, wherever possible, were compared with the response of Fricke and clear perspex dosimeters. At low dose values, the precision of this dosimeter was found to be better than the precision of clear perspex, but about the same as that of Fricke dosimeter. It is thus may be said that this dosimeter has combined the desirable properties of both dosimeter together

  12. Secondary osteoporosis.

    Gennari, C; Martini, G; Nuti, R

    1998-06-01

    Generalized osteoporosis currently represents a heterogeneous group of conditions with many different causes and pathogenetic mechanisms, that often are variably associated. The term "secondary" is applied to all patients with osteoporosis in whom the identifiable causal factors are other than menopause and aging. In this heterogeneous group of conditions, produced by many different pathogenetic mechanisms, a negative bone balance may be variably associated with low, normal or increased bone remodeling states. A consistent group of secondary osteoporosis is related to endocrinological or iatrogenic causes. Exogenous hypercortisolism may be considered an important risk factor for secondary osteoporosis in the community, and probably glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most common type of secondary osteoporosis. Supraphysiological doses of corticosteroids cause two abnormalities in bone metabolism: a relative increase in bone resorption, and a relative reduction in bone formation. Bone loss, mostly of trabecular bone, with its resultant fractures is the most incapacitating consequence of osteoporosis. The estimated incidence of fractures in patients prescribed corticosteroid is 30% to 50%. Osteoporosis is considered one of the potentially serious side effects of heparin therapy. The occurrence of heparin-induced osteoporosis appeared to be strictly related to the length of treatment (over 4-5 months), and the dosage (15,000 U or more daily), but the pathogenesis is poorly understood. It has been suggested that heparin could cause an increase in bone resorption by increasing the number of differentiated osteoclasts, and by enhancing the activity of individual osteoclasts. Hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with loss of trabecular and cortical bone; the enhanced bone turnover that develops in thyrotoxicosis is characterized by an increase in the number of osteoclasts and resorption sites, and an increase in the ratio of resorptive to formative bone

  13. Standardization of laboratory lipid profile assessment: A call for action with a special focus on the 2016 ESC/EAS dyslipidemia guidelines - Executive summary: A consensus endorsed by the Cardiovascular Risk and Prevention Group of the Portuguese Internal Medicine Society, the Portuguese Atherosclerosis Society, the Portuguese Society of Cardiology, the Portuguese Society of Laboratory Medicine, and the Portuguese Association of Clinical Chemistry.

    da Silva, Pedro Marques; Sequeira Duarte, João; von Hafe, Pedro; Gil, Victor; Nunes de Oliveira, Jorge; de Sousa, Germano

    2018-04-01

    Even with improvements in lifestyle interventions, better control of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, and improvements in CV outcomes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Portugal and Europe. Atherogenic dyslipidemias, particularly hypercholesterolemia, have a crucial causal role in the development of atherosclerotic CVD. The clinical approach to a patient with dyslipidemia requires an accurate diagnosis, based on harmonized and standardized lipid and lipoprotein laboratory assessments. Results and reports of these tests, together with assessment of total CV risk and the respective therapeutic targets, will help ensure that clinical guidelines and good clinical practices are followed, increasing the reliability of screening for lipid disorders, producing more accurate diagnoses and CV risk stratification, and improving CV prevention. To this end, this consensus aims to provide clinicians with practical guidance for the harmonization and standardization of laboratory lipid tests, focusing on the most recent dyslipidemia management guidelines. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Laboratory biosafety manual

    1983-01-01

    This book is in three sections; basic standards of laboratory design and equipment; procedures for safe laboratory practice; and the selection and use of essential biosafety equipment. The intention is that the guidance given in the book should have a broad basis and international application, and that it should be a source from which manuals applicable to local and special conditions can be usefully derived.

  15. Secondary osteoporosis.

    Boyle, I T

    1993-10-01

    Osteoporosis with attendant increased fracture risk is a common complication of many other diseases. Indeed, almost all chronic diseases make some impact on life-style, usually by restricting physical activity and hence reducing the anabolic effect of exercise and gravitational strains on the skeleton. Restricted appetite and modified gastrointestinal tract function is another commonplace finding that has an impact on bone nutrition and synthesis, as on other systems. Sex hormone status is of particular importance for the maintenance of the normal skeleton, and the postmenopausal woman is at particular risk for most causes of secondary osteoporosis. In dealing with secondary osteoporosis in the hypo-oestrogenic woman, the question of giving hormone replacement therapy in addition to other disease-specific therapy should always be considered, as, for example, in a young amenorrhoeic woman with Crohn's disease. Similarly, in hypogonadal men the administration of testosterone is useful for bone conservation. The wider availability of bone densitometry ought to make us more aware of the presence of osteoporosis in the many disease states discussed above. This is particularly important as the life span of such patients is now increased by improved management of the underlying disease process in many instances. Even in steroid-induced osteoporosis--one of the commonest and most severe forms of osteoporosis--we now have some effective therapy in the form of the bisphosphonates and other anti-bone-resorbing drug classes. The possibility of prophylaxis against secondary osteoporosis has therefore become a possibility, although the very long-term effects of such drug regimens are still unknown. In some situations, such as thyrotoxicosis, Cushing's syndrome and immobilization, spontaneous resolution of at least part of the osteoporosis is possible after cure of the underlying problem. The shorter the existence of the basic problem, the more successful the restoration of the

  16. [ISO 15189 medical laboratory accreditation].

    Aoyagi, Tsutomu

    2004-10-01

    This International Standard, based upon ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO 9001, provides requirements for competence and quality that are particular to medical laboratories. While this International Standard is intended for use throughout the currently recognized disciplines of medical laboratory services, those working in other services and disciplines will also find it useful and appropriate. In addition, bodies engaged in the recognition of the competence of medical laboratories will be able to use this International Standard as the basis for their activities. The Japan Accreditation Board for Conformity Assessment (AB) and the Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (CCLS) are jointly developing the program of accreditation of medical laboratories. ISO 15189 requirements consist of two parts, one is management requirements and the other is technical requirements. The former includes the requirements of all parts of ISO 9001, moreover it includes the requirement of conformity assessment body, for example, impartiality and independence from any other party. The latter includes the requirements of laboratory competence (e.g. personnel, facility, instrument, and examination methods), moreover it requires that laboratories shall participate proficiency testing(s) and laboratories' examination results shall have traceability of measurements and implement uncertainty of measurement. Implementation of ISO 15189 will result in a significant improvement in medical laboratories management system and their technical competence. The accreditation of medical laboratory will improve medical laboratory service and be useful for patients.

  17. PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines: Revision 3

    Lurie, S.; Bucci, G.; Johnson, L.; King, M.; Lamanna, L.; Morgan, E.; Bates, J.; Burns, R.; Eaker, R.; Ward, G.; Linnenbom, V.; Millet, P.; Paine, J.P.; Wood, C.J.; Gatten, T.; Meatheany, D.; Seager, J.; Thompson, R.; Brobst, G.; Connor, W.; Lewis, G.; Shirmer, R.; Gillen, J.; Kerns, M.; Jones, V.; Lappegaard, S.; Sawochka, S.; Smith, F.; Spires, D.; Pagan, S.; Gardner, J.; Polidoroff, T.; Lambert, S.; Dahl, B.; Hundley, F.; Miller, B.; Andersson, P.; Briden, D.; Fellers, B.; Harvey, S.; Polchow, J.; Rootham, M.; Fredrichs, T.; Flint, W.

