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Sample records for secondary metabolites produced

  1. Cyanobacteria as Cell Factories to Produce Plant Secondary Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Yong; He, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria represent a promising platform for the production of plant secondary metabolites. Their capacity to express plant P450 proteins, which have essential functions in the biosynthesis of many plant secondary metabolites, makes cyanobacteria ideal for this purpose, and their photosynthetic capability allows cyanobacteria to grow with simple nutrient inputs. This review summarizes the advantages of using cyanobacteria to transgenically produce plant secondary metabolites. Some techniq...

  2. Physiological characterization of secondary metabolite producing Penicillium cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijseels, Sietske; Nielsen, Jens; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Penicillium species are important producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the immense diversity of the fungal kingdom is only scarcely represented in industrial bioprocesses and the upscaling of compound production remains a costly and labor intensive challenge. In order to facilit......Penicillium species are important producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the immense diversity of the fungal kingdom is only scarcely represented in industrial bioprocesses and the upscaling of compound production remains a costly and labor intensive challenge. In order...... to facilitate the development of novel secondary metabolite producing processes, two routes are typically explored: optimization of the native producer or transferring the enzymatic pathway into a heterologous host. Recent genome sequencing of ten Penicillium species showed the vast amount of secondary...... metabolite gene clusters present in their genomes, and makes them accessible for rational strain improvement. In this study, we aimed to characterize the potential of these ten Penicillium species as native producing cell factories by testing their growth performance and secondary metabolite production...

  3. Secondary Metabolites Produced during the Germination of Streptomyces coelicolor

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    Matouš Čihák

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spore awakening is a series of actions that starts with purely physical processes and continues via the launching of gene expression and metabolic activities, eventually achieving a vegetative phase of growth. In spore-forming microorganisms, the germination process is controlled by intra- and inter-species communication. However, in the Streptomyces clade, which is capable of developing a plethora of valuable compounds, the chemical signals produced during germination have not been systematically studied before. Our previously published data revealed that several secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes are expressed during germination. Therefore, we focus here on the secondary metabolite production during this developmental stage. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that the sesquiterpenoid antibiotic albaflavenone, the polyketide germicidin A, and chalcone are produced during germination of the model streptomycete, S. coelicolor. Interestingly, the last two compounds revealed an inhibitory effect on the germination process. The secondary metabolites originating from the early stage of microbial growth may coordinate the development of the producer (quorum sensing and/or play a role in competitive microflora repression (quorum quenching in their nature environments.

  4. The Ecological Role of Volatile and Soluble Secondary Metabolites Produced by Soil Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyc, Olaf; Song, Chunxu; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Vos, Michiel; Garbeva, Paolina

    2017-04-01

    The rich diversity of secondary metabolites produced by soil bacteria has been appreciated for over a century, and advances in chemical analysis and genome sequencing continue to greatly advance our understanding of this biochemical complexity. However, we are just at the beginning of understanding the physicochemical properties of bacterial metabolites, the factors that govern their production and ecological roles. Interspecific interactions and competitor sensing are among the main biotic factors affecting the production of bacterial secondary metabolites. Many soil bacteria produce both volatile and soluble compounds. In contrast to soluble compounds, volatile organic compounds can diffuse easily through air- and gas-filled pores in the soil and likely play an important role in long-distance microbial interactions. In this review we provide an overview of the most important soluble and volatile classes of secondary metabolites produced by soil bacteria, their ecological roles, and their possible synergistic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Ecological Role of Volatile and Soluble Secondary Metabolites Produced by Soil Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyc, O.; Song, C.; Dickschat, Jeroen; Vos, Michiel; Garbeva, P.V.

    2017-01-01

    The rich diversity of secondary metabolites produced by soil bacteria has been appreciated for over a century, and advances in chemical analysis and genome sequencing continue to greatly advance our understanding of this biochemical complexity. However, we are just at the beginning of understanding

  6. The diversity of anti-microbial secondary metabolites produced by fungal endophytes: an interdisciplinary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Walaa Kamel; Raizada, Manish N

    2013-01-01

    Endophytes are microbes that inhabit host plants without causing disease and are reported to be reservoirs of metabolites that combat microbes and other pathogens. Here we review diverse classes of secondary metabolites, focusing on anti-microbial compounds, synthesized by fungal endophytes including terpenoids, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, aliphatic compounds, polyketides, and peptides from the interdisciplinary perspectives of biochemistry, genetics, fungal biology, host plant biology, human and plant pathology. Several trends were apparent. First, host plants are often investigated for endophytes when there is prior indigenous knowledge concerning human medicinal uses (e.g., Chinese herbs). However, within their native ecosystems, and where investigated, endophytes were shown to produce compounds that target pathogens of the host plant. In a few examples, both fungal endophytes and their hosts were reported to produce the same compounds. Terpenoids and polyketides are the most purified anti-microbial secondary metabolites from endophytes, while flavonoids and lignans are rare. Examples are provided where fungal genes encoding anti-microbial compounds are clustered on chromosomes. As different genera of fungi can produce the same metabolite, genetic clustering may facilitate sharing of anti-microbial secondary metabolites between fungi. We discuss gaps in the literature and how more interdisciplinary research may lead to new opportunities to develop bio-based commercial products to combat global crop and human pathogens.

  7. Biosynthetic gene clusters for relevant secondary metabolites produced by Penicillium roqueforti in blue cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Estrada, Carlos; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2016-10-01

    Ripening of blue-veined cheeses, such as the French Bleu and Roquefort, the Italian Gorgonzola, the English Stilton, the Danish Danablu or the Spanish Cabrales, Picón Bejes-Tresviso, and Valdeón, requires the growth and enzymatic activity of the mold Penicillium roqueforti, which is responsible for the characteristic texture, blue-green spots, and aroma of these types of cheeses. This filamentous fungus is able to synthesize different secondary metabolites, including andrastins, mycophenolic acid, and several mycotoxins, such as roquefortines C and D, PR-toxin and eremofortins, isofumigaclavines A and B, and festuclavine. This review provides a detailed description of the main secondary metabolites produced by P. roqueforti in blue cheese, giving a special emphasis to roquefortine, PR-toxin and mycophenolic acid, and their biosynthetic gene clusters and pathways. The knowledge of these clusters and secondary metabolism pathways, together with the ability of P. roqueforti to produce beneficial secondary metabolites, is of interest for commercial purposes.

  8. Secondary metabolites produced by a root-inhabiting sterile fungus antagonistic towards pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinale, F; Ghisalberti, E L; Flematti, G; Marra, R; Lorito, M; Sivasithamparam, K

    2010-04-01

    A sterile red fungus (SRF) isolated from cortices of roots of both wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Gamenya) and ryegrass (Lolium rigidum cv. Wimmera) was found to protect the hosts from phytopathogens and promote plant growth. In this work, the major secondary metabolites produced by this SRF were analysed, and their antibiotic and plant-growth-promoting activities investigated. Two main compounds, veratryl alcohol (VA) and 4-(hydroxymethyl)-quinoline, were isolated from the culture filtrate of the fungus. In antifungal assays, VA inhibited the growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Pythium irregulare even at low amounts, while high concentrations (>100 microg per plug) of 4-(hydroxymethyl)-quinoline were needed. Both metabolites revealed weak inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani. Furthermore, both compounds showed a growth promotion activity on canola (Brassica napus) seedlings used as bioassays. Isolation and characterization of the main secondary metabolites from culture filtrates of a root-inhabiting sterile fungus are reported. The biological assays indicate that these secondary metabolites may have a role in both plant growth regulation and antifungal activity. This study provides a better understanding of the metabolism of a cortical fungus that may have a useful role in the biological suppression of root-infecting soil-borne plant pathogens.

  9. Rapid generation of recombinant Pseudomonas putida secondary metabolite producers using yTREX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Domröse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial secondary metabolites represent a rich source of valuable compounds with a variety of applications in medicine or agriculture. Effective exploitation of this wealth of chemicals requires the functional expression of the respective biosynthetic genes in amenable heterologous hosts. We have previously established the TREX system which facilitates the transfer, integration and expression of biosynthetic gene clusters in various bacterial hosts. Here, we describe the yTREX system, a new tool adapted for one-step yeast recombinational cloning of gene clusters. We show that with yTREX, Pseudomonas putida secondary metabolite production strains can rapidly be constructed by random targeting of chromosomal promoters by Tn5 transposition. Feasibility of this approach was corroborated by prodigiosin production after yTREX cloning, transfer and expression of the respective biosynthesis genes from Serratia marcescens. Furthermore, the applicability of the system for effective pathway rerouting by gene cluster adaptation was demonstrated using the violacein biosynthesis gene cluster from Chromobacterium violaceum, producing pathway metabolites violacein, deoxyviolacein, prodeoxyviolacein, and deoxychromoviridans. Clones producing both prodigiosin and violaceins could be readily identified among clones obtained after random chromosomal integration by their strong color-phenotype. Finally, the addition of a promoter-less reporter gene enabled facile detection also of phenazine-producing clones after transfer of the respective phenazine-1-carboxylic acid biosynthesis genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All compounds accumulated to substantial titers in the mg range. We thus corroborate here the suitability of P. putida for the biosynthesis of diverse natural products, and demonstrate that the yTREX system effectively enables the rapid generation of secondary metabolite producing bacteria by activation of heterologous gene clusters, applicable for

  10. Production of Secondary Metabolites in Extreme Environments: Food- and Airborne Wallemia spp. Produce Toxic Metabolites at Hypersaline Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jančič, Sašo; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Kocev, Dragi

    2016-01-01

    of salt or sugar. In relation to food safety, the effect of high salt and sugar concentrations on the production of secondary metabolites by this toxigenic fungus was investigated. The secondary metabolite profiles of 30 strains of the listed species were examined using general growth media, known...... to support the production of secondary metabolites, supplemented with different concentrations of NaCl, glucose and MgCl2. In more than two hundred extracts approximately one hundred different compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Although...... the genome data analysis of W. mellicola (previously W. sebi sensu lato) and W. ichthyophaga revealed a low number of secondary metabolites clusters, a substantial number of secondary metabolites were detected at different conditions. Machine learning analysis of the obtained dataset showed that NaCl has...

  11. Production of Secondary Metabolites in Extreme Environments: Food- and Airborne Wallemia spp. Produce Toxic Metabolites at Hypersaline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančič, Sašo; Frisvad, Jens C; Kocev, Dragi; Gostinčar, Cene; Džeroski, Sašo; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The food- and airborne fungal genus Wallemia comprises seven xerophilic and halophilic species: W. sebi, W. mellicola, W. canadensis, W. tropicalis, W. muriae, W. hederae and W. ichthyophaga. All listed species are adapted to low water activity and can contaminate food preserved with high amounts of salt or sugar. In relation to food safety, the effect of high salt and sugar concentrations on the production of secondary metabolites by this toxigenic fungus was investigated. The secondary metabolite profiles of 30 strains of the listed species were examined using general growth media, known to support the production of secondary metabolites, supplemented with different concentrations of NaCl, glucose and MgCl2. In more than two hundred extracts approximately one hundred different compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Although the genome data analysis of W. mellicola (previously W. sebi sensu lato) and W. ichthyophaga revealed a low number of secondary metabolites clusters, a substantial number of secondary metabolites were detected at different conditions. Machine learning analysis of the obtained dataset showed that NaCl has higher influence on the production of secondary metabolites than other tested solutes. Mass spectrometric analysis of selected extracts revealed that NaCl in the medium affects the production of some compounds with substantial biological activities (wallimidione, walleminol, walleminone, UCA 1064-A and UCA 1064-B). In particular an increase in NaCl concentration from 5% to 15% in the growth media increased the production of the toxic metabolites wallimidione, walleminol and walleminone.

  12. The Diversity of Anti-Microbial Secondary Metabolites Produced by Fungal Endophytes: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mousa, Walaa Kamel; Raizada, Manish N.

    2013-01-01

    Endophytes are microbes that inhabit host plants without causing disease and are reported to be reservoirs of metabolites that combat microbes and other pathogens. Here we review diverse classes of secondary metabolites, focusing on anti-microbial compounds, synthesized by fungal endophytes including terpenoids, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, aliphatic compounds, polyketides, and peptides from the interdisciplinary perspectives of biochemistry, genetics, fungal biology, host plant biology, huma...

  13. antiSMASH 2.0-a versatile platform for genome mining of secondary metabolite producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blin, Kai; Medema, Marnix H.; Kazempour, Daniyal; Fischbach, Michael A.; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko; Weber, Tilmann

    Microbial secondary metabolites are a potent source of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals. Genome mining of their biosynthetic gene clusters has become a key method to accelerate their identification and characterization. In 2011, we developed antiSMASH, a web-based analysis platform that

  14. Erinacine C: A novel approach to produce the secondary metabolite by submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Niklas; Schembecker, Gerhard; Merz, Juliane

    2015-12-01

    Erinacine C is a cyathane scaffold-based secondary metabolite, which is naturally produced by the filamentous fungus Hericium erinaceus and has a high potential to treat nervous diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The investigated approach consists of combining an optimised precultivation of H. erinaceus with an enhanced erinacine C production by developing a suitable main cultivation medium enabling the utilisation of high biomass contents. The final erinacine C production medium is buffered by 100 mM HEPES to ensure a stable pH value of 7.5 during main cultivation at inoculation ratios of up to 5:10 (v/v). The medium components, such as 5.0 g L(-1) oatmeal, 1.5 g L(-1) calcium carbonate, and 0.5 g L(-1) Edamin(®) K are crucial for an increased erinacine C production. Besides, different carbon to nitrogen ratios of 25, 64, and 103 do not affect the erinacine C synthesis. The investigated approach enables the production of 2.73 g erinacine C per litre main cultivation broth, which is tenfold higher than published data. In addition, erinacine C biosynthesis is determined to occur mainly in the first six days of main cultivation. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molluscan biological and chemical diversity: secondary metabolites and medicinal resources produced by marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2010-11-01

    The phylum Mollusca represents an enormous diversity of species with eight distinct classes. This review provides a taxonomic breakdown of the published research on marine molluscan natural products and the medicinal products currently derived from molluscs, in order to identify priority targets and strategies for future research. Some marine gastropods and bivalves have been of great interest to natural products chemists, yielding a diversity of chemical classes and several drug leads currently in clinical trials. Molluscs also feature prominently in a broad range of traditional natural medicines, although the active ingredients in the taxa involved are typically unknown. Overall secondary metabolites have only been investigated from a tiny proportion (molluscs. Conversely, most molluscan medicines are derived from shelled gastropods and bivalves. The complete disregard for several minor classes of molluscs is unjustified based on their evolutionary history and unique life styles, which may have led to novel pathways for secondary metabolism. The Polyplacophora, in particular, have been identified as worthy of future investigation given their use in traditional South African medicines and their abundance in littoral ecosystems. As bioactive compounds are not always constitutively expressed in molluscs, future research should be targeted towards biosynthetic organs and inducible defence reactions for specific medicinal applications. Given the lack of an acquired immune system, the use of bioactive secondary metabolites is likely to be ubiquitous throughout the Mollusca and broadening the search field may uncover interesting novel chemistry. © 2010 The Author. Biological Reviews © 2010 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  16. Secondary metabolites from Ganoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushrooms. This review deals with secondary metabolites isolated from Ganoderma and their biological significance. Phytochemical studies over the last 40years led to the isolation of 431 secondary metabolites from various Ganoderma species. The major secondary compounds isolated are (a) C30 lanostanes (ganoderic acids), (b) C30 lanostanes (aldehydes, alcohols, esters, glycosides, lactones, ketones), (c) C27 lanostanes (lucidenic acids), (d) C27 lanostanes (alcohols, lactones, esters), (e) C24, C25 lanostanes (f) C30 pentacyclic triterpenes, (g) meroterpenoids, (h) farnesyl hydroquinones (meroterpenoids), (i) C15 sesquiterpenoids, (j) steroids, (k) alkaloids, (l) prenyl hydroquinone (m) benzofurans, (n) benzopyran-4-one derivatives and (o) benzenoid derivatives. Ganoderma lucidum is the species extensively studied for its secondary metabolites and biological activities. Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma colossum, Ganoderma sinense, Ganoderma cochlear, Ganoderma tsugae, Ganoderma amboinense, Ganoderma orbiforme, Ganoderma resinaceum, Ganoderma hainanense, Ganoderma concinna, Ganoderma pfeifferi, Ganoderma neo-japonicum, Ganoderma tropicum, Ganoderma australe, Ganoderma carnosum, Ganoderma fornicatum, Ganoderma lipsiense (synonym G. applanatum), Ganoderma mastoporum, Ganoderma theaecolum, Ganoderma boninense, Ganoderma capense and Ganoderma annulare are the other Ganoderma species subjected to phytochemical studies. Further phytochemical studies on Ganoderma could lead to the discovery of hitherto unknown biologically active secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952, the producer of anticancer anthracyclines and diverse secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Dipesh; Lim, Si-Kyu; Kim, Dae Hee; Kim, Byung-Gee; Yamaguchi, Tokutaro; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2018-02-10

    Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 is a filamentous soil bacterium with potential to produce anthracyclines such as doxorubicin (DXR) and daunorubicin (DNR), which are potent chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer. Here we present the complete genome sequence of S. peucetius ATCC 27952, which consists of 8,023,114 bp with a linear chromosome, 7187 protein-coding genes, 18 rRNA operons and 66 tRNAs. Bioinformatic analysis of the genome sequence revealed ∼68 putative gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including diverse classes of natural products. Diverse secondary metabolites of PKS (polyketide synthase) type II (doxorubicin and daunorubicin), NRPS (non-ribosomal peptide synthase) (T1-pks), terpene (hopene) etc. have already been reported for this strain. In addition, in silico analysis suggests the potential to produce diverse compound classes such as lantipeptides, lassopeptides, NRPS and polyketides. Furthermore, many catalytically-efficient enzymes involved in hydroxylation, methylation etc. have been characterized in this strain. The availability of genomic information provides valuable insight for devising rational strategies for the production and isolation of diverse bioactive compounds as well as for the industrial application of efficient enzymes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Secondary metabolites produced by marine streptomyces as antibiofilm and quorum-sensing inhibitor of uropathogen Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Khansa Mohammed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2016-03-01

    Quorum-sensing regulates bacterial biofilm formation and virulence factors, thereby making it an interesting target for attenuating pathogens. In this study, we investigated anti-biofilm and anti-quorum-sensing compounds from secondary metabolites of halophiles marine streptomyces against urinary catheter biofilm forming Proteus mirabilis without effect on growth viability. A total of 40 actinomycetes were isolated from samples collected from different places in Iraq including marine sediments and soil samples. Fifteen isolates identified as streptomyces and their supernatant screened as anti-quorum-sensing by inhibiting quorum-sensing regulated prodigiosin biosynthesis of Serratia marcescens strain Smj-11 as a reporter strain. Isolate Sediment Lake Iraq (sdLi) showed potential anti-quorum-sensing activity. Out of 35 clinical isolates obtained from Urinary catheter used by patient at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, 22 isolates were characterized and identified as Proteus mirabilis. Isolate Urinary Catheter B4 (UCB4) showed the highest biofilm formation with highest resistance to used antibiotic and was chosen for further studies. Ethyl acetate secondary metabolites extract was produced from sdLi isolate. First, we determined the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of sdLi crude extract against UCB4 isolate, and all further experiments used concentrations below the MIC. Tests of subinhibitory concentrations of sdLi crude extract showed good inhibition against UCB4 isolate biofilm formation on urinary catheter and cover glass using Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy respectively. The influence of sub-MIC of sdLi crude extract was also found to attenuate the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent factors such as hemolysin activity, urease activity, pH value, and motility of UCB4 isolate. Evidence is presented that these nontoxic secondary metabolites may act as antagonists of bacterial quorum sensing by competing with quorum-sensing signals

  19. Protozoan growth rates on secondary-metabolite-producing Pseudomonas spp. correlate with high-level protozoan taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette L.; Winding, Anne; Altenburger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Different features can protect bacteria against protozoan grazing, for example large size, rapid movement, and production of secondary metabolites. Most papers dealing with these matters focus on bacteria. Here, we describe protozoan features that affect their ability to grow on secondary-metabol...

  20. Activity and characterization of secondary metabolites produced by a new microorganism for control of plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Hsiung; Tsou, Yi-Jung; Lin, Mei-Ju; Chern, Lih-Ling

    2010-09-30

    Microorganisms capable of utilizing vegetable tissues for growth in soils were isolated and their vegetable broth cultures were individually sprayed directly on leaves to test their ability to control Phytophthora blight of bell pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici. Liquid culture of Streptomyces strain TKA-5, a previously undescribed species obtained in this study, displayed several desirable disease control characteristics in nature, including high potency, long lasting and ability to control also black leaf spot of spoon cabbage caused by Alternaria brassicicolca. The extract was fungicidal to P. capsici but fungistatic to A. brassicicola. It was stable at high temperature and high pH. However, after exposure to pH 2 for 24h, the extract was no longer inhibitory to P. capsici although it was still strongly inhibitory to A. brassicicola. After treatment with cation or anion exchange resins, the extract lost its inhibitory effect against P. capsici but not A. brassicicola. The results suggest that the extract contained two different kinds of inhibitory metabolites, one against P. capsici with both positive and negative charges on its molecule and another against A. brassicicola with no charges on its molecule. The inhibitory metabolites were soluble in ethanol or methanol but not in water, ether or chloroform. They were dialyzable in the membrane tubing with molecular weight cut-off of 10,000, 1000 or 500 but not 100, indicating that the inhibitors have a molecular weight between 500 and 100. Results also showed that both inhibitors are not proteins. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Potentially harmful secondary metabolites produced by indoor Chaetomium species on artificially and naturally contaminated building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosen, Ina; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Clausen, Geo

    2017-01-01

    The presence of the fungal genus Chaetomium and its secondary metabolites in indoor environments is suspected to have a negative impact on human health and wellbeing. About 200 metabolites have been currently described from Chaetomium spp., but only the bioactive compound group, chaetoglobosins......, have been screened for, and thus detected in buildings. In this study, we used a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry approach to screen both artificially and naturally infected building materials for all the Chaetomium metabolites described in the literature. Pure agar cultures were...

  2. Assessing the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of secondary metabolites produced by several fungal biological control agents with the Ames assay and the VITOTOX(®) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvelis, Vassili N; Wang, Chengshu; Skrobek, Anke; Pappas, Katherine M; Typas, Milton A; Butt, Tariq M

    2011-05-18

    The potential genotoxic effects of several pure secondary metabolites produced by fungi used as biological control agents (BCAs) were studied with the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay and the Vitotox test, with and without metabolic activation. A complete set of Salmonella tester strains was used to avoid false negative results. To detect possible mutagenic and/or cytotoxic effects of fungal secondary metabolites due to synergistic action, crude extracts and fungal cell extracts of the BCAs were also examined. Although the sensitivity of the methods varied depending on the metabolite used, clearly no genotoxicity was observed in all cases. The results of the two assays are discussed in the light of being used in a complementary fashion for a convincing risk-assessment evaluation of fungal BCAs and their secondary metabolites. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phaeophleospora vochysiae Savi & Glienke sp. nov. Isolated from Vochysia divergens Found in the Pantanal, Brazil, Produces Bioactive Secondary Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Daiani C; Shaaban, Khaled A; Gos, Francielly Maria Wilke Ramos; Ponomareva, Larissa V; Thorson, Jon S; Glienke, Chirlei; Rohr, Jürgen

    2018-02-15

    Microorganisms associated with plants are highly diverse and can produce a large number of secondary metabolites, with antimicrobial, anti-parasitic and cytotoxic activities. We are particularly interested in exploring endophytes from medicinal plants found in the Pantanal, a unique and widely unexplored wetland in Brazil. In a bio-prospecting study, strains LGMF1213 and LGMF1215 were isolated as endophytes from Vochysia divergens, and by morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses were characterized as Phaeophleospora vochysiae sp. nov. The chemical assessment of this species reveals three major compounds with high biological activity, cercoscosporin (1), isocercosporin (2) and the new compound 3-(sec-butyl)-6-ethyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methylcyclohex-2-enone (3). Besides the isolation of P. vochysiae as endophyte, the production of cercosporin compounds suggest that under specific conditions this species causes leaf spots, and may turn into a pathogen, since leaf spots are commonly caused by species of Cercospora that produce related compounds. In addition, the new compound 3-(sec-butyl)-6-ethyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methylcyclohex-2-enone showed considerable antimicrobial activity and low cytotoxicity, which needs further exploration.

  4. Biocontrol of Bacterial Leaf Blight of Rice and Profiling of Secondary Metabolites Produced by Rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa BRp3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Sumera; Hafeez, Fauzia Y.; Mirza, Muhammad S.; Rasul, Maria; Arshad, Hafiz M. I.; Zubair, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar

    2017-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is widely prevalent and causes Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) in Basmati rice grown in different areas of Pakistan. There is a need to use environmentally safe approaches to overcome the loss of grain yield in rice due to this disease. The present study aimed to develop inocula, based on native antagonistic bacteria for biocontrol of BLB and to increase the yield of Super Basmati rice variety. Out of 512 bacteria isolated from the rice rhizosphere and screened for plant growth promoting determinants, the isolate BRp3 was found to be the best as it solubilized 97 μg/ mL phosphorus, produced 30 μg/mL phytohormone indole acetic acid and 15 mg/ L siderophores in vitro. The isolate BRp3 was found to be a Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing (accession no. HQ840693). This bacterium showed antagonism in vitro against different phytopathogens including Xoo and Fusarium spp. Strain BRp3 showed consistent pathogen suppression of different strains of BLB pathogen in rice. Mass spectrometric analysis detected the production of siderophores (1-hydroxy-phenazine, pyocyanin, and pyochellin), rhamnolipids and a series of already characterized 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs) as well as novel 2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-alkylquinolines and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxy-2-alkylquinolines in crude extract of BRp3. These secondary metabolites might be responsible for the profound antibacterial activity of BRp3 against Xoo pathogen. Another contributing factor toward the suppression of the pathogen was the induction of defense related enzymes in the rice plant by the inoculated strain BRp3. When used as an inoculant in a field trial, this strain enhanced the grain and straw yields by 51 and 55%, respectively, over non-inoculated control. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) used in combination with immunofluorescence marker confirmed P. aeruginosa BRp3 in the rice rhizosphere under sterilized as well as field conditions. The results provide

  5. Biocontrol of Bacterial Leaf Blight of Rice and Profiling of Secondary Metabolites Produced by Rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa BRp3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumera Yasmin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo is widely prevalent and causes Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB in Basmati rice grown in different areas of Pakistan. There is a need to use environmentally safe approaches to overcome the loss of grain yield in rice due to this disease. The present study aimed to develop inocula, based on native antagonistic bacteria for biocontrol of BLB and to increase the yield of Super Basmati rice variety. Out of 512 bacteria isolated from the rice rhizosphere and screened for plant growth promoting determinants, the isolate BRp3 was found to be the best as it solubilized 97 μg/ mL phosphorus, produced 30 μg/mL phytohormone indole acetic acid and 15 mg/ L siderophores in vitro. The isolate BRp3 was found to be a Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing (accession no. HQ840693. This bacterium showed antagonism in vitro against different phytopathogens including Xoo and Fusarium spp. Strain BRp3 showed consistent pathogen suppression of different strains of BLB pathogen in rice. Mass spectrometric analysis detected the production of siderophores (1-hydroxy-phenazine, pyocyanin, and pyochellin, rhamnolipids and a series of already characterized 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs as well as novel 2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-alkylquinolines and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxy-2-alkylquinolines in crude extract of BRp3. These secondary metabolites might be responsible for the profound antibacterial activity of BRp3 against Xoo pathogen. Another contributing factor toward the suppression of the pathogen was the induction of defense related enzymes in the rice plant by the inoculated strain BRp3. When used as an inoculant in a field trial, this strain enhanced the grain and straw yields by 51 and 55%, respectively, over non-inoculated control. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM used in combination with immunofluorescence marker confirmed P. aeruginosa BRp3 in the rice rhizosphere under sterilized as well as field conditions. The

  6. The secondary metabolite bioinformatics portal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Tilmann; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2016-01-01

    . In this context, this review gives a summary of tools and databases that currently are available to mine, identify and characterize natural product biosynthesis pathways and their producers based on ‘omics data. A web portal called Secondary Metabolite Bioinformatics Portal (SMBP at http......://www.secondarymetabolites.org) is introduced to provide a one-stop catalog and links to these bioinformatics resources. In addition, an outlook is presented how the existing tools and those to be developed will influence synthetic biology approaches in the natural products field....

  7. Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites Produced in vitro by Penicillium paneum Frisvad and Penicillium roqueforti Thom Isolated from Baled Grass Silage in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Brien, Martin; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; O'Kiely, Padraig

    2006-01-01

    Secondary metabolites produced by Penicillium paneum and Penicillium roqueforti from baled grass silage were analyzed. A total of 157 isolates were investigated, comprising 78 P. paneum and 79 P. roqueforti isolates randomly selected from more than 900 colonies cultured from bales. The findings...

  8. Functions of secondary metabolites of lichens

    OpenAIRE

    Zvěřinová, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is a review of available literature about lichen secondary metabolites and their functions. Lichens produce a great variety of these compounds; most of them are unique to the lichen symbiosis and are not found in higher plants. Besides the role of these compounds in chemotaxonomy and systematics, lichen secondary metabolites exhibit various biological functions and can affect biotic and abiotic interactions of lichens with their environment. Well-known and often described...

  9. Secondary metabolites from bromeliaceae family

    OpenAIRE

    Manetti, Liliana Maria; Delaporte, Rosemeres Horwat; Laverde Jr., Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This review describes aspects of the Bromeliaceae family dealing the traditional applications, biological activities and distribution of secondary metabolites in distinct subfamilies. Some species are used with medicinal purposed in the treatment of respiratory, diabetes or inflammation diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders. Special emphasis on cycloartane triterpenoids and flavonoids, typical metabolites of this family, are presented. Bromeliaceae is unique amongst the monocotyledons in t...

  10. Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites from the Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Gerald F; Gloer, James B

    2016-11-01

    Many Fungi have a well-developed secondary metabolism. The diversity of fungal species and the diversification of biosynthetic gene clusters underscores a nearly limitless potential for metabolic variation and an untapped resource for drug discovery and synthetic biology. Much of the ecological success of the filamentous fungi in colonizing the planet is owed to their ability to deploy their secondary metabolites in concert with their penetrative and absorptive mode of life. Fungal secondary metabolites exhibit biological activities that have been developed into life-saving medicines and agrochemicals. Toxic metabolites, known as mycotoxins, contaminate human and livestock food and indoor environments. Secondary metabolites are determinants of fungal diseases of humans, animals, and plants. Secondary metabolites exhibit a staggering variation in chemical structures and biological activities, yet their biosynthetic pathways share a number of key characteristics. The genes encoding cooperative steps of a biosynthetic pathway tend to be located contiguously on the chromosome in coregulated gene clusters. Advances in genome sequencing, computational tools, and analytical chemistry are enabling the rapid connection of gene clusters with their metabolic products. At least three fungal drug precursors, penicillin K and V, mycophenolic acid, and pleuromutilin, have been produced by synthetic reconstruction and expression of respective gene clusters in heterologous hosts. This review summarizes general aspects of fungal secondary metabolism and recent developments in our understanding of how and why fungi make secondary metabolites, how these molecules are produced, and how their biosynthetic genes are distributed across the Fungi. The breadth of fungal secondary metabolite diversity is highlighted by recent information on the biosynthesis of important fungus-derived metabolites that have contributed to human health and agriculture and that have negatively impacted crops

  11. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    My program examines the plant secondary metabolites (i.e. phenolics) important for human health, and which impart the organoleptic properties that are quality indicators for fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions; a...

  12. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  13. Towards systems metabolic engineering of streptomycetes for secondary metabolites production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertsen, Helene Lunde; Weber, Tilmann; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2017-01-01

    Streptomycetes are known for their inherent ability to produce pharmaceutically relevant secondary metabolites. Discovery of medically useful, yet novel compounds has become a great challenge due to frequent rediscovery of known compounds and a consequent decline in the number of relevant clinical...... of streptomycetes for uncovering their hidden potential to produce novel compounds and for the improved production of secondary metabolites....

  14. Aspergillus flavus secondary metabolites: more than just aflatoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus is best known for producing the family of potent carcinogenic secondary metabolites known as aflatoxins. However, this opportunistic plant and animal pathogen also produces numerous other secondary metabolites, many of which have also been shown to be toxic. While about forty of t...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Photobacterium halotolerans S2753, Producer of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    We report here the whole draft genome sequence of marine isolate Photobacterium halotolerans S2753, which produces the known antibiotic holomycin and also ngercheumicins and solonamides A and B, which interfere with virulence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains by interacting w...

  16. Influence of abiotic stress signals on secondary metabolites in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Akula; Ravishankar, Gokare Aswathanarayana

    2011-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites are unique sources for pharmaceuticals, food additives, flavors, and industrially important biochemicals. Accumulation of such metabolites often occurs in plants subjected to stresses including various elicitors or signal molecules. Secondary metabolites play a major role in the adaptation of plants to the environment and in overcoming stress conditions. Environmental factors viz. temperature, humidity, light intensity, the supply of water, minerals, and CO2 influence the growth of a plant and secondary metabolite production. Drought, high salinity, and freezing temperatures are environmental conditions that cause adverse effects on the growth of plants and the productivity of crops. Plant cell culture technologies have been effective tools for both studying and producing plant secondary metabolites under in vitro conditions and for plant improvement. This brief review summarizes the influence of different abiotic factors include salt, drought, light, heavy metals, frost etc. on secondary metabolites in plants. The focus of the present review is the influence of abiotic factors on secondary metabolite production and some of important plant pharmaceuticals. Also, we describe the results of in vitro cultures and production of some important secondary metabolites obtained in our laboratory. PMID:22041989

  17. Biochemical and secondary metabolites changes under moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed the importance of carbohydrate and nitrogen cycle related metabolites in mediating tolerance in cassava by affecting their phenotypic expression in the plant. Keywords: Hydrothermal stress, bio-chemicals, pigments, secondary metabolites, cassava. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(31) 3173-3186 ...

  18. Coping with shrub secondary metabolites by ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands throughout the world contain varying but often substantial proportions of shrubs. Shrubs are generally heavily chemically defended, and herbivores must either contend with their plant secondary metabolites (PSM) or avoid a significant component of the available forage. Browsing ruminants ...

  19. The Membrane Gradostat Reactor: Secondary metabolite production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... immobilise microbial cells or enzymes, depending on the bioreactor's application. Operational ... perspective. Key words: Membrane bioreactor, gradostat reactor, secondary metabolite production, biofilm, wastewater treatment. INTRODUCTION ... suitable to immobilize P. chrysosporium biofilms in MGR.

  20. Secondary metabolites in bryophytes: an ecological aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chun-Feng; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2009-03-01

    Bryophytes frequently grow in an unfavorable environment as the earliest land plants, and inevitably biosynthesize secondary metabolites against biotic or abiotic stress. They not only defend against the plant competition, microbial attack, and insect or animal predation, but also function in UV protection, drought tolerance, and freezing survival. This review covers the ecological aspect of secondary metabolites in bryophytes and is taxonomically presented according to the ecological significances.

  1. Using Molecular Networking for Microbial Secondary Metabolite Bioprospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Kevin; Macintyre, Lynsey; Brennan, Debra; Hreggviðsson, Guðmundur Ó.; Kuttner, Eva; Ásgeirsdóttir, Margrét E.; Young, Louise C.; Green, David H.; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; Duncan, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    The oceans represent an understudied resource for the isolation of bacteria with the potential to produce novel secondary metabolites. In particular, actinomyces are well known to produce chemically diverse metabolites with a wide range of biological activities. This study characterised spore-forming bacteria from both Scottish and Antarctic sediments to assess the influence of isolation location on secondary metabolite production. Due to the selective isolation method used, all 85 isolates belonged to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, with the majority of isolates belonging to the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces. Based on morphology, thirty-eight isolates were chosen for chemical investigation. Molecular networking based on chemical profiles (HR-MS/MS) of fermentation extracts was used to compare complex metabolite extracts. The results revealed 40% and 42% of parent ions were produced by Antarctic and Scottish isolated bacteria, respectively, and only 8% of networked metabolites were shared between these locations, implying a high degree of biogeographic influence upon secondary metabolite production. The resulting molecular network contained over 3500 parent ions with a mass range of m/z 149–2558 illustrating the wealth of metabolites produced. Furthermore, seven fermentation extracts showed bioactivity against epithelial colon adenocarcinoma cells, demonstrating the potential for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds from these understudied locations. PMID:26761036

  2. Secondary metabolites from Eremostachys laciniata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calis, Ihsan; Güvenc, Aysegül; Armagan, Metin

    2008-01-01

    ), and forsythoside B (18), and five flavone derivatives, luteolin (19), luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (20), luteolin 7-O-(6''-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (21), apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (22), and apigenin 7-O-(6''-O-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (23). The structures of the metabolites were...... elucidated from spectroscopic (UV, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and ESI-MS evidence, as well as from their specific optical rotation. The presence of these metabolites of three different classes strongly supports the close relationship of the genera Eremostachys and Phlomis....

