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Sample records for secondary phase formation

  1. REE interactions with hydroxyapatite. Formation of secondary solid phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seco, F.; Pablo, J. de; Bruno, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Lighter rare earth elements (REE) commonly occur in nature as the phosphate mineral monazite, while the heavier REE and Yttrium occur as the phosphate mineral xenotime, which has a similar composition, but different coordination environment of the cation. The geochemical behaviour of REE is mainly controlled by their interactions with phosphate minerals such as hydroxyapatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH, which is a very common phosphate phase in subsurface environments. Furthermore, is a material considered to be used in a High Level Nuclear Waste repository due to its high capacity in the retention of radionuclides. The objective of this work has been to study the reaction mechanisms and thermodynamics of the interaction of La(III) and Yb(III) with hydroxyapatite as a model for general Ln(III) and Ac(III) behaviour. The surface interaction of La(III) and Yb(III) with synthetic hydroxyapatite has been investigated in batch experiments with low REE 3+ initial concentrations in constant 0.1 M NaClO 4 , at room temperature and in N 2 (g) atmosphere to avoid carbonate complex formation. The initial kinetic experiments indicated that a short contact time is needed to reach equilibrium ( 4 .nH 2 O, where a 0.83 4 .nH 2 O with 1.78 4 medium and under N 2 (g) atmosphere. The experimental data indicate that the solubility equilibria is mainly controlled by the aqueous species REE 3+ until approximately pH=5 where the formation of aqueous complexes of the form REEHPO 4 + , REEPO 4 and REE(PO 4 ) 2 3- must be considered. (authors)

  2. Effects of S/V on secondary phase formation on waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Buck, E.C.; Bates, J.K.; Gong, M.; Dietz, N.L.; Pegg, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    Simulated West Valley high-level nuclear waste glass, WV205, was leached with and without buffered media in both deuterated and ordinary water at glass surface area to solution volumes (S/N) of 200--6000 m -1 . Examination of the glass surface after testing for 14 days indicated that the S/V-induced pH change plays a dominant role in the development of the altered surface layer and the secondary phases formed. The changes due to SN-induced pH determine the rate of surface layer formation, the element distribution in the surface layer, and possibly, the identities of the secondary phases. Changes due to SN-induced elemental concentration also influence glass reaction rate in terms of the layer thickness and the elemental distribution in the surface layers

  3. Leaching patterns and secondary phase formation during unsaturated leaching of UO2 at 90 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Veleckis, E.; Tani, B.S.

    1991-11-01

    Experiments are being conducted that examine the reaction of UO 2 with dripping oxygenated ground water at 90 degrees C. The experiments are designed to identify secondary phases formed during UO 2 alteration, evaluate parameters controlling U release, and act as scoping tests for studies with spent fuel. This study is the first of its kind that examines the alteration of UO 2 under unsaturated conditions expected to exist at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site. Results suggest the UO 2 matrix will readily react within a few months after being exposed to simulated Yucca Mountain conditions. A pulse of rapid U release, combined with the formation of dehydrated schoepite on the UO 2 surface, characterizes the reaction between one to two years. Rapid dissolution of intergrain boundaries and spallation of UO 2 granules appears to be responsible for much of the U released. Differential release of the UO 2 granules may be responsible for much of the variation observed between duplicate experiments. Less than 5 wt % of the released U remains in solution or in a suspended form, while the remaining settles out of solution as fine particles or is reprecipitated as secondary phases. Subsequent to the pulse period, U release rates decline and a more stable assemblage of uranyl silicate phases are formed by incorporating cations from the ground water leachant. Uranophane, boltwoodite, and sklodowskite appear as the final solubility limiting phases that form in these tests. This observed paragenetic sequence (from uraninite to schoepite-type phases to uranyl silicates) is identical to those observed in weathered zones of natural uraninite occurrences. The combined results indicate that the release of radionuclides from spent fuel may not be limited by U solubility constraints, but that spallation of particulate matter may be an important, if not the dominant release mechanism affecting release

  4. Formation of secondary phases during the corrosion of vitrified nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, P.

    2003-11-01

    The first aim of this work was the examination of the formation and long-term stability of secondary phases that form during an aquatic attack on simulated, vitrified nuclear waste. In the glasses used for the investigations actinides had been replaced by rare earth elements (chemical analogues), other radionuclides by inactive isotopes. For predictions about the long-term safety of nuclear waste disposals it is important to identify secondary phases that have formed during the glass corrosion process and to determine their stability. Two different saline solutions (rich in MgCl 2 and in NaCl, respectively) are relevant as a corrosion medium for waste disposals. It showed that in such an environment sulfates, silicates and molybdates represent the main new formations of minerals after 7.5 years of corrosion. However, the formation, long-term stability and sorption characteristics of those minerals regarding rare earth elements depend to a high degree on the corrosion medium as well as on changes in the geochemical environment in the course of the experiment. By means of SEM/EDX barytes of different morphology with up to 15% w/w Sr ((Ba,Sr)SO 4 ) were identified in both corrosion media; they were capable of binding long-term stable radionuclides like Sr. Furthermore, pure rare earth (RE) sulfates were observed in the saline solution rich in MgCl 2 . This formation of RE-sulfates has not been described in the literature so far. Depending on the saline solution, the secondary silicate and molybdate minerals that formed on the glass surfaces differed noticeably in their sorption characteristics and their stability. Another focus of the work was a more profound understanding of the glass corrosion mechanism in the presence of metallic iron since steel jackets are used as technical barriers for the vitrified nuclear waste in nuclear waste disposals. Another important point in connection with the mobilization and immobilization of radionuclides released during glass

  5. Formation of secondary phases during deep geological final disposal of research reactor fuel elements. Structure and phase analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    For the assessment of a confident und sustainable final disposal of high level radioactive waste - fuel elements of german research reactors also account for such waste - in suitable, deep geological facilities, processes of the alteration of the disposed of waste and therefore the formation of the corrosion products, i. e. secondary phases must be well understood considering an accident scenario of a potential water inflow. In order to obtain secondary phases non-irradiated research reactor fuel elements (FR-BE) consisting of UAl x -Al were subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine (brine 2, salt repository) and to clay pore solution, respectively and furthermore of the type U 3 Si 2 -Al were solely subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine. Considering environmental aspects of final repositories the test conditions of the corrosion experiments were adjusted in a way that the temperature was kept constant at 90 C and a reducing anaerobic environment was ensured. As major objective of this research secondary phases, obtained from the autoclave experiments after appropriate processing and grain size separation have been identified and quantified. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and the application of Rietveld refinement methods allowed the identification of the corrosion products and a quantitative assessment of crystalline and amorphous contents. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were additionally applied as a complementary method for the characterisation of the secondary phases. The qualitative phase analysis of the preprocessed secondary phases of the systems UAl x -Al and U 3 Si 2 -Al in brine 2 shows many similarities. Lesukite - an aluminium chloro hydrate - was observed for the first time considering the given experimental conditions. Further on different layered structures of the LDH type, iron oxyhydroxide and possibly iron chlorides, uncorroded residues of nuclear fuel and elementary iron were identified as well. Depending on preceding

  6. Study of the formation of secondary phases in the composite LSM/YSZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Ranieri Andrade

    2007-01-01

    The composite of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (La 1-x SrxMnO 3 - LSM) and Yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO 2 /Y 2 O 3 - YSZ), is indicated as cathode of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). It presents better acting as cathode due to the Triple Phase Boundary (TPB) formed in the interface area between the cathode and the electrolyte. For the temperatures up to 1100 deg C, LSM and YSZ can react producing lanthanum zirconate (La 2 Zr 2 O 7 - LZO) and strontium zirconate (SrZrO 3 - SZO). In this sense, the present work intends to contribute in the study of the formation of phases LZO and SZO, studying different massic proportions between LSM and YSZ with sintering temperatures varying between 1000 deg C and 1400 deg C. For the obtention of the precursory powders the co-precipitation routes were adopted to obtain YSZ and conventional powder mixture for the preparation of LSM. The composite LSM/YSZ, studied in this work, is prepared with two concentrations of Sr for LSM (30 mol por cent - LSM7 and 40 mol por cent - LSM6) and one concentration of Yttria for YSZ (10 mol por cent). The results obtained by X-ray fluorescence showed that the routes adopted for synthesis of powders were effective in the obtention of the compositions LSM6, LSM7 and YSZ, with close values to the stoichiometric. The studied massic proportions were: 50 por cent of LSM and 50 por cent of YSZ (1:1), 25 por cent of LSM and 75 por cent of YSZ (1:3), and 75 por cent of LSM and 25 por cent of YSZ (3:1). Such proportions of mixtures were conformed and submitted at different conditions of temperatures and times of sintering: 1000 deg C, 1200 deg C, 1300 deg C, 1350 deg C and 1400 deg C for 4 and 8 hours. The values of medium size of the particles and the specific surface area values for the mixture of LSM6/YSZ and LSM7/YSZ, are of the same order of largeness after the mixture in a attrition mill and in different massic proportions. Secondary phases like LZO and SZO were not found in the analysis for

  7. Gas-phase products and secondary organic aerosol formation from the ozonolysis and photooxidation of myrcene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böge, Olaf; Mutzel, Anke; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Kahnt, Ariane; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the ozone and OH-radical reactions of myrcene were investigated in an aerosol chamber (at 292-295 K and 50% relative humidity) to examine the gas-phase oxidation products and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The ozone reaction studies were performed in the presence and absence of CO, which serves as an OH radical scavenger. In the photooxidation experiments OH radicals were generated by photolysis of methyl nitrite. The ozonolysis of myrcene in the presence of CO resulted in a substantial yield of 4-vinyl-4-pentenal (55.3%), measured as m/z 111 plus m/z 93 using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and confirmed unambiguously as C7H10O by denuder measurements and HPLC/ESI-TOFMS analysis of its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivative. Additionally, the formation of two different organic dicarbonyls with m/z 113 and a molecular formula of C6H8O2 were observed (2.1%). The yields of these dicarbonyls were higher in the ozonolysis experiments without an OH scavenger (5.4%) and even higher (13.8%) in the myrcene OH radical reaction. The formation of hydroxyacetone as a direct product of the myrcene reaction with ozone with a molar yield of 17.6% was also observed. The particle size distribution and volume concentrations were monitored and facilitated the calculation of SOA yields, which ranged from 0 to 0.01 (ozonolysis in the presence of CO) to 0.39 (myrcene OH radical reaction). Terpenylic acid was found in the SOA samples collected from the ozonolysis of myrcene in the absence of an OH scavenger and the OH radical-initiated reaction of myrcene but not in samples collected from the ozonolysis in the presence of CO as an OH radical scavenger, suggesting that terpenylic acid formation involves the reaction of myrcene with an OH radical. A reaction mechanism describing the formation of terpenylic acid is proposed.

  8. Formation of secondary organic aerosols from gas-phase emissions of heated cooking oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooking emissions can potentially contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA but remain poorly understood. In this study, formation of SOA from gas-phase emissions of five heated vegetable oils (i.e., corn, canola, sunflower, peanut and olive oils was investigated in a potential aerosol mass (PAM chamber. Experiments were conducted at 19–20 °C and 65–70 % relative humidity (RH. The characterization instruments included a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS. The efficiency of SOA production, in ascending order, was peanut oil, olive oil, canola oil, corn oil and sunflower oil. The major SOA precursors from heated cooking oils were related to the content of monounsaturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids in cooking oils. The average production rate of SOA, after aging at an OH exposure of 1. 7 × 1011 molecules cm−3 s, was 1. 35 ± 0. 30 µg min−1, 3 orders of magnitude lower compared with emission rates of fine particulate matter (PM2. 5 from heated cooking oils in previous studies. The mass spectra of cooking SOA highly resemble field-derived COA (cooking-related organic aerosol in ambient air, with R2 ranging from 0.74 to 0.88. The average carbon oxidation state (OSc of SOA was −1.51 to −0.81, falling in the range between ambient hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA and semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA, indicating that SOA in these experiments was lightly oxidized.

  9. Secondary organic aerosol (trans)formation through aqueous phase guaiacol photonitration: a kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroflič, Ana; Grgić, Irena

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that atmospheric aerosols play a crucial role in the Earth's climate and public health (Pöschl 2005). Despite a great effort invested in the studies of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) budget, composition, and its formation mechanisms, there is still a gap between field observations and atmospheric model predictions (Heald et al. 2005, Hallquist et al. 2009, and Lim et al. 2010). The insisting uncertainties surrounding SOA formation and aging thus gained an increasing interest in atmospheric aqueous phase chemistry; they call for more complex and time consuming studies at the environmentally relevant conditions allowing confident extrapolation to desired ambient conditions. In addition to the adverse health effects of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) as such, toxicity is also attributed to nitro-aromatic and other organic compounds which have already been detected in real aerosol samples (Traversi et al. 2009). Moreover, low-volatility aromatic derivatives are believed to form at least partly in the aerosol aqueous phase and not only in the gas phase from where they partition into water droplets (Ervens et al. 2011). Two nitro derivatives of biomass burning tracer guaiacol have recently been found in winter PM10 samples from the city of Ljubljana, Slovenia, and aqueous photonitration reaction was proposed as their possible production pathway (Kitanovski et al. 2012). In this study the kinetics of guaiacol nitration in aqueous solution was investigated in the presence of H2O2 and NO2¯ upon simulated solar irradiation (Xenon lamp, 300 W). During the experiment the DURAN® flask with the reaction mixture was held in the thermostated bath and thoroughly mixed. The reaction was monitored for 44 hours at different temperatures. Guaiacol and its main nitro-products (4-nitroguaiacol, 4-NG; 6-nitroguaiacol, 6-NG; and 4,6-dinitroguaiacol, 4,6-DNG) were quantified in every aliquot, taken from the reaction mixture, by use of high pressure liquid

  10. Key Role of Nitrate in Phase Transitions of Urban Particles: Implications of Important Reactive Surfaces for Secondary Aerosol Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiaxing; Liu, Lei; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Zhijun; Hu, Min; Shi, Zongbo; Li, Yongjie; Zhang, Xiaoye; Chen, Jianmin; Li, Weijun

    2018-01-01

    Ammonium sulfate (AS) and ammonium nitrate (AN) are key components of urban fine particles. Both field and model studies showed that heterogeneous reactions of SO2, NO2, and NH3 on wet aerosols accelerated the haze formation in northern China. However, little is known on phase transitions of AS-AN containing haze particles. Here hygroscopic properties of laboratory-generated AS-AN particles and individual particles collected during haze events in an urban site were investigated using an individual particle hygroscopicity system. AS-AN particles showed a two-stage deliquescence at mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) and full deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) and three physical states: solid before MDRH, solid-aqueous between MDRH and DRH, and aqueous after DRH. During hydration, urban haze particles displayed a solid core and aqueous shell at RH = 60-80% and aqueous phase at RH > 80%. Most particles were in aqueous phase at RH > 50% during dehydration. Our results show that AS content in individual particles determines their DRH and AN content determines their MDRH. AN content increase can reduce MDRH, which indicates occurrence of aqueous shell at lower RH. The humidity-dependent phase transitions of nitrate-abundant urban particles are important to provide reactive surfaces of secondary aerosol formation in the polluted air.

  11. The effect of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the formation and properties of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenyuk, Alla [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Imre, Dan G. [Imre Consulting; USA; Wilson, Jacqueline [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Bell, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Suski, Kaitlyn J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Shrivastava, Manish [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Beránek, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Alexander, M. Lizabeth [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Kramer, Amber L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Massey Simonich, Staci L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Environmental and Molecular Toxicology; Oregon State University

    2017-01-01

    When secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed by ozonolysis in the presence of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their formation and properties are significantly different from SOA particles formed without PAHs. For all SOA precursors and all PAHs, discussed in this study, the presence of the gas-phase PAHs during SOA formation significantly affects particle mass loadings, composition, growth, evaporation kinetics, and viscosity. SOA particles formed in the presence of PAHs have, as part of their compositions, trapped unreacted PAHs and products of heterogeneous reactions between PAHs and ozone. Compared to ‘pure’ SOA particles, these particles exhibit slower evaporation kinetics, have higher fractions of non-volatile components, like oligomers, and higher viscosities, assuring their longer atmospheric lifetimes. In turn, the increased viscosity and decreased volatility provide a shield that protects PAHs from chemical degradation and evaporation, allowing for the long-range transport of these toxic pollutants. The magnitude of the effect of PAHs on SOA formation is surprisingly large. The presence of PAHs during SOA formation increases mass loadings by factors of two to five, and particle number concentrations, in some cases, by more than a factor of 100. Increases in SOA mass, particle number concentrations, and lifetime have important implications to many atmospheric processes related to climate, weather, visibility, and human health, all of which relate to the interactions between biogenic SOA and anthropogenic PAHs. The synergistic relationship between SOA and PAHs presented here are clearly complex and call for future research to elucidate further the underlying processes and their exact atmospheric implications.

  12. Fe2+ oxidation rate drastically affect the formation and phase of secondary iron hydroxysulfate mineral occurred in acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shan; Zhou Lixiang

    2012-01-01

    During the processes of secondary iron hydroxysulfate mineral formation, Fe 2+ ion was oxidized by the following three methods: (1) biooxidation treatment by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans); (2) rapid abiotic oxidation of Fe 2+ with H 2 O 2 (rapid oxidation treatment); (3) slow abiotic oxidation of Fe 2+ with H 2 O 2 (slow oxidation treatment). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, element composition, precipitate weight and total Fe removal efficiency were analyzed. The XRD patterns and element composition of precipitates synthesized through the biooxidation and the slow oxidation treatments well coincide with those of potassium jarosite, while precipitates formed at the initial stage of incubation in the rapid oxidation treatment showed a similar XRD pattern to schwertmannite. With the ongoing incubation, XRD patterns and element composition of the precipitates that occurred in the rapid oxidation treatment were gradually close to those in the biooxidation and the slow oxidation treatments. Due to the inhibition of A. ferrooxidans itself and its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in aggregation of precipitates, the amount of precipitates and soluble Fe removal efficiency were lower in the biooxidation treatment than in the slow oxidation treatment. Therefore, it is concluded that Fe 2+ oxidation rate can greatly affect the mineral phase of precipitates, and slow oxidation of Fe 2+ is helpful in improving jarosite formation. - Highlights: ► Slow oxidation of Fe 2+ is helpful in jarosite formation. ► The already-formed schwertmannite can be gradually transformed to jarosite. ► Precipitates formation can be inhibited probably by EPS from A. ferrooxidans.

  13. Interactions between mobilized radionuclides and secondary phases in final repository-relevant formation aquifers. Final report; Wechselwirkung mobilisierter Radionuklide mit sekundaeren Phasen in endlagerrelevanten Formationswaessern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtius, H.; Kaiser, G.; Paparigas, Z.; Hansen, B.; Neumann, A.; Klinkenberg, M.; Mueller, E.; Bruecher, H.; Bosbach, D.

    2010-10-15

    The report on interactions between mobilized radionuclides and secondary phases in final repository-relevant formation aquifers covers the following issues: scope of study, leaching experiments, secondary phases, incorporation and sorption studies, summary and prospects. The results show that the investigated spent fuels dissolve instantaneously in contact with the repository-relevant aquifers in presence of iron ions. For the elements Cs and Sr no re-immobilization was observed. These elements have to be considered as mobile species in the radionuclide source term. The secondary phases due to corrosion processes are radionuclide sinks, i.e. actinides are re-immobilized, the retention mechanisms were clarified. The studies with irradiated nuclear fuel show that the uranium/silicon containing phases effect the molar solubility of actinides.

  14. Secondary phase formation and the microstructural evolution of surface layers during vapor phase alteration of the French SON 68 nuclear waste glass at 200 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, W.L.; Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The SON 68 inactive open-quotes R7T7close quotes composition is the French reference glass for the LWR nuclear waste glass. Vapor phase alteration was used to accelerate the reaction progress of glass corrosion and to develop the characteristic suite of secondary, alteration phases. Extensive solid-state characterization (AEM/SEM/HRTEM) was completed on six inactive R7T7 waste glasses which were altered in the presence of saturated water vapor (200 degrees C) for 91, 241, 908, 1000, 1013, and 1021 days. The AEM samples were examined in cross-section (lattice-fringe imaging, micro-diffraction, and quantitative thin-film EDS analysis). The glass monoliths were invariably covered with a thin altered rind. The layer became thicker with time: 0.5 μm for 22 days; 4 μm for 91 days; 6 μm for 241 days; 10 μm for 908 days; 26 μm for 1013 days; and 2 TeO 3 and (Ca,Sr)Mo 3 O 9 (OH) 2 , were found within the inner zones of surface layers, and they must have nucleated in situ, indicating that Ag, Te, Sr, and Mo can be retained within the surface layer. The majority of the surface layer volume is composed of two morphologically and chemically different structures: one consists of well-crystallized fibrous smectite aggregates occurring along with cavities, the A-domain; and the other consists of poorly-crystallized regions containing needle-like smectite (montmorillonite) crystallites, a silica-rich amorphous matrix, and possibly ZrO 2 particles, the B-domain

  15. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Acetylene (C2H2: seed effect on SOA yields due to organic photochemistry in the aerosol aqueous phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Ziemann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The lightest Non Methane HydroCarbon (NMHC, i.e., acetylene (C2H2 is found to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Contrary to current belief, the number of carbon atoms, n, for a NMHC to act as SOA precursor is lowered to n=2 here. The OH-radical initiated oxidation of C2H2 forms glyoxal (CHOCHO as the highest yield product, and >99% of the SOA from C2H2 is attributed to CHOCHO. SOA formation from C2H2 and CHOCHO was studied in a photochemical and a dark simulation chamber. Further, the experimental conditions were varied with respect to the chemical composition of the seed aerosols, mild acidification with sulphuric acid (SA, 3formation, and identify a potential bias in the currently available YSOA data for other SOA precursor NMHCs. We demonstrate that SOA formation via the aqueous phase is not limited to cloud droplets, but proceeds also in the absence of clouds, i.e., does not stop once a cloud droplet evaporates. Atmospheric models need to be expanded to include SOA formation from WSOC photochemistry of CHOCHO, and possibly other α-dicarbonyls, in aqueous aerosols.

  16. Mapping gas-phase organic reactivity and concomitant secondary organic aerosol formation: chemometric dimension reduction techniques for the deconvolution of complex atmospheric data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyche, K. P.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Hamilton, J. F.; Alfarra, M. R.; Rickard, A. R.; McFiggans, G. B.; Jenkin, M. E.; Bloss, W. J.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2015-07-01

    Highly non-linear dynamical systems, such as those found in atmospheric chemistry, necessitate hierarchical approaches to both experiment and modelling in order to ultimately identify and achieve fundamental process-understanding in the full open system. Atmospheric simulation chambers comprise an intermediate in complexity, between a classical laboratory experiment and the full, ambient system. As such, they can generate large volumes of difficult-to-interpret data. Here we describe and implement a chemometric dimension reduction methodology for the deconvolution and interpretation of complex gas- and particle-phase composition spectra. The methodology comprises principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and positive least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). These methods are, for the first time, applied to simultaneous gas- and particle-phase composition data obtained from a comprehensive series of environmental simulation chamber experiments focused on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) photooxidation and associated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We primarily investigated the biogenic SOA precursors isoprene, α-pinene, limonene, myrcene, linalool and β-caryophyllene. The chemometric analysis is used to classify the oxidation systems and resultant SOA according to the controlling chemistry and the products formed. Results show that "model" biogenic oxidative systems can be successfully separated and classified according to their oxidation products. Furthermore, a holistic view of results obtained across both the gas- and particle-phases shows the different SOA formation chemistry, initiating in the gas-phase, proceeding to govern the differences between the various BVOC SOA compositions. The results obtained are used to describe the particle composition in the context of the oxidised gas-phase matrix. An extension of the technique, which incorporates into the statistical models data from anthropogenic (i

  17. Study of the formation of secondary phases in the composite LSM/YSZ; Estudo da formacao de fases secundarias no composito LSM/YSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ranieri Andrade

    2007-07-01

    The composite of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (La{sub 1-x}SrxMnO{sub 3} - LSM) and Yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} - YSZ), is indicated as cathode of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). It presents better acting as cathode due to the Triple Phase Boundary (TPB) formed in the interface area between the cathode and the electrolyte. For the temperatures up to 1100 deg C, LSM and YSZ can react producing lanthanum zirconate (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} - LZO) and strontium zirconate (SrZrO{sub 3} - SZO). In this sense, the present work intends to contribute in the study of the formation of phases LZO and SZO, studying different massic proportions between LSM and YSZ with sintering temperatures varying between 1000 deg C and 1400 deg C. For the obtention of the precursory powders the co-precipitation routes were adopted to obtain YSZ and conventional powder mixture for the preparation of LSM. The composite LSM/YSZ, studied in this work, is prepared with two concentrations of Sr for LSM (30 mol por cent - LSM7 and 40 mol por cent - LSM6) and one concentration of Yttria for YSZ (10 mol por cent). The results obtained by X-ray fluorescence showed that the routes adopted for synthesis of powders were effective in the obtention of the compositions LSM6, LSM7 and YSZ, with close values to the stoichiometric. The studied massic proportions were: 50 por cent of LSM and 50 por cent of YSZ (1:1), 25 por cent of LSM and 75 por cent of YSZ (1:3), and 75 por cent of LSM and 25 por cent of YSZ (3:1). Such proportions of mixtures were conformed and submitted at different conditions of temperatures and times of sintering: 1000 deg C, 1200 deg C, 1300 deg C, 1350 deg C and 1400 deg C for 4 and 8 hours. The values of medium size of the particles and the specific surface area values for the mixture of LSM6/YSZ and LSM7/YSZ, are of the same order of largeness after the mixture in a attrition mill and in different massic proportions. Secondary phases like LZO and

  18. Aqueous-phase mechanism for secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene: application to the southeast United States and co-benefit of SO2 emission controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoprene emitted by vegetation is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but the mechanism and yields are uncertain. Aerosol is prevailingly aqueous under the humid conditions typical of isoprene-emitting regions. Here we develop an aqueous-phase mechanism for...

  19. Aqueous-phase mechanism for secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene: application to the southeast United States and co-benefit of SO2 emission controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Marais

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene emitted by vegetation is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA, but the mechanism and yields are uncertain. Aerosol is prevailingly aqueous under the humid conditions typical of isoprene-emitting regions. Here we develop an aqueous-phase mechanism for isoprene SOA formation coupled to a detailed gas-phase isoprene oxidation scheme. The mechanism is based on aerosol reactive uptake coefficients (γ for water-soluble isoprene oxidation products, including sensitivity to aerosol acidity and nucleophile concentrations. We apply this mechanism to simulation of aircraft (SEAC4RS and ground-based (SOAS observations over the southeast US in summer 2013 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx  ≡  NO + NO2 over the southeast US are such that the peroxy radicals produced from isoprene oxidation (ISOPO2 react significantly with both NO (high-NOx pathway and HO2 (low-NOx pathway, leading to different suites of isoprene SOA precursors. We find a mean SOA mass yield of 3.3 % from isoprene oxidation, consistent with the observed relationship of total fine organic aerosol (OA and formaldehyde (a product of isoprene oxidation. Isoprene SOA production is mainly contributed by two immediate gas-phase precursors, isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX, 58 % of isoprene SOA from the low-NOx pathway and glyoxal (28 % from both low- and high-NOx pathways. This speciation is consistent with observations of IEPOX SOA from SOAS and SEAC4RS. Observations show a strong relationship between IEPOX SOA and sulfate aerosol that we explain as due to the effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume. Isoprene SOA concentrations increase as NOx emissions decrease (favoring the low-NOx pathway for isoprene oxidation, but decrease more strongly as SO2 emissions decrease (due to the effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA projects 2013–2025 decreases in

  20. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford, M.T. II.

    1984-03-01

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of the observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding inter-cloud gas flows leading to non-linear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an intially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in congruent to 1-3 x 10 4 years and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several UCHII regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multiple dimensional calculations of coupled processes. The important non-linear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields

  1. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford, M.T. II

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding intercloud gas flows leading to nonlinear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an initially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation-driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation-driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in -- 1-3 x 10/sup 4/ yr and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several ultracompact H II regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multi-dimensional calculations of coupled processes. Important nonlinear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields

  2. Effects of the Substitution of the Mo Element W of Super Duplex Stainless Steel Weld on the Secondary Phase Formation and Corrosion Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae-Ji; Lee, Hae-Woo [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To investigate the effect of tungsten substitution of molybdenum on the formation of the second phase in Super Duplex Stainless Steel Weldments, welding wires with a composition of 3 wt% Mo, 2.2 wt% Mo-2.2 wt% W were designed for the flux cored arc welding process. As a result, the precipitation of the χ phase and σ phase increased in proportion to the decrease in the amount of δ ferrite content because the reaction, δ ferrite → σ + γ2, proceeded as the temperature rose. Under the same experimental conditions, the precipitation of the second phase, which degrades the properties of the material, was significantly reduced in the W substitution specimens compared to the Mo-only specimens. A polarization test conducted in a salt solution revealed that the pitting potential of the W substitution specimens was higher than that of the Mo-only specimens.

  3. Secondary phase formation in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin films and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}/SrTiO{sub 3} superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.N.L.

    1996-06-01

    Studies of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) thin films and YBCO/STO superlattices has been performed. The dc magnetron sputtered YBCO single layer investigation concerned the dependence of the secondary phase formation and superconducting transport properties on sputtering target and ambient gas composition. YBCO/STO superlattices, grown by dc and rf magnetron sputtering, respectively, were analyzed with respect to microstructure and formation of secondary phases. The main characterization techniques used in this study have been x-ray diffraction to identify phases and to obtain orientational relationships, scanning electron microscopy to study surface morphology, transmission electron microscopy for microstructural characterization, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy for chemical characterization. With the aim to reduce or avoid the formation of copper-rich surface particles and still maintain satisfactory superconducting transport properties, YBCO films were deposited using copper-poor or yttrium-rich sputtering targets in an Ar:O{sub 2} or Ar:O{sub 2}:N{sub 2}O sputtering gas mixture. It was found that the use of yttrium-rich targets and N{sub 2}O in the sputtering gas is a reliable way to achieve smooth films without surface particles and with satisfactory superconducting properties, while the use of copper-poor targets and N{sub 2}O deteriorates those properties. Based on the previous results, YBCO/STO superlattices were grown using yttrium-rich YBCO targets and stoichiometric STO targets, respectively, in a Ar:O{sub 2}:N{sub 2}O sputtering gas mixture. The superlattices were found to have sharp interfaces and no indications of interface reactions were detected. 61 refs, 18 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Measuring secondary phases in duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliari, I.; Brunelli, K.; Dabalà, M.; Ramous, E.

    2009-01-01

    The use of duplex stainless steels is limited by their susceptibility to the formation of dangerous intermetallic phases resulting in detrimental effects on impact toughness and corrosion resistance. This precipitation and the quantitative determinations of the phases have received considerable attention and different precipitation sequences (σ phase, χ phase, and carbides) have been suggested. This study investigates the phase transformation during continuous cooling and isothermal treatments in commercial duplex stainless steel grades and the effects on alloy properties, and compares the most common techniques of analysis.

  5. Secondary organic aerosol formation through cloud processing of aromatic VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, P.; Hutchings, J. W.; Ervens, B.

    2010-12-01

    Field observations have shown substantial concentrations (20-5,500 ng L-1) of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOC) in cloud droplets. The potential generation of secondary organic aerosol mass through the processing of these anthropogenic VOCs was investigated through laboratory and modeling studies. Under simulated atmospheric laboratory conditions, in idealized solutions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) degraded quickly in the aqueous phase. The degradation process yielded less volatile products which would contribute to new aerosol mass upon cloud evaporation. However, when realistic cloud solutions containing natural organic matter were used in the experiments, the reaction rates decreased with increasing organic carbon content. Kinetic data derived from these experiments were used as input to a multiphase box model in order to evaluate the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass formation potential of cloud processing of BTEX. Model results will be presented that quantify the SOA amounts from these aqueous phase pathways. The efficiency of this multiphase SOA source will be compared to SOA yields from the same aromatics as treated in traditional SOA models that are restricted to gas phase oxidation and subsequent condensation on particles.

  6. Organic particulate matter formation at varying relative humidity using surrogate secondary and primary organic compounds with activity corrections in the condensed phase obtained using a method based on the Wilson equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E. I.; Pankow, J. F.

    2010-06-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere is currently often modeled using a multiple lumped "two-product" (N·2p) approach. The N·2p approach neglects: 1) variation of activity coefficient (ζi) values and mean molecular weight solid #000; color: #000;">MW in the particulate matter (PM) phase; 2) water uptake into the PM; and 3) the possibility of phase separation in the PM. This study considers these effects by adopting an (N·2p)ζpsolid #000; color: #000;">MW,ζ approach (θ is a phase index). Specific chemical structures are assigned to 25 lumped SOA compounds and to 15 representative primary organic aerosol (POA) compounds to allow calculation of ζi and solid #000; color: #000;">MW values. The SOA structure assignments are based on chamber-derived 2p gas/particle partition coefficient values coupled with known effects of structure on vapor pressure pL,io (atm). To facilitate adoption of the (N·2p)ζpsolid #000; color: #000;">MW,θ approach in large-scale models, this study also develops CP-Wilson.1 (Chang-Pankow-Wilson.1), a group-contribution ζi-prediction method that is more computationally economical than the UNIFAC model of Fredenslund et al. (1975). Group parameter values required by CP-Wilson.1 are obtained by fitting ζi values to predictions from UNIFAC. The (N·2p)ζpsolid #000; color: #000;">MW,θ approach is applied (using CP-Wilson.1) to several real α-pinene/O3 chamber cases for high reacted hydrocarbon levels (ΔHC≈400 to 1000 μg m-3) when relative humidity (RH) ≍50%. Good agreement between the chamber and predicted results is obtained using both the (N·2p)ζpsolid #000; color: #000;">MW,θ and N·2p approaches, indicating relatively small water effects under these conditions. However, for a hypothetical α-pinene/O3 case at ΔHC=30 μg m-3 and RH=50%, the (N·2p)ζpsolid #000; color: #000;">MW,θ approach predicts that water uptake will lead to an organic PM level that is more double that predicted by the N·2p

  7. Phase formation of physically associating polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Fumihiko

    1993-01-01

    Polymers exhibit a variety of condensed phases when some of their segments are capable of forming weak bonds which can be created and destroyed by thermal motion. Transition from one phase to another caused by such 'segment association' is reversible by the change of the temperature and the concentration, so that it is called 'reversible phase transition'. What types of reversible phase formation are possible for a given associative interaction? What is the most fundamental laws which govern the competition between molecular association and phase separation? This paper surveys, as typical examples of reversible phases, macroscopic phase separation, microphase formation, solvation, gelation, etc. from the unified point of view, and explores the possibility of new condensed phases caused by their mutual interference. (author)

  8. Laboratory studies of monoterpene secondary organic aerosol formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J. A.; D'Ambro, E.; Zhao, Y.; Lee, B. H.; Pye, H. O. T.; Schobesberger, S.; Shilling, J.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    We have conducted a series of chamber experiments to study the molecular composition and properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from monoterpenes under a range of photochemical and dark conditions. We connect variations in the SOA mass yield to molecular composition and volatility, and use a detailed Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) based chemical box model with dynamic gas-particle partitioning to examine the importance of various peroxy radical reaction mechanisms in setting the SOA yield and properties. We compare the volatility distribution predicted by the model to that inferred from isothermal room-temperature evaporation experiments using the FIGAERO-CIMS where SOA particles collected on a filter are allowed to evaporate under humidified pure nitrogen flow stream for up to 24 hours. We show that the combination of results requires prompt formation of low volatility SOA from predominantly gas-phase mechanisms, with important differences between monoterpenes (alpha-Pinene and delta-3-Carene) followed by slower non-radical particle phase chemistry that modulates both the chemical and physical properties of the SOA. Implications for the regional evolution of atmospheric monoterpene SOA are also discussed.

  9. Secondary organic aerosol formation from road vehicle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Simone M.; Platt, Stephen M.; El Haddad, Imad; Zardini, Alessandro A.; Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Slowik, Jay G.; Huang, Ru-Jin; Hellebust, Stig; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Drinovec, Luca; Mocnik, Grisa; Baltensperger, Urs; Astorga, Covadogna; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2014-05-01

    Organic aerosol particles (OA) are a major fraction of the submicron particulate matter. OA consists of directly emitted primary (POA) and secondary OA (SOA). SOA is formed in-situ in the atmosphere via the reaction of volatile organic precursors. The partitioning of SOA species depends not only on the exposure to oxidants, but for instance also on temperature, relative humidity (RH), and the absorptive mass chemical composition (presence of inorganics) and concentration. Vehicle exhaust is a known source of POA and likely contributes to SOA formation in urban areas [1;2]. This has recently been estimated by (i) analyzing ambient data from urban areas combined with fuel consumption data [3], (ii) by examining the chemical composition of raw fuels [4], or (iii) smog chamber studies [5, 6]. Contradictory and thus somewhat controversial results in the relative quantity of SOA from diesel vs. gasoline vehicle exhaust were observed. In order to elucidate the impact of variable ambient conditions on the potential SOA formation of vehicle exhaust, and its relation to the emitted gas phase species, we studied SOA formed from the exhaust of passenger cars and trucks as a function of fuel and engine type (gasoline, diesel) at different temperatures (T 22 vs. -7oC) and RH (40 vs. 90%), as well as with different levels of inorganic salt concentrations. The exhaust was sampled at the tailpipe during regulatory driving cycles on chassis dynamometers, diluted (200 - 400x) and introduced into the PSI mobile smog chamber [6], where the emissions were subjected to simulated atmospheric ageing. Particle phase instruments (HR-ToF-AMS, aethalometers, CPC, SMPS) and gas phase instruments (PTR-TOF-MS, CO, CO2, CH4, THC, NH3 and other gases) were used online during the experiments. We found that gasoline emissions, because of cold starts, were generally larger than diesel, especially during cold temperatures driving cycles. Gasoline vehicles also showed the highest SOA formation

  10. Modeling Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From Emissions of Combustion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jathar, Shantanu Hemant

    Atmospheric aerosols exert a large influence on the Earth's climate and cause adverse public health effects, reduced visibility and material degradation. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA), defined as the aerosol mass arising from the oxidation products of gas-phase organic species, accounts for a significant fraction of the submicron atmospheric aerosol mass. Yet, there are large uncertainties surrounding the sources, atmospheric evolution and properties of SOA. This thesis combines laboratory experiments, extensive data analysis and global modeling to investigate the contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SVOC and IVOC) from combustion sources to SOA formation. The goals are to quantify the contribution of these emissions to ambient PM and to evaluate and improve models to simulate its formation. To create a database for model development and evaluation, a series of smog chamber experiments were conducted on evaporated fuel, which served as surrogates for real-world combustion emissions. Diesel formed the most SOA followed by conventional jet fuel / jet fuel derived from natural gas, gasoline and jet fuel derived from coal. The variability in SOA formation from actual combustion emissions can be partially explained by the composition of the fuel. Several models were developed and tested along with existing models using SOA data from smog chamber experiments conducted using evaporated fuel (this work, gasoline, fischertropschs, jet fuel, diesels) and published data on dilute combustion emissions (aircraft, on- and off-road gasoline, on- and off-road diesel, wood burning, biomass burning). For all of the SOA data, existing models under-predicted SOA formation if SVOC/IVOC were not included. For the evaporated fuel experiments, when SVOC/IVOC were included predictions using the existing SOA model were brought to within a factor of two of measurements with minor adjustments to model parameterizations. Further, a volatility

  11. Secondary organic aerosols: Formation potential and ambient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Organic aerosols comprise a significant fraction of the total atmospheric particle loading and are associated with radiative forcing and health impacts. Ambient organic aerosol concentrations contain both a primary and secondary component. Herein, fractional aerosol coefficients (FAC) are used...... in conjunction with measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to predict the formation potential of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Lower Fraser Valley (LEV) of British Columbia. The predicted concentrations of SOA show reasonable accord with ambient aerosol measurements and indicate considerable...

  12. Organic particulate matter formation at varying relative humidity using surrogate secondary and primary organic compounds with activity corrections in the condensed phase obtained using a method based on the Wilson equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Chang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation in the atmosphere is currently often modeled using a multiple lumped "two-product" (N·2p approach. The N·2p approach neglects: 1 variation of activity coefficient (ζi values and mean molecular weight MW in the particulate matter (PM phase; 2 water uptake into the PM; and 3 the possibility of phase separation in the PM. This study considers these effects by adopting an (N·2pζpMW,ζ approach (θ is a phase index. Specific chemical structures are assigned to 25 lumped SOA compounds and to 15 representative primary organic aerosol (POA compounds to allow calculation of ζi and MW values. The SOA structure assignments are based on chamber-derived 2p gas/particle partition coefficient values coupled with known effects of structure on vapor pressure pL,io (atm. To facilitate adoption of the (N·2pζpMW,θ approach in large-scale models, this study also develops CP-Wilson.1 (Chang-Pankow-Wilson.1, a group-contribution ζi-prediction method that is more computationally economical than the UNIFAC model of Fredenslund et al. (1975. Group parameter values required by CP-Wilson.1 are obtained by fitting ζi values to predictions from UNIFAC. The (N·2pζpMW,θ approach is applied (using CP-Wilson.1 to several real α-pinene/O3 chamber cases for high reacted hydrocarbon levels (ΔHC≈400 to 1000 μg m−3 when relative humidity (RH ≈50%. Good agreement between the chamber and predicted results is

  13. [Secondary metabolites accumulating and geoherbs formation under enviromental stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2007-02-01

    This paper analyzed how habitat affected the formation of geoherbs after summarizing the influences of environmental stress on plants growth, especially on theirs secondary metabolites accumulating, and introducing 4 kinds hypothesis about environmental stress affects plants. It was then pointed out that environmental stress may have advantage on the formation of geoherbs. The stress effect hypothesis on forming geoherbs was brought forward, and the ways and methods on study the geoherbs under environmental stress was discussed.

  14. Phase formation in contact of dissimilar metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvin, V S; Kazachkova, Yu A; Povzner, A A [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Mira st., 19, A-203, Yekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: savvin-vs@yandex.ru

    2008-02-15

    Formation and growth of intermediate phases in contact of the crystalline samples forming a two-component eutectic system is considered. It is shown that during the competition to a growing liquid phase the intermediate solid phases cannot grow by diffusion. The alternative is formation of metastable areas of a liquid phase. Measurements of liquid layers extent in Pb-Bi and In-Bi systems have allowed to define the composition of liquid on interface where formation of metastable liquid is possible. The results show that the concentration interval of a liquid layer corresponds to a stable constitution diagram. In order to explain the experimental results the hypothesis according to which the intermediate solid phases are formed as a result of precipitation from metastable melt is considered. The experimental confirmation of formation and crystallization of a metastable liquid is the fact that intergrowth of the samples forming system with an intermetallic phase at temperatures below the temperature of fusion of the most low-melting eutectic is observed. The possibility of the processes concerned with the occurrence of metastable areas of a liquid is showed by means of computer imitation.

  15. Effect of Secondary Phase Precipitation on the Corrosion Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Duplex stainless steels (DSSs with austenitic and ferritic phases have been increasingly used for many industrial applications due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in acidic, caustic and marine environments. However, DSSs are susceptible to intergranular, pitting and stress corrosion in corrosive environments due to the formation of secondary phases. Such phases are induced in DSSs during the fabrication, improper heat treatment, welding process and prolonged exposure to high temperatures during their service lives. These include the precipitation of sigma and chi phases at 700–900 °C and spinodal decomposition of ferritic grains into Cr-rich and Cr-poor phases at 350–550 °C, respectively. This article gives the state-of the-art review on the microstructural evolution of secondary phase formation and their effects on the corrosion behavior of DSSs.

  16. Effect of Secondary Phase Precipitation on the Corrosion Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai Wang; Tjong, Sie Chin

    2014-07-22

    Duplex stainless steels (DSSs) with austenitic and ferritic phases have been increasingly used for many industrial applications due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in acidic, caustic and marine environments. However, DSSs are susceptible to intergranular, pitting and stress corrosion in corrosive environments due to the formation of secondary phases. Such phases are induced in DSSs during the fabrication, improper heat treatment, welding process and prolonged exposure to high temperatures during their service lives. These include the precipitation of sigma and chi phases at 700-900 °C and spinodal decomposition of ferritic grains into Cr-rich and Cr-poor phases at 350-550 °C, respectively. This article gives the state-of the-art review on the microstructural evolution of secondary phase formation and their effects on the corrosion behavior of DSSs.

  17. Monomer-dependent secondary nucleation in amyloid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Sara

    2017-08-01

    Secondary nucleation of monomers on the surface of an already existing aggregate that is formed from the same kind of monomers may lead to autocatalytic amplification of a self-assembly process. Such monomer-dependent secondary nucleation occurs during the crystallization of small molecules or proteins and self-assembled materials, as well as in protein self-assembly into fibrous structures. Indications of secondary nucleation may come from analyses of kinetic experiments starting from pure monomers or monomers supplemented with a low concentration of pre-formed aggregates (seeds). More firm evidence requires additional experiments, for example those employing isotope labels to distinguish new aggregates arising from the monomer from those resulting from fragmentation of the seed. In cases of amyloid formation, secondary nucleation leads to the formation of toxic oligomers, and inhibitors of secondary nucleation may serve as starting points for therapeutic developments. Secondary nucleation displays a high degree of structural specificity and may be enhanced by mutations or screening of electrostatic repulsion.

  18. Potential of secondary aerosol formation from Chinese gasoline engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhuofei; Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Zheng, Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Qin, Yanhong; Niu, He; Li, Mengren; Yang, Yudong; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Shao, Min; Shuai, Shijin

    2018-04-01

    Light-duty gasoline vehicles have drawn public attention in China due to their significant primary emissions of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, little information on secondary aerosol formation from exhaust for Chinese vehicles and fuel conditions is available. In this study, chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from the exhaust of a port fuel injection gasoline engine. The engine and fuel used are common in the Chinese market, and the fuel satisfies the China V gasoline fuel standard. Substantial secondary aerosol formation was observed during a 4-5hr simulation, which was estimated to represent more than 10days of equivalent atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing. As a consequence, the extreme case secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production was 426±85mg/kg-fuel, with high levels of precursors and OH exposure. The low hygroscopicity of the aerosols formed inside the chamber suggests that SOA was the dominant chemical composition. Fourteen percent of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reductions of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles are essential to mediate pollution in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The three phases of galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauwens, Bart; Schaye, Joop; Franx, Marijn; Bower, Richard G.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the origin of the Hubble sequence by analysing the evolution of the kinematic morphologies of central galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological simulation. By separating each galaxy into disc and spheroidal stellar components and tracing their evolution along the merger tree, we find that the morphology of galaxies follows a common evolutionary trend. We distinguish three phases of galaxy formation. These phases are determined primarily by mass, rather than redshift. For M* ≲ 109.5M⊙ galaxies grow in a disorganised way, resulting in a morphology that is dominated by random stellar motions. This phase is dominated by in-situ star formation, partly triggered by mergers. In the mass range 109.5M⊙ ≲ M* ≲ 1010.5M⊙ galaxies evolve towards a disc-dominated morphology, driven by in-situ star formation. The central spheroid (i.e. the bulge) at z = 0 consists mostly of stars that formed in-situ, yet the formation of the bulge is to a large degree associated with mergers. Finally, at M* ≳ 1010.5M⊙ growth through in-situ star formation slows down considerably and galaxies transform towards a more spheroidal morphology. This transformation is driven more by the buildup of spheroids than by the destruction of discs. Spheroid formation in these galaxies happens mostly by accretion at large radii of stars formed ex-situ (i.e. the halo rather than the bulge).

  20. Formation of Ion Phase-Space Vortexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.; Armstrong, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of ion phase space vortexes in the ion two stream region behind electrostatic ion acoustic shocks are observed in a laboratory experiment. A detailed analysis demonstrates that the evolution of such vortexes is associated with ion-ion beam instabilities and a nonlinear equation for ...

  1. Evidence that Blueberry Floral Extracts Influence Secondary Conidiation and Appressorial Formation of Colletotrichum fioriniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Timothy J; Vaiciunas, Jennifer; Constantelos, Christine; Oudemans, Peter V

    2018-05-01

    Blueberry anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae, is a pre- and postharvest disease of cultivated highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). During disease development, the pathogen undergoes several lifestyle changes during host colonization, including epiphytic, quiescent, and necrotrophic phases. It is not clear, however, what if any host signals alter the pattern of colonization during the initial epiphytic phase and infection. This research investigated the role of blueberry floral extracts (FE) on fungal development. Results show that FE significantly increased both the quantity and rate of secondary conidiation and appressorial formation in vitro, suggesting that floral components could decrease the minimum time required for infection. Activity of FE was readily detected in water collected from field samples, where secondary conidiation and appressorial formation decreased as rainwater collections were further removed from flowers. A comparison of FE from four blueberry cultivars with different levels of field susceptibility revealed that appressorial formation but not secondary conidiation significantly increased with the FE from susceptible cultivars versus resistant cultivars. Inoculum supplemented with FE produced higher levels of disease on ripe blueberry fruit as compared with inoculum with water only. Flowers from other ericaceous species were found to also induce secondary conidiation and appressorial formation of C. fioriniae. This research provides strong evidence that flowers can contribute substantially to the infection process of C. fioriniae, signifying the importance of the bloom period for developing effective disease management strategies.

  2. Phase formation in multicomponent monotectic aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Groebner, Joachim; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Alloys with a miscibility gap in the liquid state are potential materials for advanced bearings in automotive and other applications. While binary alloys, such as Al-Pb or Al-Bi, are well known, the information available for ternary monotectic Al-alloys is scarce. However, the phase formation in multicomponent alloys is not only more challenging from a scientific aspect, it is also a prerequisite for a focused development of advanced alloys. This motivated our detailed study of monotectic Al-Bi-Cu-Sn alloys including both experimental and computational thermodynamic methods. Based on the initially established systematic classification of monotectic ternary Al-alloys, the first promising monotectic reaction was observed in the ternary Al-Bi-Zn system. Further ternary systems Al-Cu-Sn, Al-Bi-Sn, Al-Bi-Cu and Bi-Cu-Sn were investigated as basis for quaternary Al-Bi-Cu-Sn alloys. Experimental investigations of phase equilibria, enthalpies and solidification microstructures were combined with thermodynamic modeling. The results demonstrate that the developed precise thermodynamic description is vital to reveal the distinct multicomponent monotectic features of pertinent phase diagrams. The solidification paths of ternary monotectic alloy systems, Al-Bi-Zn, Al-Sn-Cu and Al-Bi-Cu, were also studied using thermodynamic calculations, revealing specific details of phase formation during solidification of selected alloys.

  3. Effect of Continuous Cooling on Secondary Phase Precipitation in the Super Duplex Stainless Steel ZERON-100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliari, Irene; Bassani, Paola; Brunelli, Katya; Breda, Marco; Ramous, Emilio

    2013-12-01

    The precipitation of secondary phases in super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) is a subject of great relevance owing to their dangerous effects on both mechanical and corrosion-resistance properties. This paper examines the effect of continuous cooling after solution annealing treatment on secondary phase precipitation in the ZERON-100 SDSS. It considers the influence of cooling rate on volume fraction, morphology and chemical composition. It has been found that the formation of sigma and chi phases can be avoided only at cooling rates higher than 0.7 °C/s. In addition, at the lowest cooling rate the sigma phase amount approaches the equilibrium value, but the chi phase amount remains significantly low.

  4. Secondary Uranium-Phase Paragenesis and Incorporation of Radionuclides into Secondary Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Finch

    2001-06-05

    The purpose of this analysis/model report (AMR) is to assess the potential for uranium (U) (VI) compounds, formed during the oxidative corrosion of spent uranium-oxide (UO{sub 2}) fuels, to sequester certain radionuclides and, thereby, limit their release. The ''unsaturated drip tests'' being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provide the basis of this AMR (Table 1). The ANL drip tests on spent fuel are the only experiments on fuel corrosion from which solids have been analyzed for trace levels of radionuclides. Brief summaries are provided of the results from other selected corrosion and dissolution experiments on spent UO{sub 2} fuels, specifically those conducted under nominally oxidizing conditions. Discussions of the current understanding of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of U(VI) compounds is provided in order to outline the scientific basis for modeling precipitation and dissolution of potential radionuclide-bearing phases under repository-relevant conditions. Attachment I provides additional information on corrosion mechanisms and behaviors of radionuclides in the tests at ANL. Attachment II reviews occurrence, formation, and alteration (collectively known as paragenesis) of naturally occurring U(VI) minerals because natural mineral occurrences can be used to assess the possible long-term behaviors of U(VI) compounds formed in short-term laboratory experiments and to extrapolate experimental results to repository-relevant time scales. This AMR develops a model for calculating dissolved concentrations of radionuclides that are incorporated into U(VI) compounds, which is an alternative to models currently used in TSPA to calculate dissolved concentration limits for certain radionuclides. In particular, the model developed in this AMR applies to Np (neptunium) concentrations being controlled by solid uranyl oxyhydroxides that are known to contain trace levels of Np. The results of this AMR and the conceptual model

  5. Secondary Uranium-Phase Paragenesis and Incorporation of Radionuclides into Secondary Phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis/model report (AMR) is to assess the potential for uranium (U) (VI) compounds, formed during the oxidative corrosion of spent uranium-oxide (UO 2 ) fuels, to sequester certain radionuclides and, thereby, limit their release. The ''unsaturated drip tests'' being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provide the basis of this AMR (Table 1). The ANL drip tests on spent fuel are the only experiments on fuel corrosion from which solids have been analyzed for trace levels of radionuclides. Brief summaries are provided of the results from other selected corrosion and dissolution experiments on spent UO 2 fuels, specifically those conducted under nominally oxidizing conditions. Discussions of the current understanding of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of U(VI) compounds is provided in order to outline the scientific basis for modeling precipitation and dissolution of potential radionuclide-bearing phases under repository-relevant conditions. Attachment I provides additional information on corrosion mechanisms and behaviors of radionuclides in the tests at ANL. Attachment II reviews occurrence, formation, and alteration (collectively known as paragenesis) of naturally occurring U(VI) minerals because natural mineral occurrences can be used to assess the possible long-term behaviors of U(VI) compounds formed in short-term laboratory experiments and to extrapolate experimental results to repository-relevant time scales. This AMR develops a model for calculating dissolved concentrations of radionuclides that are incorporated into U(VI) compounds, which is an alternative to models currently used in TSPA to calculate dissolved concentration limits for certain radionuclides. In particular, the model developed in this AMR applies to Np (neptunium) concentrations being controlled by solid uranyl oxyhydroxides that are known to contain trace levels of Np. The results of this AMR and the conceptual model developed from it and presented in

  6. Secondary ion formation during electronic and nuclear sputtering of germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, L.; Ernst, P.; Herder, M.; Meinerzhagen, F.; Bender, M.; Severin, D.; Wucher, A.

    2018-06-01

    Using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer attached to the UNILAC beamline located at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, we investigate the formation of secondary ions sputtered from a germanium surface under irradiation by swift heavy ions (SHI) such as 5 MeV/u Au by simultaneously recording the mass spectra of the ejected secondary ions and their neutral counterparts. In these experiments, the sputtered neutral material is post-ionized via single photon absorption from a pulsed, intensive VUV laser. After post-ionization, the instrument cannot distinguish between secondary ions and post-ionized neutrals, so that both signals can be directly compared in order to investigate the ionization probability of different sputtered species. In order to facilitate an in-situ comparison with typical nuclear sputtering conditions, the system is also equipped with a conventional rare gas ion source delivering a 5 keV argon ion beam. For a dynamically sputter cleaned surface, it is found that the ionization probability of Ge atoms and Gen clusters ejected under electronic sputtering conditions is by more than an order of magnitude higher than that measured for keV sputtered particles. In addition, the mass spectra obtained under SHI irradiation show prominent signals of GenOm clusters, which are predominantly detected as positive or negative secondary ions. From the m-distribution for a given Ge nuclearity n, one can deduce that the sputtered material must originate from a germanium oxide matrix with approximate GeO stoichiometry, probably due to residual native oxide patches even at the dynamically cleaned surface. The results clearly demonstrate a fundamental difference between the ejection and ionization mechanisms in both cases, which is interpreted in terms of corresponding model calculations.

  7. Secondary cell wall formation in Cryptococcus neoformans as a rescue mechanism against acid-induced autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Vladimír; Takeo, Kanji; Maceková, Danka; Ohkusu, Misako; Yoshida, Soichi; Sipiczki, Matthias

    2009-03-01

    Growth of the opportunistic yeast pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans in a synthetic medium containing yeast nitrogen base and 1.0-3.0% glucose is accompanied by spontaneous acidification of the medium, with its pH decreasing from the initial 5.5 to around 2.5 in the stationary phase. During the transition from the late exponential to the stationary phase of growth, many cells died as a consequence of autolytic erosion of their cell walls. Simultaneously, there was an increase in an ecto-glucanase active towards beta-1,3-glucan and having a pH optimum between pH 3.0 and 3.5. As a response to cell wall degradation, some cells developed an unusual survival strategy by forming 'secondary' cell walls underneath the original ones. Electron microscopy revealed that the secondary cell walls were thicker than the primary ones, exposing bundles of polysaccharide microfibrils only partially masked by an amorphous cell wall matrix on their surfaces. The cells bearing secondary cell walls had a three to five times higher content of the alkali-insoluble cell wall polysaccharides glucan and chitin, and their chitin/glucan ratio was about twofold higher than in cells from the logarithmic phase of growth. The cell lysis and the formation of the secondary cell walls could be suppressed by buffering the growth medium between pH 4.5 and 6.5.

  8. The SOA/VOC/NOx system: an explicit model of secondary organic aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Madronich

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation is limited by our knowledge of gaseous secondary organics involved in gas/particle partitioning. The objective of this study is to explore (i the potential for products of multiple oxidation steps contributing to SOA, and (ii the evolution of the SOA/VOC/NOx system. We developed an explicit model based on the coupling of detailed gas-phase oxidation schemes with a thermodynamic condensation module. Such a model allows prediction of SOA mass and speciation on the basis of first principles. The SOA/VOC/NOx system is studied for the oxidation of 1-octene under atmospherically relevant concentrations. In this study, gaseous oxidation of octene is simulated to lead to SOA formation. Contributors to SOA formation are shown to be formed via multiple oxidation steps of the parent hydrocarbon. The behaviour of the SOA/VOC/NOx system simulated using the explicit model agrees with general tendencies observed during laboratory chamber experiments. This explicit modelling of SOA formation appears as a useful exploratory tool to (i support interpretations of SOA formation observed in laboratory chamber experiments, (ii give some insights on SOA formation under atmospherically relevant conditions and (iii investigate implications for the regional/global lifetimes of the SOA.

  9. Formation of secondary organic aerosol from isoprene oxidation over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karl

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of isoprene as a precursor to secondary organic aerosol (SOA over Europe is studied with the two-way nested global chemistry transport model TM5. The inclusion of the formation of SOA from isoprene oxidation in our model almost doubles the atmospheric burden of SOA over Europe compared to SOA formation from terpenes and aromatics. The reference simulation, which considers SOA formation from isoprene, terpenes and aromatics, predicts a yearly European production rate of 1.0 Tg SOA yr−1 and an annual averaged atmospheric burden of about 50 Gg SOA over Europe. A fraction of 35% of the SOA produced in the boundary layer over Europe is transported to higher altitudes or to other world regions. Summertime measurements of organic matter (OM during the extensive EMEP OC/EC campaign 2002/2003 are better reproduced when SOA formation from isoprene is taken into account, reflecting also the strong seasonality of isoprene and other biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC emissions from vegetation. However, during winter, our model strongly underestimates OM, likely caused by missing wood burning in the emission inventories. Uncertainties in the parameterisation of isoprene SOA formation have been investigated. Maximum SOA production is found for irreversible sticking (non-equilibrium partitioning of condensable vapours on particles, with tropospheric SOA production over Europe increased by a factor of 4 in summer compared to the reference case. Completely neglecting SOA formation from isoprene results in the lowest estimate (0.51 Tg SOA yr−1. The amount and the nature of the absorbing matter are shown to be another key uncertainty when predicting SOA levels. Consequently, smog chamber experiments on SOA formation should be performed with different types of seed aerosols and without seed aerosols in order to derive an improved treatment of the absorption of SOA in the models. Consideration of a number of recent insights

  10. Sub-project 'Simulation in mineral waste of secondary phase formation due to contact with drainage water'. Final report; Teilprojekt 'Simulation der Sekundaermineralbildung in mineralischen Reststoffen in Kontakt mit Sickerwasser'. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, U.; Kersten, M.

    2003-08-01

    3 mio. metric tons of bottom ash are produced by municipal solid waste incineration annually in Germany, which have to be recycled under tough environmental- and construction-based criteria. Before recycled, the ashes have to be reacted in open-air dumps for at least three months. A field-based survey under the framework of this project was conducted to study the ash ageing. This survey demonstrated that in practice these criteria are only partially reached in the topmost surficial layers of the 3-months ash humps due to hindrance of access by water and CO{sub 2}. According to a hypothesis worked out in earlier projects, the heavy metals remobilized from bottom ash are scavenged by secondary minerals formed during ageing, and kept therefore on a very low concentration niveau in the drainage water. In this project it was tried to simulate this long-term reaction sequence by addition of such sorbents to the short-term S4 leaching test already with fresh bottom ash. The main result is that the low metal concentration niveau was reached already within a few weeks of ash storage because the secondary mineral sorbents are apparently formed quite rapidly in sufficient amounts if both water and CO{sub 2} are allowed to drain the material. It is therefore not necessary to modify the S4 test for assessment according to the criteria ''Quellstaerke nach BBodSchV'', in case ash ageing is performed in an appropriate manner. Nonetheless, laboratory experiments showed that in open ash disposal systems but at enhanced gradient formation, considerable heavy metal fluxes may occur due to high remobilization rates, even at the overall low equilibrium concentrations. (orig.) [German] Bei der Siedlungsabfallverbrennung fallen jaehrlich ca. 3 Mio. Tonnen Rostasche an, die unter Einhaltung umwelt- und bautechnischer Kriterien wiederverwertet werden muessen. Vor der eigentlichen Verwertung ist eine dreimonatige Alterung der Aschen vorgeschrieben. Im Rahmen dieses

  11. The formation of science choices in secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, Anna

    2005-04-01

    In this paper I examine the formation of post-16 choices over 3 years among higher achieving students with respect to enrolment in post-compulsory science courses. Transcripts from four interviews carried out over 3 years with 72 secondary school students were qualitatively analysed. Students were found to shape their choices for science in a variety of ways across time. The situation regarding science choices hinges on far more dynamic considerations than the stereotypical image of the potential advanced science student, committed to becoming a scientist from an early age. There is an interplay of self-perception with respect to science, occupational images of working scientists, relationship with significant adults and perceptions of school science The findings are informative for science educators and for career guidance professionals who may need to take into account the complexity of young people's choices.

  12. SPIDERMAN: Fast code to simulate secondary transits and phase curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, Tom; Kreidberg, Laura

    2017-11-01

    SPIDERMAN calculates exoplanet phase curves and secondary eclipses with arbitrary surface brightness distributions in two dimensions. The code uses a geometrical algorithm to solve exactly the area of sections of the disc of the planet that are occulted by the star. Approximately 1000 models can be generated per second in typical use, which makes making Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses practicable. The code is modular and allows comparison of the effect of multiple different brightness distributions for a dataset.