    1993-05-01

    An effective, state-of-the art secondary water chemistry control program is essential to maximize the availability and operating life of major PWR components. Furthermore, the costs related to maintaining secondary water chemistry will likely be less than the repair or replacement of steam generators or large turbine rotors, with resulting outages taken into account. The revised PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines in this report represent the latest field and laboratory data on steam generator corrosion phenomena. This document supersedes Interim PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Recommendations for IGA/SCC Control (EPRI report TR-101230) as well as PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines--Revision 2 (NP-6239)

  18. Safety in laboratories: Indian scenario.

    Mustafa, Ajaz; Farooq, A Jan; Qadri, Gj; S A, Tabish

    2008-07-01

    Health and safety in clinical laboratories is becoming an increasingly important subject as a result of emergence of highly infectious diseases such as Hepatitis and HIV. A cross sectional study was carried out to study the safety measures being adopted in clinical laboratories of India. Heads of laboratories of teaching hospitals of India were subjected to a standardized, pretested questionnaire. Response rate was 44.8%. only 60% of laboratories had person in-charge of safety in laboratory. Seventy three percent of laboratories had safety education program regarding hazards. In 91% of laboratories staff is using protective clothing while working in laboratories. Hazardous material regulations are followed in 78% of laboratories. Regular health check ups are carried among laboratory staff in 43.4% of laboratories.Safety manual is available in 56.5% of laboratories. 73.9% of laboratories are equipped with fire extinguishers. Fume cupboards are provided in 34.7% of laboratories and they are regularly checked in 87.5% of these laboratories. In 78.26% of laboratories suitable measures are taken to minimize formation of aerosols.In 95.6% of laboratories waste is disposed off as per bio-medical waste management handling rules. Laboratory of one private medical college was accredited with NABL and safety parameters were better in that laboratory. Installing safety engineered devices apparently contributes to significant decrease in injuries in laboratories; laboratory safety has to be a part of overall quality assurance programme in hospitals. Accreditation has to be made necessary for all laboratories.

  19. 77 FR 41188 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    2012-07-12

    ... to general issues related to improvement in clinical laboratory quality and laboratory medicine... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical... patient-centeredness of laboratory services; revisions to the standards under which clinical laboratories...

  20. Laboratory Building

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  1. Survey on current status of laboratory test method and experimental consideration for establishing standardized procedure of material containing bentonite. Report of collaboration research between JAEA and CRIEPI (Joint research)

    Tanai, Kenji; Kikuchi, Hirohito; Nakamura, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yukihisa; Hironaga, Michihiko

    2010-08-01

    In the current concept of repository for radioactive waste disposal, compacted bentonite as well as bentonite based material will be used as an engineered barrier mainly for inhibiting migration of radioactive nuclides. In most cases, properties of bentonite, such as low permeability etc., are obtained by laboratory tests. However, results of laboratory tests of bentonite often vary considerably even if index parameter, such as effective clay density, is constant. One of the causes of the variability is considered to be lack of standardized method of laboratory test for bentonite. Thus standardization of laboratory test methods for bentonite is needed. So, investigation for establishing standardized laboratory test method of bentonite is conducted based on the results of survey on current status of laboratory test method for bentonite. In particular, the literature survey as well as laboratory tests were conducted to find factors affecting the results of laboratory tests for bentonite and to estimate their degree of influence. The following conclusions are obtained through this study. (1) Hydraulic conductivity test. According to the results of literature survey, it is revealed that constant pressure permeability test and consolidation test are currently used for measuring hydraulic conductivity of bentonite and that (a) hydraulic gradient, (b) local seepage flow between lateral surface of the specimen and lateral wall of the container, (c) water pressure which is applied to the specimen, (d) degree of saturation and (e) size of the specimen possibly affect the results of the constant pressure permeability test, while (f) friction between lateral surface of the specimen and lateral wall of the container accompanied by deformation of the specimen, (g) consolidation pressure together with factors (d), (e) affect the results of the consolidation test. Literature which describes that factors (a), (b) and (e) affect the results of the constant pressure permeability test

  2. Montlake Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NWFSC conducts critical fisheries science research at its headquarters in Seattle, WA and at five research stations throughout Washington and Oregon. The unique...

  3. Dynamics Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  4. Psychology Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  5. Visualization Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  6. Analytical Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  7. Worker Safety and Health Issues Associated with the DOE Environmental Cleanup Program: Insights From the DOE Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public health Standards Steering Group

    M.C. Edelson; Samuel C. Morris; Joan M. Daisey

    2001-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public Health Standards Steering Group (or ''SSG'') was formed in 1990. It was felt then that ''risk'' could be an organizing principle for environmental cleanup and that risk-based cleanup standards could rationalize clean up work. The environmental remediation process puts workers engaged in cleanup activities at risk from hazardous materials and from the more usual hazards associated with construction activities. In a real sense, the site remediation process involves the transfer of a hypothetical risk to the environment and the public from isolated contamination into real risks to the workers engaged in the remediation activities. Late in its existence the SSG, primarily motivated by its LANL representative, Dr. Harry Ettinger, actively investigated issues associated with worker health and safety during environmental remediation activities. This paper summarizes the insights noted by the SSG. Most continue to be pertinent today.

  8. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy.

  9. Update of the Picker C9 irradiator control system of the gamma II room of the secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration; Actualizacion del sistema de control del irradiador Picker C9 de la sala gamma II del laboratorio secundario de calibracion dosimetrica

    Simon S, L. E.

    2016-07-01

    The Picker C9 irradiator is responsible for the calibration of different radiological equipment and the control system that maintains it in operation is designed in the graphical programming software LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench), being its major advantages: the different types of communication, easy interconnection with other software and the recognition of different hardware devices, among others. Operation of the irradiator control system is performed with the NI-Usb-6008 (DAQ) data acquisition module of the National Instruments Company. The purpose of this work is to update the routines that make the Picker C9 control system of the gamma II room of the secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration, using the graphic programming software LabVIEW, as well as to configure the new acquisition hardware of data that is implemented to control the Picker C9 irradiator system and ensure its operation. (Author)

  10. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  11. Calgary Laboratory Services

    James R. Wright MD, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calgary Laboratory Services provides global hospital and community laboratory services for Calgary and surrounding areas (population 1.4 million and global academic support for the University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine. It developed rapidly after the Alberta Provincial Government implemented an austerity program to address rising health care costs and to address Alberta’s debt and deficit in 1994. Over roughly the next year, all hospital and community laboratory test funding within the province was put into a single budget, fee codes for fee-for-service test billing were closed, roughly 40% of the provincial laboratory budget was cut, and roughly 40% of the pathologists left the province of Alberta. In Calgary, in the face of these abrupt changes in the laboratory environment, private laboratories, publicly funded hospital laboratories and the medical school department precipitously and reluctantly merged in 1996. The origin of Calgary Laboratory Services was likened to an “unhappy shotgun marriage” by all parties. Although such a structure could save money by eliminating duplicated services and excess capacity and could provide excellent city-wide clinical service by increasing standardization, it was less clear whether it could provide strong academic support for a medical school. Over the past decade, iterations of the Calgary Laboratory Services model have been implemented or are being considered in other Canadian jurisdictions. This case study analyzes the evolution of Calgary Laboratory Services, provides a metric-based review of academic performance over time, and demonstrates that this model, essentially arising as an unplanned experiment, has merit within a Canadian health care context.