  3. Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Sponge Genus Phyllospongia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huawei; Dong, Menglian; Wang, Hong; Crews, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    Phyllospongia, one of the most common marine sponges in tropical and subtropical oceans, has been shown to be a prolific producer of natural products with a broad spectrum of biological activities. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of secondary metabolites produced by Phyllospongia spp. over the 37 years from 1980 to 2016.

  4. Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Sponge Genus Phyllospongia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huawei; Dong, Menglian; Wang, Hong; Crews, Phillip

    2017-01-06

    Phyllospongia , one of the most common marine sponges in tropical and subtropical oceans, has been shown to be a prolific producer of natural products with a broad spectrum of biological activities. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of secondary metabolites produced by Phyllospongia spp. over the 37 years from 1980 to 2016.

  5. Secondary metabolites in fungus-plant interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Holb, Imre J.; Pócsi, István

    2015-01-01

    Fungi and plants are rich sources of thousands of secondary metabolites. The genetically coded possibilities for secondary metabolite production, the stimuli of the production, and the special phytotoxins basically determine the microscopic fungi-host plant interactions and the pathogenic lifestyle of fungi. The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes. The review also concerns the mimicking of plant effector molecules like auxins, gibberellins and abscisic acid by fungal secondary metabolites that modulate plant growth or even can subvert the plant defense responses such as programmed cell death to gain nutrients for fungal growth and colonization. It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production. New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed. PMID:26300892

  6. Antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... The aims of this study were the analysis of the secondary metabolites and evaluation of the antibacterial and antifungal activity of Alternaria alternata. Twenty six bioactive compounds were identified in methanolic extract of Alternaria alternata. The identification of bioactive chemical compounds is based on ...

  7. Anticancer and antibacterial secondary metabolites from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The emergence of multiple-drug resistance bacteria has become a major threat and thus calls for an urgent need to search for new effective and safe anti-bacterial agents. Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the anticancer and antibacterial activities of secondary metabolites from Penicillium sp., ...

  8. Chemical composition, secondary metabolites, in vitro gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition, secondary metabolites, in vitro gas production characteristics and acceptability study of some forage for ruminant feeding in South-Western Nigeria. ... Chemical composition and qualitative analysis of saponins, phenol and steroids of the plants were determined. In vitro gas production (IVGP) was ...

  9. Antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aims of this study were the analysis of the secondary metabolites and evaluation of the antibacterial and antifungal activity of Alternaria alternata. Twenty six bioactive compounds were identified in methanolic extract of Alternaria alternata. The identification of bioactive chemical compounds is based on the peak area, ...

  10. A synthetic biological secondary metabolite, Lycogen™, produced and extracted from Rhodobacter sphaeroides WL-APD911 in an optimizatioal scale-up strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chin Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of fermentation medium is important for synthetic biological secondary metabolite productions. The effect of rotation speed, inoculum amount, and medium supplements on the cell growth and Lycogen™ secretion of photobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides WL-APD911 was evaluated. The results reveal that a higher rotational speed exhibit a higher cell density, and the increasing in the amount of inoculum amount show a slight augment on the growth of R. sphaeroides WL-APD911.In the case of nitrogen sources adding, Lycogen™ production was achieved with a 0.5 mM l-lysine supplementation. Moreover, the attention of Tween 80 presented a tremendous increase in the secondary metabolite. Response surface methodology (RSM exhibited the optimization of medium supplements for Lycogen™ invention is accomplished at molasses concentration of 10 g/L, yeast extract concentration of 40 g/L, 0.3% Tween 80 and NaCl concentration of 5 g/L, respectively. Further, the batch fermentation is carried out in both 5 L and 20 L fermentors to study the scale-up process factors to be adopted. At a 20 L fermentor, Lycogen™ yields under the optimal culture condition are over 2 times than in the shake flask. The present results provide the Lycogen™ optimal culture mediums, scale-up procedures and efficient extractions from R. sphaeroides WL-APD911. Keywords: Rhodobacter sphaeroides WL-APD911, Lycogen™, Response surface methodology (RSM, Ferementation

  11. [Systems biology applications to explore secondary metabolites in medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Luqi; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Ruiting

    2010-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are produced during the growth and development of plants along with the adaptation of outer environment, as a rule they are the main active ingredients in medicinal plants and ensure the quality of crude drugs. Since biogenesis is quite complex, the production and accumulation of secondary metabolites are influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors either from gene or environments, the complexity may affect quality control of crude drugs and utilization of the active ingredients. The thought and approach adopted in systems biology is a powerful tool to explore biology fully, along with the development of modern molecular biology and information biology, omics integration like genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics will bring new opportunities for the study of secondary metabolites of medicinal plant. It has great significance to apply this holistic and systematic method in researches on biosynthetic pathway, signal transduction, ecological environment and metabolic engineering of the formation of the secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, and in building secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene expression and regulation system model, in order to explain the origin of the active ingredients of medicinal plants, formation mechanism of the Chinese herbs, metabolic engineering effecting active ingredients of medicinal plants, and the rational exploitation and utilization of resources of medicinal plants systematically.

  12. Production of bioactive secondary metabolites by marine Vibrionaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2011-01-01

    for their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites and studies have been limited to only a few species. Most of the compounds isolated from vibrios so far are non-ribosomal peptides or hybrids thereof, with examples of N-containing compounds produced independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS...... also been isolated from other distantly related bacteria. This cosmopolitan occurrence of metabolites indicates a high incidence of horizontal gene transfer, which raises interesting questions concerning the ecological function of some of these molecules. This account underlines the pending potential...

  13. Discovering the secondary metabolite potential encoded within entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Donna M; Donzelli, Bruno G G; Krasnoff, Stuart B; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2014-10-01

    This highlight discusses the secondary metabolite potential of the insect pathogens Metarhizium and Beauveria, including a bioinformatics analysis of secondary metabolite genes for which no products are yet identified.

  14. Organic metabolites produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and action of several antibacterial metabolites produced by a fish pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3 from marine ecosystem of Goa has been demonstrated. Antibacterial activity of the crude cell extract of the test bacterium has been evaluated against indicator pathogenic bacterial strains such as ...

  15. Plants and endophytes: equal partners in secondary metabolite production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2015-07-01

    Well known plant production systems should be re-evaluated due to findings that the interesting metabolite might actually be produced by microbes intimately associated with the plant, so-called endophytes. Endophytes can be bacteria or fungi and they are characterized usually by the feature that they do not cause any harm to the host. Indeed, in some cases, such as mycorrhizal fungi or other growth promoting endophytes, they can be beneficial for the plant. Here some examples are reviewed where the host plant and/or endophyte metabolism can be induced by the other partner. Also, partial or complete biosynthesis pathways for plant secondary metabolites can be attributed to such endophytes. In other cases the host plant is able to metabolize substances from fungal origin. The question of the natural role of such metabolic changes for the endophyte will be briefly touched. Finally, the consequences for the use of plant cultures for secondary metabolite production is discussed.

  16. The use of secondary metabolite profiling in chemotaxonomy of filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    distribution throughout the fungal kingdom. However, this is the very quality that makes secondary metabolites so useful in classification and identification. Four groups of organisms are particularly good producers of secondary metabolites: plants, fungi, lichen fungi, and actinomycetes, whereas yeasts...... have been analysed for a wide array of terpenes, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, and combinations of these. Fungal chemotaxonomy based on secondary metabolites has been used successfully in large ascomycete genera such as Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Hypoxylon, Penicillium, Stachybotrys...

  17. Antimicrobial efficacy of secondary metabolites from Glomerella cingulata

    OpenAIRE

    Hara Kishore, K.; Misra, Sunil; Ramesh Chandra, D.; Prakash, K.V.V. R.; Suryanarayana Murty, U.

    2007-01-01

    Fungi are known to produce a vast array of secondary metabolites that are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. Early reports suggest that G. cingulata has the capability to transform many compounds by various enzymatic actions. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activity of crude ethyl acetate extract of G. cingulata using agar cup bioassay method. Crude extract of G. cingulata exhibited remarkable antifungal activity ag...

  18. The use of secondary metabolite profiling in chemotaxonomy of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C; Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf

    2008-02-01

    A secondary metabolite is a chemical compound produced by a limited number of fungal species in a genus, an order, or even phylum. A profile of secondary metabolites consists of all the different compounds a fungus can produce on a given substratum and includes toxins, antibiotics and other outward-directed compounds. Chemotaxonomy is traditionally restricted to comprise fatty acids, proteins, carbohydrates, or secondary metabolites, but has sometimes been defined so broadly that it also includes DNA sequences. It is not yet possible to use secondary metabolites in phylogeny, because of the inconsistent distribution throughout the fungal kingdom. However, this is the very quality that makes secondary metabolites so useful in classification and identification. Four groups of organisms are particularly good producers of secondary metabolites: plants, fungi, lichen fungi, and actinomycetes, whereas yeasts, protozoa, and animals are less efficient producers. Therefore, secondary metabolites have mostly been used in plant and fungal taxonomy, whereas chemotaxonomy has been neglected in bacteriology. Lichen chemotaxonomy has been based on few biosynthetic families (chemosyndromes), whereas filamentous fungi have been analysed for a wide array of terpenes, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, and combinations of these. Fungal chemotaxonomy based on secondary metabolites has been used successfully in large ascomycete genera such as Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Hypoxylon, Penicillium, Stachybotrys, Xylaria and in few basidiomycete genera, but not in Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota.

  19. Importance of Secondary Metabolites for Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. EKİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae are one of the most diverse families of herbivorous insects. Many of them are important agricultural pests and cause remarkable loss of crop and money as well. Plant leaves and roots are primary food source of both larva and adults of leaf beetles. Plants produce many secondary metabolites in reaction to herbivore insects. It is a well-known phenomenon that quantity and variety of secondary metabolites in plant leaves may change in response to insect attacks. Herbivore insects have to deal with such defensive secondary chemicals and overcome either by detoxifying or storing them. Accordingly, many specialist herbivores coevolved with their host plant. Certain phenolic glycosides may reduce leaf beetle feeding. Condensed tannins are anti-herbivore defenses against leaf chewing beetles, including leaf beetles. Flavonoid compounds are feeding deterrents for many flea leaf beetles. Cinnamic acid derivatives are other known feeding deterrents for leaf beetles. Secondary metabolites quantity and nutritional quality of host plants are not only important for feeding but also for providing enemy-free space and suitable oviposition sites.

  20. Ecotoxicological effects of selected cyanobacterial secondary metabolites a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, C.; Pflugmacher, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are one of the most diverse groups of gram-negative photosynthetic prokaryotes. Many of them are able to produce a wide range of toxic secondary metabolites. These cyanobacterial toxins can be classified in five different groups: hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins (lipopolysaccharides). Cyanobacterial blooms are hazardous due to this production of secondary metabolites and endotoxins, which could be toxic to animals and plants. Many of the freshwater cyanobacterial blooms include species of the toxigenic genera Microcystis, Anabaena, or Plankthotrix. These compounds differ in mechanisms of uptake, affected organs, and molecular mode of action. In this review, the main focus is the aquatic environment and the effects of these toxins to the organisms living there. Some basic toxic mechanisms will be discussed in comparison to the mammalian system

  1. Cytotoxicity of lapachol metabolites produced by probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Silva, E; Cruz de Carvalho, T; Parshikov, I A; Alves dos Santos, R; Silva Emery, F; Jacometti Cardoso Furtado, N A

    2014-07-01

    Probiotics are currently added to a variety of functional foods to provide health benefits to the host and are commonly used by patients with gastrointestinal complaints or diseases. The therapeutic effects of lapachol continue to inspire studies to obtain derivatives with improved bioactivity and lower unwanted effects. Therefore, the general goal of this study was to show that probiotics are able to convert lapachol and are important to assess the effects of bacterial metabolism on drug performance and toxicity. The microbial transformations of lapachol were carried out by Bifidobacterium sp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and different metabolites were produced in mixed and isolated cultures. The cytotoxic activities against breast cancer and normal fibroblast cell lines of the isolated metabolites (4α-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-5-oxo-2,3,4,4α,5,9β-hexahydroindeno[1,2-β]pyran-9β-carboxilic acid, a new metabolite produced by mixed culture and dehydro-α-lapachone produced by isolated cultures) were assessed and compared with those of lapachol. The new metabolite displayed a lower activity against a breast cancer cell line (IC50 = 532.7 μmol l(-1) ) than lapachol (IC50 = 72.3 μmol l(-1) ), while dehydro-α-lapachone (IC50 = 10.4 μmol l(-1) ) displayed a higher activity than lapachol. The present study is the first to demonstrate that probiotics are capable of converting lapachol into the most effective cytotoxic compound against a breast cancer cell line. Probiotics have been used in dairy products to promote human health and have the ability to metabolize drugs and other xenobiotics. Naphthoquinones, such as lapachol, are considered privileged scaffolds due to their high propensity to interact with biological targets. The present study is the first to demonstrate that probiotics are capable of converting lapachol into the most effective cytotoxic compound against a breast cancer cell line. The developed approach highlights the importance of probiotics to assess

  2. Biopotential of secondary metabolites isolated from marine sponge Dendrilla nigra

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Bhimba B; V Vinod; M Cindhu Beulah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biopotential activity of secondary metabolites from marine sponge Dendrilla nigra (D. nigra) collected from the Gulf of Mannar. Objective: Soxhlet extraction method was used to extract the secondary metabolites and various assays were carried out. Results: D. nigra showed potent antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities and it was also subjected for brine shrimp lethality and cytotoxicity assays. The secondary metabolites...

  3. The secondary metabolite bioinformatics portal: Computational tools to facilitate synthetic biology of secondary metabolite production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilmann Weber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are among the most important sources of lead molecules for drug discovery. With the development of affordable whole-genome sequencing technologies and other ‘omics tools, the field of natural products research is currently undergoing a shift in paradigms. While, for decades, mainly analytical and chemical methods gave access to this group of compounds, nowadays genomics-based methods offer complementary approaches to find, identify and characterize such molecules. This paradigm shift also resulted in a high demand for computational tools to assist researchers in their daily work. In this context, this review gives a summary of tools and databases that currently are available to mine, identify and characterize natural product biosynthesis pathways and their producers based on ‘omics data. A web portal called Secondary Metabolite Bioinformatics Portal (SMBP at http://www.secondarymetabolites.org is introduced to provide a one-stop catalog and links to these bioinformatics resources. In addition, an outlook is presented how the existing tools and those to be developed will influence synthetic biology approaches in the natural products field.

  4. Secondary metabolites: applications on cultural heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, S; Scrano, L; Bonomo, M G; Salzano, G; Bufo, S A

    2013-01-01

    Biological sciences and related bio-technology play a very important role in research projects concerning protection and preservation of cultural heritage for future generations. In this work secondary metabolites of Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola (Bga) ICMP 11096 strain and crude extract of glycoalkaloids from Solanaceae plants, were tested against a panel of microorganisms isolated from calcarenite stones of two historical bridges located in Potenza and in Campomaggiore (Southern Italy). The isolated bacteria belong to Bacillus cereus and Arthrobacter agilis species, while fungi belong to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Coprinellus, Fusarium, Rhizoctonio and Stemphylium genera. Bga broth (unfiltered) and glycoalkaloids extracts were able to inhibit the growth of all bacterial isolates. Bga culture was active against fungal colonies, while Solanaceae extract exerted bio-activity against Fusarium and Rhizoctonia genera.

  5. Atranorin - An Interesting Lichen Secondary Metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzinska-Sroka, Elzbieta; Galanty, Agnieszka; Bylka, Wieslawa

    2017-01-01

    Atranorin, a compound with the depside structure, is one of the most common lichen secondary metabolites, characteristic for numerous lichen families but rarely found in some mosses and higher plants. Over the years various biological properties of atranorin were examined. This review summarizes the studies on atranorin, focusing on a number of biological activities in different fields. The literature describes anti-inflammatory, analgesic, as well as wound healing, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antiviral, and immunomodulatory activities of the depside. Furthermore, lack of toxicity of atranorin was confirmed in the animals' in vivo assays. In conclusion, atranorin seems to be an interesting lichen substance, which needs to be investigated in more detail in order to allow further applications, e.g. in pharmacy, medicine or cosmetology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Secondary metabolites in grasses: characterization and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Tava

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In a series of studies dealing on the nutritional value of forage species, more attention was focussed on several compounds, named secondary metabolites, that are important in determining nutritional characteristics. Secondary metabolites are compounds detected in the green materials in low concentration compared to primary metabolites (proteins, sugars, lipids, fibers, but of fundamental importance for the plant physiology. The possess several biological activities and this contribute to their possible pharmacological use. In the present paper studies on secondary metabolites from herbaceous plants are reviewed. Indications of the chemical methods used for their analyses, their presence in the green material and their biological activity are also reported.

  7. Secondary metabolites in grasses: characterization and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Tava

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In a series of studies dealing on the nutritional value of forage species, more attention was focussed on several compounds, named secondary metabolites, that are important in determining nutritional characteristics. Secondary metabolites are compounds detected in the green materials in low concentration compared to primary metabolites (proteins, sugars, lipids, fibers, but of fundamental importance for the plant physiology. The possess several biological activities and this contribute to their possible pharmacological use. In the present paper studies on secondary metabolites from herbaceous plants are reviewed. Indications of the chemical methods used for their analyses, their presence in the green material and their biological activity are also reported.

  8. An update on organohalogen metabolites produced by basidiomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.; Wijnberg, J.B.P.A.

    2003-01-01

    Basidiomycetes are an ecologically important group of higher fungi known for their widespread capacity to produce organohalogen metabolites. To date, 100 different organohalogen metabolites (mostly chlorinated) have been identified from strains in 70 genera of Basidiomycetes. This manuscript

  9. Secondary metabolites in grasses: characterization and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Tava

    2007-01-01

    In a series of studies dealing on the nutritional value of forage species, more attention was focussed on several compounds, named secondary metabolites, that are important in determining nutritional characteristics. Secondary metabolites are compounds detected in the green materials in low concentration compared to primary metabolites (proteins, sugars, lipids, fibers), but of fundamental importance for the plant physiology. The possess several biological activities and this contribute to th...

  10. Toward Systems Metabolic Engineering of Streptomycetes for Secondary Metabolites Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertsen, Helene Lunde; Weber, Tilmann; Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Sang Yup

    2018-01-01

    Streptomycetes are known for their inherent ability to produce pharmaceutically relevant secondary metabolites. Discovery of medically useful, yet novel compounds has become a great challenge due to frequent rediscovery of known compounds and a consequent decline in the number of relevant clinical trials in the last decades. A paradigm shift took place when the first whole genome sequences of streptomycetes became available, from which silent or "cryptic" biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) were discovered. Cryptic BGCs reveal a so far untapped potential of the microorganisms for the production of novel compounds, which has spurred new efforts in understanding the complex regulation between primary and secondary metabolism. This new trend has been accompanied with development of new computational resources (genome and compound mining tools), generation of various high-quality omics data, establishment of molecular tools, and other strain engineering strategies. They all come together to enable systems metabolic engineering of streptomycetes, allowing more systematic and efficient strain development. In this review, the authors present recent progresses within systems metabolic engineering of streptomycetes for uncovering their hidden potential to produce novel compounds and for the improved production of secondary metabolites. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Metabolomic Tools for Secondary Metabolite Discovery from Marine Microbial Symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Lynsey; Zhang, Tong; Viegelmann, Christina; Juarez Martinez, Ignacio; Cheng, Cheng; Dowdells, Catherine; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Gernert, Christine; Hentschel, Ute; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2014-01-01

    Marine invertebrate-associated symbiotic bacteria produce a plethora of novel secondary metabolites which may be structurally unique with interesting pharmacological properties. Selection of strains usually relies on literature searching, genetic screening and bioactivity results, often without considering the chemical novelty and abundance of secondary metabolites being produced by the microorganism until the time-consuming bioassay-guided isolation stages. To fast track the selection process, metabolomic tools were used to aid strain selection by investigating differences in the chemical profiles of 77 bacterial extracts isolated from cold water marine invertebrates from Orkney, Scotland using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Following mass spectrometric analysis and dereplication using an Excel macro developed in-house, principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to differentiate the bacterial strains based on their chemical profiles. NMR 1H and correlation spectroscopy (COSY) were also employed to obtain a chemical fingerprint of each bacterial strain and to confirm the presence of functional groups and spin systems. These results were then combined with taxonomic identification and bioassay screening data to identify three bacterial strains, namely Bacillus sp. 4117, Rhodococcus sp. ZS402 and Vibrio splendidus strain LGP32, to prioritize for scale-up based on their chemically interesting secondary metabolomes, established through dereplication and interesting bioactivities, determined from bioassay screening. PMID:24905482

  12. Secondary metabolite toxins and nutrition of plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Barbara J

    2006-08-01

    Fungal pathogens derive nutrition from the plants they invade. Some fungi can subvert plant defence responses such as programmed cell death to provide nutrition for their growth and colonisation. Secondary metabolite toxins produced by fungi often play a role in triggering these responses. Knowledge of the biosynthesis of these toxins, and the availability of fungal genome sequences and gene disruption techniques, allows the development of tools for experiments aimed at discovering the role of such toxins in triggering plant cell death and plant disease.

  13. Genomics-guided discovery of secondary metabolites and their regulation in Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas protegens strain Pf-5 is a well-characterized rhizosphere bacterium known for its production of a diverse spectrum of secondary metabolites and its capacity to suppress plant diseases caused by soilborne fungal, bacterial and oomycete pathogens. Metabolites produced by Pf-5 include 2,4-...

  14. Selected Secondary Plant Metabolites for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fulda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary plant metabolites reveal numerous biological activities making them attractive as resource for drug development of human diseases. As the majority of cancer drugs clinically established during the past half century is derived from nature, cancer researchers worldwide try to identify novel natural products as lead compounds for cancer therapy. Natural products are considered as promising cancer therapeutics, either as single agents or in combination protocols, to enhance the antitumor activity of additional therapeutic modalities. Most natural compounds exert pleotrophic effects and modulate various signal transduction pathways. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms of action of natural products is expected to open new perspectives in coming years for their use alone or in combination therapies in oncology. Two major strategies to identify novel drug candidates from nature are the bioactivity-guided fractionation of medicinal plant extracts to isolate cytotoxic chemicals and the identification of small molecules inhibiting specific targets in cancer cells. In the present review, we report on our own efforts to unravel the molecular modes of action of phytochemicals in cancer cells and focus on resveratrol, betulinic acid, artesunate, dicentrine and camptothecin derivatives.

  15. Secondary Metabolites from Higher Fungi: Discovery, Bioactivity, and Bioproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Xiao, Jian-Hui

    Medicinal higher fungi such as Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum have been used as an alternative medicine remedy to promote health and longevity for people in China and other regions of the world since ancient times. Nowadays there is an increasing public interest in the secondary metabolites of those higher fungi for discovering new drugs or lead compounds. Current research in drug discovery from medicinal higher fungi involves a multifaceted approach combining mycological, biochemical, pharmacological, metabolic, biosynthetic and molecular techniques. In recent years, many new secondary metabolites from higher fungi have been isolated and are more likely to provide lead compounds for new drug discovery, which may include chemopreventive agents possessing the bioactivity of immunomodulatory, anticancer, etc. However, numerous challenges of secondary metabolites from higher fungi are encountered including bioseparation, identification, biosynthetic metabolism, and screening model issues, etc. Commercial production of secondary metabolites from medicinal mushrooms is still limited mainly due to less information about secondary metabolism and its regulation. Strategies for enhancing secondary metabolite production by medicinal mushroom fermentation include two-stage cultivation combining liquid fermentation and static culture, two-stage dissolved oxygen control, etc. Purification of bioactive secondary metabolites, such as ganoderic acids from G. lucidum, is also very important to pharmacological study and future pharmaceutical application. This review outlines typical examples of the discovery, bioactivity, and bioproduction of secondary metabolites of higher fungi origin.

  16. Do metabolites that are produced during resistance exercise enhance muscle hypertrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankel, Scott J; Mattocks, Kevin T; Jessee, Matthew B; Buckner, Samuel L; Mouser, J Grant; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-11-01

    Many reviews conclude that metabolites play an important role with respect to muscle hypertrophy during resistance exercise, but their actual physiologic contribution remains unknown. Some have suggested that metabolites may work independently of muscle contraction, while others have suggested that metabolites may play a secondary role in their ability to augment muscle activation via inducing fatigue. Interestingly, the studies used as support for an anabolic role of metabolites use protocols that are not actually designed to test the importance of metabolites independent of muscle contraction. While there is some evidence in vitro that metabolites may induce muscle hypertrophy, the only study attempting to answer this question in humans found no added benefit of pooling metabolites within the muscle post-exercise. As load-induced muscle hypertrophy is thought to work via mechanotransduction (as opposed to being metabolically driven), it seems likely that metabolites simply augment muscle activation and cause the mechanotransduction cascade in a larger proportion of muscle fibers, thereby producing greater muscle growth. A sufficient time under tension also appears necessary, as measurable muscle growth is not observed after repeated maximal testing. Based on current evidence, it is our opinion that metabolites produced during resistance exercise do not have anabolic properties per se, but may be anabolic in their ability to augment muscle activation. Future studies are needed to compare protocols which produce similar levels of muscle activation, but differ in the magnitude of metabolites produced, or duration in which the exercised muscles are exposed to metabolites.

  17. Identification of Volatile Secondary Metabolites from an Endophytic Microfungus Aspergillus Nomius KUB105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lateef Adebola Azeez; Lateef Adebola Azeez; Sepiah Muid; Bolhassan Mohamad Hasnul

    2016-01-01

    Microfungi are a highly diverse group of micro-organisms and important components of the ecosystem with great potential for diverse metabolite production. During a survey of microfungi on leaves in a National Park in Sarawak, an uncommon endophytic microfungus Aspergillus nomius was encountered. The metabolite production of this microfungus was investigated by growing it in a liquid basal medium for 2 weeks. Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) profiling of the secondary metabolites produced by this microfungus in the liquid medium revealed the presence of 46 different secondary metabolites. The metabolites include saturated hydrocarbons, alkyl halides, alcohols and an unsaturated hydrocarbon. Majority of the metabolites produced were saturated hydrocarbons. Tetracosane, Icosane and 10-Methylicosane were the most abundant metabolites identified while heptadecane and 2,4-dimethylundecane were the least abundant respectively. This study is the first GC-MS and FTIR report of secondary metabolites from A. nomius. The results from this study confirm the ability of microfungi to produce diverse metabolites, including saturated hydrocarbons. (author)

  18. Biopotential of secondary metabolites isolated from marine sponge Dendrilla nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Bhimba B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the biopotential activity of secondary metabolites from marine sponge Dendrilla nigra (D. nigra collected from the Gulf of Mannar. Objective: Soxhlet extraction method was used to extract the secondary metabolites and various assays were carried out. Results: D. nigra showed potent antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities and it was also subjected for brine shrimp lethality and cytotoxicity assays. The secondary metabolites were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Conclusions: Based on the present study, it can be inferred that the bioassay guided fractionation and purification of D. nigra may come up with potent bioactive drug.

  19. Prototype of an intertwined secondary-metabolite supercluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipp Wiemann; Chun-Jun. Guo; Jonathan M. Palmer; Relebohile Sekonyela; Clay C.C. Wang; Nancy P. Keller

    2013-01-01

    The hallmark trait of fungal secondary-metabolite gene clusters is well established, consisting of contiguous enzymatic and often regulatory gene(s) devoted to the production of a metabolite of a specific chemical class. Unexpectedly, we have found a deviation from this motif in a subtelomeric region of Aspergillus fumigatus. This region, under the...

  20. Production of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites by Marine Vibrionaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Gram

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria belonging to the Vibrionaceae family are widespread in the marine environment. Today, 128 species of vibrios are known. Several of them are infamous for their pathogenicity or symbiotic relationships. Despite their ability to interact with eukaryotes, the vibrios are greatly underexplored for their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites and studies have been limited to only a few species. Most of the compounds isolated from vibrios so far are non-ribosomal peptides or hybrids thereof, with examples of N-containing compounds produced independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS. Though covering a limited chemical space, vibrios produce compounds with attractive biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, and antivirulence activities. This review highlights some of the most interesting structures from this group of bacteria. Many compounds found in vibrios have also been isolated from other distantly related bacteria. This cosmopolitan occurrence of metabolites indicates a high incidence of horizontal gene transfer, which raises interesting questions concerning the ecological function of some of these molecules. This account underlines the pending potential for exploring new bacterial sources of bioactive compounds and the challenges related to their investigation.

  1. Medicinal plants: a source of anti-parasitic secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Michael

    2012-10-31

    This review summarizes human infections caused by endoparasites, including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, which affect more than 30% of the human population, and medicinal plants of potential use in their treatment. Because vaccinations do not work in most instances and the parasites have sometimes become resistant to the available synthetic therapeutics, it is important to search for alternative sources of anti-parasitic drugs. Plants produce a high diversity of secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-parasitic and anti-microbial properties. These drugs often interfere with central targets in parasites, such as DNA (intercalation, alkylation), membrane integrity, microtubules and neuronal signal transduction. Plant extracts and isolated secondary metabolites which can inhibit protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Trichomonas and intestinal worms are discussed. The identified plants and compounds offer a chance to develop new drugs against parasitic diseases. Most of them need to be tested in more detail, especially in animal models and if successful, in clinical trials.

  2. Lichen Secondary Metabolite, Physciosporin, Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Park, So-Yeon; Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yu, Young Hyun; Nguyen, Tru Van; Sun, Eun Gene; Udeni, Jayalal; Jeong, Min-Hye; Pereira, Iris; Moon, Cheol; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2015-01-01

    Lichens produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. To screen for novel lichen secondary metabolites showing inhibitory activity against lung cancer cell motility, we tested acetone extracts of 13 lichen samples collected in Chile. Physciosporin, isolated from Pseudocyphellaria coriacea (Hook f. & Taylor) D.J. Galloway & P. James, was identified as an effective compound and showed significant inhibitory activity in migration and invasion assays against human lung cancer cells. Physciosporin treatment reduced both protein and mRNA levels of N-cadherin with concomitant decreases in the levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers such as snail and twist. Physciosporin also suppressed KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin)-mediated AP-1 activity in both the absence and presence of epidermal growth factor stimulation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of the metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, was increased while that of the metastasis enhancer gene, KITENIN, was dramatically decreased by physciosporin. Particularly, the activity of 3’-untranslated region of KITENIN was decreased by physciosporin. Moreover, Cdc42 and Rac1 activities were decreased by physciosporin. These results demonstrated that the lichen secondary metabolite, physciosporin, inhibits lung cancer cell motility through novel mechanisms of action. PMID:26371759

  3. Modes of Action of Herbal Medicines and Plant Secondary Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wink

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce a wide diversity of secondary metabolites (SM which serve them as defense compounds against herbivores, and other plants and microbes, but also as signal compounds. In general, SM exhibit a wide array of biological and pharmacological properties. Because of this, some plants or products isolated from them have been and are still used to treat infections, health disorders or diseases. This review provides evidence that many SM have a broad spectrum of bioactivities. They often interact with the main targets in cells, such as proteins, biomembranes or nucleic acids. Whereas some SM appear to have been optimized on a few molecular targets, such as alkaloids on receptors of neurotransmitters, others (such as phenolics and terpenoids are less specific and attack a multitude of proteins by building hydrogen, hydrophobic and ionic bonds, thus modulating their 3D structures and in consequence their bioactivities. The main modes of action are described for the major groups of common plant secondary metabolites. The multitarget activities of many SM can explain the medical application of complex extracts from medicinal plants for more health disorders which involve several targets. Herbal medicine is not a placebo medicine but a rational medicine, and for several of them clinical trials have shown efficacy.

  4. Secondary Metabolites Production by Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios-González, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial secondary metabolites are useful high value products with an enormous range of biological activities. Moreover, the past two decades have been a phase of rapid discovery of new activities and development of major compounds for use in different industrial fields, mainly pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, agriculture and farming. Many of these metabolites could be produced advantageously in industry by solid–state fermentation (SSF. Two types of SSF can be distinguished, depending on the nature of the solid phase used: 1 Solid cultures of one support-substrate phase in which solid phase is constituted by a material that assumes, simultaneously, the functions of support and of nutrients source; and 2 Solid cultures of two substrate-support phases: solid phase is constituted by an inert support impregnated with a liquid medium. Besides good production performance, two phases systems have provided a convenient model for basic studies. Studies in our laboratory, as well as in others, have shown that physiology of idiophase (production phase in SSF share several similarities with the physiology in liquid medium, so similar strategies must be adapted for efficient production processes. However, our studies indicate the need to develop special strains for SSF since overproducing strains, generated for liquid fermentation, cannot be relied upon to perform well in SSF. On the other hand, there are important parameters, specific for SSF, that have to be optimized (pretreatment, initial moisture content, medium concentration and aeration. Respiration studies of secondary metabolites SSF, performed in our laboratory, have shown more subtle aspects of efficient production in SSF. This indicates that there are certain particularities of physiology in SSF that represent the point that needs a better understanding, and that promise to generate knowledge that will be the basis for efficient processes development and control strategies, as well as for

  5. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. França

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under varied situation of environmental stress. This database allows researchers to identify and characterize the expressed genes of a wide range of putative enzymes able to catalyze steps in the phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and other pathways of the special metabolic mechanisms involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental changes. Our results show that sugarcane cDNAs encoded putative ultra-violet induced sesquiterpene cyclases (SC; chalcone synthase (CHS, the first enzyme in the pathway branch for flavonoid biosynthesis; isoflavone synthase (IFS, involved in plant defense and root nodulation; isoflavone reductase (IFR, a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid phytoalexin biosynthesis; and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. High levels of CHS transcripts from plantlets infected with Herbaspirillum rubri or Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans suggests that agents of biotic stress can elicit flavonoid biosynthesis in sugarcane. From this data we have predicted the profile of isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in sugarcane and pointed the branches of secondary metabolism activated during tissue-specific stages of development and the adaptive response of sugarcane to agents of biotic and abiotic stress, although our assignment of enzyme function should be confirmed by careful biochemical and genetic supporting evidence.Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de gerar uma coleção de genes

  6. Lichen secondary metabolites affect growth of Physcomitrella patens by allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goga, Michal; Antreich, Sebastian J; Bačkor, Martin; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Lang, Ingeborg

    2017-05-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes.In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid. To observe the influence of these metabolites on bryophytes, the moss Physcomitrella patens was cultivated for 5 weeks under laboratory conditions and treated with lichen extracts. Toxicity of natural mixtures of secondary metabolites was tested at three selected doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 %). When the mixture contained substantial amounts of usnic acid, we observed growth inhibition of protonemata and reduced development of gametophores. Significant differences in cell lengths and widths were also noticed. Furthermore, usnic acid had a strong effect on cell division in protonemata suggesting a strong impact on the early stages of bryophyte development by allelochemicals contained in the lichen secondary metabolites.Biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites were confirmed in several studies such as antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, antiherbivore, antioxidant, antipyretic, and analgetic action or photoprotection. This work aimed to expand the knowledge on allelopathic effects on bryophyte growth.

  7. Secondary metabolites from Scorzonera latifolia roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acikara, O. B.; Šmejkal, K.; Cvačka, Josef; Buděšínský, Miloš; Dračínský, Martin; Saltan, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 16 (2015), PM167 ISSN 0032-0943. [GA 2015. International Congress and Annual Meeting of the Society for Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research /63./. 23.08.2015-27.08.2015, Budapest] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : medical plant * metabolites * Asteraceae Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  8. Global analysis of biosynthetic gene clusters reveals vast potential of secondary metabolite production in Penicillium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Grijseels, Sietske; Prigent, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    -referenced the predicted pathways with published data on the production of secondary metabolites and experimentally validated the production of antibiotic yanuthones in Penicillia and identified a previously undescribed compound from the yanuthone pathway. This study is the first genus-wide analysis of the genomic......Filamentous fungi produce a wide range of bioactive compounds with important pharmaceutical applications, such as antibiotic penicillins and cholesterol-lowering statins. However, less attention has been paid to fungal secondary metabolites compared to those from bacteria. In this study, we...... sequenced the genomes of 9 Penicillium species and, together with 15 published genomes, we investigated the secondary metabolism of Penicillium and identified an immense, unexploited potential for producing secondary metabolites by this genus. A total of 1,317 putative biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) were...