  13. Powder-metallurgy superalloy strengthened by a secondary gamma phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotval, P. S.

    1971-01-01

    Description of experiments in which prealloyed powders of superalloy compositions were consolidated by extrusion after the strengthening by precipitation of a body-centered tetragonal gamma secondary Ni3 Ta phase. Thin foil electron microscopy showed that the mechanical properties of the resultant powder-metallurgy product were correlated with its microstructure. The product exhibited high strength at 1200 F without loss of ductility, after thermomechanical treatment and aging.

  14. Controlling defects and secondary phases of CZTS by surfactant Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junyi; Zhang, Yiou; Tse, Kinfai; Xiao, Xudong

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising photovoltaic absorber material with earth abundant and nontoxic elements. However, the detrimental native defects and secondary phases of CSTS will largely reduce the energy conversion efficiencies. To understand the origin of these problems during the growth of CZTS, we investigated the kinetic processes on CZTS (-1-1-2) surface, using first principles calculations. A surface Zn atom was found to occupy the subsurface Cu site easily due to a low reaction barrier, which may lead to a high ZnCu concentration and a secondary phase of ZnS. These n-type defects may create deep electron traps near the interface and become detrimental to device performance. To reduce the population of ZnCu and the secondary phase, we propose to use K as a surfactant to alter surface kinetic processes. Improvements on crystal quality and device performance based on this surfactant are consistent with early experimental observations. Computing resources were provided by the High Performance Cluster Computing Centre, Hong Kong Baptist University. This work was supported by the start-up funding at CUHK.

  15. SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM THE OXIDATION OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE PRESENCE OF DRY SUBMICRON AMMONIUM SULFATE AEROSOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine formation of secondary organic aerosols. A smog chamber system was developed for studying gas-aerosol interactions in a dynamic flow reactor. These experiments were conducted to investigate the fate of gas and aerosol phase compounds ...

  16. Secondary beam line phase space measurement and modeling at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, R.; Harrison, J.; Macek, R.; Sanders, G.

    1979-01-01

    Hardware and software have been developed for precision on-line measurement and fitting of secondary beam line phase space parameters. A system consisting of three MWPC planes for measuring particle trajectories, in coincidence with a time-of-flight telescope and a range telescope for particle identification, has been interfaced to a computer. Software has been developed for on-line track reconstruction, application of experimental cuts, and fitting of two-dimensional phase space ellipses for each particle species. The measured distributions have been found to agree well with the predictions of the Monte Carlo program DECAY TURTLE. The fitted phase space ellipses are a useful input to optimization routines, such as TRANSPORT, used to search for superior tunes. Application of this system to the LAMPF Stopped Muon Channel is described

  17. Secondary organic aerosol formation from biomass burning intermediates: phenol and methoxyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Yee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation of secondary organic aerosol from oxidation of phenol, guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol, and syringol (2,6-dimethoxyphenol, major components of biomass burning, is described. Photooxidation experiments were conducted in the Caltech laboratory chambers under low-NOx (2O2 as the OH source. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA yields (ratio of mass of SOA formed to mass of primary organic reacted greater than 25% are observed. Aerosol growth is rapid and linear with the primary organic conversion, consistent with the formation of essentially non-volatile products. Gas- and aerosol-phase oxidation products from the guaiacol system provide insight into the chemical mechanisms responsible for SOA formation. Syringol SOA yields are lower than those of phenol and guaiacol, likely due to novel methoxy group chemistry that leads to early fragmentation in the gas-phase photooxidation. Atomic oxygen to carbon (O : C ratios calculated from high-resolution-time-of-flight Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS measurements of the SOA in all three systems are ~ 0.9, which represent among the highest such ratios achieved in laboratory chamber experiments and are similar to that of aged atmospheric organic aerosol. The global contribution of SOA from intermediate volatility and semivolatile organic compounds has been shown to be substantial (Pye and Seinfeld, 2010. An approach to representing SOA formation from biomass burning emissions in atmospheric models could involve one or more surrogate species for which aerosol formation under well-controlled conditions has been quantified. The present work provides data for such an approach.

  18. Secondary phases in AlxCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys : An in-situ TEM heating study and thermodynamic appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, J. C.; Diao, H. Y.; Ocelík, V.; Vainchtein, D.; Zhang, C.; Kuo, C. C.; Tang, Z.; Guo, W.; Poplawsky, J. D.; Zhou, Y.; Liaw, P. K.; De Hosson, J. Th M.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary phases, either introduced by alloying or heat treatment, are commonly present in most high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Understanding the formation of secondary phases at high temperatures, and their effect on mechanical properties, is a critical issue that is undertaken in the present study,

  19. The Transcriptomics of Secondary Growth and Wood Formation in Conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana; Paiva, Jorge; Louzada, José; Lima-Brito, José

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, forestry scientists have adapted genomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the search for candidate genes related to the transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in several tree species. Gymnosperms, in particular, the conifers, are ecologically and economically important, namely, for the production of wood and other forestry end products. Until very recently, no whole genome sequencing of a conifer genome was available. Due to the gradual improvement of the NGS technologies and inherent bioinformatics tools, two draft assemblies of the whole genomes sequence of Picea abies and Picea glauca arose in the current year. These draft genome assemblies will bring new insights about the structure, content, and evolution of the conifer genomes. Furthermore, new directions in the forestry, breeding and research of conifers will be discussed in the following. The identification of genes associated with the xylem transcriptome and the knowledge of their regulatory mechanisms will provide less time-consuming breeding cycles and a high accuracy for the selection of traits related to wood production and quality. PMID:24288610

  20. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day- and nighttime chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Y. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region in Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS measurement identified two types of BSOA (BSOA-1 and BSOA-2, which were primarily generated by gas-phase oxidation of monoterpenes and perhaps sesquiterpenes. The temporal variations of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 can be explained by gas–particle partitioning in response to ambient temperature and the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms between day and night. While BSOA-1 arises from gas-phase ozonolysis and nitrate radical chemistry at night, BSOA-2 is likely less volatile than BSOA-1 and consists of products formed via gas-phase oxidation by OH radical and ozone during the day. Organic nitrates produced through nitrate radical chemistry can account for 22–33 % of BSOA-1 mass at night. The mass spectra of BSOA-1 and BSOA-2 have higher values of the mass fraction of m/z 91 (f91 compared to the background organic aerosol. Using f91 to evaluate BSOA formation pathways in this unpolluted, forested region, heterogeneous oxidation of BSOA-1 is a minor production pathway of BSOA-2.

  1. The formation, properties and impact of secondary organic aerosol: current and emerging issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wildt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA accounts for a significant fraction of ambient tropospheric aerosol and a detailed knowledge of the formation, properties and transformation of SOA is therefore required to evaluate its impact on atmospheric processes, climate and human health. The chemical and physical processes associated with SOA formation are complex and varied, and, despite considerable progress in recent years, a quantitative and predictive understanding of SOA formation does not exist and therefore represents a major research challenge in atmospheric science. This review begins with an update on the current state of knowledge on the global SOA budget and is followed by an overview of the atmospheric degradation mechanisms for SOA precursors, gas-particle partitioning theory and the analytical techniques used to determine the chemical composition of SOA. A survey of recent laboratory, field and modeling studies is also presented. The following topical and emerging issues are highlighted and discussed in detail: molecular characterization of biogenic SOA constituents, condensed phase reactions and oligomerization, the interaction of atmospheric organic components with sulfuric acid, the chemical and photochemical processing of organics in the atmospheric aqueous phase, aerosol formation from real plant emissions, interaction of atmospheric organic components with water, thermodynamics and mixtures in atmospheric models. Finally, the major challenges ahead in laboratory, field and modeling studies of SOA are discussed and recommendations for future research directions are proposed.

  2. A phase transition in energy-filtered RNA secondary structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Hillary Siwei; reidys, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of energy parameters on minimum free energy (mfe) RNA secondary structures. Employing a simplified combinatorial energy model, that is only dependent on the diagram representation and that is not sequence specific, we prove the following dichotomy result. Mfe...... this phase transition from a discrete limit to a central limit distribution and subsequently put our result into the context of quantifying the effect of sparsification of the folding of these respective mfe-structures. We show that the sparsification of realistic mfe-structures leads to a constant time...

  3. Reversible Decomposition of Secondary Phases in BaO Infiltrated LSM Electrodes-Polarization Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund; McIntyre, Melissa D.; Norrman, Kion

    2016-01-01

    and Raman spectroscopy reveal the formation of a secondary phase, Ba3Mn2O8, on the electrode. During the in operando Raman investigation of the BaO-infiltrated La0.85Sr0.15MnO3±δ electrodes, experiments are performed at 300 and 500 °C with oxygen partial pressure 0.1 atm and with −1 or +1 V Applied...... for the reduced polarization resistance observed at open Circuit voltage (OCV) in an oxygen containing atmosphere. Furthermore, the results illustrate the dramatic differences between the electrode surface composition at OCV and during cathodic polarization. Overall, the results highlight the dynamic interactions...... between minor secondary phases and applied potential, a general effect that may be important for the high-performance frequently observed with ceramic electrodes prepared by infiltration....

  4. Direct Observations of Isoprene Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Ambient Cloud Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, A.; Bell, D.; Thornton, J. A.; Fast, J. D.; Shrivastava, M. B.; Berg, L. K.; Imre, D. G.; Mei, F.; Shilling, J.; Suski, K. J.; Liu, J.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Multiphase chemistry of isoprene photooxidation products has been shown to be one of the major sources of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. A number of recent studies indicate that aqueous aerosol phase provides a medium for reactive uptake of isoprene photooxidation products, and in particular, isomeric isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), with reaction rates and yields being dependent on aerosol acidity, water content, sulfate concentration, and organic coatings. However, very few studies focused on chemistry occurring within actual cloud droplets. We will present data acquired during recent Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Campaign, which provide direct evidence for IEPOX-SOA formation in cloud droplets. Single particle mass spectrometer, miniSPLAT, and a high-resolution, time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer were used to characterize the composition of aerosol particles and cloud droplet residuals, while a high-resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) was used to characterize gas-phase compounds. We find that the composition of cloud droplet residuals was markedly different than that of aerosol particles sampled outside the cloud. Cloud droplet residuals were comprised of individual particles with high relative fractions of sulfate and nitrate and significant fraction of particles with mass spectra that are nearly identical to those of laboratory-generated IEPOX-SOA particles. The observed cloud-induced formation of IEPOX-SOA was accompanied by simultaneous decrease in measured concentrations of IEPOX and other gas-phase isoprene photooxidation products. Ultimately, the combined cloud, aerosol, and gas-phase measurements conducted during HI-SCALE will be used to develop and evaluate model treatments of aqueous-phase isoprene SOA formation.

  5. Formation of secondary minerals in a lysimeter approach - A mineral-microbe interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffner, F.; Merten, D.; De Giudici, G.; Beyer, A.; Akob, D. M.; Ricci, P. C.; Küsel, K.; Büchel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of large areas due to uranium mining operations poses a serious long-term environmental problem. In the Ronneburg district (eastern Thuringia, Germany), leaching of low grade uranium bearing ores (uranium content metals, especially Cd, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn due to a residual contamination even after remediation efforts. To reveal the processes of secondary mineral precipitation in the field a laboratory lysimeter approach was set up under in situ-like conditions. Homogenized soil from the field site and pure quartz sand were used as substrates. In general, in situ measurements of redox potentials in the substrates showed highly oxidizing conditions (200-750 mV). Water was supplied to the lysimeter from below via a mariottés bottle containing contaminated groundwater from the field. Evaporation processes were allowed, providing a continuous flow of water. This led to precipitation of epsomite and probably aplowite on the top layer of substrate, similar to what is observed in field investigations. After 4 weeks, the first iron and manganese bearing secondary minerals became visible. Soil water samples were used to monitor the behaviour of metals within the lysimeter. Saturation indices (SI) for different secondary minerals were calculated with PHREEQC. The SI of goethite showed oversaturation with respect to the soil solution. SEM-EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of goethite. Geochemical data revealed that goethite formation was mainly dominated by Eh/pH processes and that heavy metals, e.g. Zn and U, could be enriched in this phase. Although Eh/pH data does not support formation of manganese minerals, Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could be isolated from field soil samples, supporting the fact that microorganisms may influence this natural attenuation process. Laser ablation ICP-MS data reveal accumulation of manganese in MOB biomass on Mn(II)-containing agar plates. Furthermore, it was possible to show the importance

  6. Modeling of metastable phase formation diagrams for sputtered thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Keke; Music, Denis; To Baben, Moritz; Lange, Dennis; Bolvardi, Hamid; Schneider, Jochen M

    2016-01-01

    A method to model the metastable phase formation in the Cu-W system based on the critical surface diffusion distance has been developed. The driver for the formation of a second phase is the critical diffusion distance which is dependent on the solubility of W in Cu and on the solubility of Cu in W. Based on comparative theoretical and experimental data, we can describe the relationship between the solubilities and the critical diffusion distances in order to model the metastable phase formation. Metastable phase formation diagrams for Cu-W and Cu-V thin films are predicted and validated by combinatorial magnetron sputtering experiments. The correlative experimental and theoretical research strategy adopted here enables us to efficiently describe the relationship between the solubilities and the critical diffusion distances in order to model the metastable phase formation during magnetron sputtering.

  7. Identification of secondary phases formed during unsaturated reaction of UO2 with EJ-13 water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Tani, B.S.; Veleckis, E.

    1989-01-01

    A set of experiments, wherein UO 2 has been contacted by dripping water, has been conducted over a period of 182.5 weeks. The experiments are being conducted to develop procedures to study spent fuel reaction under unsaturated conditions that are expected to exist over the lifetime of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site. One half of the experiments have been terminated, while one half are ongoing. Analyses of solutions that have dripped from the reacted UO 2 have been performed for all experiments, while the reacted UO 2 surfaces have been examined for the terminated experiments. A pulse of uranium release from the UO 2 solid, combined with the formation of schoepite on the surface of the UO 2 , was observed between 39 and 96 weeks of reaction. Thereafter, the uranium release decreased and a second set of secondary phases was observed. The latter phases incorporated cations from the EJ-13 water and included boltwoodite, uranophane, sklodowskite, compreignacite, and schoepite. The experiments are continuing to monitor whether additional changes in solution chemistry or secondary phase formation occurs. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Secondary organic aerosol formation from a large number of reactive man-made organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derwent, Richard G., E-mail: r.derwent@btopenworld.com [rdscientific, Newbury, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Jenkin, Michael E. [Atmospheric Chemistry Services, Okehampton, Devon (United Kingdom); Utembe, Steven R.; Shallcross, Dudley E. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Murrells, Tim P.; Passant, Neil R. [AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell International Business Centre, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    A photochemical trajectory model has been used to examine the relative propensities of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by human activities to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) under one set of highly idealised conditions representing northwest Europe. This study applied a detailed speciated VOC emission inventory and the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.1 (MCM v3.1) gas phase chemistry, coupled with an optimised representation of gas-aerosol absorptive partitioning of 365 oxygenated chemical reaction product species. In all, SOA formation was estimated from the atmospheric oxidation of 113 emitted VOCs. A number of aromatic compounds, together with some alkanes and terpenes, showed significant propensities to form SOA. When these propensities were folded into a detailed speciated emission inventory, 15 organic compounds together accounted for 97% of the SOA formation potential of UK man made VOC emissions and 30 emission source categories accounted for 87% of this potential. After road transport and the chemical industry, SOA formation was dominated by the solvents sector which accounted for 28% of the SOA formation potential.

  9. SINGLE-PHASE AND TWO-PHASE SECONDARY COOLANTS: SIMULATION AND EVALUATION OF THEIR THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Samuel Gomes Medeiros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a comparative analysis of the thermophysical properties of ice slurry with conventional single-phase secondary fluids used in thermal storage cooling systems. The ice slurry is a two-phase fluid consisting of water, antifreeze and ice crystals. It is a new technology that has shown great energy potential. In addition to transporting energy as a heat transfer fluid, it has thermal storage properties due to the presence of ice, storing coolness by latent heat of fusion. The single-phase fluids analyzed are water-NaCl and water-propylene glycol solutions, which also operate as carrier fluids in ice slurry. The presence of ice changes the thermophysical properties of aqueous solutions and a number of these properties were determined: density, thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity. Data were obtained by software simulation. The results show that the presence of 10% by weight of ice provides a significant increase in thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity, without causing changes in density. The rheological behavior of ice slurries, associated with its high viscosity, requires higher pumping power; however, this was not significant because higher thermal conductivity allows a lower mass flow rate without the use of larger pumps. Thus, the ice slurry ensures its high potential as a secondary fluid in thermal storage cooling systems, proving to be more efficient than single-phase secondary fluids.

  10. Molecular structure impacts on secondary organic aerosol formation from glycol ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Cocker, David R.

    2018-05-01

    Glycol ethers, a class of widely used solvents in consumer products, are often considered exempt as volatile organic compounds based on their vapor pressure or boiling points by regulatory agencies. However, recent studies found that glycol ethers volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents indicating the potential of glycol ethers to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). This is the first work on SOA formation from glycol ethers. The impact of molecular structure, specifically -OH, on SOA formation from glycol ethers and related ethers are investigated in the work. Ethers with and without -OH, with methyl group hindrance on -OH and with -OH at different location are studied in the presence of NOX and under "NOX free" conditions. Photooxidation experiments under different oxidation conditions confirm that the processing of ethers is a combination of carbonyl formation, cyclization and fragmentation. Bulk SOA chemical composition analysis and oxidation products identified in both gas and particle phase suggests that the presence and location of -OH in the carbon bond of ethers determine the occurrence of cyclization mechanism during ether oxidation. The cyclization is proposed as a critical SOA formation mechanism to prevent the formation of volatile compounds from fragmentation during the oxidation of ethers. Glycol ethers with -CH2-O-CH2CH2OH structure is found to readily form cyclization products, especially with the presence of NOx, which is more relevant to urban atmospheric conditions than without NOx. Glycol ethers are evaluated as dominating SOA precursors among all ethers studied. It is estimated that the contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources. The contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources and will play a more important role in future anthropogenic SOA

  11. Cloud processing of organic compounds: Secondary organic aerosol and nitrosamine formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, James W., III

    Cloud processing of atmospheric organic compounds has been investigated through field studies, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling. Observational cloud chemistry studies were performed in northern Arizona and fog studies in central Pennsylvania. At both locations, the cloud and fogs showed low acidity due to neutralization by soil dust components (Arizona) and ammonia (Pennsylvania). The field observations showed substantial concentrations (20-5500 ng•L -1) of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the cloud droplets. The potential generation of secondary organic aerosol mass through the processing of these anthropogenic VOCs was investigated through laboratory and modeling studies. Under simulated atmospheric conditions, in idealized solutions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) degraded quickly in the aqueous phase with half lives of approximately three hours. The degradation process yielded less volatile products which would contribute to new aerosol mass upon cloud evaporation. However, when realistic cloud solutions containing natural organic matter were used in the experiments, the reaction kinetics decreased with increasing organic carbon content, resulting in half lives of approximately 7 hours. The secondary organic aerosol (SUA) mass formation potential of cloud processing of BTEX was evaluated. SOA mass formation by cloud processing of BTEX, while strongly dependent on the atmospheric conditions, could contribute up to 9% of the ambient atmospheric aerosol mass, although typically ˜1% appears realistic. Field observations also showed the occurrence of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, in fogs and clouds (100-340 ng•L -1). Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the formation of NDMA from nitrous acid and dimethylamine in the homogeneous aqueous phase within cloud droplets. While NDMA was produced in the cloud droplets, the low yields (NDMA with partitioning to droplet must be the source of aqueous

  12. Effect of alteration phase formation on the glass dissolution rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    The dissolution rates of many glasses have been observed to increase upon the formation of certain alteration phases. While simulations have predicted the accelerating effect of formation of certain phases, the phases predicted to form in computer simulations are usually different than those observed to form in experiments. This is because kinetically favored phases form first in experiments, while simulations predict the thermodynamically favored phases. Static dissolution tests with crushed glass have been used to measure the glass dissolution rate after alteration phases form. Because glass dissolution rates are calculated on a per area basis, an important effect in tests conducted with crushed glass is the decrease in the surface area of glass that is available for reaction as the glass dissolves. This loss of surface area must be taken into account when calculating the dissolution rate. The phases that form and their effect on the dissolution rate are probably related to the glass composition. The impact of phase formation on the glass dissolution rate also varies according to the solubility products of the alteration phases and how the orthocilicic acid activity is affected. Insight into the relationship between the glass dissolution rate, solution chemistry and alteration phase formation is provided by the results of accelerated dissolution tests

  13. Effect of alteration phase formation on the glass dissolution rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W L [Argonne National Laboratory, Chemical Technology Div. (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The dissolution rates of many glasses have been observed to increase upon the formation of certain alteration phases. While simulations have predicted the accelerating effect of formation of certain phases, the phases predicted to form in computer simulations are usually different than those observed to form in experiments. This is because kinetically favored phases form first in experiments, while simulations predict the thermodynamically favored phases. Static dissolution tests with crushed glass have been used to measure the glass dissolution rate after alteration phases form. Because glass dissolution rates are calculated on a per area basis, an important effect in tests conducted with crushed glass is the decrease in the surface area of glass that is available for reaction as the glass dissolves. This loss of surface area must be taken into account when calculating the dissolution rate. The phases that form and their effect on the dissolution rate are probably related to the glass composition. The impact of phase formation on the glass dissolution rate also varies according to the solubility products of the alteration phases and how the orthocilicic acid activity is affected. Insight into the relationship between the glass dissolution rate, solution chemistry and alteration phase formation is provided by the results of accelerated dissolution tests.

  14. Influences of Mo and W on the precipitation of secondary phases and the associated localized corrosion and embrittlement in 29%Cr ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Jin; Ahn, Myung Kyu; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2005-01-01

    Influences of molybdenum (Mo) substitution by tungsten (W) on the formation kinetics of secondary phases and the associated localized corrosion and embrittlement of Fe-29Cr-4Mo. Fe-29Cr-4W, and Fe-29Cr-8W ferritic stainless steels were investigated. Fine χ phase formed first in grain boundaries in an early stage of aging and it was gradually substituted by σ phase with further aging. The precipitation rate of σ phase appears to be determined by both the diffusion rates of W and Mo for the formation of the σ phase as well as by the affinity of χ phase, as a competitor, for the elements. Due to the high affinity of χ phase for W with a slow diffusion rate, the nucleation of σ phase was significantly delayed in Fe-29Cr-4W and Fe-29Cr-8W alloys compared with that in Fe-29Cr-4Mo alloy. In addition, the deterioration of ductility and localized corrosion resistance by the precipitation of secondary phases was significantly retarded in Fe-29Cr-4W alloy compared with that in Fe-29Cr-4Mo alloy, due to the delayed precipitation of secondary phases in Fe-29Cr-4W alloy. In particular, retardation of degradation in localized corrosion resistance by the formation of σ phase, which induced significant depletion of Cr and W (or Mo) around the phase, was prominent in the W-containing alloys. The W-containing alloys exhibited effective delay of σ phase formation

  15. Effect of Pellet Boiler Exhaust on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from α-Pinene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Eetu; Hao, Liqing; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Leskinen, Ari; Kortelainen, Miika; Grigonyte, Julija; Worsnop, Douglas R; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Sippula, Olli; Faiola, Celia L; Virtanen, Annele

    2017-02-07

    Interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and implications for aerosol production, have raised particular scientific interest. Despite active research in this area, real anthropogenic emission sources have not been exploited for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction studies until now. This work examines these interactions using α-pinene and pellet boiler emissions as a model test system. The impact of pellet boiler emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from α-pinene photo-oxidation was studied under atmospherically relevant conditions in an environmental chamber. The aim of this study was to identify which of the major pellet exhaust components (including high nitrogen oxide (NO x ), primary particles, or a combination of the two) affected SOA formation from α-pinene. Results demonstrated that high NO x concentrations emitted by the pellet boiler reduced SOA yields from α-pinene, whereas the chemical properties of the primary particles emitted by the pellet boiler had no effect on observed SOA yields. The maximum SOA yield of α-pinene in the presence of pellet boiler exhaust (under high-NO x conditions) was 18.7% and in the absence of pellet boiler exhaust (under low-NO x conditions) was 34.1%. The reduced SOA yield under high-NO x conditions was caused by changes in gas-phase chemistry that led to the formation of organonitrate compounds.

  16. Different roles of water in secondary organic aerosol formation from toluene and isoprene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Long; Xu, YongFu

    2018-06-01

    Roles of water in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the irradiations of toluene-NO2 and isoprene-NO2 were investigated in a smog chamber. Experimental results show that the yield of SOA from toluene almost doubled as relative humidity increased from 5 to 85 %, whereas the yield of SOA from isoprene under humid conditions decreased by 2.6 times as compared to that under dry conditions. The distinct difference of RH effects on SOA formation from toluene and isoprene is well explained with our experiments and model simulations. The increased SOA from humid toluene-NO2 irradiations is mainly contributed by O-H-containing products such as polyalcohols formed from aqueous reactions. The major chemical components of SOA in isoprene-NO2 irradiations are oligomers formed from the gas phase. SOA formation from isoprene-NO2 irradiations is controlled by stable Criegee intermediates (SCIs) that are greatly influenced by water. As a result, high RH can obstruct the oligomerization reaction of SCIs to form SOA.

  17. Formation of secondary inorganic aerosols by power plant emissions exhausted through cooling towers in Saxony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinneburg, Detlef; Renner, Eberhard; Wolke, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The fraction of ambient PM10 that is due to the formation of secondary inorganic particulate sulfate and nitrate from the emissions of two large, brown-coal-fired power stations in Saxony (East Germany) is examined. The power stations are equipped with natural-draft cooling towers. The flue gases are directly piped into the cooling towers, thereby receiving an additionally intensified uplift. The exhausted gas-steam mixture contains the gases CO, CO2, NO, NO2, and SO2, the directly emitted primary particles, and additionally, an excess of 'free' sulfate ions in water solution, which, after the desulfurization steps, remain non-neutralized by cations. The precursor gases NO2 and SO2 are capable of forming nitric and sulfuric acid by several pathways. The acids can be neutralized by ammonia and generate secondary particulate matter by heterogeneous condensation on preexisting particles. The simulations are performed by a nested and multi-scale application of the online-coupled model system LM-MUSCAT. The Local Model (LM; recently renamed as COSMO) of the German Weather Service performs the meteorological processes, while the Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport Model (MUSCAT) includes the transport, the gas phase chemistry, as well as the aerosol chemistry (thermodynamic ammonium-sulfate-nitrate-water system). The highest horizontal resolution in the inner region of Saxony is 0.7 km. One summer and one winter episode, each realizing 5 weeks of the year 2002, are simulated twice, with the cooling tower emissions switched on and off, respectively. This procedure serves to identify the direct and indirect influences of the single plumes on the formation and distribution of the secondary inorganic aerosols. Surface traces of the individual tower plumes can be located and distinguished, especially in the well-mixed boundary layer in daytime. At night, the plumes are decoupled from the surface. In no case does the resulting contribution of the cooling tower emissions to PM10

  18. ESPA Based Secondary Payload Orbit Maneuvering System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop/design an integrated propulsion, power, ACS, and separation module for secondary ESPA payloads. The standardized secondary payload...

  19. Effects of meteorology and secondary particle formation on visibility during heavy haze events in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Quan, Jiannong; Tie, Xuexi; Li, Xia; Liu, Quan; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Delong

    2015-01-01

    The causes of haze formation in Beijing, China were analyzed based on a comprehensive measurement, including PBL (planetary boundary layer), aerosol composition and concentrations, and several important meteorological parameters such as visibility, RH (relative humidity), and wind speed/direction. The measurement was conducted in an urban location from Nov. 16, 2012 to Jan. 15, 2013. During the period, the visibility varied from >20 km to less than a kilometer, with a minimum visibility of 667 m, causing 16 haze occurrences. During the haze occurrences, the wind speeds were less than 1m/s, and the concentrations of PM2.5 (particle matter with radius less than 2.5 μm) were often exceeded 200 μg/m(3). The correlation between PM2.5 concentration and visibility under different RH values shows that visibility was exponentially decreased with the increase of PM2.5 concentrations when RH was less than 80%. However, when RH was higher than 80%, the relationship was no longer to follow the exponentially decreasing trend, and the visibility maintained in very low values, even with low PM2.5 concentrations. Under this condition, the hygroscopic growth of particles played important roles, and a large amount of water vapor acted as particle matter (PM) for the reduction of visibility. The variations of meteorological parameters (RH, PBL heights, and WS (wind speed)), chemical species in gas-phase (CO, O3, SO2, and NOx), and gas-phase to particle-phase conversions under different visibility ranges were analyzed. The results show that from high visibility (>20 km) to low visibility (<2 km), the averaged PBL decreased from 1.24 km to 0.53 km; wind speeds reduced from 1m/s to 0.5m/s; and CO increased from 0.5 ppmv to 4.0 ppmv, suggesting that weaker transport/diffusion caused the haze occurrences. This study also found that the formation of SPM (secondary particle matter) was accelerated in the haze events. The conversions between SO2 and SO4 as well as NOx to NO3(-) increased

  20. Linear phase formation by noise simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, G.; Por, G.

    1998-01-01

    A new simulation technique is introduced to study noise propagation in nuclear power plants. Noise processes are considered as time functions, and the dynamic behaviour of the reactor core is modelled by ordinary and partial differential equations. The equations are solved by numerical methods and the results (time series) are considered as virtual measurements. The auto power spectral density and the cross power spectral density of these time series are calculated by traditional techniques. The spectrum obtained is compared with the analytical solution to validate the new simulation approach. After validation, the simulator is expanded to investigate some physical phenomena which are unmanageable by analytical calculations. Propagating disturbances are studied, and the effect of non-flat flux shape on phase curves is demonstrated. Numerical problems also are briefly discussed. (author)

  1. Characterization of secondary phases in modified vertical bridgman growth czt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, Martine

    2009-07-10

    CdZnTe or 'CZT' crystals are highly suitable for use as a room temperature based spectrometer for the detection and characterization of gamma radiation. Over the last decade, the methods for growing high quality CZT have improved the quality of the produced crystals however there are material features that can influence the performance of these materials as radiation detectors. For example, various structural heterogeneities within the CZT crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), and secondary phases (SP) can have a negative impact on the detector performance. In this study, a CZT material was grown by the modified vertical Bridgman growth (MVB) method with zone leveled growth without excess Te in the melt. Visual observations of material from the growth of this material revealed significant voids and SP. Three samples from this material was analyzed using various analytical techniques to evaluate its electrical properties, purity and detector performance as radiation spectrometers and to determine the morphology, dimension and elemental/structural composition of one of the SP in this material. This material was found to have a high resistivity but poor radiation spectrometer performance. It had SP that were rich in polycrystalline aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), metallic Te and polycrystalline CdZnTe and 15 to 50 {micro}m in diameter. Bulk elemental analyses of sister material from elsewhere in the boule did not contain high levels of Al so there is considerable elemental impurity heterogeneity within the boule from this growth.

  2. Characterization of secondary phases in modified vertical bridgman growth czt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, Martine

    2009-01-01

    CdZnTe or 'CZT' crystals are highly suitable for use as a room temperature based spectrometer for the detection and characterization of gamma radiation. Over the last decade, the methods for growing high quality CZT have improved the quality of the produced crystals however there are material features that can influence the performance of these materials as radiation detectors. For example, various structural heterogeneities within the CZT crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), and secondary phases (SP) can have a negative impact on the detector performance. In this study, a CZT material was grown by the modified vertical Bridgman growth (MVB) method with zone leveled growth without excess Te in the melt. Visual observations of material from the growth of this material revealed significant voids and SP. Three samples from this material was analyzed using various analytical techniques to evaluate its electrical properties, purity and detector performance as radiation spectrometers and to determine the morphology, dimension and elemental/structural composition of one of the SP in this material. This material was found to have a high resistivity but poor radiation spectrometer performance. It had SP that were rich in polycrystalline aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), metallic Te and polycrystalline CdZnTe and 15 to 50 (micro)m in diameter. Bulk elemental analyses of sister material from elsewhere in the boule did not contain high levels of Al so there is considerable elemental impurity heterogeneity within the boule from this growth

  3. Formation of InN phase by sequential ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhana Raman, P.; Ravichandran, V.; Nair, K.G.M.; Kesavamoorthy, R.; Kalavathi, S.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Dhara, S.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of InN phase by sequentially implanting nitrogen on indium implanted silica was demonstrated. The growth of embedded InN phase on as-implanted and post-implantation annealed sample was studied using Glancing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Existence of both cubic and hexagonal phases of InN was observed. Results of irradiation induced ripening of In nanoclusters due to N + ion implantation was also studied. (author)

  4. Secondary instability in drift wave turbulence as a mechanism for avalanche and zonal flow formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, P.H.; Champeaux, S.; Malkov, M.

    2001-01-01

    We report on recent developments in the theory of secondary instability in drift-ITG turbulence. Specifically, we explore secondary instability as a mechanism for avalanche formation. A theory of radially extended streamer cell formation and self-regulation is presented. Aspects of streamer structure and dynamics are used to estimate the variance of the drift-wave induced flux. The relation between streamer cell structures and the avalanche concept is discussed, as are the implications of our results for transport modeling. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the atmospheric significance of multiphase reactions in atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelencsér

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a simple conceptual cloud-aerosol model the mass of secondary organic aerosol (SOA that may be formed in multiphase reaction in an idealized scenario involving two cloud cycles separated with a cloud-free period is evaluated. The conditions are set to those typical of continental clouds, and each parameter used in the model calculations is selected as a mean of available observational data of individual species for which the multiphase SOA formation route has been established. In the idealized setting gas and aqueous-phase reactions are both considered, but only the latter is expected to yield products of sufficiently low volatility to be retained by aerosol particles after the cloud dissipates. The key variable of the model is the Henry-constant which primarily determines how important multiphase reactions are relative to gas-phase photooxidation processes. The precursor considered in the model is assumed to already have some affinity to water, i.e. it is a compound having oxygen-containing functional group(s. As a principal model output an aerosol yield parameter is calculated for the multiphase SOA formation route as a function of the Henry-constant, and has been found to be significant already above H~103 M atm-1. Among the potential precursors that may be eligible for this mechanism based on their Henry constants, there are a suite of oxygenated compounds such as primary oxidation products of biogenic and anthropogenic hydrocarbons, including, for example, pinonaldehyde. Finally, the analogy of multiphase SOA formation to in-cloud sulfate production is exploited.

  6. σ and η Phase formation in advanced polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, Stoichko, E-mail: santonov@hawk.iit.edu [Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 W. 32nd Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Huo, Jiajie; Feng, Qiang [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Northwestern University Center for Atom Probe Tomography (NUCAPT), 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Helmink, Randolph C.; Sun, Eugene [Rolls-Royce Corporation, 450 S. Meridian Street, Indianapolis, IN 46225 (United States); Tin, Sammy [Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 W. 32nd Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2017-02-27

    In polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys, grain boundary precipitation of secondary phases can be significant due to the effects they pose on the mechanical properties. As new alloying concepts for polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys are being developed to extend their temperature capability, the effect of increasing levels of Nb alloying additions on long term phase stability and the formation of topologically close packed (TCP) phases needs to be studied. Elevated levels of Nb can result in increased matrix supersaturation and promote the precipitation of secondary phases. Long term thermal exposures on two experimental powder processed Ni-base superalloys containing various levels of Nb were completed to assess the stability and precipitation of TCP phases. It was found that additions of Nb promoted the precipitation of η-Ni{sub 6}AlNb along the grain boundaries in powder processed, polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys, while reduced Nb levels favored the precipitation of blocky Cr and Mo – rich σ phase precipitates along the grain boundary. Evaluation of the thermodynamic stability of these two phases in both alloys using Thermo-calc showed that while σ phase predictions are fairly accurate, predictions of the η phase are limited.

  7. Kinetics of sigma phase formation in a Duplex Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Magnabosco

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work determines the kinetics of sigma phase formation in UNS S31803 Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS, describing the phase transformations that occur in isothermal aging between 700 and 900 ºC for time periods up to 1032 hours, allowing the determination of the Time-Temperature-Precipitation (TTP diagram for sigma phase and proposing a model to predict the kinetics of sigma phase formation using a Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA type expression. The higher kinetics of sigma phase formation occurs at 850 ºC. However, isothermal aging between 700 and 900 ºC for time periods up to 1032 hours are not sufficient to the establishment of thermodynamic equilibrium. Activation energy for both nucleation and growth of sigma phase is determined (185 kJ.mol-1 and its value is equivalent to the activation energy for Cr diffusion in ferrite, indicating that diffusion of Cr is probably the major thermally activated process involved in sigma phase formation. The determined JMA type expression presents good fit with experimental data between 700 and 850 ºC.

  8. Partitioning phase preference for secondary organic aerosol in an urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wayne Li-Wen

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) comprises a significant portion of atmospheric particular matter (PM). The impact of PM on both human health and global climate has long been recognized. Despite its importance, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the formation and evolution of SOA in the atmosphere. This study uses a modeling approach to understand the preferred partitioning behavior of SOA species into aqueous or organic condensed phases. More specifically, this work uses statistical analyses of approximately 24,000 data values for each variable from a state-of-the-art 3-D airshed model. Spatial and temporal distributions of fractions of SOA residing in the aqueous phase (fAQ) in the South Coast Air Basin of California are presented. Typical values of fAQ within the basin near the surface range from 5 to 80%. Results show that the distribution of fAQ values is inversely proportional to the total SOA loading. Further analysis accounting for various meteorological parameters indicates that large fAQ values are the results of aqueous-phase SOA insensitivity to the ambient conditions; while organic-phase SOA concentrations are dramatically reduced under unfavorable SOA formation conditions, aqueous-phase SOA level remains relatively unchanged, thus increasing fAQ at low SOA loading. Diurnal variations of fAQ near the surface are also observed: it tends to be larger during daytime hours than nighttime hours. When examining the vertical gradient of fAQ, largest values are found at heights above the surface layer. In summary, one must consider SOA in both organic and aqueous phases for proper regional and global SOA budget estimation.

  9. Reactive oxidation products promote secondary organic aerosol formation from green leaf volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Hamilton

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Green leaf volatiles (GLVs are an important group of chemicals released by vegetation which have emission fluxes that can be significantly increased when plants are damaged or stressed. A series of simulation chamber experiments has been conducted at the European Photoreactor in Valencia, Spain, to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from the atmospheric oxidation of the major GLVs cis-3-hexenylacetate and cis-3-hexen-1-ol. Liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to identify chemical species present in the SOA. Cis-3-hexen-1-ol proved to be a more efficient SOA precursor due to the high reactivity of its first generation oxidation product, 3-hydroxypropanal, which can hydrate and undergo further reactions with other aldehydes resulting in SOA dominated by higher molecular weight oligomers. The lower SOA yields produced from cis-3-hexenylacetate are attributed to the acetate functionality, which inhibits oligomer formation in the particle phase. Based on observed SOA yields and best estimates of global emissions, these compounds may be calculated to be a substantial unidentified global source of SOA, contributing 1–5 TgC yr−1, equivalent to around a third of that predicted from isoprene. Molecular characterization of the SOA, combined with organic mechanistic information, has provided evidence that the formation of organic aerosols from GLVs is closely related to the reactivity of their first generation atmospheric oxidation products, and indicates that this may be a simple parameter that could be used in assessing the aerosol formation potential for other unstudied organic compounds in the atmosphere.

  10. Gel phase formation in dilute triblock copolyelectrolyte complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Samanvaya; Andreev, Marat; Levi, Adam E.; Goldfeld, David J.; Mao, Jun; Heller, William T.; Prabhu, Vivek M.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Tirrell, Matthew V.

    2017-02-01

    Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated gels at low polymer concentrations (simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte complexation-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes. Gel phases form and phase separate almost instantaneously on solvation of the copolymers. Furthermore, molecular models of self-assembly demonstrate the presence of oligo-chain aggregates in early stages of copolyelectrolyte assembly, at experimentally unobservable polymer concentrations. Our discoveries contribute to the fundamental understanding of the structure and pathways of complexation-driven assemblies, and raise intriguing prospects for gel formation at extraordinarily low concentrations, with applications in tissue engineering, agriculture, water purification and theranostics.

  11. Secondary organic aerosol formation through fog processing of VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, P.; Hutchings, J. W.

    2010-07-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) have been determined in highly concentrated amounts (>1 ug/L) in intercepted clouds in northern Arizona (USA). These VOCs are found in concentrations much higher than predicted by partitioning alone. The reactivity of BTEX in the fog/cloud aqueous phase was investigated through laboratory studies. BTEX species showed fast degradation in the aqueous phase in the presence of peroxides and light. Observed half-lives ranged from three and six hours, substantially shorter than the respective gas phase half-lives (several days). The observed reaction rates were on the order of 1 ppb/min but decreased substantially with increasing concentrations of organic matter (TOC). The products of BTEX oxidation reactions were analyzed using HPLC-UV and LCMS. The first generation of products identified included phenol and cresols which correspond to the hydroxyl-addition reaction to benzene and toluene. Upon investigating of multi-generational products, smaller, less volatile species are predominant although a large variety of products is found. Most reaction products have substantially lower vapor pressure and will remain in the particle phase upon droplet evaporation. The SOA generation potential of cloud and fog processing of BTEX was evaluated using simple calculations and showed that in ideal situations these reactions could add up to 9% of the ambient aerosol mass. In more conservative scenarios, the contribution of the processing of BTEX was around 1% of ambient aerosol concentrations. Overall, cloud processing of VOC has the potential to contribute to the atmospheric aerosol mass. However, the contribution will depend upon many factors such as the irradiation, organic matter content in the droplets and droplet lifetime.

  12. Influence of powder pre-annealing on the phase formation and critical current of Bi-2223/Ag tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.P.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Li, M.Y.

    2004-01-01

    . The effects of different precursors were investigated by XRD, SEM/EDS and critical current measurements. It has been found that both the microstructure and phase formation depended strongly on the different lead-rich phases, which determined the reactivity of the precursor. Tapes fabricated using...... the precursor with Ca2PbO4 phase (tape T1) had lower transformation rate of 2223 phase than tapes fabricated using the precursor with 3321 phase (tape T2). SEM results show that a large fraction of secondary phases with big particle size was formed in the tape T1 during the subsequent sintering, which might...

  13. Uptake of Alkylamines on Dicarboxylic Acids Relevant to Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Ortiz, W.; Secrest, J.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols play a critical role in climate directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by functioning as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN); both represent the largest uncertainties in climate predictions. New particle formation contributes significantly to CCN production; however, the mechanisms related to particle nucleation and growth processes are not well understood. Organic acids are atmospherically abundant, and their neutralization by low molecular weight amines may result in the formation of stable low volatility aminium salt products contributing to the growth of secondary organic aerosols and even the alteration of the aerosol properties. The acid-base neutralization of particle phase succinic acid and tartaric acid by low molecular weight aliphatic amines, i.e. methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine, has been investigated by employing a low-pressure fast flow reactor at 298K with an ion drift - chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ID-CIMS). The heterogeneous uptake is time dependent and influenced by organic acids functionality, alkylamines basicity, and steric effect. The implications of our results to atmospheric nanoparticle growth will be discussed.

  14. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day- and nighttime chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Y. Lee; J. P. D. Abbatt; W. R. Leaitch; S.-M. Li; S. J. Sjostedt; S. J. Sjostedt; J. J. B. Wentzell; J. Liggio; A. M. Macdonald

    2016-01-01

    Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region at Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement identifie...

  15. Formation of nano quasicrystalline and crystalline phases by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamah, A.M.; Ibrahim, S. [Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Hanna, F.F., E-mail: fariedhanna@yahoo.com [Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > Mechanical alloying (MA) is an important method to investigate the formation of nano sized quasicrystalline phases in Al{sub 86}Cr{sub 14}, Al{sub 84}Fe{sub 16} and Al{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 25}Fe{sub 12.5} compounds. The second part of the present work is an attempt to examine the possibility of formation of the i-phase of the Al{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 25}Fe{sub 12.5}, which lies in the region of the perfect i-phase in the ternary phase diagram, by rapid solidification method. To perform the obtained quasi phase mechanical alloying and heat treatment at the rapid solidified sample were done. - Abstract: In the present work, the formation of nano quasicrystalline icosahedral phase in Al{sub 86}Cr{sub 14}, Al{sub 84}Fe{sub 16} and Al{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 25}Fe{sub 12.5} alloys has been investigated by mechanical alloying. Mixtures of quasicrystalline and related crystalline phases have been observed under various milling conditions. The X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and electrical resistivity techniques have been used for characterization and physical property measurements. The particle size was calculated by X-ray profile using Williamson-Hall plot method and it was found to be 25-50 nm size.

  16. Formation of nano quasicrystalline and crystalline phases by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamah, A.M.; Ibrahim, S.; Hanna, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mechanical alloying (MA) is an important method to investigate the formation of nano sized quasicrystalline phases in Al 86 Cr 14 , Al 84 Fe 16 and Al 62.5 Cu 25 Fe 12.5 compounds. The second part of the present work is an attempt to examine the possibility of formation of the i-phase of the Al 62.5 Cu 25 Fe 12.5 , which lies in the region of the perfect i-phase in the ternary phase diagram, by rapid solidification method. To perform the obtained quasi phase mechanical alloying and heat treatment at the rapid solidified sample were done. - Abstract: In the present work, the formation of nano quasicrystalline icosahedral phase in Al 86 Cr 14 , Al 84 Fe 16 and Al 62.5 Cu 25 Fe 12.5 alloys has been investigated by mechanical alloying. Mixtures of quasicrystalline and related crystalline phases have been observed under various milling conditions. The X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and electrical resistivity techniques have been used for characterization and physical property measurements. The particle size was calculated by X-ray profile using Williamson-Hall plot method and it was found to be 25-50 nm size.

  17. BCT phase formation in synthesis via microwave assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, B.C.; Souza, A.E.; Teixeira, S.R.; Santos, G.T.A.; Lanzi, C.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In previous work, samples of barium and calcium titanate (Ba1-xCaxTiO3 (BCT x = 0- 1) were prepared using the microwave assisted hydrothermal method in conditions of relatively short time and temperature. To the sample with 75wt% of Ca no BCT phase was formed but the photoluminescent emission was improved. In the present study, these titanates were synthesized by the same method with other concentrations of Ca, Ba1-xCaxTiO3 (x = 0, 0.20, 0.40, 0. 60, 0.80 and 1) to evaluate the limit of BCT phase formation. Results of X-ray diffraction showed that the phase BCT is formed between zero and 50wt%-Ca, in Ba substitution. Above this concentration, was observed only the formation of carbonates, and to x = 1 there was carbonate formation together with CaTiO3. These results were confirmed by micro Raman spectroscopy. (author)

  18. Formative assessment practices in Bhutanese secondary schools and its impact on Quality of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utha, Karma

    Using case study approach, the dissertation provides the notions and practices of formative assessment in Bhutanese Secondary Schools. It includes the teachers’ understanding of the practice of student-centered teaching and learning, which is regarded as a precondition for effective formative...... assessment. It also take account of those features of formative assessment which are much more favored by students and teachers in the case study schools....

  19. Secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient air in an oxidation flow reactor in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Brett B.; de Sá, Suzane S.; Day, Douglas A.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Hu, Weiwei; Seco, Roger; Sjostedt, Steven J.; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Guenther, Alex B.; Kim, Saewung; Brito, Joel; Wurm, Florian; Artaxo, Paulo; Thalman, Ryan; Wang, Jian; Yee, Lindsay D.; Wernis, Rebecca; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Goldstein, Allen H.; Liu, Yingjun; Springston, Stephen R.; Souza, Rodrigo; Newburn, Matt K.; Lizabeth Alexander, M.; Martin, Scot T.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2018-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from ambient air was studied using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) coupled to an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) during both the wet and dry seasons at the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign. Measurements were made at two sites downwind of the city of Manaus, Brazil. Ambient air was oxidized in the OFR using variable concentrations of either OH or O3, over ranges from hours to days (O3) or weeks (OH) of equivalent atmospheric aging. The amount of SOA formed in the OFR ranged from 0 to as much as 10 µg m-3, depending on the amount of SOA precursor gases in ambient air. Typically, more SOA was formed during nighttime than daytime, and more from OH than from O3 oxidation. SOA yields of individual organic precursors under OFR conditions were measured by standard addition into ambient air and were confirmed to be consistent with published environmental chamber-derived SOA yields. Positive matrix factorization of organic aerosol (OA) after OH oxidation showed formation of typical oxidized OA factors and a loss of primary OA factors as OH aging increased. After OH oxidation in the OFR, the hygroscopicity of the OA increased with increasing elemental O : C up to O : C ˜ 1.0, and then decreased as O : C increased further. Possible reasons for this decrease are discussed. The measured SOA formation was compared to the amount predicted from the concentrations of measured ambient SOA precursors and their SOA yields. While measured ambient precursors were sufficient to explain the amount of SOA formed from O3, they could only explain 10-50 % of the SOA formed from OH. This is consistent with previous OFR studies, which showed that typically unmeasured semivolatile and intermediate volatility gases (that tend to lack C = C bonds) are present in ambient air and can explain such additional SOA formation. To investigate the sources of the unmeasured SOA-forming gases during this campaign

  20. Secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient air in an oxidation flow reactor in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Palm

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from ambient air was studied using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR coupled to an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS during both the wet and dry seasons at the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5 field campaign. Measurements were made at two sites downwind of the city of Manaus, Brazil. Ambient air was oxidized in the OFR using variable concentrations of either OH or O3, over ranges from hours to days (O3 or weeks (OH of equivalent atmospheric aging. The amount of SOA formed in the OFR ranged from 0 to as much as 10 µg m−3, depending on the amount of SOA precursor gases in ambient air. Typically, more SOA was formed during nighttime than daytime, and more from OH than from O3 oxidation. SOA yields of individual organic precursors under OFR conditions were measured by standard addition into ambient air and were confirmed to be consistent with published environmental chamber-derived SOA yields. Positive matrix factorization of organic aerosol (OA after OH oxidation showed formation of typical oxidized OA factors and a loss of primary OA factors as OH aging increased. After OH oxidation in the OFR, the hygroscopicity of the OA increased with increasing elemental O : C up to O : C ∼ 1.0, and then decreased as O : C increased further. Possible reasons for this decrease are discussed. The measured SOA formation was compared to the amount predicted from the concentrations of measured ambient SOA precursors and their SOA yields. While measured ambient precursors were sufficient to explain the amount of SOA formed from O3, they could only explain 10–50 % of the SOA formed from OH. This is consistent with previous OFR studies, which showed that typically unmeasured semivolatile and intermediate volatility gases (that tend to lack C = C bonds are present in ambient air and can explain such additional SOA formation. To investigate the sources of the

  1. Structural formation of aluminide phases on titanium alloy during annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamaeva, A.A.; Romankov, S.E.; Sagdoldina, Zh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aluminum layer on the surface of titanium alloy has been formed by thermal deposition. The structural formation of aluminide phases on the surface has been studied. The sequence of structural transformations at the Ti/Al interface is limited by the reaction temperature and time. The sequence of aluminide phase formation is occurred in compliance with Ti-Al equilibrium phase diagram. At the initial stages at the Ti/Al interface the Al3Ti alloy starts forming as a result of interdiffusion, and gradually the whole aluminum films is spent on the formation of this layer. The Al3Ti layer decomposes with the increase of temperature (>600C). At 800C the two-phase (Ti3Al+TiAl) layer is formed on the titanium surface. The TiAl compound is unstable and later on with the increase of the exposure time at 800C gradually transforms into the Ti3Al. The chain of these successive transformations leads to the formation of the continuous homogeneous layer consisting of the Ti3Al compound on the surface. At temperatures exceeding the allotropic transformation temperature (>900C) the Ti3Al compound starts decomposing. All structural changes taking place at the Ti/Al interface are accompanied by considerable changes in micro hardness. The structure of initial substrate influences on kinetics of phase transformation and microstructure development. (author)

  2. Experimental formation enthalpies for intermetallic phases and other inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, George; Meschel, S. V.; Nash, Philip; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The standard enthalpy of formation of a compound is the energy associated with the reaction to form the compound from its component elements. The standard enthalpy of formation is a fundamental thermodynamic property that determines its phase stability, which can be coupled with other thermodynamic data to calculate phase diagrams. Calorimetry provides the only direct method by which the standard enthalpy of formation is experimentally measured. However, the measurement is often a time and energy intensive process. We present a dataset of enthalpies of formation measured by high-temperature calorimetry. The phases measured in this dataset include intermetallic compounds with transition metal and rare-earth elements, metal borides, metal carbides, and metallic silicides. These measurements were collected from over 50 years of calorimetric experiments. The dataset contains 1,276 entries on experimental enthalpy of formation values and structural information. Most of the entries are for binary compounds but ternary and quaternary compounds are being added as they become available. The dataset also contains predictions of enthalpy of formation from first-principles calculations for comparison. PMID:29064466

  3. High-aluminum-affinity silica is a nanoparticle that seeds secondary aluminosilicate formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravin Jugdaohsingh

    Full Text Available Despite the importance and abundance of aluminosilicates throughout our natural surroundings, their formation at neutral pH is, surprisingly, a matter of considerable debate. From our experiments in dilute aluminum and silica containing solutions (pH ~ 7 we previously identified a silica polymer with an extraordinarily high affinity for aluminium ions (high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer, HSP. Here, further characterization shows that HSP is a colloid of approximately 2.4 nm in diameter with a mean specific surface area of about 1,000 m(2 g(-1 and it competes effectively with transferrin for Al(III binding. Aluminum binding to HSP strongly inhibited its decomposition whilst the reaction rate constant for the formation of the β-silicomolybdic acid complex indicated a diameter between 3.6 and 4.1 nm for these aluminum-containing nanoparticles. Similarly, high resolution microscopic analysis of the air dried aluminum-containing silica colloid solution revealed 3.9 ± 1.3 nm sized crystalline Al-rich silica nanoparticles (ASP with an estimated Al:Si ratio of between 2 and 3 which is close to the range of secondary aluminosilicates such as imogolite. Thus the high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer is a nanoparticle that seeds early aluminosilicate formation through highly competitive binding of Al(III ions. In niche environments, especially in vivo, this may serve as an alternative mechanism to polyhydroxy Al(III species binding monomeric silica to form early phase, non-toxic aluminosilicates.

  4. High-Aluminum-Affinity Silica Is a Nanoparticle That Seeds Secondary Aluminosilicate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Brown, Andy; Dietzel, Martin; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance and abundance of aluminosilicates throughout our natural surroundings, their formation at neutral pH is, surprisingly, a matter of considerable debate. From our experiments in dilute aluminum and silica containing solutions (pH ~ 7) we previously identified a silica polymer with an extraordinarily high affinity for aluminium ions (high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer, HSP). Here, further characterization shows that HSP is a colloid of approximately 2.4 nm in diameter with a mean specific surface area of about 1,000 m2 g-1 and it competes effectively with transferrin for Al(III) binding. Aluminum binding to HSP strongly inhibited its decomposition whilst the reaction rate constant for the formation of the β-silicomolybdic acid complex indicated a diameter between 3.6 and 4.1 nm for these aluminum-containing nanoparticles. Similarly, high resolution microscopic analysis of the air dried aluminum-containing silica colloid solution revealed 3.9 ± 1.3 nm sized crystalline Al-rich silica nanoparticles (ASP) with an estimated Al:Si ratio of between 2 and 3 which is close to the range of secondary aluminosilicates such as imogolite. Thus the high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer is a nanoparticle that seeds early aluminosilicate formation through highly competitive binding of Al(III) ions. In niche environments, especially in vivo, this may serve as an alternative mechanism to polyhydroxy Al(III) species binding monomeric silica to form early phase, non-toxic aluminosilicates. PMID:24349573

  5. Phase coexistence in ferroelectric solid solutions: Formation of monoclinic phase with enhanced piezoelectricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase morphology and corresponding piezoelectricity in ferroelectric solid solutions were studied by using a phenomenological theory with the consideration of phase coexistence. Results have shown that phases with similar energy potentials can coexist, thus induce interfacial stresses which lead to the formation of adaptive monoclinic phases. A new tetragonal-like monoclinic to rhombohedral-like monoclinic phase transition was predicted in a shear stress state. Enhanced piezoelectricity can be achieved by manipulating the stress state close to a critical stress field. Phase coexistence is universal in ferroelectric solid solutions and may provide a way to optimize ultra-fine structures and proper stress states to achieve ultrahigh piezoelectricity.

  6. Evaporation kinetics and phase of laboratory and ambient secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, Timothy D.; Imre, Dan; Beránek, Josef; Shrivastava, Manish; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-01-01

    Field measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) find significantly higher mass loads than predicted by models, sparking intense effort focused on finding additional SOA sources but leaving the fundamental assumptions used by models unchallenged. Current air-quality models use absorptive partitioning theory assuming SOA particles are liquid droplets, forming instantaneous reversible equilibrium with gas phase. Further, they ignore the effects of adsorption of spectator organic species during SOA formation on SOA properties and fate. Using accurate and highly sensitive experimental approach for studying evaporation kinetics of size-selected single SOA particles, we characterized room-temperature evaporation kinetics of laboratory-generated α-pinene SOA and ambient atmospheric SOA. We found that even when gas phase organics are removed, it takes ∼24 h for pure α-pinene SOA particles to evaporate 75% of their mass, which is in sharp contrast to the ∼10 min time scale predicted by current kinetic models. Adsorption of “spectator” organic vapors during SOA formation, and aging of these coated SOA particles, dramatically reduced the evaporation rate, and in some cases nearly stopped it. Ambient SOA was found to exhibit evaporation behavior very similar to that of laboratory-generated coated and aged SOA. For all cases studied in this work, SOA evaporation behavior is nearly size-independent and does not follow the evaporation kinetics of liquid droplets, in sharp contrast with model assumptions. The findings about SOA phase, evaporation rates, and the importance of spectator gases and aging all indicate that there is need to reformulate the way SOA formation and evaporation are treated by models. PMID:21262848

  7. Size distribution dynamics reveal particle-phase chemistry in organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Yee, Lindsay D.; Schilling, Katherine A.; Loza, Christine L.; Craven, Jill S.; Zuend, Andreas; Ziemann, Paul J.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a central role in climate, air quality, and public health. The aerosol size distribution is key in determining its optical properties and cloud condensation nucleus activity. The dominant portion of organic aerosol is formed through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, so-called secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Typical experimental measurements of SOA formation include total SOA mass and atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. These measurements, alone, are generally insufficient to reveal the extent to which condensed-phase reactions occur in conjunction with the multigeneration gas-phase photooxidation. Combining laboratory chamber experiments and kinetic gas-particle modeling for the dodecane SOA system, here we show that the presence of particle-phase chemistry is reflected in the evolution of the SOA size distribution as well as its mass concentration. Particle-phase reactions are predicted to occur mainly at the particle surface, and the reaction products contribute more than half of the SOA mass. Chamber photooxidation with a midexperiment aldehyde injection confirms that heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes with organic hydroperoxides forming peroxyhemiacetals can lead to a large increase in SOA mass. Although experiments need to be conducted with other SOA precursor hydrocarbons, current results demonstrate coupling between particle-phase chemistry and size distribution dynamics in the formation of SOAs, thereby opening up an avenue for analysis of the SOA formation process. PMID:23818634

  8. Size distribution dynamics reveal particle-phase chemistry in organic aerosol formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Yee, Lindsay D; Schilling, Katherine A; Loza, Christine L; Craven, Jill S; Zuend, Andreas; Ziemann, Paul J; Seinfeld, John H

    2013-07-16

    Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a central role in climate, air quality, and public health. The aerosol size distribution is key in determining its optical properties and cloud condensation nucleus activity. The dominant portion of organic aerosol is formed through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, so-called secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Typical experimental measurements of SOA formation include total SOA mass and atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. These measurements, alone, are generally insufficient to reveal the extent to which condensed-phase reactions occur in conjunction with the multigeneration gas-phase photooxidation. Combining laboratory chamber experiments and kinetic gas-particle modeling for the dodecane SOA system, here we show that the presence of particle-phase chemistry is reflected in the evolution of the SOA size distribution as well as its mass concentration. Particle-phase reactions are predicted to occur mainly at the particle surface, and the reaction products contribute more than half of the SOA mass. Chamber photooxidation with a midexperiment aldehyde injection confirms that heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes with organic hydroperoxides forming peroxyhemiacetals can lead to a large increase in SOA mass. Although experiments need to be conducted with other SOA precursor hydrocarbons, current results demonstrate coupling between particle-phase chemistry and size distribution dynamics in the formation of SOAs, thereby opening up an avenue for analysis of the SOA formation process.

  9. Primary and secondary organic aerosol origin by combined gas-particle phase source apportionment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crippa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA, a prominent fraction of particulate organic mass (OA, remains poorly constrained. Its formation involves several unknown precursors, formation and evolution pathways and multiple natural and anthropogenic sources. Here a combined gas-particle phase source apportionment is applied to wintertime and summertime data collected in the megacity of Paris in order to investigate SOA origin during both seasons. This was possible by combining the information provided by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS. A better constrained apportionment of primary OA (POA sources is also achieved using this methodology, making use of gas-phase tracers. These tracers made possible the discrimination between biogenic and continental/anthropogenic sources of SOA. We found that continental SOA was dominant during both seasons (24–50% of total OA, while contributions from photochemistry-driven SOA (9% of total OA and marine emissions (13% of total OA were also observed during summertime. A semi-volatile nighttime component was also identified (up to 18% of total OA during wintertime. This approach was successfully applied here and implemented in a new source apportionment toolkit.

  10. Investigation of the phase formation from nickel coated nanostructured silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilyaeva, Yulia I.; Pyatilova, Olga V.; Berezkina, Alexandra Yu.; Sysa, Artem V.; Dudin, Alexander A.; Smirnov, Dmitry I.; Gavrilov, Sergey A.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the influence of the conditions of chemical and electrochemical nickel plating of nanostructured silicon and subsequent heat treatment on the phase composition of Si/Ni structures with advanced interface is studied. Nanostructured silicon formed by chemical and electrochemical etching was used for the formation of a developed interphase surface. The resulting Si/Ni samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray phase analysis. The experiments have revealed the differences in phase composition of the Si/Ni structures obtained by different methods, both before and after heat treatment.

  11. First-principles surface interaction studies of aluminum-copper and aluminum-copper-magnesium secondary phases in aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thiago H.; Nelson, Eric B.; Williamson, Izaak; Efaw, Corey M.; Sapper, Erik; Hurley, Michael F.; Li, Lan

    2018-05-01

    First-principles density functional theory-based calculations were performed to study θ-phase Al2Cu, S-phase Al2CuMg surface stability, as well as their interactions with water molecules and chloride (Cl-) ions. These secondary phases are commonly found in aluminum-based alloys and are initiation points for localized corrosion. Density functional theory (DFT)-based simulations provide insight into the origins of localized (pitting) corrosion processes of aluminum-based alloys. For both phases studied, Cl- ions cause atomic distortions on the surface layers. The nature of the distortions could be a factor to weaken the interlayer bonds in the Al2Cu and Al2CuMg secondary phases, facilitating the corrosion process. Electronic structure calculations revealed not only electron charge transfer from Cl- ions to alloy surface but also electron sharing, suggesting ionic and covalent bonding features, respectively. The S-phase Al2CuMg structure has a more active surface than the θ-phase Al2Cu. We also found a higher tendency of formation of new species, such as Al3+, Al(OH)2+, HCl, AlCl2+, Al(OH)Cl+, and Cl2 on the S-phase Al2CuMg surface. Surface chemical reactions and resultant species present contribute to establishment of local surface chemistry that influences the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys.