  12. Calibration of working standard ionization chambers and dose standardization

    Abd Elmahoud, A. A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements were performed for the calibration of two working standard ionization chambers in the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory of Sudan. 600 cc cylindrical former type and 1800 cc cylindrical radical radiation protection level ionization chambers were calibrated against 1000 cc spherical reference standard ionization chamber. The chamber were calibrated at X-ray narrow spectrum series with beam energies ranged from (33-116 KeV) in addition to 1''3''7''Cs beam with 662 KeV energy. The chambers 0.6 cc and 0.3 cc therapy level ionization were used for dose standardization and beam output calibrations of cobalt-60 radiotherapy machine located at the National Cancer Institute, University of Gazira. Concerning beam output measurements for 6''0''Co radiotherapy machine, dosimetric measurements were performed in accordance with the relevant per IAEA dosimetry protocols TRS-277 and TRS-398. The kinetic energy released per unit mass in air (air kerma) were obtained by multiplying the corrected electrometer reading (nC/min) by the calibration factors (Gy/n C) of the chambers from given in the calibration certificate. The uncertainty of measurements of air kerma were calculated for the all ionization chambers (combined uncertainty) the calibration factors of these ionization chambers then were calculated by comparing the reading of air kerma of secondary standard ionization chambers to than from radical and farmer chambers. The result of calibration working standard ionization chambers showed different calibration factors ranged from 0.99 to 1.52 for different radiation energies and these differences were due to chambers response and specification. The absorbed dose to to water calculated for therapy ionization chamber using two code of practice TRS-277 and TRS-398 as beam output for 6''0''Co radiotherapy machine and it can be used as a reference for future beam output calibration in radiotherapy dosimetry. The measurement of absorbed dose to water showed that the

  13. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Analytic... must be completed before reporting patient results. (2) Laboratory comparison of clinical information... applicable requirements of this subpart K. (h) Documentation. The laboratory must document all control...

  14. 40 CFR 421.246 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Nickel Subcategory... reclaim leaching belt filter backwash. PSNS for the Secondary Nickel Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant...

  15. Traceability system for radioactivity standards in Japan

    Hino, Yoshio

    2000-01-01

    The electrotechnical laboratory (ETL) is the one of the largest national research institute, affiliated with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). The ETL has a role to maintain the national standards of electricity, acoustics, visible light, ionizing radiation and radioactivity. The primary radioactivity standards have been established in ETL mainly with the 4πβ-γ coincidence method. The liquid scintillation counters and multi-wire proportional counters are also used for pure-beta and surface emission rate standards, respectively. As for the traceability, the primary standard sources are transferred to the Japan Radio Isotope Association (JRIA), and the JRIA measure these sources to calibrate their secondary standard equipments such as high pressurized 4π ionization chambers, high pore Ge and Nal (Tl) gamma spectrometers. The primary sources are also sent to the BIPM and neighboring countries for the intercomparisons to keep the consistency of the national standards. In this paper, these measurement techniques for the primary standardization and transfer system will be introduced, and some results of comparisons for certificate the traceability system will be described. (author)

  16. Laboratory Tests

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical devices that are intended for use on samples of blood, urine, or other tissues ...

  17. Audio Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment and facilities for auditory display research. A primary focus is the performance use of binaurally rendered 3D sound in conjunction...

  18. Target laboratory

    Ephraim, D.C.; Pednekar, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A target laboratory to make stripper foils for the accelerator and various targets for use in the experiments is set up in the pelletron accelerator facility. The facilities available in the laboratory are: (1) D.C. glow discharge setup, (2) carbon arc set up, and (3) vacuum evaporation set up (resistance heating), electron beam source, rolling mill - all for target preparation. They are described. Centrifugal deposition technique is used for target preparation. (author). 3 figs

  19. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  20. Solid laboratory calibration of a nonimaging spectroradiometer.

    Schaepman, M E; Dangel, S

    2000-07-20

    Field-based nonimaging spectroradiometers are often used in vicarious calibration experiments for airborne or spaceborne imaging spectrometers. The calibration uncertainties associated with these ground measurements contribute substantially to the overall modeling error in radiance- or reflectance-based vicarious calibration experiments. Because of limitations in the radiometric stability of compact field spectroradiometers, vicarious calibration experiments are based primarily on reflectance measurements rather than on radiance measurements. To characterize the overall uncertainty of radiance-based approaches and assess the sources of uncertainty, we carried out a full laboratory calibration. This laboratory calibration of a nonimaging spectroradiometer is based on a measurement plan targeted at achieving a secondary National Institute of Standards and Technology calibration standard by use of a 95% confidence interval and results in an uncertainty of less than ?7.1% for all spectroradiometer bands.

  1. Six-year susceptibility trends and effect of revised Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints on ciprofloxacin susceptibility reporting in typhoidal Salmonellae in a tertiary care paediatric hospital in Northern India

    R Saksena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial trends over 6 years were studied, and the effect of revised Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI breakpoints (2012 for ciprofloxacin susceptibility reporting in typhoidal Salmonellae was determined. A total of 874 (95.4% isolates were nalidixic acid-resistant (NAR. Using the CLSI 2011 guidelines (M100-S21, 585 (66.9% isolates were ciprofloxacin susceptible. The susceptibility reduced to 11 (1.25% isolates when interpreted using 2012 guidelines (M100-S22. Among the forty nalidixic acid susceptible (NAS Salmonellae, susceptibility to ciprofloxacin decreased from 37 isolates (M100-S21 to 12 isolates (M100-S22. The 25 cases which appeared resistant with newer guidelines had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC range between 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml. MIC50 for the third generation cephalosporins varied between 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml over 6 years whereas MIC90 varied with a broader range of 0.19–1 μg/ml. The gap between NAR and ciprofloxacin-resistant strains identified using 2011 guidelines has been reduced; however, it remains to be seen whether additional NAS, ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates are truly resistant to ciprofloxacin by other mechanisms of resistance.

  2. Laboratories new to the ICRM.

    Karam, Lisa; Anagnostakis, Marios J; Gudelis, Arunas; Marsoem, Pujadi; Mauring, Alexander; Wurdiyanto, Gatot; Yücel, Ülkü

    2012-09-01

    The Scientific Committee of the ICRM decided, for the 2011 Conference, to present laboratories that are at a key developmental stage in establishing, expanding or applying radionuclide metrology capabilities. The expansion of radionuclide metrology capabilities is crucial to meet evolving and emerging needs in health care, environmental monitoring, and nuclear energy. Five laboratories (from Greece, Lithuania, Indonesia, Norway and Turkey) agreed to participate. Each laboratory is briefly introduced, and examples of their capabilities and standardization activities are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Components of laboratory accreditation.

    Royal, P D

    1995-12-01

    Accreditation or certification is a recognition given to an operation or product that has been evaluated against a standard; be it regulatory or voluntary. The purpose of accreditation is to provide the consumer with a level of confidence in the quality of operation (process) and the product of an organization. Environmental Protection Agency/OCM has proposed the development of an accreditation program under National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program for Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) laboratories as a supplement to the current program. This proposal was the result of the Inspector General Office reports that identified weaknesses in the current operation. Several accreditation programs can be evaluated and common components identified when proposing a structure for accrediting a GLP system. An understanding of these components is useful in building that structure. Internationally accepted accreditation programs provide a template for building a U.S. GLP accreditation program. This presentation will discuss the traditional structure of accreditation as presented in the Organization of Economic Cooperative Development/GLP program, ISO-9000 Accreditation and ISO/IEC Guide 25 Standard, and the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories, which has a biological component. Most accreditation programs are managed by a recognized third party, either privately or with government oversight. Common components often include a formal review of required credentials to evaluate organizational structure, a site visit to evaluate the facility, and a performance evaluation to assess technical competence. Laboratory performance is measured against written standards and scored. A formal report is then sent to the laboratory indicating accreditation status. Usually, there is a scheduled reevaluation built into the program. Fee structures vary considerably and will need to be examined closely when building a GLP program.

  4. [Laboratory accreditation and proficiency testing].