  9. Nursing protects honeybee larvae from secondary metabolites of pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Matteo A.; Kilchenmann, Verena; Glauser, Gaetan; Praz, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    The pollen of many plants contains toxic secondary compounds, sometimes in concentrations higher than those found in the flowers or leaves. The ecological significance of these compounds remains unclear, and their impact on bees is largely unexplored. Here, we studied the impact of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) found in the pollen of Echium vulgare on honeybee adults and larvae. Echimidine, a PA present in E. vulgare pollen, was isolated and added to the honeybee diets in order to perform toxicity bioassays. While adult bees showed relatively high tolerance to PAs, larvae were much more sensitive. In contrast to other bees, the honeybee larval diet typically contains only traces of pollen and consists predominantly of hypopharyngeal and mandibular secretions produced by nurse bees, which feed on large quantities of pollen-containing bee bread. We quantified the transfer of PAs to nursing secretions produced by bees that had previously consumed bee bread supplemented with PAs. The PA concentration in these secretions was reduced by three orders of magnitude as compared to the PA content in the nurse diet and was well below the toxicity threshold for larvae. Our results suggest that larval nursing protects honeybee larvae from the toxic effect of secondary metabolites of pollen. PMID:29563265

  10. Discovery of novel secondary metabolites in Aspergillus aculeatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj; Holm, Dorte Koefoed; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    2012-01-01

    Polyketides (PKs) and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) constitute large classes of diverse secondary metabolites (SMs) and are important sources for pharmaceuticals due to their structural diversity and wide variety of biological activities. Our investigation of the chemical profile of the industria......Polyketides (PKs) and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) constitute large classes of diverse secondary metabolites (SMs) and are important sources for pharmaceuticals due to their structural diversity and wide variety of biological activities. Our investigation of the chemical profile......, whereby several novel secondary metabolites have been discovered. A. aculeatus has recently been genome-sequenced; however no genetic approaches have so far been described to facilitate genetic engineering. We here present a system for non-integrated (AMA1-based) gene expression in A. aculeatus based...

  11. Diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIEFMAN HAKIM

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hakim A. 2010. The diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae. Nusantara Bioscience 2:146-156. Several species of the Artocarpus genus (Moraceae have been investigated their natural product. The secondary metabolites successfully being isolatad from Artocarpus genus consist of terpenoid, flavonoids, stilbenoid, arylbenzofuran, neolignan, and adduct Diels-Alder. Flavonoid group represent the compound which is the most found from Artocarpus plant. The flavonoids compound which are successfully isolated from Artocarpus plant consist of the varied frameworks like chalcone, flavanone, flavan-3-ol, simple flavone, prenylflavone, oxepinoflavone, pyranoflavone, dihydrobenzoxanthone, furanodihydrobenzoxanthone, pyranodihydrobenzoxanthone, quinonoxanthone, cyclopentenoxanthone, xanthonolide, dihydroxanthone.

  12. Uptake of Seeds Secondary Metabolites by Virola surinamensis Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massuo Jorge Kato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major secondary metabolites and fatty acids occurring in the seeds of Virola surinamensis were monitored by GC-MS during germination and seedling development. The role as carbon source for seedling development was indicated considering that both classes of compounds were similarly consumed in the seeds and that no selective consumption of compounds could be detected.

  13. Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Sponge Genus Agelas

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huawei; Dong, Menglian; Chen, Jianwei; Wang, Hong; Tenney, Karen; Crews, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    The marine sponge genus Agelas comprises a rich reservoir of species and natural products with diverse chemical structures and biological properties with potential application in new drug development. This review for the first time summarized secondary metabolites from Agelas sponges discovered in the past 47 years together with their bioactive effects.

  14. Role of secondary metabolites/antioxidants in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    In literature, secondary metabolites are described as natural products, waste, phytopharmaceuticals, bioactive constituents or by-products of the primary metabolism. They occur in many plant genera and microorganisms in vivo and in vitro, and have complex chemical structures specific to the plants w...

  15. Impact of secondary metabolites and related enzymes in flax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in various physiological defenses including secondary metabolites, proline, total soluble protein and antioxidant enzymes were investigated in leaves and stems of 18 flax lines either resistant or susceptible to powdery mildew. The results showed that the total alkaloids content in flax stems was significantly ...

  16. Simple Method for Enhanced Production of Secondary Metabolites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iict

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... Callus cultures of Charybdis congesta were initiated in vitro and the effect of growth regulators was tested on callus growth and secondary metabolite production. Among several standard media formulated for use in the present study, MS and B5 were found to be potentially active and facilitated.

  17. Characterization of primary and secondary metabolites of leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the primary and secondary metabolite profiles of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL) stems and leaves to determine whether it can be utilized for therapeutic purposes as the roots. A total of six types of extracts were tested. The extracts showed high content of glycosaponins, polysaccharides, proteins and ...

  18. A Review of the Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tinospora crispa Beumee, a herbaceous climber, has been widely used in traditional medicine for treating various ailments such as contusion, septicaemia, fever, fracture, scabies and other tropical ulcers. A wide range of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, diterpenes, flavones, phenolics, and triterpenes have been ...

  19. Secondary metabolites of oil palm isolates of Ganoderma zonatum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary metabolites of oil palm isolates of Ganoderma zonatum Murill. from Cameroon and their cytotoxicity against five human tumour cell lines. ... Their structures were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron impact ionization mass spectrum experiments (EI-MS) and by comparing with the data ...

  20. Larvicidal activity of extracellular secondary metabolites from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this investigation was to find mosquito larvicidal secondary metabolites from a basidiomycete – Stereum species (JO5289) – against Aedes aegypti. The Stereum species (JO5289) was collected in July 2005 from undisturbed habitat in Londiani forest in Rift Valley province, Kenya. Extracellular crude ...

  1. Role of secondary metabolites biosynthesis in resistance to cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary metabolites production in healthy and diseased sample of leaves of cotton varieties after the attack of CLCuV found maximum phenolics, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll a and b in healthy sample and minimum contents present in diseased sample. CIM-446 was the best variety to ...

  2. Chemical ecology of insect-plant interactions: ecological significance of plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Ritsuo

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites as chemical barriers against herbivores. Many phytophagous insects are highly adapted to these allelochemicals and use such unique substances as the specific host-finding cues, defensive substances of their own, and even as sex pheromones or their precursors by selectively sensing, incorporating, and/or processing these phytochemicals. Insects also serve as pollinators often effectively guided by specific floral fragrances. This review demonstrates the ecological significance of such plant secondary metabolites in the highly diverse interactions between insects and plants.

  3. Plant protein and secondary metabolites influence diet selection in a mammalian specialist herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy C. Ulappa; Rick G. Kelsey; Graham G. Frye; Janet L. Rachlow; LIsa A. Shipley; Laura Bond; Xinzhu Pu; Jennifer Sorensen. Forbey

    2014-01-01

    For herbivores, nutrient intake is limited by the relatively low nutritional quality of plants and high concentrations of potentially toxic defensive compounds (plant secondary metabolites [PSMs]) produced by many plants. In response to phytochemical challenges, some herbivores selectively forage on plants with higher nutrient and lower PSM concentrations relative to...

  4. Quantification of a bacterial secondary metabolite by SERS combined with SLM extraction for bioprocess monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Lidia; Andreasen, Sune Zoëga; Jendresen, Christian Bille

    2017-01-01

    and combined it with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing for the screening of a biological process, namely for the quantification of a bacterial secondary metabolite, p-coumaric acid (pHCA), produced by Escherichia coli. The microfluidic device proved to be robust and reusable, enabling efficient....... The obtained data showed good correlation with HPLC analysis....

  5. Interactions Between a Belowground Herbivore and Primary and Secondary Root Metabolites in Wild Cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geem, Moniek; Harvey, J.A.; Cortesero, A.M.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Gols, R.

    2015-01-01

    Plants are attacked by both above- and belowground herbivores. Toxic secondary compounds are part of the chemical defense arsenal of plants against a range of antagonists, and are subject to genetic variation. Plants also produce primary metabolites (amino acids, nutrients, sugars) that function as

  6. Interactions between a belowground herbivore and primary and secondary root metabolites in wild cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geem, Moniek; Harvey, Jeff; Cortesero, A.M.; Raaijmakers, Ciska; Gols, R.

    2015-01-01

    Plants are attacked by both above- and belowground herbivores. Toxic secondary compounds are part of the chemical defense arsenal of plants against a range of antagonists, and are subject to genetic variation. Plants also produce primary metabolites (amino acids, nutrients, sugars) that function as

  7. Whole-plant C allocation priorities: do secondary metabolites and VOCs matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Henrik; Huang, Jianbei; Forkelova, Lenka; Behrendt, Thomas; Reichelt, Michael; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2017-04-01

    Whole-plant carbon (C) allocation is a critical issue for understanding plant functioning and has been studied for many decades. Plants fix CO2 from the atmosphere and partition the resulting photosynthetic products (carbohydrates) among several functional pools including growth of structural and reproductive biomass, metabolic processes like respiration but also for the synthesis of secondary metabolites promoting defense and communication. Allocation to secondary metabolites is conceptually viewed as a trade-off between growth and defense. Plants either invest carbohydrates to produce biomass which may be lost - at least partially -to herbivory or they increase allocation to secondary metabolites to deter herbivores from consuming existing biomass. While conceptually intuitive, trade-off hypotheses all suffer from one important shortcoming: the whole-plant carbon balance, critical for determining trade-off relationships, is usually unknown. In the research group on Plant Allocation, we manipulate and measure the whole-plant carbon balance in different species and use tracers to investigate carbon fluxes through the plant and into functional allocation pools. Inducing carbon limitation by reducing atmospheric [CO2] allows us to infer allocation priorities. In this presentation I will show several examples of studies on whole-plant carbon allocation patterns in different plant species. These investigations include assessments of different functional pools like growth, storage, secondary metabolites and volatile emissions as well as the underlying phytohormonal patterns and show that allocation to secondary metabolites and volatiles has a high priority in the whole-plant carbon balance.

  8. [Determination of the profiles of secondary metabolites characteristic of Alternaria strains isolated from tomato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavidez Rozo, Martha Elizabeth; Patriarca, Andrea; Cabrera, Gabriela; Fernández Pinto, Virginia E

    2014-01-01

    Many Alternaria species have been studied for their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, such as tentoxin (TEN), some of which have toxic properties. The main food contaminant toxins are tenuazonic acid, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), altenuene, and altertoxins i, ii and iii. To determine the profiles of secondary metabolites characteristic of Alternaria strains isolated from tomato for their chemotaxonomic classification. The profiles of secondary metabolites were determined by HPLC MS. The Alternaria isolates obtained from spoiled tomatoes belong, according to their morphological characteristics, to the species groups Alternaria alternata, Alternaria tenuissima and Alternaria arborescens, with A. tenuissima being the most frequent. The most frequent profiles of secondary metabolites belonging to the species groups A. alternata (AOH, AME, TEN), A. tenuissima (AOH, AME, TEN, tenuazonic acid) and A. arborescens (AOH, AME, TEN, tenuazonic acid) were determined, with some isolates of the latter being able to synthesize AAL toxins. Secondary metabolite profiles are a useful tool for the differentiation of small spored Alternaria isolates not easily identifiable by their morphological characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of culture media for the production of secondary metabolites in a natural products screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermolen, Karen M; Raja, Huzefa A; El-Elimat, Tamam; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2013-12-17

    Variation in the growing environment can have significant impacts on the quantity and diversity of fungal secondary metabolites. In the industrial setting, optimization of growing conditions can lead to significantly increased production of a compound of interest. Such optimization becomes challenging in a drug-discovery screening situation, as the ideal conditions for one organism may induce poor metabolic diversity for a different organism. Here, the impact of different media types, including six liquid media and five solid media, on the secondary metabolite production of three fungal strains was examined in the context of the drug-discovery screening process. The relative production of marker compounds was used to evaluate the usefulness and reliability of each medium for the purpose of producing secondary metabolites.

  10. Oviposition response of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus to the secondary metabolite(s of the fungus, Trichoderma viride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites produced by Trichoderma viride, a deuteromycetes fungus, under submerged culture condition were formulated and evaluated for oviposition attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito. At a concentration of 10 µg ml-1 the formulation showed remarkable attractancy with an oviposition active index (OAI of +0.52. When the oviposition attractancy of the formulation was compared with a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol, both at 10 µg ml-1, the former was found to be more attractive to result in 70% egg laying than the later with 30% egg laying. Thin layer chromatography fractions of the secondary metabolites showed that a fraction with Rf value of 0.88 was highly active as oviposition attractant with an OAI of +0.65. Further work on identification of the active principle(s of the microbial formulation might lead to an oviposition attractant useful in mosquito vector management.

  11. Secondary metabolites influence Arabidopsis/Botrytis interactions: variation in host production and pathogen sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Rowe, Heather C; Denby, Katherine J

    2005-10-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that plant/pathogen interactions are partially mediated via plant secondary metabolite production and corresponding pathogen tolerance. However, there are inconsistent reports on the ability of particular compounds to provide resistance to a pathogen. Most of these studies have focused on individual isolates of a given pathogen, suggesting that pathogens vary in their sensitivity to plant-produced toxins. We tested variability in virulence among pathogen isolates, and the impact on this by plant production of, and pathogen tolerance to, secondary metabolites. Botrytis cinerea isolates showed differing sensitivity to purified camalexin, and camalexin-sensitive isolates produced larger lesions on camalexin-deficient Arabidopsis genotypes than on the wild type. In contrast, the camalexin-insensitive isolate produced lesions of similar size on wild-type and camalexin-deficient Arabidopsis. Additional analysis with Arabidopsis secondary metabolite biosynthetic mutants suggests that Botrytis also has variable sensitivity to phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates. Furthermore, Botrytis infection generates a gradient of secondary metabolite responses emanating from the developing lesion, with the Botrytis isolate used determining the accumulation pattern. Collectively, our results indicate that Arabidopsis/Botrytis interactions are influenced at the metabolic level by variations in toxin production in the host and sensitivity in the pathogen.

  12. Biochemical studies on microbial secondary metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udell, M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the biosynthesis of the coumarin-glycoside antibiotic novobiocin was instigated to establish the order in which the component subunits were assembled and to isolate the enzymic systems catalyzing the reactions. Radiolabeled novobiocin was obtained by feeding L-(U-/sup 14/C)tyrosine to Streptomyces niveus, and hydrolytic procedures were developed to thus obtain the subunits in labelled form. Synthetic routes to the coumarin and benzoic acid moieties of novobiocin were also developed. The second part of the thesis describes the isolation from Fusarium species of an enzyme system catalyzing hydrolysis of the trichothecene mycotoxin 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol produced by cultures of Fusarium culmorum. A cell-free extract from Fusarium species C37410-90 efficiently hydrolyzed 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol to deoxynivalenol, and a structure-activity profile for the de-esterifying enzymes was investigated by incubating a range of natural and semisynthetic trichothecene mycotoxins. A quantitative HPLC assay for 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol was devised to monitor the enzymic hydrolysis. The enzyme catalyzing 3-de-esterification was purified approximately 22-fold with a yield of 2% by means of centrifugation, salt precipitation and ion exchange chromatography.

  13. Plant products and secondary metabolites with acaricide activity against ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Arjona-Cambranes, K; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Bolio-González, M E; Ortega-Pacheco, A; Alzina-López, A; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, E J; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Aguilar-Caballero, A J

    2017-04-30

    The present review documents the results of studies evaluating the acaricidal activity of different plant products and secondary metabolites against ticks that are resistant and susceptible to conventional acaricides. Studies published from 1998 to 2016 were included. The acaricidal activity of plant extracts, essential oils and secondary compounds from plants have been evaluated using bioassays with ticks in the larval and adult stages. There is variable effectiveness according to the species of plant and the concentrations used, with observed mortalities ranging from 5 to 100% against the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus), Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, and Argas genera. A number of plants have been reported to cause high mortalities and/or affect the reproductive capacity of ticks in the adult phase. In the majority of these trials, the main species of plants evaluated correspond to the families Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Verbenaceae, and Poaceae. Different secondary metabolites such as thymol, carvacrol, 1,8-cineol and n-hexanal, have been found to be primarily responsible for the acaricidal activity of different essential oils against different species of ticks, while nicotine, dibenzyldisulfide and dibenzyltrisulfide have been evaluated for plant extracts. Only thymol, carvacrol and 1,8-cineol have been evaluated for acaricidal activity under in vivo conditions. The information in the present review allows the conclusion that the secondary metabolites contained in plant products could be used as an alternative for the control of ticks that are susceptible or resistant to commercial acaricides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Establishing the Secondary Metabolite Profile of the Marine Fungus: Tolypocladium geodes sp. MF458 and Subsequent Optimisation of Bioactive Secondary Metabolite Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Bethlehem; Wrigley, Stephen K; Prashar, Anjali; Rahlff, Janina; Wolf, Markus; Reinshagen, Jeanette; Gribbon, Philip; Imhoff, Johannes F; Silber, Johanna; Labes, Antje; Ellinger, Bernhard

    2017-03-23

    As part of an international research project, the marine fungal strain collection of the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research (GEOMAR) research centre was analysed for secondary metabolite profiles associated with anticancer activity. Strain MF458 was identified as Tolypocladium geodes , by internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence similarity and its natural product production profile. By using five different media in two conditions and two time points, we were able to identify eight natural products produced by MF458. As well as cyclosporin A ( 1 ), efrapeptin D ( 2 ), pyridoxatin ( 3 ), terricolin A ( 4 ), malettinins B and E ( 5 and 6 ), and tolypocladenols A1/A2 ( 8 ), we identified a new secondary metabolite which we termed tolypocladenol C ( 7 ). All compounds were analysed for their anticancer potential using a selection of the NCI60 cancer cell line panel, with malettinins B and E ( 5 and 6 ) being the most promising candidates. In order to obtain sufficient quantities of these compounds to start preclinical development, their production was transferred from a static flask culture to a stirred tank reactor, and fermentation medium development resulted in a nearly eight-fold increase in compound production. The strain MF458 is therefore a producer of a number of interesting and new secondary metabolites and their production levels can be readily improved to achieve higher yields.

  15. Secondary Metabolites of Mangrove-Associated Strains of Talaromyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Nicoletti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Boosted by the general aim of exploiting the biotechnological potential of the microbial component of biodiversity, research on the secondary metabolite production of endophytic fungi has remarkably increased in the past few decades. Novel compounds and bioactivities have resulted from this work, which has stimulated a more thorough consideration of various natural ecosystems as conducive contexts for the discovery of new drugs. Thriving at the frontier between land and sea, mangrove forests represent one of the most valuable areas in this respect. The present paper offers a review of the research on the characterization and biological activities of secondary metabolites from manglicolous strains of species belonging to the genus Talaromyces. Aspects concerning the opportunity for a more reliable identification of this biological material in the light of recent taxonomic revisions are also discussed.

  16. Typology of secondary cyanobacterial metabolites from minimum spanning tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, M; Doré, J C; Devillers, J

    2004-04-01

    Recently, two main events have spurred a rapid increase in cyanobacteria chemical, toxicological, and ecological research. The first deals with the interest in isolating compounds from these organisms as source of active products with potential therapeutic applications. The second pertains the crucial problem of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in the aquatic environments. In this context, 594 secondary metabolites belonging to more than 30 genera of cyanobacteria were retrieved from literature. In order to perform their typology, they were first associated with 87 different molecular archetypes and two orphan classes. These 89 groups of molecular structures were then confronted to minimum spanning tree analysis. Attempts were made to graphically derive chemotaxonomical relationships. The interest of QSAR models for estimating the potential pharmacological interest of the cyanobacterial secondary metabolites was also discussed.

  17. Formation flavonoid secondary metabolites in callus culture of Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium as alternative provision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwianingsih, Widi; Febri, Santika; Kusdianti

    2016-02-01

    Increasing need of medicine ingredients require the discovery of other methods that can be used as an alternative. One method that can be used as an alternative is tissue culture. Quercetin is a flavonoid secondary metabolites that have been known to be useful as antiviral, anti-asthma and anti-cancer potential. The purpose of this study was to produce flavonoids, especially quercetin in callus culture Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium. Pieces of leaves of plantlets C. cinerariefolium used as explants for formation of callus tissue. To grow the callus, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium used with addition of various concentrations of growth regulators 2.4-D, and kinetin. For multiplication, callus subcultured on similar medium. Callus that had formed, especially brown callus, further analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum (GCMS). Before analyzed callus was extracted in 95% ethanol. The result showed that callus potentially generate secondary metabolite are brown and friable. Based on these parameters, the best callus produced from leaf explants grown on MS medium with the addition of 4 mg / L 2,4-D and 0 mg / L kinetin. The callus contain secondary metabolites such as some of the flavonoid quercetin precursors such as acetic acid and tetrahydroxychalcone, and some other secondary metabolites.

  18. The past, present and future of secondary metabolite research in the Dothideomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muria-Gonzalez, Mariano Jordi; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Breen, Susan; Solomon, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    The Dothideomycetes represents a large and diverse array of fungi in which prominent plant pathogens are over-represented. Species within the Cochliobolus, Alternaria, Pyrenophora and Mycosphaerella (amongst others) all cause diseases that threaten food security in many parts of the world. Significant progress has been made over the past decade in understanding how some of these pathogens cause disease at a molecular level. It is reasonable to suggest that much of this progress can be attributed to the increased availability of genome sequences. However, together with revealing mechanisms of pathogenicity, these genome sequences have also highlighted the capacity of the Dothideomycetes to produce an extensive array of secondary metabolites, far greater than originally thought. Indeed, it is now clear that we appear to have only scratched the surface to date in terms of the identification of secondary metabolites produced by these fungi. In the first half of this review, we examine the current status of secondary metabolite research in the Dothideomycetes and highlight the diversity of the molecules discovered thus far, in terms of both structure and biological activity. In the second part of this review, we survey the emerging techniques and technologies that will be required to shed light on the vast array of secondary metabolite potential that is encoded within these genomes. Experimental design, analytical chemistry and synthetic biology are all discussed in the context of how they will contribute to this field. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Secondary Metabolites from Inula britannica L. and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ha Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  20. Secondary metabolites from Inula britannica L. and their biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hussain, Javid; Hamayun, Muhammad; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Ahmad, Shabir; Rehman, Gauhar; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2010-03-10

    Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids) and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  1. CoIN: co-inducible nitrate expression system for secondary metabolites in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemann, Philipp; Soukup, Alexandra A; Folz, Jacob S; Wang, Pin-Mei; Noack, Andreas; Keller, Nancy P

    2018-01-01

    Sequencing of fungal species has demonstrated the existence of thousands of putative secondary metabolite gene clusters, the majority of them harboring a unique set of genes thought to participate in production of distinct small molecules. Despite the ready identification of key enzymes and potential cluster genes by bioinformatics techniques in sequenced genomes, the expression and identification of fungal secondary metabolites in the native host is often hampered as the genes might not be expressed under laboratory conditions and the species might not be amenable to genetic manipulation. To overcome these restrictions, we developed an inducible expression system in the genetic model Aspergillus nidulans . We genetically engineered a strain of A. nidulans devoid of producing eight of the most abundant endogenous secondary metabolites to express the sterigmatocystin Zn(II) 2 Cys 6 transcription factor-encoding gene aflR and its cofactor aflS under control of the nitrate inducible niiA / niaD promoter. Furthermore, we identified a subset of promoters from the sterigmatocystin gene cluster that are under nitrate-inducible AflR/S control in our production strain in order to yield coordinated expression without the risks from reusing a single inducible promoter. As proof of concept, we used this system to produce β-carotene from the carotenoid gene cluster of Fusarium fujikuroi . Utilizing one-step yeast recombinational cloning, we developed an inducible expression system in the genetic model A. nidulans and show that it can be successfully used to produce commercially valuable metabolites.

  2. Bioactive secondary metabolites with multiple activities from a fungal endophyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogner, C.W.; Kamdem, R.S.; Stichtermann, G.; Matthäus, C.; Hölscher, D.; Popp, J.; Proksch, P.; Grundler, F.M.; Schouten, A.

    2017-01-01

    In order to replace particularly biohazardous nematocides, there is a strong drive to finding natural product-based alternatives with the aim of containing nematode pests in agriculture. The metabolites produced by the fungal endophyte Fusarium oxysporum 162 when cultivated on rice media were

  3. Effects of Secondary Metabolites of Permafrost Bacillus sp. on Cytokine Synthesis by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenova, L F; Kolyvanova, S S; Bazhin, A S; Besedin, I M; Mel'nikov, V P

    2017-06-01

    We studied the effects of secondary metabolites of Bacillus sp. isolated from late Neogene permafrost on secretion of proinflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-2, and IFNγ) and antiinflammatory (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It was found that metabolites of Bacillus sp. produced more potent effect on cytokine secretion than mitogen phytohemagglutinin and metabolites of Bacillus cereus, medicinal strain IP5832. Activity of metabolites depended on the temperature of bacteria incubation. "Cold" metabolites of Bacillus sp. (isolated at -5°C) primarily induced Th1-mediated secretion of IFNγ, while "warm" metabolites (obtained at 37°C) induced Th2-mediated secretion of IL-4. The results suggest that Bacillus sp. metabolites are promising material for the development of immunomodulating drugs.

  4. Mycotoxicoses in animals caused by secondary metabolites of molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Ksenija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that at least 25% of grain and other cereals are today contaminated with known mycotoxins, while a large number of them are probably contaminated with as yet unidentified mycotoxins. Mycotoxins produce mold mycea, and it is believed that over 220 species have this characteristic. A large number of different mycotoxins has been identified so far, of which only a small number are of medicinal, nutritive and economic significance (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichotecenes, zearalenon. The listed mycotoxins present secondary metabolites, primarily the species Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillinum. Mycotoxicoses pose a nutritive-medical, but also a diagnostic problem, because certain mycotoxins cause changes in a number of organs. Diseases caused by mycotoxins are not contagious, they are connected with food and/or specific feed, they are similar to avitaminoses, they are not treated with antibiotics or other medicines, and they do not cause an immunological response in the organism because they are of small molecular mass so that animals are permanently protected from their effects. The content of mycotoxins in food and/or feed in practical conditions more often causes the appearance of chronic mycotoxicoses, and the effects of smaller quantities over a longer time period are the same as of bigger quantities over a short period. The early or timely establishment of the presence of mycotoxins in food and the subsequent elimination of the contaminated food from use can aleviate the negative effects, but a certain time period is required for the elimination of the resorbed quantities of mycotoxins and the disappearance of the harmful effect. That is why constant and multilevel monitoring of sanitary hygiene of feed must be practiced in production conditions in order to secure a swift and efficient reaction, as currently the only manner for the successful prevention of the harmful effects of mycotoxins.

  5. Evidence for biological denitrification inhibition (BDI) by plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardon, Clément; Piola, Florence; Bellvert, Floriant; Haichar, Feth el Zahar; Comte, Gilles; Meiffren, Guillaume; Pommier, Thomas; Puijalon, Sara; Tsafack, Noelline; Poly, Franck

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies on the effect of secondary metabolites on the functioning of rhizosphere microbial communities have often focused on aspects of the nitrogen (N) cycle but have overlooked biological denitrification inhibition (BDI), which can affect plant N-nutrition. Here, we investigated the BDI by the compounds of Fallopia spp., an invasive weed shown to be associated with a low potential denitrification of the soil. Fallopia spp. extracts were characterized by chromatographic analysis and were used to test the BDI effects on the metabolic and respiratory activities of denitrifying bacteria, under aerobic and anaerobic (denitrification) conditions. The BDI of Fallopia spp. extracts was tested on a complex soil community by measuring denitrification enzyme activity (DEA), substrate induced respiration (SIR), as well as abundances of denitrifiers and total bacteria. In 15 strains of denitrifying bacteria, extracts led to a greater BDI (92%) than respiration inhibition (50%). Anaerobic metabolic activity reduction was correlated with catechin concentrations and the BDI was dose dependent. In soil, extracts reduced the DEA/SIR ratio without affecting the denitrifiers: total bacteria ratio. We show that secondary metabolite(s) from Fallopia spp. inhibit denitrification. This provides new insight into plant-soil interactions and improves our understanding of a plant's ability to shape microbial soil functioning. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Ecological role of a seaweed secondary metabolite for a colonizing bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Frank; Svensson, Robin; Nylund, Goran M; Fredriksson, N Johan; Pavia, Henrik; Hermansson, Malte

    2011-07-01

    Bacteria associated with seaweeds can both harm and benefit their hosts. Many seaweed species are known to produce compounds that inhibit growth of bacterial isolates, but the ecological role of seaweed metabolites for the associated bacterial community structure is not well understood. In this study the response of a colonizing bacterial community to the secondary metabolite (1,1,3,3-tetrabromo-2-heptanone) from the red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera was investigated by using field panels coated with the metabolite at a range of concentrations covering those measured at the algal surface. The seaweed metabolite has previously been shown to have antibacterial effects. The metabolite significantly affected the natural fouling community by (i) altering the composition, (ii) altering the diversity by increasing the evenness and (iii) decreasing the density, as measured by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism in conjunction with clone libraries of the 16S rRNA genes and by bacterial enumeration. No single major bacterial taxon (phylum, class) was particularly affected by the metabolite. Instead changes in community composition were observed at a more detailed phylogenetic level. This indicates a broad specificity of the seaweed metabolite against bacterial colonization, which is supported by the observation that the bacterial density was significantly affected at a lower concentration (0.02 μg cm⁻²) than the composition (1-2.5 μg cm⁻²) and the evenness (5 μg cm⁻²) of the bacterial communities. Altogether, the results emphasize the role of secondary metabolites for control of the density and structure of seaweed-associated bacterial communities.

  7. Secondary Particles Produced by Hadron Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkazem Ansarinejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Use of hadron therapy as an advanced radiotherapy technique is increasing. In this method, secondary particles are produced through primary beam interactions with the beam-transport system and the patient’s body. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations were employed to determine the dose of produced secondary particles, particularly neutrons during treatment. Materials and Methods In this study, secondary particles, produced by proton and ion beams, were simulated for a cancer treatment plan. In particular, we evaluated the distribution of secondary neutrons, produced by a 400 MeV/u carbon beam on an electronic crate, which was exposed to radiation field under radioactive conditions. The level of major secondary particles, particularly neutrons, irradiating the target, was evaluated, using FLUKA Monte Carlo code. Results The fluences and radiation doses were applied to determine the shielding efficiency of devices and the probability of radiation damage to nearby electronic systems. According to the results, by using maximum-energy carbon ions (400 MeV/u, electronic devices are exposed to a dose rate of 0.05 µSv/s and an integrated dose of about 34 mSv, each year. Conclusion The simulation results could provide significant information about radiation assessment; they could also be a major help for clinical facilities to meet shielding requirements. Moreover, such simulations are essential for determining the radiation level, which is responsible for radiation-induced damages.

  8. Global analysis of biosynthetic gene clusters reveals vast potential of secondary metabolite production in Penicillium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Grijseels, Sietske; Prigent, Sylvain; Ji, Boyang; Dainat, Jacques; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Workman, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-04-03

    Filamentous fungi produce a wide range of bioactive compounds with important pharmaceutical applications, such as antibiotic penicillins and cholesterol-lowering statins. However, less attention has been paid to fungal secondary metabolites compared to those from bacteria. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of 9 Penicillium species and, together with 15 published genomes, we investigated the secondary metabolism of Penicillium and identified an immense, unexploited potential for producing secondary metabolites by this genus. A total of 1,317 putative biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) were identified, and polyketide synthase and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase based BGCs were grouped into gene cluster families and mapped to known pathways. The grouping of BGCs allowed us to study the evolutionary trajectory of pathways based on 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA) synthases. Finally, we cross-referenced the predicted pathways with published data on the production of secondary metabolites and experimentally validated the production of antibiotic yanuthones in Penicillia and identified a previously undescribed compound from the yanuthone pathway. This study is the first genus-wide analysis of the genomic diversity of Penicillia and highlights the potential of these species as a source of new antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals.

  9. Chemical ecology of insect-plant interactions: ecological significance of plant secondary metabolites.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, Ritsuo

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites as chemical barriers against herbivores. Many phytophagous insects are highly adapted to these allelochemicals and use such unique substances as the specific host-finding cues, defensive substances of their own, and even as sex pheromones or their precursors by selectively sensing, incorporating, and/or processing these phytochemicals. Insects also serve as pollinators often effectively guided by specific floral fragrances. This review d...

  10. Development of a yeast cell factory for production of aromatic secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Prado, Edith Angelica

    Aromatic secondary metabolites are compounds mainly synthesized by plants and fungi as a response to predators and environmental stresses. These compounds have a broad range of natural properties such as reduction of oxidative damage in cells, antibacterial effects and UV protection. Many of thes...... six different types of flavonoids, and some of the engineered strains produced significant titers of flavonoid compounds such as kaempferol and quercetin. Moreover, for the first time, we synthesized the flavonoids liquiritigenin, resokaempferol and fisetin in yeast....

  11. Primary and secondary metabolites production in signal grass around the year under nitrogen fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Syeda Maryam Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce a number of substances and products and primary and secondary metabolites (SM) are amongst them with many benefits but limitation as well. Usually, the fodder are not considered toxic to animals or as a source having higher SM. The Brachiaria decumbens has a considerable nutritional value, but it is considered as a toxic grass for causing photosensitization in animals, if the grass is not harvested for more than 30 days or solely. The absence of detailed information in the lite...

  12. Exploring plant tissue culture in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal: in vitro propagation and secondary metabolite production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasmita; Rai, Manoj K; Naik, Soumendra K

    2017-12-26

    the secondary metabolites produced by this plant can be exploited further for the benefit of human health in a sustainable way.

  13. Secondary Metabolites from the Soft Coral Sinularia arborea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Jyun Sung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the chemical constituents of soft corals belonging to the genus Sinularia have led to the isolation of a number of interesting secondary metabolites and some of these were found to possess extensive bioactivities [1–3]. Continuation investigation on the chemical constituents of the marine invertebrates collected off the waters of Taiwan, two new cembrane-type diterpenoids, arbolides A (1 and B (2, and a known steroid, crassarosterol A (3 [4], were isolated from the soft coral Sinularia arborea (family Alcyonacea (Figure 1. In this paper, we describe the isolation, structure determination and cytotoxicity of compounds 1–3.

  14. Two New Secondary Metabolites from the Endophytic Fungus Endomelanconiopsis endophytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Hua Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new secondary metabolites, endomeketals A–B (1–2, a new natural product (3, and a known compound (4 were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the endophytic fungus Endomelanconiopsis endophytica A326 derived from Ficus hirta. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against SF-268, MCF-7, NCI-H460, and HepG-2 tumor cell lines. However, no compound showed cytotoxic activity against these human tumor cell lines.

  15. Secondary metabolites and biological activity of Pentas species: A minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba-tollah M. Sweelam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pentas belongs to the Rubiaceae family, which contains approximately 40 species. Several Pentas species were reported to be used as a folk treatment by African indigenous people in treating some diseases such as malaria, tapeworms, dysentery, gonorrhea, syphilis and snake poisoning. This article covers the period from 1962 to 2017 and presents an overview of the biological activity of different Pentas species and describes their phytochemical traits. As a conclusion, the main secondary metabolites from Pentas species are quinones, highly oxygenated chromene-based structures, and iridoids. Pentas species are widely used in folk medicine but they have to be more investigated for their medicinal properties.

  16. Discovery of novel secondary metabolites in Aspergillus aculeatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj; Holm, Dorte Koefoed; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    2012-01-01

    Polyketides (PKs) and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) constitute large classes of diverse secondary metabolites (SMs) and are important sources for pharmaceuticals due to their structural diversity and wide variety of biological activities. Our investigation of the chemical profile...... on the USERTM cloning technique. The AMA-1 based gene expression has successfully been applied to express genes in A. aculeatus and by this approach the function of a PKS gene has been established. Furthermore the technique was used to activate a silent cluster by expression of a transcription factor, leading...

  17. Secondary metabolites from Penicillium roqueforti, a starter for the production of Gorgonzola cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Vallone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of mold in food, although necessary for production, can involve the presence of secondary metabolites, which are sometimes toxic. Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprophytic fungus but it is also the essential fungus used in the production of Roquefort cheese and other varieties of blue cheese containing internal mold. The study was conducted on industrial batches of Penicillium roqueforti starters used in the production of the Gorgonzola cheese, with the aim to verify the production of secondary metabolites. Nine Penicillium roqueforti strains were tested. The presence of roquefortine C, PR toxin and mycophenolic acid was tested first in vitro, then on bread-like substrate and lastly in vivo in nine cheese samples produced with the same starters and ready to market. In vitro, only Penicillium out of nine produced roquefortine C, four starters showed mycophenolic acid production, while no significant amounts of PR toxin were detected. In the samples grown on bread-like substrate, Penicillium did not produce secondary metabolites, likewise with each cheese samples tested. To protect consumers’ health and safety, the presence of mycotoxins needs to be verified in food which is widely consumed, above all for products protected by the protected denomination of origin (DOP label (i.e. a certificate guaranteeing the geographic origin of the product, such as Gorgonzola cheese.