  12. Growth Law For Peritectic Phases Formation In The Zinc Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzik E.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Some experiments dealing with the isothermal hot dip galvanizing were carried out. The (Zn – coating settled on the Armco-iron substrate were examined after arresting the solidification for different periods of time. The measurement of the thickness of each sub-layer in the coating were performed due to the SEM – analysis. The zinc segregation on the cross-section of the studied sub-layers were also determined by the EDS technique. The growth laws are formulated mathematically for each of the observed sub-layer. The mechanism of the sub-layer formation is also analysed due to the observation of the birth/nucleation of the phases in the sub-layers and the effect of flux onto the sub-layers morphology formation. The appearance of each phase is referred to the Fe-Zn diagram for stable equilibrium according to which these phases are the products of the adequate peritectic transformation.

  13. The Gas-Phase Formation of Methyl Formate in Hot Molecular Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Anne; Møllendal, Harald; Sekiguchi, Osamu; Uggerud, Einar; Roberts, Helen; Herbst, Eric; Viggiano, A. A.; Fridgen, Travis D.

    2004-08-01

    Methyl formate, HCOOCH3, is a well-known interstellar molecule prominent in the spectra of hot molecular cores. The current view of its formation is that it occurs in the gas phase from precursor methanol, which is synthesized on the surfaces of grain mantles during a previous colder era and evaporates while temperatures increase during the process of high-mass star formation. The specific reaction sequence thought to form methyl formate, the ion-molecule reaction between protonated methanol and formaldehyde followed by dissociative recombination of the protonated ion [HCO(H)OCH3]+, has not been studied in detail in the laboratory. We present here the results of both a quantum chemical study of the ion-molecule reaction between [CH3OH2]+ and H2CO as well as new experimental work on the system. In addition, we report theoretical and experimental studies for a variety of other possible gas-phase reactions leading to ion precursors of methyl formate. The studied chemical processes leading to methyl formate are included in a chemical model of hot cores. Our results show that none of these gas-phase processes produces enough methyl formate to explain its observed abundance.

  14. Structural control of void formation in dual phase steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azuma, Masafumi

    The objective of this study is to explore the void formation mechanisms and to clarify the influence of the hardness and structural parameters (volume fraction, size and morphology) of martensite particles on the void formation and mechanical properties in dual phase steels composed of ferrite...... and (iii) strain localization. The critical strain for void formation depends on hardness of the martensite, but is independent of the volume fraction, shape, size and distribution of the martensite. The strain partitioning between the martensite and ferrite depends on the volume fraction and hardness...... of the martensite accelerates the void formation in the martensite by enlarging the size of voids both in the martensite and ferrite. It is suggested that controlling the hardness and structural parameters associated with the martensite particles such as morphology, size and volume fraction are the essential...

  15. Magnesium nitride phase formation by means of ion beam implantation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeche, Daniel; Blawert, Carsten; Cavellier, Matthieu; Busardo, Denis; Gloriant, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen implantation technique (Hardion + ) has been applied in order to modify the surface properties of magnesium and Mg-based alloys (AM50, AZ31). Nitrogen ions with an energy of approximately 100 keV were used to form the Mg 3 N 2 phase leading to improved surface properties. The samples were investigated using various characterization methods. Mechanical properties have been tested by means of nanoindention, the electrochemical behavior was measured by potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy, phase formation by using grazing incidence Xray diffraction, the chemical state was determined by means of Xray induced photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and depth profiling by using secondary ions mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Additionally, the results were compared to calculated depth profiles using SRIM2008. The correlation of the results shows the nitride formation behavior to a depth of about 600 nm.

  16. Secondary phases formed during nuclear waste glass-water interactions: Thermodynamic and derived properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, W.F.

    1992-08-01

    The thermodynamic properties of secondary phases observed to form during nuclear waste glass-water interactions are of particular interest as it is with the application of these properties together with the thermodynamic properties of other solid phases, fluid phases, and aqueous species that one may predict the environmental consequences of introducing radionuclides contained in the glass into groundwater at a high-level nuclear waste repository. The validation of these predicted consequences can be obtained from laboratory experiments and field observations at natural analogue sites. The purpose of this report is to update and expand the previous compilation (McKenzie, 1991) of thermodynamic data retrieved from the literature and/or estimated for secondary phases observed to form (and candidate phases from observed chemical compositions) during nuclear waste glass-water interactions. In addition, this report includes provisionally recommended thermodynamic data of secondary phases

  17. Plasma Control of Turbine Secondary Flows, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose Phase I and II efforts that will focus on turbomachinery flow control. Specifically, the present work will investigate active control in a high speed...

  18. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and phase transition of viscous α-pinene secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatius, Karoliina; Kristensen, Thomas B.; Järvinen, Emma; Nichman, Leonid; Fuchs, Claudia; Gordon, Hamish; Herenz, Paul; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Duplissy, Jonathan; Baltensperger, Urs; Curtius, Joachim; Donahue, Neil M.; Gallagher, Martin W.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Virtanen, Annele; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-04-01

    There are strong indications that particles containing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) exhibit amorphous solid or semi-solid phase states in the atmosphere. This may facilitate deposition ice nucleation and thus influence cirrus cloud properties. Global model simulations of monoterpene SOA particles suggest that viscous biogenic SOA are indeed present in regions where cirrus cloud formation takes place. Hence, they could make up an important contribution to the global ice nucleating particle (INP) budget. However, experimental ice nucleation studies of biogenic SOA are scarce. Here, we investigated the ice nucleation ability of viscous SOA particles at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) experiment at CERN (Ignatius et al., 2015, Järvinen et al., 2015). In the CLOUD chamber, the SOA particles were produced from the ozone initiated oxidation of α-pinene at temperatures in the range from -38 to -10° C at 5-15 % relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) to ensure their formation in a highly viscous phase state, i.e. semi-solid or glassy. We found that particles formed and grown in the chamber developed an asymmetric shape through coagulation. As the RHw was increased to between 35 % at -10° C and 80 % at -38° C, a transition to spherical shape was observed with a new in-situ optical method. This transition confirms previous modelling of the viscosity transition conditions. The ice nucleation ability of SOA particles was investigated with a new continuous flow diffusion chamber SPIN (Spectrometer for Ice Nuclei) for different SOA particle sizes. For the first time, we observed heterogeneous ice nucleation of viscous α-pinene SOA in the deposition mode for ice saturation ratios between 1.3 and 1.4, significantly below the homogeneous freezing limit. The maximum frozen fractions found at temperatures between -36.5 and -38.3° C ranged from 6 to 20 % and did not depend on the particle surface area. References Ignatius, K. et al., Heterogeneous ice

  19. Effect of cerium additive and secondary phase analysis on Ag0.5Bi0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Madrid 28012, Spain. MS received 27 ... XRD analysis showed the presence of pyrochlore structure and secondary phase when more .... The present work reports the effect of incorporation of cerium in ...

  20. Relation between secondary doping and phase separation in PEDOT:PSS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoval, Martin; Micjan, Michal; Novota, Miroslav; Nevrela, Juraj; Kovacova, Sona; Pavuk, Milan; Juhasz, Peter; Jagelka, Martin; Kovac, Jaroslav; Jakabovic, Jan [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia); Cigan, Marek [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Science, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina CH-2, Ilkovicova 6, Bratislava 84215 (Slovakia); Weis, Martin, E-mail: martin.weis@stuba.sk [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Surface morphology of highly conductive polymer was investigated. • Phase separation due to secondary doping is an origin of conductivity enhancement. • Phase separation is not dependent on secondary dopant type. - Abstract: Conductive copolymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been proposed as an alternative to transparent conductive oxides because of its flexibility, transparency, and low-cost production. Four different secondary dopants, namely N,N-dimethylformamide, ethyleneglycol, sorbitol, and dimethyl sulfoxide, have been used to improve the conductivity. The relation between the structure changes and conductivity enhancement is studied in detail. Atomic force microscopy study of the thin film surface reveals the phase separation of PEDOT and PSS. We demonstrate that secondary doping induces the phase separation as well as the conductivity enhancement.

  1. In vitro induction of tuber formation for the synthesis of secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro induction of tuber formation for the synthesis of secondary metabolites in Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. Gulab S Thakur, Rohit Sharma, Bhagwan S Sanodiya, Rakesh Baghel, Radhika Thakur, Bansh N Singh, Ashish Savita, Avinash Dubey, Latasha Sikarwar, Pallavi Jaiswal, Gunja Khatri, GBKS ...

  2. Investigation of a Particle into Liquid Sampler to Study the Formation & Ageing of Secondary Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, K. L.; Hamilton, J. F.; Rickard, A. R.; Bloss, W. J.; Alam, M. S.; Camredon, M.; Munoz, A.; Vazquez, M.; Rodenas, M.; Vera, T.; Borrás, E.

    2012-12-01

    The atmospheric oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the presence of NOx results in the formation of tropospheric ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) [Hallquist et al., 2009]. Whilst SOA is known to affect both climate and human health, the VOC oxidation pathways leading to SOA formation are poorly understood [Solomon et al., 2007]. This is in part due to the vast number and the low concentration of SOA species present in the ambient atmosphere. It has been estimated as many as 10,000 to 100,000 VOCs have been detected in the atmosphere, all of which can undergo photo-chemical oxidation and contribute to SOA formation [Goldstein and Galbally, 2007]. Atmospheric simulation chambers such as the EUropean PHOtoREactor (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain, are often used to study SOA formation from a single VOC precursor under controlled conditions. SOA composition and formation can be studied using online techniques such as Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS), which provide high time resolution but limited structural information [Zhang et al., 2007]. Offline techniques, such as collection onto filters, extraction and subsequent analysis, provide detailed SOA composition but only usually one or two samples per experiment. In this work we report time resolved SOA composition analysis using a Particle into Liquid Sampler (PILS) followed by Liquid Chromatography Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometry (LC-IT-MS/MS) and Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICR-MS/MS). Experiments were performed at EUPHORE investigating the formation and composition of Methyl Chavicol SOA. Methyl Chavicol (also known as Estragole) was identified as the highest floral emission from an oil palm plantation in Malaysian Borneo and has also been observed in US pine forests [Bouvier-Brown et al., 2009; Misztal et al., 2010]. Previous studies indicate a high SOA yield from Methyl Chavicol at around 40 % [Lee et al., 2006], however currently there have been very few literature

  3. A new oxidation flow reactor for measuring secondary aerosol formation of rapidly changing emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonen, Pauli; Saukko, Erkka; Karjalainen, Panu; Timonen, Hilkka; Bloss, Matthew; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka

    2017-04-01

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) or environmental chambers can be used to estimate secondary aerosol formation potential of different emission sources. Emissions from anthropogenic sources, such as vehicles, often vary on short timescales. For example, to identify the vehicle driving conditions that lead to high potential secondary aerosol emissions, rapid oxidation of exhaust is needed. However, the residence times in environmental chambers and in most oxidation flow reactors are too long to study these transient effects ( ˜ 100 s in flow reactors and several hours in environmental chambers). Here, we present a new oxidation flow reactor, TSAR (TUT Secondary Aerosol Reactor), which has a short residence time ( ˜ 40 s) and near-laminar flow conditions. These improvements are achieved by reducing the reactor radius and volume. This allows studying, for example, the effect of vehicle driving conditions on the secondary aerosol formation potential of the exhaust. We show that the flow pattern in TSAR is nearly laminar and particle losses are negligible. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced in TSAR has a similar mass spectrum to the SOA produced in the state-of-the-art reactor, PAM (potential aerosol mass). Both reactors produce the same amount of mass, but TSAR has a higher time resolution. We also show that TSAR is capable of measuring the secondary aerosol formation potential of a vehicle during a transient driving cycle and that the fast response of TSAR reveals how different driving conditions affect the amount of formed secondary aerosol. Thus, TSAR can be used to study rapidly changing emission sources, especially the vehicular emissions during transient driving.

  4. Gas phase precursors to anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol: detailed observations of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene photooxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Wyche

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of photooxidation experiments were conducted in an atmospheric simulation chamber in order to investigate the oxidation mechanism and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation potential of the model anthropogenic gas phase precursor, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. Alongside specific aerosol measurements, comprehensive gas phase measurements, primarily by Chemical Ionisation Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (CIR-TOF-MS, were carried out to provide detailed insight into the composition and behaviour of the organic components of the gas phase matrix during SOA formation. An array of gas phase organic compounds was measured during the oxidation process, including several previously unmeasured primary bicyclic compounds possessing various functional groups. Analysis of results obtained during this study implies that these peroxide bicyclic species along with a series of ring opening products and organic acids contribute to SOA growth. The effect of varying the VOC/NOx ratio on SOA formation was explored, as was the effect of acid seeding. It was found that low NOx conditions favour more rapid aerosol formation and a higher aerosol yield, a result that implies a role for organic peroxides in the nucleation process and SOA growth.

  5. Simulating the Phases of the Moon Shortly after Its Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordeh, Emil; Hall, Patrick; Cuk, Matija

    2014-01-01

    The leading theory for the origin of the Moon is the giant impact hypothesis, in which the Moon was formed out of the debris left over from the collision of a Mars sized body with the Earth. Soon after its formation, the orbit of the Moon may have been very different than it is today. We have simulated the phases of the Moon in a model for its…

  6. Time-resolved analysis of primary volatile emissions and secondary aerosol formation potential from a small-scale pellet boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Hendryk; Pieber, Simone M.; Tiitta, Petri; Sippula, Olli; Kortelainen, Miika; Lamberg, Heikki; Grigonyte, Julija; Streibel, Thorsten; Prévôt, André S. H.; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    Small-scale pellet boilers and stoves became popular as a wood combustion appliance for domestic heating in Europe, North America and Asia due to economic and environmental aspects. Therefore, an increasing contribution of pellet boilers to air pollution is expected despite their general high combustion efficiency. As emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and permanent gases of pellet boilers are well investigated, the scope of this study was to investigate the volatile organic emissions and the formation potential of secondary aerosols for this type of appliance. Fresh and aged emissions were analysed by a soot-particle aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SP-AMS) and the molecular composition of the volatile precursors with single-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) at different pellet boiler operation conditions. Organic emissions in the gas phase were dominated by unsaturated hydrocarbons while wood-specific VOCs, e.g. phenolic species or substituted furans, were only detected during the starting phase. Furthermore, organic emissions in the gas phase were found to correlate with fuel grade and combustion technology in terms of secondary air supply. Secondary organic aerosols of optimised pellet boiler conditions (OPT, state-of-the-art combustion appliance) and reduced secondary air supply (RSA, used as a proxy for pellet boilers of older type) were studied by simulating atmospheric ageing in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor. Different increases in OA mass (55% for OPT, 102% for RSA), associated with higher average carbon oxidation state and O:C, could be observed in a PAM chamber experiment. Finally, it was found that derived SOA yields and emission factors were distinctly lower than reported for log wood stoves.

  7. Effect of solid phase on the selectivity of alkyl radical formation by gamma-irradiation of branched alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Hitoshi; Hashino, Masatoshi; Ichikawa, Tsuneki; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    ESR and electron spin echo measurements of alkyl radicals generated by γ-irradiation of glassy and crystalline branched alkanes C 10 ∼ C 13 have been carried out to elucidate the effect of molecular structure and solid phase on the selectivity of alkyl radical formation. Alkyl radicals generated and stabilized at 77 K in the glassy alkanes are secondary penultimate radicals. Tertiary radicals and secondary radicals other than the penultimate one are not generated either by hydrogen abstraction or from ionized or excited molecules. In the crystalline alkanes, however, a small amount of secondary internal radicals are generated in addition to the predominant formation of the secondary penultimate radicals. It is concluded that the detachment of C-H hydrogen preferentially takes place at the location where the motion of carbon atoms assisting the detachment of the C-H hydrogen easily occurs. (author)

  8. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high- vs. low-yield pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Henze

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitric oxide (NO or hydroperoxy radical (HO2 to yield semi- or non-volatile products, respectively. Aromatic species yield more SOA when they react with OH in regions where the [NO]/[HO2] ratios are lower. The SOA yield thus depends upon the distribution of aromatic emissions, with biomass burning emissions being in areas with lower [NO]/[HO2] ratios, and the reactivity of the aromatic with respect to OH, as a lower initial reactivity allows transport away from industrial source regions, where [NO]/[HO2] ratios are higher, to more remote regions, where this ratio is lower and, hence, the ultimate yield of SOA is higher. As a result, benzene is estimated to be the most important aromatic species with regards to global formation of SOA, with a total production nearly equal that of toluene and xylene combined. Global production of SOA from aromatic sources via the mechanisms identified here is estimated at 3.5 Tg/yr, resulting in a global burden of 0.08 Tg, twice as large as previous estimates. The contribution of these largely anthropogenic sources to global SOA is still small relative to biogenic sources, which are estimated to comprise 90% of the global SOA burden, about half of which comes from isoprene. Uncertainty in these estimates owing to factors ranging from the atmospheric relevance of chamber conditions to model deficiencies result in an estimated range of SOA production from aromatics of 2–12 Tg/yr. Though this uncertainty range affords a significant anthropogenic contribution to global SOA, it is evident from comparisons to recent observations that additional pathways for

  9. Kinetics, Mechanism, and Secondary Organic Aerosol Yield of Aqueous Phase Photo-oxidation of α-Pinene Oxidation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljawhary, Dana; Zhao, Ran; Lee, Alex K Y; Wang, Chen; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2016-03-10

    Formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) involves atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the majority of which are emitted from biogenic sources. Oxidation can occur not only in the gas-phase but also in atmospheric aqueous phases such as cloudwater and aerosol liquid water. This study explores for the first time the aqueous-phase OH oxidation chemistry of oxidation products of α-pinene, a major biogenic VOC species emitted to the atmosphere. The kinetics, reaction mechanisms, and formation of SOA compounds in the aqueous phase of two model compounds, cis-pinonic acid (PIN) and tricarballylic acid (TCA), were investigated in the laboratory; TCA was used as a surrogate for 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA), a known α-pinene oxidation product. Aerosol time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (Aerosol-ToF-CIMS) was used to follow the kinetics and reaction mechanisms at the molecular level. Room-temperature second-order rate constants of PIN and TCA were determined to be 3.3 (± 0.5) × 10(9) and 3.1 (± 0.2) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, from which were estimated their condensed-phase atmospheric lifetimes. Aerosol-ToF-CIMS detected a large number of products leading to detailed reaction mechanisms for PIN and MBTCA. By monitoring the particle size distribution after drying, the amount of SOA material remaining in the particle phase was determined. An aqueous SOA yield of 40 to 60% was determined for PIN OH oxidation. Although recent laboratory studies have focused primarily on aqueous-phase processing of isoprene-related compounds, we demonstrate that aqueous formation of SOA materials also occurs from monoterpene oxidation products, thus representing an additional source of biogenically driven aerosol formation.

  10. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki eYoshida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications.

  11. Anthropogenic Influence on Secondary Aerosol Formation and Total Water-Soluble Carbon on Atmospheric Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioda, Adriana; Mateus, Vinicius; Monteiro, Isabela; Taira, Fabio; Esteves, Veronica; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana

    2013-04-01

    On a global scale, the atmosphere is an important source of nutrients, as well as pollutants, because of its interfaces with soil and water. Important compounds in the gaseous phase are in both organic and inorganic forms, such as organic acids, nitrogen, sulfur and chloride. In spite of the species in gas form, a huge number of process, anthropogenic and natural, are able to form aerosols, which may be transported over long distances. Sulfates e nitrates are responsible for rain acidity; they may also increase the solubility of organic compounds and metals making them more bioavailable, and also can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Aerosol samples (PM2.5) were collected in a rural and industrial area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to quantify chemical species and evaluate anthropogenic influences in secondary aerosol formation and organic compounds. Samples were collected during 24 h every six days using a high-volume sampler from August 2010 to July 2011. The aerosol mass was determined by Gravimetry. The water-soluble ionic composition (WSIC) was obtained by Ion Chromatography in order to determine the major anions (NO3-, SO4= and Cl-); total water-soluble carbon (TWSC) was determined by a TOC analyzer. The average aerosol (PM2.5) concentrations ranged from 1 to 43 ug/m3 in the industrial site and from 4 to 35 ug/m3 in the rural area. Regarding anions, the highest concentrations were measured for SO42- (10.6 μg/m3-12.6 μg/m3); where the lowest value was found in the rural site and the highest in the industrial. The concentrations for NO3- and Cl- ranged from 4.2 μg/m3 to 9.3 μg/m3 and 3.1 μg/m3 to 6.4 μg /m3, respectively. Sulfate was the major species and, like nitrate, it is related to photooxidation in the atmosphere. Interestingly sulfate concentrations were higher during the dry period and could be related to photochemistry activity. The correlations between nitrate and non-sea-salt sulfate were weak, suggesting different sources for these

  12. Laws of phase formation in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazdaev, H.R.; Abylkhalykova, R.B.; Skakov, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Main laws of ordered structures formation at molybdenum implantation by elements forming phases of introduction (B, C, N, 0, Si, P, S) are discovered in this work. According to them the character of structural and phase transformations in molybdenum at ion implantation is determined not by kinetic parameters of bombarding particles and their chemical activity but by size factor η x/Me (ratio of nuclear radii of introduced elements and atoms of a matrix). At change of its meaning in the certain limits the following can be observed: superstructures formation (η x/Mo x/Mo x/Mo >0.69). In the latter case at the further implantation doze increasing recrystallization of molybdenum monocrystalline layers amorphized during previous bombarding with chemical connection formation takes place, characterized by us as ion-inducted synthesis. The phenomenon discovered on the samples implanted by phosphorus ions. As the result, the high-temperature phase of molybdenum monophosphide MoP having densely situated lattice was synthesized. The complete confirmation of the main laws of structural and phased transformations at ion implantation established by results on molybdenum monocrystals with OCC lattice was achieved at realization of similar researches on the other transitive metal - zirconium which differs from molybdenum according to a number of attributes: a type of an initial lattice structural condition (large scaled polycrystal), presence of interparticle borders and high solubility of atmospheric impurities (nitrogen, carbon, oxygen). The discovered laws have proved to be true also according to ion implanted samples of monocrystal tungsten and polycrystal tantalum

  13. Influence of second phase dispersion on void formation during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararaman, M.; Banerjee, S.; Krishnan, R.

    Irradiation-induced void formation in alloys has been found to be strongly influenced by the microstructure, the important microstructural parameters being the dislocation density and the nature, density and distribution of second-phase precipitates. The effects of various types of precipitates on void swelling have been examined using the generally-accepted model of void formation : void embryos are assumed to grow in a situation where equal numbers of vacancies and interstitials are continuously generated by the incident irradiation, the interstitials being somewhat perferentially absorbed in some sinks present in the material. The mechanism of the trapping of defects by a distribution of precipitates has been discussed and the available experimental results on the suppression of void formation in materials containing coherent precipitates have been reviewed. Experimental results on the microstructure developed in a nickel-base alloys, Inconel-718 (considered to be a candidate material for structural applications in fast reactors), have been presented. The method of determination of the coherency strain associated with the precipitates has been illustrated with the help of certain observations made on this alloy. The major difficulty in using a two-phase alloy in an irradiation environment is associated with the irradiation-induced instability of the precipitates. Several processes such as precipitate dislocation (in which the incident radiation removes the outer layer of precipitates by recoil), enhanced diffusion disordering, fragmentation of precipitates, etc. are responsible for bringinq about a significant change in the structure of a two-phase material during irradiation. The effect of these processes on the continued performance of a two-phase alloy subjected to irradiation at an elevated temperature has been discussed. (auth.)

  14. Modelling the formation and composition of secondary organic aerosol from α- and β-pinene ozonolysis using MCM v3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Jenkin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation and detailed composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA from the gas phase ozonolysis of α- and β-pinene has been simulated using the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3 (MCM v3, coupled with a representation of gas-to-aerosol transfer of semivolatile and involatile oxygenated products. A kinetics representation, based on equilibrium absorptive partitioning of ca. 200 semivolatile products, was found to provide an acceptable description of the final mass concentrations observed in a number of reported laboratory and chamber experiments, provided partitioning coefficients were increased by about two orders of magnitude over those defined on the basis of estimated vapour pressures. This adjustment is believed to be due, at least partially, to the effect of condensed phase association reactions of the partitioning products. Even with this adjustment, the simulated initial formation of SOA was delayed relative to that observed, implying the requirement for the formation of species of much lower volatility to initiate SOA formation. The inclusion of a simplified representation of the formation and gas-to-aerosol transfer of involatile dimers of 22 bi- and multifunctional carboxylic acids (in addition to the absorptive partitioning mechanism allowed a much improved description of SOA formation for a wide range of conditions. The simulated SOA composition recreates certain features of the product distributions observed in a number of experimental studies, but implies an important role for multifunctional products containing hydroperoxy groups (i.e. hydroperoxides. This is particularly the case for experiments in which 2-butanol is used to scavenge OH radicals, because [HO2]/[RO2] ratios are elevated in such systems. The optimized mechanism is used to calculate SOA yields from α- and β-pinene ozonolysis in the presence and absence of OH scavengers, and as a function of temperature.

  15. Variability in the primary emissions and secondary gas and particle formation from vehicles using bioethanol mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramsch, E; Papapostolou, V; Reyes, F; Vásquez, Y; Castillo, M; Oyola, P; López, G; Cádiz, A; Ferguson, S; Wolfson, M; Lawrence, J; Koutrakis, P

    2018-04-01

    Bioethanol for use in vehicles is becoming a substantial part of global energy infrastructure because it is renewable and some emissions are reduced. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and total hydrocarbons (THC) are reduced, but there is still controversy regarding emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), aldehydes, and ethanol; this may be a concern because all these compounds are precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The amount of emissions depends on the ethanol content, but it also may depend on the engine quality and ethanol origin. Thus, a photochemical chamber was used to study secondary gas and aerosol formation from two flex-fueled vehicles using different ethanol blends in gasoline. One vehicle and the fuel used were made in the United States, and the others were made in Brazil. Primary emissions of THC, CO, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from both vehicles decreased as the amount of ethanol in gasoline increased. NO x emissions in the U.S. and Brazilian cars decreased with ethanol content. However, emissions of THC, CO, and NO x from the Brazilian car were markedly higher than those from the U.S. car, showing high variability between vehicle technologies. In the Brazilian car, formation of secondary nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) was lower for higher ethanol content in the fuel. In the U.S. car, NO 2 and O 3 had a small increase. Secondary particle (particulate matter [PM]) formation in the chamber decreased for both vehicles as the fraction of ethanol in fuel increased, consistent with previous studies. Secondary to primary PM ratios for pure gasoline is 11, also consistent with previous studies. In addition, the time required to form secondary PM is longer for higher ethanol blends. These results indicate that using higher ethanol blends may have a positive impact on air quality. The use of bioethanol can significantly reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Given the extent of

  16. Secondary aerosol formation from photochemical aging of aircraft exhaust in a smog chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Miracolo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were performed to investigate the effects of photo-oxidation on fine particle emissions from an in-use CFM56-2B gas turbine engine mounted on a KC-135 Stratotanker airframe. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber from a rake inlet installed one-meter downstream of the engine exit plane of a parked and chocked aircraft. The chamber was then exposed to sunlight and/or UV lights to initiate photo-oxidation. Separate tests were performed at different engine loads (4, 7, 30, 85 %. Photo-oxidation created substantial secondary particulate matter (PM, greatly exceeding the direct PM emissions at each engine load after an hour or less of aging at typical summertime conditions. After several hours of photo-oxidation, the ratio of secondary-to-primary PM mass was on average 35 ± 4.1, 17 ± 2.5, 60 ± 2.2, and 2.7 ± 1.1 for the 4, 7, 30, and 85 % load experiments, respectively. The composition of secondary PM formed strongly depended on load. At 4 % load, secondary PM was dominated by secondary organic aerosol (SOA. At higher loads, the secondary PM was mainly secondary sulfate. A traditional SOA model that accounts for SOA formation from single-ring aromatics and other volatile organic compounds underpredicts the measured SOA formation by ~60 % at 4 % load and ~40 % at 85 % load. Large amounts of lower-volatiliy organic vapors were measured in the exhaust; they represent a significant pool of SOA precursors that are not included in traditional SOA models. These results underscore the importance of accounting for atmospheric processing when assessing the influence of aircraft emissions on ambient PM levels. Models that do not account for this processing will likely underpredict the contribution of aircraft emissions to local and regional air pollution.

  17. Formation of tungsten blue oxide and its phase constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Z.; Wu, E.; Tan, A.; Qian, C.

    1984-01-01

    By means of X-ray diffraction structure analysis, SEM observation, chemical analysis and particle specific surface analysis etc., an investigation was made in order to determine the regularity of tungsten blue oxide formation during reductional calcine process of APT. It was found that the oxygen index (OI) decreased continuously with increasing calcine temperature. The decrease rate of OI variated as the calcine atmosphere being changed, the stronger the reductivity of the atmosphere is, the more OI decreases. The deammonia-dewater process and the phase constitution variation during calcine was studied, some idea for description of phase transformation path was suggested. It was found that the most important parameter affecting phase constitution and transformation is calcine temperature. At the temperature lower than 450 0 C, the main formed phase was ATB, while at higher temperature, the different phase like W/sub 20/O/sub 58/, WO/sub 3/ etc., could be formed by different ways depending on the atmosphere reductivity. The composition and the OI of ATB are changeable. An experiment for some blue oxides reduction at low temperature was carried out. It was found that OI and the constitution of blue oxide strongly affected the particle size of the formed W-powder

  18. Secondary phases in Al_xCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys: An in-situ TEM heating study and thermodynamic appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary phases, either introduced by alloying or heat treatment, are commonly present in most high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Understanding the formation of secondary phases at high temperatures, and their effect on mechanical properties, is a critical issue that is undertaken in the present paper, using the Al_xCoCrFeNi (x = 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7) as a model alloy. The in-situ transmission-electron-microscopy (TEM) heating observation, an atom-probe-tomography (APT) study for the reference starting materials (Al_0_._3 and Al_0_._5 alloys), and thermodynamic calculations for all three alloys, are performed to investigate (1) the aluminum effect on the secondary-phase fractions, (2) the annealing-twinning formation in the face-centered-cubic (FCC) matrix, (3) the strengthening effect of the secondary ordered body-centered-cubic (B2) phase, and (4) the nucleation path of the σ secondary phase thoroughly. Finally, the present work will substantially optimize the alloy design of HEAs and facilitate applications of HEAs to a wide temperature range.

  19. Microstructural Evolution of Secondary Phases in the Cast Duplex Stainless Steels CD3MN and CD3MWCuN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Jun; Ugurlu, Ozan; Jiang, Chao; Gleeson, Brian; Chumbley, L. Scott

    2007-02-01

    The isothermal formation behavior of secondary phases in two types of duplex stainless steels (DSS), CD3MN and CD3MWCuN, was characterized. Samples were heat treated from 1 minute to 30 days at temperatures from 700°C to 900°C. Small carbide (M23C6) and nitride (Cr2N) precipitates, together with the intermetallic phases sigma and chi, were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. Based on SEM analysis, time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curves for the sigma and chi phases were determined by measuring their volume fractions from backscattered electron micrographs of heat-treated and quenched sample cross sections. Resulting TTT curves showed that the maximum formation temperature for chi is lower than that for sigma, while the time to reach 1 vol pct formation is much less for sigma than it is for chi. The thermodynamic driving forces associated with the sigma and chi formation were assessed using Thermo-Calc.

  20. Humidity influence on gas-particle phase partitioning of α-pinene + O3 secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisle, N. L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Bilde, M.; Donahue, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    Water vapor uptake to particles could potentially affect organic-aerosol mass in three ways: first, water in the organic phase could reduce organic (equilibrium) partial pressures according to Raoult's law; second, an aqueous phase could attract water soluble organics according to Henry's law; finally, deliquescence of inorganic particle cores could mix the organic and inorganic particle phases, significantly diluting the organics and again reducing organic partial pressures according to Raoult's law. We present experiments using initially dry α-pinene + ozone secondary organic aerosol (SOA) on ammonium sulfate (AS) seeds at atmospheric concentrations in a smog chamber. After SOA formation, the chamber relative humidity is increased steadily by addition of steam to near 100%. Little subsequent SOA mass growth is observed, suggesting that none of these potential effects play a strong role in this system.

  1. Mechanisms of Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols and Implications for Global Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seinfeld, John H. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2011-12-02

    Organic material constitutes about 50% of global atmospheric aerosol mass, and the dominant source of organic aerosol is the oxidation of volatile hydrocarbons, to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Understanding the formation of SOA is crucial to predicting present and future climate effects of atmospheric aerosols. The goal of this program is to significantly increase our understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. Ambient measurements indicate that the amount of SOA in the atmosphere exceeds that predicted in current models based on existing laboratory chamber data. This would suggest that either the SOA yields measured in laboratory chambers are understated or that all major organic precursors have not been identified. In this research program we are systematically exploring these possibilities.

  2. Influence of phase transition on pattern formation during catalytic reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Roberto Fernandes Silva; Lima, D.; Cunha, F. B.

    2000-01-01

    p.434–445 We investigate the influence of the order of surface phase transitions on pattern formation during chemical reaction on mono-crystal catalysts. We use a model consisting of two partial differential equations, one of which describes the dynamics of the surface state with the help of a Ginzburg–Landau potential. Second- or first-order transitions are described by decreasing or increasing the relative value of the third-order coefficient of the potential. We concentrate on the stabi...

  3. High formation of secondary organic aerosol from the photo-oxidation of toluene

    OpenAIRE

    L. Hildebrandt; N. M. Donahue; S. N. Pandis

    2009-01-01

    Toluene and other aromatics have long been viewed as the dominant anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors, but the SOA mass yields from toluene reported in previous studies vary widely. Experiments conducted in the Carnegie Mellon University environmental chamber to study SOA formation from the photo-oxidation of toluene show significantly larger SOA production than parameterizations employed in current air-quality models. Aerosol mass yields depend on experimental co...

  4. Novel criterion for formation of metastable phase from undercooled melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuribayashi, Kazuhiko; Nagashio, Kosuke; Niwata, Kenji; Kumar, M.S. Vijaya; Hibiya, Taketoshi

    2007-01-01

    Undercooling a melt facilitates the preferential nucleation of a metastable phase. In the present study, the formation of metastable phases from undercooled melts was considered from the viewpoint of the competitive nucleation criterion. The classical nucleation theory shows us that the most critical factor for forming a critical nucleus is the interface free energy σ. Furthermore, Spaepen's negentropic model on σ generated the role of the scaling factor α that depends on the polyhedral order in the liquid and solid phases prominent in simple liquids such as the melt of monoatomic metals. In ionic materials such as oxides, however, in which oxygen polyhedrons including a cation at their center are the structural units both in the solid and liquid phases, the entropy of fusion, rather than α, can be expected to become dominant in the determination of σ. In accordance with this idea, using REFeO 3 as the model material (where RE denotes rare-earth elements) the entropy-undercooling regime criterion was proposed and verified

  5. Experimental and numerical study of deposit formation in secondary side SG TSP by electrokinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillodo, Michael; Foucault, Marc; Ryckelynck, Natacha; Chahma, Farah; Guingo, Mathieu; Mansour, Carine; Alos-Ramos, Olga; Corredera, Geraldine

    2012-09-01

    Corrosion products deposit formation observed in PWR steam generators (SGs) - related to SG free span fouling and SG clogging - is now reported since several years. SG clogging is a localized phenomenon observed between the leading edge of the Tube Support Plate (TSP) and SG tubing materials. Based on visual inspections, it was found that the gaps between SG tubing material and TSP at the lower part of the broached holes were getting progressively blocked. Therefore, for safe operation, most affected PWRs had to be operated at reduced power. TSP blockage was mainly observed for low-pH water chemistry conditioning, which directly depends on the operating water chemistry. The TSP blockage mechanism is complex due to the localized conditions in which flow pattern change, chemistry and electrochemical conditions are not well understood. Electrokinetic considerations could be pointed out to explain the coupling of chemistry, materials and thermohydraulic (T/H) conditions. In this frame AREVA and EDF have launched a long-term R and D program in order to understand the mechanisms driving the formation of SG clogging. This study based on parametric laboratory tests aims to assess the role of secondary water chemistry, material and T/H conditions on deposit formation. The experimental approach focused on electrokinetic measurements of metallic substrates and on the assessment of oxidation properties of materials in secondary side chemistry. An overall analysis of recent results is presented to address SG deposit formation in secondary water chemistry for various conditioning amines - morpholine, ethanolamine and dimethylamine. To complete the study, the experimental results have been correlated to CFD simulations of particle deposition, by means of stochastic Lagrangian models. These calculations have in particular reproduced correctly the location of the most important particle deposit (the leading edge of the test tube), and have stressed the influence of the

  6. Droplets formation and merging in two-phase flow microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hao; Duits, Michel H G; Mugele, Frieder

    2011-01-01

    Two-phase flow microfluidics is emerging as a popular technology for a wide range of applications involving high throughput such as encapsulation, chemical synthesis and biochemical assays. Within this platform, the formation and merging of droplets inside an immiscible carrier fluid are two key procedures: (i) the emulsification step should lead to a very well controlled drop size (distribution); and (ii) the use of droplet as micro-reactors requires a reliable merging. A novel trend within this field is the use of additional active means of control besides the commonly used hydrodynamic manipulation. Electric fields are especially suitable for this, due to quantitative control over the amplitude and time dependence of the signals, and the flexibility in designing micro-electrode geometries. With this, the formation and merging of droplets can be achieved on-demand and with high precision. In this review on two-phase flow microfluidics, particular emphasis is given on these aspects. Also recent innovations in microfabrication technologies used for this purpose will be discussed.

  7. Phase separation like dynamics during Myxococcus xanthus fruiting body formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guannan; Thutupalli, Shashi; Wigbers, Manon; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Collective motion exists in many living organisms as an advantageous strategy to help the entire group with predation, forage, and survival. However, the principles of self-organization underlying such collective motions remain unclear. During various developmental stages of the soil-dwelling bacterium, Myxococcus xanthus, different types of collective motions are observed. In particular, when starved, M. xanthus cells eventually aggregate together to form 3-dimensional structures (fruiting bodies), inside which cells sporulate in response to the stress. We study the fruiting body formation process as an out of equilibrium phase separation process. As local cell density increases, the dynamics of the aggregation M. xanthus cells switch from a spatio-temporally random process, resembling nucleation and growth, to an emergent pattern formation process similar to a spinodal decomposition. By employing high-resolution microscopy and a video analysis system, we are able to track the motion of single cells within motile collective groups, while separately tuning local cell density, cell velocity and reversal frequency, probing the multi-dimensional phase space of M. xanthus development.

  8. Droplets Formation and Merging in Two-Phase Flow Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Gu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase flow microfluidics is emerging as a popular technology for a wide range of applications involving high throughput such as encapsulation, chemical synthesis and biochemical assays. Within this platform, the formation and merging of droplets inside an immiscible carrier fluid are two key procedures: (i the emulsification step should lead to a very well controlled drop size (distribution; and (ii the use of droplet as micro-reactors requires a reliable merging. A novel trend within this field is the use of additional active means of control besides the commonly used hydrodynamic manipulation. Electric fields are especially suitable for this, due to quantitative control over the amplitude and time dependence of the signals, and the flexibility in designing micro-electrode geometries. With this, the formation and merging of droplets can be achieved on-demand and with high precision. In this review on two-phase flow microfluidics, particular emphasis is given on these aspects. Also recent innovations in microfabrication technologies used for this purpose will be discussed.

  9. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini [Water ApS, Farum Gydevej 64, 3520 Farum (Denmark); Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Hansen, Kamilla M.S., E-mail: kmsh@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Andersen, Henrik R. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-07-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  10. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla M.S.; Andersen, Henrik R.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  11. Effect of NOx level on secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from the photooxidation of terpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Flagan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from the photooxidation of one monoterpene (α-pinene and two sesquiterpenes (longifolene and aromadendrene is investigated in the Caltech environmental chambers. The effect of NOx on SOA formation for these biogenic hydrocarbons is evaluated by performing photooxidation experiments under varying NOx conditions. The NOx dependence of α-pinene SOA formation follows the same trend as that observed previously for a number of SOA precursors, including isoprene, in which SOA yield (defined as the ratio of the mass of organic aerosol formed to the mass of parent hydrocarbon reacted decreases as NOx level increases. The NOx dependence of SOA yield for the sesquiterpenes, longifolene and aromadendrene, however, differs from that determined for isoprene and α-pinene; the aerosol yield under high-NOx conditions substantially exceeds that under low-NOx conditions. The reversal of the NOx dependence of SOA formation for the sesquiterpenes is consistent with formation of relatively low-volatility organic nitrates, and/or the isomerization of large alkoxy radicals leading to less volatile products. Analysis of the aerosol chemical composition for longifolene confirms the presence of organic nitrates under high-NOx conditions. Consequently the formation of SOA from certain biogenic hydrocarbons such as sesquiterpenes (and possibly large anthropogenic hydrocarbons as well may be more efficient in polluted air.

  12. [Estimate of the formation potential of secondary organic aerosol in Beijing summertime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Zi-Feng; Hao, Ji-Ming; Duan, Jing-Chun; Li, Jun-Hua

    2009-04-15

    Fractional aerosol coefficients (FAC) are used in conjunction with measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) during ozone episodes to estimate the formation potential of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the summertime of Beijing. The estimation is based on the actual atmospheric conditions of Beijing, and benzene and isoprene are considered as the precursors of SOA. The results show that 31 out of 70 measured VOC species are SOA precursors, and the total potential SOA formation is predicted to be 8.48 microg/m3, which accounts for 30% of fine organic particle matter. Toluene, xylene, pinene, ethylbenzene and n-undecane are the 5 largest contributors to SOA production and account for 20%, 22%, 14%, 9% and 4% of total SOA production, respectively. The anthropogenic aromatic compounds, which yield 76% of the calculated SOA, are the major source of SOA. The biogenic alkenes, alkanes and carbonyls produce 16%, 7% and 1% of SOA formation, respectively. The major components of produced SOA are expected to be aromatic compounds, aliphatic acids, carbonyls and aliphatic nitrates, which contribute to 72%, 14%, 11% and 3% of SOA mass, respectively. The SOA precursors have relatively low atmospheric concentrations and low ozone formation potential. Hence, SOA formation potential of VOC species, in addition to their atmospheric concentrations and ozone formation potential, should be considered in policy making process of VOCs control.

  13. Secondary aerosol formation from stress-induced biogenic emissions and possible climate feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. F. Mentel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols impact climate by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and by acting as ice and cloud condensation nuclei. Biogenic secondary organic aerosols (BSOAs comprise an important component of atmospheric aerosols. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted by vegetation are the source of BSOAs. Pathogens and insect attacks, heat waves and droughts can induce stress to plants that may impact their BVOC emissions, and hence the yield and type of formed BSOAs, and possibly their climatic effects. This raises questions of whether stress-induced changes in BSOA formation may attenuate or amplify effects of climate change. In this study we assess the potential impact of stress-induced BVOC emissions on BSOA formation for tree species typical for mixed deciduous and Boreal Eurasian forests. We studied the photochemical BSOA formation for plants infested by aphids in a laboratory setup under well-controlled conditions and applied in addition heat and drought stress. The results indicate that stress conditions substantially modify BSOA formation and yield. Stress-induced emissions of sesquiterpenes, methyl salicylate, and C17-BVOCs increase BSOA yields. Mixtures including these compounds exhibit BSOA yields between 17 and 33%, significantly higher than mixtures containing mainly monoterpenes (4–6% yield. Green leaf volatiles suppress SOA formation, presumably by scavenging OH, similar to isoprene. By classifying emission types, stressors and BSOA formation potential, we discuss possible climatic feedbacks regarding aerosol effects. We conclude that stress situations for plants due to climate change should be considered in climate–vegetation feedback mechanisms.

  14. Dynamics of protein aggregation and oligomer formation governed by secondary nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaels, Thomas C. T., E-mail: tctm3@cam.ac.uk; Lazell, Hamish W.; Arosio, Paolo; Knowles, Tuomas P. J., E-mail: tpjk2@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-07

    The formation of aggregates in many protein systems can be significantly accelerated by secondary nucleation, a process where existing assemblies catalyse the nucleation of new species. In particular, secondary nucleation has emerged as a central process controlling the proliferation of many filamentous protein structures, including molecular species related to diseases such as sickle cell anemia and a range of neurodegenerative conditions. Increasing evidence suggests that the physical size of protein filaments plays a key role in determining their potential for deleterious interactions with living cells, with smaller aggregates of misfolded proteins, oligomers, being particularly toxic. It is thus crucial to progress towards an understanding of the factors that control the sizes of protein aggregates. However, the influence of secondary nucleation on the time evolution of aggregate size distributions has been challenging to quantify. This difficulty originates in large part from the fact that secondary nucleation couples the dynamics of species distant in size space. Here, we approach this problem by presenting an analytical treatment of the master equation describing the growth kinetics of linear protein structures proliferating through secondary nucleation and provide closed-form expressions for the temporal evolution of the resulting aggregate size distribution. We show how the availability of analytical solutions for the full filament distribution allows us to identify the key physical parameters that control the sizes of growing protein filaments. Furthermore, we use these results to probe the dynamics of the populations of small oligomeric species as they are formed through secondary nucleation and discuss the implications of our work for understanding the factors that promote or curtail the production of these species with a potentially high deleterious biological activity.

  15. Exact calculation of loop formation probability identifies folding motifs in RNA secondary structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloma, Michael F.; Mathews, David H.

    2016-01-01

    RNA secondary structure prediction is widely used to analyze RNA sequences. In an RNA partition function calculation, free energy nearest neighbor parameters are used in a dynamic programming algorithm to estimate statistical properties of the secondary structure ensemble. Previously, partition functions have largely been used to estimate the probability that a given pair of nucleotides form a base pair, the conditional stacking probability, the accessibility to binding of a continuous stretch of nucleotides, or a representative sample of RNA structures. Here it is demonstrated that an RNA partition function can also be used to calculate the exact probability of formation of hairpin loops, internal loops, bulge loops, or multibranch loops at a given position. This calculation can also be used to estimate the probability of formation of specific helices. Benchmarking on a set of RNA sequences with known secondary structures indicated that loops that were calculated to be more probable were more likely to be present in the known structure than less probable loops. Furthermore, highly probable loops are more likely to be in the known structure than the set of loops predicted in the lowest free energy structures. PMID:27852924

  16. Nematic phase formation in suspensions of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresneau, Nathalie; Campidelli, Stéphane

    The last decade has seen the rise of graphene. Graphene is a single layer of graphite; it can be obtained by direct liquid phase exfoliation of the latter through harsh sonication. This technique presents the disadvantage to produce small graphene flakes (typically in the 0.05 to 0.4 μm2 range for the monolayers) and multilayer graphene with uncontrolled thickness distributions. In order to improve the exfoliation process, one has to counter the strong van der Waals interactions between the carbon planes of graphite. This implies to increase the distance between two planes and it can be done, for example, by oxidizing graphite to introduce oxygen species in the graphenic planes. The fabrication of graphite oxide is known for almost 150 years, and it became popular again these last ten years. Generally, the oxidation of graphite is performed following a method described by Hummers in the 1950's and the material produced by this technique exfoliates quasi-spontaneously into monolayer species called graphene oxide (GO). The highly anisotropic shape of GO (several μm in length and width for a thickness of ca. 1 nm) combined with the presence of oxygenated functions on the sp2 carbon structure of graphene lead to the formation of a lyotropic liquid crystalline phase in water. Above a certain concentration of graphene flakes the gain in translational entropy for a long-range ordered phase outweighs the loss in rotational entropy, and the liquid crystal phase then forms. The value of the threshold is affected by the aspect ratio of the graphene flakes but other factors such as the interactions also play a strong role.

  17. Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Roberts, J. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Koss, A.; Edwards, P. M.; Graus, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Li, S.-M.; Wild, R. J.; Brown, S. S.; Dubé, W. P.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Lefer, B.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zamora, R.; Ervens, B.; Millet, D. B.; Rappenglück, B.; de Gouw, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site (Pasadena) in June-July 2010 during CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) and a site in an oil and gas producing region (Uintah Basin) in January-February 2013 during UBWOS 2013 (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies) will be discussed. Although the VOC (volatile organic compounds) compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 99%). A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10). Compared to the original MCM model that includes only ozonolysis of unsaturated organic compounds and OH oxidation of acetylene, when we updated yields of ozonolysis of alkenes and included OH oxidation of isoprene, vinyl alcohol chemistry, reaction of formaldehyde with HO2, oxidation of aromatics, and reaction of CH3O2 with OH, the model predictions for formic acid were improved by a factor of 6.4 in UBWOS 2013 and 4.5 in CalNex, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 19 and 45% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be 0-6 and 0-5% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that

  18. Formation of wood secondary cell wall may involve two type cellulose synthase complexes in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wang; Song, Dongliang; Sun, Jiayan; Shen, Junhui; Li, Laigeng

    2017-03-01

    Cellulose biosynthesis is mediated by cellulose synthases (CesAs), which constitute into rosette-like cellulose synthase complexe (CSC) on the plasma membrane. Two types of CSCs in Arabidopsis are believed to be involved in cellulose synthesis in the primary cell wall and secondary cell walls, respectively. In this work, we found that the two type CSCs participated cellulose biosynthesis in differentiating xylem cells undergoing secondary cell wall thickening in Populus. During the cell wall thickening process, expression of one type CSC genes increased while expression of the other type CSC genes decreased. Suppression of different type CSC genes both affected the wall-thickening and disrupted the multilaminar structure of the secondary cell walls. When CesA7A was suppressed, crystalline cellulose content was reduced, which, however, showed an increase when CesA3D was suppressed. The CesA suppression also affected cellulose digestibility of the wood cell walls. The results suggest that two type CSCs are involved in coordinating the cellulose biosynthesis in formation of the multilaminar structure in Populus wood secondary cell walls.

  19. Phase Transitions in a Social Impact Model for Opinion Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordogna, Clelia M.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    A model for opinion formation in a social group, based on the Theory of Social Impact developed by Latané, is studied by means of numerical simulations. Interactions among the members of the group, as well as with a strong leader competing with the mass media, are considered. The model exhibits first-order transitions between two different states of opinion, which are supported by the leader and the mass media, respectively. The social inertia of the group becomes evident when the opinion of the leader changes periodically. In this case two dynamic states are identified: for long periods of time, the group follows the changes of the leader but, decreasing the period, the opinion of the group remains unchanged. This scenery is suitable for the ocurrence of dynamic phase transitions.

  20. Typical winter haze pollution in Zibo, an industrial city in China: Characteristics, secondary formation, and regional contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Ma, Yongliang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin; Zhu, Lidan; Huang, Tao; Kimoto, Takashi; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ma, Tao; Xu, Lili; Xu, Beiyao; Yang, Shuo; Ye, Siqi; Sun, Zhenli; An, Jiutao; Zhang, Zhaolu

    2017-10-01

    Heavy haze pollution occurs frequently in northern China, most critically in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area (BTH). Zibo, an industrial city located in Shandong province, is often listed as one of the top ten most polluted cities in China, particularly in winter. However, no studies of haze in Zibo have been conducted, which limits the understanding of the source and formation of haze pollution in this area, as well as mutual effects with the BTH area. We carried out online and continuous integrated field observation of particulate matter in winter, from 11 to 25 January 2015. SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and NH 4 + (SIA) and organics were the main constituents of PM 2.5 , contributing 59.4% and 33.6%, respectively. With the increasing severity of pollution, the contribution of SIA increased while that of organics decreased. Meteorological conditions play an important role in haze formation; high relative humidity (RH) and low wind speed increased both the accumulation of pollutants and the secondary transition from gas precursors (gas-particle phase partitioning). Since RH and the presence of O 3 can indicate heterogeneous and photochemistry processes, respectively, we carried out correlation analysis and linear regression to identify their relative importance to the three main secondary species (sulfate, nitrate, and secondary organic carbon (SOC)). We found that the impact of RH is in the order of SO 4 2-  > NO 3 -  > SOC, while the impact of O 3 is reversed, in the order of SOC > NO 3 -  > SO 4 2- , indicating different effect of these factors on the secondary formation of main species in winter. Cluster analysis of backward trajectories showed that, during the observation period, six directional sources of air masses were identified, and more than 90% came from highly industrialized areas, indicating that regional transport from industrialized areas aggravates the haze pollution in Zibo. Inter-regional joint prevention and control is necessary to prevent further

  1. Optimized Jasmonic Acid Production by Lasiodiplodia theobromae Reveals Formation of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Eng

    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume. Moreover, cultures grown in medium containing potassium nitrate as nitrogen source produced higher amounts of jasmonic acid than analogous cultures supplemented with ammonium nitrate. When cultivated under optimal conditions for jasmonic acid production, L. theobromae secreted several secondary metabolites known from plants into the medium. Among those we found 3-oxo-2-(pent-2-enyl-cyclopentane-1-butanoic acid (OPC-4 and hydroxy-jasmonic acid derivatives, respectively, suggesting that fungal jasmonate metabolism may involve similar reaction steps as that of plants. To characterize fungal growth and jasmonic acid-formation, we established a mathematical model describing both processes. This model may form the basis of industrial upscaling attempts. Importantly, it showed that jasmonic acid-formation is not associated to fungal growth. Therefore, this finding suggests that jasmonic acid, despite its enormous amount being produced upon fungal development, serves merely as secondary metabolite.

  2. Features of formation of the individual students in secondary and high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Sutula

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Analyzed features of motivation to achievement and need to praise the students of secondary and high school. Material: In the survey took part 1634 students of secondary school in Kharkov, Vinnitsa and Lugansk regions. Carried out a comprehensive psychological testing, which allowed to find out the level of motivation of students to achievement and need for praise. Results: It is shown that during the period of study at school from fifth to eleventh classes a number of students have a low motivation to achievements, and low need for praise. Confirmed provision indicates that the modern school is still not fully realized the potential of educational pedagogy. Conclusions: It is shown that the formation personality physical education students in general education is possible only with the active and conscious of their participation in various forms of sports and recreation activities undertaken in the modern school.

  3. Impacts of raindrop evaporative cooling on tropical cyclone secondary eyewall formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xuyang; Guan, Liang; Yan, Ziyu

    2018-06-01

    The impacts of raindrop evaporative cooling on secondary eyewall formation (SEF) of simulated tropical cyclones are investigated using idealized numerical experiments. The results suggest that the raindrop evaporative cooling effect is beneficial to the development of secondary eyewall through the planetary boundary layer (PBL) cold pool process. The evaporative cooling-driven downdrafts bring about the surface cold pool beneath a precipitation cloud. This cold pool dynamics act as a lifting mechanism to trigger the outer convection. The radially outward propagation of spiral rainbands broadens the TC size, by which modifies the surface heat fluxes and thus outer convection. Furthermore, the unbalanced PBL process contributes to the SEF. The radially outward surface outflows forces convection at outer region and thus favors a larger TC size. A larger TC implies an enhanced inertial stability at the outer region, which favors a higher conversion efficiency of diabatic heating to kinetic energy.

  4. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78...

  5. Secondary formation of nitrated phenols: insights from observations during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the results from online measurements of nitrated phenols using a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS with acetate as reagent ion in an oil and gas production region in January and February of 2014. Strong diurnal profiles were observed for nitrated phenols, with concentration maxima at night. Based on known markers (CH4, NOx, CO2, primary emissions of nitrated phenols were not important in this study. A box model was used to simulate secondary formation of phenol, nitrophenol (NP, and dinitrophenols (DNP. The box model results indicate that oxidation of aromatics in the gas phase can explain the observed concentrations of NP and DNP in this study. Photolysis was the most efficient loss pathway for NP in the gas phase. We show that aqueous-phase reactions and heterogeneous reactions were minor sources of nitrated phenols in our study. This study demonstrates that the emergence of new ToF-CIMS (including PTR-TOF techniques allows for the measurement of intermediate oxygenates at low levels and these measurements improve our understanding on the evolution of primary VOCs in the atmosphere.

  6. Seed regeneration potential of canopy gaps at early formation stage in temperate secondary forests, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Ling Yan

    Full Text Available Promoting the seed regeneration potential of secondary forests undergoing gap disturbances is an important approach for achieving forest restoration and sustainable management. Seedling recruitment from seed banks strongly determines the seed regeneration potential, but the process is poorly understood in the gaps of secondary forests. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of gap size, seed availability, and environmental conditions on the seed regeneration potential in temperate secondary forests. It was found that gap formation could favor the invasion of more varieties of species in seed banks, but it also could speed up the turnover rate of seed banks leading to lower seed densities. Seeds of the dominant species, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, were transient in soil and there was a minor and discontinuous contribution of the seed bank to its seedling emergence. For Quercus mongolica, emerging seedling number was positively correlated with seed density in gaps (R = 0.32, P<0.01, especially in medium and small gaps (<500 m(2. Furthermore, under canopies, there was a positive correlation between seedling number and seed density of Acer mono (R = 0.43, P<0.01. Gap formation could promote seedling emergence of two gap-dependent species (i.e., Q. mongolica and A. mono, but the contribution of seed banks to seedlings was below 10% after gap creation. Soil moisture and temperature were the restrictive factors controlling the seedling emergence from seeds in gaps and under canopies, respectively. Thus, the regeneration potential from seed banks is limited after gap formation.

  7. Seed Regeneration Potential of Canopy Gaps at Early Formation Stage in Temperate Secondary Forests, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiao-Ling; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yu, Li-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Promoting the seed regeneration potential of secondary forests undergoing gap disturbances is an important approach for achieving forest restoration and sustainable management. Seedling recruitment from seed banks strongly determines the seed regeneration potential, but the process is poorly understood in the gaps of secondary forests. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of gap size, seed availability, and environmental conditions on the seed regeneration potential in temperate secondary forests. It was found that gap formation could favor the invasion of more varieties of species in seed banks, but it also could speed up the turnover rate of seed banks leading to lower seed densities. Seeds of the dominant species, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, were transient in soil and there was a minor and discontinuous contribution of the seed bank to its seedling emergence. For Quercus mongolica, emerging seedling number was positively correlated with seed density in gaps (R = 0.32, P<0.01), especially in medium and small gaps (<500 m2). Furthermore, under canopies, there was a positive correlation between seedling number and seed density of Acer mono (R = 0.43, P<0.01). Gap formation could promote seedling emergence of two gap-dependent species (i.e., Q. mongolica and A. mono), but the contribution of seed banks to seedlings was below 10% after gap creation. Soil moisture and temperature were the restrictive factors controlling the seedling emergence from seeds in gaps and under canopies, respectively. Thus, the regeneration potential from seed banks is limited after gap formation. PMID:22745771

  8. Chronology of fluid paleo-circulations in mesozoic formations on the site of Bure by U/Pb dating of secondary calcites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisapia, C.; Deschamps, P.; Hamelin, B.; Pisapia, C.; Buschaert, S.

    2009-01-01

    The French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes (ANDRA, Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs) has developed an underground research laboratory in mesozoic formations of the eastern Parisian Basin in order to test the design of radioactive waste storage site in sedimentary formations. The authors report an investigation which aims at understanding the site paleo-hydrology. This investigation is based on the disintegration chain of uranium and on U/Th and U/Pb dating methods, and aims at giving a precise chronology of the different phases of precipitation of centimetric and millimetric secondary calcites sampled on this site

  9. The gas chimney formation during the steam explosion premixing phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, M.

    2001-01-01

    The crucial part in isothermal premixing experiment simulation is the correct prediction of the gas chimney, which forms when the spheres penetrate into water. The first simulation results with the developed original combined multiphase model showed that the gas chimney starts to close at the wrong place at the top of the chimney and not in the middle, like it was observed in the experiments. To find the physical explanation for this identified weakness of our numerical model a comprehensive parametric analysis (mesh size, initial water-air surface thickness, water density, momentum coupling starting position) has been performed. It was established that the reason for the unphysical gas chimney closing at the top could be the gradual air-water density transition in the experiment model, since there is due to the finite differences description always a transition layer with intermediate phases density over the pure water phase. It was shown that this difference between our numerical model and the experiment can be somewhat compensated if the spheres interfacial drag coefficient at the upmost mesh plane of the unphysical air-water transition layer is artificially risen. On this way a more correct gas chimney formation can be obtained.(author)

  10. Role of aldehyde chemistry and NOx concentrations in secondary organic aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Wennberg

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydes are an important class of products from atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, the most abundantly emitted atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon, produces a significant amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA via methacrolein (a C4-unsaturated aldehyde under urban high-NOx conditions. Previously, we have identified peroxy methacryloyl nitrate (MPAN as the important intermediate to isoprene and methacrolein SOA in this NOx regime. Here we show that as a result of this chemistry, NO2 enhances SOA formation from methacrolein and two other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, specifically acrolein and crotonaldehyde, a NOx effect on SOA formation previously unrecognized. Oligoesters of dihydroxycarboxylic acids and hydroxynitrooxycarboxylic acids are observed to increase with increasing NO2/NO ratio, and previous characterizations are confirmed by both online and offline high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques. Molecular structure also determines the amount of SOA formation, as the SOA mass yields are the highest for aldehydes that are α, β-unsaturated and contain an additional methyl group on the α-carbon. Aerosol formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO232 is insignificant, even under high-NO2 conditions, as PAN (peroxy acyl nitrate, RC(OOONO2 formation is structurally unfavorable. At atmospherically relevant NO2/NO ratios (3–8, the SOA yields from isoprene high-NOx photooxidation are 3 times greater than previously measured at lower NO2/NO ratios. At sufficiently high NO2 concentrations, in systems of α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, SOA formation from subsequent oxidation of products from acyl peroxyl radicals+NO2 can exceed that from RO2+HO2 reactions under the same inorganic seed conditions, making RO2+NO2 an important channel for SOA formation.

  11. Role of aldehyde chemistry and NOx concentrations in secondary organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A. W. H.; Chan, M. N.; Surratt, J. D.; Chhabra, P. S.; Loza, C. L.; Crounse, J. D.; Yee, L. D.; Flagan, R. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are an important class of products from atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), the most abundantly emitted atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon, produces a significant amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via methacrolein (a C4-unsaturated aldehyde) under urban high-NOx conditions. Previously, we have identified peroxy methacryloyl nitrate (MPAN) as the important intermediate to isoprene and methacrolein SOA in this NOx regime. Here we show that as a result of this chemistry, NO2 enhances SOA formation from methacrolein and two other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, specifically acrolein and crotonaldehyde, a NOx effect on SOA formation previously unrecognized. Oligoesters of dihydroxycarboxylic acids and hydroxynitrooxycarboxylic acids are observed to increase with increasing NO2/NO ratio, and previous characterizations are confirmed by both online and offline high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques. Molecular structure also determines the amount of SOA formation, as the SOA mass yields are the highest for aldehydes that are α, β-unsaturated and contain an additional methyl group on the α-carbon. Aerosol formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO232) is insignificant, even under high-NO2 conditions, as PAN (peroxy acyl nitrate, RC(O)OONO2) formation is structurally unfavorable. At atmospherically relevant NO2/NO ratios (3-8), the SOA yields from isoprene high-NOx photooxidation are 3 times greater than previously measured at lower NO2/NO ratios. At sufficiently high NO2 concentrations, in systems of α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, SOA formation from subsequent oxidation of products from acyl peroxyl radicals+NO2 can exceed that from RO2+HO2 reactions under the same inorganic seed conditions, making RO2+NO2 an important channel for SOA formation.

  12. Gasoline emissions dominate over diesel in formation of secondary organic aerosol mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; Brock, C. A.; Stark, H.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, W. P.; Gilman, J. B.; Hall, K.; Holloway, J. S.; Kuster, W. C.; Perring, A. E.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Szidat, S.; Wagner, N. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zotter, P.; Parrish, D. D.