    Kuwa, Katsuhiko

    2003-05-01

    ISO/TC 212 covering clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems will issue the international standard for medical laboratory quality and competence requirements, ISO 15189. This standard is based on the ISO/IEC 17025, general requirements for competence of testing and calibration laboratories and ISO 9001, quality management systems-requirements. Clinical laboratory services are essential to patient care and therefore should be available to meet the needs of all patients and clinical personnel responsible for human health care. If a laboratory seeks accreditation, it should select an accreditation body that operates according to this international standard and in a manner which takes into account the particular requirements of clinical laboratories. Proficiency testing should be available to evaluate the calibration laboratories and reference measurement laboratories in clinical medicine. Reference measurement procedures should be of precise and the analytical principle of measurement applied should ensure reliability. We should be prepared to establish a quality management system and proficiency testing in clinical laboratories.

  5. Isotope laboratories

    1978-01-01

    This report from the Dutch Ministry of Health is an advisory document concerned with isotope laboratories in hospitals, in connection with the Dutch laws for hospitals. It discusses which hospitals should have isotope laboratories and concludes that as many hospitals as possible should have small laboratories so that emergency cases can be dealt with. It divides the Netherlands into regions and suggests which hospitals should have these facilities. The questions of how big each lab. is to be, what equipment each has, how each lab. is organised, what therapeutic and diagnostic work should be carried out by each, etc. are discussed. The answers are provided by reports from working groups for in vivo diagnostics, in vitro diagnostics, therapy, and safety and their results form the criteria for the licences of isotope labs. The results of a questionnaire for isotope labs. already in the Netherlands are presented, and their activities outlined. (C.F.)

  6. ESPA Based Secondary Payload Orbit Maneuvering System, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop/design an integrated propulsion, power, ACS, and separation module for secondary ESPA payloads. The standardized secondary payload...

  7. Standard elements; Elements standards

    Blanc, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following his own experience the author recalls the various advantages, especially in the laboratory, of having pre-fabricated vacuum-line components at his disposal. (author) [French] A la suite de sa propre experience, l'auteur veut rappeler les divers avantages que presente, tout particulierement en laboratoire, le fait d'avoir a sa disposition des elements pre-fabriques de canalisations a vide. (auteur)

  8. Kingsbury Laboratories

    Hughes, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the work of the Kingsbury Laboratories of Fairey Engineering Company, for the nuclear industry. The services provided include: monitoring of nuclear graphite machining, specialist welding, non-destructive testing, and metallurgy testing; and all are briefly described. (U.K.)

  9. 30 CFR 56.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6312 Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from...

  10. Health Physics Society program for accreditation of calibration laboratories

    West, L.; Masse, F.X.; Swinth, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Health Physics Society has instituted a new program for accreditation of organizations that calibrate radiation survey instruments. The purpose of the program is to provide radiation protection professionals with an expanded means of direct and indirect access to national standards, thus introducing a means for improving the uniformity, accuracy, and quality of ionizing radiation field measurements. Secondary accredited laboratories are expected to provide a regional support basis. Tertiary accredited laboratories are expected to operate on a more local basis and provide readily available expertise to end users. The accreditation process is an effort to provide better measurement assurance for surveys of radiation fields. The status of the accreditation program, general criteria, gamma-ray calibration criteria, and x-ray calibration criteria are reviewed

  11. THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY--WORK SHEET.

    CROSBIE, KEITH

    DESIGNED FOR TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS, THIS WORK SHEET PROVIDES GENERAL AND SPECIFIC INFORMATION ABOUT THE PHILOSOPHY, TYPES, AND USES OF LANGUAGE LABORATORIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL LANGUAGE PROGRAMS. THE FIRST SECTION DISCUSSES THE ADVANTAGES OF USING THE LABORATORY EFFECTIVELY TO REINFORCE AND CONSOLIDATE CLASSROOM LEARNING, AND MENTIONS SOME…

  12. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  13. Laboratory investigations

    Handin, J.

    1980-01-01

    Our task is to design mined-repository systems that will adequately secure high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 yr and that will be mechanically stable for 50 to 100-yr periods of retrievability during which mistakes could be corrected and a valuable source of energy could be reclaimed, should national policy on the reprocessing of spent fuel ever change. The only credible path for the escape of radionuclides from the repository to the biosphere is through ground-water, and in hard rock, bulk permeability is largely governed by natural and artificial fracture systems. Catastrophic failure of an excavation in hard rock is likely to occur at the weakest links - the discontinuities in the rock mass that is perturbed first by mining and then by radiogenic heating. The laboratory can contribute precise measurements of the pertinent thermomechanical, hydrological and chemical properties and improve our understanding of the fundamental processes through careful experiments under well controlled conditions that simulate the prototype environment. Thus laboratory investigations are necessary, but they are not sufficient, for conventional sample sizes are small relative to natural defects like joints - i.e., the rock mass is not a continuum - and test durations are short compared to those that predictive modeling must take into account. Laboratory investigators can contribute substantially more useful data if they are provided facilities for testing large specimens(say one cubic meter) and for creep testing of all candidate host rocks. Even so, extrapolations of laboratory data to the field in neither space nor time are valid without the firm theoretical foundations yet to be built. Meanwhile in-situ measurements of structure-sensitive physical properties and access to direct observations of rock-mass character will be absolutely necessary

  14. Culham Laboratory

    1980-06-01

    The report contains summaries of work carried out under the following headings: fusion research experiments; U.K. contribution to the JET project; supporting studies; theoretical plasma physics, computational physics and computing; fusion reactor studies; engineering and technology; contract research; external relations; staff, finance and services. Appendices cover main characteristics of Culham fusion experiments, staff, extra-mural projects supported by Culham Laboratory, and a list of papers written by Culham staff. (U.K.)

  15. Plating laboratory

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  16. Underground laboratories

    Bettini, A., E-mail: Bettini@pd.infn.i [Padua University and INFN Section, Dipartimento di Fisca G. Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Plaza Ayuntamiento n1 2piso, Canfranc (Huesca) (Spain)

    2011-01-21

    Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to frontier experiments in particle and nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines, geology and biology, that can profit of their unique characteristics. The cosmic silence allows to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators by searching for extremely rare phenomena. I will briefly review the facilities that are operational or in an advanced status of approval around the world.

  17. 40 CFR 421.200 - Applicability: Description of the secondary mercury subcategory.

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary mercury subcategory. 421.200 Section 421.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Mercury Subcategory § 421.200 Applicability: Description of the secondary mercury...

  18. A combined genetic and multi medium approach revels new secondary metabolites in Aspergillus nidulans

    Klejnstrup, Marie Louise; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    Secondary metabolites are a diverse group of metabolites which serve as important natural sources of drugs for treating diseases. The availability of full genome sequences of several filamentous fungi has revealed a large genetic potential for production of secondary metabolites that are not obse......Secondary metabolites are a diverse group of metabolites which serve as important natural sources of drugs for treating diseases. The availability of full genome sequences of several filamentous fungi has revealed a large genetic potential for production of secondary metabolites...... that are not observed under standard laboratory conditions. Genetic approaches have proven a fruitfull strategy towards the production and identification of these unknown metabolites. Examples include deletion of the cclA1 and laeA2 genes in A. nidulans which affects the expression of secondary metabolites including...... monodictyphenone and terrequinone A respectively. We have deleted the cclA gene in A. nidulans and grown the mutants on several complex media to provoke the production of secondary metabolites. This resulted in the production of several metabolites not previously reported from A. nidulans. Some of these have been...