  18. Secondary Metabolites fromPenicillium roqueforti, A Starter for the Production of Gorgonzola Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Lisa; Giardini, Alberto; Soncini, Gabriella

    2014-08-28

    The presence of mold in food, although necessary for production, can involve the presence of secondary metabolites, which are sometimes toxic. Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprophytic fungus but it is also the essential fungus used in the production of Roquefort cheese and other varieties of blue cheese containing internal mold. The study was conducted on industrial batches of Penicillium roqueforti starters used in the production of the Gorgonzola cheese, with the aim to verify the production of secondary metabolites. Nine Penicillium roqueforti strains were tested. The presence of roquefortine C, PR toxin and mycophenolic acid was tested first in vitro , then on bread-like substrate and lastly in vivo in nine cheese samples produced with the same starters and ready to market. In vitro , only Penicillium out of nine produced roquefortine C, four starters showed mycophenolic acid production, while no significant amounts of PR toxin were detected. In the samples grown on bread-like substrate, Penicillium did not produce secondary metabolites, likewise with each cheese samples tested. To protect consumers' health and safety, the presence of mycotoxins needs to be verified in food which is widely consumed, above all for products protected by the protected denomination of origin (DOP) label ( i.e. a certificate guaranteeing the geographic origin of the product), such as Gorgonzola cheese.

  19. A High-Resolution LC-MS-Based Secondary Metabolite Fingerprint Database of Marine Bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Liang

    2014-10-09

    © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Marine bacteria are the most widely distributed organisms in the ocean environment and produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites. However, traditional screening for bioactive natural compounds is greatly hindered by the lack of a systematic way of cataloguing the chemical profiles of bacterial strains found in nature. Here we present a chemical fingerprint database of marine bacteria based on their secondary metabolite profiles, acquired by high-resolution LC-MS. Till now, 1,430 bacterial strains spanning 168 known species collected from different marine environments were cultured and profiled. Using this database, we demonstrated that secondary metabolite profile similarity is approximately, but not always, correlated with taxonomical similarity. We also validated the ability of this database to find species-specific metabolites, as well as to discover known bioactive compounds from previously unknown sources. An online interface to this database, as well as the accompanying software, is provided freely for the community to use.

  20. Endophytes as in vitro production platforms of high value plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Aarthi; Srivastava, Smita

    2015-11-01

    Many reports have been published on bioprospecting of endophytic fungi capable of producing high value bioactive molecules like, paclitaxel, vincristine, vinblastine, camptothecin and podophyllotoxin. However, commercial exploitation of endophytes for high value-low volume plant secondary metabolites remains elusive due to widely reported genomic instability of endophytes in the axenic culture. While most of the endophyte research focuses on screening endophytes for novel or existing high value biomolecules, very few reports seek to explore the possible mechanisms of production of host-plant associated or novel secondary metabolites in these organisms. With an overview of host-endophyte relationship and its possible impact on the secondary metabolite production potential of endophytes, the review highlights the evidence reported for and against the presence of host-independent biosynthetic machinery in endophytes. The review aims to address the question, why should and how can endophytes be exploited for large scale in vitro production of high value phytochemicals? In this regard, various bioprocess optimization strategies that have been applied to sustain and enhance the product yield from the endophytes have also been described in detail. Further, techniques like mixed fermentation/co-cultivation and use of epigenetic modifiers have also been discussed as potential strategies to activate cryptic gene clusters in endophytes, thereby aiding in novel metabolite discovery and overcoming the limitations associated with axenic culture of endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Secondary Metabolites and Bioactivity of Hyophila involuta (Hook Jaeg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos M. MAKINDE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical screening of Hyophila involuta collected from the Biological Garden of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, was carried out to investigate the presence or absence of some secondary metabolites and its antibiotic potentials, using different extracts (with acetone and ethanol on selected organisms. The extracts obtained were screened for the presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phlobatanins, saponins, steroids, tannins, triterpenes and xanthoproteins. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was carried out on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. Only acetone extract tested positive for the presence of flavonoids, while alkaloids and cardiac glycosides were detected present in both the acetone and ethanolic extracts. Flavonoids were detected present only in the acetone extract. Saponins were detected present only in the ethanolic extract. The extracts (acetone and ethanolic showed significant activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus flavus. The results obtained from this study indicated that H. involuta has medicinally important compounds, having therapeutic potential from which effective antimicrobial medicine can be sourced.

  2. Unbiased Evaluation of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites in Complex Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Taichi; Wang, Yuehong; Pro, Samuel M.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of bioactive principles in a complex matrix such as natural products and botanical medicines are secondary rather than primary metabolites. In addition to being chemically diverse, the bioactivity of an ethnobotanical can comprise from one to several bioactive compounds, present in a complex mixture. Conventional discovery efforts utilize bioassay-guided fractionation (BGF) to isolate individual active compounds. When applied to complex natural products, BGF is often challenged by an apparent loss of activity during fractionation, resulting in weakly active isolated compounds. Metabolomic analysis can potentially complement existing the BGF paradigm by capturing the chemical complexity of the metabolites. The proposed biochemometric approach establishes a link between the chemistry of a secondary metabolome and a deserved health impact, using a high-throughput, high-resolution capable biological endpoint. The proof of principle is demonstrated for the anti-tuberculosis (TB) activity of the Alaskan ethnobotanical, Oplopanax horridus. Biochemometric analysis identified the 100 most active constituents from thousands of metabolites in the active extract by means of 2D orthogonal chromatography using countercurrent and GC-MS methods. Previously isolated O. horridus phytoconstituents were used as reference markers of known structure and bio(in)activity. Positive correlations allowed distinction of anti-TB actives from inactive compounds. A total of 29 bioactives from 3 main structural classes were assigned based on MS data. Biochemometric analysis is a new tool for the standardization of herbal medicines and ethnobotanicals, as well as for drug discovery from nature. The method can assign multiple active compounds in complex mixtures without their prior isolation or structure elucidation, while still providing an interface to structural information. PMID:22766306

  3. Secondary metabolite profiling of Alternaria dauci, A. porri, A. solani, and A. tomatophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Dongo, Anita; Pryor, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Chemotaxonomy (secondary metabolite profiling) has been shown to be of great value in the classification and differentiation in Ascomycota. However, few studies have investigated the use of metabolite production for classification and identification purposes of plant pathogenic Alternaria species...

  4. Yield improvement strategies for the production of secondary metabolites in plant tissue culture: silymarin from Silybum marianum tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouZid, S

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell culture can be a potential source for the production of important secondary metabolites. This technology bears many advantages over conventional agricultural methods. The main problem to arrive at a cost-effective process is the low productivity. This is mainly due to lack of differentiation in the cultured cells. Many approaches have been used to maximise the yield of secondary metabolites produced by cultured plant cells. Among these approaches: choosing a plant with a high biosynthetic capacity, obtaining efficient cell line for growth and production of metabolite of interest, manipulating culture conditions, elicitation, metabolic engineering and organ culture. This article gives an overview of the various approaches used to maximise the production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. Examples of using these different approaches are shown for the production of silymarin from Silybum marianum tissue culture.

  5. Insights into the mechanisms of Promysalin, a secondary metabolite with genus-specific antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promysalin, a secondary metabolite produced by Pseudomonas putida RW10S1, has antibacterial activity against a wide variety of Pseudomonas sp., including both human and plant pathogens. Promysalin induces swarming and biofilm formation in the producing species, and inhibits growth of susceptible sp...

  6. Plant Secondary Metabolites Modulate Insect Behavior-Steps Toward Addiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wink

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce a diversity of secondary metabolites (PSMs that serve as defense compounds against herbivores and microorganisms. In addition, some PSMs attract animals for pollination and seed dispersal. In case of pollinating insects, PSMs with colors or terpenoids with fragrant odors attract pollinators in the first place, but when they arrive at a flower, they are rewarded with nectar, so that the pollinators do not feed on flowers. In order to be effective as defense chemicals, PSMs evolved as bioactive substances, that can interfere with a large number of molecular targets in cells, tissues and organs of animals or of microbes. The known functions of PSMs are summarized in this review. A number of PSMs evolved as agonists or antagonists of neuronal signal transduction. Many of these PSMs are alkaloids. Several of them share structural similarities to neurotransmitters. Evidence for neuroactive and psychoactive PSMs in animals will be reviewed. Some of the neuroactive PSMs can cause addiction in humans and other vertrebrates. Why should a defense compound be addictive and thus attract more herbivores? Some insects are food specialists that can feed on plants that are normally toxic to other herbivores. These specialists can tolerate the toxins and many are stored in the insect body as acquired defense chemicals against predators. A special case are pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs that are neurotoxic and mutagenic in vertebrates. PAs are actively sequestered by moths of the family Arctiidae and a few other groups of arthropods. In arctiids, PAs are not only used for defense, but also serve as morphogens for the induction of male coremata and as precursors for male pheromones. Caterpillars even feed on filter paper impregnated with pure PAs (that modulate serotonin receptors in vertebrates and maybe even in insects and thus show of behavior with has similarities to addiction in vertebrates. Not only PA specialists, but also many monophagous

  7. Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation as source.

  8. Five Unprecedented Secondary Metabolites from the Spider Parasitic Fungus Akanthomyces novoguineensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman E. Helaly

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Five new compounds including the glycosylated β-naphthol (1, akanthol, a glycosylated pyrazine (2, akanthozine, and three amide derivatives including a hydroxamic acid derivative (3–5 were isolated from the spider-associated fungus Akanthomyces novoguineensis (Cordycipitaceae, Ascomycota. Their structures were elucidated by using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS and NMR spectroscopy. In this study, the antimicrobial, cytotoxic, anti-biofilm, and nematicidal activities of the new compounds were evaluated. The distribution pattern of secondary metabolites in the species was also revealed in which more isolates of A. novoguineensis were encountered and their secondary metabolite profiles were examined using analytical HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD/MS. Remarkably, all isolated compounds are specifically produced by A. novoguineensis.

  9. Ecosystem, location, and climate effects on foliar secondary metabolites of lodgepole pine populations from central British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher M; Huber, Dezene P W; Lewis, Kathy J

    2011-06-01

    Lodgepole pines, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson, are encountering increased abiotic stress and pest activity due to recent increases in temperature and changes in precipitation throughout their range. This tree species counters these threats by producing secondary metabolites, including phenolics and terpenoids. We examined foliar levels of lignin, soluble phenolics, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpenoids in 12 stands in British Columbia, Canada. We used these data to assess associations among foliar secondary metabolite levels and ecosystem, geographic, and climatic variables. Regressions were also performed to observe which combinations of variables best explained secondary metabolite variance. Stands of P. c. latifolia in the Coastal Western Hemlock and Interior Cedar/Hemlock biogeoclimatic zones had consistently greater foliar levels of almost all measured secondary metabolites than did other stands. Lignin was present in greater amounts in Boreal White/Black Spruce ecosystem (i.e., northern) stands than in southern stands, suggesting a role for this metabolite in pine survival in the boreal forest. Attempts to develop regression models with geographic and climatic variables to explain foliar secondary metabolite levels resulted in multiple models with similar predictive capability. Since foliar secondary metabolite levels appeared to vary most between stand ecosystem types and not as much due to geographic and climatic variables, metabolic profiles appeared best matched to the stress levels within local environments. It is unknown if differences in secondary metabolite levels are the result of genetic adaptation or phenotypic plasticity, but results from this and other studies suggest that both are important. These results are interpreted in light of ongoing efforts to assist in the migration of certain populations of P. c. latifolia northward in an effort to counter predicted effects of climate change.

  10. Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrey Silvia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum. The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines. Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites.

  11. PECULIARITIES OF SECONDARY METABOLITES BIOSYNTHESIS IN PLANT CELL CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. NOSOV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available metabolites formation in plant cell cultures of Panax spp., (ginsenosides; Dioscorea deltoidea (steroid glycosides; Ajuga reptans, Serratula coronata, Rhaponticum carthamoides (ecdisteroids; Polyscias spp., (triterpene glycosides, Taxus spp. (taxoids, Stevia rebaudiana (diterpene steviol-glycosides, Stephania glabra (alkaloids. They are some regular trends of secondary metabolites synthesis in the plant cell culture:It can be noted the stable synthesis of the compound promoting cell proliferation. Indeed, cell cultures of Dioscorea deltoidea were demonstrated to accumulate only furostanol glycosides, which promoted cell division. Furostanol glycoside content of Dioscorea strain DM-0.5 was up to 6 - 12% by dry biomass.Panax ginseng and P. japonicus plant cell cultures synthesize as minimum seven triterpene glycosides (ginsenosides, the productivity of these compounds was up to 6.0 - 8.0% on dry biomass.By contrast, the detectable synthesis of diterpene steviol-glycosides in cultivated cells of Stevia rebaudiana initiated in the mixotrophic cultures during chloroplast formation only.Despite these differences, or mainly due to them, plant cell cultures have become an attractive source of phytochemicals in alternative to collecting wild plants. It provides a guideline to bioreactor-based production of isoprenoids using undifferentiated plant cell cultures. 

  12. Secondary Metabolites of Astragalus cruciatus Link. and Their Chemotaxonomic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassila Benchadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of our chemical studies on the secondary metabolites of Algerian saharan species, we report on the isolation, from the methanol extract of the whole plant Astragalus cruciatus Link. , of seven known compounds including two saponins named azukisaponin V (1 and astragaloside VIII (2, four flavonoids called narcissin (3, nicotiflorin (4, kaempferol 3-O- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ¦ 4- α -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ¦ 6-β-D-glucopyranoside (5 and 5,7,2’-trihydroxyflavone (6 and one phytosterol glycoside, daucosterol (7. All the isolated compounds were characterized by using spectroscopic methods especially 1D and 2D NMR and ESI mass spectrometry and comparison with literature data . The chemotaxonomic and systematic characters of the genus Astragalus are summarized in this study to show its interesting chemodiversity throughout the world, as well as to establish the chemotaxonomical classification of this genus.

  13. Microbial biosynthesis of secondary metabolites involved in biocontrol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennessy, Rosanna Catherine; Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund; Olsson, Stefan

    secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters. A combination of random and targeted mutagenesis, together with MALDI-TOF imaging mass spectrometry, linked two non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) designated nunapeptin and nunamycin respectively, to antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium...... aphanidermatum and Fusarium graminearum1, 2. In order to unravel the complex genetic regulation of these large NRP synthetase gene clusters, antisense RNAs (asRNAs) and CRISPR/Cas9 based systems are being tested and developed as tools to target transcripts of interest and elucidate gene function3, 4....... To investigate the effect of purified nunamycin and nunapeptin at the omics level against pathogenic fungi, an NRP production platform is being developed which, could additionally provide a source of antifungal compounds for industrial applications (e.g. food production, pharmaceutical, personal care). Methods...

  14. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Greco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60% were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%. These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds.

  15. Comparison of Expression of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Cluster Genes in Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C. Ehrlich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty six secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted to be in the Aspergillus flavus genome. In spite of this, the biosyntheses of only seven metabolites, including the aflatoxins, kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid and aflatrem, have been assigned to a particular gene cluster. We used RNA-seq to compare expression of secondary metabolite genes in gene clusters for the closely related fungi A. parasiticus, A. oryzae, and A. flavus S and L sclerotial morphotypes. The data help to refine the identification of probable functional gene clusters within these species. Our results suggest that A. flavus, a prevalent contaminant of maize, cottonseed, peanuts and tree nuts, is capable of producing metabolites which, besides aflatoxin, could be an underappreciated contributor to its toxicity.

  16. Comparison of Expression of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Cluster Genes in Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Mack, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Fifty six secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted to be in the Aspergillus flavus genome. In spite of this, the biosyntheses of only seven metabolites, including the aflatoxins, kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid and aflatrem, have been assigned to a particular gene cluster. We used RNA-seq to compare expression of secondary metabolite genes in gene clusters for the closely related fungi A. parasiticus, A. oryzae, and A. flavus S and L sclerotial morphotypes. The data help to refine the identification of probable functional gene clusters within these species. Our results suggest that A. flavus, a prevalent contaminant of maize, cottonseed, peanuts and tree nuts, is capable of producing metabolites which, besides aflatoxin, could be an underappreciated contributor to its toxicity. PMID:24960201

  17. Transcriptome of Aspergillus flavus aswA (AFLA_085170) deletion strain related to sclerotial development and production of secondary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus produces many secondary metabolites including aflatoxins. Besides conidia, the fungus uses sclerotia as another type of propagule. We obtained transcriptomes from four growth conditions of the aswA mutant, a strain impaired in sclerotial development and production of sclerotium-sp...

  18. Antibacterial secondary metabolites from the cave sponge Xestospongia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankisetty, Sridevi; Slattery, Marc

    2012-05-01

    Chemical investigation of the cave sponge Xestospongia sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  19. Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from the Cave Sponge Xestospongia sp

    OpenAIRE

    Ankisetty, Sridevi; Slattery, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the cave sponge Xestospongia sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  20. Secondary metabolites from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from soil can kill Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boottanun, Patcharaporn; Potisap, Chotima; Hurdle, Julian G; Sermswan, Rasana W

    2017-12-01

    Bacillus species are Gram-positive bacteria found in abundance in nature and their secondary metabolites were found to possess various potential activities, notably antimicrobial. In this study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N2-4 and N3-8 were isolated from soil and their metabolites could kill Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium also found in soil in its endemic areas. Moreover, the metabolites were able to kill drug resistant isolates of B. pseudomallei and also inhibit other pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii but not the non-pathogenic Burkholderia thailandensis, which is closely related to B. pseudomallei. Since the antimicrobial activity of N3-8 was not partially decreased or abolished when treated with proteolytic enzymes or autoclaved, but N2-4 was, these two strains should have produced different compounds. The N3-8 metabolites with antimicrobial activity consisted of both protein and non-protein compounds. The inhibition spectrum of the precipitated proteins compared to the culture supernatant indicated a possible synergistic effect of the non-protein and peptide compounds of N3-8 isolates against other pathogens. When either N2-4 or N3-8 isolates was co-cultured with B. pseudomallei the numbers of the bacteria decreased by 5 log 10 within 72 h. Further purification and characterization of the metabolites is required for future use of the bacteria or their metabolites as biological controls of B. pseudomallei in the environment or for development as new drugs for problematic pathogenic bacteria.

  1. Correlation between Plant Secondary Metabolites and Their Antifungal Mechanisms–A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Sara; Jäger, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The search for new antifungal drugs often involves secondary metabolites from plants because of their pharmacological activity against foreign pathogens. Among the modern drugs in use today about 40% are of natural origin. To distinguish the secondary metabolites they can be divided into groups...... search for existing knowledge about antifungal mechanisms of different secondary metabolites from plants. The secondary metabolites have been grouped into three major groups according to their biosynthetic origin, and into subgroups according to their structure. There seems to be a correlation between...... biosynthetic groups of secondary metabolites; the phenolic compounds and the nitrogen containing compounds. Despite this there are correlations between some of the subgroups and their antifungal mechanism of actions....

  2. The effects of cadmium chloride on secondary metabolite production in Vitis vinifera cv. cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Emine Sema; Babalik, Zehra; Hallac-Turk, Filiz; Gokturk-Baydar, Nilgun

    2014-09-23

    Plant secondary metabolites are possess several biological activities such as anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-aging, etc. Cell suspension culture is one of the most effective systems to produce secondary metabolites. It is possible to increase the phenolic compounds and tocopherols by using cell suspensions. Studies on tocopherols production by cell suspension cultures are seldom and generally focused on seed oil plants. Although fresh grape, grape seed, pomace and grape seed oil had tocopherols, with our best knowledge, there is no research on tocopherol accumulation in the grape cell suspension cultures. In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cadmium chloride treatments on secondary metabolite production in cell suspension cultures of grapevine. Cell suspensions initiated from callus belonging to petiole tissue was used as a plant material. Cadmium chloride was applied to cell suspension cultures in different concentration (1.0 mM and 1.5 mM) to enhance secondary metabolite (total phenolics, total flavanols, total flavonols, trans-resveratrol, and α-, β-, γ- δ-tocopherols) production. Cells were harvested at two days intervals until the 6th day of cultures. Amounts of total phenolics, total flavanols and total flavonols; trans-resveratrol and tocopherols (α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols) and dry cell weights were determined in the harvested cells. Phenolic contents were significantly affected by the sampling time and cadmium concentrations. The highest values of total phenolic (168.82 mg/100 g), total flavanol (15.94 mg/100 g), total flavonol (14.73 mg/100 g) and trans-resveratrol (490.76 μg/100 g) were found in cells treated with 1.0 mM CdCl2 and harvested at day 2. Contents of tocopherols in the cells cultured in the presence of 1.0 mM CdCl2 gradually increased during the culture period and the highest values of α, β and γ tocopherols (145.61, 25.52 and 18.56 μg/100 g) were detected in the cell cultures collected at day 6

  3. The effects of cadmium chloride on secondary metabolite production in Vitis vinifera cv. cell suspension cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Sema Cetin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant secondary metabolites are possess several biological activities such as anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-aging, etc. Cell suspension culture is one of the most effective systems to produce secondary metabolites. It is possible to increase the phenolic compounds and tocopherols by using cell suspensions. Studies on tocopherols production by cell suspension cultures are seldom and generally focused on seed oil plants. Although fresh grape, grape seed, pomace and grape seed oil had tocopherols, with our best knowledge, there is no research on tocopherol accumulation in the grape cell suspension cultures. In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cadmium chloride treatments on secondary metabolite production in cell suspension cultures of grapevine. Cell suspensions initiated from callus belonging to petiole tissue was used as a plant material. Cadmium chloride was applied to cell suspension cultures in different concentration (1.0 mM and 1.5 mM to enhance secondary metabolite (total phenolics, total flavanols, total flavonols, trans-resveratrol, and α-, β-, γ- δ-tocopherols production. Cells were harvested at two days intervals until the 6th day of cultures. Amounts of total phenolics, total flavanols and total flavonols; trans-resveratrol and tocopherols (α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols and dry cell weights were determined in the harvested cells. RESULTS: Phenolic contents were significantly affected by the sampling time and cadmium concentrations. The highest values of total phenolic (168.82 mg/100 g, total flavanol (15.94 mg/100 g, total flavonol (14.73 mg/100 g and trans-resveratrol (490.76 µg/100 g were found in cells treated with 1.0 mM CdCl2 and harvested at day 2. Contents of tocopherols in the cells cultured in the presence of 1.0 mM CdCl2 gradually increased during the culture period and the highest values of α, β and γ tocopherols (145.61, 25.52 and 18.56 µg/100 g were detected in the cell

  4. Antifouling Activity of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chinese Marine Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yong Xin

    2013-04-25

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml-1. Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml-1 and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  5. Optimized Jasmonic Acid Production by Lasiodiplodia theobromae Reveals Formation of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Eng

    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume. Moreover, cultures grown in medium containing potassium nitrate as nitrogen source produced higher amounts of jasmonic acid than analogous cultures supplemented with ammonium nitrate. When cultivated under optimal conditions for jasmonic acid production, L. theobromae secreted several secondary metabolites known from plants into the medium. Among those we found 3-oxo-2-(pent-2-enyl-cyclopentane-1-butanoic acid (OPC-4 and hydroxy-jasmonic acid derivatives, respectively, suggesting that fungal jasmonate metabolism may involve similar reaction steps as that of plants. To characterize fungal growth and jasmonic acid-formation, we established a mathematical model describing both processes. This model may form the basis of industrial upscaling attempts. Importantly, it showed that jasmonic acid-formation is not associated to fungal growth. Therefore, this finding suggests that jasmonic acid, despite its enormous amount being produced upon fungal development, serves merely as secondary metabolite.

  6. Profiling of secondary metabolite gene clusters regulated by LaeA in Aspergillus niger FGSC A1279 based on genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Lv, Yangyong; Li, Xuejie; Lin, Yiying; Deng, Hai; Pan, Li

    The global regulator LaeA controls the production of many fungal secondary metabolites, possibly via chromatin remodeling. Here we aimed to survey the secondary metabolite profile regulated by LaeA in Aspergillus niger FGSC A1279 by genome sequencing and comparative transcriptomics between the laeA deletion (ΔlaeA) and overexpressing (OE-laeA) mutants. Genome sequencing revealed four putative polyketide synthase genes specific to FGSC A1279, suggesting that the corresponding polyketide compounds might be unique to FGSC A1279. RNA-seq data revealed 281 putative secondary metabolite genes upregulated in the OE-laeA mutants, including 22 secondary metabolite backbone genes. LC-MS chemical profiling illustrated that many secondary metabolites were produced in OE-laeA mutants compared to wild type and ΔlaeA mutants, providing potential resources for drug discovery. KEGG analysis annotated 16 secondary metabolite clusters putatively linked to metabolic pathways. Furthermore, 34 of 61 Zn 2 Cys 6 transcription factors located in secondary metabolite clusters were differentially expressed between ΔlaeA and OE-laeA mutants. Three secondary metabolite clusters (cluster 18, 30 and 33) containing Zn 2 Cys 6 transcription factors that were upregulated in OE-laeA mutants were putatively linked to KEGG pathways, suggesting that Zn 2 Cys 6 transcription factors might play an important role in synthesizing secondary metabolites regulated by LaeA. Taken together, LaeA dramatically influences the secondary metabolite profile in FGSC A1279. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of metabolites produced by Trichoderma species against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolites released from Trichoderma viride, T. polysporum, T. hamatum and T. aureoviride were tested in culture medium against Ceratocystis paradoxa, which causes black seed rot in oil palm sprouted seeds. The Trichoderma metabolites had similar fungistatic effects on the growth of C. paradoxa except those from T.

  8. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Rapid Secondary-Metabolite Profiling of Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Jung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocean is a rich resource of flora, fauna, and food. A wild-type bacterial strain showing confluent growth on marine agar with antibacterial activity was isolated from marine water, identified using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Pseudoalteromonas sp., and designated as strain M2. This strain was found to produce various secondary metabolites including quinolone alkaloids. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis, we identified nine secondary metabolites of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinoline (pseudane-III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI. Additionally, this strain produced two novel, closely related compounds, 2-isopentylqunoline-4-one and 2-(2,3-dimetylbutylqunoline-4-(1H-one, which have not been previously reported from marine bacteria. From the metabolites produced by Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2, 2-(2,3-dimethylbutylquinolin-4-one, pseudane-VI, and pseudane-VII inhibited melanin synthesis in Melan-A cells by 23.0%, 28.2%, and 42.7%, respectively, wherein pseudane-VII showed the highest inhibition at 8 µg/mL. The results of this study suggest that liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS-based metabolite screening effectively improves the efficiency of novel metabolite discovery. Additionally, these compounds are promising candidates for further bioactivity development.

  9. A comparative study of conventional and supercritical fluid extraction methods for the recovery of secondary metabolites from Syzygium campanulatum Korth#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Abdul Hakeem; Hamil, Mohammad Shahrul Ridzuan; Laghari, Madeeha; Rithwan, Fahim; Zhari, Salman; Saeed, Mohammed Ali Ahmed; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium campanulatum Korth is a plant, which is a rich source of secondary metabolites (especially flavanones, chalcone, and triterpenoids). In our present study, three conventional solvent extraction (CSE) techniques and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) techniques were performed to achieve a maximum recovery of two flavanones, chalcone, and two triterpenoids from S. campanulatum leaves. Furthermore, a Box-Behnken design was constructed for the SFE technique using pressure, temperature, and particle size as independent variables, and yields of crude extract, individual and total secondary metabolites as the dependent variables. In the CSE procedure, twenty extracts were produced using ten different solvents and three techniques (maceration, soxhletion, and reflux). An enriched extract of five secondary metabolites was collected using n-hexane:methanol (1:1) soxhletion. Using food-grade ethanol as a modifier, the SFE methods produced a higher recovery (25.5%‒84.9%) of selected secondary metabolites as compared to the CSE techniques (0.92%‒66.00%). PMID:27604860

  10. Ecological functions of Trichoderma spp. and their secondary metabolites in the rhizosphere: interactions with plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; del-Val, Ek; Larsen, John

    2016-04-01

    Trichodermaspp. are common soil and root inhabitants that have been widely studied due to their capacity to produce antibiotics, parasitize other fungi and compete with deleterious plant microorganisms. These fungi produce a number of secondary metabolites such as non-ribosomal peptides, terpenoids, pyrones and indolic-derived compounds. In the rhizosphere, the exchange and recognition of signaling molecules byTrichodermaand plants may alter physiological and biochemical aspects in both. For example, severalTrichodermastrains induce root branching and increase shoot biomass as a consequence of cell division, expansion and differentiation by the presence of fungal auxin-like compounds. Furthermore,Trichoderma, in association with plant roots, can trigger systemic resistance and improve plant nutrient uptake. The present review describes the most recent advances in understanding the ecological functions ofTrichodermaspp. in the rhizosphere at biochemical and molecular levels with special emphasis on their associations with plants. Finally, through a synthesis of the current body of work, we present potential future research directions on studies related toTrichodermaspp. and their secondary metabolites in agroecosystems. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Marine Actinobacteria from the Gulf of California: diversity, abundance and secondary metabolite biosynthetic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Espinosa, Amayaly; Freel, Kelle C; Jensen, Paul R; Soria-Mercado, Irma E

    2013-04-01

    The Gulf of California is a coastal marine ecosystem characterized as having abundant biological resources and a high level of endemism. In this work we report the isolation and characterization of Actinobacteria from different sites in the western Gulf of California. We collected 126 sediment samples and isolated on average 3.1-38.3 Actinobacterial strains from each sample. Phylogenetic analysis of 136 strains identified them as members of the genera Actinomadura, Micromonospora, Nocardiopsis, Nonomuraea, Saccharomonospora, Salinispora, Streptomyces and Verrucosispora. These strains were grouped into 26-56 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identities of 98-100 %. At 98 % sequence identity, three OTUs appear to represent new taxa while nine (35 %) have only been reported from marine environments. Sixty-three strains required seawater for growth. These fell into two OTUs at the 98 % identity level and include one that failed to produce aerial hyphae and was only distantly related (≤95.5 % 16S identity) to any previously cultured Streptomyces sp. Phylogenetic analyses of ketosynthase domains associated with polyketide synthase genes revealed sequences that ranged from 55 to 99 % nucleotide identity to experimentally characterized biosynthetic pathways suggesting that some may be associated with the production of new secondary metabolites. These results indicate that marine sediments from the Gulf of California harbor diverse Actinobacterial taxa with the potential to produce new secondary metabolites.

  12. Pharmacological studies confirm neurotoxic metabolite(s) produced by the bloom-forming Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehovszky, Á; Kovács, A W; Farkas, A; Győri, J; Szabó, H; Vasas, G

    2015-05-01

    A rapid cyanobacterial bloom of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (3.2 × 10(4) filaments/mL) was detected early November, 2012, in the Fancsika pond (East Hungary). The strong discoloration of water was accompanied by a substantial fish mortality (even dead cats were seen on the site), raising the possibility of some toxic metabolites in the water produced by the bloom-forming cyanobacteria (C. raciborskii). The potential neuronal targets of the toxic substances in the bloom sample were studied on identified neurons (RPas) in the central nervous system of Helix pomatia. The effects of the crude aqueous extracts of the Fancsika bloom sample (FBS) and the laboratory isolate of C. raciborskii from the pond (FLI) were compared with reference samples: C. raciborskii ACT 9505 (isolated in 1995 from Lake Balaton, Hungary), the cylindrospermopsin producer AQS, and the neurotoxin (anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a) producer Oscillatoria sp. (PCC 6506) strains. Electrophysiological tests showed that both FBS and FLI samples as well the ACT 9505 extracts modulate the acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) of the neurons, evoking ACh agonist effects, then inhibiting the ACh-evoked neuronal responses. Dose-response data suggested about the same range of toxicity of FBS and FLI samples (EC50  = 0.397 mg/mL and 0.917 mg/mL, respectively) and ACT 9505 extracts (EC50  = 0.734 mg/mL). The extract of the neurotoxin-producing PCC 6506 strain, however, proved to be the strongest inhibitor of the ACh responses on the same neurons (EC50  = 0.073 mg/mL). The presented results demonstrated an anatoxin-a-like cholinergic inhibitory effects of cyanobacterial extracts (both the environmental FBS sample, and the laboratory isolate, FLI) by some (yet unidentified) toxic components in the matrix of secondary metabolites. Previous pharmacological studies of cyanobacterial samples collected in other locations (Balaton, West Hungary) resulted in similar conclusions; therefore, we cannot exclude that

  13. The Use of Secondary Metabolites Heracleum Sosnowskyi Manden in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. BUDARIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of secondary metabolites Heracleum sosnowskyi include: tannins, essential oils, furanocoumarin and other agent. The greatest interest is the phenolic compounds coumarin furanocoumarin order which is known for their photosensitizing effect. Coumarins are part of hogweed. The greatest number of different kinds of coumarin was found in fruit. Researchers from the Far Eastern Branch of the RAS have been identified series of angelicin furocoumarins (sfondin, angelicin and psoralenum (bergapten, xanthotoxin, oksikumarina umbeliferon furocoumarins. In our research we have identified the influence of active substances hogweed on growth and development of different groups of plants.So experiment with biotest Heracleum sosnowskyi sap (with concentration are 1:1, 1:4, 1:16, and control - H2O stimulates energy germination of pea seeds (Vicia sativa L. - 6%, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. - 1,2%, barley (Hordeum vulgare L. - 5%, and tutsan (Hypéricum perforátum L. - 3,5% at a concentration of 1:16. The same concentration has an inhibitory effect on radish (Raphanus sativus L., chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. and oregano (Oríganum vulgáre L..In the experiment on the effect of active substances contained in the soil under hogweed (the control is the soil where wasn’t Heracleum sosnowskyi we observed a stimulatory effect on plant growth and development of wild camomile. So biometric indicators chamomile plants was grown in the A1 horizon (topsoil differ significantly in all indicators of underlying horizons and from controls.So Heracleum sosnowskyi possessing high photosensitizing effect due to content in the bergapten, psoralen, xanthotoxin can be used for medicine along with Ammi majus as the raw material for the preparation of herbal remedies in dermatology. Also in our studies we have shown the use of active substances hogweed in agriculture as regulators growth of some plant species: camomile, wheat, pea, barley, tutsan.

  14. Differential Retention of Gene Functions in a Secondary Metabolite Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Hannah T; Slot, Jason C; Divon, Hege H; Lysøe, Erik; Proctor, Robert H; Brown, Daren W

    2017-08-01

    In fungi, distribution of secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters is often associated with host- or environment-specific benefits provided by SMs. In the plant pathogen Alternaria brassicicola (Dothideomycetes), the DEP cluster confers an ability to synthesize the SM depudecin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that contributes weakly to virulence. The DEP cluster includes genes encoding enzymes, a transporter, and a transcription regulator. We investigated the distribution and evolution of the DEP cluster in 585 fungal genomes and found a wide but sporadic distribution among Dothideomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes. We confirmed DEP gene expression and depudecin production in one fungus, Fusarium langsethiae. Phylogenetic analyses suggested 6-10 horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) of the cluster, including a transfer that led to the presence of closely related cluster homologs in Alternaria and Fusarium. The analyses also indicated that HGTs were frequently followed by loss/pseudogenization of one or more DEP genes. Independent cluster inactivation was inferred in at least four fungal classes. Analyses of transitions among functional, pseudogenized, and absent states of DEP genes among Fusarium species suggest enzyme-encoding genes are lost at higher rates than the transporter (DEP3) and regulatory (DEP6) genes. The phenotype of an experimentally-induced DEP3 mutant of Fusarium did not support the hypothesis that selective retention of DEP3 and DEP6 protects fungi from exogenous depudecin. Together, the results suggest that HGT and gene loss have contributed significantly to DEP cluster distribution, and that some DEP genes provide a greater fitness benefit possibly due to a differential tendency to form network connections. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Tropical biodiversity: has it been a potential source of secondary metabolites useful for medicinal chemistry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Valli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural products has definitely been the most successful strategy in the discovery of novel medicines. Secondary metabolites from terrestrial and marine organisms have found considerable use in the treatment of numerous diseases and have been considered lead molecules both in their natural form and as templates for medicinal chemistry. This paper seeks to show the great value of secondary metabolites and emphasize the rich chemical diversity of Brazilian biodiversity. This natural chemical library remains understudied, but can be a useful source of new secondary metabolites with potential application as templates for drug discovery.