    2012-03-01

    Although laboratory experiments have shown that organic compounds in both gasoline fuel and diesel engine exhaust can form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), the fractional contribution from gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions to ambient SOA in urban environments is poorly known. Here we use airborne and ground-based measurements of organic aerosol (OA) in the Los Angeles (LA) Basin, California made during May and June 2010 to assess the amount of SOA formed from diesel emissions. Diesel emissions in the LA Basin vary between weekdays and weekends, with 54% lower diesel emissions on weekends. Despite this difference in source contributions, in air masses with similar degrees of photochemical processing, formation of OA is the same on weekends and weekdays, within the measurement uncertainties. This result indicates that the contribution from diesel emissions to SOA formation is zero within our uncertainties. Therefore, substantial reductions of SOA mass on local to global scales will be achieved by reducing gasoline vehicle emissions.

  13. Characterization of Organic Nitrate Formation in Limonene Secondary Organic Aerosol using High-Resolution Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faxon, Cameron; Hammes, Julia; Peng, Jianfei; Hallquist, Mattias; Pathak, Ravi

    2016-04-01

    Previous work has shown that organic nitrates (RONO2) are prevalent in the boundary layer, and can contribute significantly to secondary organic aerosol formation. Monoterpenes, including limonene, have been shown to be precursors for the formation of these organic nitrates. Limonene has two double bonds, either of which may be oxidized by NO3 or O3. This leads to the generation of products that can subsequently condense or partition into the particle phase, producing secondary organic aerosol. In order to further elucidate the particle and gas phase product distribution of organic nitrates forming from the reactions of limonene and the nitrate radical (NO3), a series of experiments were performed in the Gothenburg Flow Reactor for Oxidation Studies at Low Temperatures (G-FROST), described by previous work. N2O5 was used as the source for NO3 and NO2, and a characterized diffusion source was used to introduce limonene into the flow reactor. All experiments were conducted in the absence of light, and the concentration of limonene was increased step-wise throughout each experiment to modify the ratio of N2O5to limonene. The experiments were conducted such that both limonene- and N2O5-limited regimes were present. Gas and particle phase products were measured using an iodide High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) coupled to a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO, and particle size and SOA mass concentrations were derived using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). CIMS measurement techniques have previously been employed for the measurement of organic nitrate products of such compounds using multiple reagent ions. The use of this instrumentation allowed for the identification of chemical formulas for gas and particle phase species. The findings from the experiments will be presented in terms of the relative gas-particle partitioning of major products and the effects of N2O5/limonene ratios on product distributions. Additionally, a

  14. Formation of secondary aerosols from gasoline vehicle exhaust when mixing with SO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2 can enhance the formation of secondary aerosols from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs, but its influence on secondary aerosol formation from anthropogenic VOCs, particularly complex mixtures like vehicle exhaust, remains uncertain. Gasoline vehicle exhaust (GVE and SO2, a typical pollutant from coal burning, are directly co-introduced into a smog chamber, in this study, to investigate the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA and sulfate aerosols through photooxidation. New particle formation was enhanced, while substantial sulfate was formed through the oxidation of SO2 in the presence of high concentration of SO2. Homogenous oxidation by OH radicals contributed a negligible fraction to the conversion of SO2 to sulfate, and instead the oxidation by stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs, formed from alkenes in the exhaust reacting with ozone, dominated the conversion of SO2. After 5 h of photochemical aging, GVE's SOA production factor revealed an increase by 60–200 % in the presence of high concentration of SO2. The increase could principally be attributed to acid-catalyzed SOA formation as evidenced by the strong positive linear correlation (R2 = 0.97 between the SOA production factor and in situ particle acidity calculated by the AIM-II model. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS resolved OA's relatively lower oxygen-to-carbon (O : C (0.44 ± 0.02 and higher hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C (1.40 ± 0.03 molar ratios for the GVE / SO2 mixture, with a significantly lower estimated average carbon oxidation state (OSc of −0.51 ± 0.06 than −0.19 ± 0.08 for GVE alone. The relative higher mass loading of OA in the experiments with SO2 might be a significant explanation for the lower SOA oxidation degree.

  15. Pact for secondary education and curriculum: reflections from formation books and final report of PNEM Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian de Oliveira Bertotti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The vocation of this article is to discuss the dimensions of the existing secondary school curriculum in the continuing education of the federal government titled "Pacto Nacional pelo Fortalecimento do Ensino Médio- PNEM" for the teachers of the state school system of Rondonia. This training allowed seeing with new eyes the pedagogical practices of teachers with the subject of the last stage of basic education. Therefore, it takes a qualitative approach, and its methodological approach relies on the analysis of the formation of the notebooks used by course participants and the final report prepared by the educational program coordinator in the state of Rondônia. Even though our research still in development, the theoretical basis and data collection phase, we rely on the multiculturalist theory, as in Freire's pedagogy, which raises the critical reading, questioning and intervention in reality. We understand that curriculum policies are hybrid, polyphonic, produced by discourses that circulate in different educational space- time. We understand that the curriculum as a social instrument is built collectively, with the participation of each subject to enforce the quality of education in secondary school territories.

  16. Impairment of Cellulose Synthases Required for Arabidopsis Secondary Cell Wall Formation Enhances Disease Resistance[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Blanco, Camilo; Feng, Dong Xin; Hu, Jian; Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; Deslandes, Laurent; Llorente, Francisco; Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Keller, Harald; Barlet, Xavier; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara; Anderson, Lisa K.; Somerville, Shauna; Marco, Yves; Molina, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Cellulose is synthesized by cellulose synthases (CESAs) contained in plasma membrane–localized complexes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, three types of CESA subunits (CESA4/IRREGULAR XYLEM5 [IRX5], CESA7/IRX3, and CESA8/IRX1) are required for secondary cell wall formation. We report that mutations in these proteins conferred enhanced resistance to the soil-borne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum and the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina. By contrast, susceptibility to these pathogens was not altered in cell wall mutants of primary wall CESA subunits (CESA1, CESA3/ISOXABEN RESISTANT1 [IXR1], and CESA6/IXR2) or POWDERY MILDEW–RESISTANT5 (PMR5) and PMR6 genes. Double mutants indicated that irx-mediated resistance was independent of salicylic acid, ethylene, and jasmonate signaling. Comparative transcriptomic analyses identified a set of common irx upregulated genes, including a number of abscisic acid (ABA)–responsive, defense-related genes encoding antibiotic peptides and enzymes involved in the synthesis and activation of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. These data as well as the increased susceptibility of ABA mutants (abi1-1, abi2-1, and aba1-6) to R. solanacearum support a direct role of ABA in resistance to this pathogen. Our results also indicate that alteration of secondary cell wall integrity by inhibiting cellulose synthesis leads to specific activation of novel defense pathways that contribute to the generation of an antimicrobial-enriched environment hostile to pathogens. PMID:17351116

  17. Experimental study on the effect of radiation in the secondary palate formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Dong Soo [Department of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1977-11-15

    The author observed the effect of X-ray irradiation on the secondary palate formation of the rat fetuses. The mothers were exposed to X-radiation on the 10 1/2th, 11 1/2th, and 12 1/2th day of gestation with respectively 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 rads. The fetuses were removed from mothers on 15 1/2th, 16 1/2th, and 18 1/2th day of gestation. Morphological changes in palate formation were examined and histochemical preparations were made. 1. In control fetuses, the secondary palates were fully developed on the 15 1/2th, to 18 1/2th day of gestation. But in experimental fetuses, many cleft palates were observed in accordance with increase of X-radiation dose. 2. Frequency of incidence of horizontal position of both palatal shelves in cleft palate was highest. 3. According to the dislocation of palatal processes, the stain ability of palatal crest was varied. 4. The thickened area of palatal epithelium of palatal crest showed intense methyl green-pyronin and PAS reaction 5. Mesenchymal cell condensation was appeared under the thickened epithelium of palatal process and this mesenchymal tissue showed strong colloidal iron reaction. 6. The stain ability of alizarin red S and alkaline phosphatase reaction of tectal ridge were decreased in accordance with increase of irradiation doses.

  18. Experimental study on the effect of radiation in the secondary palate formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Dong Soo

    1977-01-01

    The author observed the effect of X-ray irradiation on the secondary palate formation of the rat fetuses. The mothers were exposed to X-radiation on the 10 1/2th, 11 1/2th, and 12 1/2th day of gestation with respectively 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 rads. The fetuses were removed from mothers on 15 1/2th, 16 1/2th, and 18 1/2th day of gestation. Morphological changes in palate formation were examined and histochemical preparations were made. 1. In control fetuses, the secondary palates were fully developed on the 15 1/2th, to 18 1/2th day of gestation. But in experimental fetuses, many cleft palates were observed in accordance with increase of X-radiation dose. 2. Frequency of incidence of horizontal position of both palatal shelves in cleft palate was highest. 3. According to the dislocation of palatal processes, the stain ability of palatal crest was varied. 4. The thickened area of palatal epithelium of palatal crest showed intense methyl green-pyronin and PAS reaction 5. Mesenchymal cell condensation was appeared under the thickened epithelium of palatal process and this mesenchymal tissue showed strong colloidal iron reaction. 6. The stain ability of alizarin red S and alkaline phosphatase reaction of tectal ridge were decreased in accordance with increase of irradiation doses.

  19. Secondary Voltage Unbalance Compensation for Three-Phase Four-Wire Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Fen; Zhou, Xiao; Meng, Lexuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a secondary voltage unbalance control approach that compensate voltage unbalances in three-phase four-wire islanded microgrid systems. It is implemented in the secondary control level of the microgrid hierarchical control structure. By sending information through low......-bandwidth communication links to the primary control level, the required unbalanced factors at sensitive buses are achieved. Also, negative and zero sequence equivalent circuits and unbalance compensation principle are derived. Finally, real-time hardware-in-the-loop results show the feasibility of the proposed approach...

  20. Evolution of secondary-phase precipitates during annealing of the 12Kh18N9T steel irradiated with neutrons to a dose of 5 DPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, K. V.; Maksimkin, O. P.; Turubarova, L. G.

    2007-03-01

    The formation and evolution of thermally-induced secondary precipitates in an austenitic stainless steel 12Kh18N9T irradiated in the core of a laboratory reactor VVR-K to a dose of 5 dpa and subjected to post-radiation isochronous annealings for 1 h in a temperature range from 450 to 1050°C have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and microhardness measurements. It has been shown that the formation of stitch (secondary) titanium carbides and M 23C6 carbides at grain and twin boundaries after annealing at 1050°C is preceded by a complex evolution of fineparticles of secondary phases (titanium carbides and nitrides) precipitated at dislocation loops and dislocations during annealing at temperatures above 750°C.

  1. Bacterial and iron oxide aggregates mediate secondary iron mineral formation: green rust versus magnetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, A; Mustin, C; Jorand, F

    2010-06-01

    In the presence of methanoate as electron donor, Shewanella putrefaciens, a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe, is able to transform lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) to secondary Fe (II-III) minerals such as carbonated green rust (GR1) and magnetite. When bacterial cells were added to a gamma-FeOOH suspension, aggregates were produced consisting of both bacteria and gamma-FeOOH particles. Recently, we showed that the production of secondary minerals (GR1 vs. magnetite) was dependent on bacterial cell density and not only on iron reduction rates. Thus, gamma-FeOOH and S. putrefaciens aggregation pattern was suggested as the main mechanism driving mineralization. In this study, lepidocrocite bioreduction experiments, in the presence of anthraquinone disulfonate, were conducted by varying the [cell]/[lepidocrocite] ratio in order to determine whether different types of aggregate are formed, which may facilitate precipitation of GR1 as opposed to magnetite. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to analyze the relative cell surface area and lepidocrocite concentration within the aggregates and captured images were characterized by statistical methods for spatial data (i.e. variograms). These results suggest that the [cell]/[lepidocrocite] ratio influenced both the aggregate structure and the nature of the secondary iron mineral formed. Subsequently, a [cell]/[lepidocrocite] ratio above 1 x 10(7) cells mmol(-1) leads to densely packed aggregates and to the formation of GR1. Below this ratio, looser aggregates are formed and magnetite was systematically produced. The data presented in this study bring us closer to a more comprehensive understanding of the parameters governing the formation of minerals in dense bacterial suspensions and suggest that screening mineral-bacteria aggregate structure is critical to understanding (bio)mineralization pathways.

  2. Condensed-phase biogenic-anthropogenic interactions with implications for cold cloud formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnawskas, Joseph C; Alpert, Peter A; Lambe, Andrew T; Berkemeier, Thomas; O'Brien, Rachel E; Massoli, Paola; Onasch, Timothy B; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Moffet, Ryan C; Gilles, Mary K; Davidovits, Paul; Worsnop, Douglas R; Knopf, Daniel A

    2017-08-24

    Anthropogenic and biogenic gas emissions contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). When present, soot particles from fossil fuel combustion can acquire a coating of SOA. We investigate SOA-soot biogenic-anthropogenic interactions and their impact on ice nucleation in relation to the particles' organic phase state. SOA particles were generated from the OH oxidation of naphthalene, α-pinene, longifolene, or isoprene, with or without the presence of sulfate or soot particles. Corresponding particle glass transition (T g ) and full deliquescence relative humidity (FDRH) were estimated using a numerical diffusion model. Longifolene SOA particles are solid-like and all biogenic SOA sulfate mixtures exhibit a core-shell configuration (i.e. a sulfate-rich core coated with SOA). Biogenic SOA with or without sulfate formed ice at conditions expected for homogeneous ice nucleation, in agreement with respective T g and FDRH. α-pinene SOA coated soot particles nucleated ice above the homogeneous freezing temperature with soot acting as ice nuclei (IN). At lower temperatures the α-pinene SOA coating can be semisolid, inducing ice nucleation. Naphthalene SOA coated soot particles acted as ice nuclei above and below the homogeneous freezing limit, which can be explained by the presence of a highly viscous SOA phase. Our results suggest that biogenic SOA does not play a significant role in mixed-phase cloud formation and the presence of sulfate renders this even less likely. However, anthropogenic SOA may have an enhancing effect on cloud glaciation under mixed-phase and cirrus cloud conditions compared to biogenic SOA that dominate during pre-industrial times or in pristine areas.

  3. Nonequilibrium phase formation in oxides prepared at low temperature: Fergusonite-related phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.A.; Davies, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    Sol-gel methods have been developed to prepare YNbO 4 , YTaO 4 , and other rare-earth niobates and tantalates with fergusonite-related crystal structures. At low temperatures, all of the fergusonites, with the exception of SmTaO 4 , crystallize in a metastable tetragonal (T') structure similar to that of tetragonal zirconia. Although all of the equilibrium forms of these oxides adopt a crystal structure containing an ordered distribution of the trivalent and pentavalent cations, a random cation distribution is obtained in the metastable T' phase. Metastable phase formation is often ascribed solely to kinetically limited topotactic crystallization. However, the changes in the grain size and unit-cell volumes that accompany the metastable-to-equilibrium fergusonite conversions imply that other physical phenomena induced by small-particle synthesis, namely the Gibbs-Thompson pressure effect and the increased contribution of surface energy, cannot be ignored

  4. Secondary adult encephalocele with abscess formation of calcified frontal sinus mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byeong Ho; Lee, Ok-Jun; Park, Young Seok

    2016-07-01

    Although encephalocele is a rare congenital abnormality, secondary encephalocele is extremely rare and can cause fatal complications. Here, we report a case of secondary encephalocele caused by frontal sinus wall defect due to chronic sinusitis, which was completely removed by cranialization with autologous bone graft. A 50-year-old man with a 10-year history of chronic sinusitis visited our hospital due to suddenly altered mentality characterized by stupor. Computerized tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enlarged left frontal sinus with sinusitis. The frontal sinus cavity was calcified, and the left frontal lobe had herniated into the cavity accompanied by yellow pus. A large dural defect was also found around the frontal sinus area. After removal of the abscess and some of the frontal lobe, frontal skull base repair by cranialization was performed using autologous bone graft. Streptococcus pneumoniae was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), necessitating treatment with antibiotics. After the operation, the mental status of the patient improved and no CSF leakage was observed. In addition to correct diagnosis and early treatment including antibiotics, the surgical repair of defects is needed in patients with secondary encephalocele to prevent further episodes of meningitis. Surgical correction of frontal sinus encephalocele can be achieved through bifrontal craniotomy or endoscopic transnasal repair. If a patient has CSF leakage, open craniotomy may facilitate repair of the dural defect and allow for cranialization of the sinus. Removal of dysplastic herniated brain tissue and cranialization of the frontal sinus may be a good option for treating secondary encephalocele and its associated complications, including meningitis, abscess formation, and infarction of the herniated brain parenchyma.

  5. Formation of secondary organic aerosol coating on black carbon particles near vehicular emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alex K. Y.; Chen, Chia-Li; Liu, Jun; Price, Derek J.; Betha, Raghu; Russell, Lynn M.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Cappa, Christopher D.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) emitted from incomplete combustion can result in significant impacts on air quality and climate. Understanding the mixing state of ambient BC and the chemical characteristics of its associated coatings is particularly important to evaluate BC fate and environmental impacts. In this study, we investigate the formation of organic coatings on BC particles in an urban environment (Fontana, California) under hot and dry conditions using a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). The SP-AMS was operated in a configuration that can exclusively detect refractory BC (rBC) particles and their coatings. Using the -log(NOx / NOy) ratio as a proxy for photochemical age of air masses, substantial formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) coatings on rBC particles was observed due to active photochemistry in the afternoon, whereas primary organic aerosol (POA) components were strongly associated with rBC from fresh vehicular emissions in the morning rush hours. There is also evidence that cooking-related organic aerosols were externally mixed from rBC. Positive matrix factorization and elemental analysis illustrate that most of the observed SOA coatings were freshly formed, providing an opportunity to examine SOA coating formation on rBCs near vehicular emissions. Approximately 7-20 wt % of secondary organic and inorganic species were estimated to be internally mixed with rBC on average, implying that rBC is unlikely the major condensation sink of SOA in this study. Comparison of our results to a co-located standard high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) measurement suggests that at least a portion of SOA materials condensed on rBC surfaces were chemically different from oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) particles that were externally mixed with rBC, although they could both be generated from local photochemistry.

  6. Phase transitions and phase miscibility of mixed particles of ammonium sulfate, toluene-derived secondary organic material, and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mackenzie L; You, Yuan; Kuwata, Mikinori; Bertram, Allan K; Martin, Scot T

    2013-09-12

    The phase states of atmospheric particles influence their roles in physicochemical processes related to air quality and climate. The phases of particles containing secondary organic materials (SOMs) are still uncertain, especially for SOMs produced from aromatic precursor gases. In this work, efflorescence and deliquescence phase transitions, as well as phase separation, in particles composed of toluene-derived SOM, ammonium sulfate, and water were studied by hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analysis (HTDMA) and optical microscopy. The SOM was produced in the Harvard Environmental Chamber by photo-oxidation of toluene at chamber relative humidities of toluene-derived SOM and aqueous ammonium sulfate, suggesting phase immiscibility between the two. Optical microscopy of particles prepared for ε = 0.12 confirmed phase separation for RH 0.5, the DRH values of ammonium sulfate in mixtures with SOM produced at toluene-derived SOM and aqueous ammonium sulfate across a limited range of organic volume fractions differentiates this SOM from previous reports for isoprene-derived SOM of full miscibility and for α-pinene-derived SOM of nearly full immiscibility with aqueous ammonium sulfate.

  7. Phase separation and structure formation in gadolinium based liquid and glassy metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Junhee

    2014-01-01

    In this PhD research the liquid-liquid phase separation phenomena in Gd-based alloys was investigated in terms of phase equilibria, microstructure formation upon quenching the melt and corresponding magnetic properties of phase-separated metallic glasses. The phase diagrams of the binary subsystems Gd-Zr and Gd-Ti were experimentally reassessed. Especially the phase equilibria with the liquid phase could be determined directly by combining in situ high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction with electrostatic levitation of the melt. The Gd-Zr system is of eutectic type with a metastable miscibility gap. The eutectic composition at 18 ± 2 at.% Zr, the liquidus line and the coexistence of bcc-Zr and bcc-Gd at elevated temperature could be determined. The Gd-Ti system is a monotectic system. The experimental observations in this work led to improved new Gd-Zr and Gd-Ti phase diagrams. The phase equilibria of the ternary Gd-Ti-Co system were analyzed for two alloy compositions. The XRD patterns for molten Gd 35 Ti 35 Co 30 gave direct evidence for the coexistence of two liquid phases formed by liquid-liquid phase separation. The first experimental and thermodynamic assessment of the ternary Gd-Ti-Co system revealed that the stable miscibility gap of binary Gd-Ti extends into the ternary Gd-Ti-Co system (up to about 30 at.% Co). New phase-separated metallic glasses were synthesized in Gd-TM-Co-Al (TM = Hf, Ti or Zr) alloys. The microstructure was characterized in terms of composition and cooling rate dependence of phase separation. Due to large positive enthalpy of mixing between Gd on the one side and Hf, Ti or Zr on the other side, the alloys undergo liquid-liquid phase separation during rapid quenching the melt. The parameters determining the microstructure development during phase separation are the thermodynamic properties of the liquid phase, kinetic parameters and quenching conditions. By controlling these parameters and conditions the microstructure can be

  8. Effects of Relative Humidity on Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from the Photooxidation of Benzene and Ethylbenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, L.; Xu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosol from benzene-NOx and ethylbenzene-NOx irradiations was investigated under different levels of relative humidity (RH) in a smog chamber. The results show that the increase in RH can greatly reduce the maximum O3 by the transformation of -NO2 and -ONO2-containing products into the particle phase. In benzene irradiations, the SOA number concentration increases over 26 times as RH rises from ethylbenzene irradiations, ethylglyoxal favors the formation of monohydrate, which limits the RH effects. During evaporating processes, the lost substances have similar structures for both benzene and ethylbenzene. This demonstrates that ethyl-containing substances are very stable and difficult to evaporate. For benzene some of glyoxal hydrates are left to form C-O-C and C=O-containing species like hemiacetal and acetal after evaporation, whereas for ethylbenzene, glyoxal favors cross reactions with ethylglyoxal during the evaporating process. It is concluded that the increase in RH can irreversibly enhance the yields of SOA from both benzene and ethylbenzene.

  9. Average accelerator simulation Truebeam using phase space in IAEA format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Emico Ferreira; Milian, Felix Mas; Paixao, Paulo Oliveira; Costa, Raranna Alves da; Velasco, Fermin Garcia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper is used a computational code of radiation transport simulation based on Monte Carlo technique, in order to model a linear accelerator of treatment by Radiotherapy. This work is the initial step of future proposals which aim to study several treatment of patient by Radiotherapy, employing computational modeling in cooperation with the institutions UESC, IPEN, UFRJ e COI. The Chosen simulation code is GATE/Geant4. The average accelerator is TrueBeam of Varian Company. The geometric modeling was based in technical manuals, and radiation sources on the phase space for photons, provided by manufacturer in the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) format. The simulations were carried out in equal conditions to experimental measurements. Were studied photons beams of 6MV, with 10 per 10 cm of field, focusing on a water phantom. For validation were compared dose curves in depth, lateral profiles in different depths of the simulated results and experimental data. The final modeling of this accelerator will be used in future works involving treatments and real patients. (author)

  10. Effect of temperature on the reaction pathway of calcium carbonate formation via precursor phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgstaller, Bettina; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Konrad, Florian; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    It has been earlier postulated that some biogenic and sedimentary calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals (e.g. calcite and aragonite) are secondary in origin and have originally formed via a metastable calcium carbonate precursor phase (e.g. amorphous CaCO3, [1-2]). Such formation pathways are likely affected by various physicochemical parameters including aqueous Mg and temperature. In an effort to improve our understanding on the formation mechanism of CaCO3 minerals, precipitation experiments were carried out by the addition of a 0.6 M (Ca,Mg)Cl2 solution at distinct Mg/Ca ratios (1/4 and 1/8) into a 1 M NaHCO3 solution under constant pH conditions(8.3 ±0.1). The formation of CaCO3 was systematically examined as a function of temperature (6, 12, 18 and 25 ±0.3° C). During the experimental runs mineral precipitation was monitored by in situ Raman spectroscopy as well as by continuous sampling and analyzing of precipitates and reactive solutions. The results revealed two pathways of CaCO3 formation depending on the initial Mg/Ca ratio and temperature: (i) In experiments with a Mg/Ca ratio of 1/4 at ≤ 12° C as well as in experiments with a Mg/Ca ratio of 1/8 at ≤ 18° C, ikaite (CaCO3 6H2O) acts as a precursor phase for aragonite formation. (ii) In contrast higher temperatures induced the formation of Mg-rich amorphous CaCO3 (Mg-ACC) which was subsequently transformed to Mg-rich calcite. In situ Raman spectra showed that the transformation of Mg-ACC to Mg-calcite occurs at a higher rate (˜ 8 min) compared to that of ikaite to aragonite (> 2 h). Thus, the formation of aragonite rather than of Mg-calcite occurs due to the slower release of Ca2+and CO32- ions into the Mg-rich reactive solution during retarded ikaite dissolution. This behavior is generally consistent with the observation that calcite precipitation is inhibited at elevated aqueous Mg/Ca ratios. [1] Addadi L., Raz S. and Weiner S. (2003) Advanced Materials 15, 959-970. [2] Rodriguez-Blanco J. D

  11. Stacking faults in Zr(Fe, Cr)2 Laves structured secondary phase particle in Zircaloy-4 alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengze; Li, Geping; Yuan, Fusen; Han, Fuzhou; Zhang, Yingdong; Gu, Hengfei

    2018-02-01

    Stacking faults (SFs) in secondary phase particles (SPPs), which generally crystallize in the Laves phase in Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) alloy, have been frequently observed by researchers. However, few investigations on the nano-scale structure of SFs have been carried out. In the present study, an SF containing C14 structured SPP, which located at grain boundaries (GBs) in the α-Zr matrix, was chosen to be investigated, for its particular substructure as well as location, aiming to reveal the nature of the SFs in the SPPs in Zr-4 alloy. It was indicated that the SFs in the C14 structured SPP actually existed in the local C36 structured Laves phase, for their similarities in crystallography. The C14 → C36 phase transformation, which was driven by synchroshearing among the (0001) basal planes, was the formation mechanism of the SFs in the SPPs. By analyzing the strained regions near the SPP, a model for understanding the driving force of the synchroshear was proposed: the interaction between SPP and GB resulted in the Zener pinning effect, leading to the shearing parallel to the (0001) basal planes of the C14 structured SPP, and the synchroshear was therefore activated.

  12. New positive feedback mechanism between boundary layer meteorology and secondary aerosol formation during severe haze events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Jia, Xingcan; Quan, Jiannong; Li, Jiayun; Li, Xia; Wu, Yongxue; Chen, Dan; Wang, Zifa; Liu, Yangang

    2018-04-17

    Severe haze events during which particulate matter (PM) increases quickly from tens to hundreds of microgram per cubic meter in 1-2 days frequently occur in China. Although it has been known that PM is influenced by complex interplays among emissions, meteorology, and physical and chemical processes, specific mechanisms remain elusive. Here, a new positive feedback mechanism between planetary boundary layer (PBL), relative humidity (RH), and secondary PM (SPM) formation is proposed based on a comprehensive field experiment and model simulation. The decreased PBL associated with increased PM increases RH by weakening the vertical transport of water vapor; the increased RH in turn enhances the SPM formation through heterogeneous aqueous reactions, which further enhances PM, weakens solar radiation, and decreases PBL height. This positive feedback, together with the PM-Radiation-PBL feedback, constitutes a key mechanism that links PM, radiation, PBL properties (e.g. PBL height and RH), and SPM formation, This mechanism is self-amplifying, leading to faster PM production, accumulation, and more severe haze pollution.

  13. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Ortega, Amber M.; Day, Douglas A.; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Hunter, James F.; Cross, Eben S.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Peng, Zhe; Brune, William H.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-03-01

    An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen-Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq.) atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected) compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m-3 when LVOC fate corrected), with maximum formation observed at 0.4-1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days) led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70), similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production of small oxidized organic

  14. In situ secondary organic aerosol formation from ambient pine forest air using an oxidation flow reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Palm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An oxidation flow reactor (OFR is a vessel inside which the concentration of a chosen oxidant can be increased for the purpose of studying SOA formation and aging by that oxidant. During the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen–Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study field campaign, ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in an OFR to measure the amount of SOA that could be formed from the real mix of ambient SOA precursor gases, and how that amount changed with time as precursors changed. High OH concentrations and short residence times allowed for semicontinuous cycling through a large range of OH exposures ranging from hours to weeks of equivalent (eq. atmospheric aging. A simple model is derived and used to account for the relative timescales of condensation of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs onto particles; condensational loss to the walls; and further reaction to produce volatile, non-condensing fragmentation products. More SOA production was observed in the OFR at nighttime (average 3 µg m−3 when LVOC fate corrected compared to daytime (average 0.9 µg m−3 when LVOC fate corrected, with maximum formation observed at 0.4–1.5 eq. days of photochemical aging. SOA formation followed a similar diurnal pattern to monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and toluene+p-cymene concentrations, including a substantial increase just after sunrise at 07:00 local time. Higher photochemical aging (> 10 eq. days led to a decrease in new SOA formation and a loss of preexisting OA due to heterogeneous oxidation followed by fragmentation and volatilization. When comparing two different commonly used methods of OH production in OFRs (OFR185 and OFR254-70, similar amounts of SOA formation were observed. We recommend the OFR185 mode for future forest studies. Concurrent gas-phase measurements of air after OH oxidation illustrate the decay of primary VOCs, production

  15. Mechanism of Secondary Hardening in Rapid Tempering of Dual-Phase Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dulal Chandra; Nayak, Sashank S.; Biro, Elliot; Gerlich, Adrian P.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Dual-phase steel with ferrite-martensite-bainite microstructure exhibited secondary hardening in the subcritical heat affected zone during fiber laser welding. Rapid isothermal tempering conducted in a Gleeble simulator also indicated occurrence of secondary hardening at 773 K (500 °C), as confirmed by plotting the tempered hardness against the Holloman-Jaffe parameter. Isothermally tempered specimens were characterized by analytic transmission electron microscopy and high-angle annular dark-field imaging. The cementite (Fe3C) and TiC located in the bainite phase of DP steel decomposed upon rapid tempering to form needle-shaped Mo2C (aspect ratio ranging from 10 to 25) and plate-shaped M4C3 carbides giving rise to secondary hardening. Precipitation of these thermodynamically stable and coherent carbides promoted the hardening phenomenon. However, complex carbides were only seen in the tempered bainite and were not detected in the tempered martensite. The martensite phase decomposed into ferrite and spherical Fe3C, and interlath-retained austenite decomposed into ferrite and elongated carbide.

  16. Model analysis of secondary organic aerosol formation by glyoxal in laboratory studies: the case for photoenhanced chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Andrew J; Woo, Joseph L; McNeill, V Faye

    2014-10-21

    The reactive uptake of glyoxal by atmospheric aerosols is believed to be a significant source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Several recent laboratory studies have been performed with the goal of characterizing this process, but questions remain regarding the effects of photochemistry on SOA growth. We applied GAMMA (McNeill et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 8075-8081), a photochemical box model with coupled gas-phase and detailed aqueous aerosol-phase chemistry, to simulate aerosol chamber studies of SOA formation by the uptake of glyoxal by wet aerosol under dark and irradiated conditions (Kroll et al. J. Geophys. Res. 2005, 110 (D23), 1-10; Volkamer et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2009, 9, 1907-1928; Galloway et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2009, 9, 3331- 306 3345 and Geophys. Res. Lett. 2011, 38, L17811). We find close agreement between simulated SOA growth and the results of experiments conducted under dark conditions using values of the effective Henry's Law constant of 1.3-5.5 × 10(7) M atm(-1). While irradiated conditions led to the production of some organic acids, organosulfates, and other oxidation products via well-established photochemical mechanisms, these additional product species contribute negligible aerosol mass compared to the dark uptake of glyoxal. Simulated results for irradiated experiments therefore fell short of the reported SOA mass yield by up to 92%. This suggests a significant light-dependent SOA formation mechanism that is not currently accounted for by known bulk photochemistry, consistent with recent laboratory observations of SOA production via photosensitizer chemistry.

  17. Formation of ω-phase in Zr-4 at.% Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobromyslov, A.V.; Kazantseva, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The ω-phase has been discovered in zirconium-base alloys with the transition metals of Period 4 of the Periodic Table only in Zr-V, Zr-Cr, and Zr-Cu alloys. The first mention about the ω-phase formation in Zr-Cr alloys was given for Zr-4.5 at.%. However, there were no experimental data that confirmed this fact. W.M. Rumball and F.G. Elder presented the X-ray results on the ω-phase formation in Zr-3.9 at.%Cr, but at the present time there are no electron microscope studies of the structure of the ω-phase in this system. Investigations of the features of the ω-phase formation, morphology of the ω-phase and the mechanism of its formation in the different zirconium-base alloys are necessary to establish the common features of the formation of structures with the metastable phases. The task of the present work is to study the conditions and features of the ω-phase formation in the Zr-Cr alloys and the effect of the eutectoid decomposition on the formation of ω-phase. This article is part of the detailed investigations of the feature and condition of the ω-phase formation in zirconium-base alloys with the transition metals of the groups I and V to VIII of the Periodic Table

  18. Secondary organic aerosol formation from ozone-initiated reactions with nicotine and secondhand tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Destaillats, Hugo; Smith, Jared D.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Gundel, Lara A.

    2010-11-01

    We used controlled laboratory experiments to evaluate the aerosol-forming potential of ozone reactions with nicotine and secondhand smoke. Special attention was devoted to real-time monitoring of the particle size distribution and chemical composition of SOA as they are believed to be key factors determining the toxicity of SOA. The experimental approach was based on using a vacuum ultraviolet photon ionization time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (VUV-AMS), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and off-line thermal desorption coupled to mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) for gas-phase byproducts analysis. Results showed that exposure of SHS to ozone induced the formation of ultrafine particles (smoke that is associated with the formation of ultrafine particles (UFP) through oxidative aging of secondhand smoke. The significance of this chemistry for indoor exposure and health effects is highlighted.

  19. Evidence of aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation from biogenic emissions in the North American Sonoran Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Wonaschütz, Anna; Arellano, Avelino; Betterton, Eric A; Sorooshian, Armin

    2013-07-16

    This study examines the role of aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation in the North American Sonoran Desert as a result of intense solar radiation, enhanced moisture, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). The ratio of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) to organic carbon (OC) nearly doubles during the monsoon season relative to other seasons of the year. When normalized by mixing height, the WSOC enhancement during monsoon months relative to preceding dry months (May-June) exceeds that of sulfate by nearly a factor of 10. WSOC:OC and WSOC are most strongly correlated with moisture parameters, temperature, and concentrations of O 3 and BVOCs. No positive relationship was identified between WSOC or WSOC:OC and anthropogenic tracers such as CO over a full year. This study points at the need for further work to understand the effect of BVOCs and moisture in altering aerosol properties in understudied desert regions.

  20. Formation of secondary organic aerosol in the Paris pollution plume and its impact on surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. J.; Beekmann, M.; Freney, E.; Sellegri, K.; Pichon, J. M.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Bourrianne, T.; Michoud, V.; Borbon, A.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary pollutants such as ozone, secondary inorganic aerosol, and secondary organic aerosol formed in the plumes of megacities can affect regional air quality. In the framework of the FP7/EU MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project, an intensive campaign was launched in the greater Paris region in July 2009. The major objective was to quantify different sources of organic aerosol (OA) within a megacity and in its plume. In this study, we use airborne measurements aboard the French ATR-42 aircraft to evaluate the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE within and downwind of the Paris region. Two mechanisms of secondary OA (SOA) formation are used, both including SOA formation from oxidation and chemical aging of primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SI-SOA) in the volatility basis set (VBS) framework. As for SOA formed from traditional VOC (volatile organic compound) precursors (traditional SOA), one applies chemical aging in the VBS framework adopting different SOA yields for high- and low-NOx environments, while another applies a single-step oxidation scheme without chemical aging. Two emission inventories are used for discussion of emission uncertainties. The slopes of the airborne OA levels versus Ox (i.e., O3 + NO2) show SOA formation normalized with respect to photochemical activity and are used for specific evaluation of the OA scheme in the model. The simulated slopes were overestimated slightly by factors of 1.1, 1.7 and 1.3 with respect to those observed for the three airborne measurements, when the most realistic "high-NOx" yields for traditional SOA formation in the VBS scheme are used in the model. In addition, these slopes are relatively stable from one day to another, which suggests that they are characteristic for the given megacity plume environment. The configuration with increased primary

  1. Spontaneous vesicle phase formation by pseudogemini surfactants in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nan; Shi, Lijuan; Lu, Fei; Xie, Shuting; Zheng, Liqiang

    2014-08-14

    The phase behavior of a kind of pseudogemini surfactant in aqueous solutions, formed by the mixture of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and butane-1,4-bis (methylimidazolium bromide) ([mim-C4-mim]Br2) or butane-1,4-bis(methylpyrrolidinium bromide) ([mpy-C4-mpy]Br2) in a molar ratio of 2 : 1, is reported in the present work. When [mim-C4-mim]Br2 or [mpy-C4-mpy]Br2 is mixed with SDBS in aqueous solutions, one cationic [mim-C4-mim]Br2 or [mpy-C4-mpy]Br2 molecule "bridges" two SDBS molecules by noncovalent interactions (e.g. electrostatic, π-π stacking, and σ-π interactions), behaving like a pseudogemini surfactant. Vesicles can be formed by this kind of pseudogemini surfactant, determined by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM) or cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The mixed system of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with [mim-C4-mim]Br2 or [mpy-C4-mpy]Br2 was also constructed, and only micelles were observed. We infer that a pseudogemini surfactant is formed under the synergic effect of electrostatic, π-π stacking, and σ-π interactions in the SDBS/[mim-C4-mim]Br2/H2O system, while electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interactions may provide the directional force for vesicle formation in the SDBS/[mpy-C4-mpy]Br2/H2O system.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF PHASES IN SECONDARY AlZn10Si8Mg CAST ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tillová

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Using recycled aluminium cast alloys is profitable in many aspects. Requiring only 5 % of the energy to produce secondary metal as compared to primary metal and generates only 5 % of the green house gas emissions, the recycling of aluminium is therefore beneficial of both environmental and economical point of view. Secondary AlZn10Si8Mg (UNIFONT® - 90 cast alloy are used for engine and vehicle constructions, hydraulic unit and mouldmaking without heat treatment. Properties include good castability, very good mechanical strength and elongation, light weight, good wear resistance, low thermal expansion and very good machining. Improved mechanical properties are strongly dependent upon the morphologies, type and distribution of the secondary phases, which are in turn a function of alloy composition and cooling rate. The presence of additional elements as Mg, Mn, Fe, or Cu allows many complex intermetallic phases to form, which make characterisation non-trivial. These include, for example, Mg2Si, Al2CuMg and AlFeMn phases, all of which may have some solubility for additional elements. Phase’s identification in aluminium alloys is often non-trivial due to the fact that some of the phases have either similar crystal structures or only subtle changes in their chemistries. A combination different analytical techniques (light microscopy upon black-white and colour etching, scanning electron microscopy (SEM upon deep etching, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX and HV 0.01 microhardness measurement were therefore been used for the identification of the various phase.

  3. The Role of Dicentric Chromosome Formation and Secondary Centromere Deletion in the Evolution of Myeloid Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Ruth N.; Campbell, Lynda J.

    2011-01-01

    Dicentric chromosomes have been identified as instigators of the genome instability associated with cancer, but this instability is often resolved by one of a number of different secondary events. These include centromere inactivation, inversion, and intercentromeric deletion. Deletion or excision of one of the centromeres may be a significant occurrence in myeloid malignancy and other malignancies but has not previously been widely recognized, and our reports are the first describing centromere deletion in cancer cells. We review what is known about dicentric chromosomes and the mechanisms by which they can undergo stabilization in both constitutional and cancer genomes. The failure to identify centromere deletion in cancer cells until recently can be partly explained by the standard approaches to routine diagnostic cancer genome analysis, which do not identify centromeres in the context of chromosome organization. This hitherto hidden group of primary dicentric, secondary monocentric chromosomes, together with other unrecognized dicentric chromosomes, points to a greater role for dicentric chromosomes in cancer initiation and progression than is generally acknowledged. We present a model that predicts and explains a significant role for dicentric chromosomes in the formation of unbalanced translocations in malignancy. PMID:22567363

  4. UV light selectively coinduces supply pathways from primary metabolism and flavonoid secondary product formation in parsley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logemann, Elke; Tavernaro, Annette; Schulz, Wolfgang; Somssich, Imre E.; Hahlbrock, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    The UV light-induced synthesis of UV-protective flavonoids diverts substantial amounts of substrates from primary metabolism into secondary product formation and thus causes major perturbations of the cellular homeostasis. Results from this study show that the mRNAs encoding representative enzymes from various supply pathways are coinduced in UV-irradiated parsley cells (Petroselinum crispum) with two mRNAs of flavonoid glycoside biosynthesis, encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase. Strong induction was observed for mRNAs encoding glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (carbohydrate metabolism, providing substrates for the shikimate pathway), 3-deoxyarabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (shikimate pathway, yielding phenylalanine), and acyl-CoA oxidase (fatty acid degradation, yielding acetyl-CoA), and moderate induction for an mRNA encoding S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase (activated methyl cycle, yielding S-adenosyl-methionine for B-ring methylation). Ten arbitrarily selected mRNAs representing various unrelated metabolic activities remained unaffected. Comparative analysis of acyl-CoA oxidase and chalcone synthase with respect to mRNA expression modes and gene promoter structure and function revealed close similarities. These results indicate a fine-tuned regulatory network integrating those functionally related pathways of primary and secondary metabolism that are specifically required for protective adaptation to UV irradiation. Although the response of parsley cells to UV light is considerably broader than previously assumed, it contrasts greatly with the extensive metabolic reprogramming observed previously in elicitor-treated or fungus-infected cells. PMID:10677554

  5. RGM regulates BMP-mediated secondary axis formation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclère, Lucas; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2014-12-11

    Patterning of the metazoan dorsoventral axis is mediated by a complex interplay of BMP signaling regulators. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) is a conserved BMP coreceptor that has not been implicated in axis specification. We show that NvRGM is a key positive regulator of BMP signaling during secondary axis establishment in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. NvRGM regulates first the generation and later the shape of a BMP-dependent Smad1/5/8 gradient with peak activity on the side opposite the NvBMP/NvRGM/NvChordin expression domain. Full knockdown of Smad1/5/8 signaling blocks the formation of endodermal structures, the mesenteries, and the establishment of bilateral symmetry, while altering the gradient through partial NvRGM or NvBMP knockdown shifts the boundaries of asymmetric gene expression and the positioning of the mesenteries along the secondary axis. These findings provide insight into the diversification of axis specification mechanisms and identify a previously unrecognized role for RGM in BMP-mediated axial patterning. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of Dicentric Chromosome Formation and Secondary Centromere Deletion in the Evolution of Myeloid Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth N. MacKinnon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dicentric chromosomes have been identified as instigators of the genome instability associated with cancer, but this instability is often resolved by one of a number of different secondary events. These include centromere inactivation, inversion, and intercentromeric deletion. Deletion or excision of one of the centromeres may be a significant occurrence in myeloid malignancy and other malignancies but has not previously been widely recognized, and our reports are the first describing centromere deletion in cancer cells. We review what is known about dicentric chromosomes and the mechanisms by which they can undergo stabilization in both constitutional and cancer genomes. The failure to identify centromere deletion in cancer cells until recently can be partly explained by the standard approaches to routine diagnostic cancer genome analysis, which do not identify centromeres in the context of chromosome organization. This hitherto hidden group of primary dicentric, secondary monocentric chromosomes, together with other unrecognized dicentric chromosomes, points to a greater role for dicentric chromosomes in cancer initiation and progression than is generally acknowledged. We present a model that predicts and explains a significant role for dicentric chromosomes in the formation of unbalanced translocations in malignancy.

  7. High resolution orientation mapping of secondary phases in ATI 718Plus® alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakow Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The polycrystalline superalloy ATI 718Plus ® (hereafter 718Plus has been developed to replace the established alloy Inconel 718 by offering higher temperature capability for applications in gas turbines. The alloy exhibits two secondary phases in the austenitic matrix; it is strengthened by the γ′-phase with η-phase discontinuously precipitated at the grain boundaries. It can be utilized to control grain growth during forging. Generally, hexagonal η phase has been reported to possess a defined crystallographic orientation with the matrix. However, the material studied here exhibits blocky η-phase that has been precipitated and grown during thermo-mechanical processing. Therefore a measurable change in orientation relationship is expected. The standard technique for orientation mapping is electron back-scattered diffraction with spatial resolution of 100 nm. That is insufficient for studying η-phase in 718Plus. By applying high resolution orientation mapping in the transmission electron microscope (Philips CM 300 FEGTEM equipped with a Nanomegas ASTARTM system a resolution of 3 nm was achieved. The indexed diffraction data was analysed using the Matlab Toolbox Mtex. The analysis included grain reconstruction and exclusion of low confidence measurements. The data set allows generating phase boundary maps indicating interfaces characteristics. Quantitative assessment shows that only 19% of the γ-η-interfaces fulfil the orientation relationship.

  8. High formation of secondary organic aerosol from the photo-oxidation of toluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hildebrandt

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Toluene and other aromatics have long been viewed as the dominant anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA precursors, but the SOA mass yields from toluene reported in previous studies vary widely. Experiments conducted in the Carnegie Mellon University environmental chamber to study SOA formation from the photo-oxidation of toluene show significantly larger SOA production than parameterizations employed in current air-quality models. Aerosol mass yields depend on experimental conditions: yields are higher under higher UV intensity, under low-NOx conditions and at lower temperatures. The extent of oxidation of the aerosol also varies with experimental conditions, consistent with ongoing, progressive photochemical aging of the toluene SOA. Measurements using a thermodenuder system suggest that the aerosol formed under high- and low-NOx conditions is semi-volatile. These results suggest that SOA formation from toluene depends strongly on ambient conditions. An approximate parameterization is proposed for use in air-quality models until a more thorough treatment accounting for the dynamic nature of this system becomes available.

  9. Secondary organic aerosol formation and composition from the photo-oxidation of methyl chavicol (estragole)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, K. L.; Hamilton, J. F.; Rickard, A. R.; Bloss, W. J.; Alam, M. S.; Camredon, M.; Muñoz, A.; Vázquez, M.; Borrás, E.; Ródenas, M.

    2014-06-01

    The increasing demand for palm oil for uses in biofuel and food products is leading to rapid expansion of oil palm agriculture. Methyl chavicol (also known as estragole and 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene) is an oxygenated biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) that was recently identified as the main floral emission from an oil palm plantation in Malaysian Borneo. The emissions of methyl chavicol observed may impact regional atmospheric chemistry, but little is known of its ability to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The photo-oxidation of methyl chavicol was investigated at the European Photoreactor chamber as a part of the atmospheric chemistry of methyl chavicol (ATMECH) project. Aerosol samples were collected using a particle into liquid sampler (PILS) and analysed offline using an extensive range of instruments including; high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-ITMS), high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOFMS) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The SOA yield was determined as 18 and 29% for an initial VOC mixing ratio of 212 and 460 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) respectively; using a VOC:NOx ratio of ~5:1. In total, 59 SOA compounds were observed and the structures of 10 compounds have been identified using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. The addition of hydroxyl and/or nitro-functional groups to the aromatic ring appears to be an important mechanistic pathway for aerosol formation. This results in the formation of compounds with both low volatility and high O:C ratios, where functionalisation rather than fragmentation is mainly observed as a result of the stability of the ring. The SOA species observed can be characterised as semi-volatile to low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (SVOOA and LVOOA) components and therefore may be important in aerosol formation and growth.

  10. Secondary organic aerosol formation from phenolic compounds in the absence of NOx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cocker III

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available SOA formation from benzene, toluene, m-xylene, and their corresponding phenolic compounds were investigated using the UCR/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber to evaluate the importance of phenolic compounds as intermediate species in aromatic SOA formation. SOA formation yield measurements coupled to gas-phase yield measurements indicate that approximately 20% of the SOA of benzene, toluene, and m-xylene could be ascribed to the phenolic route under low NOx conditions. The SOA densities tend to be initially as high as approximately 1.8 g cm−3 and eventually reach the range of 1.3–1.4 g cm−3. The final SOA density was found to be independent of elemental ratio (O/C indicating that applying constant density (e.g., 1.4 g cm−3 to SOA formed from different aromatic compounds tested in this study is a reasonable approximation. Results from a novel on-line PILS-TOFMS (Particle-into-Liquid Sampler coupled with Agilent Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer are reported. Major signals observed by the on-line/off-line Agilent TOFMS indicated that products had the same number of carbon atoms as their parent aromatics, suggesting importance of ring-retaining products or ring-opening products following ring-cleavage.

  11. Leading Formative Assessment Change: A 3-Phase Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2016

    2016-01-01

    If you are seeking greater student engagement and growth, you need to integrate high-impact formative assessment practices into daily instruction. Read the final article in our five-part series to find advice aimed at leaders determined to bring classroom formative assessment practices district wide. Learn: (1) what you MUST consider when…

  12. Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

  13. Detection of secondary phases in duplex stainless steel by magnetic force microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Salgado, J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Domínguez-Aguilar, M.A., E-mail: madoming@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Castro-Domínguez, B. [University of Tokyo, Department of Chemical System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Bldg. 5, 7F 722, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8656 (Japan); Hernández-Hernández, P. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Newman, R.C. [University of Toronto, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, 200 College Street, Toronto M5S 3E5 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    The secondary phase transformations in a commercial super duplex stainless steel were investigated by micro-chemical analyses and high resolution scanning probe microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray and electron probe detected ferrite and austenite as well as secondary phases in unetched aged duplex stainless steel type 25Cr-7Ni-3Mo. Volta potential indicated that nitride and sigma appeared more active than ferrite, while secondary austenite and austenite presented a nobler potential. Reversal order in nobility is thought to be attributable to the potential ranking provided by oxide nature diversity as a result of secondary phase surface compositions on steel. After eutectoid transformation, secondary austenite was detected by electron probe microanalysis, whereas atomic force microscopy distinguished this phase from former austenite by image contrast. Magnetic force microscopy revealed a “ghosted” effect on the latter microstructure probably derived from metal memory reminiscence of mechanical polishing at passivity and long range magnetic forces of ferrite phase. - Highlights: • Nobility detection of secondary phases by SKPFM in DSS particles is not a straightforward procedure. • As Volta potential and contrast are not always consistent SKPFM surface oxides is thought played an important role in detection. • AFM distinguished secondary austenite from former austenite by image contrast though SEM required EPMA.

  14. Modeling of formation of binary-phase hollow nanospheres from metallic solid nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.; Fischer, F.D.; Vollath, D.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous formation of binary-phase hollow nanospheres by reaction of a metallic nanosphere with a non-metallic component in the surrounding atmosphere is observed for many systems. The kinetic model describing this phenomenon is derived by application of the thermodynamic extremal principle. The necessary condition of formation of the binary-phase hollow nanospheres is that the diffusion coefficient of the metallic component in the binary phase is higher than that of the non-metallic component (Kirkendall effect occurs in the correct direction). The model predictions of the time to formation of the binary-phase hollow nanospheres agree with the experimental observations

  15. The Physics of Weldpool Formation: Phase Transition Process In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... phase transition took place but did not significantly alter the microstructure of the weldment. This study also supports the claims made by different investigators about the different heat treatments given to metals to determine a particular hardenability level. This heat treatment process is an indicator of phase change.

  16. Kinetic study of the formation of the superconducting A15 phase in the Nb-Al-Si system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh-Phung.

    1978-12-01

    So far, aluminum-containing superconductors showed excellent critical fields and temperatures. Powder Metallurgy shows the most promise in producing these particular kinds of superconductors in the near future. The scope of this research is to apply a kinetic study to observe the behavior of the Nb(Al,Si) system at elevated temperatures. From such observations, an optimized method of obtaining the A15 superconducting phase can be achieved. This study has resulted in a two step heat treatment to obtain the A15 phase. For the primary heat treatment of infiltrated rods, 600 0 C for 11 hours or 650 0 C for 1 hour was found suitable to form a barrier of intermetallic compound around the pores. For the secondary heat treatment, 1700 0 C for 15 seconds resulted in the formation of the A15 superconducting phase with a critical temperature of 18.25 0 K. A15 formation for wires is similar to infiltrated rods. The only difference is the diffusion path which is now much shorter. 600 0 C for 1 hour was found suitable for the primary heat treatment and 1700 0 C for 15 seconds was the most suitable for the secondary heat treatment. The highest critical temperature found thus far was 18.78 0 K

  17. Formation, transformation and dissolution of phases formed on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.

    1983-03-01

    The basic mechanisms of film growth, transformation, and dissolution of phases formed on surfaces are discussed. Film growth can occur via solid-state processes or via substrate (usally metal or alloy) dissolution, followed by local supersaturation and precipitation of an insoluble phase. The phase(s) formed may be metastable and transform to a more stable phase, via either solid-state or dissolution-reprecipitation processes. Film dissolution reactions can also occur via a variety of mechanisms, including: (i) direct chemical dissolution when no oxidation state change occurs; (ii) redox dissolution when the film dissolves via a redox reaction involving a reducing or oxidizing agent in solution; and (iii) autoreduction, where film dissolution is coupled to metal dissolution. Such film-growth and dissolution processes, which often produce complex multilayer films, are common in the nuclear industry. A number of examples are discussed

  18. Impact of NOx and OH on secondary organic aerosol formation from β-pinene photooxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarrafzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the NOx dependence of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from photooxidation of the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC β-pinene was comprehensively investigated in the Jülich Plant Atmosphere Chamber. Consistent with the results of previous NOx studies we found increases of SOA yields with increasing [NOx] at low-NOx conditions ([NOx]0  <  30 ppb, [BVOC]0 ∕ [NOx]0  >  10 ppbC ppb−1. Furthermore, increasing [NOx] at high-NOx conditions ([NOx]0  >  30 ppb, [BVOC]0 ∕ [NOx]0  ∼  10 to  ∼  2.6 ppbC ppb−1 suppressed the SOA yield. The increase of SOA yield at low-NOx conditions was attributed to an increase of OH concentration, most probably by OH recycling in NO + HO2  →  NO2 + OH reaction. Separate measurements without NOx addition but with different OH primary production rates confirmed the OH dependence of SOA yields. After removing the effect of OH concentration on SOA mass growth by keeping the OH concentration constant, SOA yields only decreased with increasing [NOx]. Measuring the NOx dependence of SOA yields at lower [NO] ∕ [NO2] ratio showed less pronounced increase in both OH concentration and SOA yield. This result was consistent with our assumption of OH recycling by NO and to SOA yields being dependent on OH concentrations. Our results furthermore indicated that NOx dependencies vary for different NOx compositions. A substantial fraction of the NOx-induced decrease of SOA yields at high-NOx conditions was caused by NOx-induced suppression of new particle formation (NPF, which subsequently limits the particle surface where low volatiles condense. This was shown by probing the NOx dependence of SOA formation in the presence of seed particles. After eliminating the effect of NOx-induced suppression of NPF and NOx-induced changes of OH concentrations, the remaining effect of NOx on the SOA yield from

  19. Glyoxal processing by aerosol multiphase chemistry: towards a kinetic modeling framework of secondary organic aerosol formation in aqueous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ervens

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a modeling framework based on laboratory data to describe the kinetics of glyoxal reactions that form secondary organic aerosol (SOA in aqueous aerosol particles. Recent laboratory results on glyoxal reactions are reviewed and a consistent set of empirical reaction rate constants is derived that captures the kinetics of glyoxal hydration and subsequent reversible and irreversible reactions in aqueous inorganic and water-soluble organic aerosol seeds. Products of these processes include (a oligomers, (b nitrogen-containing products, (c photochemical oxidation products with high molecular weight. These additional aqueous phase processes enhance the SOA formation rate in particles and yield two to three orders of magnitude more SOA than predicted based on reaction schemes for dilute aqueous phase (cloud chemistry for the same conditions (liquid water content, particle size.

    The application of the new module including detailed chemical processes in a box model demonstrates that both the time scale to reach aqueous phase equilibria and the choice of rate constants of irreversible reactions have a pronounced effect on the predicted atmospheric relevance of SOA formation from glyoxal. During day time, a photochemical (most likely radical-initiated process is the major SOA formation pathway forming ∼5 μg m−3 SOA over 12 h (assuming a constant glyoxal mixing ratio of 300 ppt. During night time, reactions of nitrogen-containing compounds (ammonium, amines, amino acids contribute most to the predicted SOA mass; however, the absolute predicted SOA masses are reduced by an order of magnitude as compared to day time production. The contribution of the ammonium reaction significantly increases in moderately acidic or neutral particles (5 < pH < 7.

    Glyoxal uptake into ammonium sulfate seed under dark conditions can be represented with a single reaction parameter keffupt that does not depend

  20. Real Time Control Software for Electromagnetic Formation Flight, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the focus of space system architectures changes from single, to multiple, and eventually to many spacecraft flying in formation, a greater demand on total...

  1. The poplar MYB master switches bind to the SMRE site and activate the secondary wall biosynthetic program during wood formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqin Zhong

    Full Text Available Wood is mainly composed of secondary walls, which constitute the most abundant stored carbon produced by vascular plants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling secondary wall deposition during wood formation is not only an important issue in plant biology but also critical for providing molecular tools to custom-design wood composition suited for diverse end uses. Past molecular and genetic studies have revealed a transcriptional network encompassing a group of wood-associated NAC and MYB transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of the secondary wall biosynthetic program during wood formation in poplar trees. Here, we report the functional characterization of poplar orthologs of MYB46 and MYB83 that are known to be master switches of secondary wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. In addition to the two previously-described PtrMYB3 and PtrMYB20, two other MYBs, PtrMYB2 and PtrMYB21, were shown to be MYB46/MYB83 orthologs by complementation and overexpression studies in Arabidopsis. The functional roles of these PtrMYBs in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis were further demonstrated in transgenic poplar plants showing an ectopic deposition of secondary walls in PtrMYB overexpressors and a reduction of secondary wall thickening in their dominant repressors. Furthermore, PtrMYB2/3/20/21 together with two other tree MYBs, the Eucalyptus EgMYB2 and the pine PtMYB4, were shown to differentially bind to and activate the eight variants of the 7-bp SMRE consensus sequence, composed of ACC(A/TA(A/C(T/C. Together, our results indicate that the tree MYBs, PtrMYB2/3/20/21, EgMYB2 and PtMYB4, are master transcriptional switches that activate the SMRE sites in the promoters of target genes and thereby regulate secondary wall biosynthesis during wood formation.

  2. Characterization of new particle and secondary aerosol formation during summertime in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y. M. (Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, Centre for Atmosphere Watch and Services, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing (China); Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)); Zhang, X. Y.; Sun, J. Y.; Lin, W. L.; Shen, X. J. (Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, Centre for Atmosphere Watch and Services, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing (China)), e-mail: xiaoye@cams.cma.gov.cn; Gong, S. L. (Air Quality Research Div., Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Toronto (Canada)); Yang, S. (State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Inst. of Atmospheric Physics, CAS, Beijing (China))

    2011-07-15

    Size-resolved aerosol number and mass concentrations and the mixing ratios of O{sub 3} and various trace gases were continuously measured at an urban station before and during the Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games (5 June to 22 September, 2008). 23 new particle formation (NPF) events were identified; these usually were associated with changes in wind direction and/or rising concentrations of gas-phase precursors or after precipitation events. Most of the NPF events started in the morning and continued to noon as particles in the nucleation mode grew into the Aitken mode. From noon to midnight, the aerosols grew into the accumulation mode through condensation and coagulation. Ozone showed a gradual rise starting around 10:00 local time, reached its peak around 15:00 and then declined as the organics increased. The dominant new particle species were organics (40-75% of PM{sub 1}) and sulphate; nitrate and ammonium were more minor contributors

  3. Characterization of new particle and secondary aerosol formation during summertime in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Sun, J. Y.; Lin, W. L.; Gong, S. L.; Shen, X. J.; Yang, S.

    2011-07-01

    Size-resolved aerosol number and mass concentrations and the mixing ratios of O3 and various trace gases were continuously measured at an urban station before and during the Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games (5 June to 22 September, 2008). 23 new particle formation (NPF) events were identified; these usually were associated with changes in wind direction and/or rising concentrations of gas-phase precursors or after precipitation events. Most of the NPF events started in the morning and continued to noon as particles in the nucleation mode grew into the Aitken mode. From noon to midnight, the aerosols grew into the accumulation mode through condensation and coagulation. Ozone showed a gradual rise starting around 10:00 local time, reached its peak around 15:00 and then declined as the organics increased. The dominant new particle species were organics (40-75% of PM1) and sulphate; nitrate and ammonium were more minor contributors.

  4. Evidence of hexatic phase formation in two-dimensional Lennard-Jones binary arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Johnson, W.L.; Goddard, W.A. III

    1996-01-01

    We report evidence of the hexatic phase formation in Lennard-Jones binary substitutional random arrays from isothermal-isobaric molecular-dynamics simulations. The hexatic phase is analogous to those predicted in Kosterlitz-Thouless theory of melting that is characterized by short-range translational order and quasi-long-range orientational order. At the crystal to hexatic phase transition, dislocation pairs are observed to unbind into isolated dislocations. Further disordering of the hexatic phase, however, does not lead to dissociation of dislocations into disclinations. Instead, the dislocations become clustered and form dislocation networks which results in formation of amorphous phases. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Primary Emission and the Potential of Secondary Aerosol Formation from Chinese Gasoline Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Qin, Yanhong; Du, Zhuofei; Li, Mengjin; Zheng, Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Guo, Song; Shao, Min; Wang, Yinhui; Shuai, Shijin

    2017-04-01

    Along with the urbanization and economic growth, vehicle population in China reached 269 million, ranked the second in the world in 2015. Gasoline vehicle is identified to be the main source for urban PM2.5 in China, accounting for 15%-31%. In this study the impact of fuel components on PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from a gasoline port fuel injection (PFI) engine and a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine are discussed. Results show that, higher proportion of aromatics, alkenes or sulfur in gasoline fuel will lead to higher PM emissions. The PM from the PFI engine mainly consists of OC and a small amount of EC and inorganic ions, while the PM discharge from the GDI engine mainly consists of EC, OM and a small amount of inorganic ions. Since the GDI engines can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, and it would become more and more popular in the near future. The characteristics of POM component, emission factors and source profile were investigated from GDI engine, particularly focused on the effect of engine speed, load and the catalyst, which will be very much helpful for source identification as source indicators. Chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from exhaust of a PFI gasoline engine and China V gasoline fuel. During 4-5 h simulation, equivalent to10 days of atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing, the extreme SOA production was 426 ± 85 mg/kg fuel, with high precursors and OH exposure. 14% of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatility organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reduction of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles is essential to mediate pollution in China.