  19. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory; TOPICAL

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations

  20. Succeeding at teaching secondary mathematics your first year

    Roddick, Cheryl D

    2010-01-01

    This practical resource helps beginning secondary mathematics teachers design a curriculum that is meaningful, differentiate instruction, engage students, meet standards, assess student understanding, and more.

  1. Secondary calibration laboratory for dosimetry in levels of therapy at the University of Santiago; Laboratorio secundario de calibracion para dosimetria en niveles de terapia en la Universidad de Santiago

    Gomez Rodriguez, F.; Gonzalez Castano, D. M.; Pazos Alvarez, A.

    2011-07-01

    A basic inherent benefits provided by the existence of a traceability chain radiation in any application, add the legal requirement for hospitals as pointed to by the RO. 1566/1998, which sets quality standards in radiotherapy. The decree attributed to hospital specialists radio physics in article 10 the responsibility for determining the acceptance and initial reference state of radiation generating equipment for therapeutic purposes, and the establishment and implementation of quality control programs associated and technical and physical aspects of radiation dosimetry. Different international organizations such as ICRU and IAEA recommendations on maintaining the accuracy of the dose delivered to patients in general, should be placed at least 5% considering the whole chain irradiation. In order to achieve this purpose it is necessary to establish programs of quality control and calibration dosimetric regular basis. The protocol of the IAEA TRS398 recommended dose calibration in water because it is a quantity of interest closest to clinical use and allows a relative uncertainty in the calibration environment reduced to 1%.. (Author)

  2. Martian Chemical and Isotopic Reference Standards in Earth-based Laboratories — An Invitation for Geochemical, Astrobiological, and Engineering Dialog on Considering a Weathered Chondrite for Mars Sample Return.

    Ashley, J. W.; Tait, A. W.; Velbel, M. A.; Boston, P. J.; Carrier, B. L.; Cohen, B. A.; Schröder, C.; Bland, P.

    2017-12-01

    Exogenic rocks (meteorites) found on Mars 1) have unweathered counterparts on Earth; 2) weather differently than indigenous rocks; and 3) may be ideal habitats for putative microorganisms and subsequent biosignature preservation. These attributes show the potential of meteorites for addressing hypothesis-driven science. They raise the question of whether chondritic meteorites, of sufficient weathering intensity, might be considered as candidates for sample return in a potential future mission. Pursuant to this discussion are the following questions. A) Is there anything to be learned from the laboratory study of a martian chondrite that cannot be learned from indigenous materials; and if so, B) is the science value high enough to justify recovery? If both A and B answer affirmatively, then C) what are the engineering constraints for sample collection for Mars 2020 and potential follow-on missions; and finally D) what is the likelihood of finding a favorable sample? Observations relevant to these questions include: i) Since 2005, 24 candidate and confirmed meteorites have been identified on Mars at three rover landing sites, demonstrating their ubiquity and setting expectations for future finds. All have been heavily altered by a variety of physical and chemical processes. While the majority of these are irons (not suitable for recovery), several are weathered stony meteorites. ii) Exogenic reference materials provide the only chemical/isotope standards on Mars, permitting quantification of alteration rates if residence ages can be attained; and possibly enabling the removal of Late Amazonian weathering overprints from other returned samples. iii) Recent studies have established the habitability of chondritic meteorites with terrestrial microorganisms, recommending their consideration when exploring astrobiological questions. High reactivity, organic content, and permeability show stony meteorites to be more attractive for colonization and subsequent biosignature

  3. Laboratory testing of hemolytic properties of materials that come in contact with blood: Comparative application testing method’s two variants according to the standard ASTM F756 in accordance with ISO 10993-4

    Pavlović Katarina B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of hemolytic material in contact with blood may produce increased levels of blood cell lysis and increased levels of plasma hemoglobin. This may induce toxic effects or other effects which may stress the kidneys or other organs. In this paper two variants of in vitro method and obtained results’ comparison were presented for testing of hemolytic properties of six raw materials (Polipropylene Moplen EP 540 P, Policarbonate colorless 164 R-112, Policarbonate brown 164 R-51918, Polietylene NG 3026 K, Polietylene NG - Purell GB 7250, Polietylene VG - Hiplex 5502 for medical device manufacturing and one raw material (Polietylen NG granulate used for infusion solutions’s plastic bottles manufacturing. One of method’s variants relies on raw material direct contact with swine blood and the other on extract of the material contact with swine blood. Both method’s variants imply reading of the absorbance of the supernatant after tubes were incubated and centrifuged. According to values obtained and using the standard curve free hemoglobin concentration is determined and based on this percentage hemolysis of raw material. Positive and negative controls were used in both variants where water for injection (WFI was used as positive control in which partial or complete hemolysis of erythrocytes occurs due to osmotic shock and phosphate buffer saline was used as negative control with no hemolytic property. In this paper comparison of results obtained by both method’s variants for testing of seven raw materials was presented, while these conclusions can not be used neither for all materials, nor for all applications without preliminary testing using both variants and then choosing more sensitive and more reliable one. It was shown and stated in the paper as well that incubation time being 3, 15 or 24 h, had no impact on the variant’s with direct contact sensitivity. This comparative approach was used for drawing conclusions in terms of

  4. Evaluation of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute phenotypic confirmatory test to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases from 4005 Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolates.

    Morrissey, Ian; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hackel, Meredith; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Hawser, Stephen; Hoban, Daryl; Badal, Robert E

    2014-04-01

    A subset of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected for the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends that were positive for the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypic confirmatory test (n = 3245) or had an ertapenem MIC of ≥0.5 µg ml(-1) (n = 293), or both (n = 467), were analysed for ESBL genes. Most ESBL phenotype E. coli or K. pneumoniae possessed an ESBL gene (95.8 and 88.4 %, respectively), and this was 93.1 % if carbapenem-non-susceptible K. pneumoniae were removed. This rate was lower for P. mirabilis (73.4 %) and K. oxytoca (62.5 %). Virtually all ESBL-positive isolates (99.5 %) were cefotaxime non-susceptible [CLSI or European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints)]. Fewer isolates (82 %) were ceftazidime non-susceptible (CLSI breakpoints). In addition, 21.1 % of E. coli, 25 % of K. oxytoca and 78.7 % of P. mirabilis isolates were ceftazidime susceptible but ESBL positive. This suggests that CLSI breakpoints for ceftazidime are too high to detect ESBLs. The lower EUCAST breakpoints detected ESBLs in E. coli and K. oxytoca better, but 59.6 % of ESBL-positive isolates of P. mirabilis were ceftazidime susceptible. For isolates with ertapenem MICs ≥0.5 µg ml(-1), more accurate ESBL phenotype analysis was observed for E. coli and K. pneumoniae (sensitivity >95 % for both, specificity 94.4 and 54.1 %, respectively). If carbapenemase-positive K. pneumoniae were excluded, the specificity increased to 78 %. The positive predictive values for the ESBL phenotypic test with E. coli and K. pneumoniae were 97.6 and 81.8 %, respectively, and negative predictive values were 75.9 and 95.2 %, respectively. We therefore suggest that it would be prudent to confirm phenotypic ESBL-positive P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca with molecular analysis.

  5. Clinical laboratory accreditation in India.

    Handoo, Anil; Sood, Swaroop Krishan

    2012-06-01

    Test results from clinical laboratories must ensure accuracy, as these are crucial in several areas of health care. It is necessary that the laboratory implements quality assurance to achieve this goal. The implementation of quality should be audited by independent bodies,referred to as accreditation bodies. Accreditation is a third-party attestation by an authoritative body, which certifies that the applicant laboratory meets quality requirements of accreditation body and has demonstrated its competence to carry out specific tasks. Although in most of the countries,accreditation is mandatory, in India it is voluntary. The quality requirements are described in standards developed by many accreditation organizations. The internationally acceptable standard for clinical laboratories is ISO15189, which is based on ISO/IEC standard 17025. The accreditation body in India is the National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories, which has signed Mutual Recognition Agreement with the regional cooperation the Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation and with the apex cooperation the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation.