  16. Tropical biodiversity: has it been a potential source of secondary metabolites useful for medicinal chemistry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valli, Marilia; Pivatto, Marcos; Danuello, Amanda; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Araujo, Angela Regina; Furlan, Maysa; Lopes, Marcia Nasser; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The use of natural products has definitely been the most successful strategy in the discovery of novel medicines. Secondary metabolites from terrestrial and marine organisms have found considerable use in the treatment of numerous diseases and have been considered lead molecules both in their natural form and as templates for medicinal chemistry. This paper seeks to show the great value of secondary metabolites and emphasize the rich chemical diversity of Brazilian biodiversity. This natural chemical library remains understudied, but can be a useful source of new secondary metabolites with potential application as templates for drug discovery. (author)

  17. Tropical biodiversity: has it been a potential source of secondary metabolites useful for medicinal chemistry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valli, Marilia; Pivatto, Marcos; Danuello, Amanda; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Araujo, Angela Regina; Furlan, Maysa; Lopes, Marcia Nasser; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva, E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2012-07-01

    The use of natural products has definitely been the most successful strategy in the discovery of novel medicines. Secondary metabolites from terrestrial and marine organisms have found considerable use in the treatment of numerous diseases and have been considered lead molecules both in their natural form and as templates for medicinal chemistry. This paper seeks to show the great value of secondary metabolites and emphasize the rich chemical diversity of Brazilian biodiversity. This natural chemical library remains understudied, but can be a useful source of new secondary metabolites with potential application as templates for drug discovery. (author)

  18. In Vivo and Real-time Monitoring of Secondary Metabolites of Living Organisms by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry.

  19. Metabolomics and bioanalysis of terpenoid derived secondary metabolites : Analysis of Cannabis sativa L. metabolite production and prenylases for cannabinoid production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntendam, Remco

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoid research has gained a renenewed interest by both the public and scientist. Focus is mainly directed to the medicinal activities, as reported for various cannabinoid structures. This thesis focusses on prenyl-derived secondary metabolites with main focus on cannabinoids. Firstly the

  20. Metabolites Produced by Nitrogen-Fixing Nostoc Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dembitsky, V. M.; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2005), s. 363-391 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : nostoc * metabolites * cyanobacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  1. Importance and Implications of the Production of Phenolic Secondary Metabolites by Endophytic Fungi: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreiros de Carvalho, Patrícia Lunardelli; Silva, Eliane de Oliveira; Chagas-Paula, Daniela Aparecida; Hortolan Luiz, Jaine Honorata; Ikegaki, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    In the natural products research, a valuable approach is the prospection of uncommon sources and unexplored habitat. Special attention has been given to endophytic fungi because of their ability to produce new and interesting secondary metabolites, which have several biological applications. The endophytes establish exclusive symbiotic relationships with plants and the metabolic interactions may support the synthesis of some similar valuables compounds. Among secondary metabolites, phenol-derived structures are responsible for several bioactivities such as antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, among others. Phenolic compounds might be biosynthesized from the shikimate pathway. Although shikimic acid is a common precursor in plants, it is described as rare in microorganisms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review about phenolic compounds produced by endophytic fungi and a comparison has been made with those produced by the plant host. This review covers 124 phenolic secondary metabolites produced by endophytic fungi. Considering the data analyzed by us, only seven of such compounds were isolated from fungi and from their hosts. These observations claim for more attention to phenolic compounds produced by endophytic fungi with a view to understand the real importance of these compounds to endophytes survival.

  2. Metabolic engineering with systems biology tools to optimize production of prokaryotic secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering using systems biology tools is increasingly applied to overproduce secondary metabolites for their potential industrial production. In this Highlight, recent relevant metabolic engineering studies are analyzed with emphasis on host selection and engineering approaches for th...

  3. Toxic secondary metabolite production in genetically modified potatoes in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Derek; Jones, Huw; Gans, Paul; Coates, Steven; Smith, Lydia M J

    2005-10-05

    Potatoes produce a number of toxic secondary metabolites, which are divided into two groups: the sesquiterpenes and the glycoalkaloids (PGAs): whereas PGAs are largely preformed and present in toxic quantities in both the foliage and "green" potatoes, it is well documented that the levels of PGAs and sesquiterpenes are effected by many biotic an abiotic stresses. The development of genetically modified potato varieties has made it prudent to ascertain whether there may be changes in the amounts or types of these secondary metabolites either as a direct effect of the transgene or due to its interactions with environmental variables. Transgenic potato lines were exposed, along with nontransgenic lines, to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses and a range of environmental conditions in the field and store. Following stressing, a comparison was made of levels of potato glycoalkaloid and sesquiterpene levels between the two groups. Significant differences were observed in the levels of both glycoalkaloid and sesquiterpene levels between transgenic and control material and between infected and noninfected material.

  4. Direct Analyses of Secondary Metabolites by Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentan Silva, Denise; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Spring, Otmar

    2017-05-10

    Helianthus annuus (sunflower) displays non-glandular trichomes (NGT), capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), and linear glandular trichomes (LGT), which reveal different chemical compositions and locations in different plant tissues. With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques, efficient methods were developed to analyze the tissue distribution of secondary metabolites (flavonoids and sesquiterpenes) and proteins inside of trichomes. Herein, we analyzed sesquiterpene lactones, present in CGT, from leaf transversal sections using the matrix 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) (mixture 1:1) with sodium ions added to increase the ionization in positive ion mode. The results observed for sesquiterpenes and polymethoxylated flavones from LGT were similar. However, upon desiccation, LGT changed their shape in the ionization source, complicating analyses by MSI mainly after matrix application. An alternative method could be applied to LGT regions by employing LDI (without matrix) in negative ion mode. The polymethoxylated flavones were easily ionized by LDI, producing images with higher resolution, but the sesquiterpenes were not observed in spectra. Thus, the application and viability of MALDI imaging for the analyses of protein and secondary metabolites inside trichomes were confirmed, highlighting the importance of optimization parameters.

  5. Estimation of induced secondary metabolites in chickpea tissues in response to elicitor preparation of seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, F.; Iqbal, S.

    2000-01-01

    Disease response of plants in terms of induced browning and phytoalexin (induced secondary metabolites) production were recorded in the tissues of Cicer arietinum (Chick pea) treated with the High Molecular Crude Elicitor Preparations, HMWCEP 'Polysaccharides' of Hypnea musciformis (red algae), Padina tetrastromatica (brown algae) and Ulva lactulus (green algae). A UV-visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantification of induced secondary metabolites with time. (author)

  6. Synthesis and Bioactivity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Sponges Containing Dibrominated Indolic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Stefanucci

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges. (e.g., Hyrtios sp., Dragmacidin sp., Aglophenia pleuma, Aplidium cyaneum, Aplidium meridianum. produce bioactive secondary metabolites involved in their defence mechanisms. Recently it was demonstrated that several of those compounds show a large variety of biological activities against different human diseases with possible applications in medicinal chemistry and in pharmaceutical fields, especially related to the new drug development process. Researchers have focused their attention principally on secondary metabolites with anti-cancer and cytotoxic activities. A common target for these molecules is the cytoskeleton, which has a central role in cellular proliferation, motility, and profusion involved in the metastatic process associate with tumors. In particular, many substances containing brominated indolic rings such as 5,6-dibromotryptamine, 5,6-dibromo-N-methyltryptamine, 5,6-dibromo-N-methyltryptophan (dibromoabrine, 5,6-dibromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5,6-dibromo-L-hypaphorine isolated from different marine sources, have shown anti-cancer activity, as well as antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Considering the structural correlation between endogenous monoamine serotonin with marine indolic alkaloids 5,6-dibromoabrine and 5,6-dibromotryptamine, a potential use of some dibrominated indolic metabolites in the treatment of depression-related pathologies has also been hypothesized. Due to the potential applications in the treatment of various diseases and the increasing demand of these compounds for biological assays and the difficult of their isolation from marine sources, we report in this review a series of recent syntheses of marine dibrominated indole-containing products.

  7. Multicomponent Analysis of the Differential Induction of Secondary Metabolite Profiles in Fungal Endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Menéndez, Víctor; Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Martín, Jesús; Muñoz, Francisca; Reyes, Fernando; Tormo, José R; Genilloud, Olga

    2016-02-18

    Small molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors are commonly used to perturb the production of fungal metabolites leading to the induction of the expression of silent biosynthetic pathways. Several reports have described the variable effects observed in natural product profiles in fungi treated with HDAC and DNMT inhibitors, such as enhanced chemical diversity and/or the induction of new molecules previously unknown to be produced by the strain. Fungal endophytes are known to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites (SMs) involved in their adaptation and survival within higher plants. The plant-microbe interaction may influence the expression of some biosynthetic pathways, otherwise cryptic in these fungi when grown in vitro. The aim of this study was to setup a systematic approach to evaluate and identify the possible effects of HDAC and DNMT inhibitors on the metabolic profiles of wild type fungal endophytes, including the chemical identification and characterization of the most significant SMs induced by these epigenetic modifiers.

  8. Multicomponent Analysis of the Differential Induction of Secondary Metabolite Profiles in Fungal Endophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor González-Menéndez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Small molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT inhibitors are commonly used to perturb the production of fungal metabolites leading to the induction of the expression of silent biosynthetic pathways. Several reports have described the variable effects observed in natural product profiles in fungi treated with HDAC and DNMT inhibitors, such as enhanced chemical diversity and/or the induction of new molecules previously unknown to be produced by the strain. Fungal endophytes are known to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites (SMs involved in their adaptation and survival within higher plants. The plant-microbe interaction may influence the expression of some biosynthetic pathways, otherwise cryptic in these fungi when grown in vitro. The aim of this study was to setup a systematic approach to evaluate and identify the possible effects of HDAC and DNMT inhibitors on the metabolic profiles of wild type fungal endophytes, including the chemical identification and characterization of the most significant SMs induced by these epigenetic modifiers.

  9. Antimicrobial efficacy of secondary metabolites from Glomerella cingulata Eficiência antimicrobiana do extrato bruto de Glomerella cingulata

    OpenAIRE

    K. Hara Kishore; Sunil Misra; D. Ramesh Chandra; K.V.V. R. Prakash; U. Suryanarayana Murty

    2007-01-01

    Fungi are known to produce a vast array of secondary metabolites that are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. Early reports suggest that G. cingulata has the capability to transform many compounds by various enzymatic actions. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activity of crude ethyl acetate extract of G. cingulata using agar cup bioassay method. Crude extract of G. cingulata exhibited remarkable antifungal activity ag...

  10. Secondary Metabolites Produced during the Germination of Streptomyces coelicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čihák, M.; Kameník, Zdeněk; Šmídová, Klára; Bergman, N.; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Petříčková, Kateřina; Bobek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, DEC 13 (2017), č. článku 2495. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : spore germination * Streptomyces * cell signaling Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  11. An IgaA/UmoB Family Protein from Serratia marcescens Regulates Motility, Capsular Polysaccharide Biosynthesis, and Secondary Metabolite Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Nicholas A; Brothers, Kimberly M; Callaghan, Jake D; Passerini, Angelina M; Sigindere, Cihad; Hill, Preston J; Liu, Xinyu; Wozniak, Daniel J; Shanks, Robert M Q

    2018-03-15

    Secondary metabolites are an important source of pharmaceuticals and key modulators of microbe-microbe interactions. The bacterium Serratia marcescens is part of the Enterobacteriaceae family of eubacteria and produces a number of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we screened for novel regulators of secondary metabolites synthesized by a clinical isolate of S. marcescens and found mutations in a gene for an uncharacterized UmoB/IgaA family member here named gumB Mutation of gumB conferred a severe loss of the secondary metabolites prodigiosin and serratamolide. The gumB mutation conferred pleiotropic phenotypes, including altered biofilm formation, highly increased capsular polysaccharide production, and loss of swimming and swarming motility. These phenotypes corresponded to transcriptional changes in fimA , wecA , and flhD Unlike other UmoB/IgaA family members, gumB was found to be not essential for growth in S. marcescens , yet igaA from Salmonella enterica , yrfF from Escherichia coli , and an uncharacterized predicted ortholog from Klebsiella pneumoniae complemented the gumB mutant secondary metabolite defects, suggesting highly conserved function. These data support the idea that UmoB/IgaA family proteins are functionally conserved and extend the known regulatory influence of UmoB/IgaA family proteins to the control of competition-associated secondary metabolites and biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE IgaA/UmoB family proteins are found in members of the Enterobacteriaceae family of bacteria, which are of environmental and public health importance. IgaA/UmoB family proteins are thought to be inner membrane proteins that report extracellular stresses to intracellular signaling pathways that respond to environmental challenge. This study introduces a new member of the IgaA/UmoB family and demonstrates a high degree of functional similarity between IgaA/UmoB family proteins. Moreover, this study extends the phenomena controlled by Iga

  12. Plant Bioactive Metabolites and Drugs Produced by Endophytic Fungi of Spermatophyta

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    Rosario Nicoletti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that plant-based ethnomedicine represented the foundation of modern pharmacology and that many pharmaceuticals are derived from compounds occurring in plant extracts. This track still stimulates a worldwide investigational activity aimed at identifying novel bioactive products of plant origin. However, the discovery that endophytic fungi are able to produce many plant-derived drugs has disclosed new horizons for their availability and production on a large scale by the pharmaceutical industry. In fact, following the path traced by the blockbuster drug taxol, an increasing number of valuable compounds originally characterized as secondary metabolites of plant species belonging to the Spermatophyta have been reported as fermentation products of endophytic fungal strains. Aspects concerning sources and bioactive properties of these compounds are reviewed in this paper.

  13. The improvement of bioactive secondary metabolites accumulation in Rumex gmelini Turcz through co-culture with endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chang-Hong; Wang, Qian-Bo; Guo, Shenglei; Wang, Zhen-Yue

    Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., and Ramularia sp. were endophytic fungi isolated from Rumex gmelini Turcz (RGT), all of these three strains could produce some similar bioactive secondary metabolites of their host. However the ability to produce active components degraded significantly after cultured these fungi alone for a long time, and were difficult to recover. In order to obtain more bioactive secondary metabolites, the co-culture of tissue culture seedlings of RGT and its endophytic fungi were established respectively, and RGT seedling was selected as producer. Among these fungi, Aspergillus sp. showed the most significant enhancement on bioactive components accumulation in RGT seedlings. When inoculated Aspergillus sp. spores into media of RGT seedlings that had taken root for 20d, and made spore concentration in co-culture medium was 1×10 4 mL -1 , after co-cultured for 12d, the yield of chrysophaein, resveratrol, chrysophanol, emodin and physcion were 3.52-, 3.70-, 3.60-, 4.25-, 3.85-fold of the control group. The extreme value of musizin yield was 0.289mg, which was not detected in the control groups. The results indicated that co-culture with endophytic fungi could significantly enhance bioactive secondary metabolites production of RGT seedlings. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantification of a bacterial secondary metabolite by SERS combined with SLM extraction for bioprocess monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Lidia; Andreasen, Sune Zoëga; Jendresen, Christian Bille; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard; Emnéus, Jenny; Zór, Kinga; Boisen, Anja

    2017-11-20

    During the last few decades, great advances have been reached in high-throughput design and building of genetically engineered microbial strains, leading to a need for fast and reliable screening methods. We developed and optimized a microfluidic supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction device and combined it with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing for the screening of a biological process, namely for the quantification of a bacterial secondary metabolite, p-coumaric acid (pHCA), produced by Escherichia coli. The microfluidic device proved to be robust and reusable, enabling efficient removal of interfering compounds from the real samples, reaching more than 13-fold up-concentration of the donor at 10 μL min -1 flow rate. With this method, we quantified pHCA directly from the bacterial supernatant, distinguishing between various culture conditions based on the pHCA production yield. The obtained data showed good correlation with HPLC analysis.

  15. Physiological and biochemical effect of neem and other Meliaceae plants secondary metabolites against Lepidopteran insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil-Nathan eSengottayan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This review described the physiological and biochemical effects of various secondary metabolites from Meliaceae against major Lepidopteran insect pest including, Noctuidae and Pyralidae. The biochemical effect of major Meliaceae secondary metabolites were discussed more in this review. Several enzymes based on food materials have critical roles in nutritional indices (food utilization of the insect pest population. Several research work has been referred and the effect of Meliaceae secondary metabolites on feeding parameters of insects by demonstrating food consumption, approximate digestibility of consumed food, efficiency of converting the ingested food to body substance, efficiency of converting digested food to body substance and consumption index was reviewed in detail. Further how the digestive enzymes including a-Amylases, α and β- glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.1, lipases (EC 3.1.1 Proteases, serine, cysteine, and aspartic proteinases affected by the Meliaceae secondary metabolites was reviewed. Further effect of Meliaceae secondary metabolites on detoxifying enzymes have been found to react against botanical insecticides including general esterases (EST, glutathione S-transferase (GST and phosphatases was reviewed. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, E.C.3.1.3.1 and acid phosphatase (ACP, E.C.3.1.3.2 are hydrolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze phosphomonoesters under alkaline or acid conditions, respectively. These enzymes were affected by the secondary metabolites treatment. The detailed mechanism of action was further explained in this review. Acethylcholine esterase (AChE is a key enzyme that terminates nerve impulses by catalyzing the hydrolysis of neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, in the nervous system of various organisms. How the AChE activity was altered by the Meliaceae secondary metabolites reviewed in detail.

  16. Fungal endophytes - secret producers of bioactive plant metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, A H; Debbab, A; Proksch, P

    2013-07-01

    The potential of endophytic fungi as promising sources of bioactive natural products continues to attract broad attention. Endophytic fungi are defined as fungi that live asymptomatically within the tissues of higher plants. This overview will highlight the uniqueness of endophytic fungi as alternative sources of pharmaceutically valuable compounds originally isolated from higher plants, e.g. paclitaxel, camptothecin and podophyllotoxin. In addition, it will shed light on the fungal biosynthesis of plant associated metabolites as well as new approaches developed to improve the production of commercially important plant derived compounds with the involvement of endophytic fungi.

  17. Filamentous fungi from extreme environments as a promising source of novel bioactive secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Renato; Fierro, Francisco; García-Rico, Ramón O; Vaca, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Natural product search is undergoing resurgence upon the discovery of a huge previously unknown potential for secondary metabolite (SM) production hidden in microbial genomes. This is also the case for filamentous fungi, since their genomes contain a high number of "orphan" SM gene clusters. Recent estimates indicate that only 5% of existing fungal species have been described, thus the potential for the discovery of novel metabolites in fungi is huge. In this context, fungi thriving in harsh environments are of particular interest since they are outstanding producers of unusual chemical structures. At present, there are around 16 genomes from extreme environment-isolated fungi in databases. In a preliminary analysis of three of these genomes we found that several of the predicted SM gene clusters are probably involved in the biosynthesis of compounds not yet described. Genome mining strategies allow the exploitation of the information in genome sequences for the discovery of new natural compounds. The synergy between genome mining strategies and the expected abundance of SMs in fungi from extreme environments is a promising path to discover new natural compounds as a source of medically useful drugs.

  18. Antioxidant potential of lichen species and their secondary metabolites. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moriano, Carlos; Gómez-Serranillos, María Pilar; Crespo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological interest of lichens lies in their capacity to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, being most of them phenolic compounds with reactive hydroxyl groups that confer antioxidant potential through various mechanisms. Increasing incidence and impact of oxidative stress-related diseases (i.e., neurodegenerative disorders) has encouraged the search of new pharmacological strategies to face them. Lichens appear to be a promising source of phenolic compounds in the discovery of natural products exerting antioxidant activity. The present review thoroughly discusses the available knowledge on antioxidant properties of lichens, including both in vitro and in vivo studies and the parameters assessed so far on lichen constituents. Literature survey was performed by using as main databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, and Recent Literature on Lichens. We reviewed 98 highlighted research articles without date restriction. Current report collects data related to antioxidant activities of more than 75 lichen species (from 18 botanical families) and 65 isolated metabolites. Much information comes from in vitro investigations, such as chemical assays evaluating radical scavenging properties, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power of lichen species and compounds; similarly, research on cellular substrates and animal models generally measures antioxidant enzymes levels and other antioxidant markers, such as glutathione levels or tissue peroxidation. Since consistent evidence demonstrated the contribution of oxidative stress on the development and progression of several human diseases, reviewed data suggest that some lichen compounds are worthy of further investigation and better understanding of their antioxidant and neuroprotective potentials.

  19. Penicillium strains isolated from Slovak grape berries taxonomy assessment by secondary metabolite profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Antonello; Mikušová, Petra; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Labuda, Roman; Srobárová, Antónia

    2014-11-01

    The secondary metabolite profiles of microfungi of the genus Penicillium isolated from samples of grape berries collected in two different phases during two vegetative seasons in Slovakia is described to assess the taxonomy. Three Slovak vine regions have been selected for this study, based on their climatic differences and national economic importance. Cultures of microfungi isolated from berries were incubated on different selective media for macro and micromorphology identification. The species Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium palitans and Penicillium polonicum were identified according to growth and morphology. The related strains were found to produce a broad spectrum of fungal metabolites, including roquefortine C, chaetoglobosin A, penitrem A, cyclopeptin, cyclopenin, viridicatin, methylviridicatin, verrucofortine, secalonic acid D, cyclopiazonic acid, fumigaclavine and mycophenolic acid. Chemotaxonomy was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Dried grape berries were also analyzed allowing to assess the presence of patulin, roquefortine C and penicillic acid; this last one has been identified in dried berries but not in vitro.

  20. Patulin and secondary metabolite production by marine-derived Penicillium strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vansteelandt, Marieke; Kerzaon, Isabelle; Blanchet, Elodie

    2012-01-01

    )–mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. Each strain was grown on six different culture media to enhance the number of observable metabolites.Thirty-two secondary metabolites were detected in crude extracts with twenty first observations for studied species. Patulin, a major mycotoxin, was classically detected in extracts...... of these fungi in shellfish farming areas.Patulin induced acute neurotoxicity on Diptera larvae, indicating the interest of this bioassay as an additional tool for detection of this major mycotoxin in crude extracts....

  1. Secondary metabolites from the roots of Astragalus maximus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghasemian-Yadegari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Astragalus is one of the most abundant genera of flowering plants in Iran. There are a few reports on phytochemical investigation of this valuable genus. Saponins, flavonoids and polysaccharides have been reported as the most important metabolites in Astragalus species. In the present research, we aimed to identify the foremost constituents of Astragalus maximus. Method: Phytochemical analysis of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc fraction of Astragalus maximus roots was performed using different methods of chromatography such as HPLC, SPE and preparative TLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectral evidence from 1D and 2D NMR including DQF-COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and DEPT, in comparison with reported values in the literature. Results: Analysis of the extract yielded three flavonoids namely liquiritigenin, formononetin, isoquercitrin and one acylated cycloartane-type saponin, astragaloside I. Conclusion: According to the results of our study, cycloartane-type saponin and flavonoids were the important metabolites in A. maximus.

  2. Medicinal plants and secondary metabolites for diabetes mellitus control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common and complex problems of modern societies which has caused many economic and social problems. Because diabetes has no definite treatment, the use of traditional medicine seems to be an appropriate solution to control and manage it. Studies revealed that Vaccinium Arctostaphylos L., Securigera securidaca L., Gymnema sylvestre L., Atriplex halimus L., Camellia sinensis L., Ginkgo biloba L., Mamordica charantia L., Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L., Silybum marianum (L., Gaertn and Trigonella foenum graecum L. are effective against diabetes. Flavonoids, quercin, metformin, quinolizidine, anthocyanin, catechin and flavone, phenylpropanoids, lipoic acid and coumarin metabolites were introduced major impact on diabetes. With regard to the study of plants and their metabolites and the mechanisms of their influence, it is clear that these plants have the potential to reduce blood sugar and diabetes and be considered as candidates for preparing new drugs. Combination of plants extracts or their components may also have synergistic effects to better act on diabetes.

  3. Activation of Dormant Secondary Metabolite Production by Introducing Neomycin Resistance into the Deep-Sea Fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Dong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new ultrasound-mediated approach has been developed to introduce neomycin-resistance to activate silent pathways for secondary metabolite production in a bio-inactive, deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3. Upon treatment of the ZBY-3 spores with a high concentration of neomycin by proper ultrasound irradiation, a total of 30 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. The acquired resistance of the mutants to neomycin was confirmed by a resistance test. In contrast to the ZBY-3 strain, the EtOAc extracts of 22 of the 30 mutants inhibited the human cancer K562 cells, indicating that these mutants acquired a capability to produce antitumor metabolites. HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI-MS analyses of the EtOAc extracts of seven bioactive mutants and the ZBY-3 strain indicated that diverse secondary metabolites have been newly produced in the mutant extracts in contrast to the ZBY-3 extract. The followed isolation and characterization demonstrated that six metabolites, cyclo(d-Pro-d-Phe (1, cyclo(d-Tyr-d-Pro (2, phenethyl 5-oxo-l-prolinate (3, cyclo(l-Ile-l-Pro (4, cyclo(l-Leu-l-Pro (5 and 3β,5α,9α-trihydroxy-(22E,24R-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (6, were newly produced by the mutant u2n2h3-3 compared to the parent ZBY-3 strain. Compound 3 was a new compound; 2 was isolated from a natural source for the first time, and all of these compounds were also not yet found in the metabolites of other A. versicolor strains. Compounds 1–6 inhibited the K562 cells, with inhibition rates of 54.6% (1, 72.9% (2, 23.5% (3, 29.6% (4, 30.9% (5 and 51.1% (6 at 100 μg/mL, and inhibited also other human cancer HL-60, BGC-823 and HeLa cells, to some extent. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of the ultrasound-mediated approach to activate silent metabolite production in fungi by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycosides and its potential for discovering new compounds from silent

  4. Antimicrobial properties and the influence of temperature on secondary metabolite production in cold environment soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogabaanu, U.; Weber, Jean-Frederic Faizal; Convey, Peter; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Alias, Siti Aisyah

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic and Antarctic share environmental extremes. To survive in such environments, microbes such as soil fungi need to compete with or protect themselves effectively from other soil microbiota and to obtain the often scarce nutrients available, and many use secondary metabolites to facilitate this. We therefore (i) screened for antimicrobial properties of cold-environment Arctic and Antarctic soil fungi, and (ii) identified changes in the secreted secondary metabolite profiles of a subset of these strains in response to temperature variation. A total of 40 polar soil fungal strains from King George Island, maritime Antarctic and Hornsund, Svalbard, High Arctic, were obtained from the Malaysian National Antarctic Research Centre culture collections. The plug assay technique was used to screen for antimicrobial potential against Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli). About 45% of the tested fungal strains showed antimicrobial activity against at least one tested microorganism. Three fungal isolates showed good bioactivity and were subjected to secondary metabolite profiling at different temperatures (4, 10, 15 and 28 °C). We observed a range of responses in fungal metabolite production when incubated at varying temperatures, confirming an influence of environmental conditions such as temperature on the production of secondary metabolites.

  5. A Review on Venom Enzymes Neutralizing Ability of Secondary Metabolites from Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Medicinal plants are vital sources of bioactive compounds that are useful for the treatment of patients with snake bites or are indirectly applicable for boosting the effects of conventional serum therapy. These plants are being used traditionally by local healers and tribes for the treatment of patients with snake bites and therefore can be used as an alternative against snake envenomation. Scientifically, using the secondary metabolites of plants to neutralize venom enzymes has an extra benefit of being based on traditional knowledge; also, the use of such metabolites for the treatment of patients with snake bites is cheaper and the treatment can be started sooner. Methods: All the available information on various secondary metabolites exhibiting venom neutralizing ability were collected via electronic search (using Google books, Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science and articles of peer-reviewed journals. Results: Recent interest in different plant has focused on isolating and identifying of different phytoconstituents that exhibit Phospholipase A2 activity and other venom enzyme neutralizing ability. In this support convincing evidence in experimental animal models are available. Conclusion: Secondary metabolites are naturally present, have no side effect, are stable for a long time, can be easily stored, and can neutralize a wide range of snake enzymes, such as phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, protease, L-amino acid oxidase, 5’nucleotidase, etc. The current review presents a compilation of important plant secondary metabolites that are effective against snake venom due to enzyme neutralization.

  6. Evolution of secondary metabolites from an ecological and molecular phylogenetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Secondary metabolites, at least the major ones present in a plant, apparently function as defence (against herbivores, microbes, viruses or competing plants) and signal compounds (to attract pollinating or seed dispersing animals). They are thus important for the plant's survival and reproductive fitness. Secondary metabolites therefore represent adaptive characters that have been subjected to natural selection during evolution. Molecular phylogenies of the Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Lamiaceae were reconstructed and employed as a framework to map and to interpret the distribution of some major defence compounds that are typical for the respective plant families; quinolizidine alkaloids and non-protein amino acids for legumes; tropane and steroidal alkaloids for Solanaceae, and iridoids and essential oils for labiates. The distribution of the respective compounds appears to be almost mutually exclusive in the families studied, implying a strong phylogenetic and ecological component. However, on a closer look, remarkable exceptions can be observed, in that certain metabolites are absent (or present) in a given taxon, although all the neighbouring and ancestral taxa express (or do not express, respectively) the particular trait. It is argued that these patterns might reflect differential expression of the corresponding genes that have evolved earlier in plant evolution. The inconsistent secondary metabolite profiles mean that the systematic value of chemical characters becomes a matter of interpretation in the same way as traditional morphological markers. Thus, the distribution of secondary metabolites has some value for taxonomy but their occurrence apparently reflects adaptations and particular life strategies embedded in a given phylogenetic framework.

  7. Gamma irradiation of medicinally important plants and the enhancement of secondary metabolite production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardhan, P Vivek; Shukla, Lata I

    2017-09-01

    The profitable production of some important plant-based secondary metabolites (ginsenosides, saponins, camptothecin, shikonins etc.) in vitro by gamma irradiation is a current area of interest. We reviewed different types of secondary metabolites, their mode of synthesis and effect of γ-radiation on their yield for different plants, organs and in vitro cultures (callus, suspension, hairy root). Special effort has been made to review the biochemical mechanisms underlying the increase in secondary metabolites. A comparison of yield improvement with biotic and abiotic stresses was made. Phenolic compounds increase with γ-irradiation in whole plants/plant parts; psoralen content in the common herb babchi (Psoralea corylifolia) was increased as high as 32-fold with γ-irradiation of seeds at 20 kGy. The capsaicinoids, a phenolic compound increased about 10% with 10 kGy in paprika (Capsicum annum L.). The in vitro studies show all the three types of secondary metabolites are reported to increase with γ-irradiation. Stevioside, total phenolic and flavonoids content were slightly increased in 15 Gy-treated callus cultures of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.). In terpenoids, total saponin and ginsenosides content were increased 1.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively, with 100 Gy for wild ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) hairy root cultures. In alkaloids, camptothecin yield increased as high as 20-fold with 20 Gy in callus cultures of ghanera (Nothapodytes foetida). Shikonins increased up to 4-fold with 16 Gy in suspension cultures of purple gromwell (Lithospermum erythrorhizon S.). The enzymes associated with secondary metabolite production were increased with γ-irradiation of 20 Gy; namely, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) for phenolics, chalcone synthase (CHS) for flavonoids, squalene synthase (SS), squalene epoxidase (SE) and oxidosqualene cyclases (OSC) for ginsenosides and PHB (p-hydroxylbenzoic acid) geranyl transferase for shikonins. An increase in secondary

  8. Streptomyces and Saccharopolyspora hosts for heterologous expression of secondary metabolite gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltz, Richard H

    2010-08-01

    Natural products discovery from actinomycetes has been on the decline in recent years, and has suffered from a lack of innovative ways to discover new secondary metabolites within a background of the thousands of known compounds. Recent advances in whole genome sequencing have revealed that actinomycetes with large genomes encode multiple secondary metabolite pathways, most of which remain cryptic. One approach to address the expression of cryptic pathways is to first identify novel pathways by bioinformatics, then clone and express them in well-characterized hosts with known secondary metabolomes. This process should eliminate the tedious dereplication process that has hampered natural products discovery. Several laboratory and industrial production strains have been used for heterologous production of secondary metabolite pathways. This review discusses the results of these studies, and the pros and cons of using various Streptomyces and one Saccharopolyspora strain for heterologous expression. This information should provide an experimental basis to help researchers choose hosts for current application and future development to express heterologous secondary metabolite pathways in yields sufficient for rapid scale-up, biological testing, and commercial production.

  9. Anti-urease Secondary Metabolites from Seriphidium quettense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Tousif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl acetate layer of the methanolic extract of Seriphidium quettense was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to isolate one new; seriphiloid (1, and four known compounds; ilicic acid (2, 6 a -hydroxy-8(10-oplopen-14-one (3, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl-5,6,7-trimethoxy-4H-chromen-4-one (4 and 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-5,6,7-trimethoxy-4H-chromen-4-one (5. The chemical structure of the new isolate was established with the help of 1D, 2D NMR techniques and high resolution mass spectrometry. Known compounds were identified because of 1D NMR and mass spectrometric analysis and in comparison with the literature values. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, a -glucosidase and urease inhibitory activities. Most of the metabolites were found inactive; however, compounds 2 and 3 showed good antiurease activity with IC 50 value 21.5±0.1 and 20.8±0.1 µg/mL, respectively.

  10. Chitosan and grape secondary metabolites: A proteomics and metabolomics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavaresco Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a polysaccharide obtained by deacetylation of chitin, and it is involved in defence mechanisms of plants toward diseases. In the present work, V. vinifera L. cv. Ortrugo, grafted on 420A rootstock was grown in pot and treated, at veraison, by 0.03% chitosan solution at cluster level. Just before the treatment (T0 and 24 hours (T1, 48 hours (T2, 72 hours (T3 and 10 days (T4 later, the concentration of stilbenic compounds was detected, and at T1 proteomics and metabolomics analyses were done. Proteomics relies on the analysis of the complete set of proteins existing in a given substrate, while metabolomics relies on the analyses of the complete set of metabolites in a given substrate. The treatment improved the stilbene concentration over the control at T1. Proteomic analysis showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL were overexpressed in the treated grapes. SOD is known to be an enzyme active against reactive oxygen species (ROS while PAL is a key enzyme in the phenylpropanoids pathway. Metabolomics analysis highlighted the positive role of the treatment in improving the triperpenoid concentration (betulin, erythrodiol, uvaol, oleanolate; these compounds are known to be effective against microbes, insects and fungi.

  11. [Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Some Medicinal Plants and Cultivated Lichen Mycobionts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Takao

    2017-01-01

     Studies on the structural determination, biosynthesis, and biological activities of secondary metabolites from natural sources are significant in the field of natural products chemistry. This review focuses on diverse secondary metabolites isolated from medicinal plants and cultivated mycobionts of lichens in our laboratory. Monoterpene-tetrahydroisoquinoline glycosides and alkaloids isolated from Cephaelis acuminata and Alangium lamarckii gave important information on the biosynthesis of ipecac alkaloids. A variety of glycosides linked with a secologanin unit and indole alkaloids were obtained from medicinal plants belonging to the families of Rubiaceae, Apocynaceae, and Loganiaceae. Plant species of the four genera Fraxinus, Syringa, Jasminum, and Ligustrum of the family Oleaceae were chemically investigated to provide several types of secoiridoid and iridoid glucosides. The biosynthetic pathway leading from protopine to benzophenanthridine alkaloids in suspension cell cultures of Eschscholtzia californica was elucidated. The structures and biological activities of the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids of Stephania cepharantha and Nelumbo nucifera were also investigated. In addition, the mycobionts of lichens were cultivated to afford various types of metabolites that differ from the lichen substances of intact lichens but are structurally similar to fungal metabolites. The biosynthetic origins of some metabolites were also studied. These findings suggest that cultures of lichen mycobionts could be sources of new bioactive compounds and good systems for investigating secondary metabolism in lichens.

  12. Biological activities of secondary metabolites of the order Zoanthids

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Aminikhoei; Zeinab Janahmadi; Iraj Nabipour

    2015-01-01

    The phylum Cnidaria is a large, diverse and ecologically important group of marine invertebrates, which produce powerful toxins and venoms. The number of marine natural product from cnidarians isolated from class Anthozoa. Among the Anthozoa, the order of zoanthids are sessile, clonal and mostly brightly colored invertebrate which produce high biodiversity of cytolitic, neurotoxic and cardiotoxic compounds. Zoanthids containing palytoxins are reportedly among the most toxic marine organisms k...