  6. Formation of the minor phase shell on the surface of hypermonotectic alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.Z.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure evolution in an atomized hypermonotectic alloy drop is calculated. The results indicate that the formation of the minor phase shell on the surface of the powder is due to the heterogeneous nucleation of the minor phase droplets on the atomized drop surface and the resultant diffusional transfer of solute during the liquid-liquid phase transformation

  7. Phase, composition, and growth mechanism for secondary organic aerosol from the ozonolysis of α-cedrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpenes are an important class of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs and have a high secondary organic aerosol (SOA forming potential. However, SOA formation from sesquiterpene oxidation has received less attention compared to other BVOCs such as monoterpenes, and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this work, we present a comprehensive experimental investigation of the ozonolysis of α-cedrene both in a glass flow reactor (27–44 s reaction times and in static Teflon chambers (30–60 min reaction times. The SOA was collected by impaction or filters, followed by analysis using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, or measured online using direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS and aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS. The slow evaporation of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate that was incorporated into the SOA during its formation and growth gives an estimated diffusion coefficient of 3  ×  10−15 cm2 s−1 and shows that SOA is a highly viscous semisolid. Possible structures of four newly observed low molecular weight (MW  ≤  300 Da reaction products with higher oxygen content than those previously reported were identified. High molecular weight (HMW products formed in the early stages of the oxidation have structures consistent with aldol condensation products, peroxyhemiacetals, and esters. The size-dependent distributions of HMW products in the SOA, as well as the effects of stabilized Criegee intermediate (SCI scavengers on HMW products and particle formation, confirm that HMW products and reactions of SCI play a crucial role in early stages of particle formation. Our studies provide new insights into mechanisms of SOA formation and growth in α-cedrene ozonolysis and the important role of sesquiterpenes in new particle formation as suggested by field measurements.

  8. Numerical analysis of gas-liquid two-phase flow in secondary side of steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, Michio; Nakamura, Akira; Yagi, Yoshinori [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The steam generator (SG) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is an important two-phase flow component as the boundary between the primary loop and the secondary loop. In this study, we performed gas-liquid two-phase flow analyses for SG reliability tests conduced by Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) using the two-fluid model of a thermal-hydraulic computer code PHOENICS. In order to calculate the location of the boiling initiation accurately, detailed inputs were required for the friction coefficients affecting the velocity distribution and the heat transfer distribution. However, the velocity and heat transfer distributions did not greatly affect the void fractions in the upper region of the heat transfer tubes. The calculated void fractions agreed with the measured values within 4% as the local average and within 2% as an average in a cross-section, except the region of low void fractions. (author)

  9. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Jia

    Full Text Available Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley's L(r functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined.

  10. Secondary eyewall formation in WRF simulations of Hurricanes Rita and Katrina (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, Sergio F.; Corbosiero, Kristen L.

    2011-04-01

    An analysis is presented of two high-resolution hurricane simulations of Katrina and Rita (2005) that exhibited secondary eyewall formation (SEF). The results support the notion of vortex Rossby waves (VRWs) having an important role in SEF and suggest that VRW activity is a defining aspect of the moat. SEF occurs at a radius of ˜65 (80) km in Katrina (Rita), close to the hypothesized stagnation radius of VRWs. VRW activity appears to be the result of eye-eyewall mixing events, themselves a product of the release of barotropic instability. The convection in the radial region that becomes the moat is mainly in the form of VRWs propagating radially outward from the primary eyewall until the negative radial gradient of potential vorticity is no longer conducive for their propagation. These convectively coupled waves, originating and being expelled from the eyewall, are rotation dominated and have the coherency necessary to survive their passage through the strain-dominated region outside the eyewall.

  11. Influence of secondary phases during annealing on re-crystallization of CuInSe{sub 2} electrodeposited films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobeaut, A. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et Chimie des Solides, 33 rue St Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Laffont, L., E-mail: lydia.laffont@u-picardie.f [Laboratoire de Reactivite et Chimie des Solides, 33 rue St Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Tarascon, J.-M. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et Chimie des Solides, 33 rue St Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Parissi, L.; Kerrec, O. [Institut de Recherche et de Developpement de l' Energie Photovoltaique, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou cedex (France)

    2009-06-01

    Electrodeposited CuInSe{sub 2} thin films are of potential importance, as light absorber material, in the next generation of photovoltaic cells as long as we can optimize their annealing process to obtain dense and highly crystalline films. The intent of this study was to gain a basic understanding of the key experimental parameters governing the structural-textural-composition evolution of thin films as function of the annealing temperature via X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscopy and thermal analysis measurements. The crystallization of the electrodeposited CuInSe{sub 2} films, with the presence of Se and orthorhombic Cu{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}Se (o-Cu{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}Se) phases, occurs over two distinct temperature ranges, between 220 {sup o}C and 250 {sup o}C and beyond 520 {sup o}C. Such domains of temperature are consistent with the melting of elemental Se and the binary CuSe phase, respectively. The CuSe phase forming during annealing results from the reaction between the two secondary species o-Cu{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}Se and Se (o-Cu{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}Se + Se {yields} 2 CuSe) but can be decomposed into the cubic {beta}-Cu{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}Se phase by slowing down the heating rate. Formation of liquid CuSe beyond 520{sup o}C seems to govern both the grain size of the films and the porosity of the substrate-CuInSe{sub 2} film interface. A simple model explaining the competitive interplay between the film crystallinity and the interface porosity is proposed, aiming at an improved protocol based on temperature range, which will enable to enhance the film crystalline nature while limiting the interface porosity.

  12. Secondary circulation in river junctions even at very low flow momentum ratios : The legacy effects of point bar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moradi, Gelare; Rennie, Colin; Vermeulen, Bart; Cardot, Romain; Lane, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    River confluences remain a challenging subject because of their 3D geometry which leads to a complex, three-dimensional mean and turbulent velocity processes. Since secondary circulation plays an important role in flow hydrodynamics and the development of bank erosion, bed scour and bar formation,

  13. Conversion of Phase II Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Data to Common Format; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    A vast amount of aerodynamic, structural, and turbine performance data were collected during three phases of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE). To compare data from the three phases, a similar format of engineering unit data is required. The process of converting Phase II data from a previous engineering unit format to raw integer counts is discussed. The integer count files can then be input to the new post-processing software, MUNCH. The resulting Phase II engineering unit files are in a common format with current and future UAE engineering unit files. An additional objective for changing the file format was to convert the Phase II data from English units to SI units of measurement

  14. Phase separation and formation of omega phase in the beta matrix of a Ti-V-Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, H.P. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Devaraj, A.; Nag, S. [Center for Advanced Research and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Bettles, C.J. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Gibson, M. [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Locked Bag 10, Clayton South, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Fraser, H.L. [Center for the Accelerated Maturation of Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Muddle, B.C. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Banerjee, R., E-mail: rajarshi.banerjee@unt.edu [Center for Advanced Research and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The formation of the {omega} phase in the presence of simultaneous development of compositional modulations (or phase separation) within the body-centered cubic {beta} matrix phase of a Ti-10V-6Cu (wt.%) alloy during continuous cooling has been investigated using a combination of transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. While a water quench from the high-temperature {beta} phase field allows apparently athermal formation of {omega} domains without any significant partitioning of solute or modulation in matrix composition, subsequent annealing at 500 {sup o}C for just 60 s leads to unusually rapid growth of the {omega} domains concurrent with, but apparently independent of, a slower development of finer-scale modulations in solute composition occurring apparently uniformly across both {omega} and {beta} phases. In contrast, on slower air cooling from the solution treatment temperature, there are pronounced compositional fluctuations within the {beta} phase, presumably as a product of spinodal decomposition, that are detectable prior to the formation of {omega} phase. The {omega} phase subsequently forms preferentially in solute-depleted regions of the matrix {beta}, with a composition reflecting the local matrix composition and a solute content significantly lower than the average matrix composition. As a result, it has a cuboidal morphology, distinguishably different from the elliposoidal form that is observed in samples water-quenched and annealed at 500 deg. C.

  15. Numerical modeling of experimental observations on gas formation and multi-phase flow of carbon dioxide in subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, R.; Dash, Z.; Sakaki, T.; Plampin, M. R.; Lassen, R. N.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Zyvoloski, G.

    2011-12-01

    One of the concerns related to geologic CO2 sequestration is potential leakage of CO2 and its subsequent migration to shallow groundwater resources leading to geochemical impacts. Developing approaches to monitor CO2 migration in shallow aquifer and mitigate leakage impacts will require improving our understanding of gas phase formation and multi-phase flow subsequent to CO2 leakage in shallow aquifers. We are utilizing an integrated approach combining laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to characterize the multi-phase flow of CO2 in shallow aquifers. The laboratory experiments involve a series of highly controlled experiments in which CO2 dissolved water is injected in homogeneous and heterogeneous soil columns and tanks. The experimental results are used to study the effects of soil properties, temperature, pressure gradients and heterogeneities on gas formation and migration. We utilize the Finite Element Heat and Mass (FEHM) simulator (Zyvoloski et al, 2010) to numerically model the experimental results. The numerical models capture the physics of CO2 exsolution, multi-phase fluid flow as well as sand heterogeneity. Experimental observations of pressure, temperature and gas saturations are used to develop and constrain conceptual models for CO2 gas-phase formation and multi-phase CO2 flow in porous media. This talk will provide details of development of conceptual models based on experimental observation, development of numerical models for laboratory experiments and modelling results.

  16. Enhancement of polar crystalline phase formation in transparent PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Goo; Ha, Jong-Wook, E-mail: jongwook@krict.re.kr; Sohn, Eun-Ho; Park, In Jun; Lee, Soo-Bok

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The crystalline phase in transparent PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite films was investigated. • CaF{sub 2} promoted the formation of polar crystalline phases in PVDF matrix. • Ordered γ-phase was obtained by thermal treatment of as-cast films at the vicinity of its melting temperature. - Abstract: We consider the influence of calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) nanoparticles on the crystalline phase formation of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) for the first time. The transparent PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite films were prepared by casting on PET substrates using N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as a solvent. It was found that CaF{sub 2} promoted the formation of polar crystalline phase of PVDF in composites, whereas nonpolar α-phase was dominant in the neat PVDF film prepared at the same condition. The portion of polar crystalline phase increased in proportional to the weight fraction of CaF{sub 2} in the composite films up to 10 wt%. Further addition of CaF{sub 2} suppressed completely the α-phase formation. Polar crystalline phase observed in as-cast composite films was a mixture of β- and γ-polymorph structures. It was also shown that much ordered γ-phase could be obtained through thermal treatment of as-cast PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite film at the temperatures above the melting temperature of the composite films, but below that of γ-phase.

  17. Ultrastable α phase nickel hydroxide as energy storage materials for alkaline secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haili; Guo, Yinjian; Cheng, Yuanhui

    2018-03-01

    α Phase nickel hydroxide (α-Ni(OH)2) has higher theoretical capacity than that of commercial β phase Ni(OH)2. But the low stability inhibits its wide application in alkaline rechargeable batteries. Here, we propose a totally new idea to stabilize α phase Ni(OH)2 by introducing large organic molecule into the interlayer spacing together with doping multivalent cobalt into the layered Ni(OH)2 host. Ethylene glycol is served as neutral stabilizer in the interlayer spacing. Nickel is substituted by cobalt to increase the electrostatic attraction between layered Ni(OH)2 host and anion ions in the interlayer spacing. Polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) is utilized to design a three-dimensional network structure. This prepared α-Ni(OH)2-20 exhibits specific capacity as high as 334 mAh g-1and good structural stability even after immersing into strong alkaline zincate solution for 20 days. Ni(OH)2 electrode with a specific capacity of 35 mAh cm-2 is fabricated and used as positive electrode in zinc-nickel single flow batteries, which also shows good cycling stability. This result can provide an important guideline for the rational design and preparation of highly active and stable α phase Ni(OH)2 for alkaline secondary battery.

  18. Regularities of texture formation in alloys undergoing phase transformations during heat treatment and plastic working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageev, N.V.; Babarehko, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Peculiarities of texture formation in metals undergoing phase transformations in the temperature range of heat treatment and hot working are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A low-temperature phase after hot working is shown to inherite a high-temperature phase texture due to definite orientation conformity during phase transformation. Strengthened heat and thermomechanical treatments, as a rule, do not destroy material texture but change it

  19. New signals of quark-gluon-hadron mixed phase formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugaev, K.A.; Sagun, V.V.; Ivanytskyi, A.I.; Zinovjev, G.M. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Oliinychenko, D.R. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Goethe University, FIAS, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ilgenfritz, E.M. [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Nikonov, E.G. [JINR, Laboratory for Information Technologies, Dubna (Russian Federation); Taranenko, A.V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Here we present several remarkable irregularities at chemical freeze-out which are found using an advanced version of the hadron resonance gas model. The most prominent of them are the sharp peak of the trace anomaly existing at chemical freeze-out at the center-of-mass energy 4.9 GeV and two sets of highly correlated quasi-plateaus in the collision energy dependence of the entropy per baryon, total pion number per baryon, and thermal pion number per baryon which we found at the center-of-mass energies 3.8-4.9 GeV and 7.6-10 GeV. The low-energy set of quasi-plateaus was predicted a long time ago. On the basis of the generalized shock-adiabat model we demonstrate that the low-energy correlated quasi-plateaus give evidence for the anomalous thermodynamic properties inside the quark-gluon-hadron mixed phase. It is also shown that the trace anomaly sharp peak at chemical freeze-out corresponds to the trace anomaly peak at the boundary between the mixed phase and quark gluon plasma. We argue that the high-energy correlated quasi-plateaus may correspond to a second phase transition and discuss its possible origin and location. Besides we suggest two new observables which may serve as clear signals of these phase transformations. (orig.)

  20. SPIDERMAN: an open-source code to model phase curves and secondary eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, Tom; Kreidberg, Laura

    2018-03-01

    We present SPIDERMAN (Secondary eclipse and Phase curve Integrator for 2D tempERature MAppiNg), a fast code for calculating exoplanet phase curves and secondary eclipses with arbitrary surface brightness distributions in two dimensions. Using a geometrical algorithm, the code solves exactly the area of sections of the disc of the planet that are occulted by the star. The code is written in C with a user-friendly Python interface, and is optimised to run quickly, with no loss in numerical precision. Approximately 1000 models can be generated per second in typical use, making Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses practicable. The modular nature of the code allows easy comparison of the effect of multiple different brightness distributions for the dataset. As a test case we apply the code to archival data on the phase curve of WASP-43b using a physically motivated analytical model for the two dimensional brightness map. The model provides a good fit to the data; however, it overpredicts the temperature of the nightside. We speculate that this could be due to the presence of clouds on the nightside of the planet, or additional reflected light from the dayside. When testing a simple cloud model we find that the best fitting model has a geometric albedo of 0.32 ± 0.02 and does not require a hot nightside. We also test for variation of the map parameters as a function of wavelength and find no statistically significant correlations. SPIDERMAN is available for download at https://github.com/tomlouden/spiderman.

  1. SPIDERMAN: an open-source code to model phase curves and secondary eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, Tom; Kreidberg, Laura

    2018-06-01

    We present SPIDERMAN (Secondary eclipse and Phase curve Integrator for 2D tempERature MAppiNg), a fast code for calculating exoplanet phase curves and secondary eclipses with arbitrary surface brightness distributions in two dimensions. Using a geometrical algorithm, the code solves exactly the area of sections of the disc of the planet that are occulted by the star. The code is written in C with a user-friendly Python interface, and is optimized to run quickly, with no loss in numerical precision. Approximately 1000 models can be generated per second in typical use, making Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses practicable. The modular nature of the code allows easy comparison of the effect of multiple different brightness distributions for the data set. As a test case, we apply the code to archival data on the phase curve of WASP-43b using a physically motivated analytical model for the two-dimensional brightness map. The model provides a good fit to the data; however, it overpredicts the temperature of the nightside. We speculate that this could be due to the presence of clouds on the nightside of the planet, or additional reflected light from the dayside. When testing a simple cloud model, we find that the best-fitting model has a geometric albedo of 0.32 ± 0.02 and does not require a hot nightside. We also test for variation of the map parameters as a function of wavelength and find no statistically significant correlations. SPIDERMAN is available for download at https://github.com/tomlouden/spiderman.

  2. On mechanism of substructure formation in SmS during isomorphic phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aptekar', I.L.; Ivanov, V.I.; Tonkov, E.Yu.; Shmyt'ko, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray diffraction study of substructure characteristics of SmS samples subjected to treatment at different temrerature and pressure in media with different viscosity ( graphite, silicon oil) for realization of P-M-P transformations ( p-semiconductor phase, M - high pressure phase) is performed. It is assumed that with M - phase formation P - matrix volume relaxation delays, therefore the new phase particles occupy smaller volume than the initial matrix which causes the M - phase disorientation. The difference between the phase transformation rate and deformation rate under the pressure in media with various viscosity results in arising different substructural characteristics

  3. Mineral CO2 sequestration in basalts and ultra-basic rocks: impact of secondary silicated phases on the carbonation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissmann, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The formation of carbonates constitutes a stable option for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) geological sequestration, and is prone to play a significant role in reducing emissions of anthropic origin. However, our comprehension of the carbonation mechanism, as well as of the kinetics limitations encountered during this chemical reaction, remains poorly developed. Though there is a large number of studies focusing on the dissolution kinetics of basic silicates and on the precipitation of carbonates, few have inquired about the impact that the formation of non-carbonated secondary phases can have on these reaction's kinetics. It is the approach chosen here, as only solid knowledge of the global carbonation mechanism can make this process predictive and efficient. Experimental data on dissolution and carbonation have therefore been determined in batch reactors, on relevant minerals and rocks. Firstly, we studied the carbonation of olivine (a major phase within peridotites and minor within basalts) at 90 deg. C and under pCO 2 of 280 bars. The dissolution of San Carlos olivine (Mg 1.76 Fe 0.24 SiO 4 ) is slowed down by the formation of a surface silica gel, when the fluid reaches equilibrium with amorphous silica. The transport of species to the reactive medium becomes the limiting step of the process, slowing down the dissolution process of San Carlos olivine by 5 orders of magnitude. However, this passivation doesn't occur during the alteration of Ca-olivine (Ca 2 SiO 4 ), though a surface silica layer does form. This comparison suggests that it isn't the structure of the silicate but its chemical composition, which controls the transport properties through the interfacial layer. The second part explores the effects of organic ligands and of temperature variations on the formation of those phases. The addition of citrate at 90 deg. C increases the kinetics of San Carlos olivine by one order of magnitude, and allows the release of enough Mg in the aqueous medium to form

  4. Identification of novel transcription factors regulating secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua eCassan-Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of lignin in secondary cell walls (SCW is a major factor preventing hydrolytic enzymes from gaining access to cellulose, thereby limiting the saccharification potential of plant biomass. To understand how lignification is regulated is a prerequisite for selecting plant biomass better adapted to bioethanol production. Because transcriptional regulation is a major mechanism controlling the expression of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis, our aim was to identify novel transcription factors dictating lignin profiles in the model plant Arabidopsis. To this end, we have developed a post-genomic approach by combining four independent in-house SCW-related transcriptome datasets obtained from (i the fiber cell wall-deficient wat1 Arabidopsis mutant, (ii Arabidopsis lines over-expressing either the master regulatory activator EgMYB2 or (iii the repressor EgMYB1 and finally (iv Arabidopsis orthologs of Eucalyptus xylem-expressed genes. This allowed us to identify 502 up- or down-regulated transcription factors. We preferentially selected those present in more than one dataset and further analyzed their in silico expression patterns as an additional selection criteria. This selection process led to 80 candidates. Notably, 16 of them were already proven to regulate SCW formation, thereby validating the overall strategy. Then, we phenotyped 43 corresponding mutant lines focusing on histological observations of xylem and interfascicular fibers. This phenotypic screen revealed six mutant lines exhibiting altered lignification patterns. Two of them (blh6 and a zinc finger transcription factor presented hypolignified SCW. Three others (myb52, myb-like TF, hb5 showed hyperlignified SCW whereas the last one (hb15 showed ectopic lignification. In addition, our meta-analyses highlighted a reservoir of new potential regulators adding to the gene network regulating SCW but also opening new avenues to ultimately improve SCW composition for biofuel

  5. Persistent local chemical bonds in intermetallic phase formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yanwen [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Bian, Xiufang, E-mail: xfbian@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Qin, Xubo [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang, Shuo; Huang, Yuying [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2014-05-01

    We found a direct evidence for the existence of the local chemical Bi–In bonds in the BiIn{sub 2} melt. These bonds are strong and prevail, dominating the structure evolution of the intermetallic clusters. From the local structure of the melt-quenched BiIn{sub 2} ribbon, the chemical Bi–In bonds strengthen compared with those in the equilibrium solidified alloy. The chemical bonds in BiIn{sub 2} melt retain to solid during a rapid quenching process. The results suggest that the intermetallic clusters in the melt evolve into the as-quenched intermetallic phase, and the intermetallic phase originates from the chemical bonds between unlike atoms in the melt. The chemical bonds preserve the chemical ordered clusters and dominate the clusters evolution.

  6. Corrosion phase formation on container alloys in basalt repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Anantatmula, R.P.; Lutton, J.M.; Rivera, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project is evaluating the suitability of basalt in southeastern Washington State as a possible location for a nuclear waste repository. The performance of the waste package, which includes the waste form, container, and surrounding packing material, will be affected by the stability of container alloys in the repository environment. Primary corrosion phases and altered packing material containing metals leached from the container may also influence subsequent reactions between the waste form and repository environment. Copper- and iron-based alloys were tested at 50 0 to 300 0 C in an air/steam environment and in pressure vessels in ground-water-saturated basalt-bentonite packing material. Reaction phases formed on the alloys were identified and corrosion rates were measured. Changes in adhering packing material were also evaluated. The observed reactions and their possible effects on container alloy durability in the repository are discussed

  7. Phase Formation Control in Plasma Sprayed Alumina–Chromia Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubský, Jiří; Chráska, Pavel; Kolman, Blahoslav Jan; Stahr, C.Ch.; Berger, L.-M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2011), s. 294-300 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1240 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Alumina * Chromia * Plasma spraying * Phase stabilization Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.382, year: 2011 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2011/2011_03_294.htm

  8. SANS study of Th (IV) third phase formation in HNO3 / DHDECMP-n-dodecane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohithakshan, K.V.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Aswal, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Third phase formation taking place during the extraction of Th (IV) from nitric acid medium by DHDECMP in dodecane has been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and explained the process with Baxter model. (author)

  9. Effect of aluminium on formation of metastable phases in titanium-niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenogina, T.L.; Derevyanko, V.N.; Vozilkin, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Specific features of phase transformations in the alloy of Ti-20Nb-29Al (at.%) are investigated in comparison with those in the aluminium-free Ti-21Nb alloy. It is states that in the alloy Ti-20Nb-29Al on quenching the ordering of β-solid solution takes place with B2-structure formation. The B2-matrix experiences decomposition with the formation of ordered Ω 0 -phase which field ranges up to 700 deg C. The investigation results show that the sequence of phase formation in Ti-Nb-Al and aluminium-free alloys is much the same. The only difference between them is the formation of ordered phases in the alloy Ti-20Nb-29Al [ru

  10. Intrinsic folding of small peptide chains: spectroscopic evidence for the formation of beta-turns in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Wutharath; Dognon, Jean-Pierre; Piuzzi, François; Tardivel, Benjamin; Dimicoli, Iliana; Mons, Michel

    2005-01-19

    Laser desorption of model peptides coupled to laser spectroscopic techniques enables the gas-phase observation of genuine secondary structures of biology. Spectroscopic evidence for the formation of beta-turns in gas-phase peptide chains containing glycine and phenylalanine residues establishes the intrinsic stability of these forms and their ability to compete with other stable structures. The precise characterization of local minima on the potential energy surface from IR spectroscopy constitutes an acute assessment for the state-of-the-art quantum mechanical calculations also presented. The observation of different types of beta-turns depending upon the residue order within the sequence is found to be consistent with the residue propensities in beta-turns of proteins, which suggests that the prevalence of glycine in type II and II' turns stems essentially from an energetic origin, already at play under isolated conditions.

  11. Statistics of errors in fibre communication lines with a phase-modulation format and optical phase conjugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, Elena G; Fedoruk, Mikhail P

    2011-01-01

    Analytical formulas are derived to approximate the probability density functions of 'zero' and 'one' bits in a linear communication channel with a binary format of optical signal phase modulation. Direct numerical simulation of the propagation of optical pulses in a communication line with optical phase conjugation is performed. The results of the numerical simulation are in good agreement with the analytical approximation. (fibreoptic communication lines)

  12. Formation of a glassy phase in ceramic-like coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazonova, M.V.; Gorbatova, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the synthesis directly in coatings of a borosilicate melt that could fill the role of glassy matrix, thereby avoiding fusion and processing of the glassy material. The effect of added boron on the formation of coatings based on molybdenum disilicide and tungsten disilicide in air at 900 degrees C is presented. Without an additive no coating forms; there is no adhesion to the graphite and a continuous film does not form. As a result of boron oxidation an easily fused glassy matrix forms, which bonds the molybdenum disilicide or tungsten disilicide particles together and ensures adhesion to the graphite

  13. A new method for determining gas phase heat of formation of aromatic energetic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshavarz, Mohammad H. [Department of Chemistry, Malek-ashtar University of Technology, Shahin-shahr P. O. Box 83145/115 (Iran); Tehrani, Masoud K. [Department of Physics, Malek-ashtar University of Technology, Shahin-shahr P. O. Box 83145/115 (Iran)

    2007-04-15

    A new correlation is introduced for desk calculation of gas phase heat of formation of aromatic energetic compounds that contain the elements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. Predicted gas phase heats of formation for 26 energetic compounds have a root mean square of deviation from experiment of 20.67 kJ/mol, which is in good agreement with respect to measured values of oxygen-lean and oxygen-rich aromatic energetic compounds. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Effect of ammonia on ozone-initiated formation of indoor secondary products with emissions from cleaning products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Lee, Shun Cheng; Ho, Kin Fai; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Nanying; Cheng, Yan; Gao, Yuan

    2012-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from cleaning products and air fresheners indoors are prone to oxidation resulting in the formation of secondary pollutants that can pose health risks on residents. Ammonia (NH3) is ubiquitous in ambient and indoor environments. In this study, we investigated the effect of ammonia (NH3) on secondary pollutants formation from the ozonolysis of BVOCs emitted from cleaning products including floor cleaner (FC), kitchen cleaner (KC) and dishwashing detergent (DD) in a large environmental chamber. Our results demonstrated that the presence of NH3 (maximum concentration is 240 ppb) could significantly enhance secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formation from the ozonolysis of all the three categories of cleaning products. For example, for the FC sample, the maximum total particle concentration was up to 2.0 × 104 # cm-3 in the presence of NH3, while it was 1.3 × 104 # cm-3 which was 35% lower without NH3. However, it was found that the extent of NH3 effect on SOAs formation from the ozonolysis of BVOCs emissions was component-dependent. The presence of NH3 in the reaction systems could increase the consumptions of d-limonene that is the dominant BVOC species as identified in cleaning products. The percent yields (%) of secondary carbonyl compounds generated from the ozonolysis of BVOCs emitted from three categories of cleaning products were identified in the presence and absence of NH3, respectively. The increase in SOAs particle number concentration can be attributed to the formation of condensable salts from reactions between NH3 and organic compounds generated from the BVOCs ozonolysis processes. By investigating the NH3 effect on the ozonolysis of BVOCs mixtures in contrast to the chemistry of individual compounds, a better assessment can be made of the overall impact cleaning products have on real indoor environments.

  15. Laboratory Experiments and Modeling for Interpreting Field Studies of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Using an Oxidation Flow Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This grant was originally funded for deployment of a suite of aerosol instrumentation by our group in collaboration with other research groups and DOE/ARM to the Ganges Valley in India (GVAX) to study aerosols sources and processing. Much of the first year of this grant was focused on preparations for GVAX. That campaign was cancelled due to political reasons and with the consultation with our program manager, the research of this grant was refocused to study the applications of oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) for investigating secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and organic aerosol (OA) processing in the field and laboratory through a series of laboratory and modeling studies. We developed a gas-phase photochemical model of an OFR which was used to 1) explore the sensitivities of key output variables (e.g., OH exposure, O3, HO2/OH) to controlling factors (e.g., water vapor, external reactivity, UV irradiation), 2) develop simplified OH exposure estimation equations, 3) investigate under what conditions non-OH chemistry may be important, and 4) help guide design of future experiments to avoid conditions with undesired chemistry for a wide range of conditions applicable to the ambient, laboratory, and source studies. Uncertainties in the model were quantified and modeled OH exposure was compared to tracer decay measurements of OH exposure in the lab and field. Laboratory studies using OFRs were conducted to explore aerosol yields and composition from anthropogenic and biogenic VOC as well as crude oil evaporates. Various aspects of the modeling and laboratory results and tools were applied to interpretation of ambient and source measurements using OFR. Additionally, novel measurement methods were used to study gas/particle partitioning. The research conducted was highly successful and details of the key results are summarized in this report through narrative text, figures, and a complete list of publications acknowledging this grant.

  16. Phase formation at bonded vanadium and stainless steel interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, T.S.E.

    1992-01-01

    The interface between vanadium bonded to stainless steel was studies to determine whether a brittle phase formed during three joining operations. Inertia friction welds between V and 21-6-9 stainless steel were examined using TEM. In the as-welded condition, a continuous, polygranular intermetallic layer about 0.25 μm thick was present at the interface. This layer grew to about 50 μm thick during heat treatment at 1000 degrees C for two hours. Analysis of electron diffraction patterns confirmed that this intermetallic was the ω phase. The interface between vanadium and type 304, SANDVIK SAF 2205, and 21-6-9 stainless steel bonded by a co-extrusion process had intermetallic particles at the interface in the as-extruded condition. Heat treatment at 1000 degrees C for two hours caused these particles to grow into continuous layers in all three cases. Based on the appearance, composition and hardness of this interfacial intermetallic, it was also concluded to be ω phase. Bonding V to type 430 stainless steel by co-extrusion caused V-rich carbides to form at the interface due to the higher concentration of C in the type 430 than in the other stainless steels investigated. The carbide particles initially present grew into a continuous layer during a two-hour heat treatment at 1000 degrees C. Co-hipping 21-6-9 stainless steel tubing with V rod resulted in slightly more concentric specimens than the co-extruded ones, but a continuous layer of the ω phase formed during the hipping operation. This brittle layer could initiate failure during subsequent forming operations. The vanadium near the stainless steel interface in the co-extruded and co-hipped tubing in some cases was harder than before heat treatment. It was concluded that this hardening was due to thermal straining during cooling following heat treatment and that thermal strains might present a greater problem than seen here when longer tubes are used in actual applications

  17. Phase-transfer and film formation of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anjana; Chadha, Ridhima; Biswas, Nandita; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Kapoor, Sudhir

    2009-04-01

    In this article, a simple method for either transfer of silver nanoparticles from formamide to chloroform or to form a film at their interface is demonstrated. The transfer of the particles is a two-step size-dependent process. The size distribution of the colloidal hydrophobic silver particles in chloroform was almost the same as that before its transfer. Particles can be isolated by evaporation of chloroform. During evaporation, the hydrophobic particles become hydrophilic (charged) due to the formation of bilayer of CTAB over their surface. The isolated particles can be re-dispersed easily in polar solvents such as water and methanol. Nanocrystalline film of Ag is also prepared at the formamide-chloroform interface using suitable stabilizers in two immiscible layers. The nanocrystals have been characterized by various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The free standing film could be easily transferred on solid support.

  18. Secondary organic aerosol formation from semi- and intermediate-volatility organic compounds and glyoxal: Relevance of O/C as a tracer for aqueous multiphase chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Eleanor M.; Dzepina, Katja; Ervens, Barbara; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Aumont, Bernard; Jimenez, Jose L.; Madronich, Sasha; Volkamer, Rainer

    2013-03-01

    The role of aqueous multiphase chemistry in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) remains difficult to quantify. We investigate it here by testing the rapid formation of moderate oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) SOA during a case study in Mexico City. A novel laboratory-based glyoxal-SOA mechanism is applied to the field data, and explains why less gas-phase glyoxal mass is observed than predicted. Furthermore, we compare an explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism for SOA formation from semi- and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) with empirical parameterizations of S/IVOC aging. The mechanism representing our current understanding of chemical kinetics of S/IVOC oxidation combined with traditional SOA sources and mixing of background SOA underestimates the observed O/C by a factor of two at noon. Inclusion of glyoxal-SOA with O/C of 1.5 brings O/C predictions within measurement uncertainty, suggesting that field observations can be reconciled on reasonable time scales using laboratory-based empirical relationships for aqueous chemistry.

  19. On the role of Nb in Z-phase formation in a 12% Cr steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cipolla, L.; Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Di Nunzio, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    Z-phase precipitation in two model alloys, 12CrVNbN and 12CrVN, has been investigated. The alloys were aged up to 104 h and their precipitate evolution was followed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The formation rate of Z-phase from vanadium-based nitrides, (V,Nb)N, in t...

  20. 640 Gbit/s RZ-to-NRZ format conversion based on optical phase filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for all optical RZ-to-NRZ conversion based on optical phase filtering. The proposed concept is experimentally validated through format conversion of a 640 Gbit/s coherent RZ signal to NRZ signal using a simple phase filter implemented by a commercial optical waveshaper....

  1. Formation of aqueous-phase α-hydroxyhydroperoxides (α-HHP: potential atmospheric impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this work is on quantifying the degree of the aqueous-phase formation of α-hydroxyhydroperoxides (α-HHPs via reversible nucleophilic addition of H2O2 to aldehydes. Formation of this class of highly oxygenated organic hydroperoxides represents a poorly characterized aqueous-phase processing pathway that may lead to enhanced SOA formation and aerosol toxicity. Specifically, the equilibrium constants of α-HHP formation have been determined using proton nuclear-magnetic-resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy and proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS. Significant α-HHP formation was observed from formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, glyoxylic acid, and methylglyoxal, but not from methacrolein and ketones. Low temperatures enhanced the formation of α-HHPs but slowed their formation rates. High inorganic salt concentrations shifted the equilibria toward the hydrated form of the aldehydes and slightly suppressed α-HHP formation. Using the experimental equilibrium constants, we predict the equilibrium concentration of α-HHPs to be in the μM level in cloud water, but it may also be present in the mM level in aerosol liquid water (ALW, where the concentrations of H2O2 and aldehydes can be high. Formation of α-HHPs in ALW may significantly affect the effective Henry's law constants of H2O2 and aldehydes but may not affect their gas-phase levels. The photochemistry and reactivity of this class of atmospheric species have not been studied.

  2. Surfactants from the gas phase may promote cloud droplet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Neha; Schwier, Allison N; Lathem, Terry L; Nenes, Athanasios; McNeill, V Faye

    2013-02-19

    Clouds, a key component of the climate system, form when water vapor condenses upon atmospheric particulates termed cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Variations in CCN concentrations can profoundly impact cloud properties, with important effects on local and global climate. Organic matter constitutes a significant fraction of tropospheric aerosol mass, and can influence CCN activity by depressing surface tension, contributing solute, and influencing droplet activation kinetics by forming a barrier to water uptake. We present direct evidence that two ubiquitous atmospheric trace gases, methylglyoxal (MG) and acetaldehyde, known to be surface-active, can enhance aerosol CCN activity upon uptake. This effect is demonstrated by exposing acidified ammonium sulfate particles to 250 parts per billion (ppb) or 8 ppb gas-phase MG and/or acetaldehyde in an aerosol reaction chamber for up to 5 h. For the more atmospherically relevant experiments, i.e., the 8-ppb organic precursor concentrations, significant enhancements in CCN activity, up to 7.5% reduction in critical dry diameter for activation, are observed over a timescale of hours, without any detectable limitation in activation kinetics. This reduction in critical diameter enhances the apparent particle hygroscopicity up to 26%, which for ambient aerosol would lead to cloud droplet number concentration increases of 8-10% on average. The observed enhancements exceed what would be expected based on Köhler theory and bulk properties. Therefore, the effect may be attributed to the adsorption of MG and acetaldehyde to the gas-aerosol interface, leading to surface tension depression of the aerosol. We conclude that gas-phase surfactants may enhance CCN activity in the atmosphere.

  3. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanen, Jenni; Simonen, Pauli; Saarikoski, Sanna; Timonen, Hilkka; Kangasniemi, Oskari; Saukko, Erkka; Hillamo, Risto; Lehtoranta, Kati; Murtonen, Timo; Vesala, Hannu; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2017-07-01

    Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6-268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential was measured to be 9-20 mg kgfuel-1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize - more than half an hour - which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission source and system temperatures. Sulfate was

  4. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6–268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation potential was measured to be 9–20 mg kgfuel−1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize – more than half an hour – which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission

  5. Kinetics and mechanism of solid-phase reactions of formation of yttrium ferrite with garnet structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashchenko, V P; Yakushevskaya, F T; Chalyi, V P

    1977-04-01

    The perovskite phase is formed in the process of ferrogarnet formation both from the mixture of Y and Fe oxides and from mutually precipitated carbonates. The amount of the perovskite phase decreases with increasing duration of annealing. The process of the ferritoformation in the investigated systems can be presented as isovalent cationic substitution on the basis of the crystalline structure of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with the formation of the perovskite structure. When the Fe concentration in orthoferrite increases, the phase with a garnet structure is formed.

  6. Acid-base equilibrium. A thermodynamic study of formation and stability of the Bi-2223 phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Z.; Zhou, L.

    1993-01-01

    A general acid-base equilibrium theory was proposed to explain the formation and stability of the Bi-2223 phase based on the Lewis acid base theory and principle of metallurgical physical chemistry. The acid-base nature of oxide was defined according to the electrostatic force between cation and oxygen anion. A series of experimental facts were systematically explained based on the theory: substitution of Bi for Ca in the Pb-free 2223 phase, and the effect of substitution of the high-valent cation for Bi 3+ ; oxygen-pressure atmosphere, and the heat-schocking technique on the formation and stability of the 2223 phase. 14 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Analysis of haloforms in wastewater. Removal of haloforms during secondary and tertiary treatment and formation during disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Leer, E W.B.

    1980-01-01

    The removal of haloforms during secondary and tertiary treatment and formation during disinfection was determined with a pentane extraction method followed by gas chromatographic separation with quantification by electron capture detection, which showed good results. High chloroform and trichloroethane levels in domestic sewage were reduced in activated-sludge tanks to 0 to 2 ..mu..g/l, one order of magnitude lower than Rotterdam drinking water.

  8. Effect of hardness of martensite and ferrite on void formation in dual phase steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azuma, M.; Goutianos, Stergios; Hansen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the hardness of martensite and ferrite phases in dual phase steel on void formation has been investigated by in situ tensile loading in a scanning electron microscope. Microstructural observations have shown that most voids form in martensite by evolving four steps: plastic...... deformation of martensite, crack initiation at the martensite/ferrite interface, crack propagation leading to fracture of martensite particles and void formation by separation of particle fragments. It has been identified that the hardness effect is associated with the following aspects: strain partitioning...... between martensite and ferrite, strain localisation and critical strain required for void formation. Reducing the hardness difference between martensite and ferrite phases by tempering has been shown to be an effective approach to retard the void formation in martensite and thereby is expected to improve...

  9. Effects of degradation on third phase formation in the extraction of Th(NO3)4 by trialkyl phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benadict Rakesh, K.; Suresh, A.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that solvents undergo chemical and radiolytic degradation during processing and in general the degradation products affect organic-aqueous phase separation, extraction and stripping behaviour, density, viscosity etc. In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the effects of irradiation (100 MRad with 60 Co- γ-source) on third phase formation in the extraction of Th(IV) from nitric acid media by 1.1 M solutions of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP) in n-dodecane (n-DD). Two types of irradiated solvents, namely Type 1 solvents containing only primary degradation products (formed by the degradation of TBP molecules) and Type 2 solvents containing primary as well as secondary degradation products (surfactant type molecules formed by the reaction between the degradation products of extractant and diluent) were prepared by dissolving required amount of irradiated extractant in unirradiated n-DD and irradiating 1.1 M solutions of extractant in n-DD, respectively. These solvents with and without washing with 5 M NaOH solution have been investigated for third phase formation. The variations of limiting organic concentration (LOC) for third phase formation as a function of equilibrium aqueous phase acidity are shown. LOC values for third phase formation by unirradiated solvents reported in our earlier work are also shown. These figures depict that LOC values for Type 1 solvents are lower than the corresponding unirradiated solvents and can be attributed to the decrease in the extractant concentration by degradation. Estimation of extractant in Type 1 solvents by nitric acid equilibration method after the removal of primary degradation products by washing with 5 M NaOH solution revealed that extractant concentrations have been reduced to 1.03 M and 1.05 M for TBP and TiAP, respectively. Estimation of extractant in Type 2 solvents revealed 1.07 M extractant concentration in TBP and TiAP solvents. However, data

  10. Observations of fine particulate nitrated phenols in four sites in northern China: concentrations, source apportionment, and secondary formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Wang, Xinfeng; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Hao; Yao, Lan; Wen, Liang; Zhu, Fanping; Wang, Weihao; Xue, Likun; Yang, Lingxiao; Lu, Keding; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yuanghang; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-03-01

    Filter samples of fine particulate matters were collected at four sites in northern China (urban, rural, and mountain) in summer and winter, and the contents of nine nitrated phenols were quantified in the laboratory with the use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. During the sampling periods, the concentrations of particulate nitrated phenols exhibited distinct temporal and spatial variation. On average, the total concentration of particulate nitrated phenols in urban Jinan in the wintertime reached 48.4 ng m-3, and those in the summertime were 9.8, 5.7, 5.9, and 2.5 ng m-3 in urban Jinan, rural Yucheng and Wangdu, and Mt. Tai, respectively. The elevated concentrations of nitrated phenols in wintertime and in urban areas demonstrate the apparent influences of anthropogenic sources. The positive matrix factorization receptor model was then applied to determine the origins of particulate nitrated phenols in northern China. The five major source factors were traffic, coal combustion, biomass burning, secondary formation, and aged coal combustion plume. Among them, coal combustion played a vital role, especially at the urban site in the wintertime, with a contribution of around 55 %. In the summertime, the observed nitrated phenols were highly influenced by aged coal combustion plumes at all of the sampling sites. Meanwhile, in remote areas, contributions from secondary formation were significant. Further correlation analysis indicates that nitrosalicylic acids were produced mostly from secondary formation that was dominated by NO2 nitration.

  11. Formation of secondary aerosols from the ozonolysis of styrene: Effect of SO2 and H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Martínez, Ernesto; Rodríguez, Ana Angustias; Rodríguez, Diana; Rodríguez, Ana

    2017-12-01

    In this work we report the study of the ozonolysis of styrene and the reaction conditions leading to the formation of secondary aerosols. The reactions have been carried out in a Teflon chamber filled with synthetic air mixtures at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. We have found that the ozonolysis of styrene in the presence of low concentrations of SO2 readily produces new particles under concentrations of reactants lower than those required in experiments in the absence of SO2. Thus, nucleation events occur at concentrations around (5.6 ± 1.7) × 108molecule cm-3 (errors are 2σ±20%) and SO2 is consumed during the experiments. The reaction of the Criegee intermediates with SO2 to produce SO3 and then H2SO4 may explain (together with OH reactions' contribution) the high capacity of styrene to produce particulate matter in polluted atmospheres. The formation of secondary aerosols in the smog chamber is inhibited under high H2O concentrations. So, the potential formation of secondary aerosols under atmospheric conditions depends on the concentration of SO2 and relative humidity, with a water to SO2 rate constants ratio kH2O/kSO2 = (2.8 ± 0.7) × 10-5 (errors are 2σ±20%).

  12. Secondary organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources contribute majority of summertime organic mass at Bakersfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA), known to form in the atmosphere from oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by anthropogenic and biogenic sources, are a poorly understood but substantial component of atmospheric particles. In this study, we examined the chemic...

  13. Simulating the formation and evolution of galaxies: multi-phase description of the interstellar medium, star formation, and energy feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, E.; Chiosi, C.

    2007-10-01

    Context: Modelling the gaseous component of the interstellar medium (ISM) by Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics in N-Body simulations (NB-TSPH) is still very crude when compared to the complex real situation. In the real ISM, many different and almost physically decoupled components (phases) coexist for long periods of time, and since they spread over wide ranges of density and temperature, they cannot be correctly represented by a unique continuous fluid. This would influence star formation which is thought to take place in clumps of cold, dense, molecular clouds, embedded in a warmer, neutral medium, that are almost freely moving throughout the tenuous hot ISM. Therefore, assuming that star formation is simply related to the gas content without specifying the component in which this is both observed and expected to occur may not be physically sound. Aims: We consider a multi-phase representation of the ISM in NB-TSPH simulations of galaxy formation and evolution with particular attention to the case of early-type galaxies. Methods: Cold gas clouds are described by the so-called sticky particles algorithm. They can freely move throughout the hot ISM medium; stars form within these clouds and the mass exchange among the three baryonic phases (hot gas, cold clouds, stars) is governed by radiative and Compton cooling and energy feedback by supernova (SN) explosions, stellar winds, and UV radiation. We also consider thermal conduction, cloud-cloud collisions, and chemical enrichment. Results: Our model agrees with and improves upon previous studies on the same subject. The results for the star formation rate agree with recent observational data on early-type galaxies. Conclusions: These models lend further support to the revised monolithic scheme of galaxy formation, which has recently been strengthened by high redshift data leading to the so-called downsizing and top-down scenarios.

  14. Influence of Intense secondary aerosol formation and long range transport on aerosol chemistry and properties in the Seoul Metropolitan Area during spring time: Results from KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Non-refractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was measured in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea, using an HR-ToF-AMS from April 14 to June 15, 2016, as a part of the KORUS-AQ campaign. The average concentration of PM1 was 22.1 µg m-3, which was composed of 44% organics, 20% SO4, 17% NO3, and 12 % NH4. Organics had an average O/C ratio of 0.49 and an average OM/OC ratio of 1.82. Four distinct sources of OA were identified via PMF analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data: hydrocarbon like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA),semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and a low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Our results indicate that air quality in SMA during KORUS-AQ was influenced strongly by secondary aerosol formation with SO4, NO3, NH4, SV-OOA, and LV-OOA together accounting for 76% of the PM1 mass. Due to high temperature and elevated ozone concentrations, photochemical reactions during daytime promoted the formation of SV-OOA, LV-OOA and SO4. In addition, aqueous-phase or heterogeneous reactions likely promoted efficient formation of NO3 whereas gas-to-particle partitioning processes appeared to have enhanced nighttime SV-OOA and NO3 formation. From May 20 to May 23, LV-OOA was significantly enhanced and accounted for up to 41% of the PM1 mass. Since this intense LV-OOA formation event was associated with large enhancement of VOCs, high concentration of Ox , strong solar radiation, and stagnant conditions, it appeared to be related to local photochemical formation. We also have investigated the formation and evolution mechanisms of severe haze episodes. Unlike the cases observed in winter when haze episodes were mainly caused by intense local emissions coupled with stagnant meteorological conditions, the spring haze events observed in this study appeared to be attributed by both regional and local factors. For example, episodes of long range transport of plumes were followed by calm meteorology conditions, which promoted the formation and accumulation of local

  15. Phase formation and crystallization behavior of melt spun Sm-Fe-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shield, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The phase formation and microstructures of Sm-Fe alloys have been investigated at Sm levels of 11 and 17 atomic percent and with alloying additions of Ti and C. At lower Sm content, virtually phase pure SmFe 7 formed, while higher Sm content resulted in the formation of SmFe 7 , SmFe 2 and amorphous phases. The addition of Ti and C resulted in greater stability and a larger volume fraction of the amorphous phase. The binary Sm-Fe alloys at both Sm levels had tremendously variable microstructures, with large discrepancies in grain size and phase distribution from region to region. The addition of Ti and C tended to result in a more homogeneous microstructure, as well as a refinement in the microstructural scale. (orig.)

  16. Maps of Fe-Al phases formation kinetics parameters during isothermal sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochec, Ewelina, E-mail: epochec@wat.edu.pl [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Military University of Technology (Poland); Jozwiak, Stanislaw; Karczewski, Krzysztof; Bojar, Zbigniew [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Military University of Technology (Poland)

    2012-10-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sintering temperature and compaction pressure have a strong influence on the sinters structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The measurements confirmed the presence of the high-aluminium phases from Fe-Al equilibrium system in tested sinters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The kinetics of Fe-Al phase formation can be described by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami modelling. - Abstract: The influence of technological parameters (compaction pressure and sintering temperature) on Fe-Al phase formation was investigated. The kinetics of phase transformation preceding and during an SHS reaction was studied in isothermal conditions by DSC using the JMA (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami) model. This model allowed us to determine basic kinetic parameters, including the Avrami exponent, which characterises the rate and manner of particular phase nucleation. The activation energy (E{sub a}) of particular phase formation was determined by the Kissinger method. XRD analysis and SEM observations of sintered material showed that not only Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} phase and low-aluminium solid solution in iron but also aluminium-rich FeAl{sub 2} and FeAl{sub 3} phases are formed during the sintering of an FeAl50 elementary powder mixture in isothermal conditions with an SHS reaction. The above conclusions were confirmed by iron-based solid solution lattice parameter studies and microhardness measurements.

  17. Physical parameters effect on ozone-initiated formation of indoor secondary organic aerosols with emissions from cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Ho, Kin Fai; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Lee, Shun Cheng; Yau, P S; Cheng, Yan

    2011-09-15

    The effect of air exchange rate (ACH), temperature (T), and relative humidity (RH) on the formation of indoor secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) through ozonolysis of biogenic organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from floor cleaner was investigated in this study. The total particle count (with D(p) of 6-225 nm) was up to 1.2 × 10(3)#cm(-3) with ACH of 1.08 h(-1), and it became much more significant with ACH of 0.36 h(-1) (1.1 × 10(4)#cm(-3)). This suggests that a higher ventilation rate can effectively dilute indoor BVOCs, resulting in a less ultrafine particle formation. The total particle count increased when temperature changed from 15 to 23 °C but it decreased when the temperature further increased to 30 °C. It could be explained that high temperature restrained the condensation of formed semi-volatile compounds resulting in low yields of SOAs. When the RH was at 50% and 80%, SOA formation (1.1-1.2 × 10(4)#cm(-3)) was the more efficient compared with that at RH of 30% (5.9 × 10(3)#cm(-3)), suggesting higher RH facilitating the initial nucleation processes. Oxidation generated secondary carbonyl compounds were also quantified. Acetone was the most abundant carbonyl compound. The formation mechanisms of formaldehyde and acetone were proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In-situ investigation of the icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe phase formation in thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidara, F., E-mail: fanta.haidara@im2np.fr [IM2NP, UMR 6242 CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, Av. Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Duployer, B. [Universite Paul Sabatier CIRIMAT-LCMIE 2R1, 118, Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France); Mangelinck, D.; Record, M.-C. [IM2NP, UMR 6242 CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, Av. Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2012-09-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the phase formation of i-Al{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 25}Fe{sub 12.5} in thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterized the samples by DSC and in-situ XRD and resistance measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resistivity value for i-Al{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 25}Fe{sub 12.5} was determined. - Abstract: This work is an investigation of the formation by reactive diffusion at high temperatures of the icosahedral phase, i-Al{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 25}Fe{sub 12.5}, in thin films. The samples were prepared by sputtering at room temperature. The elements Al, Cu and Fe were sequentially deposited onto oxidized silicon substrates. The two following stacking sequences, Al/Cu/Fe and Al/Fe/Cu, were investigated. The phase formation was studied using in situ resistivity, in situ X-ray Diffraction and Differential Scanning Calorimetry measurements. Whatever the stacking sequence, the sequences of phase formation evidenced during the heating treatment are similar. However the temperatures of formation for the first phases that are formed are different; they are higher in the case of the Al/Fe/Cu stacking sequence.

  19. Effect of alloying elements on σ phase formation in Fe-Cr-Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Yoshimitsu; Miyahara, Kazuya; Hosoi, Yuzo; Tanino, Mitsuru; Komatsu, Hazime.

    1989-01-01

    Alloys of Fe-(8∼12%) Cr-(5∼30%) Mn were solution-treated at 1373 K for 3.6 ks, followed by cold-working of 50% reduction. Both solution-treated and 50% cold-worked materials were aged in the temperature range from 773 to 973 K for 3.6 x 10 3 ks. The identification of σ phase formation was made by using X-ray diffraction from the electrolytically extracted residues of the aged specimens. The region of σ phase formation determined by the present work is wider than that on the phase diagram already reported. It is to be noted that Mn promotes markedly the σ phase formation, and that three different types of σ phase formation are observed depending on Mn content: α→γ + α→γ + α + σ in 10% Mn, α→γ + σ in 15 to 20% Mn alloys, α→χ(Chi) →χ + σ + γ in 25 to 30% Mn alloys. An average electron concentration (e/a) in the σ phase was estimated by quantitative analysis of alloying elements using EPMA. The e/a value in the σ phase formed in Fe-(12∼16%) Cr-Mn alloys aged at 873 K for 3.6 x 10 3 ks is about 7.3, which is independent of Mn content. In order to prevent σ phase formation in Fe-12% Cr-15% Mn alloy, the value of Ni * eq of 11 (Ni * eq = Ni + 30(C) + 25(N)) is required. (author)

  20. Solution and gas phase evidence of anion binding through the secondary bonding interactions of a bidentate bis-antimony(iii) anion receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J; Song, B; Li, X; Cozzolino, A F

    2017-12-20

    The solution and gas phase halide binding to a bis-antimony(iii) anion receptor was studied. This new class of anion receptors utilizes the strong Sb-centered secondary bonding interactions (SBIs) that are formed opposite to the polar Sb-O primary bond. 1 H NMR titration data were fitted statistically to binding models and solution-phase binding energetics were extracted, while the formation of anion-to-receptor complexes was observed using ESI-MS. Density functional theory calculations suggest that their affinity towards binding halide anions is mitigated by the strong explicit solvation effect in DMSO, which gives insights into future designs that circumvent direct solvent binding and are anticipated to yield tighter and perhaps more selectivity in anion binding.

  1. Phase formation and texture of thin nickel germanides on Ge(001) and Ge(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schutter, B., E-mail: deschutter.bob@ugent.be; Detavernier, C. [Department of Solid-State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Stiphout, K.; Santos, N. M.; Vantomme, A. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Bladt, E.; Bals, S. [Electron Microscopy for Materials Research (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Jordan-Sweet, J.; Lavoie, C. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Comrie, C. M. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)

    2016-04-07

    We studied the solid-phase reaction between a thin Ni film and a single crystal Ge(001) or Ge(111) substrate during a ramp anneal. The phase formation sequence was determined using in situ X-ray diffraction and in situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), while the nature and the texture of the phases were studied using X-ray pole figures and transmission electron microscopy. The phase sequence is characterized by the formation of a single transient phase before NiGe forms as the final and stable phase. X-ray pole figures were used to unambiguously identify the transient phase as the ϵ-phase, a non-stoichiometric Ni-rich germanide with a hexagonal crystal structure that can exist for Ge concentrations between 34% and 48% and which forms with a different epitaxial texture on both substrate orientations. The complementary information gained from both RBS and X-ray pole figure measurements revealed a simultaneous growth of both the ϵ-phase and NiGe over a small temperature window on both substrate orientations.

  2. Third phase formation revisited: the U(VI), HNO3 - TBP, n-dodecane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarizia, R.; Jensen, M.P.; Borkowski, M.; Ferraro, J.R.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Littrell, K.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the system U(VI), HNO 3 -tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP), n-dodecane has been revisited with the objective of gaining information on the coordination chemistry and structural evolution of the species formed in the organic phase before and after third phase formation. Chemical analyses, spectroscopic and EXAFS data indicate that U(VI) is extracted as the UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ·2TBP adduct, while the third phase species have the average composition UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ·2TBP·HNO 3 . Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on TBP solutions loaded with only HNO 3 or with increasing amounts of U(VI) have revealed the presence, before phase splitting, of ellipsoidal aggregates with the major and minor axes up to about 64 and 15 A, respectively. The formation of these aggregates, very likely of the reverse micelle-type, is observed in all cases, that is, when only HNO 3 , only UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 , or both HNO 3 and UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 are extracted by the TBP solution. Upon third phase formation, the SANS data reveal the presence of smaller aggregates in the light organic phase, while the heavy organic phase contains pockets of diluent, each with an average of about two molecules of n-dodecane.

  3. Experimental redetermination of the gas-phase enthalpy of formation of ethyl 2-thiophenecarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.

    2013-01-01

    The condensed phase standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of ethyl-2-thiophenecarboxylate was derived from the remeasured standard molar energy of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry and the standard molar enthalpy of vaporization, at T = 298.15 K, remeasured by Calvet microcalorimetry. Combining these two values, the following enthalpy of formation in the gas phase, at T = 298.15 K, was then derived for ethyl-2-thiophenecarboxylate: −(277.7 ± 2.9) kJ · mol −1 . The calculated gas-phase enthalpy of formation of the title compound, through the G3(MP2)//B3LYP approach was found to be 278.9 kJ · mol −1 , in excellent agreement with the experimental measured value

  4. Using Challenging Tasks for Formative Assessment on Quadratic Functions with Senior Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Karina J.

    2016-01-01

    Senior secondary mathematics students who develop conceptual understanding that moves them beyond "rules without reasons" to connections between related concepts are in a strong place to tackle the more difficult mathematics application problems. Current research is examining how the use of challenging tasks at different levels of…

  5. Formation of U(IV) Nanoparticles and Their Growth Mechanism in Mildly Acidic Aqueous Phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Wan Sik; Kim, Sun Tae; Cho, Hye Ryun; Jung, Euo Chang [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Previous studies suggest that U(IV) nanoparticle (NP) formation is one of key steps in mineralization or immobilization of uranium which can be mediated either by microbes or by abiotic geochemical reactions. Colloidal NPs in a groundwater system are potential carrier phases influencing RN migration in subsurface environment. However, the mechanism of U(IV) NP formation and the potential reaction intermediates during this solid phase formation process have not been elucidated in detail so far. In this study we attempted to examine the U(IV) nanoparticle formation reactions preceded by the hydrolysis of U{sup 4+} at different pHs, concentrations and temperatures. The kinetics of U(IV) NP formation from dissolved U(IV) species was monitored under mildly acidic conditions (pH 2 ∼ 3) mainly by using UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the NPs produced during the reactions. The results demonstrate that the U(IV) NP formation process is very sensitive toward temperature variation. The main outcome of this study is the discovery of the autocatalytic nature of U(IV) NP formation from the supersaturated U(OH){sup 3+} solution in a mildly acidic aqueous solution. The structure of reaction intermediates is proposed to contain oxide linkage. In the presentation the proposed mechanism of the U(IV) NP formation reaction and the properties of primary NPs and their clusters will be discussed in detail.

  6. Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing secondary organic material free of inorganic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mijung; Liu, Pengfei; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2017-09-01

    Particles containing secondary organic material (SOM) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a role in climate and air quality. Recently, research has shown that liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) occurs at high relative humidity (RH) (greater than ˜ 95 %) in α-pinene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts, while LLPS does not occur in isoprene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts. We expand on these findings by investigating LLPS at 290 ± 1 K in SOM particles free of inorganic salts produced from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene, ozonolysis of limonene, and photo-oxidation of toluene. LLPS was observed at greater than ˜ 95 % RH in the biogenic SOM particles derived from β-caryophyllene and limonene while LLPS was not observed in the anthropogenic SOM particles derived from toluene. This work combined with the earlier work on LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts suggests that the occurrence of LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts is related to the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C) of the organic material. These results help explain the difference between the hygroscopic parameter κ of SOM particles measured above and below water saturation in the laboratory and field, and have implications for predicting the cloud condensation nucleation properties of SOM particles.

  7. Liquid–liquid phase separation in particles containing secondary organic material free of inorganic salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Particles containing secondary organic material (SOM are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a role in climate and air quality. Recently, research has shown that liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS occurs at high relative humidity (RH (greater than  ∼  95 % in α-pinene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts, while LLPS does not occur in isoprene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts. We expand on these findings by investigating LLPS at 290 ± 1 K in SOM particles free of inorganic salts produced from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene, ozonolysis of limonene, and photo-oxidation of toluene. LLPS was observed at greater than  ∼  95 % RH in the biogenic SOM particles derived from β-caryophyllene and limonene while LLPS was not observed in the anthropogenic SOM particles derived from toluene. This work combined with the earlier work on LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts suggests that the occurrence of LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts is related to the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C of the organic material. These results help explain the difference between the hygroscopic parameter κ of SOM particles measured above and below water saturation in the laboratory and field, and have implications for predicting the cloud condensation nucleation properties of SOM particles.

  8. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Peng, Marcus Y.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    1996-01-01

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M.sub.x Z.sub.y Mn.sub.(1-y) O.sub.2, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell.

  9. Double-phase parathyroid 99Tcm-MIBI scintigraphy in secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Xu Zhaoqiang; Hu Jianmin; Chang Guojun; Yao Weixuan; Li Yongjun; Chen Jianwei

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of double-phase parathyroid 99 Tc m -MIBI scintigraphy in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHP) following chronic renal failure. Methods: 99 Tc m -MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy was performed on 20 SHP patients. All images were analyzed with parathyroid/thyroid ratio (PT/T) and parathyroid index (PTI). 3 patients underwent parathyroidectomy and ectopic autografting. Results: 8 patients were 99 Tc m -MIBI-positive. 9 parathyroid glands removed from 3 patients were histopathologically diagnosed as parathyroid hyperplasia. 8 of the 9 were scintigraphy positive with the sensitivity of 88.9%, the localization of the parathyroids with scanning before operation was accurate. It was found that there were 3 types of MIBI washout in hyperplastic parathyroids. Conclusions: 99 Tc m -MIBI scintigraphy is valuable in localization of parathyroids in SHP, especially of hyperfunctioning glands. Special attention should be paid to the fact that there are different types of MIBI washout in hyperplastic glands, otherwise some abnormal glands might be missed

  10. Phase formation in Zr/Fe multilayers during Kr ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, A. T.

    1998-01-01

    A detailed study has been conducted of the effect of Kr ion irradiation on phase formation in Zr-Fe metallic multilayers, using the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscopy (IVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory. Metallic multilayers were prepared with different overall compositions (near 50-50 and Fe-rich), and with different wavelengths (repetition thicknesses). These samples were irradiated with 300 keV Kr ions at various temperatures to investigate the final products, as well as the kinetics of phase formation. For the shorter wavelength samples, the final product was in all cases an amorphous Zr-Fe phase, in combination with Fe, while specially for the larger wavelength samples, in the Fe-rich samples the intermetallic compounds ZrFe 2 and Zr 3 Fe were formed in addition to the amorphous phase. The dose to full reaction decreases with temperature, and with wavelength in a manner consistent with a diffusion-controlled reaction

  11. Formation of omega phase under shock pressure, hydrostatic pressure and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.K.

    2016-01-01

    The omega transformation is one of the most intriguing phase transformations. The aspects which make it unique and interesting are the facts that this phase can form from two different parent phases viz. the alpha phase and the beta phase. The alpha to omega transformation has been observed under shock and static pressure and the mechanism involved has been studied in detail. Starting from the nucleation stage to the completion of the transformation, various interesting aspects of the mechanism of transformation has emerged in these studies. Although the parent and product phases are same under these conditions of transformation, a variation in the morphology and the kinetics of the product phase indicate different pathways for alpha to omega transformations. Similarly, the beta to omega transformation is also replete with several interesting features. This transformation can occur under application of pressure, thermal activation and also under irradiation. Here again the morphology of the product phase, the nucleation mechanisms and the kinetics of the phase transformation depend on the path of transformation, though the parent and product phases are same in each path. This presentation highlights the formation of the omega phase under different activations including the ones in extreme conditions in pure Zr and Zr based alloys. Theoretical aspects of the feasibility, pathways and kinetics of the transformations are also emphasized. (author)

  12. Influence of the selected alloy additions on limiting the phase formation in Cu-Zn alloys

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kozana; St. Rzadkosz; M. Piękoś

    2010-01-01

    Influence of the selected alloy additions into copper and zinc alloys was investigated in order to find out the possibility of limiting the precipitation of unfavourable phase . The observation of microstructures and strength tests were performed. The results of metallographic and strength investigations indicate positive influence of small amounts of nickel, cobalt or tellurium. The precise determination of the influence of the selected alloy additions on limiting the gamma phase formation ...