  6. Laboratory accreditation in developing economies

    Loesener, O.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Accreditation of laboratories has been practiced for well over one hundred years with the primary objective of seeking a formal recognition for the competence of a laboratory to perform specified tests or measurements. While first accreditation schemes intended initially to serve only the immediate needs of the body making the evaluation with the purpose of minimizing testing and inspection to be conducted by laboratories, third-party accreditation enables a laboratory to demonstrate its capability as well as availability of all necessary resources to undertake particular tests correctly and that is managed in such a way that it is likely to do this consistently, taking into consideration standards developed by national and international standards-setting bodies. The international standard ISO/IEC 17025 and laboratory accreditation are concerned with competence and quality management of laboratories only, thus requiring a single common set of criteria applicable to them. Quality assurance is therefore fully relevant to laboratories in general and analytical laboratories in particular; it should not be confused with the certification approach according to ISO/IEC 9000 family of standards, that is concerned with quality management applicable to any organization as a whole. The role of laboratory accreditation can be manifold, but in all cases the recipient of the test report needs to have confidence that the data in it is reliable, particularly if the test data is important in a decision-making process. As such, it offers a comprehensive way to ensure: - the availability of managerial and technical staff with the authority and resources needed; - the effectiveness of equipment management, traceability of measurement and safety procedures; - the performance of tests, taking into consideration laboratory accommodation and facilities as well as laboratory practices. The presentation will include also some practical aspects of quality management system

  7. Demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Enghuus, Casper; Petersen, Morten A

    2015-01-01

    of analgesic drug effects in humans. However, since the methods applied in demarcating the secondary hyperalgesia zone seem inconsistent across studies, we examined the effect of a standardized approach upon the measurement of SHA following a first degree burn injury (BI). NEW METHOD: The study was a two.......0001). No day-to-day or observer-to-observer differences in SHAs were observed. Intraclass correlation coefficients, in the range of 0.51 to 0.84, indicated a moderate to almost perfect reliability between observers. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: No standardized approach in SHA-assessment has hitherto been...... presented. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones depends on the developed pressure of the punctate stimulator used....

  8. [Diagnostic of secondary hypertension in clinical practice].

    Somlóová, Z; Rosa, J; Petrák, O; Strauch, B; Zelinka, T; Holaj, R; Widimský, J

    2011-09-01

    Arterial hypertension is a common worldwide disease with a prevalence of approximately 26%. Secondary cause is known in 5-10% of patients with hypertension. We should think of secondary hypertension in all patients with resistant hypertension, in patients with sudden deterioration in the control of hypertension and in patients with laboratory and clinical signs of diseases associated with secondary hypertension. It is important to distinguish between secondary hypertension and pseudo-resistance (noncompliance to treatment, white coat syndrome). Secondary causes of hypertension can be divided into endocrine (primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, hypercortisolism, hyperparathyreoidism), renal - renovascular and renal parenchymal hypertension, and other causes as sleep apnoe syndrome, hypertension in pregnancy, coarctation of the aorta and intracranial tumors.

  9. Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Safety

    Luckenbaugh, Raymond W.

    1996-11-01

    Each organic chemistry student should become familiar with the educational and governmental laboratory safety requirements. One method for teaching laboratory safety is to assign each student to locate safety resources for a specific class laboratory experiment. The student should obtain toxicity and hazardous information for all chemicals used or produced during the assigned experiment. For example, what is the LD50 or LC50 for each chemical? Are there any specific hazards for these chemicals, carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen, neurotixin, chronic toxin, corrosive, flammable, or explosive agent? The school's "Chemical Hygiene Plan", "Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory" (National Academy Press), and "Laboratory Standards, Part 1910 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards" (Fed. Register 1/31/90, 55, 3227-3335) should be reviewed for laboratory safety requirements for the assigned experiment. For example, what are the procedures for safe handling of vacuum systems, if a vacuum distillation is used in the assigned experiment? The literature survey must be submitted to the laboratory instructor one week prior to the laboratory session for review and approval. The student should then give a short presentation to the class on the chemicals' toxicity and hazards and describe the safety precautions that must be followed. This procedure gives the student first-hand knowledge on how to find and evaluate information to meet laboartory safety requirements.

  10. Standards for deuterium analysis requirements of heavy water plants (Preprint No. CA-1)

    Rathi, B N; Gopalakrishnan, V T; Alphonse, K P; Pawar, P L; Sadhukhan, H K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Heavy Water Div.

    1989-04-01

    Accurate analysis of deuterium, covering the entire range, is of great importance in production of heavy water. Most of the methods for determination of deuterium in gas or liquid samples require appropriate standards. Since density of pure protium oxide and pure deuterium oxide has been determined very accurately by a large number of workers and density of mixtures of H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O follows a linear relation, it is possible to use accurate density determination for measurement of deuterium content. Float method for density measurements was improved further and used for the preparation of primary heavy water standards in high and low deuterium ranges. Heavy water plant laboratories require gas standards (ammonia synthesis gas matrix), in addition to low deuterium water standards, for calibration of mass spectrometers. SLAP (Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation, D/D+H = 89.02+-0.05ppm) and SMOW (Standard Mean Ocean Water, D/D+H =155.76+-0.05ppm) available from IAEA, Vienna, along with water practically free from deuterium, were used as standards to prepare secondary liquid standards. These secondary standards were subsequently reduced and mixed with pure nitrogen to obtain D/D+H standards in syngas matrix. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Development of the Global Measles Laboratory Network.

    Featherstone, David; Brown, David; Sanders, Ray

    2003-05-15

    The routine reporting of suspected measles cases and laboratory testing of samples from these cases is the backbone of measles surveillance. The Global Measles Laboratory Network (GMLN) has developed standards for laboratory confirmation of measles and provides training resources for staff of network laboratories, reference materials and expertise for the development and quality control of testing procedures, and accurate information for the Measles Mortality Reduction and Regional Elimination Initiative. The GMLN was developed along the lines of the successful Global Polio Laboratory Network, and much of the polio laboratory infrastructure was utilized for measles. The GMLN has developed as countries focus on measles control activities following successful eradication of polio. Currently more than 100 laboratories are part of the global network and follow standardized testing and reporting procedures. A comprehensive laboratory accreditation process will be introduced in 2002 with six quality assurance and performance indicators.

  12. Development of standard ionization chamber counting system for activity measurements

    Pyun, Woong Beom; Lee, Hyun Koo; Lee, Hai Yong; Park, Tae Soon

    1998-01-01

    This study is to set up the activity measuring system using a 4π γ ionization chamber as used mainly in national standards laboratories that are responsible for radionuclide metrology. The software for automatic control between the electrometer and personal computer is developed using Microsoft visual basic 4.0 and IEEE488 Interface. The reproducibility of this 4π γ ionization chamber is about 0.02% and the background current is 0.054±0.024 pA. this 4π γ ionization chamber is calibrated by 6 standard gamma emitting radionuclides from KRISS. According to the result of this study, it is revealed that this 4π γ ionization chamber counting system can be used as a secondary standard instrument for radioactivity measurement

  13. Development of standard ionization chamber counting system for activity measurements

    Pyun, W B; Lee, H Y; Park, T S

    1998-01-01

    This study is to set up the activity measuring system using a 4 pi gamma ionization chamber as used mainly in national standards laboratories that are responsible for radionuclide metrology. The software for automatic control between the electrometer and personal computer is developed using Microsoft visual basic 4.0 and IEEE488 Interface. The reproducibility of this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is about 0.02% and the background current is 0.054+-0.024 pA. this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is calibrated by 6 standard gamma emitting radionuclides from KRISS. According to the result of this study, it is revealed that this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber counting system can be used as a secondary standard instrument for radioactivity measurement.