  13. IMG-ABC: A Knowledge Base To Fuel Discovery of Biosynthetic Gene Clusters and Novel Secondary Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjithomas, Michalis; Chen, I-Min Amy; Chu, Ken; Ratner, Anna; Palaniappan, Krishna; Szeto, Ernest; Huang, Jinghua; Reddy, T B K; Cimermančič, Peter; Fischbach, Michael A; Ivanova, Natalia N; Markowitz, Victor M; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Pati, Amrita

    2015-07-14

    In the discovery of secondary metabolites, analysis of sequence data is a promising exploration path that remains largely underutilized due to the lack of computational platforms that enable such a systematic approach on a large scale. In this work, we present IMG-ABC (https://img.jgi.doe.gov/abc), an atlas of biosynthetic gene clusters within the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system, which is aimed at harnessing the power of "big" genomic data for discovering small molecules. IMG-ABC relies on IMG's comprehensive integrated structural and functional genomic data for the analysis of biosynthetic gene clusters (BCs) and associated secondary metabolites (SMs). SMs and BCs serve as the two main classes of objects in IMG-ABC, each with a rich collection of attributes. A unique feature of IMG-ABC is the incorporation of both experimentally validated and computationally predicted BCs in genomes as well as metagenomes, thus identifying BCs in uncultured populations and rare taxa. We demonstrate the strength of IMG-ABC's focused integrated analysis tools in enabling the exploration of microbial secondary metabolism on a global scale, through the discovery of phenazine-producing clusters for the first time in Alphaproteobacteria. IMG-ABC strives to fill the long-existent void of resources for computational exploration of the secondary metabolism universe; its underlying scalable framework enables traversal of uncovered phylogenetic and chemical structure space, serving as a doorway to a new era in the discovery of novel molecules. IMG-ABC is the largest publicly available database of predicted and experimental biosynthetic gene clusters and the secondary metabolites they produce. The system also includes powerful search and analysis tools that are integrated with IMG's extensive genomic/metagenomic data and analysis tool kits. As new research on biosynthetic gene clusters and secondary metabolites is published and more genomes are sequenced, IMG-ABC will continue to

  14. Media and growth conditions for induction of secondary metabolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    -defined media are suited for biochemical studies, but in order to get chemical diversity expressed in filamentous fungi, sources rich in amino acids, vitamins, and trace metals have to be added, such as yeast extract and oatmeal. A battery of solid agar media is recommended for exploration of chemical diversity...... as agar plug samples are easily analyzed to get an optimal representation of the qualitative secondary metabolome. Standard incubation for a week at 25°C in darkness is recommended, but optimal conditions have to be modified depending on the ecology and physiology of different filamentous fungi....

  15. Role of Cereal Secondary Metabolites Involved in Mediating the Outcome of Plant-Pathogen Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Du Fall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereal crops such as wheat, rice and barley underpin the staple diet for human consumption globally. A multitude of threats to stable and secure yields of these crops exist including from losses caused by pathogens, particularly fungal. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to resist pathogens including programmed cell death responses, the release of pathogenicity-related proteins and oxidative bursts. Another such mechanism is the synthesis and release of secondary metabolites toxic to potential pathogens. Several classes of these compounds have been identified and their anti-fungal properties demonstrated. However the lack of suitable analytical techniques has hampered the progress of identifying and exploiting more of these novel metabolites. In this review, we summarise the role of the secondary metabolites in cereal crop diseases and briefly touch on the analytical techniques that hold the key to unlocking their potential in reducing yield losses.

  16. Metabolites inhibiting germination of Orobanche ramosa seeds produced by Myrothecium verrucaria and Fusarium compactum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Boari, Angela; Evidente, Antonio; Vurro, Maurizio

    2005-03-09

    Myrothecium verrucaria and Fusarium compactum were isolated from diseased Orobanche ramosa plants collected in southern Italy to find potential biocontrol agents of this parasitic weed. Both fungi grown in liquid culture produced metabolites that inhibited the germination of O. ramosa seeds at 1-10 muM. Eight metabolites were isolated from M. verrucaria culture extracts. The main metabolite was identified as verrucarin E, a disubstituted pyrrole not belonging to the trichothecene group. Seven compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods as macrocyclic trichothecenes, namely, verrucarins A, B, M, and L acetate, roridin A, isotrichoverrin B, and trichoverrol B. The main metabolite produced by F. compactum was neosoloaniol monoacetate, a trichothecene. All the trichothecenes proved to be potent inhibitors of O. ramosa seed germination and possess strong zootoxic activity when assayed on Artemia salina brine shrimps. Verrucarin E is inactive on both seed germination and zootoxic assay.

  17. Fungal secondary metabolites as inhibitors of infection-related morphogenesis in phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thines, Eckhard; Anke, Heidrun; Weber, Roland W S

    2004-01-01

    The life-cycle of many plant-pathogenic fungi, especially those infecting aerial plant organs, contains several specific developmental stages. If these are sufficiently distinct in their physiology from vegetative hyphal growth, they present potential targets for non-fungitoxic plant protectants. The present review identifies such targets especially in the pre-penetration stages of the infection cycle of Magnaporthe grisea and other fungi infecting from air-borne spores. Examples of non-toxic natural products with activity against spore germination, attachment, appressorium formation, appressorium maturation and penetration of the host surface are given. In contrast, no substances selectively active against in planta growth or sporulation appear to be known. The selective activity of numerous secondary metabolites against specific infection stages without accompanying toxicity against vegetatively growing hyphae indicates a direction for the development of future natural product-derived fungicides which are more easily degraded in the environment and possess fewer non-target effects. Such substances are produced by many saprotrophic and endophytic fungi in pure culture. The paucity of data on the production of biologically active substances in natural situations limits the interpretation of their ecophysiological significance for the producer.

  18. Chemical Diversity and Biological Properties of Secondary Metabolites from Sea Hares of Aplysia Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato B. Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites. During the last two decades, thousands of compounds were discovered in marine organisms, several of them having inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. Marine mollusks constitute a successful phyla in the discovery of new marine natural products (MNPs. Over a 50-year period from 1963, 116 genera of mollusks contributed innumerous compounds, Aplysia being the most studied genus by MNP chemists. This genus includes 36 valid species and should be distinguished from all mollusks as it yielded numerous new natural products. Aplysia sea hares are herbivorous mollusks, which have been proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites, mostly of dietary origin. The majority of secondary metabolites isolated from sea hares of the genus Aplysia are halogenated terpenes; however, these animals are also a source of compounds from other chemical classes, such as macrolides, sterols and alkaloids, often exhibiting cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and/or antifeedant activities. This review focuses on the diverse structural classes of secondary metabolites found in Aplysia spp., including several compounds with pronounced biological properties.

  19. Antifeedant Activity of Ginkgo biloba Secondary Metabolites against Hyphantria cunea Larvae: Mechanisms and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Ren, Lili; Chen, Fang; Feng, Yuqian; Luo, Youqing

    2016-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a typical relic plant that rarely suffers from pest hazards. This study analyzed the pattern of G. biloba pest hazards in Beijing; tested the antifeedant activity of G. biloba extracts, including ginkgo flavonoids, ginkgolide, and bilobalide, against Hyphantria cunea larvae; determined the activities of glutathione transferase (GSTs), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CarE) and mixed-functional oxidase (MFO), in larvae after feeding on these G. biloba secondary metabolites; and screened for effective botanical antifeedants in the field. In this study, no indicators of insect infestation were found for any of the examined leaves of G. biloba; all tested secondary metabolites showed significant antifeedant activity and affected the activity of the four larval detoxifying enzymes. Ginkgolide had the highest antifeedant activity and the most significant effect on the detoxifying enzymes (Pbiloba extracts or ginkgolide both significantly repelled H. cunea larvae in the field (Pbiloba secondary metabolites against H. cunea larvae, and the results provide new insights into the mechanism of G. biloba pest resistance. This study also developed new applications of G. biloba secondary metabolites for effective pest control.

  20. Investigating anti-parasitic effects of plant secondary metabolites: effects on swine nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Fryganas, Christos

    2014-01-01

    is not allowed. Thus, novel parasite-control options are required. We present here results from a comprehensive in vitro screen of plant secondary metabolites (PSM) from diverse plant sources on the economically important pig parasites Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum. We focused on two classes of PSM...

  1. Anti-parasitic effects of plant secondary metabolites on swine nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, A.R.; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Fryganas, Christos

    -control options are required. We present results from a comprehensive in vitro screen of plant secondary metabolites (PSM) from diverse plant sources on the economically important pig parasites Ascaris chlamydiae and Oesophagostomum dentatum . We focused on two PSM classes commonly found in natural diets...

  2. Plant secondary metabolite-induced shifts in bacterial community structure and degradative ability in contaminated soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlík, O.; Musilová, L.; Rídl, Jakub; Hroudová, Miluše; Vlček, Čestmír; Koubek, J.; Holečková, M.; Mackova, M.; Macek, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 20 (2013), s. 9245-9256 ISSN 0175-7598 Grant - others:EK(XE) 265946; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10041 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : plant secondary metabolites (PSM) * bacterial community * metabolic activity * bioremediation * pyrosequencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.811, year: 2013

  3. Herbivory in omnivorous fishes: effect of presence of plant secondary metabolites and prey stoichiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbosch, M.; Bakker, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    1. Many animals that consume freshwater macrophytes are omnivorous (i.e., they include both plant and animal matter in their diet). For invertebrate omnivorous consumers, selection of macrophyte species depends partly on the presence of secondary metabolites in plants, plant carbon/nutrient balances

  4. Lipocarbazoles, secondary metabolites from Tsukamurella pseudospumae Acta 1857 with antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kathrin; Nachtigall, Jonny; Hänchen, Anne; Nicholson, Graeme; Goodfellow, Michael; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Fiedler, Hans-Peter

    2009-10-01

    A family of new secondary metabolites with a carbazole moiety and an alkyl side chain was isolated from Tsukamurella pseudospumae strain Acta 1857. They were named lipocarbazoles in accordance with their chemical structures, which were determined by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Lipocarbazoles are free radical scavengers showing antioxidative activity.

  5. Secondary reactions as a tool to produce exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, J.P.; Fleury, A.; Bimbot, R.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of using secondary reactions as tool to produce new isotopes is considered. This question is renewed with the emergence of intense beams of energetic heavy ions in the range of 20 to 100 MeV/nucleon. Three different methods are considered. They involve either the 'in situ' production of a secondary radioactive target, which interacts with the primary beam, or the production of a radioactive secondary beam by an inverse fusion or a fragmentation process. Very heavy or very neutron deficient isotopes can be produced by these methods

  6. Motile zoospores of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis move away from antifungal metabolites produced by amphibian skin bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Brianna A; Walton, D Brian; Harris, Reid N

    2011-03-01

    Chytridiomycosis is an amphibian skin disease that threatens amphibian biodiversity worldwide. The fungal agent of chytridiomycosis is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. There is considerable variation in disease outcomes such that some individuals and populations co-exist with the fungus and others quickly succumb to disease. Amphibians in populations that co-exist with the B. dendrobatidis have sublethal infections on their skins. Symbiotic skin bacteria have been shown in experiments and surveys to play a role in protecting amphibians from chytridiomycosis. Little is known about the mechanisms that antifungal skin bacteria use to ameliorate the effects of B. dendrobatidis. In this study, we identified that B. dendrobatidis isolate JEL 310 zoospores display chemotaxis, in the presence of two bacterially-produced metabolites (2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and indole-3-carboxaldehyde). In the presence of either metabolite, B. dendrobatidis zoospores move more frequently away from the metabolite. Using parameters estimated from this study, a simple stochastic model of a random walk on a lattice was evaluated. The model shows that these individual behaviors over short time-scales directly lead to population behaviors over long time-scales, such that most zoospores will escape, or not infect a tryptone substrate containing the bacterially-produced metabolite, whereas many zoospores will infect the tryptone substrate containing no metabolite. These results suggest that amphibians that have skin bacteria produce antifungal metabolites that might be able to keep B. dendrobatidis infections below the lethal threshold and thus are able to co-exist with the fungus.

  7. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vessela eATANASOVA-PENICHON

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation.

  8. Crop-ecology and nutritional variability influence growth and secondary metabolites of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Probir Kumar; Kumar, Rajender; Guleria, Vipan; Mahajan, Mitali; Prasad, Ramdeen; Pathania, Vijaylata; Gill, Baljinder Singh; Singh, Devinder; Chand, Gopi; Singh, Bikram; Singh, Rakesh Deosharan; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2015-02-27

    Plant nutrition and climatic conditions play important roles on the growth and secondary metabolites of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni); however, the nutritional dose is strongly governed by the soil properties and climatic conditions of the growing region. In northern India, the interactive effects of crop ecology and plant nutrition on yield and secondary metabolites of stevia are not yet properly understood. Thus, a field experiment comprising three levels of nitrogen, two levels of phosphorus and three levels of potassium was conducted at three locations to ascertain whether the spatial and nutritional variability would dominate the leaf yield and secondary metabolites profile of stevia. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicates that the applications of 90 kg N, 40 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O ha-1 are the best nutritional conditions in terms of dry leaf yield for CSIR-IHBT (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research- Institute Himalayan Bioresource Technology) and RHRS (Regional Horticultural Research Station) conditions. The spatial variability also exerted considerable effect on the leaf yield and stevioside content in leaves. Among the three locations, CSIR-IHBT was found most suitable in case of dry leaf yield and secondary metabolites accumulation in leaves. The results suggest that dry leaf yield and accumulation of stevioside are controlled by the environmental factors and agronomic management; however, the accumulation of rebaudioside-A (Reb-A) is not much influenced by these two factors. Thus, leaf yield and secondary metabolite profiles of stevia can be improved through the selection of appropriate growing locations and proper nutrient management.

  9. Biological activities of secondary metabolites of the order Zoanthids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aminikhoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Cnidaria is a large, diverse and ecologically important group of marine invertebrates, which produce powerful toxins and venoms. The number of marine natural product from cnidarians isolated from class Anthozoa. Among the Anthozoa, the order of zoanthids are sessile, clonal and mostly brightly colored invertebrate which produce high biodiversity of cytolitic, neurotoxic and cardiotoxic compounds. Zoanthids containing palytoxins are reportedly among the most toxic marine organisms known. In addition, a high concentration of zoanthamine alkaloids extracted from this group.The zoanthamine alkaloids were isolated over 20 years ago, exhibit a broad range of biological activities.The best studied and most well-known biological activity of zoanthamine derivative significantly suppressed bone resorption and enhanced bone formation.

  10. Reexamining intra and extracellular metabolites produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Shuja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate, screen and analyze bacteria from different areas of Pakistan for the production of antimicrobial compounds, zinc solubilization and bioplastic production. Methods: Isolation and purification was proceeding with streak plate method. Antagonistic assay was completed with well diffusion and thin-layer chromatography. In vivo analysis of bioplastic was analyzed with Nile blue fluorescence under UV and Sudan staining. Results: A total of 18 bacterial strains purified from soil samples while 148 strains form stock cultures were used. Out of 166 only 94 showed antimicrobial activity against each of Grampositive and Gram-negative; cocci and rods. In case of heavy metal (ZnO and Zn3(PO42.4H2O solubilization, 54 strains solubilized ZnO and 23 strains solubilized Zn3(PO42.4H2O, while 127 strains grown on polyhydroxyalkanoate detection meedia supplemented with Nile blue medium showed bioplastic production by producing fluorescence under UV light. Four bacterial strains (coded as 100, 101, 104 and 111 were selected for further characterization. Induction time assay showed that strains 101, 104, and 111 showed inhibitory activity after 4 h of incubation while strain 100 showed after 8 h. All four strains were tolerable to the maximum concentration of ZnO. Amplified products of both 16S rRNA and PhaC gene fragments of strain 111 were sequenced and submitted to GenBank as accession numbers EU781525 and EU781526. Conclusions: Bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa-111 has potential to utilize as biofertilize and bioplastic producer.

  11. The Fusarium graminearum genome reveals more secondary metabolite gene clusters and hints of horizontal gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M K Sieber

    Full Text Available Fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes are of major interest due to the pharmacological properties of their products (like mycotoxins and antibiotics. The genome of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum codes for a large number of candidate enzymes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. However, the chemical nature of most enzymatic products of proteins encoded by putative secondary metabolism biosynthetic genes is largely unknown. Based on our analysis we present 67 gene clusters with significant enrichment of predicted secondary metabolism related enzymatic functions. 20 gene clusters with unknown metabolites exhibit strong gene expression correlation in planta and presumably play a role in virulence. Furthermore, the identification of conserved and over-represented putative transcription factor binding sites serves as additional evidence for cluster co-regulation. Orthologous cluster search provided insight into the evolution of secondary metabolism clusters. Some clusters are characteristic for the Fusarium phylum while others show evidence of horizontal gene transfer as orthologs can be found in representatives of the Botrytis or Cochliobolus lineage. The presented candidate clusters provide valuable targets for experimental examination.

  12. Solvent Separating Secondary Metabolites Directly from Biosynthetic Tissue for Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive metabolites are often heterogeneously expressed in tissues both spatially and over time. Therefore, traditional solvent extraction methods benefit from an understanding of the in situ sites of biosynthesis and storage to deal with heterogeneity and maximize yield. Recently, surface-assisted mass spectrometry (MS methods namely nanostructure-assisted laser desorption ionisation (NALDI and desorption ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS surfaces have been developed to enable the direct detection of low molecular weight metabolites. Since direct tissue NALDI-MS or DIOS-MS produce complex spectra due to the wide variety of other metabolites and fragments present in the low mass range, we report here the use of “on surface” solvent separation directly from mollusc tissue onto nanostructured surfaces for MS analysis, as a mechanism for simplifying data annotation and detecting possible artefacts from compound delocalization during the preparative steps. Water, ethanol, chloroform and hexane selectively extracted a range of choline esters, brominated indoles and lipids from Dicathais orbita hypobranchial tissue imprints. These compounds could be quantified on the nanostructured surfaces by comparison to standard curves generated from the pure compounds. Surface-assisted MS could have broad utility for detecting a broad range of secondary metabolites in complex marine tissue samples.

  13. Antimicrobial and allelopathic metabolites produced by Penicillium brasilianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao-Yu; Zhang, Qiang; Li, He; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Six known compounds, isoroquefortine C (1), griseofulvin (2), ergosterol peroxide (3), 3β-hydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-5,8,22-trien-7-one (4), cerevisterol (5) and (22E,24R)-6β-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5α-diol (6), were produced by the fungus Penicillium brasilianum, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. This is the first report on isoroquefortine C as naturally occurring compound. Their bioactivities against five phytopathogenic fungi (Gibeberalla saubinetti, Fusarium solani, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria solani) and four pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus cereus), as well as allelopathic activities on Raphanus sativus were tested. Compound 1 exhibited a remarkable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5 μM against C. gloeosporioides, in comparison with positive control hymexazol (MIC 25 μM). Compound 2 displayed strong inhibitory effects on the growth of A. solani and S. aureus with MIC of 3.13 μM for each. Compounds 2 and 3 displayed a significant growth-inhibition activity on R. sativus.

  14. Secondary Metabolites from Fungal Endophytes of Echinacea purpurea Suppress Cytokine Secretion by Macrophage-Type Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amninder; Oberhofer, Martina; Juzumaite, Monika; Raja, Huzefa A.; Gulledge, Travis V.; Kao, Diana; Faeth, Stanley H.; Laster, Scott M.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2017-01-01

    Botanical extracts of Echinacea purpurea have been widely used for the treatment of upper respiratory infections. We sought to chemically examine fungal endophytes inhabiting E. purpurea, and to identify compounds produced by these endophytes with in vitro cytokine-suppressive activity. Twelve isolates from surface sterilized seeds of E. purpurea were subjected to fractionation and major components were isolated. Sixteen secondary metabolites belonging to different structural classes were identified from these isolates based on NMR and mass spectrometry data. The compounds were tested for their influence on cytokine secretion by murine macrophage-type cells. Alternariol (1), O-prenylporriolide (4), porritoxin (10) β-zearalenol (13), and (S)-zearalenone (14) inhibited production of TNF-α from RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS in the absence of any significant cytotoxicity. This is the first report of a cytokine-suppressive effect for 4. The results of this study are particularly interesting given that they show the presence of compounds with cytokine-suppressive activity in endophytes from a botanical used to treat inflammation. Future investigations into the role of fungal endophytes in the biological activity of E. purpurea dietary supplements may be warranted. PMID:28479944

  15. A genomics based discovery of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borui Pi

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites (SMs produced by Aspergillus have been extensively studied for their crucial roles in human health, medicine and industrial production. However, the resulting information is almost exclusively derived from a few model organisms, including A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, but little is known about rare pathogens. In this study, we performed a genomics based discovery of SM biosynthetic gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus, a rare human pathogen. A total of 52 gene clusters were identified in the draft genome of A. ustus 3.3904, such as the sterigmatocystin biosynthesis pathway that was commonly found in Aspergillus species. In addition, several SM biosynthetic gene clusters were firstly identified in Aspergillus that were possibly acquired by horizontal gene transfer, including the vrt cluster that is responsible for viridicatumtoxin production. Comparative genomics revealed that A. ustus shared the largest number of SM biosynthetic gene clusters with A. nidulans, but much fewer with other Aspergilli like A. niger and A. oryzae. These findings would help to understand the diversity and evolution of SM biosynthesis pathways in genus Aspergillus, and we hope they will also promote the development of fungal identification methodology in clinic.

  16. Recovering Genomics Clusters of Secondary Metabolites from Lakes Using Genome-Resolved Metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael R. C. Cuadrat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomic approaches became increasingly popular in the past decades due to decreasing costs of DNA sequencing and bioinformatics development. So far, however, the recovery of long genes coding for secondary metabolites still represents a big challenge. Often, the quality of metagenome assemblies is poor, especially in environments with a high microbial diversity where sequence coverage is low and complexity of natural communities high. Recently, new and improved algorithms for binning environmental reads and contigs have been developed to overcome such limitations. Some of these algorithms use a similarity detection approach to classify the obtained reads into taxonomical units and to assemble draft genomes. This approach, however, is quite limited since it can classify exclusively sequences similar to those available (and well classified in the databases. In this work, we used draft genomes from Lake Stechlin, north-eastern Germany, recovered by MetaBat, an efficient binning tool that integrates empirical probabilistic distances of genome abundance, and tetranucleotide frequency for accurate metagenome binning. These genomes were screened for secondary metabolism genes, such as polyketide synthases (PKS and non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS, using the Anti-SMASH and NAPDOS workflows. With this approach we were able to identify 243 secondary metabolite clusters from 121 genomes recovered from our lake samples. A total of 18 NRPS, 19 PKS, and 3 hybrid PKS/NRPS clusters were found. In addition, it was possible to predict the partial structure of several secondary metabolite clusters allowing for taxonomical classifications and phylogenetic inferences. Our approach revealed a high potential to recover and study secondary metabolites genes from any aquatic ecosystem.

  17. Towards eco-friendly crop protection: natural deep eutectic solvents and defensive secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouden, Sanae; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; Choi, Young Hae; Leiss, Kirsten A

    2017-01-01

    With mounting concerns over health and environmental effects of pesticides, the search for environmentally acceptable substitutes has amplified. Plant secondary metabolites appear in the horizon as an attractive solution for green crop protection. This paper reviews the need for changes in the techniques and compounds that, until recently, have been the mainstay for dealing with pest insects. Here we describe and discuss main strategies for selecting plant-derived metabolites as candidates for sustainable agriculture. The second part surveys ten important insecticidal compounds, with special emphasis on those involved in human health. Many of these insecticidal metabolites, however, are crystalline solids with limited solubility which might potentially hamper commercial formulation. As such, we introduce the concept of natural deep eutectic solvents for enhancing solubility and stability of such compounds. The concept, principles and examples of green pest control discussed here offer a new suite of environmental-friendly tools designed to promote and adopt sustainable agriculture.

  18. Tissue-specific distribution of secondary metabolites in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Fang

    Full Text Available Four different parts, hypocotyl and radicle (HR, inner cotyledon (IC, outer cotyledon (OC, seed coat and endosperm (SE, were sampled from mature rapeseed (Brassica napus L. by laser microdissection. Subsequently, major secondary metabolites, glucosinolates and sinapine, as well as three minor ones, a cyclic spermidine conjugate and two flavonoids, representing different compound categories, were qualified and quantified in dissected samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and mass spectrometry. No qualitative and quantitative difference of glucosinolates and sinapine was detected in embryo tissues (HR, IC and OC. On the other hand, the three minor compounds were observed to be distributed unevenly in different rapeseed tissues. The hypothetic biological functions of the distribution patterns of different secondary metabolites in rapeseed are discussed.

  19. Lichen secondary metabolite evernic acid as potential quorum sensing inhibitor against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalsın, Barış; Sesal, Nüzhet Cenk

    2016-09-01

    Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disease and it affects the respiratory and digestive systems. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in Cystic Fibrosis are presented as the main cause for high mortality and morbidity rates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations can regulate their virulence gene expressions via the bacterial communication system: quorum sensing. Inhibition of quorum sensing by employing quorum sensing inhibitors can leave the bacteria vulnerable. Therefore, determining natural sources to obtain potential quorum sensing inhibitors is essential. Lichens have ethnobotanical value for their medicinal properties and it is possible that their secondary metabolites have quorum sensing inhibitor properties. This study aims to investigate an alternative treatment approach by utilizing lichen secondary metabolite evernic acid to reduce the expressions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factors by inhibiting quorum sensing. For this purpose, fluorescent monitor strains were utilized for quorum sensing inhibitor screens and quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR analyses were conducted for comparison. Results indicate that evernic acid is capable of inhibiting Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing systems.

  20. Chemical diversity and pharmacological significance of the secondary metabolites of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abourashed, Ehab A; El-Alfy, Abir T

    2016-12-01

    Nutmeg is a valued kitchen spice that has been used for centuries all over the world. In addition to its use in flavoring foods and beverages, nutmeg has been used in traditional remedies for stomach and kidney disorders. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and central nervous system effects of nutmeg have also been reported in literature. Nutmeg is a rich source of fixed and essential oil, triterpenes, and various types of phenolic compounds. Many of the secondary metabolites of nutmeg exhibit biological activities that may support its use in traditional medicine. This article provides an overview of the chemistry of secondary metabolites isolated from nutmeg kernel and mace including common methods for analysis of extracts and pure compounds as well as recent approaches towards total synthesis of some of the major constituents. A summary of the most significant pharmacological investigations of potential drug leads isolated from nutmeg and reported in the last decade is also included.

  1. Role of toxic and bioactive secondary metabolites in colonization and bloom formation by filamentous cyanobacteria Planktothrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmayer, Rainer; Deng, Li; Entfellner, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Bloom-forming cyanobacteria Planktothrix agardhii and P. rubescens are regularly involved in the occurrence of cyanotoxin in lakes and reservoirs. Besides microcystins (MCs), which inhibit eukaryotic protein phosphatase 1 and 2A, several families of bioactive peptides are produced, thereby resulting in impressive secondary metabolite structural diversity. This review will focus on the current knowledge of the phylogeny, morphology, and ecophysiological adaptations of Planktothrix as well as the toxins and bioactive peptides produced. The relatively well studied ecophysiological adaptations (buoyancy, shade tolerance, nutrient storage capacity) can partly explain the invasiveness of this group of cyanobacteria that bloom within short periods (weeks to months). The more recent elucidation of the genetic basis of toxin and bioactive peptide synthesis paved the way for investigating its regulation both in the laboratory using cell cultures as well as under field conditions. The high frequency of several toxin and bioactive peptide synthesis genes observed within P. agardhii and P. rubescens, but not for other Planktothrix species (e.g. P. pseudagardhii), suggests a potential functional linkage between bioactive peptide production and the colonization potential and possible dominance in habitats. It is hypothesized that, through toxin and bioactive peptide production, Planktothrix act as a niche constructor at the ecosystem scale, possibly resulting in an even higher ability to monopolize resources, positive feedback loops, and resilience under stable environmental conditions. Thus, refocusing harmful algal bloom management by integrating ecological and phylogenetic factors acting on toxin and bioactive peptide synthesis gene distribution and concentrations could increase the predictability of the risks originating from Planktothrix blooms. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Secondary Metabolite Content in Roots and Callus of Paeonia Anomala L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. ZARIPOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that in the process of introduction in vitro culture the change of secondary metabolite content may take place we compared the chemical composition of plant material of wild-growing plants of Paeonia anomala introduced and produced using the methods of clonal micropropagation, callus tissue.The content of phenolic compounds, that is catechins and gallatos was compared. Paeoniflorin content was estimated by direct spectrophotometry of methanol extracts (λ = 231,7 nm, ε 1% 1 sm = 265.4. Integral characteristic of the obtained extracts was received by comparison of absorption spectra using spectrophotometer SP - 121 within wave diapason 300 - 460 nm.Light absorption curves of methanol extracts had two distinct peaks at λ = 232 nm and λ = 275 nm typical of paeoniflorin. Paeoniflorin content was 80 % higher in young peony roots than in control plant. This glycoside content in callus culture was 44 % higher than in wild-growing plant roots and 26 % lower than in plantlet roots.The use of ethanol as extragent showed a higher content of extracted substances in callus tissue. The comparison of the obtained spectra in the region corresponding to phenolic compound absorption shows the highest phenolic compound content in callus tissue and young plant roots. Judging by light absorption maximum it may be phenolic acids. The lowest phenolic compound content was determined in adult wild-growing plant roots, where a high phlobaphene content was visually observed.The conducted research confirms the fact that callus culture of Paeonia anomala L. is a perspective producer of monoterpene glycosides and phenolic compounds. Extracts from plantlets and callus culture exceed in biological active substance content rootstock extracts of open air plants.

  3. Increasing secondary metabolite production in plant-cell culture by redirecting transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodelius, P; Pedersen, H

    1993-01-01

    Various approaches for redirecting transport of secondary metabolites in plant-cell suspension cultures have been attempted in an effort to increase productivity. Little is understood of the transport mechanisms or their regulation, and many of the extractive methods which involve membrane permeabilization have an adverse effect on cell viability. Increasing the activity of metabolic pathways by elicitation, in conjunction with end-product removal and accumulation in an extractive phase, has proven to be the most successful strategy so far.

  4. Anti-parasitic effects of plant secondary metabolites on swine nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, A.R.; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Fryganas, Christos; Ropiak, H.M.; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, I.; Thamsborg, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Organic production presents challenges to animal health and productivity. In organic pig production, animals must have access to outdoor pastures which increases exposure to gastrointestinal parasites. Moreover, the routine use of synthetic anti-parasitic drugs is not allowed. Thus, novel parasite-control options are required. We present results from a comprehensive in vitro screen of plant secondary metabolites (PSM) from diverse plant sources on the economically important pig parasites Asca...

  5. Quinones derived from plant secondary metabolites as anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Wu, Guo-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Shan; Huang, Ming-Qing; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2013-03-01

    Quinones are plant-derived secondary metabolites that present some anti-proliferation and anti-metastasis effects in various cancer types both in vitro and in vivo. This review focuses on the anti-cancer prospects of plant-derived quinones, namely, aloe-emodin, juglone, β-lapachol, plumbagin, shikonin, and thymoquinone. We intend to summarize their anti-cancer effects and investigate the mechanism of actions to promote the research and development of anti-cancer agents from quinones.

  6. Antimicrobial and antiproliferative prospective of kosinostatin – a secondary metabolite isolated from Streptomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayagam Rambabu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a communal health hazard worldwide. The present investigation attempts to evaluate antimicrobial and anticancer potential of kosinostatin on mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF-7. The anticancer and antiproliferative activities of kosinostatin were analyzed on MCF cell line by MTT assay and cytotoxicity assays like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glutathione (GSH. The secondary metabolite kosinostatin exhibited its apoptotic nature by expressing p53 protein. Collectively, the results acquired from this study promise that kosinostatin shows the potent anticancer activity.

  7. Correlation between Plant Secondary Metabolites and Their Antifungal Mechanisms–A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Sara; Jäger, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The search for new antifungal drugs often involves secondary metabolites from plants because of their pharmacological activity against foreign pathogens. Among the modern drugs in use today about 40% are of natural origin. To distinguish the secondary metabolites they can be divided into groups b...... biosynthetic groups of secondary metabolites; the phenolic compounds and the nitrogen containing compounds. Despite this there are correlations between some of the subgroups and their antifungal mechanism of actions....... it is interesting to investigate a relation between the biosynthetic origin of the antifungal compound and it’s mode of action against fungi. This correlation could limit the search to those natural compounds, which only interferes with the target of interest. This review is based on a comprehensive literature...... the biosynthetic group of terpenes and their antifungal mechanisms of action, all of them exhibiting their antifungal action through cell membrane disruption, although some of the terpenes also seemed to work through mitochondrial dysfunction. A clear correlation has not been demonstrated between the two other...

  8. The molecular basis of quantitative variation in foliar secondary metabolites in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külheim, Carsten; Yeoh, Suat Hui; Wallis, Ian R; Laffan, Shawn; Moran, Gavin F; Foley, William J

    2011-09-01

    Eucalyptus is characterized by high foliar concentrations of plant secondary metabolites with marked qualitative and quantitative variation within a single species. Secondary metabolites in eucalypts are important mediators of a diverse community of herbivores. We used a candidate gene approach to investigate genetic associations between 195 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 24 candidate genes and 33 traits related to secondary metabolites in the Tasmanian Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus). We discovered 37 significant associations (false discovery rate (FDR) Q < 0.05) across 11 candidate genes and 19 traits. The effects of SNPs on phenotypic variation were within the expected range (0.018 < r(2) < 0.061) for forest trees. Whereas most marker effects were nonadditive, two alleles from two consecutive genes in the methylerythritol phosphate pathway (MEP) showed additive effects. This study successfully links allelic variants to ecologically important phenotypes which can have a large impact on the entire community. It is one of very few studies to identify the genetic variants of a foundation tree that influences ecosystem function. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. The activity of medicinal plants and secondary metabolites on eosinophilic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerio, Alexandre P; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Faccioli, Lúcia H

    2010-10-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are present in several body compartments and in the blood at relatively low numbers under normal conditions. However, an increase in the number of eosinophils, in the blood or in the tissues, is observed in allergic or parasitic disorders. Although some progress has been made in understanding the development of eosinophil-mediated inflammation in allergic and parasitic diseases, the discovery of new compounds to control eosinophilia has lagged behind other advances. Plant-derived secondary metabolites are the basis for many drugs currently used to treat pathologic conditions, including eosinophilic diseases. Several studies, including our own, have demonstrated that plant extracts and secondary metabolites can reduce eosinophilia and eosinophil recruitment in different experimental animal models. In this review, we summarize these studies and describe the anti-eosinophilic activity of various plant extracts, such as Ginkgo biloba, Allium cepa, and Lafoensia pacari, as well as those of secondary metabolites (compounds isolated from plant extracts), such as quercetin and ellagic acid. In addition, we highlight the medical potential of these plant-derived compounds for treating eosinophil-mediated inflammation, such as asthma and allergy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TLC and HPTLC Fingerprints of Various Secondary Metabolites in the Stem of the Traditional Medicinal Climber, Solena amplexicaulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthika, K; Paulsamy, S

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study was to develop a TLC and a HPTLC fingerprint profiles for various secondary metabolites of methanol extracts of the stem of the traditional medicinal climber, Solena amplexicaulis. These studies were carried out as per the methods of Harborne and Wagner et al. The profiles of various individual secondary metabolites were made and developed for authentication. The methanol extract of the stem showed the presence of 6 alkaloids, 6 flavonoids, 2 glycosides, 9 saponins and 3 terpenoids. Owing to the presence of rich variety of secondary metabolites, the stem extract of S. amplexicaulis is expected to exhibit therapeutic properties.

  11. Quorum quenchers and sensors as possible roles for mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites of fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assumed role for mycotoxins is to act as defensive metabolites thus serving as protection for fungi from biotic antagonisms and as such do not interact with the daily metabolic requirements of the producing fungus. Preventive strategies are devoted to reducing the accumulation of mycotoxins bas...

  12. Plant secondary metabolites in alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, reed canarygrass, and tall fescue unaffected by two different nitrogen sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant secondary metabolites (PSM) may increase the sustainability of agriculture systems by reducing inputs, as PSM protect plants against herbivores and pathogens, act as pesticides, insecticides, and anthelmintics, while also attracting pollinators and seed dispersers. Therefore, it is important t...

  13. Silicon, endophytes and secondary metabolites as grass defenses against mammalian herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otso eHuitu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Grasses have been considered to primarily employ tolerance in lieu of defense in mitigating damage caused by herbivory. Yet a number of mechanisms have been identified in grasses, which may deter feeding by grazers. These include enhanced silicon uptake, hosting of toxin-producing endophytic fungi and induction of secondary metabolites. While these mechanisms have been individually studied, their synergistic responses to grazing, as well as their effects on grazers, are poorly known. A field experiment was carried out in 5 × 5 m outdoor enclosures to quantify phytochemical changes of either endophyte-infected (E+ or endophyte-free (E- meadow fescue (Schedonorus pratensis in response to medium intensity (corresponding with densities of ca. 1200 voles / ha for 5 weeks during 3 months or heavy intensity (ca. 1200 voles / ha for 8 weeks during 3 months grazing by a mammalian herbivore, the field vole (Microtus agrestis. A laboratory experiment was then conducted to evaluate the effects of endophyte infection status and grazing history of the grass diet on vole performance. As predicted, grazing increased foliar silicon content, by up to 13 %. Grazing also increased foliar levels of phosphorous and several phenolic compounds, most notably those of the flavonols isorhamnetin-diglycoside and rhamnetin derivative. Silicon concentrations were consistently circa 16 % higher in E+ grasses than in E-grasses, at all levels of grazing. Similarly, concentrations of chlorogenic acid derivative were found to be consistently higher in E+ than in E- grasses. Female voles maintained on heavily grazed grasses suffered higher mortality rates in the laboratory than female voles fed ungrazed grass, regardless of endophyte infection status. Our results conclusively demonstrate that, in addition to tolerance, grasses employ multi-tiered, effective defenses against mammalian grazers.