  13. Influence of the selected alloy additions on limiting the phase formation in Cu-Zn alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kozana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the selected alloy additions into copper and zinc alloys was investigated in order to find out the possibility of limiting the precipitation of unfavourable phase . The observation of microstructures and strength tests were performed. The results of metallographic and strength investigations indicate positive influence of small amounts of nickel, cobalt or tellurium. The precise determination of the influence of the selected alloy additions on limiting the gamma phase formation will be the subject of further examinations.

  14. Reduction of secondary phases in Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} absorbers for solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zeguo, E-mail: tangzg@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan); Nukui, Yuki; Kosaka, Kiichi; Ashida, Naoki; Uegaki, Hikaru; Minemoto, Takashi [College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga (Japan)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} thin films for absorber of solar cell are fabricated by selenization of Cu–Sn precursors. • Secondary phase of Cu{sub 2–x}Se can be suppressed via using Se and SnSe mixture powders as Se source. • Selective etching of secondary phase of Cu{sub 2–x}Se is realized by potassium cyanide solution. • Cu{sub 2–x}Se rather than SnSe makes major contribution to the high carrier concentration of CTSe films. - Abstract: The creation of secondary phases, such as Cu{sub 2−x}Se and SnSe, and their influence on electrical properties of Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} (CTSe) thin films fabricated by selenization of Cu–Sn metal precursors are investigated. The Cu{sub 2−x}Se content in CTSe films is estimated via deconvolution of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) patterns, and the results suggest that the Cu{sub 2−x}Se content increases with the increasing Cu/Sn ratio in metal precursors. We also found that using Se and SnSe mixture powders as Se source is an effective approach to suppress the creation of Cu{sub 2−x}Se secondary phase. Meanwhile, selective etching of Cu{sub 2−x}Se is realized by potassium cyanide (KCN) solution. Hall measurement results reveal that the secondary phase of Cu{sub 2−x}Se rather than SnSe makes major contribution to the high carrier concentration (larger than 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}) of CTSe films. The approach to further decrease the carrier concentration in CTSe films is discussed.

  15. Real-Time Observations of Secondary Aerosol Formation and Aging from Different Emission Sources and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A. M.; Palm, B. B.; Hayes, P. L.; Day, D. A.; Cubison, M.; Brune, W. H.; Hu, W.; Flynn, J. H.; Grossberg, N.; Lefer, B. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Bon, D.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Gilman, J.; Kuster, W.; De Gouw, J. A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    To investigate atmospheric processing of direct urban and wildfire emissions, we deployed a photochemical flow reactor (Potential Aerosol Mass, PAM) with submicron aerosol size and chemical composition measurements during FLAME-3, a biomass-burning study at USDA Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, MT, and CalNex, a field study investigating the nexus of air quality and climate change at a receptor site in the LA-Basin at Pasadena, CA. The reactor produces OH concentrations up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than in ambient air, achieving equivalent aging of ~2 weeks in 5 minutes of processing. The OH exposure (OHexp) was stepped every 20 min in both field studies. Results show the value of this approach as a tool for in-situ evaluation of changes in OA concentration and composition due to photochemical processing. In FLAME-3, the average OA enhancement factor was 1.42 × 0.36 of the initial POA. Reactive VOCs, such as toluene, monoterpenes, and acetaldehyde, decreased with increased OHexp; however, formic acid, acetone, and some unidentified OVOCs increased after significant exposure. Net SOA formation in the photochemical reactor increased with OHexp, typically peaking around 3 days of equivalent atmospheric photochemical age (OHexp ~3.9e11 molecules cm-3 s), then leveling off at higher exposures. Unlike other studies, no decrease in OA is observed at high exposure, likely due to lower max OHexp in this study due to very high OH reactivity. The amount of additional OA mass added from aging is positively correlated with initial POA concentration, but not with the total VOC concentration or the concentration of known SOA precursors. The mass of SOA formed often exceeded the mass of the known VOC precursors, indicating the likely importance of primary semivolatile/intermediate volatility species, and possibly of unidentified VOCs as SOA precursors in biomass burning smoke. Results from CalNex show enhancement of OA and inorganic aerosol from gas-phase precursors

  16. Herbivory by an Outbreaking Moth Increases Emissions of Biogenic Volatiles and Leads to Enhanced Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Copolovici, Lucian; Kännaste, Astrid; Noe, Steffen; Blande, James D; Mikkonen, Santtu; Klemola, Tero; Pulkkinen, Juha; Virtanen, Annele; Laaksonen, Ari; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Niinemets, Ülo; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2016-11-01

    In addition to climate warming, greater herbivore pressure is anticipated to enhance the emissions of climate-relevant biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from boreal and subarctic forests and promote the formation of secondary aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. We evaluated the effects of Epirrita autumnata, an outbreaking geometrid moth, feeding and larval density on herbivore-induced VOC emissions from mountain birch in laboratory experiments and assessed the impact of these emissions on SOA formation via ozonolysis in chamber experiments. The results show that herbivore-induced VOC emissions were strongly dependent on larval density. Compared to controls without larval feeding, clear new particle formation by nucleation in the reaction chamber was observed, and the SOA mass loadings in the insect-infested samples were significantly higher (up to 150-fold). To our knowledge, this study provides the first controlled documentation of SOA formation from direct VOC emission of deciduous trees damaged by known defoliating herbivores and suggests that chewing damage on mountain birch foliage could significantly increase reactive VOC emissions that can importantly contribute to SOA formation in subarctic forests. Additional feeding experiments on related silver birch confirmed the SOA results. Thus, herbivory-driven volatiles are likely to play a major role in future biosphere-vegetation feedbacks such as sun-screening under daily 24 h sunshine in the subarctic.

  17. Phase separation and nanocrystal formation in Al-based metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonowicz, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystallization in a group of Al-RE and Al-RE-TM (RE = rare earth, TM = transition metal) melt-spun amorphous alloys was studied using in situ small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques (SAXS/WAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SAXS/WAXS measurements were carried out during isothermal annealing at temperatures close to crystallization point. A continuously growing interference maximum shifting progressively toward lower angles was found to develop in SAXS regime. Simultaneously taken WAXS spectra reveal formation of the primary fcc-Al nanocrystalline phase. The presence of the SAXS signal maximum indicates the spatial correlation between the compositional fluctuations. The peak position decay is an evidence of an increase of the fluctuation spacing characteristic for the coarsening stage of phase separation. The SAXS/WAXS data analysis indicates that amorphous phase decomposition triggers and controls the fcc-Al nanocrystalline phase formation. The glassy phase initially decomposes into Al-rich and RE-rich regions with typical lengths scale of about 10 nm. The nanocrystals nucleate preferentially inside the Al-rich amorphous regions and their growth is constrained by the region size because of the sluggish atomic diffusion in the RE-rich zones. A different crystallization mechanism is demonstrated in Al-Y-Ni-Co glass where WAXS spectra show formation of the fcc-Al primary phase but no interference peak in SAXS regime was found

  18. Energy of formation for AgIn liquid binary alloys along the line of phase separation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuiyan, G M; Ziauddin-Ahmed, A Z

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the energy of formation for AgIn liquid binary alloys along the solid-liquid phase separation line. A microscopic theory based on the first order perturbation has been applied. The interionic interaction and a reference liquid are the fundamental components of the theory. These are described by a local pseudopotential and the hard sphere liquids, respectively. The results of calculations reveal a characteristic feature that the energy of formation becomes minimum at the equiatomic composition, and thus indicates maximal mix-ability at this concentration. The energy of formation at a particular thermodynamic state that is at T 1173 K predicts the experimental trends fairly well.

  19. Observations of fine particulate nitrated phenols in four sites in northern China: concentrations, source apportionment, and secondary formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Filter samples of fine particulate matters were collected at four sites in northern China (urban, rural, and mountain in summer and winter, and the contents of nine nitrated phenols were quantified in the laboratory with the use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. During the sampling periods, the concentrations of particulate nitrated phenols exhibited distinct temporal and spatial variation. On average, the total concentration of particulate nitrated phenols in urban Jinan in the wintertime reached 48.4 ng m−3, and those in the summertime were 9.8, 5.7, 5.9, and 2.5 ng m−3 in urban Jinan, rural Yucheng and Wangdu, and Mt. Tai, respectively. The elevated concentrations of nitrated phenols in wintertime and in urban areas demonstrate the apparent influences of anthropogenic sources. The positive matrix factorization receptor model was then applied to determine the origins of particulate nitrated phenols in northern China. The five major source factors were traffic, coal combustion, biomass burning, secondary formation, and aged coal combustion plume. Among them, coal combustion played a vital role, especially at the urban site in the wintertime, with a contribution of around 55 %. In the summertime, the observed nitrated phenols were highly influenced by aged coal combustion plumes at all of the sampling sites. Meanwhile, in remote areas, contributions from secondary formation were significant. Further correlation analysis indicates that nitrosalicylic acids were produced mostly from secondary formation that was dominated by NO2 nitration.

  20. Development and Application of an Oxidation Flow Reactor to Study Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Brett Brian

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere play an important role in air quality, human health, and climate. However, the sources, formation pathways, and fate of SOA are poorly constrained. In this dissertation, I present development and application of the oxidation flow reactor (OFR) technique for studying SOA formation from OH, O3, and NO3 oxidation of ambient air. With a several-minute residence time and a portable design with no inlet, OFRs are particularly well-suited for this purpose. I first introduce the OFR concept, and discuss several advances I have made in performing and interpreting OFR experiments. This includes estimating oxidant exposures, modeling the fate of low-volatility gases in the OFR (wall loss, condensation, and oxidation), and comparing SOA yields of single precursors in the OFR with yields measured in environmental chambers. When these experimental details are carefully considered, SOA formation in an OFR can be more reliably compared with ambient SOA formation processes. I then present an overview of what OFR measurements have taught us about SOA formation in the atmosphere. I provide a comparison of SOA formation from OH, O3, and NO3 oxidation of ambient air in a wide variety of environments, from rural forests to urban air. In a rural forest, the SOA formation correlated with biogenic precursors (e.g., monoterpenes). In urban air, it correlated instead with reactive anthropogenic tracers (e.g., trimethylbenzene). In mixed-source regions, the SOA formation did not correlate well with any single precursor, but could be predicted by multilinear regression from several precursors. Despite these correlations, the concentrations of speciated ambient VOCs could only explain approximately 10-50% of the total SOA formed from OH oxidation. In contrast, ambient VOCs could explain all of the SOA formation observed from O3 and NO3 oxidation. Evidence suggests that lower-volatility gases (semivolatile and intermediate-volatility organic

  1. Spontaneous and Flow-Driven Interfacial Phase Change: Dynamics of Microemulsion Formation at the Pore Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagavifar, Mohsen; Xu, Ke; Jang, Sung Hyun; Balhoff, Matthew T; Pope, Gary A

    2017-11-14

    The dynamic behavior of microemulsion-forming water-oil-amphiphiles mixtures is investigated in a 2.5D micromodel. The equilibrium phase behavior of such mixtures is well-understood in terms of macroscopic phase transitions. However, what is less understood and where experimental data are lacking is the coupling between the phase change and the bulk flow. Herein, we study the flow of an aqueous surfactant solution-oil mixture in porous media and analyze the dependence of phase formation and spatial phase configurations on the bulk flow rate. We find that a microemulsion forms instantaneously as a boundary layer at the initial surface of contact between the surfactant solution and oil. The boundary layer is temporally continuous because of the imposed convection. In addition to the imposed flow, we observe spontaneous pulsed Marangoni flows that drag the microemulsion and surfactant solution into the oil stream, forming large (macro)emulsion droplets. The formation of the microemulsion phase at the interface distinguishes the situation from that of the more common Marangoni flow with only two phases present. Additionally, an emulsion forms via liquid-liquid nucleation or the Ouzo effect (i.e., spontaneous emulsification) at low flow rates and via mechanical mixing at high flow rates. With regard to multiphase flow, contrary to the common belief that the microemulsion is the wetting liquid, we observe that the minor oil phase wets the solid surface. We show that a layered flow pattern is formed because of the out-of-equilibrium phase behavior at high volumetric flow rates (order of 2 m/day) where advection is much faster than the diffusive interfacial mass transfer and transverse mixing, which promote equilibrium behavior. At lower flow rates (order of 30 cm/day), however, the dynamic and equilibrium phase behaviors are well-correlated. These results clearly show that the phase change influences the macroscale flow behavior.

  2. Formation of primary pit connection during conchocelis phase of Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shual, Li; Jiang, Ming; Duan, Delin

    2006-09-01

    The formation of pit connection during conchocelis phase of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda was observed and examined with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and epifluorence microscope. It is indicated that the pit connection was formed in late stage of conchocelis phase and the early stages of conchosporangial cell development, and disappeared in bispore stage. The pit connection contained a thin membrane layer at outer pit plug. Stained with 4', 6'-diamidino-2-phenylidole dihydrochloride hydrate (DAPI), transferring of DNA or RNA between adjacent cells were observed in late stage of conchocelis development, it was deduced that pit connection might serve as a channel for signal transduction and genetic substance transportation in conchocelis phase.

  3. MODEL FOR FORMATION OF ENTREPRENEUR’S STYLE THINKING AMONG STUDENTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS PROVIDING GENERAL EDUCATION WHILE USING MEANS THAT DEVELOP SOCIAL AND PEDAGOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gorodovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper rises problems pertaining to formation of entrepreneur competence among students of secondary schools providing general education while using means that develop social and pedagogical environment.

  4. Primary gas- and particle-phase emissions and secondary organic aerosol production from gasoline and diesel off-road engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Timothy D; Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Zhang, Mang; Jathar, Shantanu H; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Massetti, John; Truong, Tin; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Maddox, Christine; Rieger, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M Matti; Robinson, Allen L

    2013-12-17

    Dilution and smog chamber experiments were performed to characterize the primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gasoline and diesel small off-road engines (SOREs). These engines are high emitters of primary gas- and particle-phase pollutants relative to their fuel consumption. Two- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs emit much more (up to 3 orders of magnitude more) nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs), primary PM and organic carbon than newer on-road gasoline vehicles (per kg of fuel burned). The primary emissions from a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were similar to those of older, uncontrolled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles (e.g., premodel year 2007 heavy-duty diesel trucks). Two-strokes emitted the largest fractional (and absolute) amount of SOA precursors compared to diesel and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs; however, 35-80% of the NMOG emissions from the engines could not be speciated using traditional gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. After 3 h of photo-oxidation in a smog chamber, dilute emissions from both 2- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs produced large amounts of semivolatile SOA. The effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to estimated mass of reacted precursors) was 2-4% for 2- and 4-stroke SOREs, which is comparable to yields from dilute exhaust from older passenger cars and unburned gasoline. This suggests that much of the SOA production was due to unburned fuel and/or lubrication oil. The total PM contribution of different mobile source categories to the ambient PM burden was calculated by combining primary emission, SOA production and fuel consumption data. Relative to their fuel consumption, SOREs are disproportionately high total PM sources; however, the vastly greater fuel consumption of on-road vehicles renders them (on-road vehicles) the dominant mobile source of ambient PM in the Los Angeles area.

  5. A systematic review of concept mapping-based formative assessment processes in primary and secondary science education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, Rikke; Stevenson, Matt P.; Bentsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    assessment: firstly, concept mapping should be constructed in teaching, preferably on repeated occasions. Secondly, concept mapping should be carried out individually if personal understanding is to be elicited; however, collaborative concept mapping might foster discussions valuable for developing students......’ understanding and for activating them as instructional resources and owners of their own learning. Thirdly, low-directed mapping seems most suitable for formative assessment. Fourthly, technology-based or peer assessments are useful strategies likely to reduce the load of interpretation for the educator......In this paper, we present and discuss the results of a systematic review of concept mapping-based interventions in primary and secondary science education. We identified the following recommendations for science educators on how to successfully apply concept mapping as a method for formative...

  6. Training of secondary phases on UO{sub 2}. Uranyl phosphates and uranium peroxide; Formacion de fases secundarias sobre UO{sub 2}. Fosfatos de uranilo y peroxido de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, J.; Rey, A.; Pablo, J. de; Casas, I.

    2008-07-01

    One of the main processes that can control radionuclides migration is mineral phase precipitation, known as secondary phases. The formation of one of these phases more stable than UO{sub 2} at repository conditions, could act as a barrier between nuclear waste and groundwater. This modifies the radiation that arrives to the dissolution, blocking dissolution of UO{sub 2} matrix and affecting to radionuclide release. So, is important to know the possible secondary phases to precipitate during SNF (spent nuclear fuel) alteration and its stability at repository conditions. Several experiments of SNF dissolution in groundwater have observed the formation of uranium secondary phases. Nevertheless, these experiments have been developed in specific conditions and they haven't arrived to study the effect of several parameters, such as complexions as phosphate. The rol of phosphate on to dissolution of UO{sub 2} and uranium-phosphate phase formation is necessary to know repository assessment. Uranyl peroxides have been found also in several studies about lixiviation in presence of hydrogen peroxide, which is the expected oxidant for med from the water radiolysis. In this work we performed a study about the stability of these phases. The phases obtained have been characterized with X ray diffraction (XRD). The particle size, shape and chemical composition have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A topographic analysis of UO{sub 2} surface in contact with ground water and phosphate media have been performed by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The uranium concentration evolution in solution have been followed with ICP-MS. Stability in relation to radiation of uranyl peroxide have been developed with electron transmission microscopy (TEM), and thermal stability with a thermo gravimetry device (TG) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). (Author)

  7. Modeling the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosols in Los Angeles during CalNex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P. L.; Carlton, A. G.; Baker, K. R.; Ahmadov, R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Alvarez, S.; Rappengluck, B.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Zotter, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Szidat, S.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Offenberg, J. H.; Ma, P. K.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    Four different literature parameterizations for the formation and evolution of urban secondary organic aerosol (SOA) frequently used in 3-D models are evaluated using a 0-D box model representing the Los Angeles metropolitan region during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) 2010 campaign. We constrain the model predictions with measurements from several platforms and compare predictions with particle- and gas-phase observations from the CalNex Pasadena ground site. That site provides a unique opportunity to study aerosol formation close to anthropogenic emission sources with limited recirculation. The model SOA that formed only from the oxidation of VOCs (V-SOA) is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations, even when using SOA parameterizations with multi-generation oxidation that produce much higher yields than have been observed in chamber experiments, or when increasing yields to their upper limit estimates accounting for recently reported losses of vapors to chamber walls. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) model (version 5.0.1) provides excellent predictions of secondary inorganic particle species but underestimates the observed SOA mass by a factor of 25 when an older VOC-only parameterization is used, which is consistent with many previous model-measurement comparisons for pre-2007 anthropogenic SOA modules in urban areas. Including SOA from primary semi-volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (P-S/IVOCs) following the parameterizations of Robinson et al. (2007), Grieshop et al. (2009), or Pye and Seinfeld (2010) improves model-measurement agreement for mass concentration. The results from the three parameterizations show large differences (e.g., a factor of 3 in SOA mass) and are not well constrained, underscoring the current uncertainties in this area. Our results strongly suggest that other precursors besides VOCs, such as P-S/IVOCs, are needed to explain the observed

  8. Formation of residual NAPL in three-phase systems: Experiments and numerical simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, C.; Oostrom, M.

    2002-01-01

    The formation of residual, discontinuous nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the vadose zone is a process that is not well understood. The simulators have conveniently implemented the Leverett concept (Leverett and Lewis, 1941) which states that in a water-wet porous media, when fluid wettabilities

  9. Analytical model of chemical phase and formation of DSB in chromosomes by ionizing radiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barilla, J.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Pisaková, Hana; Šimr, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2013), s. 11-17 ISSN 0158-9938 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : radiobiological mechanism * chemical phase * DSB formation * oxygen effect Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.848, year: 2013

  10. PtrWRKY19, a novel WRKY transcription factor, contributes to the regulation of pith secondary wall formation in Populus trichocarpa

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yang; Xin Zhao; Fan Yang; Di Fan; Yuanzhong Jiang; Keming Luo

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins are one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants and play diverse roles in various biological processes. Previous studies have shown that some WRKY members act as negative regulators of secondary cell wall formation in pith parenchyma cells. However, the regulatory mechanism of pith secondary wall formation in tree species remains largely unknown. In this study, PtrWRKY19 encoding a homolog of Arabidopsis WRKY12 was isolated from Populus trichocarpa. PtrWRKY...

  11. Keeping a Step Ahead: formative phase of a workplace intervention trial to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, Jane; Lemon, Stephenie C; Estabrook, Barbara B; Jolicoeur, Denise G

    2007-11-01

    Ecological interventions hold promise for promoting overweight and obesity prevention in worksites. Given the paucity of evaluative research in the hospital worksite setting, considerable formative work is required for successful implementation and evaluation. This paper describes the formative phases of Step Ahead, a site-randomized controlled trial of a multilevel intervention that promotes physical activity and healthy eating in six hospitals in central Massachusetts. The purpose of the formative research phase was to increase the feasibility, effectiveness, and likelihood of sustainability of the intervention. The Step Ahead ecological intervention approach targets change at the organization, interpersonal work environment, and individual levels. The intervention was developed using fundamental steps of intervention mapping and important tenets of participatory research. Formative research methods were used to engage leadership support and assistance and to develop an intervention plan that is both theoretically and practically grounded. This report uses observational data, program minutes and reports, and process tracking data. Leadership involvement (key informant interviews and advisory boards), employee focus groups and advisory boards, and quantitative environmental assessments cultivated participation and support. Determining multiple foci of change and designing measurable objectives and generic assessment tools to document progress are complex challenges encountered in planning phases. Multilevel trials in diverse organizations require flexibility and balance of theory application and practice-based perspectives to affect impact and outcome objectives. Formative research is an essential component.

  12. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile...

  13. Coarsening and pattern formation during true morphological phase separation in unstable thin films under gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avanish; Narayanam, Chaitanya; Khanna, Rajesh; Puri, Sanjay

    2017-12-01

    We address in detail the problem of true morphological phase separation (MPS) in three-dimensional or (2 +1 )-dimensional unstable thin liquid films (>100 nm) under the influence of gravity. The free-energy functionals of these films are asymmetric and show two points of common tangency, which facilitates the formation of two equilibrium phases. Three distinct patterns formed by relative preponderance of these phases are clearly identified in "true MPS". Asymmetricity induces two different pathways of pattern formation, viz., defect and direct pathway for true MPS. The pattern formation and phase-ordering dynamics have been studied using statistical measures such as structure factor, correlation function, and growth laws. In the late stage of coarsening, the system reaches into a scaling regime for both pathways, and the characteristic domain size follows the Lifshitz-Slyozov growth law [L (t ) ˜t1 /3] . However, for the defect pathway, there is a crossover of domain growth behavior from L (t ) ˜t1 /4→t1 /3 in the dynamical scaling regime. We also underline the analogies and differences behind the mechanisms of MPS and true MPS in thin liquid films and generic spinodal phase separation in binary mixtures.

  14. Aqueous-Phase Reactions of Isoprene with Sulfoxy Radical Anions as a way of Wet Aerosol Formation in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznietsova, I.; Rudzinski, K. J.; Szmigielski, R.; Laboratory of the Environmental Chemistry

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols exhibit an important role in the environment. They have implications on human health and life, and - in the larger scale - on climate, the Earth's radiative balance and the cloud's formation. Organic matter makes up a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosols (~35% to ~90%) and may originate from direct emissions (primary organic aerosol, POA) or result from complex physico-chemical processes of volatile organic compounds (secondary organic aerosol, SOA). Isoprene (2-methyl-buta-1,3-diene) is one of the relevant volatile precursor of ambient SOA in the atmosphere. It is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted to the atmosphere as a result of living vegetation. According to the recent data, the isoprene emission rate is estimated to be at the level of 500 TgC per year. While heterogeneous transformations of isoprene have been well documented, aqueous-phase reactions of this hydrocarbon with radical species that lead to the production of new class of wet SOA components such as polyols and their sulfate esters (organosulfates), are still poorly recognized. The chain reactions of isoprene with sulfoxy radical-anions (SRA) are one of the recently researched route leading to the formation of organosulfates in the aqueous phase. The letter radical species originate from the auto-oxidation of sulfur dioxide in the aqueous phase and are behind the phenomenon of atmospheric acid rain formation. This is a complicated chain reaction that is catalyzed by transition metal ions, such as manganese(II), iron(III) and propagated by sulfoxy radical anions . The presented work addresses the chemical interaction of isoprene with sulfoxy radical-anions in the water solution in the presence of nitrite ions and nitrous acid, which are important trace components of the atmosphere. We showed that nitrite ions and nitrous acid significantly altered the kinetics of the auto-oxidation of SO2 in the presence of isoprene at different solution acidity from 2 to 8

  15. Modeling of Eutectic Formation in Al-Si Alloy Using A Phase-Field Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Z.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We have utilized a phase-field model to investigate the evolution of eutectic silicon in Al-Si alloy. The interfacial fluctuations are included into a phase-field model of two-phase solidification, as stochastic noise terms and their dominant role in eutectic silicon formation is discussed. We have observed that silicon spherical particles nucleate on the foundation of primary aluminum phase and their nucleation continues on concentric rings, through the Al matrix. The nucleation of silicon particles is attributed to the inclusion of fluctuations into the phase-field equations. The simulation results have shown needle-like, fish-bone like and flakes of silicon phase by adjusting the noise coefficients to larger values. Moreover, the role of primary Al phase on nucleation of silicon particles in Al-Si alloy is elaborated. We have found that the addition of fluctuations plays the role of modifiers in our simulations and is essential for phase-field modeling of eutectic growth in Al-Si system. The simulated finger-like Al phases and spherical Si particles are very similar to those of experimental eutectic growth in modified Al-Si alloy.

  16. A new method in prediction of TCP phases formation in superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousavi Anijdan, S.H.; Bahrami, A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to develop a model for prediction of topologically closed-packed (TCP) phases formation in superalloys. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN), using several different network architectures, were used to investigate the complex relationships between TCP phases and chemical composition of superalloys. In order to develop an optimum ANN structure, more than 200 experimental data were used to train and test the neural network. The results of this investigation shows that a multilayer perceptron (MLP) form of the neural networks with one hidden layer and 10 nodes in the hidden layer has the lowest mean absolute error (MAE) and can be accurately used to predict the electron-hole number (N v ) and TCP phases formation in superalloys

  17. Structure and formation of convection of secondary rainbands in a simulated typhoon Jangmi (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Tan, Zhe-Min; Chow, Kim-Chiu

    2018-04-01

    Secondary rainbands in tropical cyclone are relatively transient compared with the quasi-stationary principle rainbands. To have a better understanding on their convective structure, a cloud-resolving scale numerical simulation of the super typhoon Jangmi (2008) was performed. The results suggest that the convections in secondary rainbands have some distinctive features that may not be seen in other types of rainbands in tropical cyclone. First, they have a front-like structure and are triggered to form above the boundary layer by the convergence of the above-boundary outflow from the inner side (warmer) and the descending inflow (colder) from the outer side. These elevated convections can be further confirmed by the three-dimensional backward trajectory calculations. Second, due to the release in baroclinic energy, the lower portion of the mid-level inflow from outside may penetrate into the bottom of the convection tower and may help accelerate the boundary layer inflow in the inner side. Third, the local maximum tangential wind is concentrated in the updraft region, with a lower portion which is dipping inward. Tangential wind budget analysis also suggests that the maxima are mainly contributed by the updraft advection, and can be advected cyclonically downstream by the tangential advection.

  18. Effects of NOx and SO2 on the secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation of α-pinene and limonene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Defeng; Schmitt, Sebastian H.; Wang, Mingjin; Acir, Ismail-Hakki; Tillmann, Ralf; Tan, Zhaofeng; Novelli, Anna; Fuchs, Hendrik; Pullinen, Iida; Wegener, Robert; Rohrer, Franz; Wildt, Jürgen; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas; Mentel, Thomas F.

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions such as NOx and SO2 influence the biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but detailed mechanisms and effects are still elusive. We studied the effects of NOx and SO2 on the SOA formation from the photooxidation of α-pinene and limonene at ambient relevant NOx and SO2 concentrations (NOx: leading to a lack of particle surface for the organics to condense on and thus a significant influence of vapor wall loss on SOA mass yield. By compensating for the suppressing effect on nucleation of NOx, SO2 also compensated for the suppressing effect on SOA yield. Aerosol mass spectrometer data show that increasing NOx enhanced nitrate formation. The majority of the nitrate was organic nitrate (57-77 %), even in low-NOx conditions (nitrate contributed 7-26 % of total organics assuming a molecular weight of 200 g mol-1. SOA from α-pinene photooxidation at high NOx had a generally lower hydrogen to carbon ratio (H / C), compared to low NOx. The NOx dependence of the chemical composition can be attributed to the NOx dependence of the branching ratio of the RO2 loss reactions, leading to a lower fraction of organic hydroperoxides and higher fractions of organic nitrates at high NOx. While NOx suppressed new particle formation and SOA mass formation, SO2 can compensate for such effects, and the combining effect of SO2 and NOx may have an important influence on SOA formation affected by interactions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with anthropogenic emissions.

  19. Fundamental thermochemical properties of amino acids: gas-phase and aqueous acidities and gas-phase heats of formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Michele L; Jackson, Virgil E; Matus, Myrna H; Adams, Margaret A; Cassady, Carolyn J; Dixon, David A

    2012-03-08

    The gas-phase acidities of the 20 L-amino acids have been predicted at the composite G3(MP2) level. A broad range of structures of the neutral and anion were studied to determine the lowest energy conformer. Excellent agreement is found with the available experimental gas-phase deprotonation enthalpies, and the calculated values are within experimental error. We predict that tyrosine is deprotonated at the CO(2)H site. Cysteine is predicted to be deprotonated at the SH but the proton on the CO(2)H is shared with the S(-) site. Self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations with the COSMO parametrization were used to predict the pK(a)'s of the non-zwitterion form in aqueous solution. The differences in the non-zwitterion pK(a) values were used to estimate the free energy difference between the zwitterion and nonzwitterion forms in solution. The heats of formation of the neutral compounds were calculated from atomization energies and isodesmic reactions to provide the first reliable set of these values in the gas phase. Further calculations were performed on five rare amino acids to predict their heats of formation, acidities, and pK(a) values.

  20. A quantum-chemical validation about the formation of hydrogen bonds and secondary interactions in intermolecular heterocyclic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaz Galdino Oliveira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We have performed a detailed theoretical study in order to understand the charge density topology of the C2H4O···C2H2 and C2H4S···C2H2 heterocyclic hydrogen-bonded complexes. Through the calculations derived from Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM, it was observed the formation of hydrogen bonds and secondary interactions. Such analysis was performed through the determination of optimized geometries at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p level of theory, by which is that QTAIM topological operators were computed, such as the electronic density ρ(r, Laplacian Ñ2ρ(r, and ellipticity ε. The examination of the hydrogen bonds has been performed through the measurement of ρ(r, Ñ2ρ(r and ε between (O···H—C and (S···H—C, whereas the secondary interaction between axial hydrogen atoms Hα and carbon of acetylene. In this insight, it was verified the existence of secondary interaction only in C2H4S···C2H2 complex because its structure is propitious to form multiple interactions.

  1. BRITTLE CULM16 (BRITTLE NODE) is required for the formation of secondary cell walls in rice nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; WANG Jiu-lin; GUO Xiu-ping; ZHANG Xin; LEI Cai-lin; CHENG Zhi-jun; WAN Jian-min; REN Yu-long; CHEN Sai-hua; XU Yang; ZHOU Kun-neng; ZHANG Long; MING Ming; WU Fu-qing; LIN Qi-bing

    2017-01-01

    Plant cell walls constitute the skeletal structures of plant bodies, and thus confer lodging resistance for grain crops. While the basic cell wall synthesis machinery is relatively well established now, our understanding of how the process is regulated remains limited and fragmented. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of the novel rice (Oryza sativa L.) brittle culm16 (brittle node; bc16) mutant. The brittle node phenotype of the bc16 mutant appears exclusively at nodes, and resembles the previously reported bc5 mutant. Combined histochemical staining and electron microscopy assays revealed that in the bc16 mutant, the secondary cell wall formation and thickening of node sclerenchyma tissues are seriously affected after heading. Furthermore, cell wall composition assays revealed that the bc16 mutation led to a significant reduction in cellulose and lignin contents. Using a map-based cloning approach, the bc16 locus is mapped to an approximately 1.7-Mb region of chromosome 4. Together, our findings strengthen evidence for discretely spatial differences in the secondary cell wall formation within plant bodies.

  2. Secondary organic aerosol formation from primary aliphatic amines with NO3 radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Q. G. J.; Qi, Li; Warren, B.; Cocker, D. R., III; Erupe, M. E.; Silva, P. J.

    2009-03-01

    Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with O3 and NO3 have been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of NO, and by extension NO3, large aerosol mass yields (~44% for butylamine) are seen. Aerosol generated was determined to be organic in nature due to the small fraction of NO and NO2 in the total signal (tested) as detected by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). We propose a reaction mechanism between carbonyl containing species and the parent amine leading to formation of particulate imine products. These findings can have significant impacts on rural communities with elevated nighttime PM loadings, when significant levels of NO3 exist.

  3. Effects of NOx and SO2 on the secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation of α-pinene and limonene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions such as NOx and SO2 influence the biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation, but detailed mechanisms and effects are still elusive. We studied the effects of NOx and SO2 on the SOA formation from the photooxidation of α-pinene and limonene at ambient relevant NOx and SO2 concentrations (NOx: < 1to 20 ppb, SO2: < 0.05 to 15 ppb. In these experiments, monoterpene oxidation was dominated by OH oxidation. We found that SO2 induced nucleation and enhanced SOA mass formation. NOx strongly suppressed not only new particle formation but also SOA mass yield. However, in the presence of SO2 which induced a high number concentration of particles after oxidation to H2SO4, the suppression of the mass yield of SOA by NOx was completely or partly compensated for. This indicates that the suppression of SOA yield by NOx was largely due to the suppressed new particle formation, leading to a lack of particle surface for the organics to condense on and thus a significant influence of vapor wall loss on SOA mass yield. By compensating for the suppressing effect on nucleation of NOx, SO2 also compensated for the suppressing effect on SOA yield. Aerosol mass spectrometer data show that increasing NOx enhanced nitrate formation. The majority of the nitrate was organic nitrate (57–77 %, even in low-NOx conditions (<  ∼  1 ppb. Organic nitrate contributed 7–26 % of total organics assuming a molecular weight of 200 g mol−1. SOA from α-pinene photooxidation at high NOx had a generally lower hydrogen to carbon ratio (H ∕ C, compared to low NOx. The NOx dependence of the chemical composition can be attributed to the NOx dependence of the branching ratio of the RO2 loss reactions, leading to a lower fraction of organic hydroperoxides and higher fractions of organic nitrates at high NOx. While NOx suppressed new particle formation and SOA mass formation, SO2 can compensate for such effects, and the

  4. Fabrication of Times and Micro-Formation of Discourse at a Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Kontopodis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented here starts with a reference to modernist time theories, followed by a presentation of alternative views in the works of FOUCAULT, DELEUZE, LATOUR and others. The study concentrates on the concrete context of an experimental school aiming at incorporation of excluded students into society. Based on the synthesis of discourse analysis and Actor-Network-Theory, the study puts forward a twofold question: a whether and how the "fabrication of times" is interrelated to micro-formations of discourses and b how micro-formations of discourses emerge as processes in the concrete setting of a school in regard to their temporal and other aspects. To answer this query, I combine some critical ethnographic work with an Actor-Network-Theory methodology—an approach which could be regarded as "rhizomatic analysis" (DELEUZE & GUATTARI, 1980. Examining discursive and non-discursive action with a particular focus on materialities (sites, students' documents, educational reports, CVs, and files, I introduce the notion of "temporal devices of control" and map two of them: that of synchronicity and that of convergence. In this way, I propose a new understanding of time and relate it to discourse formation. This, in turn, reveals a new potential for critical reflection on theories of time as well as on all action taking place in the school. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701119

  5. Synthesis, characterization and formation mechanism of metastable phase VO2(A) nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.H.; Xu, H.F.; Wang, Z.Z.; Zhu, K.R.; Li, G.; Jin, Shaowei

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pure phases of VO 2 (B) and VO 2 (A) were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. • Belt-like particles prepared at 180 °C was indexed as monoclinic VO 2 (B) phase. • Rod-like particles prepared at 230 °C was indexed as tetragonal VO 2 (A) phase. • VO 2 (A) nanorods resulted from VO 2 (B) nanobelts by assembly and crystal adjustment. - Abstract: Pure phase VO 2 (A) nanorods were synthesized via the reduction of V 2 O 5 by oxalic acid during the hydrothermal treatment. Two sets of samples were prepared by varying both system temperature and reaction time under a filling ratio of 0.40 for observing the formation and evolution of VO 2 (A) nanorods. Structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, respectively. It was found that VO 2 (B) was firstly formed and then transformed into VO 2 (A) as the increasing system temperature or extending reaction time. An assembling and following crystal adjustment was proposed for explanation the formation process of VO 2 (A) from VO 2 (B). For VO 2 (A) nanorods, the phase transition temperature of 169.7 °C was higher than that of the VO 2 (A) bulk, it might be ascribed to the lower crystallinity or nonstoichiometry in VO 2 (A) nanorods. VO 2 nanostructures with controllable phases and properties should find their promising applications in a single VO 2 nanodevice

  6. Formation, stability and crystal structure of the {sigma} phase in Mo-Re-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bei, H., E-mail: beih@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Yang, Y., E-mail: ying.yang@computherm.com [CompuTherm LLC, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Viswanathan, G.B. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Rawn, C.J.; George, E.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [University of Tennessee, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Tiley, J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Chang, Y.A. [CompuTherm LLC, Madison, WI 53719 (United States)] [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The formation, stability and crystal structure of the {sigma} phase in Mo-Re-Si alloys were investigated. Guided by thermodynamic calculations, six critically selected alloys were arc melted and annealed at 1600 deg. C for 150 h. Their as-cast and annealed microstructures, including phase fractions and distributions, the compositions of the constituent phases and the crystal structure of the {sigma} phase were analyzed by thermodynamic modeling coupled with experimental characterization by scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Two key findings resulted from this work. One is the large homogeneity range of the {sigma} phase region, extending from binary Mo-Re to ternary Mo-Re-Si. The other is the formation of a {sigma} phase in Mo-rich alloys either through the peritectic reaction of liquid + Mo{sub ss} {yields} {sigma} or primary solidification. These findings are important in understanding the effects of Re on the microstructure and providing guidance on the design of Mo-Re-Si alloys.

  7. Effects of Phytoplankton Growth Phase on the Formation and Properties of Marine Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Q. W.; Proctor, K. W.; Prairie, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Marine snow aggregates often dominate carbon export from the upper mixed layer to the deep ocean. Thus, understanding the formation and the properties of these aggregates is essential to the study of the biological pump. Aggregate formation is determined by both the encounter rate and the stickiness of the particles that they are composed of. Stickiness of phytoplankton has been linked to production of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), which has been previously shown to vary in concentration throughout different parts of the phytoplankton growth cycle. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of the growth phase of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii to both TEP production and the properties of the resulting aggregates produced. Cultures of T. weissflogii were stopped at separate phases of the phytoplankton growth curve and incubated in rotating cylindrical tanks to form aggregates. Aggregate properties such as size, density, and porosity were measured at the end of each period of roller incubation. Preliminary results describe little variation in the size of the aggregates formed from different parts of the growth phase, but show a significant effect of growth phase on aggregate density. Density is an important factor in the settling of marine aggregates. Therefore, variations in aggregate density during different growth phases may have large implications for the efficiency of the biological pump during different stages of a phytoplankton bloom. Further examination will be performed on the potential effects of TEP abundance on the properties of the aggregates formed at separate growth phases and the resulting implications for carbon flux.

  8. The study of membrane formation via phase inversion method by cloud point and light scattering experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arahman, Nasrul; Maimun, Teuku; Mukramah, Syawaliah

    2017-01-01

    The composition of polymer solution and the methods of membrane preparation determine the solidification process of membrane. The formation of membrane structure prepared via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method is mostly determined by phase separation process between polymer, solvent, and non-solvent. This paper discusses the phase separation process of polymer solution containing Polyethersulfone (PES), N-methylpirrolidone (NMP), and surfactant Tetronic 1307 (Tet). Cloud point experiment is conducted to determine the amount of non-solvent needed on induced phase separation. Amount of water required as a non-solvent decreases by the addition of surfactant Tet. Kinetics of phase separation for such system is studied by the light scattering measurement. With the addition of Tet., the delayed phase separation is observed and the structure growth rate decreases. Moreover, the morphology of fabricated membrane from those polymer systems is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images of both systems show the formation of finger-like macrovoids through the cross-section.

  9. Formation of secondary minerals and uptake of various anions under naturally-occurring hyper-alkaline conditions in Oman - 16344

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anraku, Sohtaro; Sato, Tsutomu; Yoneda, Tetsuro; Morimoto, Kazuya

    2009-01-01

    In Japanese transuranic (TRU) waste disposal facilities, 129 I is the most important key nuclide for the long-term safety assessment. Thus, the K d values of I to natural minerals are important factor in the safety assessment. However, the degradation of cement materials in the repositories can produce high pH pore fluid which can affect the anion transport behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of anions such as I- under the hyper-alkaline conditions. The natural hyper-alkaline spring water (pH>11) in the Oman ophiolite is known to be generated from the partly serpentinized peridotites. The spring water is characteristically hyper-alkaline, reducing, low-Mg, Si and HCO 3 - , and high-Ca, while the river water is moderately alkaline, oxidizing, high-Mg and HCO 3 - . The mixing of these spring and river water resulted in the formation of secondary minerals. In the present study, the naturally occurring hyper-alkaline conditions near the springs in Oman were used as natural analogue for the interaction between cement pore fluid and natural Mg-HCO 3 - groundwater. The present aim of this paper is to examine the conditions of secondary mineral formation and the anion uptake capacity of these mineral in this system. Water and precipitate samples were collected from the different locations around the spring vent to identify the effect of mixing ratios between spring and river water on mineral composition and water-mineral distribution coefficient of various anions. On-site synthesis was also carried out to support these data quantitatively. Aragonite was observed in all precipitates, while calcite, brucite and Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc) were also determined in some samples. Calcite was observed only closed to the springs. At locations far from the springs, calcite formation was inhibited due to high-Mg fluid from river water. Brucite was observed from the springs with relatively low-Al concentration and HTlc was the opposite. During

  10. The significance of secondary organic aerosol formation and growth in buildings: experimental and computational evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, G.; Corsi, R.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    -pinene, and subsequent gas-to-particle partitioning of the products. A new indoor air quality model was used to predict dynamic particle mass concentrations based on detailed homogeneous chemical mechanisms and partitioning of semi-volatile products to particles. Chamber particle mass concentrations were estimated from......Experiments were conducted in an 11 m3 environmental chamber to investigate secondaryparticles resulting from homogeneous reactions between ozone and alpha-pinene. Experimental results indicate that rapid fine particle growth occurs due to homogeneous reactions between ozone and alpha...... measured particle size distributions and were in reasonable agreement with results predicted from the model. Both experimental and model results indicate that secondary particle mass concentrations incfrease substantially with lower air exchange rates. This is an interesting results, given a continuing...

  11. Gas phase emissions from cooking processes and their secondary aerosol production potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Felix; Platt, Stephen; Bruns, Emily; Termime-roussel, Brice; Detournay, Anais; Mohr, Claudia; Crippa, Monica; Slowik, Jay; Marchand, Nicolas; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre; El Haddad, Imad

    2014-05-01

    Long before the industrial evolution and the era of fossil fuels, high concentrations of aerosol particles were alluded to in heavily populated areas, including ancient Rome and medieval London. Recent radiocarbon measurements (14C) conducted in modern megacities came as a surprise: carbonaceous aerosol (mainly organic aerosol, OA), a predominant fraction of particulate matter (PM), remains overwhelmingly non-fossil despite extensive fossil fuel combustion. Such particles are directly emitted (primary OA, POA) or formed in-situ in the atmosphere (secondary OA, SOA) via photochemical reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Urban levels of non-fossil OA greatly exceed the levels measured in pristine environments strongly impacted by biogenic emissions, suggesting a contribution from unidentified anthropogenic non-fossil sources to urban OA. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) techniques applied to ambient aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, Aerodyne) data identify primary cooking emissions (COA) as one of the main sources of primary non-fossil OA in major cities like London (Allan et al., 2010), New York (Sun et al., 2011) and Beijing (Huang et al., 2010). Cooking processes can also emit VOCs that can act as SOA precursors, potentially explaining in part the high levels of oxygenated OA (OOA) identified by the AMS in urban areas. However, at present, the chemical nature of these VOCs and their secondary aerosol production potential (SAPP) remain virtually unknown. The approach adopted here involves laboratory quantification of PM and VOC emission factors from the main primary COA emitting processes and their SAPP. Primary emissions from deep-fat frying, vegetable boiling, vegetable frying and meat cooking for different oils, meats and vegetables were analysed under controlled conditions after ~100 times dilution. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a high resolution proton transfer time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR

  12. Imaging the 3D structure of secondary osteons in human cortical bone using phase-retrieval tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arhatari, B D; Peele, A G [Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Cooper, D M L [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Thomas, C D L; Clement, J G [Melbourne Dental School, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2011-08-21

    By applying a phase-retrieval step before carrying out standard filtered back-projection reconstructions in tomographic imaging, we were able to resolve structures with small differences in density within a densely absorbing sample. This phase-retrieval tomography is particularly suited for the three-dimensional segmentation of secondary osteons (roughly cylindrical structures) which are superimposed upon an existing cortical bone structure through the process of turnover known as remodelling. The resulting images make possible the analysis of the secondary osteon structure and the relationship between an osteon and the surrounding tissue. Our observations have revealed many different and complex 3D structures of osteons that could not be studied using previous methods. This work was carried out using a laboratory-based x-ray source, which makes obtaining these sorts of images readily accessible.

  13. Liquid phase diffusion bonding of A1070 by using metal formate coated Zn sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, K.; Koyama, S.; shohji, I.

    2017-05-01

    Aluminium alloy have high strength and easily recycle due to its low melting point. Therefore, aluminium is widely used in the manufacturing of cars and electronic devices. In recent years, the most common way for bonding aluminium alloy is brazing and friction stir welding. However, brazing requires positional accuracy and results in the formation of voids by the flax residue. Moreover, aluminium is an excellent heat radiating and electricity conducting material; therefore, it is difficult to bond together using other bonding methods. Because of these limitations, liquid phase diffusion bonding is considered to the suitable method for bonding aluminium at low temperature and low bonding pressure. In this study, the effect of metal formate coating processing of zinc surface on the bond strength of the liquid phase diffusion bonded interface of A1070 has been investigated by SEM observation of the interfacial microstructures and fractured surfaces after tensile test. Liquid phase diffusion bonding was carried out under a nitrogen gas atmosphere at a bonding temperature of 673 K and 713 K and a bonding load of 6 MPa (bonding time: 15 min). As a result of the metal formate coating processing, a joint having the ultimate tensile strength of the base aluminium was provided. It is hypothesized that this is because metallic zinc is generated as a result of thermal decomposition of formate in the bonded interface at lower bonding temperatures.

  14. Systematic Search for Chemical Reactions in Gas Phase Contributing to Methanol Formation in Interstellar Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez-Garcia, Victoria G; Galano, Annia

    2017-10-05

    A massive search for chemical routes leading to methanol formation in gas phase has been conducted using computational chemistry, at the CBS-QB3 level of theory. The calculations were performed at five different temperatures (100, 80, 50, 20, and 10 K) and at three pressures (0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 atm) for each temperature. The search was focused on identifying reactions with the necessary features to be viable in the interstellar medium (ISM). A searching strategy was applied to that purpose, which allowed to reduce an initial set of 678 possible reactions to a subset of 11 chemical routes that are recommended, for the first time, as potential candidates for contributing to methanol formation in the gas phase of the ISM. They are all barrier-less, and thus they are expected to take place at collision rates. Hopefully, including these reactions in the currently available models, for the gas-phase methanol formation in the ISM, would help improving the predicted fractional abundance of this molecule in dark clouds. Further investigations, especially those dealing with grain chemistry and electronic excited states, would be crucial to get a complete picture of the methanol formation in the ISM.

  15. Gas phase detection of the NH-P hydrogen bond and importance of secondary interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kristian Holten; Hansen, Anne Schou; Kjærgaard, Henrik Grum

    2015-01-01

    bond compared to secondary interactions. We find that B3LYP favors the hydrogen bond and M06-2X favors the secondary interactions leading to under- and overestimation, respectively, of the hydrogen bond angle relative to a DF-LCCSD(T)-F12a calculated angle. The remaining functionals tested, B3LYP-D3, B......3LYP-D3BJ, CAM-B3LYP, and ωB97X-D, as well as MP2, show comparable contributions from the hydrogen bond and the secondary interactions and are close to DF-LCCSD(T)-F12a results....

  16. A Re-entrant Phase Transition in the Survival of Secondary Infections on Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sam; Mörters, Peter; Rogers, Tim

    2018-06-01

    We study the dynamics of secondary infections on networks, in which only the individuals currently carrying a certain primary infection are susceptible to the secondary infection. In the limit of large sparse networks, the model is mapped to a branching process spreading in a random time-sensitive environment, determined by the dynamics of the underlying primary infection. When both epidemics follow the Susceptible-Infective-Recovered model, we show that in order to survive, it is necessary for the secondary infection to evolve on a timescale that is closely matched to that of the primary infection on which it depends.

  17. The effect of vanadium and grain refiner additions on the nucleation of secondary phases in 1XXX Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C.M.; O' Reilly, K.A.Q.; Evans, P.V.; Cantor, B.

    1999-11-26

    High purity Al-0.3 wt% Fe-0.1 wt% Si alloys with different Si, V and grain refiner contents were melt spun to produce microstructures of submicron secondary phases entrained in a higher melting point Al matrix. On reheating, a dispersion of eutectic liquid droplets forms that represents an exaggerated version of the liquid puddles that solidify punched-off between Al dendrite arms during conventional casting. The subsequent resolidification of the droplets, analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), allows the nucleation-controlled aspects of secondary phase selection to be studied. The droplets solidify as the metastable FeAl{sub m} phase in ribbons containing {approx{underscore}equal}500 ppm V or {approx{underscore}equal}100 ppm V plus Al-Ti-B, Al-Ti-C or Al-B grain refiner. This phase contributes to the fir-tree surface defect in commercial sheet products. this work suggests that the combination of V and Al-Ti-B promotes FeAl{sub m} in commercial ingots, and confirms that solidification rate and bulk Si content also influence phase content.

  18. The formation of quasicrystal phase in Al-Cu-Fe system by mechanical alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilermando Nagle Travessa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain quasicrystalline (QC phase by mechanical alloying (MA in the Al-Cu-Fe system, mixtures of elementary Al, Cu and Fe in the proportion of 65-20-15 (at. % were produced by high energy ball milling (HEBM. A very high energy type mill (spex and short milling times (up to 5 hours were employed. The resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. QC phase was not directly formed by milling under the conditions employed in this work. However, phase transformations identified by DSC analysis reveals that annealing after HEBM possibly results in the formation of the ψ QC phase.

  19. Formation and structural phase transition in Co atomic chains on a Cu(775) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syromyatnikov, A. G.; Kabanov, N. S.; Saletsky, A. M.; Klavsyuk, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    The formation of Co atomic chains on a Cu(775) surface is investigated by the kinetic Monte Carlo method. It is found that the length of Co atomic chains formed as a result of self-organization during epitaxial growth is a random quantity and its mean value depends on the parameters of the experiment. The existence of two structural phases in atomic chains is detected using the density functional theory. In the first phase, the separations between an atom and its two nearest neighbors in a chain are 0.230 and 0.280 nm. In the second phase, an atomic chain has identical atomic spacings of 0.255 nm. It is shown that the temperature of the structural phase transition depends on the length of the atomic chain.

  20. Formation and structural phase transition in Co atomic chains on a Cu(775) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syromyatnikov, A. G.; Kabanov, N. S.; Saletsky, A. M.; Klavsyuk, A. L., E-mail: klavsyuk@physics.msu.ru [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The formation of Co atomic chains on a Cu(775) surface is investigated by the kinetic Monte Carlo method. It is found that the length of Co atomic chains formed as a result of self-organization during epitaxial growth is a random quantity and its mean value depends on the parameters of the experiment. The existence of two structural phases in atomic chains is detected using the density functional theory. In the first phase, the separations between an atom and its two nearest neighbors in a chain are 0.230 and 0.280 nm. In the second phase, an atomic chain has identical atomic spacings of 0.255 nm. It is shown that the temperature of the structural phase transition depends on the length of the atomic chain.

  1. Locally formation of Ag nanoparticles in chalcogenide phase change thin films induced by nanosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Huan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Wu, Yiqun; Zhang, Ze; Gan, Fuxi

    2012-01-01

    A simple method to optically synthesize Ag nanoparticles in Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase change matrix is described. The fine structures of the locally formed phase change chalcogenide nanocomposite are characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The formation mechanism of the nanocomposite is discussed with temperature evolution and distribution simulations. This easy-prepared metal nano-particle-embedded phase change microstructure will have great potential in nanophotonics applications, such as for plasmonic functional structures. This also provides a generalized approach to the preparation of well-dispersed nanoparticle-embedded composite thin films in principle. -- Highlights: ► We describe a method to prepare chalcogenide microstructures with Ag nanoparticles. ► We give the fine structural images of phase change nanocomposites. ► We discuss the laser-induced fusion mechanism by temperature simulation. ► This microstructure will have great potential in nanophotonics applications.

  2. Increasing of prediction reliability of calcium carbonate scale formation in heat exchanger of secondary coolant circuits of thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, O.V.; Kritskij, V.G.; Styazhkin, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium carbonate scale formation in the secondary circuit heat exchanger of thermal and nuclear power plants is investigated. A model of calcium-carbonate scale formation providing quite reliable prediction of process running and the possibility of its control affecting the parameters of hydrochemical regime (HCR) is developed. The results can be used when designing the automatic-control system of HCR

  3. Starless Clumps and the Earliest Phases of High-mass Star Formation in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Brian

    2018-01-01

    High-mass stars are key to regulating the interstellar medium, star formation activity, and overall evolution of galaxies, but their formation remains an open problem in astrophysics. In order to understand the physical conditions during the earliest phases of high-mass star formation, I report on observational studies of dense starless clump candidates (SCCs) that show no signatures of star formation activity. I identify 2223 SCCs from the 1.1 mm Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey, systematically analyze their physical properties, and show that the starless phase is not represented by a single timescale, but evolves more rapidly with increasing clump mass. To investigate the sub-structure in SCCs at high spatial resolution, I study the 12 most high-mass SCCs within 5 kpc using ALMA. I report previously undetected low-luminosity protostars in 11 out of 12 SCCs, fragmentation equal to the thermal Jeans length of the clump, and no starless cores exceeding 30 solar masses. While uncertainties remain concerning the star formation effeciency in this sample, these observational facts are consistent with models where high-mass stars form from intially low- to intermediate-mass protostars that accrete most of their mass from the surrounding clump.

  4. Secondary organic aerosol formation from primary aliphatic amines with NO3 radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with O3 and NO3 have been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of NO, and by extension NO3, large aerosol mass yields (~44% for butylamine are seen. Aerosol generated was determined to be organic in nature due to the small fraction of NO and NO2 in the total signal (<1% for all amines tested as detected by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. We propose a reaction mechanism between carbonyl containing species and the parent amine leading to formation of particulate imine products. These findings can have significant impacts on rural communities with elevated nighttime PM loadings, when significant levels of NO3 exist.

  5. Effects of secondary phase and grain size on the corrosion of biodegradable Mg-Zn-Ca alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Bradshaw, A R; Chiu, Y L; Jones, I P

    2015-03-01

    The bio-corrosion behaviour of Mg-3Zn-0.3Ca (wt.%) alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37°C has been investigated using immersion testing and electrochemical measurements. Heat treatment has been used to alter the grain size and secondary phase volume fraction; the effects of these on the bio-corrosion behaviour of the alloy were then determined. The as-cast sample has the highest bio-corrosion rate due to micro-galvanic corrosion between the eutectic product (Mg+Ca2Mg6Zn3) and the surrounding magnesium matrix. The bio-corrosion resistance of the alloy can be improved by heat treatment. The volume fraction of secondary phases and grain size are both key factors controlling the bio-corrosion rate of the alloy. The bio-corrosion rate increases with volume fraction of secondary phase. When this is lower than 0.8%, the dependence of bio-corrosion rate becomes noticeable: large grains corrode more quickly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF PHASES IN SECONDARY AlZn10Si8Mg CAST ALLOY

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Tillová; Emília Ďuriníková; Mária Chalupová

    2011-01-01

    Using recycled aluminium cast alloys is profitable in many aspects. Requiring only 5 % of the energy to produce secondary metal as compared to primary metal and generates only 5 % of the green house gas emissions, the recycling of aluminium is therefore beneficial of both environmental and economical point of view. Secondary AlZn10Si8Mg (UNIFONT® - 90) cast alloy are used for engine and vehicle constructions, hydraulic unit and mouldmaking without heat treatment. Properties include good casta...

  7. Formation of multiple focal spots using a high NA lens with a complex spiral phase mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalithambigai, K.; Anbarasan, P. M.; Rajesh, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    The formation of a transversally polarized beam by transmitting a tightly focused double-ring-shaped azimuthally polarized beam through a complex spiral phase mask and high numerical aperture lens is presented based on vector diffraction theory. The generation of transversally polarized focal spot segment splitting and multiple focal spots is illustrated numerically. Moreover, we found that a properly designed complex spiral phase mask can move the focal spots along the optical axis in the z direction. Therefore, one can achieve a focal segment of two, three or multiple completely transversely polarized focal spots, which finds applications in optical trapping and in material processing technologies.

  8. Chemical-Reaction-Controlled Phase Separated Drops: Formation, Size Selection, and Coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Jean David; Lee, Chiu Fan

    2018-02-01

    Phase separation under nonequilibrium conditions is exploited by biological cells to organize their cytoplasm but remains poorly understood as a physical phenomenon. Here, we study a ternary fluid model in which phase-separating molecules can be converted into soluble molecules, and vice versa, via chemical reactions. We elucidate using analytical and simulation methods how drop size, formation, and coarsening can be controlled by the chemical reaction rates, and categorize the qualitative behavior of the system into distinct regimes. Ostwald ripening arrest occurs above critical reaction rates, demonstrating that this transition belongs entirely to the nonequilibrium regime. Our model is a minimal representation of the cell cytoplasm.

  9. The quasicrystalline phase formation in Al-Cu-Cr alloys produced by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sviridova, T.A.; Shevchukov, A.P.; Shelekhov, E.V. [National University of Science and Technology ' MISIS' , Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Diakonov, D.L. [Bardin Central Research Institute for the Iron and Steel Industry, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Tcherdyntsev, V.V.; Kaloshkin, S.D. [National University of Science and Technology ' MISIS' , Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: > Formation of decagonal quasicrystalline phase in Al-Cu-Cr alloys. > Obtained decagonal phase belongs to D{sub 3} family of decagonal quasicrystals. > Decagonal phase has 1.26 nm periodicity along 10-fold axis. > Alloys were produced by combination of mechanical alloying and subsequent annealing. > Phase composition of as-milled powders depending on annealing temperature. - Abstract: Almost single-phase decagonal quasicrystal with periodicity of 1.26 nm along 10-fold axis was produced in Al{sub 69}Cu{sub 21}Cr{sub 10} and Al{sub 72.5}Cu{sub 16.5}Cr{sub 11} alloys using combination of mechanical alloying (MA) and subsequent annealing. Phase transformations of as-milled powders depending on annealing temperature in the range of 200-800 deg. C are examined. Since the transformations can be explained based on kinetic and thermodynamic reasons it seems that applied technique (short preliminary MA followed by the annealing) permits to produce the equilibrium phases rather than metastable ones.

  10. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical modelling of secondary uranium ore formation. Final Report - Volume 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sverjensky, D.; Bennett, D.G.; Read, D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish how the uranyl phosphate zone at the Koongarra site was formed. The overall approach taken in the present study employed theoretical chemical mass transfer calculations and models that permit investigation and reconstruction of the kinds of waters that could produce the uranyl phosphate zone. These calculations have used the geological and mineralogical data for the Koongarra weathered zone (Volumes 2, 8, and 9 of this series), to constrain the initial compositions and reactions undergone by groundwater during the formation of the uranyl phosphate zone. In carrying out these calculations the present-day analyses of Koongarra waters are used only as a guide to the possible initial composition of the fluids associated with the formation of the phosphate zone. Aqueous speciation, saturation state and chemical mass transfer calculations were carried out using the computer programs EQ3NR and EQ6 (Wolery, 1983; Wolery et al., 1984) and a thermodynamic database generated at The Johns Hopkins University over the last eight years which is tabulated in the Appendix 1 to Volume 12 of this series. Despite uncertainties in the thermodynamic characterisation of species, all the above calculations suggest that the uranyl phosphate zone at Koongarra has not formed from present-day groundwaters (Volume 12 of this series). The present-day groundwaters in the weathered zone (eg. at 13 m depth) appear to be undersaturated with respect to saleeite. Furthermore, as present-day groundwaters descend below the water table they rapidly lose their atmospheric oxygen imprint, as is typical of most groundwaters, and become even more reducing in character. Under these circumstances, the groundwaters become more undersaturated with respect to saleeite than the shallow groundwaters. Because much of the phosphate zone is currently below the water table, under saturated zone conditions, it is suggested in the present study that the uranyl phosphate

  11. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical modelling of secondary uranium ore formation. Final Report - Volume 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, D [The John Hopkins Univ, Dept of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Baltimore (United States); Bennett, D G; Read, D [W.S. Atkins Science and Technology, Epsom Surrey, (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of the present study was to establish how the uranyl phosphate zone at the Koongarra site was formed. The overall approach taken in the present study employed theoretical chemical mass transfer calculations and models that permit investigation and reconstruction of the kinds of waters that could produce the uranyl phosphate zone. These calculations have used the geological and mineralogical data for the Koongarra weathered zone (Volumes 2, 8, and 9 of this series), to constrain the initial compositions and reactions undergone by groundwater during the formation of the uranyl phosphate zone. In carrying out these calculations the present-day analyses of Koongarra waters are used only as a guide to the possible initial composition of the fluids associated with the formation of the phosphate zone. Aqueous speciation, saturation state and chemical mass transfer calculations were carried out using the computer programs EQ3NR and EQ6 (Wolery, 1983; Wolery et al., 1984) and a thermodynamic database generated at The Johns Hopkins University over the last eight years which is tabulated in the Appendix 1 to Volume 12 of this series. Despite uncertainties in the thermodynamic characterisation of species, all the above calculations suggest that the uranyl phosphate zone at Koongarra has not formed from present-day groundwaters (Volume 12 of this series). The present-day groundwaters in the weathered zone (eg. at 13 m depth) appear to be undersaturated with respect to saleeite. Furthermore, as present-day groundwaters descend below the water table they rapidly lose their atmospheric oxygen imprint, as is typical of most groundwaters, and become even more reducing in character. Under these circumstances, the groundwaters become more undersaturated with respect to saleeite than the shallow groundwaters. Because much of the phosphate zone is currently below the water table, under saturated zone conditions, it is suggested in the present study that the uranyl phosphate

  12. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical modelling of secondary uranium ore formation. Final Report - Volume 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, D. [The John Hopkins Univ, Dept of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Baltimore (United States); Bennett, D.G.; Read, D. [W.S. Atkins Science and Technology, Epsom Surrey, (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-31

    The purpose of the present study was to establish how the uranyl phosphate zone at the Koongarra site was formed. The overall approach taken in the present study employed theoretical chemical mass transfer calculations and models that permit investigation and reconstruction of the kinds of waters that could produce the uranyl phosphate zone. These calculations have used the geological and mineralogical data for the Koongarra weathered zone (Volumes 2, 8, and 9 of this series), to constrain the initial compositions and reactions undergone by groundwater during the formation of the uranyl phosphate zone. In carrying out these calculations the present-day analyses of Koongarra waters are used only as a guide to the possible initial composition of the fluids associated with the formation of the phosphate zone. Aqueous speciation, saturation state and chemical mass transfer calculations were carried out using the computer programs EQ3NR and EQ6 (Wolery, 1983; Wolery et al., 1984) and a thermodynamic database generated at The Johns Hopkins University over the last eight years which is tabulated in the Appendix 1 to Volume 12 of this series. Despite uncertainties in the thermodynamic characterisation of species, all the above calculations suggest that the uranyl phosphate zone at Koongarra has not formed from present-day groundwaters (Volume 12 of this series). The present-day groundwaters in the weathered zone (eg. at 13 m depth) appear to be undersaturated with respect to saleeite. Furthermore, as present-day groundwaters descend below the water table they rapidly lose their atmospheric oxygen imprint, as is typical of most groundwaters, and become even more reducing in character. Under these circumstances, the groundwaters become more undersaturated with respect to saleeite than the shallow groundwaters. Because much of the phosphate zone is currently below the water table, under saturated zone conditions, it is suggested in the present study that the uranyl phosphate

  13. Characterization Urban Heat Island Effect and Modelling of Secondary Pollutant Formations at Urban Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undi, G. S. N. V. K. S. N. S.