  14. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Secondary to Neuroblastoma

    RM Reifen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight month-old infant presented with a 10-day history of vomiting and diarrhea, and a one-week history of swelling of the lower extremities. Laboratory evaluations revealed hypoproteinemia and lymphocytopenia due to protein-losing enteropathy. Peroral small bowel biopsy showed intestinal lymphangiectasia. Subsequent onset of unexplained ecchymosis and obstructive jaundice resulted in additional studies which revealed an omental neuroblastoma as the underlying etiology of the infant’s symptoms. This report emphasizes the importance of considering secondary, obstructive causes for lymphangiectasia and protein-losing enteropathy.

  15. Fahr's Syndrome and Secondary Hypoparathyroidism.

    Dos Santos, Vitorino Modesta; Da Mata, Ana Medeiros De Farias; Ribeiro, Kelle Regina Alves; Calvo, Isadora Cartaxo De Sousa

    2016-01-01

    A typical case of Fahr's syndrome is described in a 76-year-old Brazilian female who underwent a total thyroidectomy three decades ago. Six years before the current admission, she started with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Associated disorders involved extra-pyramidal, cognitive, nocturnal terror and mood changes. With suspicion of hypocalcemia due to secondary hypoparathyroidism, laboratory determinations confirmed the diagnoses. Furthermore, imaging studies of the central nervous system detected multiple calcifications, with characteristic distribution of Fahr's syndrome. Clinical management was successful.

  16. Standard software for CAMAC

    Lenkszus, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    The NIM Committee (National Instrumentation Methods Committee) of the U.S. Department of Energy and the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories have jointly specified standard software for use with CAMAC. Three general approaches were followed: the definition of a language called IML for use in CAMAC systems, the definition of a standard set of subroutine calls, and real-time extensions to the BASIC language. This paper summarizes the results of these efforts. 1 table

  17. Laboratory diagnostics of malaria

    Siahaan, L.

    2018-03-01

    Even now, malaria treatment should only be administered after laboratory confirmation. There are several principal methods for diagnosing malaria. All these methods have their disadvantages.Presumptive treatment of malaria is widely practiced where laboratory tests are not readily available. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria infection. The technique of slide preparation, staining and reading are well known and standardized, and so is the estimate of the parasite density and parasite stages. Microscopy is not always available or feasible at primary health services in limited resource settings due to cost, lack of skilled manpower, accessories and reagents required. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are potential tools for parasite-based diagnosis since the tests are accurate in detecting malaria infections and are easy to use. The test is based on the capture of parasite antigen that released from parasitized red blood cells using monoclonal antibodies prepared against malaria antigen target. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), depend on DNA amplification approaches and have higher sensitivity than microscopy. PCR it is not widely used due to the lack of a standardized methodology, high costs, and the need for highly-trained staff.

  18. Student/Pupil Accounting: Standard Terminology and Guide for Managing Student Data in Elementary and Secondary Schools, Community/Junior Colleges, and Adult Education. State Educational Records and Reports Series: Handbook V. Revised.

    Putnam, John F.

    This handbook's fundamental purpose is to provide terms and definitions for the data and information educators use in student services. It identifies concepts used in decisionmaking, provides standardized terms and definitions, classifies the terms, provides guidelines for developing and managing student records, and recommends the development of…

  19. Elementary and Secondary Education Property Accounting. A Handbook of Standard Terminology and a Guide for Classifying Information About Education Property. State Educational Records and Reports Series: Handbook III, Revised 1977.

    Davis (Robert) Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

    The purposes of this handbook are to provide a comprehensive guide to standard terminology relating to property (sites, buildings, and equipment) used in education, a list of suggested data items useful in describing property, general data items useful in describing property, and general guidelines that can assist the reader in understanding and…

  20. Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory

    1992-01-01

    The Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis) is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and has been operated under Government contract by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation since 1949. The Bettis Site in West Mifflin, Pennsylvania conducts research and development work on improved nuclear propulsion plants for US Navy warships and is the headquarters for all of the Laboratory's operations. For many years, environmental monitoring has been performed to demonstrate that the Bettis Site is being operated in accordance with environmental standards. While the annual report describes monitoring practices and results, it does not describe the nature and environmental aspects of work and facilities at the Bettis Site nor give a historical perspective of Bettis' operations. The purpose of this report is to provide this information as well as background information, such as the geologic and hydrologic nature of the Bettis Site, pertinent to understanding the environmental aspects of Bettis operations. Waste management practices are also described

  1. Comparison of a standardized procedure with current laboratory practices for the detection of lupus anticoagulant in France. Working Group on Hemostasis of the Société Française de Biologie Clinique.

    1993-11-15

    A multicenter study involving 13 laboratories was designed to compare a common procedure for screening lupus anticoagulants (LA) to the different practices currently in use in these laboratories. The common procedure combined 3 phospholipid-dependent assays, including mixing studies and a phospholipid neutralizing test. Due to the heterogeneity of LA expression, an abnormal result in at least one of the tests was sufficient to classify a sample as positive for LA. Consecutive samples referred for LA diagnosis were evaluated in parallel by each participant and the data found using the common procedure were analyzed independently according to mutually agreed cut-offs and criteria for sample classification. Within a period of 3 months, 535 samples were included, of which 147 were judged LA positive, 29 undetermined and 359 negative by the respective laboratories using their current practice. When using the common procedure, 149 plasmas were said to be positive, 38 undetermined and 348 negative. Absolute concordance occurred for 81% of the specimen population and absolute discordance (positive versus negative) for 7%. The level of agreement between the common procedure and the current practices, assessed by kappa indexes, indicated noticeable variations in the rates of detection from laboratory to laboratory. Among the different tests used in the common procedure, regular APTT was the least sensitive (about 50% detection) but none of the other tests alone recognized more than 73% of specimens from the LA positive population. This yield increased to about 90% with any combination of 2 sensitive tests.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Understanding chemistry behind secondary aerosol production from nitrogen and sulfur compounds from agriculture

    Agricultural emissions impact particulate mass concentrations through both primary and secondary processes. Evidence from laboratory and field work suggest that not only does ammonia produce secondary particulate matter, but nitrogen and sulfur containing volatile organic compounds also contribute. ...

  3. Electromedical devices test laboratories accreditation

    Murad, C; Rubio, D; Ponce, S; Alvarez Abri, A; Terron, A; Vicencio, D; Fascioli, E

    2007-01-01

    In the last years, the technology and equipment at hospitals have been increase in a great way as the risks of their implementation. Safety in medical equipment must be considered an important issue to protect patients and their users. For this reason, test and calibrations laboratories must verify the correct performance of this kind of devices under national and international standards. Is an essential mission for laboratories to develop their measurement activities taking into account a quality management system. In this article, we intend to transmit our experience working to achieve an accredited Test Laboratories for medical devices in National technological University

  4. 42 CFR 493.1101 - Standard: Facilities.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Facilities. 493.1101 Section 493.1101... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Facility Administration for Nonwaived Testing § 493.1101 Standard: Facilities. (a) The laboratory must be constructed, arranged, and maintained to...