  14. The fungus Cunninghamella elegans can produce human and equine metabolites of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydevik, Axel; Thevis, Mario; Krug, Oliver; Bondesson, Ulf; Hedeland, Mikael

    2013-05-01

    1. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a group of substances that have potential to be used as doping agents in sports. Being a relatively new group not available on the open market means that no reference materials are commercially available for the main metabolites. In the presented study, the in vitro metabolism of SARMs by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans has been investigated with the purpose of finding out if it can produce relevant human and equine metabolites. 2. Three different SARMs, S1, S4 and S24, were incubated for 5 days with C. elegans. The samples were analysed both with and without sample pretreatment using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. 3. All the important phase I and some phase II metabolites from human and horse were formed by the fungus. They were formed through reactions such as hydroxylation, deacetylation, O-dephenylation, nitro-reduction, acetylation and sulfonation. 4. The study showed that the fungus produced relevant metabolites of the SARMs and thus can be used to mimic mammalian metabolism. Furthermore, it has the potential to be used for future production of reference material.

  15. Secondary metabolites from the South China Sea invertebrates: chemistry and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yue-Wei; Gu, Yucheng

    2006-01-01

    The increasing demand for new lead compounds in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries has driven scientists to search for new sources of bioactive natural products. Marine invertebrates are a rich source of novel, bioactive secondary metabolites and they have attracted a great deal of attention from scientists in the fields of chemistry, pharmacology, ecology, and molecular biology. During the past 25 years, many complex and structurally unique secondary metabolites have been isolated from the invertebrates inhabiting the South China Sea. These metabolites are responsible for various bioactivities such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammation and antioxidant activities, and/or they act on the cardiovascular system. This review will focus on the marine natural product chemistry of invertebrates from the South China Sea, aiming to give the reader a brief view of the compounds isolated from these invertebrates, as well as their biological activities. The article covers the literature published during the period from the beginning of 1980 to the end of 2005, with 340 citations and 811 compounds from invertebrates from the South China Sea, including sponges, coelenterates, molluscs and echinoderms.

  16. Occurrence of Pre- and Post-Harvest Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Danish Maize Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Ida M. L. Drejer; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2014-01-01

    Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled) were analyzed for their contents of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method specifically targets the majority of common pre- and post-harvest fungi associated with maize silage in Denmark. Sixty-one samples contained one or more of the 27 analytes in detectable concentrations. The most common mycotoxins were zearalenone, enniatin B nivalenol and andrastin A, found in 34%, 28%, 16% and 15% of the samples, respectively. None of the samples contained mycotoxins above the EU recommended maximum concentrations for Fusarium toxins in cereal-based roughage. Thus, the present study does not indicate that Danish maize silage in general is a cause of acute single mycotoxin intoxications in cattle. However, 31 of the samples contained multiple analytes; two samples as much as seven different fungal metabolites. Feed rations with maize silage may therefore contain complex mixtures of fungal secondary metabolites with unknown biological activity. This emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the effects of chronic exposure and possible synergistic effects. PMID:25089350

  17. Light-induced biochemical variations in secondary metabolite production and antioxidant activity in callus cultures of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Naveed; Rab, Abdur; Ahmad, Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) is a very important species with worldwide medicinal and commercial uses. Light is one of the major elicitors that fluctuate morphogenic potential and biochemical responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of various spectral lights on biomass accumulation and secondary metabolite production in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. Leaf explants were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and exposed to various spectral lights. 6-Benzyle adenine (BA) and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D; 2.0 mgl(-1)) were used for callus induction. The control light (16/8h) produced optimum callogenic response (92.73%) than other colored lights. Compared to other colored lights, control grown cultures displayed maximum biomass accumulation (5.78 gl(-1)) during a prolonged log phase at the 18th day of growth kinetics. Cultures grown under blue light enhanced total phenolic content (TPC; 102.32 μg/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC; 22.07 μg/g DW) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC; 11.63 μg/g DW). On the contrary, green and red lights improved reducing power assay (RPA; 0.71Fe(II)g(-1) DW) and DPPH-radical scavenging activity (DRSA; 80%). Herein, we concluded that the utilization of colored lights is a promising strategy for enhanced production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Plant secondary metabolite profiling evidences strain-dependent effect in the Azospirillum-Oryza sativa association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamam, Amel; Sanguin, Hervé; Bellvert, Floriant; Meiffren, Guillaume; Comte, Gilles; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Bertrand, Cédric; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

    2013-03-01

    Azospirillum is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) able to enhance growth and yield of cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. The growth-promoting ability of some Azospirillum strains appears to be highly specific to certain plant species and cultivars. In order to ascertain the specificity of the associative symbiosis between rice and Azospirillum, the physiological response of two rice cultivars, Nipponbare and Cigalon, inoculated with two rice-associated Azospirillum was analyzed at two levels: plant growth response and plant secondary metabolic response. Each strain of Azospirillum (Azospirillum lipoferum 4B isolated from Cigalon and Azospirillum sp. B510 isolated from Nipponbare) preferentially increased growth of the cultivar from which it was isolated. This specific effect is not related to a defect in colonization of host cultivar as each strain colonizes effectively both rice cultivars, either at the rhizoplane (for 4B and B510) and inside the roots (for B510). The metabolic profiling approach showed that, in response to PGPR inoculation, profiles of rice secondary metabolites were modified, with phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives being the main metabolites affected. Moreover, plant metabolic changes differed according to Azospirillum strain×cultivar combinations; indeed, 4B induced major secondary metabolic profile modifications only on Cigalon roots, while B510, probably due to its endophytic feature, induced metabolic variations on shoots and roots of both cultivars, triggering a systemic response. Plant secondary metabolite profiling thereby evidences the specific interaction between an Azospirillum strain and its original host cultivar. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging shows spatial segregation of secondary metabolites in Eucalyptus secretory cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, A M; Lincoln, C N; Goodger, J Q D; Woodrow, I E; Smith, T A

    2012-07-01

    Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging provides an excellent tool for imaging deep within plant tissues while providing a means to distinguish between fluorophores with high spatial and temporal resolution. Ideal candidates for the application of multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging to plants are the embedded secretory cavities found in numerous species because they house complex mixtures of secondary metabolites within extracellular lumina. Previous investigations of this type of structure have been restricted by the use of sectioned material resulting in the loss of lumen contents and often disorganization of the delicate secretory cells; thus it is not known if there is spatial segregation of secondary metabolites within these structures. In this paper, we apply multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging to investigate the spatial arrangement of metabolites within intact secretory cavities isolated from Eucalyptus polybractea R.T. Baker leaves. The secretory cavities of this species are abundant (up to 10 000 per leaf), large (up to 6 nL) and importantly house volatile essential oil rich in the monoterpene 1,8-cineole, together with an immiscible, non-volatile component comprised largely of autofluorescent oleuropeic acid glucose esters. We have been able to optically section into the lumina of secretory cavities to a depth of ∼80 μm, revealing a unique spatial organization of cavity metabolites whereby the non-volatile component forms a layer between the secretory cells lining the lumen and the essential oil. This finding could be indicative of a functional role of the non-volatile component in providing a protective region of low diffusivity between the secretory cells and potentially autotoxic essential oil. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2012 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Indolic secondary metabolites protect Arabidopsis from the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaeppi, Klaus; Mauch, Felix

    2010-09-01

    The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana contains a large arsenal of secondary metabolites that are not essential in development but have important ecological functions in counteracting attacks of pathogens and herbivores. Preformed secondary compounds are often referred to as phytoanticipins and metabolites, that are synthesized de novo in response to biotic stress are known as phytoalexins. Camalexin is the typical phytoalexin of Arabidopsis. It has antimicrobial activity towards some pathogens and was shown to be an important component of disease resistance in several plant pathogen interactions. Glucosinolates (GS) are characteristic phytoanticipins of the Brassicaceae family including Arabidopsis. GS are best known as repellents or attractants for herbivorous insects and their predators whereas their antimicrobial potential has received relatively little attention. The GS are glucosides and the biologically active aglycone is released upon biotic stress by glucohydrolase enzymes commenly called myrosinases. Because an Arabidopsis mutant susceptible to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora brassicae shows a partial deficiency in both camalexin and iGS accumulation we became intrigued by the role of these secondary compounds in disease resistance. Our results show that disease resistance of Arabidopsis to P. brassicae is established by the combined action of iGS and camalexin.

  1. Identification, quantification, spatiotemporal distribution and genetic variation of major latex secondary metabolites in the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Meret; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Reichelt, Michael; Heiling, Sven; Paetz, Christian; Chandran, Jima N; Bartram, Stefan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The secondary metabolites in the roots, leaves and flowers of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) have been studied in detail. However, little is known about the specific constituents of the plant's highly specialized laticifer cells. Using a combination of liquid and gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, we identified and quantified the major secondary metabolites in the latex of different organs across different growth stages in three genotypes, and tested the activity of the metabolites against the generalist root herbivore Diabrotica balteata. We found that common dandelion latex is dominated by three classes of secondary metabolites: phenolic inositol esters (PIEs), triterpene acetates (TritAc) and the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G). Purification and absolute quantification revealed concentrations in the upper mgg(-1) range for all compound classes with up to 6% PIEs, 5% TritAc and 7% TA-G per gram latex fresh weight. Contrary to typical secondary metabolite patterns, concentrations of all three classes increased with plant age. The highest concentrations were measured in the main root. PIE profiles differed both quantitatively and qualitatively between plant genotypes, whereas TritAc and TA-G differed only quantitatively. Metabolite concentrations were positively correlated within and between the different compound classes, indicating tight biosynthetic co-regulation. Latex metabolite extracts strongly repelled D. balteata larvae, suggesting that the latex constituents are biologically active. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation-induced mutagenesis of antifungal metabolite producing bacillus sp. HKA-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Senthilkumar, M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Bacillus sp. Strain HKA-17, isolated from the surface sterilized root nodule of Glycine max, inhibited several fungal plant pathogens. It produced a diffusible extracellular antifungal metabolite that was extracted with n-butanol. The crude extract was purified through Superdex{sup TM} 75 10/300 GL FPLC column. FT-IR spectrum of the FPLC purified-antifungal metabolite confirmed the presence of peptide and glycosidic bonds in its structure. Gamma induced mutagenesis of HKA-17 was carried out at an LD{sub 99} dose (8.46 kGy) to generate a mutant library. By screening the mutant library through a duel plate assay with Alternaria alternata, we selected one mutant with enhanced biocontrol activity (HKA-17e1) and two defective mutants (HKA-17d1 and HKA-17d2). Overproducing mutant recorded the largest inhibition zone (16.25 {+-} 0.86 mm) compared to any other mutant clone as well as wild type, and could be used as a potential biocontrol agent for plant disease suppression. The effect of HKA-17 antifungal metabolite on hyphal morphology was clearly demonstrated through scanning electron microscopy. The crude extract of defective mutant HKA-17 d1 did not induce any changes in hyphal morphology of A. alternata. However, antifungal metabolites of HKA-17 induced abnormal hyphal structures such as hyphal shrivelling, the bulging and swelling of intercalary cells, fragmentation, and cell lysis.

  3. Variability of Secondary Metabolites of the Species Cichorium intybus L. from Different Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad M. Zlatić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of this paper is to show the influence of soil characteristics on the quantitative variability of secondary metabolites. Analysis of phenolic content, flavonoid concentrations, and the antioxidant activity was performed using the ethanol and ethyl acetate plant extracts of the species Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae. The samples were collected from one saline habitat and two non-saline habitats. The values of phenolic content from the samples taken from the saline habitat ranged from 119.83 to 120.83 mg GA/g and from non-saline habitats from 92.44 to 115.10 mg GA/g. The amount of flavonoids in the samples from the saline locality varied between 144.36 and 317.62 mg Ru/g and from non-saline localities between 86.03 and 273.07 mg Ru/g. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity in the samples from the saline habitat ranged from 87.64 to 117.73 μg/mL and from 101.44 to 125.76 μg/mL in the samples from non-saline habitats. The results confirmed that soil types represent a significant influence on the quantitative content of secondary metabolites. The greatest concentrations of phenols and flavonoids and the highest level of antioxidant activity were found in the samples from saline soil. This further corroborates the importance of saline soil as an ecological factor, as it is proven to give rise to increased biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and related antioxidant activity.

  4. Effect of different in vitro culture extracts of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on toxic metabolites-producing strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Fazal, Hina

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the effect of different in vitro cultures (callus, in vitro shoots) and commercially available peppercorn extract was investigated for its activity against toxic metabolite-producing strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans). These in vitro cultures were extracted with ethanol, hexane, and chloroform, and the antipathogenic activity was determined by well-diffusion method. Hexane extract of callus showed 22 mm zone of inhibition against B. cereus, 23 mm against S. aureus, while regenerated shoots and seeds have shown 24.3 and 26 mm zones of inhibition. The ethanolic extracts of regenerated Piper shoots have shown 25 mm activity against S. aureus, 21 mm against B. cereus, and 16 mm in the case of C. albicans in comparison with standard antibiotics. Peppercorn extracts in chloroform and ethanol had shown activities against B. cereus (23.6 mm) and B. subtilis (23.5 mm). During in vitro organogenesis and morphogenesis, cells and tissues produced a comparable phytochemicals profile like mother plant. Morphogenesis is critically controlled by the application of exogenous plant-growth regulators. Such addition alters the hormonal transduction pathways, and cells under in vitro conditions regenerate tissues, which are dependant on the physiological state of cells, and finally enhance the production of secondary metabolites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to compare the antimicrobial potential of in vitro regenerated tissues and peppercorn with standard antibiotics. In conclusion, most of the extracts showed pronounced activities against all the pathogenic microbes. This is a preliminary work, and the minimum inhibitory concentration values needs to be further explored. Regenerated tissues of P. nigrum are a good source of biologically active metabolites for antimicrobial activities, and callus culture presented itself as

  5. New Antioxidative Secondary Metabolites from the Fruits of a Beibu Gulf Mangrove, Avicennia marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hai Gao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Further chemical investigation of the fruits of the mangrove, Avicennia marina, afforded three new phenylethyl glycosides, marinoids J–L (1–3, and a new cinnamoyl glycoside, marinoid M (4. The structures of isolates were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of the data with those of related secondary metabolites. The antioxidant activity of the isolates was evaluated using the cellular antioxidant assay (CAA, and compounds 1–4 showed antioxidant activities, with EC50 values ranging from 23.0 ± 0.71 μM to 247.8 ± 2.47 μM.

  6. Anthracenedione Derivatives as Anticancer Agents Isolated from Secondary Metabolites of the Mangrove Endophytic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ye Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report anticancer activity of 14 anthracenedione derivatives separated from the secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungi Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403 and Guignardia sp. (No. 4382. Some of them inhibited potently the growth of KB and KBv200 cells, among which compound 6 displayed strong cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 3.17 and 3.21 μM to KB and KBv200 cells, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mechanism involved in the apoptosis induced by compound 6 is probably related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, the structure-activity relationships of these compounds are discussed.

  7. Anthracenedione Derivatives as Anticancer Agents Isolated from Secondary Metabolites of the Mangrove Endophytic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang; Tao; Liang; Chen; Mi; Zheng; Wang; She; Lin; To; Fu

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we report anticancer activity of 14 anthracenedione derivatives separated from the secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungi Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403) and Guignardia sp. (No. 4382). Some of them inhibited potently the growth of KB and KBv200 cells, among which compound 6 displayed strong cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 3.17 and 3.21 μM to KB and KBv200 cells, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mechanism involved in the apoptosis induced by co...

  8. Isolation and characterisation of three new anthraquinone secondary metabolites from Symplocos racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Umar; Naz, Sadia; Khan, Ajmal; Khan, Sara; Khan, Afsar; Ali, Mumtaz; Khan, Saleha Suleman

    2016-01-01

    Three new anthraquinone secondary metabolites were isolated from Symplocos racemosa, a small tree of family symplocaceae. The structures of compounds (1-3) were elucidated to be 1,4-dihydroxy-6-(ethoxymethyl)-8-propylanthracene-9,10-dione (1), 1,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-8-butylanthracene-9,10-dione (2) and 1,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-8-propyl anthracene-9,10-dione (3) using their spectral data, i.e. through IR, UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques including heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation and correlation spectroscopy.

  9. In vitro erythrocytic membrane effects of dibenzyl trisulfide, a secondary metabolite of Petiveria alliacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepple, D J; Richards, A A; Lowe, D A; Reid, W A; Younger, N O; Williams, L A D

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the in vitro effect of dibenzyl trisulfide (DTS), a secondary metabolite of Petiveria alliacea, on erythrocyte elasticity, relaxation time and membrane morphology. Blood samples from 8 volunteers with hemoglobin AA were exposed to 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 ng/ml of DTS respectively and the elasticity and relaxation time measured. There were statistically significant, dose-dependent increases in elasticity and relaxation times. The changes in membrane morphology observed also increased with increased concentration of DTS. This suggests that DTS interaction with membrane protein resulted in increased elasticity, relaxation time and deformation of the erythrocyte membrane. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. New antioxidative secondary metabolites from the fruits of a Beibu Gulf mangrove, Avicennia marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng-Hai; Yi, Xiang-Xi; Xie, Wen-Pei; Chen, Yin-Ning; Xu, Ming-Ben; Su, Zhi-Wei; Yu, Lian; Huang, Ri-Ming

    2014-07-29

    Further chemical investigation of the fruits of the mangrove, Avicennia marina, afforded three new phenylethyl glycosides, marinoids J-L (1-3), and a new cinnamoyl glycoside, marinoid M (4). The structures of isolates were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of the data with those of related secondary metabolites. The antioxidant activity of the isolates was evaluated using the cellular antioxidant assay (CAA), and compounds 1-4 showed antioxidant activities, with EC50 values ranging from 23.0 ± 0.71 μM to 247.8 ± 2.47 μM.

  11. Subcellular localization of secondary lipid metabolites including fragrance volatiles in carnation petals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, K.A.; Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Pulse-chase labeling of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Improved White Sim) petals with [14C]acetate has provided evidence for a hydrophobic subcompartment of lipid-protein particles within the cytosol that resemble oil bodies, are formed by blebbing from membranes, and are enriched in lipid metabolites (including fragrance volatiles) derived from membrane fatty acids. Fractionation of the petals during pulse-chase labeling revealed that radiolabeled fatty acids appear first in microsomal membranes and subsequently in cytosolic lipid-protein particles, indicating that the particles originate from membranes. This interpretation is supported by the finding that the cytosolic lipid-protein particles contain phospholipid as well as the same fatty acids found in microsomal membranes. Radiolabeled polar lipid metabolites (methanol/ water-soluble) were detectable in both in situ lipid-protein particles isolated from the cytosol and those generated in vitro from isolated radiolabeled microsomal membranes. The lipid-protein particles were also enriched in hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-hexanol, volatiles of carnation flower fragrance that are derived from membrane fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Therefore, secondary lipid metabolites, including components of fragrance, appear to be formed within membranes of petal tissue and are subsequently released from the membrane bilayers into the cytosol by blebbing of lipid-protein particles

  12. IMG-ABC: An Atlas of Biosynthetic Gene Clusters to Fuel the Discovery of Novel Secondary Metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I-Min; Chu, Ken; Ratner, Anna; Palaniappan, Krishna; Huang, Jinghua; Reddy, T. B.K.; Cimermancic, Peter; Fischbach, Michael; Ivanova, Natalia; Markowitz, Victor; Kyrpides, Nikos; Pati, Amrita

    2014-10-28

    In the discovery of secondary metabolites (SMs), large-scale analysis of sequence data is a promising exploration path that remains largely underutilized due to the lack of relevant computational resources. We present IMG-ABC (https://img.jgi.doe.gov/abc/) -- An Atlas of Biosynthetic gene Clusters within the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system1. IMG-ABC is a rich repository of both validated and predicted biosynthetic clusters (BCs) in cultured isolates, single-cells and metagenomes linked with the SM chemicals they produce and enhanced with focused analysis tools within IMG. The underlying scalable framework enables traversal of phylogenetic dark matter and chemical structure space -- serving as a doorway to a new era in the discovery of novel molecules.

  13. Grains colonised by moulds: fungal identification and headspace analysis of produced volatile metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paola Tampieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify if the headspace analysis of fungal volatile compounds produced by some species of Fusarium can be used as a marker of mould presence on maize. Eight samples of maize (four yellow maize from North Italy and four white maize from Hungary, naturally contaminated by Fusarium and positive for the presence of fumonisins, were analyzed to detect moisture content, Aw, volatile metabolites and an enumeration of viable moulds was performed by means of a colony count technique. Headspace samples were analysed using a gas-chromatograph equipped with a capillary column TR-WAX to detect volatile metabolites of moulds. Furthermore macro and microscopic examination of the colonies was performed in order to distinguish, according to their morphology, the genera of the prevalent present moulds. Prevalent mould of eight samples was Fusarium, but other fungi, like Aspergillus, Penicillum and Mucoraceae, were observed. The metabolites produced by F.graminearum and F. moniliforme were Isobutyl-acetate, 3-Methyl-1-butanol and, only at 8 days, 3-Octanone. The incubation time can affect off flavour production in consequence of the presence of other moulds. Further studies on maize samples under different conditions are needed in order to establish the presence of moulds using the count technique and through the identification of volatile compounds.

  14. Genes Linked to Production of Secondary Metabolites in Talaromyces atroroseus Revealed Using CRISPR-Cas9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Lund; Petersen, Thomas Isbrandt; Rasmussen, Kasper Bøwig

    2017-01-01

    The full potential of fungal secondary metabolism has until recently been impeded by the lack of universal genetic tools for most species. However, the emergence of several CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing systems adapted for several genera of filamentous fungi have now opened the doors for future......-based genome editing to identify a new gene in T. atroroseus responsible for production of polyketide-nonribosomal peptide hybrid products, hence, linking fungal secondary metabolites to their genetic origin in a species where no genetic engineering has previously been performed....... efforts in discovery of novel natural products and elucidation and engineering of their biosynthetic pathways in fungi where no genetic tools are in place. So far, most studies have focused on demonstrating the performance of CRISPR-Cas9 in various fungal model species, and recently we presented...

  15. Indigenous leafy vegetables of Eastern Africa - A source of extraordinary secondary plant metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugart, Susanne; Baldermann, Susanne; Ngwene, Benard; Wesonga, John; Schreiner, Monika

    2017-10-01

    Indigenous African leafy vegetables vary enormously in their secondary plant metabolites whereat genus and the species have a great impact. In African nightshade (Solanum scabrum), spiderplant (Cleome gynandra), amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Ethiopian kale (Brassica carinata) and common kale (Brassica oleracea) the specific secondary metabolite profile was elucidated and gained detailed data about carotenoids, chlorophylls, glucosinolates and phenolic compounds all having an appropriate contribution to health beneficial properties of indigenous African leafy vegetables. Exemplarily, various quercetin glycosides such as quercetin-3-rutinoside occur in high concentrations in African nightshade, spiderplant, and amaranth between ~1400-3300μg/g DW. Additionally the extraordinary hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives such as glucaric isomers and isocitric acid isomers are found especially in amaranth (up to ~1250μg/g DW) and spiderplant (up to 120μg/g DW). Carotenoids concentrations are high in amaranth (up to101.7μg/g DW) and spiderplants (up to 64.7μg/g DW) showing high concentrations of β-carotene, the pro-vitamin A. In contrast to the ubiquitous occurring phenolics and carotenoids, glucosinolates are only present in the Brassicales species Ethiopian kale, common kale and spiderplant characterized by diverse glucosinolate profiles. Generally, the consumption of a variety of these indigenous African leafy vegetables can be recommended to contribute to different benefits such as antioxidant activity, increase pro-vitamin A and anticancerogenic compounds in a healthy diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of secondary metabolites trimethyl xanthina by Camellia sinensis L suspension culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutini, Sodiq, Mochamad; Muslihatin, Wirdhatul; Indra, Mochamad Rasjad

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive trimethyl xanthina can be obtained from the plant Camellia sinensis L. To obtain bioactive plant of which there are several hurdles for instance to wait up to five years to be harvested, also it needs land at a certain height from the sea level. Therefore, the production of secondary metabolites trimethyl xanthina need to be developed with suspense culture techniques. The purpose of this study obtained the production of bioactive trimethyl xanthina way culturally suspense in large scale with a relatively short time, potentially as anti-oxidants. Research methods include: (1) initiation of callus from pieces of leaves, shoots the youngest of the plant Camellia sinensis L in the media MS with the optimization of the addition of growth regulators, (2) the subculture of callus on media and plant growth regulator that is equal to the stage of initiation, (3) initiation of suspension culture using explants of callus Camellia sinensis L, (4) Analysis of secondary metabolites trimethyl xanthina growth in suspension culture, (5) the isolation and identification of trimethyl xanthina qualitatively and quantitatively using thin layer chromatography/high performance chromatography column. The results of the study suspension cultures containing bioactive trimethyl xanthina candidates that can be used as an antioxidant.

  17. CASSIS and SMIPS: promoter-based prediction of secondary metabolite gene clusters in eukaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Thomas; Shelest, Vladimir; Nath, Neetika; Shelest, Ekaterina

    2016-04-15

    Secondary metabolites (SM) are structurally diverse natural products of high pharmaceutical importance. Genes involved in their biosynthesis are often organized in clusters, i.e., are co-localized and co-expressed. In silico cluster prediction in eukaryotic genomes remains problematic mainly due to the high variability of the clusters' content and lack of other distinguishing sequence features. We present Cluster Assignment by Islands of Sites (CASSIS), a method for SM cluster prediction in eukaryotic genomes, and Secondary Metabolites by InterProScan (SMIPS), a tool for genome-wide detection of SM key enzymes ('anchor' genes): polyketide synthases, non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and dimethylallyl tryptophan synthases. Unlike other tools based on protein similarity, CASSIS exploits the idea of co-regulation of the cluster genes, which assumes the existence of common regulatory patterns in the cluster promoters. The method searches for 'islands' of enriched cluster-specific motifs in the vicinity of anchor genes. It was validated in a series of cross-validation experiments and showed high sensitivity and specificity. CASSIS and SMIPS are freely available at https://sbi.hki-jena.de/cassis thomas.wolf@leibniz-hki.de or ekaterina.shelest@leibniz-hki.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Recent acquisitions on oxyprenylated secondary metabolites as anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorito, Serena; Epifano, Francesco; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Genovese, Salvatore

    2017-08-18

    Oxyprenylated secondary metabolites from plants, fungi, and bacteria, and their semisynthetic derivatives have been subject of growing interest during the last decade. Such natural products in fact have been discovered as potentially novel lead compounds for a series of pharmacological activities, mainly in terms of anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory ones. Especially during the last 5 years, a wider panel of prenyloxy secondary metabolites have been investigated from chemical and biological points of view and these include benzoic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, chalcones, anthraquinones, 1,4-naphthoquinones, other than the well known oxyprenylated ferulic acid and coumarin derivatives. The aim of this comprehensive review is to focus on the anti-inflammatory properties and related mechanisms of action of selected classes of oxyprenylated naturally occurring compounds and their semisynthetic analogues covering the literature period from 2011 to 2017. In vitro and in vivo data on their pharmacological activity triggering different pathways of the overall inflammatory machinery as well as structure activity relationship acquisitions will be summarized in order to make a detailed survey of the most recent reports on the potential of the title compounds as a novel class of anti-inflammatory agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Damage of Streptococcus mutans biofilms by carolacton, a secondary metabolite from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum

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    Irschik Herbert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen in human dental caries. One of its important virulence properties is the ability to form biofilms (dental plaque on tooth surfaces. Eradication of such biofilms is extremely difficult. We therefore screened a library of secondary metabolites from myxobacteria for their ability to damage biofilms of S. mutans. Results Here we show that carolacton, a secondary metabolite isolated from Sorangium cellulosum, has high antibacterial activity against biofilms of S. mutans. Planktonic growth of bacteria was only slightly impaired and no acute cytotoxicity against mouse fibroblasts could be observed. Carolacton caused death of S. mutans biofilm cells, elongation of cell chains, and changes in cell morphology. At a concentration of 10 nM carolacton, biofilm damage was already at 35% under anaerobic conditions. A knock-out mutant for comD, encoding a histidine kinase specific for the competence stimulating peptide (CSP, was slightly less sensitive to carolacton than the wildtype. Expression of the competence related alternate sigma factor ComX was strongly reduced by carolacton, as determined by a pcomX luciferase reporter strain. Conclusions Carolacton possibly interferes with the density dependent signalling systems in S. mutans and may represent a novel approach for the prevention of dental caries.

  20. An RNA isolation system for plant tissues rich in secondary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Secondary metabolites are reported to interfere with the isolation of RNA particularly with the recipes that use guanidinium-based salt. Such interference was observed in isolation of RNA with medicinal plants rheum (Rheum australe) and arnebia (Arnebia euchroma). A rapid and less cumbersome system for isolation of RNA was essential to facilitate any study related to gene expression. Findings An RNA isolation system free of guanidinium salt was developed that successfully isolated RNA from rheum and arnebia. The method took about 45 min and was successfully evaluated on twenty one tissues with varied secondary metabolites. The A260/280 ratio ranged between 1.8 - 2.0 with distinct 28 S and 18 S rRNA bands visible on a formaldehyde-agarose gel. Conclusions The present manuscript describes a rapid protocol for isolation of RNA, which works well with all the tissues examined so far. The remarkable feature was the success in isolation of RNA with those tissues, wherein the most commonly used methods failed. Isolated RNA was amenable to downstream applications such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), differential display (DD), suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library construction, and northern hybridization. PMID:21443767

  1. Barks Essential Oil, Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of Four Organs of Tunisian Calligonum azel Maire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannour, Marwa; Aouadhi, Chedia; Khalfaoui, Houssem; Aschi-Smiti, Samira; Khadhri, Ayda

    2016-11-01

    This study is the first to investigate the chemical composition of barks essential oil (EO), secondary metabolites and biological activities of the MeOH and infusions extracts of seeds, leaves, barks and roots of Calligonum azel Maire (Polygonaceae) harvested from Tunisian desert. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) results showed the presence of fifty-four compounds in barks EO. The major components were: viridiflorol (14.6%), α-eudesmol (8.65%), trans-caryophyllene (6.72%), elemol (6.63%), β-eudesmol (6.21%). The obtained results showed that C. azel is a very rich plant in secondary metabolites. High contents in polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins were observed in both extracts of all studied organs. Significant differences were found between both extracts of the four organs. Thus, polyphenols and tannins were more abundant in leaves infusion extract, while, flavonoids showed a high level in barks extract. The antioxidant activity data demonstrated that all extracts showed strong antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. The MeOH extracts presented potential for antibacterial and antifungal activities against all tested microorganisms. The inhibition zones diameters and minimal inhibitrice concentration values were in the range of 9 - 15 mm and 2.5 - 20 μg/ml, respectively. This study demonstrated that C. azel can be regarded as an excellent plant source for natural antimicrobial agents. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. Identification of seeds based on molecular markers and secondary metabolites in Senna obtusifolia and Senna occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Renjun; Xia, Pengguo; He, Zhigui; Liu, Yan; Liu, Fenghua; Zhao, Hongguang; Han, Ruilian; Liang, Zongsuo

    2017-11-02

    Senna obtusifolia and Senna occidentalis (Leguminosae), whose seeds have similar appearance and chemical constituents, are easily confused in using their seeds. To elucidate the similarities and differences between S. obtusifolia seeds and S. occidentalis seeds, three molecular markers and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were employed to evaluate the seeds characteristics of these two medicinal herbs. The results showed that selected 3 ISSR and 7 SCoT primers could distinguish S. obtusifolia seeds from S. occidentalis seeds based on the specific band and UPGMA dendrogram. ITS2 sequence indicated that the intra-specific similarity of 20 S. obtusifolia and 16 S. occidentalis was 99.79 and 100.0%, respectively, while the inter-specific similarity between S . obtusifolia and S. occidentalis was 89.58%. Although phylogenetic analysis revealed that these two species had a close relationship, they were assigned to different branches. HPLC fingerprint results showed that seeds of S. obtusifolia and S. occidentalis shared some secondary metabolites, but aurantio-obtusin was not detected in S. occidentalis seeds which could differentiate S. obtusifolia seeds from S. occidentalis seeds. The present study not only compared the seeds characters of S. obtusifolia and S. occidentalis from molecular and secondary metabolites levels, but also provided a convenient method to identify S. obtusifolia seeds and S. occidentalis seeds effectively.

  3. Red soils harbor diverse culturable actinomycetes that are promising sources of novel secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Ning; Li, Xiaomin; Ding, Yun; Shang, Fei; Gao, Yongsheng; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Red soils, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of southern China, are characterized by low organic carbon, high content of iron oxides, and acidity and, hence, are likely to be ideal habitats for acidophilic actinomycetes. However, the diversity and biosynthetic potential of actinomycetes in such habitats are underexplored. Here, a total of 600 actinomycete strains were isolated from red soils collected in Jiangxi Province in southeast China. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed a high diversity of the isolates, which were distributed into 26 genera, 10 families, and 7 orders within the class Actinobacteria; these taxa contained at least 49 phylotypes that are likely to represent new species within 15 genera. The isolates showed good physiological potentials for biosynthesis and biocontrol. Chemical screening of 107 semirandomly selected isolates spanning 20 genera revealed the presence of at least 193 secondary metabolites from 52 isolates, of which 125 compounds from 39 isolates of 12 genera were putatively novel. Macrolides, polyethers, diketopiperazines, and siderophores accounted for most of the known compounds. The structures of six novel compounds were elucidated, two of which had a unique skeleton and represented characteristic secondary metabolites of a putative novel Streptomyces phylotype. These results demonstrate that red soils are rich reservoirs for diverse culturable actinomycetes, notably members of the families Streptomycetaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, and Streptosporangiaceae, with the capacity to synthesize novel bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. An RNA isolation system for plant tissues rich in secondary metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj Pardeep K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary metabolites are reported to interfere with the isolation of RNA particularly with the recipes that use guanidinium-based salt. Such interference was observed in isolation of RNA with medicinal plants rheum (Rheum australe and arnebia (Arnebia euchroma. A rapid and less cumbersome system for isolation of RNA was essential to facilitate any study related to gene expression. Findings An RNA isolation system free of guanidinium salt was developed that successfully isolated RNA from rheum and arnebia. The method took about 45 min and was successfully evaluated on twenty one tissues with varied secondary metabolites. The A260/280 ratio ranged between 1.8 - 2.0 with distinct 28 S and 18 S rRNA bands visible on a formaldehyde-agarose gel. Conclusions The present manuscript describes a rapid protocol for isolation of RNA, which works well with all the tissues examined so far. The remarkable feature was the success in isolation of RNA with those tissues, wherein the most commonly used methods failed. Isolated RNA was amenable to downstream applications such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, differential display (DD, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH library construction, and northern hybridization.

  5. Accessing biological actions of Ganoderma secondary metabolites by in silico profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienke, Ulrike; Kaserer, Teresa; Pfluger, Florian; Mair, Christina E.; Langer, Thierry; Schuster, Daniela; Rollinger, Judith M.