    2017-12-01

    More than 60 percent of the world population is living the urban zones by 2020. This socio of economic transformations will bring considerable changes to the ambient atmosphere. More than 70 percent of the air pollutants in the urban hotspots are from vehicular emissions. in the urban hotspots. In the urban hotspots, the meteorological and dispersion conditions will have different characteristics than in surrounding rural areas. Reactive pollutants transformations are drastically influenced by the local meteorological conditions. The complexity of urban structure alters the pollutants dispersion in the hotspots. This relationship between urban meteorology and air pollution is an important aspect of consideration. In the atmosphere, drastic changes have been noticed from micro to regional and global scales. However, the characteristics of air pollutant emissions vary with time and space, favorable dispersion conditions transport them from local to regional scale. In the present study, the impact of land cover change on Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) has been characterized by considering the three different zones with varying land use patterns. An attempt has been made to estimate the impact of UHI on secondary pollutants (O3) transformations. Envi-Met model has been used to characterize the UHI intensity for the selected zones. Meteorological and air quality measurements were carried out at the selected locations. The diurnal variations of Ozone (O3) concentration for three zones are correlated with the UHI intensity. And the monitoring and model results of O3 concentrations are in good agreement. It is observed from the obtained model results that the metrological parameters influence on local air quality is significant in urban zones.

  14. Complex 3D Vortex Lattice Formation by Phase-Engineered Multiple Beam Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the computational results on the formation of diverse complex 3D vortex lattices by a designed superposition of multiple plane waves. Special combinations of multiples of three noncoplanar plane waves with a designed relative phase shift between one another are perturbed by a nonsingular beam to generate various complex 3D vortex lattice structures. The formation of complex gyrating lattice structures carrying designed vortices by means of relatively phase-engineered plane waves is also computationally investigated. The generated structures are configured with both periodic as well as transversely quasicrystallographic basis, while these whirling complex lattices possess a long-range order of designed symmetry in a given plane. Various computational analytical tools are used to verify the presence of engineered geometry of vortices in these complex 3D vortex lattices.

  15. Parasitic phase formation in the La Ba2 Cu3 O7-x superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltra, T.; Fuenzalida, V.M.; Grahmann, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The parasitic phase formation during the thermal processing of the H Tc La Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconductor, particularly the Ba Cu O 2 , is studied. The formation of the stable parasitic phase depends on the temperature of the initial treatments and on the heating rate during the sintering process. The superconducting highest purity material is obtained with treatment at 900 deg C and lowest heating rate. The temperature during the final annealing in oxygen of the sample did also affect the transport properties. Samples with the lowest resistivity in the normal state were produced by annealing in oxygen at 300 deg C. The largest orthorhombic distortion was obtained at 325 deg C. (author)

  16. Lattice dynamical study of omega phase formation in Zr-Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.S.; Arya, A.; Kulkarni, U.D.; Dey, G.K.

    2011-01-01

    The hexagonal ω phase occurs in the alloys in which the high temperature β phase (bcc) is stabilized with respect to the martensitic β -> ω transformation. The compositional ranges over which the ω phase can be stabilized is the characteristic of the alloy system under consideration. The formation of ordered ω (B8 2 -Zr 2 Al) phase, having space group P6 3 /mmc has been viewed in terms of a superimposition of displacive and replacive components of phase transformation. While the lattice collapse mechanism of β -> ω transformation is displacive in nature; a replacive transformation involving diffusion is required for decorating different sublattice sites by different atomic species. Although, the extent of overlap of these transformations in the formation of ordered ω phase has not been established so far; attempts have been made to explore this aspect by examining the sequential formation of several intermediate stable/metastable phases. The partial collapse of 2nd - 3rd and 5th - 6th planes along (111) direction leads to intermediate trigonal ω ' phase upto which the transformation is purely displacive in nature. A chemical ordering sets in after this step leading to B82 structure via ω'' structure. Density functional plane wave based calculations using the projector augmented wave (PAW) potentials are employed under the generalized gradient approximation to exchange and correlation to study (a) relative ground state stabilities of these phases, (b) variation of total energy as a function of displacement (z, z = 0 to 1/12) and (c) Frozen-phonon calculations for 2/3 longitudinal phonon along (111) direction. The energy-displacement curve for the B2 structure shows nearly harmonic behavior for small displacements but shows strong anharmonic behavior for large displacements making trigonal ω ' structure metastable with respect to this kind of transformations. The phonon dispersion of B2 structure exhibits imaginary frequencies along (111) making it a

  17. On the competition in phase formation during the crystallisation of Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, M.J.; Sun, W.W.; East, D.R.; Kimpton, J.A.; Gibson, M.A.; Hutchinson, C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Glassy metals exhibit a range of interesting properties including high strength and corrosion resistance, but often have poor toughness and tensile ductility in the fully amorphous state. It has been shown that combinations of desirable properties can be achieved by the partial crystallisation of glass-forming alloys, either during controlled solidification or by annealing a fully amorphous glass. The aim of this investigation is to understand the competition in phase formation during the crystallisation of metallic glasses in the Al-Ni-Y system. High-resolution, in situ synchrotron powder diffraction has been used to quantitatively follow the evolution of phases in 5 different alloys between Al 87 Ni 9 Y 4 and Al 75 Ni 15 Y 10 , as they were continuously heated to melting and subsequently cooled back to ambient temperature. Upon heating, the first crystallisation product was found to vary from FCC Al to the intermetallic Al 9 Ni 2 phase with increasing Ni concentration. In addition, the crystallisation sequence also changed from a two-stage to a three-stage process. High number densities of crystallites (∼10 23  m −3 ) were observed initially for both FCC Al and Al 9 Ni 2 . Upon cooling, the partially disordered Al 9 Ni 3 Y phase was found to form preferentially over the intermetallic phases observed during heating. The difference in competition in phase formation during heating and cooling are discussed in terms of nucleation barriers calculated using a recent thermodynamic assessment of the Al-Ni-Y system. The role of compositional heterogeneities in the as-quenched glasses and long-range diffusion on the nucleation process is discussed. - Graphical abstract: High-resolution, in situ synchrotron powder diffraction has been used to quantitatively follow the evolution of phases in 5 different alloys between Al 87 Ni 9 Y 4 and Al 75 Ni 15 Y 10 , as they were continuously heated to melting and subsequently cooled back to ambient temperature. Upon heating, the

  18. Superconductivity optimization and phase formation kinetics study of internal-Sn Nb3Sn superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chaowu

    2007-07-01

    Superconductors Nb 3 Sn wires are one of the most applicable cryogenic superconducting materials and the best choice for high-field magnets exceeding 10 T. One of the most significant utilization is the ITER project which is regarded as the hope of future energy source. The high-Cu composite designs with smaller number of sub-element and non-reactive diffusion barrier, and the RRP (Restacked Rod Process) internal-Sn technology are usually applied for the wire manufacturing. Such designed and processed wires were supplied by MSA/Alstom and WST/NIN in this research. The systematic investigation on internal-Sn superconducting wires includes the optimization of heat treatment (HT) conditions, phase formation and its relation with superconductivity, microstructure analysis, and the phase formation kinetics. Because of the anfractuosity of the configuration design and metallurgical processing, the MF wires are not sufficient for studying a sole factor effect on superconductivity. Therefore, four sets of mono-element (ME) wires with different Sn ratios and different third-element addition were designed and fabricated in order to explore the relationship between phase formation and superconducting performances, particularly the A15 layer growth kinetics. Different characterization technic have been used (magnetization measurements, neutron diffraction and SEM/TEM/EDX analysis). The A15 layer thicknesses of various ME samples were measured and carried out linear and non-linear fits by means of two model equations. The results have clearly demonstrated that the phase formation kinetics of Nb 3 Sn solid-state reaction is in accordance with an n power relation and the n value is increased with the increase of HT temperature and the Sn ratio in the wire composite. (author)

  19. Phase recording for formation of holographic optical elements on silver-halide photographic emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzherli, Nina M.; Gulyaev, Sergey N.; Maurer, Irina A.; Chernykh, Dmitrii F.

    2009-05-01

    Holographic fabrication methods of regular and nonregular relief-phase structures on silver-halide photographic emulsions are considered. Methods of gelatin photodestruction under short-wave ultra-violet radiation and chemical hardening with the help of dichromated solutions were used as a technique for surface relief formation. The developed techniques permitted us to study specimens of holographic diffusers and microlens rasters with small absorption and high light efficiency.

  20. Postmodification of MOF-5 using secondary complex formation using 8- hydroxyquinoline (HOQ) for the development of visible light active photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Sanjay R.; Ramteke, Shruti M.

    2018-05-01

    A novel HOQ@MOF-5 compound photocatalyst was successfully constructed by interacting 8- Hydroxyquinoline with MOF-5 synthesized through a room temperature method. The secondary complex formation between the Zn cluster with 8-Hydroxyquinoline harnessed visible light and acted as a mediator to transfer photoinduced electrons to MOF-5 for enhancing the photocatalytic reaction rate with visible light. HOQ@MOF-5 was characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, such as XRD showing the crystalline nature of compound, UV-Visible spectroscopy showing the 2.54 eV band gap of HOQ@MOF-5 and morphological analysis tools, such as the nanoparticle nature of the compound with 9.561 nm particle size. The photocatalytic effect was estimated using the photocatalytic degradation of phenol as a representative organic pollutant under visible light irradiation. This work provides a new compound acting as source of electrons transfer for the development of efficient photocatalysts for remediation of environmental pollution.

  1. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of a lumbar vertebral body with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst formation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snieders Marieke N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the case of a 25-year-old Caucasian woman with symptomatic monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the fourth lumbar vertebral body. The patient suffered from a five-week history of progressive low back pain, radiating continuously to the left leg. Her medical history and physical and neurological examination did not demonstrate any significant abnormalities. Radiographs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an osteolytic expansive lesion with a cystic component of the fourth lumbar vertebral body. Percutaneous transpedicular biopsy showed histological characteristics of fibrous dysplasia superimposed by the formation of aneurysmal bone cyst components. The patient was treated by subtotal vertebrectomy of the L4 vertebral body with anterior reconstruction and her postoperative course was uncomplicated. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a monostotic fibrous dysplasia with superimposed secondary aneurysmal bone cysts of a lumbar vertebral body.

  2. Effect of Magnesium Content and Processing Conditions on Phase Formation and Stability in Mg2+ δ Si0.3Sn0.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Gagan K.; Dasgupta, T.

    2018-03-01

    Mg2+ δ Si0.3Sn0.7 compositions with nominal Mg content of δ = 0, 0.2 are synthesized using a single-step quartz tube reaction method with different heating rates and holding times. The resulting powders are sintered using a uniaxial induction hot press under similar conditions to produce near-dense compacts. The effect of Mg content and processing conditions on the phase formation and its stability are studied using x-ray diffraction measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with elemental mapping and compositional analysis using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Results indicate that with sufficient Mg content and shorter synthesis time, the powder remains single phasic; however, prolonged heat treatment during synthesis results in Mg loss and causes the system to become biphasic. Compaction results in single-phase formation in all the specimens. This is attributed to the removal of the low-melting secondary Sn-rich phases present in the system. The decomposition of the specimens depends on the Mg content after the compaction step with a δ around - 0.15 necessary to preserve the single phase. The decomposition also results in Mg enrichment of the matrix (due to formation of elemental Sn), thereby acting as a self-healing mechanism. Annealing the dense products at 773 K for 24 h in static vacuum is carried out. Progressive Mg loss is observed resulting in degradation of the specimen.

  3. SURVIVAL OF INTERSTELLAR MOLECULES TO PRESTELLAR DENSE CORE COLLAPSE AND EARLY PHASES OF DISK FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincelin, U.; Wakelam, V.; Hersant, F.; Guilloteau, S.; Commerçon, B.

    2013-01-01

    An outstanding question of astrobiology is the link between the chemical composition of planets, comets, and other solar system bodies and the molecules formed in the interstellar medium. Understanding the chemical and physical evolution of the matter leading to the formation of protoplanetary disks is an important step for this. We provide some new clues to this long-standing problem using three-dimensional chemical simulations of the early phases of disk formation: we interfaced the full gas-grain chemical model Nautilus with the radiation-magnetohydrodynamic model RAMSES, for different configurations and intensities of the magnetic field. Our results show that the chemical content (gas and ices) is globally conserved during the collapsing process, from the parent molecular cloud to the young disk surrounding the first Larson core. A qualitative comparison with cometary composition suggests that comets are constituted of different phases, some molecules being direct tracers of interstellar chemistry, while others, including complex molecules, seem to have been formed in disks, where higher densities and temperatures allow for an active grain surface chemistry. The latter phase, and its connection with the formation of the first Larson core, remains to be modeled

  4. Characterization of xylan in the early stages of secondary cell wall formation in tobacco bright yellow-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tadashi; Matsuoka, Keita; Ono, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Yaoi, Katsuro; Nakano, Yoshimi; Ohtani, Misato; Demura, Taku; Iwai, Hiroaki; Satoh, Shinobu

    2017-11-15

    The major polysaccharides present in the primary and secondary walls surrounding plant cells have been well characterized. However, our knowledge of the early stages of secondary wall formation is limited. To address this, cell walls were isolated from differentiating xylem vessel elements of tobacco bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells induced by VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 (VND7). The walls of induced VND7-VP16-GR BY-2 cells consisted of cellulose, pectic polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and contained more xylan and cellulose compared with non-transformed BY-2 and uninduced VND7-VP16-GR BY-2 cells. A reducing end sequence of xylan containing rhamnose and galaturonic acid- residues is present in the walls of induced, uninduced, and non-transformed BY-2 cells. Glucuronic acid residues in xylan from walls of induced cells are O-methylated, while those of xylan in non-transformed BY-2 and uninduced cells are not. Our results show that xylan changes in chemical structure and amounts during the early stages of xylem differentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Formation and Disruption of W-Phase in High-Entropy Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sephira Riva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High-entropy alloys (HEAs are single-phase systems prepared from equimolar or near-equimolar concentrations of at least five principal elements. The combination of high mixing entropy, severe lattice distortion, sluggish diffusion and cocktail effect favours the formation of simple phases—usually a bcc or fcc matrix with minor inclusions of ordered binary intermetallics. HEAs have been proposed for applications in which high temperature stability (including mechanical and chemical stability under high temperature and high mechanical impact is required. On the other hand, the major challenge to overcome for HEAs to become commercially attractive is the achievement of lightweight alloys of extreme hardness and low brittleness. The multicomponent AlCrCuScTi alloy was prepared and characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, scanning-electron microscope (SEM and atomic-force microscope equipped with scanning Kelvin probe (AFM/SKP techniques. Results show that the formation of complex multicomponent ternary intermetallic compounds upon heating plays a key role in phase evolution. The formation and degradation of W-phase, Al2Cu3Sc, in the AlCrCuScTi alloy plays a crucial role in its properties and stability. Analysis of as-melted and annealed alloy suggests that the W-phase is favoured kinetically, but thermodynamically unstable. The disruption of the W-phase in the alloy matrix has a positive effect on hardness (890 HV, density (4.83 g·cm−3 and crack propagation. The hardness/density ratio obtained for this alloy shows a record value in comparison with ordinary heavy refractory HEAs.

  6. Effect of Al doping on phase formation and thermal stability of iron nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, Akhil [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201 303 (India); Gupta, Mukul, E-mail: mgupta@csr.res.in [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201 303 (India); Pandey, Nidhi [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201 303 (India); Gupta, Ajay [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 001 (India); Horisberger, Michael [Laboratory for Developments and Methods, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Stahn, Jochen [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-11-25

    In the present work, we systematically studied the effect of Al doping on the phase formation of iron nitride (Fe–N) thin films. Fe–N thin films with different concentration of Al (Al = 0, 2, 3, 6, and 12 at.%) were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering by varying the nitrogen partial pressure between 0 and 100%. The structural and magnetic properties of the films were studied using x-ray diffraction and polarized neutron reflectivity. It was observed that at the lowest doping level (2 at.% of Al), nitrogen rich non-magnetic Fe–N phase gets formed at a lower nitrogen partial pressure as compared to the un-doped sample. Interestingly, we observed that as Al doping is increased beyond 3 at.%, nitrogen rich non-magnetic Fe–N phase appears at higher nitrogen partial pressure as compared to un-doped sample. The thermal stability of films were also investigated. Un-doped Fe–N films deposited at 10% nitrogen partial pressure possess poor thermal stability. Doping of Al at 2 at.% improves it marginally, whereas, for 3, 6 and 12 at.% Al doping, it shows significant improvement. The obtained results have been explained in terms of thermodynamics of Fe–N and Al–N. - Highlights: • Doping effects of Al on Fe–N phase formation is studied. • Phase formation shows a non-monotonic behavior with Al doping. • Low doping levels of Al enhance and high levels retard the nitridation process. • Al doping beyond 3 at.% improve thermal stability of Fe–N films.

  7. Liquid phase stabilization versus bubble formation at a nanoscale curved interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Luo, Tengfei

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the nature of vapor bubble formation near a nanoscale-curved convex liquid-solid interface using two models: an equilibrium Gibbs model for homogenous nucleation, and a nonequilibrium dynamic van der Waals-diffuse-interface model for phase change in an initially cool liquid. Vapor bubble formation is shown to occur for sufficiently large radius of curvature and is suppressed for smaller radii. Solid-fluid interactions are accounted for and it is shown that liquid-vapor interfacial energy, and hence Laplace pressure, has limited influence over bubble formation. The dominant factor is the energetic cost of creating the solid-vapor interface from the existing solid-liquid interface, as demonstrated via both equilibrium and nonequilibrium arguments.

  8. Instability of a Lamellar Phase under Shear Flow: Formation of Multilamellar Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbin, L.; Delville, J. P.; Rouch, J.; Panizza, P.

    2002-09-01

    The formation of closed-compact multilamellar vesicles (referred to in the literature as the ``onion texture'') obtained upon shearing lamellar phases is studied using small-angle light scattering and cross-polarized microscopy. By varying the shear rate γ ˙, the gap cell D, and the smectic distance d, we show that: (i)the formation of this structure occurs homogeneously in the cell at a well-defined wave vector qi, via a strain-controlled process, and (ii)the value of qi varies as (dγ ˙/D)1/3. These results strongly suggest that formation of multilamellar vesicles may be monitored by an undulation (buckling) instability of the membranes, as expected from theory.

  9. Araçatuba Formation: palustrine deposits from the initial sedimentation phase of the Bauru Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Luiz A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous accumulated an essentially sandy continental sedimentary sequence. In a first desertic phase the basaltic substratum was covered by a widespread and homogeneous aeolian sand unit with minor loess intercalations. The substratum relief favored the formation of an endorheic drainage system under semi-arid climate, a process that started the development of the Araçatuba Paleoswamp. The palustrine deposits (Araçatuba Formation comprise siltstone and tipically greenish gray narrow tabular strata of sandstone cemented by carbonate. Moulds and gypsite and dolomite pseudomorphs were identified. The moulds seem to be genetically associated with desiccation cracks, root marks and climbing ripple lamination levels, that, on the whole, indicate calm shallow saline waters undergoing phases of subaerial exposition. At the boundaries of the study area, sand units may exhibit sigmoidal features and convolute bedding structure, which is characteristic of marginal deltaic deposits. The Araçatuba Formation is enclosed in and later overlaid by the aeolian deposits of the Vale do Rio do Peixe Formation.

  10. Multilevel modeling of micromechanics and phase formation for microstructural evolution of magnetic zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Yoshihiro; Aizawa, Tatsuhiko; Takaya, Shigeru; Nagae, Yuji; Aoto, Kazumi

    2005-03-01

    The present research aims at a proposal of theoretical treatise to describe the local phase transformation from austenite to ferrite in the stainless steels under hot cyclic fatigue conditions. In experiments, this local phase transformation is detected as a magnetized region in the non-magnetic matrix after low-cycle fatigue test at the elevated temperature. The theoretical frame proposed here is composed of two methodologies. In the first approach, microstructure evolution with γ → α transformation is described by the phase field method. In the second approach, micromechanical method on the basis of the unit cell modeling is proposed to develop a new micromechanical analysis. The details of two approached are summarized in the following. (1) Phase formation simulation by the phase field method. Most of reports have started that γ-α phase transformation as a creep damage is induced by dechromization, which comes from carbide precipitation around grain boundaries. A new theoretical treatise is proposed for simulating this γ → α transformation in Fe-Cr-Ni system. Stabilities of both phases are investigated for various chemical compositions. Furthermore, in order to investigate dechromization phenomena in Fe-Cr-Ni-C system, a new theoretical frame is also proposed to handle an interstitial element in phase field method. (2) Low cycle fatigue elasto-plastic analysis by the unit-cell modeling. In experiments, the magnetized zones are generated to distribute at the vicinity of the hard, delta-phase inclusion in the austenitic matrix. The cumulative plastic region advances in the surroundings of this hard inclusion with increasing the number of cycles in the controlled strain range. This predicted profile of cumulative plastic regions corresponds to the experimentally measured, magnetized zones. In addition, the effect of geometric configuration of this inclusion on the plastic region evolution has close relationship of creep damage advancement in experiments

  11. Secondary mineral formation associated with respiration of nontronite, NAu-1 by iron reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furukawa Yoko

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental batch and miscible-flow cultures were studied in order to determine the mechanistic pathways of microbial Fe(III respiration in ferruginous smectite clay, NAu-1. The primary purpose was to resolve if alteration of smectite and release of Fe precedes microbial respiration. Alteration of NAu-1, represented by the morphological and mineralogical changes, occurred regardless of the extent of microbial Fe(III reduction in all of our experimental systems, including those that contained heat-killed bacteria and those in which O2, rather than Fe(III, was the primary terminal electron acceptor. The solid alteration products observed under transmission electron microscopy included poorly crystalline smectite with diffuse electron diffraction signals, discrete grains of Fe-free amorphous aluminosilicate with increased Al/Si ratio, Fe-rich grains, and amorphous Si globules in the immediate vicinity of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substances. In reducing systems, Fe was also found as siderite. The small amount of Fe partitioned to the aqueous phase was primarily in the form of dissolved Fe(III species even in the systems in which Fe(III was the primary terminal electron acceptor for microbial respiration. From these observations, we conclude that microbial respiration of Fe(III in our laboratory systems proceeded through the following: (1 alteration of NAu-1 and concurrent release of Fe(III from the octahedral sheets of NAu-1; and (2 subsequent microbial respiration of Fe(III.

  12. Mechanism of Phase Formation in the Batch Mixtures for Slag-Bearing Glass Ceramics - 12207

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey V.; Stefanovsky, Olga I.; Malinina, Galina A. [SIA Radon, 7th Rostovskii lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Slag surrogate was produced from chemicals by heating to 900 deg. C and keeping at this temperature for 1 hr. The product obtained was intermixed with either sodium di-silicate (75 wt.% waste loading) or borax (85 wt.% slag loading). The mixtures were heat-treated within a temperature range of 25 to 1300 deg. C. The products were examined by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The products prepared at temperatures of up to 1000 deg. C contained both phase typical of the source slag and intermediate phases as well as phases typical of the materials melted at 1350 deg. C such as nepheline, britholite, magnetite and matrix vitreous phase. Vitrification process in batch mixtures consisting of slag surrogate and either sodium di-silicate or sodium tetraborate runs through formation of intermediate phases mainly silico-phosphates capable to incorporate Sm as trivalent actinides surrogate. Reactions in the batch mixtures are in the whole completed by ∼1000 deg. C but higher temperatures are required to homogenize the products. If in the borate-based system the mechanism is close to simple dissolution of slag constituents in the low viscous borate melt, then in the silicate-based system the mechanism was found to be much complicated and includes re-crystallization during melting with segregation of newly-formed nepheline type phase. (authors)

  13. Phase formation in Mg-Sn-Si and Mg-Sn-Si-Ca alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A.; Groebner, J. [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, R., E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2011-02-17

    Research highlights: > The solidification paths of ternary and quaternary alloys are analyzed in detail, using the tool of thermodynamic calculations. > The precipitation sequence of phases and their amounts compare well with the microstructure of alloys. > The most efficient comparison to the experimental thermal analysis data is done by calculation of the enthalpy variation with temperature. > The viability of a procedure for the selection of multicomponent key samples is demonstrated for the development of the Mg-Ca-Si-Sn phase diagram. - Abstract: Experimental work is done and combined with the Calphad method to generate a consistent thermodynamic description of the Mg-Ca-Si-Sn quaternary system, validated for Mg-rich alloys. The viability of a procedure for the selection of multicomponent key samples is demonstrated for this multicomponent system. Dedicated thermal analysis with DTA/DSC on sealed samples is performed and the microstructure of slowly solidified alloys is analyzed using SEM/EDX. The thermodynamic description and phase diagram of the ternary Mg-Si-Sn system, developed in detail also in this work, deviates significantly from a previous literature proposal. The phase formation in ternary and quaternary alloys is analyzed using the tool of thermodynamic equilibrium and Scheil calculations for the solidification paths and compared with present experimental data. The significant ternary/quaternary solid solubilities of pertinent intermetallic phases are quantitatively introduced in the quaternary Mg-Ca-Si-Sn phase diagram and validated by experimental data.

  14. Propagation dynamics and X-pulse formation in phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiulis, G.; Jukna, V.; Jedrkiewicz, O.; Clerici, M.; Rubino, E.; DiTrapani, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the theoretical, numerical, and experimental study of the second-harmonic-generation (SHG) process under conditions of phase and group-velocity mismatch and aims to demonstrate the dimensionality transition of the SHG process caused by the change of the fundamental wave diameter. We show that SHG from a narrow fundamental beam leads to the spontaneous self-phase-matching process with, in addition, the appearance of angular dispersion for the off-axis frequency components generated. The angular dispersion sustains the formation of the short X pulse in the second harmonic (SH) and is recognized as three-dimensional (3D) dynamics. On the contrary, the large-diameter fundamental beam reduces the number of the degrees of freedom, does not allow the generation of the angular dispersion, and maintains the so-called one-dimensional (1D) SHG dynamics, where the self-phase-matching appears just for axial components and is accompanied by the shrinking of the SH temporal bandwidth, and sustains a long SH pulse formation. The transition from long SH pulse generation typical of the 1D dynamics to the short 3D X pulse is illustrated numerically and experimentally by changing the conditions from the self-defocusing to the self-focusing regime by simply tuning the phase mismatch. The numerical and experimental verification of the analytical results are also presented.

  15. Secondary plasma formation after single pulse laser ablation underwater and its advantages for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilović, M R; Cvejić, M; Lazic, V; Jovićević, S

    2016-06-07

    In this work we present studies of spatial and temporal plasma evolution after single pulse ablation of an aluminium target in water. The laser ablation was performed using 20 ns long pulses emitted at 1064 nm. The plasma characterization was performed by fast photography, the Schlieren technique, shadowgraphy and optical emission spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate the existence of two distinct plasma stages: the first stage has a duration of approximately 500 ns from the laser pulse, and is followed by a new plasma growth starting from the crater center. The secondary plasma slowly evolves inside the growing vapor bubble, and its optical emission lasts over several tens of microseconds. Later, the hot glowing particles, trapped inside the vapor cavity, were detected during the whole cycle of the bubble, where the first collapse occurs after 475 μs from the laser pulse. Differences in the plasma properties during the two evolution phases are discussed, with an accent on the optical emission since its detection is of primary importance for LIBS. Here we demonstrate that the LIBS signal quality in single pulse excitation underwater can be greatly enhanced by detecting only the secondary plasma emission, and also by applying long acquisition gates (in the order of 10-100 μs). The presented results are of great importance for LIBS measurements inside a liquid environment, since they prove that a good analytical signal can be obtained by using nanosecond pulses from a single commercial laser source and by employing cost effective, not gated detectors.

  16. Circular Formation Control of Multiagent Systems with Any Preset Phase Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the circular formation control problem of multiagent systems for achieving any preset phase distribution. The control problem is decomposed into two parts: the first is to drive all the agents to a circle which either needs a target or not and the other is to arrange them in positions distributed on the circle according to the preset relative phases. The first part is solved by designing a circular motion control law to push the agents to approach a rotating transformed trajectory, and the other is settled using a phase-distributed protocol to decide the agents’ positioning on the circle, where the ring topology is adopted such that each agent can only sense the relative positions of its neighboring two agents that are immediately in front of or behind it. The stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed, and the performance of the proposed controller is verified through simulations.

  17. Gas phase enthalpies of formation of nitrobenzamides using combustion calorimetry and thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ximello, Arturo; Flores, Henoc; Rojas, Aarón; Adriana Camarillo, E.; Patricia Amador, M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Formation enthalpies of the nitrobenzamides were derived from combustion calorimetry. • Enthalpies of vaporisation and sublimation were calculated by thermogravimetry. • From gas phase enthalpies of formation the stability of the isomers is studied. • Stability of isomers is not driven by a steric hindrance between functional groups. - Abstract: The standard molar energies of combustion of 2-nitrobenzamide, 3-nitrobenzamide and 4-nitrobenzamide were determined with an isoperibolic, static-bomb, combustion calorimeter. From the combustion results, the standard molar enthalpies of combustion and formation for these compounds in the condensed phase at T = 298.15 K were derived. Subsequently, to determine the enthalpies of sublimation, the vapour pressure data as a function of the temperature for the compounds under investigation were estimated using thermogravimetry by applying Langmuir’s equation, and the enthalpies of vaporisation were derived. Standard enthalpies of fusion were measured by differential scanning calorimetry then added to those of vaporisation to obtain reliable results for the enthalpy of sublimation. From the combustion and sublimation data, the gas phase enthalpies of formation were determined to be (−138.9 ± 3.5) kJ · mol −1 , (−122.9 ± 2.9) kJ · mol −1 and (−108.5 ± 3.7) kJ · mol −1 for the ortho, meta and para isomers of nitrobenzamide, respectively. The meaning of these results with regard to the enthalpic stability of these molecular structures is discussed herein

  18. FORMATION REGULARITIES OF PHASE COMPOSITION, STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES DURING MECHANICAL ALLOYING OF BINARY ALUMINUM COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Lovshenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigation results pertaining to  ascertainment of formation regularities of phase composition and structure during mechanical alloying of binary aluminium composites/substances. The invetigations have been executed while applying a wide range of methods, devices and equipment used in modern material science. The obtained data complement each other. It has been established that presence of oxide and hydro-oxide films on aluminium powder  and introduction of surface-active substance in the composite have significant effect on mechanically and thermally activated phase transformations and properties of semi-finished products.  Higher fatty acids have been used as a surface active substance.The mechanism of mechanically activated solid solution formation has been identified. Its essence is  a formation of  specific quasi-solutions at the initial stage of processing. Mechanical and chemical interaction between components during formation of other phases has taken place along with dissolution  in aluminium while processing powder composites. Granule basis is formed according to the dynamic recrystallization mechanism and possess submicrocrystal structural type with the granule dimension basis less than 100 nm and the grains are divided in block size of not more than 20 nm with oxide inclusions of 10–20 nm size.All the compounds  with the addition of  surface-active substances including aluminium powder without alloying elements obtained by processing in mechanic reactor are disperse hardened. In some cases disperse hardening is accompanied by dispersive and solid solution hardnening process. Complex hardening predetermines a high temperature of recrystallization in mechanically alloyed compounds,  its value exceeds 400 °C.

  19. Comparison of secondary organic aerosol formation from toluene on initially wet and dry ammonium sulfate particles at moderate relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA has been widely studied in the presence of dry seed particles at low relative humidity (RH. At higher RH, initially dry seed particles can exist as wet particles due to water uptake by the seeds as well as the SOA. Here, we investigated the formation of SOA from the photooxidation of toluene using an oxidation flow reactor in the absence of NOx under a range of OH exposures on initially wet or dry ammonium sulfate (AS seed particles at an RH of 68 %. The ratio of the SOA yield on wet AS seeds to that on dry AS seeds, the relative SOA yield, decreased from 1.31 ± 0.02 at an OH exposure of 4.66 × 1010 molecules cm−3 s to 1.01 ± 0.01 at an OH exposure of 5.28 × 1011 molecules cm−3 s. This decrease may be due to the early deliquescence of initially dry AS seeds after being coated by highly oxidized toluene-derived SOA. SOA formation lowered the deliquescence RH of AS and resulted in the uptake of water by both AS and SOA. Hence the initially dry AS seeds contained aerosol liquid water (ALW soon after SOA formed, and the SOA yield and ALW approached those of the initially wet AS seeds as OH exposure and ALW increased, especially at high OH exposure. However, a higher oxidation state of the SOA on initially wet AS seeds than that on dry AS seeds was observed at all levels of OH exposure. The difference in mass fractions of m ∕ z 29, 43 and 44 of SOA mass spectra, obtained using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, indicated that SOA formed on initially wet seeds may be enriched in earlier-generation products containing carbonyl functional groups at low OH exposures and later-generation products containing acidic functional groups at high exposures. Our results suggest that inorganic dry seeds become at least partially deliquesced particles during SOA formation and hence that ALW is inevitably involved in the SOA formation at moderate RH. More laboratory

  20. Comparison of secondary organic aerosol formation from toluene on initially wet and dry ammonium sulfate particles at moderate relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tengyu; Huang, Dan Dan; Li, Zijun; Liu, Qianyun; Chan, ManNin; Chan, Chak K.

    2018-04-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) has been widely studied in the presence of dry seed particles at low relative humidity (RH). At higher RH, initially dry seed particles can exist as wet particles due to water uptake by the seeds as well as the SOA. Here, we investigated the formation of SOA from the photooxidation of toluene using an oxidation flow reactor in the absence of NOx under a range of OH exposures on initially wet or dry ammonium sulfate (AS) seed particles at an RH of 68 %. The ratio of the SOA yield on wet AS seeds to that on dry AS seeds, the relative SOA yield, decreased from 1.31 ± 0.02 at an OH exposure of 4.66 × 1010 molecules cm-3 s to 1.01 ± 0.01 at an OH exposure of 5.28 × 1011 molecules cm-3 s. This decrease may be due to the early deliquescence of initially dry AS seeds after being coated by highly oxidized toluene-derived SOA. SOA formation lowered the deliquescence RH of AS and resulted in the uptake of water by both AS and SOA. Hence the initially dry AS seeds contained aerosol liquid water (ALW) soon after SOA formed, and the SOA yield and ALW approached those of the initially wet AS seeds as OH exposure and ALW increased, especially at high OH exposure. However, a higher oxidation state of the SOA on initially wet AS seeds than that on dry AS seeds was observed at all levels of OH exposure. The difference in mass fractions of m / z 29, 43 and 44 of SOA mass spectra, obtained using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), indicated that SOA formed on initially wet seeds may be enriched in earlier-generation products containing carbonyl functional groups at low OH exposures and later-generation products containing acidic functional groups at high exposures. Our results suggest that inorganic dry seeds become at least partially deliquesced particles during SOA formation and hence that ALW is inevitably involved in the SOA formation at moderate RH. More laboratory experiments conducted with a wide variety of SOA precursors

  1. Perovskite Excitonics : Primary Exciton Creation and Crossover from Free Carriers to a Secondary Exciton Phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarritzu, Valerio; Sestu, Nicola; Marongiu, Daniela; Chang, Xueqing; Wang, Qingqian; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Quochi, Francesco; Saba, Michele; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Understanding exciton formation is of fundamental importance for emerging optoelectronic materials, like hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, as excitons are the lowest-energy photoexcitations in semiconductors, are electrically neutral, and do not directly contribute to charge transport, but can

  2. Influence of sigma-phase formation on the localized corrosion behavior of a duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhe, K.N.; Kain, V.; Madangopal, K.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    Because of their austenitic-ferritic microstructures, duplex stainless steels offer a good combination of mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. However, heat treatments can lower the mechanical strength of these stainless steels as well as render them susceptible to intergranular corrosion (IGC) and pitting corrosion. In this study, a low-carbon (0.02%) duplex stainless steel is subjected to various heat treatments at 450 to 950 C for 30 min to 10 h. The heat-treated samples than undergo ASTM IGC and pitting corrosion tests, and the results are correlated with the microstructures obtained after each heat treatment. In the absence of Cr 23 C 6 precipitation, σ-phase precipitates render this duplex stainless steel susceptible to IGC and pitting corrosion. Even submicroscopic σ-phase precipitates are deleterious for IGC resistance. Longer-duration heat treatments (at 750 to 850 C) induce chromium diffusion to replenish the chromium-depleted regions around the σ-phase precipitates and improve IGC resistance; pitting resistance, however, is not fully restored. Various mechanisms of σ-phase formation are discussed to show that regions adjacent to σ-phase are depleted of chromium and molybdenum. The effect of chemical composition (pitting resistance equivalent) on the pitting resistance of various stainless steels is also noted

  3. Formation, structure, and evolution of boiling nucleus and interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Peng, Xiao-Feng; Tian, Yong; Wang, Bu-Xuan

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, the concept of the molecular free path is introduced to derive a criterion distinguishing active molecules from inactive molecules in liquid phase. A concept of the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of active molecules is proposed to describe the physical configuration before the formation of a nucleus during vapor-liquid phase transition. All active molecules exist as monomers when the concentration of active molecules is lower than CAC, while the active molecules will generate aggregation once the concentration of the active molecules reaches CAC. However, these aggregates with aggregation number, N, smaller than five can steadily exist in bulk phase. The other excess active molecules can only produce infinite aggregation and form a critical nucleus of vapor-liquid phase transition. Without any outer perturbation the state point of CAC corresponds to the critical superheated or supercooled state. Meanwhile, a model of two-region structure of a nucleus is proposed to describe nucleus evolution. The interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus is dependent of the density gradient in the transition region and varies with the structure change of the transition region. With the interfacial tension calculated using this model, the predicted nucleation rate is very close to the experimental measurement. Furthermore, this model and associated analysis provides solid theoretical evidences to clarify the definition of nucleation rate and understand nucleation phenomenon with the insight into the physical nature.

  4. Thermodynamic behavior of poly(3-alkyl thiophene) blends: Equilibrium cocrystal formation and phase segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Susmita; Nandi, Arun K

    2005-02-24

    The equilibrium cocrystal formation of poly(3-alkyl thiophene) (P3AT) blends has been studied by isothermal cocrystallization in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC-7). The equilibrium melting points (T(m)0) of the cocrystals are measured using the Hoffman-Weeks extrapolation procedure. The equilibrium phase diagrams are of three different types: (a) concave upward, (b) linear, and (c) linear with phase separation at higher content of lower melting component. The phase diagram nature depends on the regioregularity difference and also on the difference in the number of carbon atoms in the pendent alkyl group of the components. The origin of biphasic nature of type "c" phase diagram has been explored from the glass transition temperature (Tg) measurement using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. The biphasic compositions show two glass transition temperatures (Tg) as well as two beta transition temperatures (T beta). The T(g)s of phase-separated regions correspond to almost the component values but the T(beta)s correspond to that of a lower (T beta) component value, and the other is higher than that of the higher (T beta) component value. Possible reasons are discussed from the interchain lamella thickness in the P3AT blends and molecular modeling using molecular mechanics program.

  5. Elimination of impurity phase formation in FePt magnetic thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ying; Medwal, Rohit; Sehdev, Neeru; Yadian, Boluo; Tan, T.L.; Lee, P.; Talebitaher, A.; Ilyas, Usman; Ramanujan, R.V.; Huang, Yizhong; Rawat, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of impurity phases in FePt thin films severely degrades its magnetic properties. The X-ray diffraction patterns of FePt thin films, synthesized using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), showed peaks corresponding to impurity phases, resulting in softer magnetic properties. A systematic investigation was carried to determine the factors that might have led to impurity phase formation. The factors include (i) PLD target composition, (ii) substrate material, (iii) annealing parameters such as temperature, duration and ambience and (iv) PLD deposition parameters such as chamber ambience, laser energy fluence and target–substrate distance. Depositions on the different substrates revealed impurity phase formation only on Si substrates. It was found that the target composition, PLD chamber ambience, and annealing ambience were not the factors that caused the impurity phase formation. The annealing temperature and duration influenced the impurity phases, but are not the cause of their formation. A decrease in the laser energy fluence and increase of the target–substrate distance resulted in elimination of the impurity phases and enhancement in the magnetic and structural properties of FePt thin films. The energy of the ablated plasma species, controlled by the laser energy fluence and the target–substrate distance, is found to be the main factor responsible for the formation of the impurity phases.

  6. The Genealogical Tree of Ethanol: Gas-phase Formation of Glycolaldehyde, Acetic Acid, and Formic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Dimitrios; Balucani, Nadia; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Vazart, Fanny; Puzzarini, Cristina; Barone, Vincenzo; Codella, Claudio; Lefloch, Bertrand

    2018-02-01

    Despite the harsh conditions of the interstellar medium, chemistry thrives in it, especially in star-forming regions where several interstellar complex organic molecules (iCOMs) have been detected. Yet, how these species are synthesized is a mystery. The majority of current models claim that this happens on interstellar grain surfaces. Nevertheless, evidence is mounting that neutral gas-phase chemistry plays an important role. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for the gas-phase synthesis of glycolaldehyde, a species with a prebiotic potential and for which no gas-phase formation route was previously known. In the proposed scheme, the ancestor is ethanol and the glycolaldehyde sister species are acetic acid (another iCOM with unknown gas-phase formation routes) and formic acid. For the reactions of the new scheme with no available data, we have performed electronic structure and kinetics calculations deriving rate coefficients and branching ratios. Furthermore, after a careful review of the chemistry literature, we revised the available chemical networks, adding and correcting several reactions related to glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, and formic acid. The new chemical network has been used in an astrochemical model to predict the abundance of glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, and formic acid. The predicted abundance of glycolaldehyde depends on the ethanol abundance in the gas phase and is in excellent agreement with the measured one in hot corinos and shock sites. Our new model overpredicts the abundance of acetic acid and formic acid by about a factor of 10, which might imply a yet incomplete reaction network.

  7. RPPAML/RIMS: a metadata format and an information management system for reverse phase protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislaus, Romesh; Carey, Mark; Deus, Helena F; Coombes, Kevin; Hennessy, Bryan T; Mills, Gordon B; Almeida, Jonas S

    2008-12-22

    Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA) are convenient assay platforms to investigate the presence of biomarkers in tissue lysates. As with other high-throughput technologies, substantial amounts of analytical data are generated. Over 1,000 samples may be printed on a single nitrocellulose slide. Up to 100 different proteins may be assessed using immunoperoxidase or immunoflorescence techniques in order to determine relative amounts of protein expression in the samples of interest. In this report an RPPA Information Management System (RIMS) is described and made available with open source software. In order to implement the proposed system, we propose a metadata format known as reverse phase protein array markup language (RPPAML). RPPAML would enable researchers to describe, document and disseminate RPPA data. The complexity of the data structure needed to describe the results and the graphic tools necessary to visualize them require a software deployment distributed between a client and a server application. This was achieved without sacrificing interoperability between individual deployments through the use of an open source semantic database, S3DB. This data service backbone is available to multiple client side applications that can also access other server side deployments. The RIMS platform was designed to interoperate with other data analysis and data visualization tools such as Cytoscape. The proposed RPPAML data format hopes to standardize RPPA data. Standardization of data would result in diverse client applications being able to operate on the same set of data. Additionally, having data in a standard format would enable data dissemination and data analysis.

  8. Formation and toxicological effect of secondary organic aerosols%二次有机气溶胶的形成及其毒理效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹军骥; 李建军

    2016-01-01

    photo-oxidation or nitration reaction with gas oxidants in the air to form oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs) or nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs), and thus the toxicity and health hazard are enhanced. Parent PAHs and their derivatives can absorb light energy to reach the photo-excited states, and then react with molecular oxygen, medium, and coexisting chemicals to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other reactive intermediates, which can induce lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. (2) Amine: Organic amines are derivatives of ammonia in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced by an alkyl or aryl group. They are strong alkaline compounds and play a very important role on secondary aerosols formation. The gaseous aliphatic amines can undergo rapid acid-base reactions to form salt particles in the presence of atmospheric acids (such as HCl, HNO3, H2SO4). Other multiphase reactions of amines include carbonyl-amine interaction and particle-phase oxidation reactions. Particulate alkyl amine can also react with nitrite to form carcinogenic nitrosamine. All these secondary products have signiifcantly adverse effects on human health, such as skin allergy, respiratory diseases, and cancers etc., and thus would alter the biological effect of aerosols in the atmosphere in return. (3) Terpenes: Terpenes is one of the most important biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the atmosphere. In indoor environment, terpenes can be easily emitted from many consumer products such as furnitures or clothes. On the other hand, some gaseous oxidants like ozone and NOx can also present in the indoor air because of the inifltration from outdoor environment or emission by some ofifce and consumer equipment. Thus, the indoor health effect of secondary organic aerosol formation of terpenes with other gaseous oxidants is a popular issue in recent researches. Some of the gaseous products formed are irritating to biological tissues, while the condensed-phase products have received attention due to their

  9. Radionuclide Retention Mechanisms in Secondary Waste-Form Testing: Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Yang, Jungseok; Engelhard, Mark H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Parker, Kent E.; Wang, Guohui; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-26

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate candidate stabilization technologies that have the potential to successfully treat liquid secondary waste stream effluents produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). WRPS is considering the design and construction of a Solidification Treatment Unit (STU) for the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. The ETF, a multi-waste, treatment-and-storage unit that has been permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed wastewaters for treatment. The STU needs to be operational by 2018 to receive secondary liquid waste generated during operation of the WTP. The STU will provide the additional capacity needed for ETF to process the increased volume of secondary waste expected to be produced by WTP. This report on radionuclide retention mechanisms describes the testing and characterization results that improve understanding of radionuclide retention mechanisms, especially for pertechnetate, {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in four different waste forms: Cast Stone, DuraLith alkali aluminosilicate geopolymer, encapsulated fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) product, and Ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramic. These data and results will be used to fill existing data gaps on the candidate technologies to support a decision-making process that will identify a subset of the candidate waste forms that are most promising and should undergo further performance testing.

  10. Variation in pH of Model Secondary Organic Aerosol during Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallemagne, Magda A; Huang, Xiau Ya; Eddingsaas, Nathan C

    2016-05-12

    The majority of atmospheric aerosols consist of both organic and inorganic components. At intermediate relative humidity (RH), atmospheric aerosol can undergo liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in which the organic and inorganic fractions segregate from each other. We have extended the study of LLPS to the effect that phase separation has on the pH of the overall aerosols and the pH of the individual phases. Using confocal microscopy and pH sensitive dyes, the pH of internally mixed model aerosols consisting of polyethylene glycol 400 and ammonium sulfate as well as the pH of the organic fraction during LLPS have been directly measured. During LLPS, the pH of the organic fraction was observed to increase to 4.2 ± 0.2 from 3.8 ± 0.1 under high RH when the aerosol was internally mixed. In addition, the high spatial resolution of the confocal microscope allowed us to characterize the composition of each of the phases, and we have observed that during LLPS the organic shell still contains large quantities of water and should be characterized as an aqueous organic-rich phase rather than simply an organic phase.

  11. The Impact of Post Harvest Agricultural Crop Residue Fires on Volatile Organic Compounds and Formation of Secondary Air Pollutants in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, V.; Chandra, P.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.

    2015-12-01

    The N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) is an agriculturally and demographically important region of the world. Every year during the post harvest months of April-May and October-November, large scale open burning of wheat straw and paddy straw occurs in the region impairing the regional air quality and resulting in air pollution episodes. Here, using online in-situ measurements from the IISER Mohali Atmospheric Chemistry Facility (Sinha et al., Atmos Chem Phys, 2014), which is located at a regionally representative suburban site in the agricultural state of Punjab, India, we investigated the effects of this activity on gas phase chemistry. The online data pertaining to the pre harvest and post harvest paddy residue fires in 2012, 2013 and 2014 were analyzed to understand the effect of this anthropogenic activity on atmospheric chemistry and regional air quality with respect to health relevant VOCs such as benzenoids and isocyanic acid and trace gases such as ozone and carbon monoxide. These compounds showed marked increases (factor of 2-3 times higher) in their concentrations which correlated with the biomass combustion tracers such as acetonitrile. Emissions from the paddy residue fires did not result in significant enhancement of ambient ozone in 2012 but instead sustained hourly daytime ozone concentrations at ~ 50 ppb during the late post monsoon season, despite decreases in solar radiation and temperature. Results of such massive perturbations to ambient chemical composition, reactivity and formation of secondary pollutants and its implications for human health will be presented in this paper.

  12. Impact of sodium on the secondary phases and current pathway in Cu{sub 2}(Zn,Sn)Se{sub 4} thin film solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi-Cheng, E-mail: ielinyc@cc.ncue.edu.tw [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Lai, Chien-Mu [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Hung-Ru [Green Energy & Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of Na content on secondary phases and current pathway in Cu{sub 2}(Zn,Sn)Se{sub 4} (CZTSe) thin film solar cells with the following structure: Ti/Mo:Na/Mo/CZTSe/CdS/i-ZnO/ZnO:Al/Al. The application of Na-doped Mo target as a source of sodium. Experimental results demonstrate that increasing the Na content leads to an increase in the quantity of secondary phase SnSe{sub 2} on the surface of the absorber layer; however, it did not appear to affect the secondary phases of Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} (CTSe) or ZnSe. Excessive quantities of Na were shown to have an adverse effect on device efficiency. Our results using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) revealed that an increase in the quantity of secondary phase SnSe{sub 2} can shift the current pathway on the surface of CZTSe from CZTSe grain boundaries (GBs) to the SnSe{sub 2} grains. The role of secondary phase SnSe{sub 2} of the CZTSe acted as a channel for the current flow, which results in high leakage current and low device efficiency. - Highlights: • Increasing the Na content leads to an increase in the quantity of secondary phase SnSe{sub 2}. • An increase of secondary phase SnSe{sub 2} can shift the current pathway from CZTSe grain boundaries to the SnSe{sub 2} grains. • The secondary phase SnSe{sub 2} acted as a channel for the current flow, which results in high leakage current.

  13. Primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation from the exhaust of a flex-fuel (ethanol) vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Zardini, A. A.; Platt, S. M.; Hellebust, S.; Pieber, S. M.; El Haddad, I.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Baltensperger, U.; Marchand, N.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Astorga, C.

    2015-09-01

    Incentives to use biofuels may result in increasing vehicular emissions of compounds detrimental to air quality. Therefore, regulated and unregulated emissions from a Euro 5a flex-fuel vehicle, tested using E85 and E75 blends (gasoline containing 85% and 75% of ethanol (vol/vol), respectively), were investigated at 22 and -7 °C over the New European Driving Cycle, at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory at the European Commission Joint Research Centre Ispra, Italy. Vehicle exhaust was comprehensively analyzed at the tailpipe and in a dilution tunnel. A fraction of the exhaust was injected into a mobile smog chamber to study the photochemical aging of the mixture. We found that emissions from a flex-fuel vehicle, fueled by E85 and E75, led to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, despite the low aromatic content of these fuel blends. Emissions of regulated and unregulated compounds, as well as emissions of black carbon (BC) and primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA formation were higher at -7 °C. The flex-fuel unregulated emissions, mainly composed of ethanol and acetaldehyde, resulted in very high ozone formation potential and SOA, especially at low temperature (860 mg O3 km-1 and up to 38 mg C kg-1). After an OH exposure of 10 × 106 cm-3 h, SOA mass was, on average, 3 times larger than total primary particle mass emissions (BC + POA) with a high O:C ratio (up to 0.7 and 0.5 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) typical of highly oxidized mixtures. Furthermore, high resolution organic mass spectra showed high 44/43 ratios (ratio of the ions m/z 44 and m/z 43) characteristic of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol. We also hypothesize that SOA formation from vehicular emissions could be due to oxidation products of ethanol and acetaldehyde, both short-chain oxygenated VOCs, e.g. methylglyoxal and acetic acid, and not only from aromatic compounds.

  14. Effects of the liquid-gas phase transition and cluster formation on the symmetry energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typel, S.; Wolter, H.H.; Roepke, G.; Blaschke, D.

    2014-01-01

    Various definitions of the symmetry energy are introduced for nuclei, dilute nuclear matter below saturation density and stellar matter, which is found in compact stars or core-collapse supernovae. The resulting differences are exemplified by calculations in a theoretical approach based on a generalized relativistic density functional for dense matter. It contains nucleonic clusters as explicit degrees of freedom with medium-dependent properties that are derived for light clusters from a quantum statistical approach. With such a model the dissolution of clusters at high densities can be described. The effects of the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter and of cluster formation in stellar matter on the density dependence of the symmetry energy are studied for different temperatures. It is observed that correlations and the formation of inhomogeneous matter at low densities and temperatures causes an increase of the symmetry energy as compared to calculations assuming a uniform uncorrelated spatial distribution of constituent baryons and leptons. (orig.)

  15. Formation of integral asymmetric membranes of AB diblock and ABC triblock copolymers by phase inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Adina; Filiz, Volkan; Rangou, Sofia; Buhr, Kristian; Merten, Petra; Hahn, Janina; Clodt, Juliana; Abetz, Clarissa; Abetz, Volker

    2013-04-12

    The formation of integral asymmetric membranes from ABC triblock terpolymers by non-solvent-induced phase separation is shown. They are compared with the AB diblock copolymer precursors. Triblock terpolymers of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) with two compositions are investigated. The third block supports the formation of a membrane in a case, where the corresponding diblock copolymer does not form a good membrane. In addition, the hydrophilicity is increased by the third block and due to the hydroxyl group the possibility of post-functionalization is given. The morphologies are imaged by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the PEO on the membrane properties is analyzed by water flux, retention, and dynamic contact angle measurements. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A national environmental/energy workforce assessment. Post-secondary education profile: radiation. Final report on phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This study is one of 16 volumes aggregating data on representative environmental education offerings in the United States at post-secondary education institutions and in the private sector of the economy. Structured around on-site interviews, the study describes the institutions' education programs--their program structure, representative course offerings, faculty structure, and program requirements. In addition, the study provides information on the employment history of graduates. Designed as Phase II of a three-phase program, the study presents the information on schools with emphasis on radiation. The study is an overview. It doesn't include all environmental programs in the United States, and it makes no attempt to evaluate the program offerings

  17. A national environmental/energy workforce assessment. Post-secondary education profile: private sector. Final report on phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This study is one of 16 volumes aggregating data on representative environmental education offerings in the United States at post-secondary education institutions and in the private sector of the economy. Structured around on-site interviews, the study describes the institutions' education programs--their program structure, representative course offerings, faculty structure, and program requirements. In addition, the study provides information on the employment history of graduates. Designed as Phase II of a three-phase program, the study presents the information on some training programs conducted by businesses and by trade and professional associations. The study is an overview. It doesn't include all environmental programs in the United States, and it makes no attempt to evaluate the program offerings

  18. A national environmental/energy workforce assessment. Post-secondary education profile: air. Final report on phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This study is one of 16 volumes aggregating data on representative environmental education offerings in the United States at post-secondary education institutions and in the private sector of the economy. Structured around on-site interviews, the study describes the institutions' education programs--their program structure, representative course offerings, faculty structure, and program requirements. In addition, the study provides information on the employment history of graduates. Designed as Phase II of a three-phase program, the study presents the information on schools with emphasis on air pollution. The study is an overview. It doesn't include all environmental programs in the United States, and it makes no attempt to evaluate the program offerings

  19. A national environmental/energy workforce assessment. Post-secondary education profile: energy. Final report on phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This study is one of 16 volumes aggregating data on representative environmental education offerings in the United States at post-secondary education institutions and in the private sector of the economy. Structured around on-site interviews, the study describes the institutions' education programs--their program structure, representative course offerings, faculty structure, and program requirements. In addition, the study provides information on the employment history of graduates. Designed as Phase II of a three-phase program, the study presents the information on schools with emphasis on energy. The study is an overview. It doesn't include all environmental programs in the United States, and it makes no attempt to evaluate the program offerings

  20. A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha M. Forster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; hide

    2014-01-01

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z = 2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0 × 10 (exp 11) solar mass, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90 (sup +45 / sub -20) solar mass/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317 plus or minus 30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z is approximately equal to 2 (exp 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

  1. Gas-phase hydrolysis of triplet SO2: A possible direct route to atmospheric acid formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, D. James; Kroll, Jay A.; Vaida, Veronica

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur chemistry is of great interest to the atmospheric chemistry of several planets. In the presence of water, oxidized sulfur can lead to new particle formation, influencing climate in significant ways. Observations of sulfur compounds in planetary atmospheres when compared with model results suggest that there are missing chemical mechanisms. Here we propose a novel mechanism for the formation of sulfurous acid, which may act as a seed for new particle formation. In this proposed mechanism, the lowest triplet state of SO2 (3B1), which may be accessed by near-UV solar excitation of SO2 to its excited 1B1 state followed by rapid intersystem crossing, reacts directly with water to form H2SO3 in the gas phase. For ground state SO2, this reaction is endothermic and has a very high activation barrier; our quantum chemical calculations point to a facile reaction being possible in the triplet state of SO2. This hygroscopic H2SO3 molecule may act as a condensation nucleus for water, giving rise to facile new particle formation (NPF).

  2. Influence of the ion implantation on the nanoscale intermetallic phases formation in Ni-Ti system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, M.P.; Kurzina, I.A.; Bozhko, I.A.; Kozlov, E.V.; Fortuna, S.V.; Sivin, D.O.; Stepanov, I.B.; Sharkeev, Yu.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The ion implantation at a high intensity mode is an effective method for modification of the surface properties of metals and alloys. Improvement of mechanical and tribological properties of irradiated materials using the high intensity implantation is connected with an element composition and microstructure modification of the surface and subsurface layers. One shows a great interest in intermetallic phase's synthesis by ion implantation, because of unique physical-mechanical properties of the intermetallic compounds. The influence of the irradiation conditions on the structural state and surface properties of implanted materials is not clear enough. The study of the factors influencing on the formation of the surface ion - alloyed layers of metal targets having the high tribological and mechanical properties by high intensity ion implantation is actual. The aim of the present work is a study of the microstructure, phase composition, physical and mechanical properties of the ion-alloyed Ni surfaces formed at high intensity implantation of Ti ions. The implantation Ti ions into Ni samples at high intensity mode was realized using ion source 'Raduga - 5'. The implantation Ti ions into Ni was carried out at accelerating voltage 20 kV for 2 h. The regimes were differed in the samples temperature (580 - 700 K), the distance from the ion implanted samples to the ion source (0.43-0.93 m) and the dose of irradiated ions (0.3·10 18 -2.9·10 18 ion/cm -2 ). The element composition of the implanted samples was analyzed by the electron spectroscopy. The structural-phase state of the Ni ion-modified layers was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Additionally, the investigation of mechanical and tribological properties of the implanted Ni samples was carried out. It was established that the maximum thickness of the ion-alloyed nickel layers at high intensity mode allows forming the nanoscale intermetallic phases (Ni

  3. Magnetic field effect on Gd2(MoO4)3 domain structure formation in the phase transformation range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flerova, S.A.; Tsinman, I.L.

    1987-01-01

    The behaviour of ferroelastic-ferroelectric domain structure of gadolinium molybdate crystal (GMO)during its formation in the magnetic field in the vicinity of phase transformation is studied.It is shown that the formation of domain structure in the presence of a temperature gradient occurs in the field of mechanical stresses whose mainly stretching effect is concentrated near phase boundaries.The magnetic field intensifies summary mechanical stresses where a domain structure in a ferroelectric phase is formed due to interaction with the elements of inhomogeneous and differently oriented currents near phase boundaries

  4. Kinetics of a new phase formation in supersaturated solid solutions. 1. Dilute one-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinko, V.I.

    1991-07-01

    A complete set of kinetic equations describing the diffusion decay of supersaturated solutions, as well as the formation of new-phase fluctuations in equilibrium systems, is derived. A novel method of determining forward and backward reaction rates entering the master equation is proposed which does not require the use of any reference cluster size distribution, either the constrained or the true equilibrium one, employed in all modifications of the classical nucleation theory. Instead, this reference distribution can be obtained as an equilibrium solution of the present master equation. The main advantage of this method is the possibility to take into account various factors affecting the diffusion decay, such as the reaction kinetics at the precipitate surfaces and the diffusion kinetics in the mother phase with account of elastic interaction between nucleating species and their clusters. The latter is of a key importance in the irradiation environment considered in the forthcoming second part of the article. (author). 3 refs

  5. Formation of super disperse phase and its influence on equilibrium and thermodynamics of thermal dehydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyachenok, O.G. [Department of Chemistry, Mogilev State University of Foodstuffs, 212027 (Belarus)], E-mail: polyachenok@mogilev.by; Dudkina, E.N.; Branovitskaya, N.V. [Department of Chemistry, Mogilev State University of Foodstuffs, 212027 (Belarus); Polyachenok, L.D. [Department of Chemistry, Mogilev State University of A.A. Kuleshov, 212022 (Belarus)

    2008-01-30

    New data on the dehydration and rehydration processes of calcium, manganese and copper dichlorides are presented that reveal surprising, in a certain sense, behaviour difficult to be explained for the last two chlorides in terms of the usual conception of thermodynamic equilibrium. A substantial role of a super disperse phase at studying the equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of a hydrate is postulated to explain the experimental results for manganese and copper dichlorides. It is shown that the formation of such a phase of the hydrate is able to change appreciably the experimental results, causing the increase of water vapour pressure and the decrease of the derived enthalpy of a reaction. The results obtained allow to understand the reasons for considerable differences of some literature data. They enable to receive more precise and reliable data for thermal dehydration and probably for some other decomposition processes.