  5. Laboratory quality improvement in Thailand's northernmost provinces.

    Kanitvittaya, S; Suksai, U; Suksripanich, O; Pobkeeree, V

    2010-01-01

    In Thailand nearly 1000 public health laboratories serve 65 million people. A qualified indicator of a good quality laboratory is Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. Consequently, Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center established a development program for laboratory certification for 29 laboratories in the province. This paper seeks to examine this issue. The goal was to improve laboratory service quality by voluntary participation, peer review, training and compliance with standards. The program consisted of specific activities. Training and workshops to update laboratory staffs' quality management knowledge were organized. Staff in each laboratory performed a self-assessment using a standard check-list to evaluate ten laboratory management areas. Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center staff supported the distribution of quality materials and documents. They provided calibration services for laboratory equipment. Peer groups performed an internal audit and successful laboratories received Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. By December 2007, eight of the 29 laboratories had improved quality sufficiently to be certified. Factors that influenced laboratories' readiness for quality improvement included the number of staff, their knowledge, budget and staff commitment to the process. Moreover, the support of each hospital's laboratory working group or network was essential for success. There was no clear policy for supporting the program. Laboratories voluntarily conducted quality management using existing resources. A bottom-up approach to this kind of project can be difficult to accomplish. Laboratory professionals can work together to illustrate and highlight outcomes for top-level health officials. A top-down, practical approach would be much less difficult to implement. Quality certification is a critical step for laboratory staff, which also encourages them to aspire to international quality standards like ISO. The

  6. [Accreditation of forensic laboratories].

    Sołtyszewski, Ireneusz

    2010-01-01

    According to the framework decision of the European Union Council, genetic laboratories which perform tests for the benefit of the law enforcement agencies and the administration of justice are required to obtain a certificate of accreditation testifying to compliance with the PN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 standard. The certificate is the official confirmation of the competence to perform research, an acknowledgement of credibility, impartiality and professional independence. It is also the proof of establishment, implementation and maintenance of an appropriate management system. The article presents the legal basis for accreditation, the procedure of obtaining the certificate of accreditation and selected elements of the management system.

  7. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Cybersecurity Standards

    Saleem, Danish [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-11-08

    This presentation covers the work that Sandia National Laboratories and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are doing for distributed energy resource cybersecurity standards, prepared for NREL's Annual Cybersecurity & Resilience Workshop on October 9-10, 2017.

  8. Estimation of rumen microbial protein production from purine derivatives in urine. A laboratory manual for the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for measuring microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity

    1997-05-01

    This laboratory manual contains the methodologies used in the standardization and validation of the urine purine derivative technique for estimating microbial protein supply to the rumen. It includes descriptions of methods that involve both radioactive and stable isotopes as well as non isotopic techniques such as chemical assays, since it has been recognised that while isotopic trace techniques provide a powerful tool for nutrition research they can not and should not be used in isolation. Refs, figs, tabs

  9. Low Impact Development Standards

    Loftin, Samuel R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The goal of the LID Standards is to provide guidance on the planning, design, construction and maintenance of green infrastructure (GI) features at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The success of LID at LANL is dependent on maintaining a consistent approach to achieve effective application, operation, and maintenance of these storm water control features.

  10. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  11. FOOTWEAR PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory provides biomechanical and physical analyses for both military and commercial footwear. The laboratory contains equipment that is integral to the us...

  12. Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research performs preclinical characterization of nanomaterials...

  13. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  14. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  15. Use of CRM's as mutual calibrating materials and control of synthetic multielement standards as used in INAA

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1987-01-01

    Dilution effects of different multielement synthetic standard solutions were studied by measuring 10-12 different concentrations of the same solution. Peak area comparison of four Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) using one value for the evaluation of the other three repetitively led to the intercomparison (degree of compatibility) of the certified values. The idea of the preparation of each laboratory's 'secondary reference standard' by comparison of synthetic multielement standards with as many CRMs as practically feasible is advocated to improve the reliability of analytical results. (author)

  16. Errors in clinical laboratories or errors in laboratory medicine?

    Plebani, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory testing is a highly complex process and, although laboratory services are relatively safe, they are not as safe as they could or should be. Clinical laboratories have long focused their attention on quality control methods and quality assessment programs dealing with analytical aspects of testing. However, a growing body of evidence accumulated in recent decades demonstrates that quality in clinical laboratories cannot be assured by merely focusing on purely analytical aspects. The more recent surveys on errors in laboratory medicine conclude that in the delivery of laboratory testing, mistakes occur more frequently before (pre-analytical) and after (post-analytical) the test has been performed. Most errors are due to pre-analytical factors (46-68.2% of total errors), while a high error rate (18.5-47% of total errors) has also been found in the post-analytical phase. Errors due to analytical problems have been significantly reduced over time, but there is evidence that, particularly for immunoassays, interference may have a serious impact on patients. A description of the most frequent and risky pre-, intra- and post-analytical errors and advice on practical steps for measuring and reducing the risk of errors is therefore given in the present paper. Many mistakes in the Total Testing Process are called "laboratory errors", although these may be due to poor communication, action taken by others involved in the testing process (e.g., physicians, nurses and phlebotomists), or poorly designed processes, all of which are beyond the laboratory's control. Likewise, there is evidence that laboratory information is only partially utilized. A recent document from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommends a new, broader definition of the term "laboratory error" and a classification of errors according to different criteria. In a modern approach to total quality, centered on patients' needs and satisfaction, the risk of errors and mistakes

  17. The antibiogram. A resource in compulsory secondary education laboratory

    López Pérez, José Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En esta comunicación se presentan las directrices necesarias para lograr la observación, en el laboratorio de Biología de Educación Secundaria, de la capacidad antimicrobiana de algunos compuestos, en especial de los antibióticos, y su repercusión en el fortalecimiento de la enseñanza de las ciencias en materia de salud.

  18. EELV Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA)

    Haskett, Scott A.; Weis, Steven C.; Doggrell, Leslie J.; Sciulli, Dino; Meink, Troy E.; Ganley, Jeff T.; Maly, Joseph R.; Jurisson, Karl

    2000-11-01

    Despite growing international interest in small satellites, high dedicated expendable launch vehicle costs and the lack of secondary launch opportunities continue to hinder the full exploitation of small satellite technology. In the United States, the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, other government agencies, commercial companies, and many universities use small satellites to perform space experiments, demonstrate new technology, and test operational prototype hardware. In addition, the DoD continues to study the role of small satellites in fulfilling operational mission requirements. However, the US lacks sufficient small satellite launch capacity. Furthermore, US government agencies are restricted to the use of US launch vehicles, which eliminates many affordable launch opportunities. In an effort to increase the number of space experiments that can be flown with a small, fixed budget, the DoD Space Test Program (STP) has teamed with the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/VS) to develop a low-cost solution for the small satellite launch program. Our solution, which can be implemented on both Boeing and Lockheed-Martin Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle-Medium (EELV-M) boosters, is called the EELV Secondary Payload Adaptor (ESPA). ESPA will increase the number of launch opportunities for 180kg-class (or smaller) satellites at prices highly competitive with other secondary launch services worldwide.

  19. Cs+ ion source for secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Bentz, B.L.; Weiss, H.; Liebl, H.

    1981-12-01

    Various types of cesium ionization sources currently used in secondary ion mass spectrometry are briefly reviewed, followed by a description of the design and performance of a novel, thermal surface ionization Cs + source developed in this laboratory. The source was evaluated for secondary ion mass spectrometry applications using the COALA ion microprobe mass analyzer. (orig.)

  20. Suboptimal compliance with blood culture standards at a district

    The Clinical and Laboratory Standards. Institute (CLSI)'s ... reviewing clinical and laboratory data and by a clinician questionnaire. Results. ... the laboratory information system (LIS). ..... management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012.