  6. Pattern Formation During Phase Separation of Polymer-Ionic Liquid Co-Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhiyong; Osuji, Chinedum

    2010-03-01

    Co-solutions of polystyrene (PS) with a 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquid (IL) in DMF phase separated into IL-rich and PS-rich domains on solvent evaporation. Over a limited range of polymer molecular weights and substrate temperatures, a variety of striped and cellular or polygonal structures were found on the resulting film surface, as visualized using bright-field and phase-contrast optical microscopy. This effect appears to be due to a Benard-Marangoni instability at the free surface of the liquid film as it undergoes evaporation, setting up convection rolls inside the fluid which become locked in place as the system vitrifies on solvent removal. Differential scanning calorimetry shows that the IL does not significantly plasticize the polymer, suggesting that the viscosity of the polystyrene solution itself controls the formation of this instability.

  7. Phase formation in systems Re-Se-Br-MBr (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarovoj, S.S.; Mironov, Yu.V.; Tkachev, S.V.; Fedorov, V.E.

    2009-01-01

    Phase formation in the systems Re-Se-Br-MBr (M=K, Rb, Cs) has been studied by NMR-spectroscopy and X-ray phase analysis. Polymer complexes Re 6 Se 8 Br 2 and M 2 Re 6 Se 8 Br 4 (M=Cs, Rb), and salts containing cluster anions [Re 6 Se 6 Br 8 ] 2- and [Re 6 Se 7 Br 7 ] 3- are the main products of reactions occurring in molten alkali metal halides in the number of cluster anions [{Re 6 Se 8-n Br n }Br 6 ] (4-n)- (0≤n≤4). Effect of alkali metal cation on the composition and ratios of formed products is established

  8. Phase formation in titanium alloys during their quenching from liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, S.Ya.; Kotko, A.V.; Kuz'menko, N.N.; Kulak, L.D.; Firstov, S.A.; Khaenko, B.V.

    1992-01-01

    Methods of X-ray diffractin analysis, light and electron microscopy were applied to study structural state of titanium base alloys quenched from liquid state by spinning with cooling in inert gas or at the surface of solid heat exchanger. Phase formation under rapid cooling conditions was considered. The morphology of phases and mutual orientation of their crystal lattices were investigated along with the character of crystallization texture. It was revealed that on melt quenching with 10 5 -10 6 K/s cooling rates the growth of columnar branches of degenerated dendrites was accopanied by Si atoms movement of the order of 0.1 μm. Structure and crack resistance of compacted articles produced from rapidly solidified powders were under study

  9. Halo formation in three-dimensional bunches with various phase space distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fedotov

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A realistic treatment of halo formation must take into account 3D beam bunches and 6D phase space distributions. We recently constructed, analytically and numerically, a new class of self-consistent 6D phase space stationary distributions, which allowed us to study the halo development mechanism without being obscured by the effect of beam redistribution. In this paper we consider nonstationary distributions and study how the halo characteristics compare with those obtained using the stationary distribution. We then discuss the effect of redistribution on the halo development mechanism. In contrast to bunches with a large aspect ratio, we find that the effect of coupling between the r and z planes is especially important as the bunch shape becomes more spherical.

  10. Stability of nanoscale secondary phases in an oxide dispersion strengthened Fe-12Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, V. de; Marquis, E.A.; Lozano-Perez, S.; Pareja, R.; Jenkins, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and atom-probe tomography were used to characterize on a near-atomic scale the microstructure and oxide and carbide phases that form during thermo-mechanical treatments of a model oxide dispersion strengthened Fe-12 wt.% Cr-0.4 wt.% Y 2 O 3 alloy. It was found that some of the Y-rich nanoparticles retained their initial crystallographic structure but developed a Cr-enriched shell, while others evolved into ternary oxide phases during the initial processing. The Y- and Cr-rich oxide phases formed remained stable after annealing at 1023 K for 96 h. However, the number of Cr-rich carbides appeared to increase, inducing Cr depletion in the matrix.

  11. Stability of nanoscale secondary phases in an oxide dispersion strengthened Fe-12Cr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, V. de, E-mail: vanessa.decastro@uc3m.es [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Marquis, E.A.; Lozano-Perez, S. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Jenkins, M.L. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Transmission electron microscopy and atom-probe tomography were used to characterize on a near-atomic scale the microstructure and oxide and carbide phases that form during thermo-mechanical treatments of a model oxide dispersion strengthened Fe-12 wt.% Cr-0.4 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloy. It was found that some of the Y-rich nanoparticles retained their initial crystallographic structure but developed a Cr-enriched shell, while others evolved into ternary oxide phases during the initial processing. The Y- and Cr-rich oxide phases formed remained stable after annealing at 1023 K for 96 h. However, the number of Cr-rich carbides appeared to increase, inducing Cr depletion in the matrix.

  12. Secondary Uranium Phases of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Coffinite, USiO4, and Studtite, UO4.4H2O. Synthesis, Characterization, and Investigations Regarding Phase Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labs, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The miscibility behavior of the USiO 4 - ThSiO 4 system was investigated. The end members and ten solid solutions U x Th (1-x) SiO 4 with x = 0.12 - 0.92 were successfully synthesized, without formation of other secondary uranium or thorium phases. Lattice parameters of the solid solutions evidently follow Vegard's Law. Investigation of the local structure with EXAFS reveals small differences between U and Th environment attributed to different atomic radii of the metal atoms but no implications for a miscibility gap. The data provided confirms complete miscibility for the system USiO 4 - ThSiO 4 . The structure of the end members was studied in detail with XRD and discussed with special regard to the oxygen positions and the often neglected Si-O bond length. USiO 4 could be obtained without UO 2 impurities and the lattice parameters derived from Rietveld refinement as c = 6.2606(3) Aa and a = 6.9841(3) Aa. The Si-O distance in USiO 4 appears to be 1.64 Aa, which is more reasonable than earlier reported values. Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction pattern and Raman spectra of synthetic coffinite, USiO 4 , were obtained for pressures up to 35 GPa and 18 GPa, respectively. From the changes in the diffraction pattern it can be concluded that USiO 4 undergoes a first order phase transition from zircon-type (space group I 4 1 /amd) to scheelite-type structure (space group I 4 1 /a) at ∼ 15 GPa and room-temperature. Contrary to earlier reports, the data indicates that this transition is completely reversible upon pressure release. Pressure dependencies of the Raman modes for the zircon structured phase are larger than those reported for hafnon, HfSiO 4 , and zircon, ZrSiO 4 , indicating that coffinite, USiO 4 , is more compressible than these orthosilicates. Bulk moduli fitted from the p-V data for the zircon-type and scheelite-type USiO 4 phase are compared to those known to literature for other MSiO 4 (M = U, Hf, Zr) compounds. The bulk modulus for zircon

  13. The phase equilibria of multicomponent gas hydrate in methanol/ethylene glycol solution based formation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shurui; Fan, Shuanshi; Yao, Haiyuan; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Lv, Pingping; Fang, Songtian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The equilibrium data in THI solution based formation water is first investigated. • The 0.55 mass fraction concentration of EG 0.55 mass fraction fills the vacancy of this area. • The testing pressure range from 4.22 MPa to 34.72 MPa was rare in published data. - Abstract: In this paper, the three-phase coexistence points are generated for multicomponent gas hydrate in methanol (MeOH) solution for (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.35) mass fraction and ethylene glycol (EG) solution for (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.35, 0.40 and 0.55) mass fraction. The phase equilibrium curves of different system were obtained by an isochoric pressure-search method on high pressure apparatus. The phase equilibrium regions of multicomponent gas hydrate were measured using the same composition of natural gas distributed in the South China Sea. And the different concentration solutions were prepared based formation water. The experimental data were measured in a wide range temperature from 267.74 to 298.53 K and a wide range pressure from 4.22 MPa to 34.72 MPa. The results showed that the hydrate phase equilibrium curves shifted to the inhibition region in accordance with the increased inhibitor concentration. In addition, the equilibrium temperature would decrease about 2.7 K when the concentration of MeOH increased 0.05 mass fraction. Besides, the suppression temperature was 1.25 K with the 0.05 mass fraction increase of EG concentration in the range of 0.05 mass fraction to 0.15 mass fraction. While in high EG concentration region, the suppression temperature was 3.3 K with the same increase of EG concentration (0.05 mass fraction).

  14. NEPHELINE FORMATION STUDY FOR SLUDGE BATCH 4: PHASE 3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K

    2006-01-01

    This Phase 3 study was undertaken to complement the previous phases of the nepheline formation studies1, 2 by continuing the investigation into the ability of the nepheline discriminator to predict the occurrence of nepheline crystallization in Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) glasses and into the impact of such phases on the durability of the SB4 glasses. The Phase 3 study had two primary objectives. The first was to continue to demonstrate the ability of the discriminator value to adequately predict the nepheline formation potential for specific glass systems of interest. The second was to generate additional data that have a high probability of supporting the SB4 variability study. To support these two objectives, sixteen glasses were selected based on the most recent SB4 compositional projection, Case 15C Blend 1.3 Four different frits were included, based on previous assessments of projected operating windows and melt rate,4, 5 with four WLs selected for each frit. Eight of these frit-sludge combinations covered WLs which tightly bound the nepheline discriminator value of 0.62, with the intent of refining this value to a level of confidence where it can be incorporated into offline administrative controls and/or the Process Composition Control System (PCCS) to support Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability decisions. The remaining eight frit-sludge combinations targeted lower WLs (35 and 40%) and were prepared and analyzed to contribute needed data to the ComPro database6 to support a potential variability study for SB4

  15. Secondary organic aerosol formation from in-use motor vehicle emissions using a potential aerosol mass reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacik, Daniel S; Lambe, Andrew T; Jathar, Shantanu; Li, Xiang; Presto, Albert A; Zhao, Yunliang; Blake, Donald; Meinardi, Simone; Jayne, John T; Croteau, Philip L; Robinson, Allen L

    2014-10-07

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from in-use vehicle emissions was investigated using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) flow reactor deployed in a highway tunnel in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Experiments consisted of passing exhaust-dominated tunnel air through a PAM reactor over integrated hydroxyl radical (OH) exposures ranging from ∼ 0.3 to 9.3 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Experiments were performed during heavy traffic periods when the fleet was at least 80% light-duty gasoline vehicles on a fuel-consumption basis. The peak SOA production occurred after 2-3 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Additional OH exposure decreased the SOA production presumably due to a shift from functionalization to fragmentation dominated reaction mechanisms. Photo-oxidation also produced substantial ammonium nitrate, often exceeding the mass of SOA. Analysis with an SOA model highlight that unspeciated organics (i.e., unresolved complex mixture) are a very important class of precursors and that multigenerational processing of both gases and particles is important at longer time scales. The chemical evolution of the organic aerosol inside the PAM reactor appears to be similar to that observed in the atmosphere. The mass spectrum of the unoxidized primary organic aerosol closely resembles ambient hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA). After aging the exhaust equivalent to a few hours of atmospheric oxidation, the organic aerosol most closely resembles semivolatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA) and then low-volatility organic aerosol (LV-OOA) at higher OH exposures. Scaling the data suggests that mobile sources contribute ∼ 2.9 ± 1.6 Tg SOA yr(-1) in the United States, which is a factor of 6 greater than all mobile source particulate matter emissions reported by the National Emissions Inventory. This highlights the important contribution of SOA formation from vehicle exhaust to ambient particulate matter concentrations in urban areas.

  16. Influence of age on brain edema formation, secondary brain damage and inflammatory response after brain trauma in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Timaru-Kast

    Full Text Available After traumatic brain injury (TBI elderly patients suffer from higher mortality rate and worse functional outcome compared to young patients. However, experimental TBI research is primarily performed in young animals. Aim of the present study was to clarify whether age affects functional outcome, neuroinflammation and secondary brain damage after brain trauma in mice. Young (2 months and old (21 months male C57Bl6N mice were anesthetized and subjected to a controlled cortical impact injury (CCI on the right parietal cortex. Animals of both ages were randomly assigned to 15 min, 24 h, and 72 h survival. At the end of the observation periods, contusion volume, brain water content, neurologic function, cerebral and systemic inflammation (CD3+ T cell migration, inflammatory cytokine expression in brain and lung, blood differential cell count were determined. Old animals showed worse neurological function 72 h after CCI and a high mortality rate (19.2% compared to young (0%. This did not correlate with histopathological damage, as contusion volumes were equal in both age groups. Although a more pronounced brain edema formation was detected in old mice 24 hours after TBI, lack of correlation between brain water content and neurological deficit indicated that brain edema formation is not solely responsible for age-dependent differences in neurological outcome. Brains of old naïve mice were about 8% smaller compared to young naïve brains, suggesting age-related brain atrophy with possible decline in plasticity. Onset of cerebral inflammation started earlier and primarily ipsilateral to damage in old mice, whereas in young mice inflammation was delayed and present in both hemispheres with a characteristic T cell migration pattern. Pulmonary interleukin 1β expression was up-regulated after cerebral injury only in young, not aged mice. The results therefore indicate that old animals are prone to functional deficits and strong ipsilateral cerebral

  17. Characterisation of iron inclusion during the formation of calcium sulfoaluminate phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrissi, M.; Diouri, A.; Damidot, D.; Greneche, J.M.; Talbi, M. Alami; Taibi, M.

    2010-01-01

    The iron distribution among the sulfoaluminate clinker phases and its ability to enter the calcium sulfoaluminate lattice in solid solution can have a significant influence on manufacturing process and reactivity of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Moessbauer spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (EDAX) and infrared spectroscopy were used to identify the mineralogical conditions of iron inclusion during the formation of calcium sulfoaluminate (C 4 A 3 S) phase from different mixtures in the CaO-Al 2 O 3 -Fe 2 O 3 -SO 3 system. The mixtures, heated in a laboratory electric oven, contained stoichiometric amounts of reagent grade CaCO 3 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 and CaSO 4 .2H 2 O for the synthesis of Ca 4 Al (6- 2x) Fe 2x SO 16 , where x, comprised between 0 and 3, is the mole number of Al 2 O 3 substituted by Fe 2 O 3 . With x increasing from 0 to 1.5, both the iron content of C 4 A 3 S phase and the amounts of side components such as C 2 F and CS increased. For x values included in the range of 1.5-3.0, at temperatures higher than 1200 o C, melting phenomena were observed and, instead of the C 4 A 3 S solid solution, ferritic phases and anhydrite were formed.

  18. L1{sub 0} phase formation in ternary FePdNi alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes-Arango, A.M. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Bordeaux, N.C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Liu, J.; Barmak, K. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lewis, L.H., E-mail: lhlewis@neu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Metallurgical routes to highly metastable phases are required to access new materials with new functionalities. To this end, the stability of the tetragonal chemically ordered L1{sub 0} phase in the ternary Fe–Pd–Ni system is quantified to provide enabling information concerning synthesis of L1{sub 0}-type FeNi, a highly attractive yet highly elusive advanced permanent magnet candidate. Fe{sub 50}Pd{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} (x = 0–7 at%) samples were arc-melted and annealed at 773 K (500 °C) for 100 h to induce formation of the chemically ordered L1{sub 0} phase. Coupled calorimetry, structural and magnetic investigations allow determination of an isothermal section of the ternary Fe–Pd–Ni phase diagram featuring a single phase L1{sub 0} region near the FePd boundary for x < 6 at%. It is demonstrated that increased Ni content in Fe{sub 50}Pd{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} alloys systematically decreases the order-disorder transition temperature, resulting in a lower thermodynamic driving force for the ordering phase transformation. The Fe{sub 50}Pd{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} L1{sub 0} → fcc disordering transformation is determined to occur via a two-step process, with compositionally-dependent enthalpies and transition temperatures. These results highlight the need to investigate ternary alloys with higher Ni content to determine the stability range of the L1{sub 0} phase near the FeNi boundary, thereby facilitating kinetic access to the important L1{sub 0} FeNi ferromagnetic phase. - Highlights: • Chemical ordering in FePdNi enhances intrinsic and extrinsic magnetic properties. • 773 K annealed FePdNi alloys studied show a stable L1{sub 0} phase for Ni ≤ 5.2 at%. • Chemical disordering in FePdNi occurs by a previously unreported two-step process. • Ni additions to FePd dramatically decrease the chemical order-disorder temperature. • The chemical-ordering transformation kinetics are greatly affected by Ni content.

  19. Development of a simple unified volatility-based scheme (SUVS for secondary organic aerosol formation using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Xia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to simplify complex atmospheric chemistry reaction schemes, while preserving SOA formation properties, using genetic algorithms. The method is first applied in this study to the gas-phase α-pinene oxidation scheme. The simple unified volatility-based scheme (SUVS reflects the multi-generation evolution of chemical species from a near-explicit master chemical mechanism (MCM and, at the same time, uses the volatility-basis set speciation for condensable products. The SUVS also unifies reactions between SOA precursors with different oxidants under different atmospheric conditions. A total of 412 unknown parameters (product yields of parameterized products, reaction rates, etc. from the SUVS are estimated by using genetic algorithms operating on the detailed mechanism. The number of organic species was reduced from 310 in the detailed mechanism to 31 in the SUVS. Output species profiles, obtained from the original subset of the MCM reaction scheme for α-pinene oxidation, are reproduced with maximum fractional error at 0.10 for scenarios under a wide range of ambient HC/NOx conditions. Ultimately, the same SUVS with updated parameters could be used to describe the SOA formation from different precursors.

  20. Isomerization of Second-Generation Isoprene Peroxy Radicals: Epoxide Formation and Implications for Secondary Organic Aerosol Yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Ambro, Emma L.; Møller, Kristian H.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E.; Lee, Ben Hwan; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2017-04-11

    We report chamber measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene photochemical oxidation, where radical concentrations were systematically varied and the molecular composition of semi to low volatility gases and SOA were measured online. Using a detailed chemical mechanism, we find that to explain the behavior of low volatility products and SOA mass yields relative to input H2O2 concentrations, the second generation dihydroxy hydroperoxy peroxy radical (C5H11O6•) must undergo an intra-molecular H-shift with a net forward rate constant of order 0.1 s-1 or higher, consistent with quantum chemical calculations which suggest a net forward rate constant of 0.3-0.9 s-1. Furthermore, these calculations suggest the dominant product of this isomerization is a dihydroxy hydroperoxy epoxide (C5H10O5) which is expected to have a saturation vapor pressure ~2 orders of magnitude higher than the dihydroxy dihydroperoxide, ISOP(OOH)2 (C5H12O6), a major product of the peroxy radical reacting with HO2. These results provide strong constraints on the likely volatility distribution of isoprene oxidation products under atmospheric conditions and thus on the importance of non-reactive gas-particle partitioning of isoprene oxidation products as an SOA source.

  1. p-type doping efficiency in CdTe: Influence of second phase formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jedidiah J.; Swain, Santosh K.; Sieber, John R.; Diercks, David R.; Gorman, Brian P.; Lynn, Kelvin G.

    2018-04-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) high purity, bulk, crystal ingots doped with phosphorus were grown by the vertical Bridgman melt growth technique to understand and improve dopant solubility and activation. Large net carrier densities have been reproducibly obtained from as-grown ingots, indicating successful incorporation of dopants into the lattice. However, net carrier density values are orders of magnitude lower than the solubility of P in CdTe as reported in literature, 1018/cm3 to 1019/cm3 [J. H. Greenberg, J. Cryst. Growth 161, 1-11 (1996) and R. B. Hall and H. H. Woodbury, J. Appl. Phys. 39(12), 5361-5365 (1968)], despite comparable starting charge dopant densities. Growth conditions, such as melt stoichiometry and post growth cooling, are shown to have significant impacts on dopant solubility. This study demonstrates that a significant portion of the dopant becomes incorporated into second phase defects as compounds of cadmium and phosphorous, such as cadmium phosphide, which inhibits dopant incorporation into the lattice and limits maximum attainable net carrier density in bulk crystals. Here, we present an extensive study on the characteristics of these second phase defects in relation to their composition and formation kinetics while providing a pathway to minimize their formation and enhance solubility.

  2. Formation of organic solid phases in hydrocarbon reservoir fluids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.I.; Lindeloff, N.; Stenby, E.H.

    1998-12-31

    The occurrence of solid phases during oil recovery is a potential problem. The present work has mainly been concerned with wax formation due to cooling of oils with a large paraffin content. 8 oils have been included in this project, although only a few of these have till now been subject to all the experimental techniques applied. The oils and wax fractions from these have been characterized using techniques such as GC-MS and Ftir. The goal has in part been to get a detailed description of the oil composition for use in model evaluation and development and in part to get a fundamental understanding of waxy oil properties and behaviour. A high pressure (200 bar) equipment has been developed for automatic detection of wax appearance using a filtration technique and laser light turbidimetry. The latter was found to be far superior to the filtration. The filtration was used to sample the incipient solid phase for characterization. However entrapment of liquid in the filters currently used have hampered this part. A number of model systems and one gas condensate have been investigated. The GC-MS procedure was found only to been able to detect molecules up to n-C45 and the group type analysis was not accurate enough for modelling purposes. Using Ftir it was obvious that incipient phases may contain very complex molecules (asphaltenes) which are not captured by GC-MS especially when fractionation is done using the acetone precipitation at elevated temperature. The latter fractionation procedure has been investigated thoroughly as a tool for understanding wax distribution etc. Within thermodynamic modelling a delta lattice parameter model has been developed which incorporates the non-ideality of the solid phases into the calculation of SLE. The non-ideality is estimated from pure component properties. A new algorithm for phase equilibria involving gas-liquid-solid has been developed. Currently both the model work and the experimental works are continued. (au)

  3. Local Cloudiness Development Forecast Based on Simulation of Solid Phase Formation Processes in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barodka, Siarhei; Kliutko, Yauhenia; Krasouski, Alexander; Papko, Iryna; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays numerical simulation of thundercloud formation processes is of great interest as an actual problem from the practical point of view. Thunderclouds significantly affect airplane flights, and mesoscale weather forecast has much to contribute to facilitate the aviation forecast procedures. An accurate forecast can certainly help to avoid aviation accidents due to weather conditions. The present study focuses on modelling of the convective clouds development and thunder clouds detection on the basis of mesoscale atmospheric processes simulation, aiming at significantly improving the aeronautical forecast. In the analysis, the primary weather radar information has been used to be further adapted for mesoscale forecast systems. Two types of domains have been selected for modelling: an internal one (with radius of 8 km), and an external one (with radius of 300 km). The internal domain has been directly applied to study the local clouds development, and the external domain data has been treated as initial and final conditions for cloud cover formation. The domain height has been chosen according to the civil aviation forecast data (i.e. not exceeding 14 km). Simulations of weather conditions and local clouds development have been made within selected domains with the WRF modelling system. In several cases, thunderclouds are detected within the convective clouds. To specify the given category of clouds, we employ a simulation technique of solid phase formation processes in the atmosphere. Based on modelling results, we construct vertical profiles indicating the amount of solid phase in the atmosphere. Furthermore, we obtain profiles demonstrating the amount of ice particles and large particles (hailstones). While simulating the processes of solid phase formation, we investigate vertical and horizontal air flows. Consequently, we attempt to separate the total amount of solid phase into categories of small ice particles, large ice particles and hailstones. Also, we

  4. Secondary organic aerosol formation from in situ OH, O3, and NO3 oxidation of ambient forest air in an oxidation flow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Ortega, Amber M.; Fry, Juliane L.; Brown, Steven S.; Zarzana, Kyle J.; Dube, William; Wagner, Nicholas L.; Draper, Danielle C.; Kaser, Lisa; Jud, Werner; Karl, Thomas; Hansel, Armin; Gutiérrez-Montes, Cándido; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2017-04-01

    Ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH, O3, or NO3 radicals using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) during the BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) campaign to study biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and organic aerosol (OA) aging. A wide range of equivalent atmospheric photochemical ages was sampled, from hours up to days (for O3 and NO3) or weeks (for OH). Ambient air processed by the OFR was typically sampled every 20-30 min, in order to determine how the availability of SOA precursor gases in ambient air changed with diurnal and synoptic conditions, for each of the three oxidants. More SOA was formed during nighttime than daytime for all three oxidants, indicating that SOA precursor concentrations were higher at night. At all times of day, OH oxidation led to approximately 4 times more SOA formation than either O3 or NO3 oxidation. This is likely because O3 and NO3 will only react with gases containing C = C bonds (e.g., terpenes) to form SOA but will not react appreciably with many of their oxidation products or any species in the gas phase that lacks a C = C bond (e.g., pinonic acid, alkanes). In contrast, OH can continue to react with compounds that lack C = C bonds to produce SOA. Closure was achieved between the amount of SOA formed from O3 and NO3 oxidation in the OFR and the SOA predicted to form from measured concentrations of ambient monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes using published chamber yields. This is in contrast to previous work at this site (Palm et al., 2016), which has shown that a source of SOA from semi- and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) 3.4 times larger than the source from measured VOCs is needed to explain the measured SOA formation from OH oxidation. This work suggests that those S/IVOCs typically do not contain C = C bonds. O3 and NO3 oxidation produced SOA with elemental O : C and H : C

  5. Metallurgical features of the formation of a solid-phase metal joint upon electric-circuit heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, R. A.; Bulychev, V. V.; Zybin, I. N.

    2017-06-01

    The thermodynamic conditions of formation of a joint between metals using the solid-phase methods of powder metallurgy, welding, and deposition of functional coatings upon electric-current heating of the surfaces to be joined are studied. Relations are obtained to quantitatively estimate the critical sizes of the circular and linear active centers that result in the formation of stable bonding zones.

  6. RPPAML/RIMS: A metadata format and an information management system for reverse phase protein arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennessy Bryan T

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA are convenient assay platforms to investigate the presence of biomarkers in tissue lysates. As with other high-throughput technologies, substantial amounts of analytical data are generated. Over 1000 samples may be printed on a single nitrocellulose slide. Up to 100 different proteins may be assessed using immunoperoxidase or immunoflorescence techniques in order to determine relative amounts of protein expression in the samples of interest. Results In this report an RPPA Information Management System (RIMS is described and made available with open source software. In order to implement the proposed system, we propose a metadata format known as reverse phase protein array markup language (RPPAML. RPPAML would enable researchers to describe, document and disseminate RPPA data. The complexity of the data structure needed to describe the results and the graphic tools necessary to visualize them require a software deployment distributed between a client and a server application. This was achieved without sacrificing interoperability between individual deployments through the use of an open source semantic database, S3DB. This data service backbone is available to multiple client side applications that can also access other server side deployments. The RIMS platform was designed to interoperate with other data analysis and data visualization tools such as Cytoscape. Conclusion The proposed RPPAML data format hopes to standardize RPPA data. Standardization of data would result in diverse client applications being able to operate on the same set of data. Additionally, having data in a standard format would enable data dissemination and data analysis.

  7. Quantitative phase imaging characterization of tumor-associated blood vessel formation on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Huang, Jing; Moses, Marsha A.

    2018-02-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones, is a biological process that has an essential role in solid tumor growth, development, and progression. Recent advances in Lab-on-a-Chip technology has created an opportunity for scientists to observe endothelial cell (EC) behaviors during the dynamic process of angiogenesis using a simple and economical in vitro platform that recapitulates in vivo blood vessel formation. Here, we use quantitative phase imaging (QPI) microscopy to continuously and non-invasively characterize the dynamic process of tumor cell-induced angiogenic sprout formation on a microfluidic chip. The live tumor cell-induced angiogenic sprouts are generated by multicellular endothelial sprouting into 3 dimensional (3D) Matrigel using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By using QPI, we quantitatively measure a panel of cellular morphological and behavioral parameters of each individual EC participating in this sprouting. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate that QPI is a powerful tool that can provide real-time quantitative analysis of biological processes in in vitro 3D biomimetic devices, which, in turn, can improve our understanding of the biology underlying functional tissue engineering.

  8. Kaempferol Inhibits the Primary Attachment Phase of Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Di; Wang, Dacheng; Cao, Fengjiao; Xiang, Hua; Mu, Dan; Cao, Junjie; Li, Bangbang; Zhong, Ling; Dong, Xiaoyun; Zhong, Xiaobo; Wang, Lin; Wang, Tiedong

    2017-01-01

    The ability to form biofilms on surfaces makes Staphylococcus aureus the main pathogenic factor in implanted medical device infections. The aim of this study was to discover a biofilm inhibitor distinct from the antibiotics used to prevent infections resulting from S. aureus biofilms. Here, we describe kaempferol, a small molecule with anti-biofilm activity that specifically inhibited the formation of S. aureus biofilms. Crystal violet (CV) staining and fluorescence microscopy clearly showed that 64 μg/ml kaempferol inhibited biofilm formation by 80%. Meanwhile, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and growth curve results indicated that kaempferol had no antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. Kaempferol inhibited the primary attachment phase of biofilm formation, as determined by a fibrinogen-binding assay. Moreover, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that kaempferol reduced the activity of S. aureus sortaseA (SrtA) and the expression of adhesion-related genes. Based on these results, kaempferol provides a starting point for the development of novel anti-biofilm drugs, which may decrease the risk of bacterial drug resistance, to prevent S. aureus biofilm-related infections.

  9. Up-scaling, formative phases, and learning in the historical diffusion of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    The 20th century has witnessed wholesale transformation in the energy system marked by the pervasive diffusion of both energy supply and end-use technologies. Just as whole industries have grown, so too have unit sizes or capacities. Analysed in combination, these unit level and industry level growth patterns reveal some consistencies across very different energy technologies. First, the up-scaling or increase in unit size of an energy technology comes after an often prolonged period of experimentation with many smaller-scale units. Second, the peak growth phase of an industry can lag these increases in unit size by up to 20 years. Third, the rate and timing of up-scaling at the unit level is subject to countervailing influences of scale economies and heterogeneous market demand. These observed patterns have important implications for experience curve analyses based on time series data covering the up-scaling phases of energy technologies, as these are likely to conflate industry level learning effects with unit level scale effects. The historical diffusion of energy technologies also suggests that low carbon technology policies pushing for significant jumps in unit size before a ‘formative phase’ of experimentation with smaller-scale units are risky. - Highlights: ► Comparative analysis of energy technology diffusion. ► Consistent pattern of sequential formative, up-scaling, and growth phases. ► Evidence for conflation of industry level learning effects with unit level up-scaling. ► Implications for experience curve analyses and technology policy.

  10. The impact of liquid-liquid-vapour phase behaviour on coke formation from model coke precusors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Shaw, J.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-08-01

    Catalysts used in the hydroprocessing of heavy feedstocks deactivate due to coke deposition. Although the mechanism for coke formation is not fully understood, condensation reactions of polynuclear aromatic compounds present in the feeds are a key aspect. The effect of coke deposition on catalyst performance is typically modelled using accelerated aging agents comprising model coke precursors. Mixtures employed in such studies polynuclear aromatic compounds such as anthracene as the coke precursor, and long chain alkanes such as hexadecane as a diluent. We show in this paper that binary and pseudo binary mixtures of polynuclear aromatic compounds and n-alkanes present TYPE II, TYPE IV, or TYPE III phase behaviour according to the van Konynenburg and Scott (1980) phase projection nomenclature, Incubation periods and the apparent autocatalytic effects associated with coke deposition in such systems are explained through a combination of high temperature phase equilibrium experiments and computations with the model systems n-alkane + anthracene + hydrogen, n-alkane + pyrene + hydrogen, and n-alkane + dibenzo[a,k]chrysene + hydrogen. (au)

  11. The U phase formation in cement-based systems containing high amounts of Na2SO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.; Moranville, M.; Le Bescop, P.

    1996-01-01

    Simulated cemented low level wastes containing high amounts of Na 2 SO 4 (10--15%) were examined with respect to the mineralogy of the solid phases, chemical composition of the interstitial aqueous phase and immersion behavior in water. All results reveal the formation of a mineral called U phase, first observed by Dosch and zur Strassen in 1967, and its deleterious effects on the samples immersed in water. It appears that this phase can form only at very high alkaline concentration, not compatible with traditional cement paste. Two possible degradation mechanisms associated with the U phase are proposed which are to be elucidated in further works

  12. Investigation of the sintering of barytocalcite with BaCO{sub 3} as a secondary phase for immobilizing carbon-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoni, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.massoni@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, Marcoule, BP17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Le Gallet, Sophie [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2016-08-01

    The effect of a secondary phase (BaCO{sub 3}) on the sintering of synthetic barytocalcite has been investigated. It was found that this phase impacts the sintering positively by lowering the sintering activation energy from 230 to 160 kJ mol{sup −1}, by increasing the shrinkage rate and by reaching higher densities. However, BaCO{sub 3,} originally dispersed in the powder, was segregated by diffusion during sintering with a large part of it being located at the grain boundaries. The dense pellet is made of both phases barytocalcite and BaCO{sub 3}, what should be avoided to give the best leaching resistance. Thus the BaCO{sub 3} presence should be limited as much as possible by controlling the reactants stoichiometry during the synthesis. - Highlights: • Lowers the sintering activation energy from 230 to 160 kJ mol{sup −1}. • Changes the sintering process from volume diffusion to grain boundary diffusion. • Increases the shrinkage rate and allows to reach higher densities of the pellet.

  13. Corrosion of non-irradiated UAl{sub x}-Al fuel in the presence of clay pore solution. A quantitative XRD secondary phase analysis applying the DDM method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Andreas [Halle-Wittenberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mineralogy and Geochemistry; RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Crystallography; Klinkenberg, Martina; Curtius, Hildegard [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-6 Nuclear Waste Management

    2017-04-01

    Corrosion experiments with non-irradiated metallic UAl{sub x}-Al research reactor fuel elements were carried out in autoclaves to identify and quantify the corrosion products. Such compounds, considering the long-term safety assessment of final repositories, can interact with the released inventory and this constitutes a sink for radionuclide migration in formation waters. Therefore, the metallic fuel sample was subjected to clay pore solution to investigate its process of disintegration by analyzing the resulting products and the remnants, i.e. the secondary phases. Due to the fast corrosion rate a full sample disintegration was observed within the experimental period of 1 year at 90 C. The obtained solids were subdivided into different grain size fractions and prepared for analysis. The elemental analysis of the suspension showed that, uranium and aluminum are concentrated in the solids, whereas iron was mainly dissolved. Non-ambient X-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with the derivative difference minimization (DDM) method was applied for the qualitative and quantitative phase analysis (QPA) of the secondary phases. Gypsum and hemihydrate (bassanite), residues of non-corroded nuclear fuel, hematite, and goethite were identified. The quantitative phase analysis showed that goethite is the major crystalline phase. The amorphous content exceeded 80 wt% and hosted the uranium. All other compounds were present to a minor content. The obtained results by XRD were well supported by complementary scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis.

  14. Formation of the second organic phase during uranyl nitrate extraction from aqueous solution by 30% tributylphosphate solution in paraffin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yhrkin, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    For extraction systems aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate-30% solution of tributylphosphate in individual paraffins from C 13 to C 17 the influence of the second organic phase of uranyl nitrate concentration in aqueous and organic phases, the length of hydrocarbon chain of paraffin hydrocarbon and temperature from 25 to 50 deg C on formation conditions has been defected. A special method of achieving the conditions of organic phase stratification from three-phase region, involving definition of equilibrium phases composition by density and refractive index, has been elaborated for more precise definition of organic phase homogeneity region. It has been revealed that without addition of nitric acid to uranyl nitrate solution the organic phase homogeneity limits can be achieved solely on paraffins C 15 , C 16 and C 17 and only under conditions similar to equeous phase saturation in terms of uranyl nitrate. 16 refs., 2 figs

  15. Effect of Fe and Zr additions on ω phase formation in β-type Ti-Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, X.H.; Emura, S.; Zhang, L.; Tsuzaki, K.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 1% Fe and/or 5% Zr (mass%) additions on ω phase formation was investigated for the Ti-15Mo alloy by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and hardness testing. Upon water quenching following solution treatment in the β phase region, the athermal ω phase formation could not be observed in all the alloys, regardless of Fe and Zr additions. The lattice parameter of the β phase decreases with Fe addition, while it increases with Zr addition. Solid solution strengthening by Fe and Zr is not recognized for the β phase. The isothermal ω phase formed after aging at 723 K and 773 K for 3.6 ks, which results in a decrease in the lattice parameter of the β phase and an increase in the hardness. The isothermal ω phase formation is suppressed with Fe and/or Zr additions. This is interpreted as the consequence of the increase in the average value of the bond order (Bo) for the Ti-15Mo-5Zr and Ti-15Mo-5Zr-1Fe alloys, and of the decrease in the average value of the metal d-orbital energy level (Md) for the Ti-15Mo-1Fe alloy. In addition, the degree of the suppression of isothermal ω phase can be predicted by the average values of Bo and Md

  16. The impact of bark beetle infestations on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Berg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, extensive beetle outbreaks in western North America have destroyed over 100 000 km2 of forest throughout British Columbia and the western United States. Beetle infestations impact monoterpene emissions through both decreased emissions as trees are killed (mortality effect and increased emissions in trees under attack (attack effect. We use 14 yr of beetle-induced tree mortality data together with beetle-induced monoterpene emission data in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM to investigate the impact of beetle-induced tree mortality and attack on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation in western North America. Regionally, beetle infestations may have a significant impact on monoterpene emissions and SOA concentrations, with up to a 4-fold increase in monoterpene emissions and up to a 40% increase in SOA concentrations in some years (in a scenario where the attack effect is based on observed lodgepole pine response. Responses to beetle attack depend on the extent of previous mortality and the number of trees under attack in a given year, which can vary greatly over space and time. Simulated enhancements peak in 2004 (British Columbia and 2008 (US. Responses to beetle attack are shown to be substantially larger (up to a 3-fold localized increase in summertime SOA concentrations in a scenario based on bark-beetle attack in spruce trees. Placed in the context of observations from the IMPROVE network, the changes in SOA concentrations due to beetle attack are in most cases small compared to the large annual and interannual variability in total organic aerosol which is driven by wildfire activity in western North America. This indicates that most beetle-induced SOA changes are not likely detectable in current observation networks; however, these changes may impede efforts to achieve natural visibility conditions in the national parks and wilderness

  17. Open burning of rice, corn and wheat straws: primary emissions, photochemical aging, and secondary organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zheng; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Yanli; Ding, Xiang; Tang, Mingjin; Liu, Tengyu; Hu, Qihou; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Zhaoyi; Yang, Weiqiang; Huang, Zhonghui; Song, Wei; Bi, Xinhui; Chen, Jianmin; Sun, Yele; George, Christian; Wang, Xinming

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural residues are among the most abundant biomass burned globally, especially in China. However, there is little information on primary emissions and photochemical evolution of agricultural residue burning. In this study, indoor chamber experiments were conducted to investigate primary emissions from open burning of rice, corn and wheat straws and their photochemical aging as well. Emission factors of NOx, NH3, SO2, 67 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), particulate matter (PM), organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) under ambient dilution conditions were determined. Olefins accounted for > 50 % of the total speciated NMHCs emission (2.47 to 5.04 g kg-1), indicating high ozone formation potential of straw burning emissions. Emission factors of PM (3.73 to 6.36 g kg-1) and primary organic carbon (POC, 2.05 to 4.11 gC kg-1), measured at dilution ratios of 1300 to 4000, were lower than those reported in previous studies at low dilution ratios, probably due to the evaporation of semi-volatile organic compounds under high dilution conditions. After photochemical aging with an OH exposure range of (1.97-4.97) × 1010 molecule cm-3 s in the chamber, large amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were produced with OA mass enhancement ratios (the mass ratio of total OA to primary OA) of 2.4-7.6. The 20 known precursors could only explain 5.0-27.3 % of the observed SOA mass, suggesting that the major precursors of SOA formed from open straw burning remain unidentified. Aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) signaled that the aged OA contained less hydrocarbons but more oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds than primary OA, and carbon oxidation state (OSc) calculated with AMS resolved O / C and H / C ratios increased linearly (p < 0.001) with OH exposure with quite similar slopes.

  18. THE FORMATION OF SECONDARY STELLAR GENERATIONS IN MASSIVE YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS FROM RAPIDLY COOLING SHOCKED STELLAR WINDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wünsch, R.; Palouš, J.; Ehlerová, S. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Boční II 1401, 141 31 Prague (Czech Republic); Tenorio-Tagle, G. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Optica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico)

    2017-01-20

    We study a model of rapidly cooling shocked stellar winds in young massive clusters and estimate the circumstances under which secondary star formation, out of the reinserted winds from a first stellar generation (1G), is possible. We have used two implementations of the model: a highly idealized, computationally inexpensive, spherically symmetric semi-analytic model, and a complex, three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic, simulation; they are in a good mutual agreement. The results confirm our previous findings that, in a cluster with 1G mass 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} and half-mass–radius 2.38 pc, the shocked stellar winds become thermally unstable, collapse into dense gaseous structures that partially accumulate inside the cluster, self-shield against ionizing stellar radiation, and form the second generation (2G) of stars. We have used the semi-analytic model to explore a subset of the parameter space covering a wide range of the observationally poorly constrained parameters: the heating efficiency, η {sub he}, and the mass loading, η {sub ml}. The results show that the fraction of the 1G stellar winds accumulating inside the cluster can be larger than 50% if η {sub he} ≲ 10%, which is suggested by the observations. Furthermore, for low η {sub he}, the model provides a self-consistent mechanism predicting 2G stars forming only in the central zones of the cluster. Finally, we have calculated the accumulated warm gas emission in the H30 α recombination line, analyzed its velocity profile, and estimated its intensity for super star clusters in interacting galaxies NGC4038/9 (Antennae) showing that the warm gas should be detectable with ALMA.

  19. Diurnally resolved particulate and VOC measurements at a rural site: indication of significant biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjostedt, S. J.; Slowik, J. G.; Brook, J. R.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Mihele, C.; Stroud, C. A.; Vlasenko, A.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2011-06-01

    We report simultaneous measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios including C6 to C8 aromatics, isoprene, monoterpenes, acetone and organic aerosol mass loadings at a rural location in southwestern Ontario, Canada by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS), respectively. During the three-week-long Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study in June-July 2007, air was sampled from a range of sources, including aged air from the polluted US Midwest, direct outflow from Detroit 50 km away, and clean air with higher biogenic input. After normalization to the diurnal profile of CO, a long-lived tracer, diurnal analyses show clear photochemical loss of reactive aromatics and production of oxygenated VOCs and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) during the daytime. Biogenic VOC mixing ratios increase during the daytime in accord with their light- and temperature-dependent sources. Long-lived species, such as hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol and benzene show little to no photochemical reactivity on this timescale. From the normalized diurnal profiles of VOCs, an estimate of OH concentrations during the daytime, measured O3 concentrations, and laboratory SOA yields, we calculate integrated local organic aerosol production amounts associated with each measured SOA precursor. Under the assumption that biogenic precursors are uniformly distributed across the southwestern Ontario location, we conclude that such precursors contribute significantly to the total amount of SOA formation, even during the period of Detroit outflow. The importance of aromatic precursors is more difficult to assess given that their sources are likely to be localized and thus of variable impact at the sampling location.

  20. Formation of target-specific binding sites in enzymes: solid-phase molecular imprinting of HRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czulak, J.; Guerreiro, A.; Metran, K.; Canfarotta, F.; Goddard, A.; Cowan, R. H.; Trochimczuk, A. W.; Piletsky, S.

    2016-05-01

    Here we introduce a new concept for synthesising molecularly imprinted nanoparticles by using proteins as macro-functional monomers. For a proof-of-concept, a model enzyme (HRP) was cross-linked using glutaraldehyde in the presence of glass beads (solid-phase) bearing immobilized templates such as vancomycin and ampicillin. The cross-linking process links together proteins and protein chains, which in the presence of templates leads to the formation of permanent target-specific recognition sites without adverse effects on the enzymatic activity. Unlike complex protein engineering approaches commonly employed to generate affinity proteins, the method proposed can be used to produce protein-based ligands in a short time period using native protein molecules. These affinity materials are potentially useful tools especially for assays since they combine the catalytic properties of enzymes (for signaling) and molecular recognition properties of antibodies. We demonstrate this concept in an ELISA-format assay where HRP imprinted with vancomycin and ampicillin replaced traditional enzyme-antibody conjugates for selective detection of templates at micromolar concentrations. This approach can potentially provide a fast alternative to raising antibodies for targets that do not require high assay sensitivities; it can also find uses as a biochemical research tool, as a possible replacement for immunoperoxidase-conjugates.Here we introduce a new concept for synthesising molecularly imprinted nanoparticles by using proteins as macro-functional monomers. For a proof-of-concept, a model enzyme (HRP) was cross-linked using glutaraldehyde in the presence of glass beads (solid-phase) bearing immobilized templates such as vancomycin and ampicillin. The cross-linking process links together proteins and protein chains, which in the presence of templates leads to the formation of permanent target-specific recognition sites without adverse effects on the enzymatic activity. Unlike

  1. Modeling the gas-particle partitioning of secondary organic aerosol: the importance of liquid-liquid phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds between the gas phase and aerosol particles is an important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Gas-particle partitioning of organic and inorganic species is influenced by the physical state and water content of aerosols, and therefore ambient relative humidity (RH, as well as temperature and organic loading levels. We introduce a novel combination of the thermodynamic models AIOMFAC (for liquid mixture non-ideality and EVAPORATION (for pure compound vapor pressures with oxidation product information from the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM for the computation of gas-particle partitioning of organic compounds and water. The presence and impact of a liquid-liquid phase separation in the condensed phase is calculated as a function of variations in relative humidity, organic loading levels, and associated changes in aerosol composition. We show that a complex system of water, ammonium sulfate, and SOA from the ozonolysis of α-pinene exhibits liquid-liquid phase separation over a wide range of relative humidities (simulated from 30% to 99% RH. Since fully coupled phase separation and gas-particle partitioning calculations are computationally expensive, several simplified model approaches are tested with regard to computational costs and accuracy of predictions compared to the benchmark calculation. It is shown that forcing a liquid one-phase aerosol with or without consideration of non-ideal mixing bears the potential for vastly incorrect partitioning predictions. Assuming an ideal mixture leads to substantial overestimation of the particulate organic mass, by more than 100% at RH values of 80% and by more than 200% at RH values of 95%. Moreover, the simplified one-phase cases stress two key points for accurate gas-particle partitioning calculations: (1 non-ideality in the condensed phase needs to be considered and (2 liquid-liquid phase separation is a consequence of considerable deviations

  2. Studies of rubidium selenate with secondary phase of RbOH under humidified reducing atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyribey, Berceste; Hallinder, Jonathan; Poulsen, Finn Willy

    2012-01-01

    The high temperature properties of Rb2SeO4 have been studied by calorimetry, impedance spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. As synthesized, Rb2SeO4 includes a second phase of Rb2SeO3, which can be eliminated upon heating the compound. As expected, no conductivity is observed in dry (pH2O ....001 bar) air. By changing to humidified (pH2O = 0.1 bar) air at 176 deg. C, the conductivity increases sharply from 8.6·10-8 to 1.7·10-6 S cm-1. Under humidified (pH2O = 0.1 bar) reducing atmosphere (9%H2 in N2), the conductivity increases to 2.0·10-4 S cm-1 at 317 C. Degradation of Rb2SeO3 and Rb2SeO4...

  3. Simultaneous determination of secondary metabolites from Vinca rosea plant extractives by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Jamshed Ahmad; Ismail, Zhari; Saidan, Noor Hafizoh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Vinca rosea (Apocynaceae) is one of the most important and high value medicinal plants known for its anticancer alkaloids. It is the iota of the isolated secondary metabolites used in chemotherapy to treat diverse cancers. Several high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been developed to quantify the active alkaloids in the plant. However, this method may serve the purpose in quantification of V. rosea plant extracts in totality. Objective: To develop and validate the reverse phase (RP)-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of secondary metabolites, namely alkaloids from V. rosea plant extracts. Materials and Methods: The quantitative determination was conducted by RP-HPLC equipped with ultraviolet detector. Optimal separation was achieved by isocratic elution with mobile phase consisting of methanol:acetonitrile:ammonium acetate buffer (25 mM) with 0.1% triethylamine (15:45:40 v/v) on a column (Zorbax Eclipse plus C18, 250 mm % 4.6 mm; 5 μm). The standard markers (vindoline, vincristine, catharanthine, and vinblastine) were identified by retention time and co-injected with reference standard and quantified by external standard method at 297 nm. Results: The precision of the method was confirmed by the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), which was lower than 2.68%. The recoveries were in the range of 98.09%-108%. The limits of detection (LOD) for each marker alkaloids were lower than 0.20 μg. Different parts of the V. rosea extracts shows different concentrations of markers, flower samples were high in vinblastine content, while methanol extract from the leaves contains all the four alkaloids in good yield, and there is no significant presence of markers in water extracts. Conclusion: HPLC method established is appropriate for the standardization and quality assurance of V. rosea plant extracts. PMID:21716929

  4. Effect of Pb and Cr Substitutions on Phase Formation and Excess Conductivity of Bi-2212 Superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khir, F. L. M.; Mohamed, Z.; Yusuf, A. A.; Yusof, M. I. M.; Yahya, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of Pb and Cr substitutions on the superconducting properties of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 (Bi-2212) superconductors is reported. The samples were prepared from Bi 2-x Pb x Sr 2 Ca 2-y Cr y Cu 3 O 10-δ (x = 0-0.3, y = 0-0.3) starting composition by the solid-state-reaction method. XRD analysis showed formation of pure Bi-2212 for (x = 0, y = 0), (x = 0.3, y = 0.2,) and (x = 0.3, y = 0.2,) starting compositions. Excess conductivity analysis based on Asmalazov-Larkin theory on single-phased Bi2212 samples showed 2D to 3D transition in superconducting fluctuation behavior (SFB) for all the samples. Highest 2D-3D transition temperature, T 2D-3D was observed at Pb and Cr substitutions of x = 0.3, and x = 0.2, respectively.

  5. Phase-Transition-Induced Pattern Formation Applied to Basic Research on Homeopathy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; Scherr, Claudia; Bodrova, Natalia Borisovna; Baumgartner, Stephan

    2018-05-16

     Methods based on phase-transition-induced pattern formation (PTPF) are increasingly used in medical research. Frequent application fields are medical diagnosis and basic research in homeopathy. Here, we present a systematic review of experimental studies concerning PTPF-based methods applied to homeopathy research. We also aimed at categorizing the PTPF methods included in this review.  Experimental studies were collected from scientific databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Russian eLibrary) and from experts in the research field in question, following the PRISMA guidelines. The studies were rated according to pre-defined scientific criteria.  The review included 15 experimental studies. We identified seven different PTPF methods applied in 12 experimental models. Among these methods, phase-transition was triggered through evaporation, freezing, or solution, and in most cases led to the formation of crystals. First experimental studies concerning the application of PTPF methods in homeopathic research were performed in the first half of the 20th century; however, they were not continued in the following years. Only in the last decade, different research groups re-launched the idea, introducing new experimental approaches and computerized pattern evaluation techniques. The here-identified PTPF methods are for the first time proposed to be classified as one group of methods based on the same basic physical phenomenon.  Although the number of experimental studies in the area is still rather limited, the long tradition in the application of PTPF methods and the dynamics of the present developments point out the high potential of these methods and indicate that they might meet the demand for scientific methods to study potentized preparations. The Faculty of Homeopathy.

  6. Phase-field modeling of microstructural pattern formation during directional solidification of peritectic alloys without morphological instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shing Lo, Tak; Karma, Alain; Plapp, Mathis

    2001-01-01

    During the directional solidification of peritectic alloys, two stable solid phases (parent and peritectic) grow competitively into a metastable liquid phase of larger impurity content than either solid phase. When the parent or both solid phases are morphologically unstable, i.e., for a small temperature gradient/growth rate ratio (G/v p ), one solid phase usually outgrows and covers the other phase, leading to a cellular-dendritic array structure closely analogous to the one formed during monophase solidification of a dilute binary alloy. In contrast, when G/v p is large enough for both phases to be morphologically stable, the formation of the microstructure becomes controlled by a subtle interplay between the nucleation and growth of the two solid phases. The structures that have been observed in this regime (in small samples where convection effects are suppressed) include alternate layers (bands) of the parent and peritectic phases perpendicular to the growth direction, which are formed by alternate nucleation and lateral spreading of one phase onto the other as proposed in a recent model [R. Trivedi, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 26, 1 (1995)], as well as partially filled bands (islands), where the peritectic phase does not fully cover the parent phase which grows continuously. We develop a phase-field model of peritectic solidification that incorporates nucleation processes in order to explore the formation of these structures. Simulations of this model shed light on the morphology transition from islands to bands, the dynamics of spreading of the peritectic phase on the parent phase following nucleation, which turns out to be characterized by a remarkably constant acceleration, and the types of growth morphology that one might expect to observe in large samples under purely diffusive growth conditions

  7. New insights in third phase formation in the U(VI)-HNO3, TBP-alkane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M. P.; Chiarizia, R.; Ferraro, J. R.; Borkowski, M.; Nash, K. L.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Littrell, K. C.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, the system U(VI)-HNO 3 -tributylphosphate (TBP)-n-dodecane has been revisited with the objective of gaining coordination chemistry and structural information on the species that are formed in the organic phase before and after third phase formation. Chemical analyses, spectroscopic and EXAFS data indicate that U(VI) is extracted as the UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 · 2TBP adduct, while the third phase species has the composition UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 · 2TBP · HNO 3 . Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data reveal the presence in the organic phase, both before and after phase splitting, of ellipsoidal aggregates whose formation seems to depend more on the extraction of HNO 3 than that of U(VI)

  8. Determination of complex formation constants by phase sensitive alternating current polarography: Cadmium-polymethacrylic acid and cadmium-polygalacturonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigosa, Anna Maria; Gusmão, Rui; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2007-10-15

    The use of phase sensitive alternating current polarography (ACP) for the evaluation of complex formation constants of systems where electrodic adsorption is present has been proposed. The applicability of the technique implies the previous selection of the phase angle where contribution of capacitive current is minimized. This is made using Multivariate Curve Resolution by Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) in the analysis of ACP measurements at different phase angles. The method is checked by the study of the complexation of Cd by polymethacrylic (PMA) and polygalacturonic (PGA) acids, and the optimal phase angles have been ca. -10 degrees for Cd-PMA and ca. -15 degrees for Cd-PGA systems. The goodness of phase sensitive ACP has been demonstrated comparing the determined complex formation constants with those obtained by reverse pulse polarography, a technique that minimizes the electrode adsorption effects on the measured currents.

  9. Atmospheric hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides during PRIDE-PRD'06, China: their concentration, formation mechanism and contribution to secondary aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hua

    2008-11-01

    detected in this region can account for the production of hydroperoxides, while the moderate level of NOx suppressed the formation of hydroperoxides. High concentrations of hydroperoxides were detected in samples of rainwater collected in a heavy shower on 25 July when a typhoon passed through, indicating that a considerable mixing ratio of hydroperoxides, particularly MHP, resided above the boundary layer, which might be transported on a regional scale and further influence the redistribution of HOx and ROx radicals. It was found that hydroperoxides, in particular H2O2, play an important role in the formation of secondary sulfate in the aerosol phase, where the heterogeneous reaction might contribute substantially. A negative correlation between hydroperoxides and water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, a considerable fraction of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA, was observed, possibly providing field evidence for the importance of hydroperoxides in the formation of SOA found in previous laboratory studies. We suggest that hydroperoxides act as an important link between sulfate and organic aerosols, which needs further study and should be considered in current atmospheric models.

  10. Atmospheric hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides during PRIDE-PRD'06, China: their concentration, formation mechanism and contribution to secondary aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, W.; Chen, Z. M.; Jie, C. Y.; Kondo, Y.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Takegawa, N.; Chang, C. C.; Lu, K. D.; Miyazaki, Y.; Kita, K.; Wang, H. L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Hu, M.

    2008-11-01

    in samples of rainwater collected in a heavy shower on 25 July when a typhoon passed through, indicating that a considerable mixing ratio of hydroperoxides, particularly MHP, resided above the boundary layer, which might be transported on a regional scale and further influence the redistribution of HOx and ROx radicals. It was found that hydroperoxides, in particular H2O2, play an important role in the formation of secondary sulfate in the aerosol phase, where the heterogeneous reaction might contribute substantially. A negative correlation between hydroperoxides and water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC), a considerable fraction of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA), was observed, possibly providing field evidence for the importance of hydroperoxides in the formation of SOA found in previous laboratory studies. We suggest that hydroperoxides act as an important link between sulfate and organic aerosols, which needs further study and should be considered in current atmospheric models.

  11. Formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattice in UMo metal fuels: Phase-field modeling investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang, E-mail: shenyang.hu@pnnl.gov; Burkes, Douglas E.; Lavender, Curt A.; Senor, David J.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Xu, Zhijie

    2016-10-15

    Nano-gas bubble superlattices are often observed in irradiated UMo nuclear fuels. However, the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices is not well understood. A number of physical processes may affect the gas bubble nucleation and growth; hence, the morphology of gas bubble microstructures including size and spatial distributions. In this work, a phase-field model integrating a first-passage Monte Carlo method to investigate the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices was developed. Six physical processes are taken into account in the model: 1) heterogeneous generation of gas atoms, vacancies, and interstitials informed from atomistic simulations; 2) one-dimensional (1-D) migration of interstitials; 3) irradiation-induced dissolution of gas atoms; 4) recombination between vacancies and interstitials; 5) elastic interaction; and 6) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles. We found that the elastic interaction doesn’t cause the gas bubble alignment, and fast 1-D migration of interstitials along 〈110〉 directions in the body-centered cubic U matrix causes the gas bubble alignment along 〈110〉 directions. It implies that 1-D interstitial migration along [110] direction should be the primary mechanism of a fcc gas bubble superlattice which is observed in bcc UMo alloys. Simulations also show that fission rates, saturated gas concentration, and elastic interaction all affect the morphology of gas bubble microstructures.

  12. Local anticorrelation between star formation rate and gas-phase metallicity in disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Caon, N.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M.; Cerviño, M.

    2018-06-01

    Using a representative sample of 14 star-forming dwarf galaxies in the local Universe, we show the existence of a spaxel-to-spaxel anticorrelation between the index N2 ≡ log ([N II]λ 6583/H α ) and the H α flux. These two quantities are commonly employed as proxies for gas-phase metallicity and star formation rate (SFR), respectively. Thus, the observed N2 to H α relation may reflect the existence of an anticorrelation between the metallicity of the gas forming stars and the SFR it induces. Such an anticorrelation is to be expected if variable external metal-poor gas fuels the star-formation process. Alternatively, it can result from the contamination of the star-forming gas by stellar winds and SNe, provided that intense outflows drive most of the metals out of the star-forming regions. We also explore the possibility that the observed anticorrelation is due to variations in the physical conditions of the emitting gas, other than metallicity. Using alternative methods to compute metallicity, as well as previous observations of H II regions and photoionization models, we conclude that this possibility is unlikely. The radial gradient of metallicity characterizing disc galaxies does not produce the correlation either.

  13. Analytical model of chemical phase and formation of DSB in chromosomes by ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilla, Jiří; Lokajíček, Miloš; Pisaková, Hana; Simr, Pavel

    2013-03-01

    Mathematical analytical model of the processes running in individual radical clusters during the chemical phase (under the presence of radiomodifiers) proposed by us earlier has been further developed and improved. It has been applied to the data presented by Blok and Loman characterizing the oxygen effect in SSB and DSB formation (in water solution and at low-LET radiation) also in the region of very small oxygen concentrations, which cannot be studied with the help of experiments done with living cells. In this new analysis the values of all reaction rates and diffusion parameters known from literature have been made use of. The great increase of SSB and DSB at zero oxygen concentration may follow from the fact that at small oxygen concentrations the oxygen absorbs other radicals while at higher concentrations the formation of oxygen radicals prevails. It explains the double oxygen effect found already earlier by Ewing. The model may be easily extended to include also the effects of other radiomodifiers present in medium during irradiation.

  14. Analytical model of chemical phase and formation of DSB in chromosomes by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barilla, Jiři; Simr, Pavel; Lokajíček, Miloš; Pisaková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical analytical model of the processes running in individual radical clusters during the chemical phase (under the presence of radiomodifiers) proposed by us earlier has been further developed and improved. It has been applied to the data presented by Blok and Loman characterizing the oxygen effect in SSB and DSB formation (in water solution and at low-LET radiation) also in the region of very small oxygen concentrations, which cannot be studied with the help of experiments done with living cells. In this new analysis the values of all reaction rates and diffusion parameters known from literature have been made use of. The great increase of SSB and DSB at zero oxygen concentration may follow from the fact that at small oxygen concentrations the oxygen absorbs other radicals while at higher concentrations the formation of oxygen radicals prevails. It explains the double oxygen effect found already earlier by Ewing. The model may be easily extended to include also the effects of other radiomodifiers present in medium during irradiation.

  15. Interfacial phase formation of Al-Cu bimetal by solid-liquid casting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The solid-liquid method was used to prepare the continuous casting of copper cladding aluminium by liquid aluminum alloy and solid copper, and the interfacial phase formation of Al-Cu bimetal at different pouring temperatures (700, 750, 800 oC was investigated by means of metallograph, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS methods. The results showed that the pouring temperature of aluminum melt had an important influence on the element diffusion of Cu from the solid Cu to Al alloy melt and the reactions between Al and Cu, as well as the morphology of the Al-Cu interface. When the pouring temperature was 800 oC, there were abundant Al-Cu intermetallic compounds (IMCs near the interface. However, a lower pouring temperature (700 oC resulted in the formation of cavities which was detrimental to the bonding and mechanical properties. Under the conditions in this study, the good metallurgical bonding of Al-Cu was achieved at a pouring temperature of 750 oC.

  16. Unveiling the Role of CNTs on the Phase Formation of 1D Ferroelectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Mahajan, Amit

    2015-05-21

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to act as templates or bottom electrodes for three dimension (3D) capacitor arrays, which utilise one dimension (1D) ferroelectric nanostructures to increase memory size and density. However, growing a ferroelectric on the surface of CNTs is non-trivial. Here, we demonstrate that multi-walled (MW) CNTs decrease the time and temperature for formation of lead zirconium titanate Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) by ~100 ºC commensurate with a decrease in activation energy from 68±15 kJ/mol to 27±2 kJ/mol. As a consequence, monophasic PZT was obtained at 575 ºC for MWCNTs/PZT whereas for pure PZT traces of pyrochlore were still present at 650 ºC, where PZT phase formed due to homogeneous nucleation. The piezoelectric nature of MWCNT/PZT synthesised at 500 ºC for 1 h was proved. Although further work is required to prove the concept of 3D capacitor arrays, our result suggests that it is feasible to utilise MWCNTs as templates/electrodes for the formation of 1D PZT nano ferroelectrics.

  17. On the phase formation of sputtered hafnium oxide and oxynitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarakinos, K.; Music, D.; Mraz, S.; Baben, M. to; Jiang, K.; Nahif, F.; Braun, A.; Zilkens, C.; Schneider, J. M.; Konstantinidis, S.; Renaux, F.; Cossement, D.; Munnik, F.

    2010-01-01

    Hafnium oxynitride films are deposited from a Hf target employing direct current magnetron sputtering in an Ar-O 2 -N 2 atmosphere. It is shown that the presence of N 2 allows for the stabilization of the transition zone between the metallic and the compound sputtering mode enabling deposition of films at well defined conditions of target coverage by varying the O 2 partial pressure. Plasma analysis reveals that this experimental strategy facilitates control over the flux of the O - ions which are generated on the oxidized target surface and accelerated by the negative target potential toward the growing film. An arrangement that enables film growth without O - ion bombardment is also implemented. Moreover, stabilization of the transition sputtering zone and control of the O - ion flux without N 2 addition is achieved employing high power pu