    2016-01-01

    The species complex around the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum Karst. (Ganodermataceae) is widely known in traditional medicines as well as in modern applications such as functional food or nutraceuticals. A considerable number of publications reflects its abundance and variety in biological actions either provoked by primary metabolites such as polysaccharides or secondary metabolites such as lanostane-type triterpenes. However, due to this remarkable amount of information, a rationalization of the individual Ganoderma constituents to biological actions on a molecular level is quite challenging. To overcome this issue, a database was generated containing meta-information, i.e. chemical structures and biological actions of hitherto identified Ganoderma constituents (279). This was followed by a computational approach subjecting this 3D multi-conformational molecular dataset to in silico parallel screening against an in-house collection of validated structure- and ligand-based 3D pharmacophore models. The predictive power of the evaluated in silico tools and hints from traditional application fields served as criteria for the model selection. Thus, we focused on representative druggable targets in the field of viral infections (5) and diseases related to the metabolic syndrome (22). The results obtained from this in silico approach were compared to bioactivity data available from the literature to distinguish between true and false positives or negatives. 89 and 197 Ganoderma compounds were predicted as ligands of at least one of the selected pharmacological targets in the antiviral and the metabolic syndrome screening, respectively. Among them only a minority of individual compounds (around 10%) has ever been investigated on these targets or for the associated biological activity. Accordingly, this study discloses putative ligand target interactions for a plethora of Ganoderma constituents in the empirically manifested field of viral diseases and metabolic

  6. Isolation of Human Intestinal Bacteria Capable of Producing the Bioactive Metabolite Isourolithin A from Ellagic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, María V; Beltrán, David; Luna, María C; Romo-Vaquero, María; García-Villalba, Rocío; Mira, Alex; Espín, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2017-01-01

    Urolithins are intestinal microbial metabolites produced from ellagitannin- and ellagic acid-containing foods such as walnuts, strawberries, and pomegranates. These metabolites, better absorbed than their precursors, can contribute significantly to the beneficial properties attributed to the polyphenols ellagitannins and ellagic acid (EA). However, both the ability of producing the final metabolites in this catabolism (urolithins A, B and isourolithin A) and the health benefits associated with ellagitannin consumption differ considerably among individuals depending on their gut microbiota composition. Three human urolithin metabotypes have been previously described, i.e., metabotype 0 (urolithin non-producers), metabotype A (production of urolithin A as unique final urolithin) and metabotype B (urolithin B and/or isourolithin A are produced besides urolithin A). Although production of some intermediary urolithins has been recently attributed to intestinal species from Eggerthellaceae family named Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens and Gordonibacter pamelaeae , the identification of the microorganisms responsible for the complete transformation of EA into the final urolithins, especially those related to metabotype B, are still unknown. In the present research we illustrate the isolation of urolithin-producing strains from human feces of a healthy adult and their ability to transform EA into different urolithin metabolites, including isourolithin A. The isolates belong to a new genus from Eggerthellaceae family. EA transformation and urolithin production arisen during the stationary phase of the growth of the bacteria under anaerobic conditions. The HPLC-DAD-MS analyses demonstrated the sequential appearance of 3,8,9,10-tetrahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M6), 3,8,9-trihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin C) and 3,9-dihydroxy-urolithin (isourolithin A) while 3,8-dihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin A) and 3-hydroxy-urolithin (urolithin B) were not detected. For the first time

  7. Isolation of Human Intestinal Bacteria Capable of Producing the Bioactive Metabolite Isourolithin A from Ellagic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. Selma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Urolithins are intestinal microbial metabolites produced from ellagitannin- and ellagic acid-containing foods such as walnuts, strawberries, and pomegranates. These metabolites, better absorbed than their precursors, can contribute significantly to the beneficial properties attributed to the polyphenols ellagitannins and ellagic acid (EA. However, both the ability of producing the final metabolites in this catabolism (urolithins A, B and isourolithin A and the health benefits associated with ellagitannin consumption differ considerably among individuals depending on their gut microbiota composition. Three human urolithin metabotypes have been previously described, i.e., metabotype 0 (urolithin non-producers, metabotype A (production of urolithin A as unique final urolithin and metabotype B (urolithin B and/or isourolithin A are produced besides urolithin A. Although production of some intermediary urolithins has been recently attributed to intestinal species from Eggerthellaceae family named Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens and Gordonibacter pamelaeae, the identification of the microorganisms responsible for the complete transformation of EA into the final urolithins, especially those related to metabotype B, are still unknown. In the present research we illustrate the isolation of urolithin-producing strains from human feces of a healthy adult and their ability to transform EA into different urolithin metabolites, including isourolithin A. The isolates belong to a new genus from Eggerthellaceae family. EA transformation and urolithin production arisen during the stationary phase of the growth of the bacteria under anaerobic conditions. The HPLC-DAD-MS analyses demonstrated the sequential appearance of 3,8,9,10-tetrahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M6, 3,8,9-trihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin C and 3,9-dihydroxy-urolithin (isourolithin A while 3,8-dihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin A and 3-hydroxy-urolithin (urolithin B were not detected. For the first time

  8. Secondary metabolites as anti-nutritional factors in locally used halophytic forage/fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsen, S.; Qasim, M.; Abideen, Z.; Rizve, R. F.; Gul, B.; Ansari, R.

    2016-01-01

    Rampant salinity coupled with population explosion necessitates search for suitable alternatives to conventional sources of food both for human and animal consumption. While it may be difficult to change our culinary preferences, training animals to adopt a changed diet of nonconventional salt tolerant plants is easier. Using these wild plants however, requires estimation of undesirable secondary metabolites (SMs) produced during stressful conditions, which may be harmful for health of animals. Some of these anti-nutritional components (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, nitrates, saponins and oxalates) were determined in 22 halophytes locally used as fodder/forage. Most of the species were perennial shrubs and herbs of an area where environmental conditions like high mean annual temperature (∼35 degree C), low rainfall (< 250mm) with soil mostly dry (average 2 percent moisture) and saline (average EC 13 dSm/sup -1/) supported the growth of halophytes and xerophytes. Values of SMs in the studied plants ranged from 0.13-4.05 percent for total phenols, 0.38-6.99 percent for tannins, 0.15-1.50 percent for flavonoids, 0.10-1.15 percent for nitrates, 0.45-8.68 percent for saponins and 0.36-2.34 percent for oxalates. Most of the species (19) contained low to moderate amount of individual as well as total SMs which were within the non-toxic ranges. However, three species distributed in coastal habitats where average soil salinity (27.67 dSm-1) was considerably higher than inland ones (7.09 dSm-1) had SMs contents above the safe limits. It is evident from these Results that most of these plants contained moderate to low levels of anti-nutritional factors, which lies under the safe limits and hence, could be used as a potential feed source to raise animals, particularly in arid/semiarid areas. Additionally, these plants represents a viable choice as they can be grown without encroaching on agricultural lands and fresh water resources and could promote livestock

  9. Secondary metabolites from cetrarioid lichens: Chemotaxonomy, biological activities and pharmaceutical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Maonian; Heidmarsson, Starri; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia; Buonfiglio, Rosa; Kogej, Thierry; Omarsdottir, Sesselja

    2016-05-15

    Lichens, as a symbiotic association of photobionts and mycobionts, display an unmatched environmental adaptability and a great chemical diversity. As an important morphological group, cetrarioid lichens are one of the most studied lichen taxa for their phylogeny, secondary chemistry, bioactivities and uses in folk medicines, especially the lichen Cetraria islandica. However, insufficient structure elucidation and discrepancy in bioactivity results could be found in a few studies. This review aimed to present a more detailed and updated overview of the knowledge of secondary metabolites from cetrarioid lichens in a critical manner, highlighting their potentials for pharmaceuticals as well as other applications. Here we also highlight the uses of molecular phylogenetics, metabolomics and ChemGPS-NP model for future bioprospecting, taxonomy and drug screening to accelerate applications of those lichen substances. The paper starts with a short introduction in to the studies of lichen secondary metabolites, the biological classification of cetrarioid lichens and the aim. In light of ethnic uses of cetrarioid lichens for therapeutic purposes, molecular phylogeny is proposed as a tool for future bioprospecting of cetrarioid lichens, followed by a brief discussion of the taxonomic value of lichen substances. Then a delicate description of the bioactivities, patents, updated chemical structures and lichen sources is presented, where lichen substances are grouped by their chemical structures and discussed about their bioactivity in comparison with reference compounds. To accelerate the discovery of bioactivities and potential drug targets of lichen substances, the application of the ChemGPS NP model is highlighted. Finally the safety concerns of lichen substances (i.e. toxicity and immunogenicity) and future-prospects in the field are exhibited. While the ethnic uses of cetrarioid lichens and the pharmaceutical potential of their secondary metabolites have been recognized

  10. Antimicrobial activities of secondary metabolites and phylogenetic study of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria, Bacillus sp. at Agatti Island, Lakshadweep Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi Mohan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of sponges were recorded under the class of Demospongiae and Calcareous sponges of which 19 species were new to Agatti reef. A total of 113 Sponge endosymbiotic bacterial strains were isolated from twenty-one species of sponges and screened for antimicrobial activity. Five bacterial strains of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria (SEB namely SEB32, SEB33, SEB36, SEB43 and SEB51 showed antimicrobial activity against virulent marine fish pathogens such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium sp., Edwardsiella sp., Proteus mirabilis and Citrobacter brackii. The secondary metabolites produced by SEB32 from sponge Dysidea fragilis (Montagu, 1818 [48] was selected with broad range of antibacterial activity and subjected for production, characterization by series of chromatography techniques and spectroscopic methods. Based on the results of FT-IR and mass spectrometry, the active molecule was tentatively predicted as “Pyrrol” and the structure is Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro- with molecular formula of C7H10N2O2. The LC50 of active molecule was 31 μg/ml and molecular weight of the metabolites was 154. The potential strain SEB32 was identified by gene sequence (GenBank Accession number JX985748 and identified as Bacillus sp. from GenBank database.

  11. A rifampicin-resistant (rpoB) mutation in Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 strain leads to improved antifungal activity and elevated production of secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yali; Liu, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Guoyong; Mo, Xiangtao; Ding, Xuezhi; Xia, Liqiu; Hu, Shengbiao

    2016-10-01

    Ribosome engineering has proven to be a practical method for increasing antibiotic production, and is extensively applied to strain improvement in antibiotic production and activation of silent genes in several prokaryotes. In this study, ribosome engineering was used to improve production of bioactive secondary metabolites produced by Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5. Rifampicin-resistant mutants that bear the H531N in the β-subunit of RNA polymerase showed improved antifungal activity and morphological changes. The production of several secondary metabolites in R55 mutant was significantly improved using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Two antibiotics with antifungal activity, 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) and pyoluteorin (Plt), which may contribute to the improved antifungal activity of the R55 mutant, were identified by mass spectrometer (MS) analysis. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. [Secondary metabolites of halotolerant fungus Penicillium chrysogenum HK14-01 from the Yellow River Delta area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Peng; Liu, Peipei; Fu, Peng; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Weiming

    2012-09-04

    To search for structurally novel and biologically active compounds from the secondary metabolites of halotolerant fungi from the Yellow River Delta area. We screened halotolerant fungi with rich chemical diversity and antitumor or antimicrobial activity by means of integrated chemical and biological method. We cultured halotolerant fungi under different conditions at first. Then we investigated the chemical diversity and the bioactivity of the EtOAc extracts of the fermentation broth by HPLC and TLC, and cytotoxic assay or antimicrobial assay. We selected Penicillium chrysogenum HK14-01 to further study for the large yield, producing alkaloids and cytotoxicity on P388 cells in YMDP culture medium containing 10% NaCl. We fermented P. chrysogenum HK14-01 on a large scale; we isolated and purified the compounds by column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and semipreparative HPLC; and we identified the structures by spectroscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction (Mo-Kalpha), CD spectra and the time-dependent density functional theory electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT ECD) calculation. We isolated and identified a halotolerant fungal strain, P. chrysogenum HK14-01, from the sediments collected in the Yellow River Delta area. From the fermentation broth of P. chrysogenum HK14-01, we isolated and identified eight compounds, i.e. (2S,3R)-oxaline (1, a major product), (3R, 4R)-3,4,8-trihydroxy-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1 (2H)-one (2), (Z)-N-(4-hydroxy styryl) formamide (3), (E)-N-(4-hydroxystyryl) formamide (4), emodin (5), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl) benzene-1,2-diol (6), methyl 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetate (7), and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetonitrile (8). Bioactive compounds can be obtained from the secondary metabolites of halotolerant microorganisms from the Yellow River Delta area.

  13. Ecotype variability in growth and secondary metabolite profile in Moringa oleifera: impact of sulfur and water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Nadja; Ulrichs, Christian; Schreiner, Monika; Arndt, Nick; Schmidt, Reinhard; Mewis, Inga

    2015-03-25

    Moringa oleifera is widely cultivated in plantations in the tropics and subtropics. Previous cultivation studies with M. oleifera focused primarily only on leaf yield. In the present study, the content of potentially health-promoting secondary metabolites (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) were also investigated. Six different ecotypes were grown under similar environmental conditions to identify phenotypic differences that can be traced back to the genotype. The ecotypes TOT4880 (origin USA) and TOT7267 (origin India) were identified as having the best growth performance and highest secondary metabolite production, making them an ideal health-promoting food crop. Furthermore, optimal cultivation conditions-exemplarily on sulfur fertilization and water availability-for achieving high leaf and secondary metabolite yields were investigated for M. oleifera. In general, plant biomass and height decreased under water deficiency compared to normal cultivation conditions, whereas the glucosinolate content increased. The effects depended to a great extent on the ecotype.

  14. Activation and silencing of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces lividans after transformation with cosmids containing the thienamycin gene cluster from Streptomyces cattleya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braña, Alfredo F; Rodríguez, Miriam; Pahari, Pallab; Rohr, Jurgen; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2014-05-01

    Activation and silencing of antibiotic production was achieved in Streptomyces albus J1074 and Streptomyces lividans TK21 after introduction of genes within the thienamycin cluster from S. cattleya. Dramatic phenotypic and metabolic changes, involving activation of multiple silent secondary metabolites and silencing of others normally produced, were found in recombinant strains harbouring the thienamycin cluster in comparison to the parental strains. In S. albus, ultra-performance liquid chromatography purification and NMR structural elucidation revealed the identity of four structurally related activated compounds: the antibiotics paulomycins A, B and the paulomenols A and B. Four volatile compounds whose biosynthesis was switched off were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses and databases comparison as pyrazines; including tetramethylpyrazine, a compound with important clinical applications to our knowledge never reported to be produced by Streptomyces. In addition, this work revealed the potential of S. albus to produce many others secondary metabolites normally obtained from plants, including compounds of medical relevance as dihydro-β-agarofuran and of interest in perfume industry as β-patchoulene, suggesting that it might be an alternative model for their industrial production. In S. lividans, actinorhodins production was strongly activated in the recombinant strains whereas undecylprodigiosins were significantly reduced. Activation of cryptic metabolites in Streptomyces species might represent an alternative approach for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  15. Role of the phosphopantetheinyltransferase enzyme, PswP, in the biosynthesis of antimicrobial secondary metabolites by Serratia marcescens Db10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerc, Amy J; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R; Coulthurst, Sarah J

    2014-08-01

    Phosphopantetheinyltransferase (PPTase) enzymes fulfil essential roles in primary and secondary metabolism in prokaryotes, archaea and eukaryotes. PPTase enzymes catalyse the essential modification of the carrier protein domain of fatty acid synthases, polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). In bacteria and fungi, NRPS and PKS enzymes are often responsible for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites with clinically relevant properties; these secondary metabolites include a variety of antimicrobial peptides. We have previously shown that in the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens Db10, the PPTase enzyme PswP is essential for the biosynthesis of an NRPS-PKS dependent antibiotic called althiomycin. In this work we utilize bioinformatic analyses to classify PswP as belonging to the F/KES subfamily of Sfp type PPTases and to putatively identify additional NRPS substrates of PswP, in addition to the althiomycin NRPS-PKS, in Ser. marcescens Db10. We show that PswP is required for the production of three diffusible metabolites by this organism, each possessing antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Genetic analyses identify the three metabolites as althiomycin, serrawettin W2 and an as-yet-uncharacterized siderophore, which may be related to enterobactin. Our results highlight the use of an individual PPTase enzyme in multiple biosynthetic pathways, each contributing to the ability of Ser. marcescens to inhibit competitor bacteria by the production of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. © 2014 The Authors.

  16. Secondary metabolites of seagrasses (Alismatales and Potamogetonales; Alismatidae): Chemical diversity, bioactivity, and ecological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidorn, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Seagrasses are the only higher plants living in fully marine environments; they play a significant role in coastal ecosystems. Seagrasses inhabit the coastal shelves of all continents except Antarctica and can grow in depths of up to 90 m. Because of their eminent ecological importance, innumerous studies have been dedicated to seagrasses and their ecology. However, the phytochemistry has not been equally well investigated yet and many of the existing studies in chemical ecology are only investigating the chemistry at the level of compound classes, e.g. phenolics, and not at the level of chemically defined metabolites. In the present review, the existing literature on secondary metabolites of seagrasses, their known source seagrasses, their bioactivity, and ecological function are compiled and critically assessed. Moreover, research gaps are highlighted and avenues for future research are discussed. Currently, a total of 154 chemically defined natural products have been reported from the about 70 seagrass species known worldwide. Compounds reported include simple phenols derivatives (four compounds), phenylmethane derivatives (14 compounds), phenylethane derivatives (four compounds), phenylpropane derivatives including their esters and dimers (20 compounds), chalkones (four compounds), flavonoids including catechins (57 compounds), phenylheptanoids (four compounds), one monoterpene derivative, one sesquiterpene, diterpenoids (13 compounds), steroids (31 compounds), and one alkaloid. Most of the existing bioactivity studies of seagrass metabolites and extracts have been directed to potential cytotoxic, antimicrobial, or antimacrofouling activity. Antimicrobial studies have been performed towards panels of both human pathogens and ecologically relevant pathogens. In the antimacrofouling studies, investigations of the potential of zosteric acid from the genus Zostera are the most numerous and have yielded so far the most interesting results. Studies on the chemical

  17. Changes of primary and secondary metabolites in barley plants exposed to CdO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Večeřová, Kristýna; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Dočekal, Bohumil; Oravec, Michal; Pompeiano, Antonio; Tříska, Jan; Urban, Otmar

    2016-11-01

    The environmental fate of airborne nanoparticles and their toxicity to plants is not yet fully understood. Pot-grown barley plants with second leaves developed were therefore exposed to CdO nanoparticles (CdONPs) of ecologically relevant size (7-60 nm) and concentration (2.03 ± 0.45 × 10 5  particles cm -3 ) in air for 3 weeks. An experiment was designed to test the effects of different treatments when only leaves (T1); leaves and soil substrate (T2); and leaves, soil, and water supply were exposed to nanoparticles (T3). A fourth, control group of plants was left without treatment (T0). Although CdONPs were directly absorbed by leaves from the air, a part of leaf-allocated Cd was also transported from roots by transpiration flow. Chromatographic assays revealed that CdONPs had a significant effect on total content of primary metabolites (amino acids and saccharides) but no significant effect on total content of secondary metabolites (phenolic compounds, Krebs cycle acids, and fatty acids). In addition, the compositions of individual metabolite classes were affected by CdONP treatment. For example, tryptophan and phenylalanine were the most affected amino acids in both analysed organs, while ferulic acid and isovitexin constituted the polyphenols most affected in leaves. Even though CdONP treatment had no effect on total fatty acids content, there were significant changes in the composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in both the roots and leaves of treated plants. Although the results indicate the most pronounced effect in T3 plants as compared to T1 and T2 plants, even just leaf exposure to CdONPs has the potential to induce changes in plant metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Invasive Plant Promotes Its Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbioses and Competitiveness through Its Secondary Metabolites: Indirect Evidence from Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongge; Tang, Jianjun; Leng, Dong; Hu, Shuijin; Yong, Jean W. H.; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1–3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts. PMID:24817325

  19. An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongge Yuan

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC, a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3 with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

  20. An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongge; Tang, Jianjun; Leng, Dong; Hu, Shuijin; Yong, Jean W H; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

  1. Secondary Metabolites from the Marine-Derived Fungus Dichotomomyces sp. L-8 and Their Cytotoxic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided isolation of the secondary metabolites from the fungus Dichotomomyces sp. L-8 associated with the soft coral Lobophytum crassum led to the discovery of two new compounds, dichotones A and B (1 and 2, together with four known compounds including dichotocejpin C (3, bis-N-norgliovictin (4, bassiatin (5 and (3R,6R-bassiatin (6. The structures of these compounds were determined by 1D, 2D NMR and mass spectrometry. (3R,6R-bassiatin (6 displayed significant cytotoxic activities against the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-435 and the human lung cancer cell line Calu3 with IC50 values of 7.34 ± 0.20 and 14.54 ± 0.01 μM, respectively, while bassiatin (5, the diastereomer of compound 6, was not cytotoxic.

  2. Anti-parasitic effects of plant secondary metabolites on swine nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, A.R.; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Fryganas, Christos

    -control options are required. We present results from a comprehensive in vitro screen of plant secondary metabolites (PSM) from diverse plant sources on the economically important pig parasites Ascaris chlamydiae and Oesophagostomum dentatum . We focused on two PSM classes commonly found in natural diets......Organic production presents challenges to animal health and productivity. In organic pig production, animals must have access to outdoor pastures which increases exposure to gastrointestinal parasites. Moreover, the routine use of synthetic anti-parasitic drugs is not allowed. Thus, novel parasite...... – condensed tannins (CT) and sesquiterpene lactones (SL). Different CT-types were purified from various plant sources to reflect their diversity; SL were purified from forage chicory. These PSM were tested in inhibition assays of worm motility and migratory ability. CT had potent activity against A. suum...

  3. Isolation and purification of plant secondary metabolites using column-chromatographic technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Bajpai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic techniques have significant role in natural products chemistry as well as contribute dramatically in the discovery of novel and innovative compounds of pharmaceutical and biomedical importance. This study focused on step-by-step visual demonstration of fractionation and isolation of biologically active plant secondary metabolites using column-chromatographic techniques. Isolation of bioactive compounds using column-chromatographic involves: a Preparation of sample; b Packing of column; c Pouring of sample into the column; d Elution of fractions; and e Analysis of each fractions using thin layer chromatography. However, depending on nature of research, compounds can be further purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral analyses.

  4. Small RNA sequencing for secondary metabolite analysis inPersicaria minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Abdul Fatah A; Nazaruddin, Nazaruddin; Sajad, Muhammad; Jani, Jaeyres; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul; Zainal, Zamri; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2017-09-01

    Persicaria minor (kesum) is an important medicinal plant and commonly found in southeast countries; Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam. This plant is enriched with a variety of secondary metabolites (SMs), and among these SMs, terpenoids are in high abundance. Terpenoids are comprised of many valuable biomolecules which have well-established role in agriculture and pharmaceutical industry. In P. minor , for the first time, we have generated small RNAs data sets, which can be used as tool in deciphering their roles in terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. Fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum was used as elicitor to trigger SMs biosynthesis in P. minor. Raw reads and small RNA analysis data have already been deposited at GenBank under the accessions; SRX2645684 ( Fusarium -treated), SRX2645685 ( Fusarium -treated), SRX2645686 (mock-infected), and SRX2645687 (mock-infected).

  5. Spectral effects of supplementary lighting on the secondary metabolites in roses, chrysanthemums, and campanulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the light spectrum on photosynthesis, growth, and secondary metabolites Rosa hybrida ‘Scarlet’, Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Coral Charm’, and Campanula portenschlagiana ‘BluOne’ were grown at 24/18 ◦C day/night temperature under purpose-built LED arrays yielding...... approximately 200 mol m−2 s−1 at plant height for 16 h per day. The four light treatments were (1) 40% Blue/60% Red, (2) 20% Blue/80% Red, (3) 100% Red, and (4) 100% White (Control). The plant height was smallest in 40% Blue/60% Red in roses and chrysanthemums, while the biomass was smallest in the white...... hypothesize that blue light may predispose plants to better cope with stress....

  6. Molecular and crystal structure of the antibiotic enniatin B, a secondary microbial metabolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukhlistova, N.E.; Tishchenko, G.N.; Tolstykh, I.V.; Zenkova, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    Single crystals of the secondary microbial metabolite C 33 H 57 N 3 O 9 ·1(2/3)H 2 O with the known molecular weight were studied by the method of X-ray diffraction analysis, where a=b=15.102(3) A, c=14.548(3) A, sp. gr.R3, R=0.057. In the course of the structure determination, it was established that the substance is a natural antibiotic, namely, enniatin B. The conformation of its molecule is similar to that of the known synthetic antibiotic. The main difference between the natural and synthesized forms reduces to the different numbers of water molecules and their arrangement in the cavity of the antibiotic molecule

  7. SECONDARY METABOLITE FROM ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI Aspergillus niger OF THE STEM BARK OF KANDIS GAJAH (Garcinia griffithii

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    Elfita Elfita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia griffithii are known as kandis gajah including the Garcinia genus. This plant has been traditionally used by local communities Sarasah Bonta, Lembah Arau, West Sumatra, to treat various diseases including gout. Aspergillus niger was isolated from the tissues of the stem bark of Garcinia griffithii. The fungi strain was identified base on colony and cell morphology characteristic. Aspergillus niger cultured in media 5L Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB for 8 weeks and filtered. Media that already contains secondary metabolites are partitioned using ethyl acetate solvent in 5 L (twice, followed by evaporation. Furthermore, the extract is separated by chromatographic techniques to obtain a pure compound of white crystal. The molecular structures of isolated compounds are determined by spectroscopic methods including IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, HMBC, and COSY. The compound was determined as phenolic (1.

  8. ISOLATION OF SECONDARY METABOLITE FROM n -HEXANE EXTRACT OF THE STEM OF BROTOWALI (Tinospora crispa

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    Muharni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of secondary metabolite from n-hexane extract of the stem of Tinospora crispa had been studied. The extraction was performed by maceration. The extract of n-hexane was separated and purified by column chromatography. Antioxidant activity of the isolated compound was conducted by DPPH (1.1-diphenylpycryl hidrazyl method with concentration variation of 1000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5, 31.25, 15.625 and 7.8125 μg/mL. The isolated compound was a yellow oils. Based on spectroscopy data 1D-NMR and comparing with literature data which had been reported from endophityc fungi of brotowali stem, it was concluded that the isolated compound was bis-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate with molecular formula C24O4H38. The antioxidant activity of the isolated compound showed IC50 232.9 μg/mL and was inactive as antioxidant

  9. Physiological performance, secondary metabolite and expression profiling of genes associated with drought tolerance in Withania somnifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchita; Singh, Ruchi; Mishra, Anand; Dhawan, Sunita S; Shirke, Pramod A; Gupta, Madan M; Sharma, Ashok

    2015-11-01

    Physiological, biochemical, and gene expression responses under drought stress were studied in Withania somnifera. Photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content, chlorophyll content, and quantum yield of photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) decreased in response to drought stress. Comparative expression of genes involved in osmoregulation, detoxification, signal transduction, metabolism, and transcription factor was analyzed through quantitative RT-PCR. The genes encoding 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), serine threonine-protein kinase (STK), serine threonine protein phosphatase (PSP), aldehyde dehydrogenase (AD), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase/anthocyanin synthase (LD/AS), HSP, MYB, and WRKY have shown upregulation in response to drought stress condition in leaf tissues. Enhanced detoxification and osmoregulation along with increased withanolides production were also observed under drought stress. The results of this study will be helpful in developing stress-tolerant and high secondary metabolite yielding genotypes.

  10. Systematics of Penicillium simplicissimum based on rDNA sequences, morphology and secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuthill, D.E.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Christensen, M.

    2001-01-01

    supported by differences in micromorphological characters, particularly of the conidia and phialides, and the production of distinct profiles of secondary metabolites by each species. Group-I introns, located in the SSU rDNA, were identified in six of the 21 isolates; their presence was used to test......Penicillium simplicissimum is a broadly circumscribed taxon often encountered on soil community lists and in biotechnological reports. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1- 5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region indicated that P. simplicissimum s.l. includes several species. Recognition of these species is further...... hypotheses about the monophyly of the 19 pulvillorum and other intron-bearing strains. Our results show that 19 brasilianum, P. ochrochloron, P. piscarium, P. pulvillorum and P. simplicissimum should be recognized as distinct and valid species. Three additional, undescribed species were identified within...

  11. Secondary metabolites of Bagassa guianensis Aubl. wood: a study of the chemotaxonomy of the Moraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Mariana; Herbette, Gaëtan; Eparvier, Véronique; Beauchêne, Jacques; Thibaut, Bernard; Stien, Didier

    2010-10-01

    In order to explain the durability of the Moraceae plant family, phytochemistry of Bagassa guianensis was performed. Ethyl acetate extract was obtained from the heartwood and 18 secondary metabolites were isolated, including 6 moracins [6-O-methyl-moracin M, 6-O-methyl-moracin N and moracin Z; previously identified: moracin M, moracin N and moracin P], 8 stilbenoids [presently identified: (-)-epialboctalol and arachidin 4; previously identified: alboctalol, trans-resveratrol, arachidin 2, trans-oxyresveratrol and artogomezianol], 3 previously identified flavonoids, steppogenin, katuranin and dihydromorin, beta-sitosterol and resorcinol. Previous studies suggest that stilbenoids are responsible for the natural durability of wood. Our study has determined that B. guianensis is closely related to Morus sp. in phylogeny and should be included in the Moreae sensu stricto tribe of the Moraceae family. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetically engineering Synechocystis sp. Pasteur Culture Collection 6803 for the sustainable production of the plant secondary metabolite p-coumaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Zhang, Yan; Cheng, Dan; Daddy, Soumana; He, Qingfang

    2014-07-01

    p-Coumaric acid is the precursor of phenylpropanoids, which are plant secondary metabolites that are beneficial to human health. Tyrosine ammonia lyase catalyzes the production of p-coumaric acid from tyrosine. Because of their photosynthetic ability and biosynthetic versatility, cyanobacteria are promising candidates for the production of certain plant metabolites, including phenylpropanoids. Here, we produced p-coumaric acid in a strain of transgenic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Pasteur Culture Collection 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis 6803). Whereas a strain of Synechocystis 6803 genetically engineered to express sam8, a tyrosine ammonia lyase gene from the actinomycete Saccharothrix espanaensis, accumulated little or no p-coumaric acid, a strain that both expressed sam8 and lacked slr1573, a native hypothetical gene shown here to encode a laccase that oxidizes polyphenols, produced ∼82.6 mg/L p-coumaric acid, which was readily purified from the growth medium.

  13. Effects of secondary metabolite extract from Phomopsis occulta on β-amyloid aggregation.

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    Haiqiang Wu

    Full Text Available Inhibition of β-amyloid (Aβ aggregation is an attractive therapeutic and preventive strategy for the discovery of disease-modifying agents in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Phomopsis occulta is a new, salt-tolerant fungus isolated from mangrove Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre. We report here the inhibitory effects of secondary metabolites from Ph. occulta on the aggregation of Aβ42. It was found that mycelia extracts (MEs from Ph. occulta cultured with 0, 2, and 3 M NaCl exhibited inhibitory activity in an E. coli model of Aβ aggregation. A water-soluble fraction, ME0-W-F1, composed of mainly small peptides, was able to reduce aggregation of an Aβ42-EGFP fusion protein and an early onset familial mutation Aβ42E22G-mCherry fusion protein in transfected HEK293 cells. ME0-W-F1 also antagonized the cytotoxicity of Aβ42 in the neural cell line SH-SY5Y in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SDS-PAGE and FT-IR analysis confirmed an inhibitory effect of ME0-W-F1 on the aggregation of Aβ42 in vitro. ME0-W-F1 blocked the conformational transition of Aβ42 from α-helix/random coil to β-sheet, and thereby inhibited formation of Aβ42 tetramers and high molecular weight oligomers. ME0-W-F1 and other water-soluble secondary metabolites from Ph. occulta therefore represent new candidate natural products against aggregation of Aβ42, and illustrate the potential of salt tolerant fungi from mangrove as resources for the treatment of AD and other diseases.

  14. A proteomic approach to investigating gene cluster expression and secondary metabolite functionality in Aspergillus fumigatus.

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    Rebecca A Owens

    Full Text Available A combined proteomics and metabolomics approach was utilised to advance the identification and characterisation of secondary metabolites in Aspergillus fumigatus. Here, implementation of a shotgun proteomic strategy led to the identification of non-redundant mycelial proteins (n = 414 from A. fumigatus including proteins typically under-represented in 2-D proteome maps: proteins with multiple transmembrane regions, hydrophobic proteins and proteins with extremes of molecular mass and pI. Indirect identification of secondary metabolite cluster expression was also achieved, with proteins (n = 18 from LaeA-regulated clusters detected, including GliT encoded within the gliotoxin biosynthetic cluster. Biochemical analysis then revealed that gliotoxin significantly attenuates H2O2-induced oxidative stress in A. fumigatus (p>0.0001, confirming observations from proteomics data. A complementary 2-D/LC-MS/MS approach further elucidated significantly increased abundance (p<0.05 of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, NADH-quinone oxidoreductase and the gliotoxin oxidoreductase GliT, along with significantly attenuated abundance (p<0.05 of a heat shock protein, an oxidative stress protein and an autolysis-associated chitinase, when gliotoxin and H2O2 were present, compared to H2O2 alone. Moreover, gliotoxin exposure significantly reduced the abundance of selected proteins (p<0.05 involved in de novo purine biosynthesis. Significantly elevated abundance (p<0.05 of a key enzyme, xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase Xpt1, utilised in purine salvage, was observed in the presence of H2O2 and gliotoxin. This work provides new insights into the A. fumigatus proteome and experimental strategies, plus mechanistic data pertaining to gliotoxin functionality in the organism.

  15. An Overview of Herbal Products and Secondary Metabolites Used for Management of Type Two Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Ajda; Ulrih, Nataša P

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients. These are often used as treatments for diabetes, sometimes because they have lower costs, or are more accessible or "natural" compared to prescribed medications. Several vitamins, minerals, botanicals, and secondary metabolites have been reported to elicit beneficial effects in hypoglycemic actions in vivo and in vitro ; however, the data remain conflicting. Many pharmaceuticals commonly used today are structurally derived from natural compounds from traditional medicinal plants. Botanicals that are most frequently used to help manage blood glucose include: bitter melon ( Momordica charantia ), fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum graecum ), gurmar ( Gymnema sylvestre ), ivy gourd ( Coccinia indica ), nopal ( Opuntia spp.), ginseng, Russian tarragon ( Artemisia dracunculus ), cinnamon ( Cinnamomum cassia ), psyllium ( Plantago ovata ), and garlic ( Allium sativum ). In majority of the herbal products and secondary metabolites used in treating diabetes, the mechanisms of action involve regulation of insulin signaling pathways, translocation of GLUT-4 receptor and/or activation the PPARγ. Several flavonoids inhibit glucose absorption by inhibiting intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In-depth studies to validate the efficacies and safeties of extracts of these traditional medicinal plants are needed, and large, well designed, clinical studies need to be carried out before the use of such preparations can

  16. ATNT: an enhanced system for expression of polycistronic secondary metabolite gene clusters in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Elena; Brock, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are treasure chests for yet unexplored natural products. However, exploitation of their real potential remains difficult as a significant proportion of biosynthetic gene clusters appears silent under standard laboratory conditions. Therefore, elucidation of novel products requires gene activation or heterologous expression. For heterologous gene expression, we previously developed an expression platform in Aspergillus niger that is based on the transcriptional regulator TerR and its target promoter P terA . In this study, we extended this system by regulating expression of terR  by the doxycycline inducible Tet-on system. Reporter genes cloned under the control of the target promoter P terA remained silent in the absence of doxycycline, but were strongly expressed when doxycycline was added. Reporter quantification revealed that the coupled system results in about five times higher expression rates compared to gene expression under direct control of the Tet-on system. As production of secondary metabolites generally requires the expression of several biosynthetic genes, the suitability of the self-cleaving viral peptide sequence P2A was tested in this optimised expression system. P2A allowed polycistronic expression of genes required for Asp-melanin formation in combination with the gene coding for the red fluorescent protein tdTomato. Gene expression and Asp-melanin formation was prevented in the absence of doxycycline and strongly induced by addition of doxycycline. Fluorescence studies confirmed the correct subcellular localisation of the respective enzymes. This tightly regulated but strongly inducible expression system enables high level production of secondary metabolites most likely even those with toxic potential. Furthermore, this system is compatible with polycistronic gene expression and, thus, suitable for the discovery of novel natural products.

  17. Imprint Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Monitoring Secondary Metabolites Production during Antagonistic Interaction of Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Alessandra; Perez, Consuelo; Campos, Michel L; Bayfield, Mark A; Eberlin, Marcos N; Ifa, Demian R

    2015-12-15

    Direct analysis of microbial cocultures grown on agar media by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is quite challenging. Due to the high gas pressure upon impact with the surface, the desorption mechanism does not allow direct imaging of soft or irregular surfaces. The divots in the agar, created by the high-pressure gas and spray, dramatically change the geometry of the system decreasing the intensity of the signal. In order to overcome this limitation, an imprinting step, in which the chemicals are initially transferred to flat hard surfaces, was coupled to DESI-MS and applied for the first time to fungal cocultures. Note that fungal cocultures are often disadvantageous in direct imaging mass spectrometry. Agar plates of fungi present a complex topography due to the simultaneous presence of dynamic mycelia and spores. One of the most devastating diseases of cocoa trees is caused by fungal phytopathogen Moniliophthora roreri. Strategies for pest management include the application of endophytic fungi, such as Trichoderma harzianum, that act as biocontrol agents by antagonizing M. roreri. However, the complex chemical communication underlying the basis for this phytopathogen-dependent biocontrol is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the metabolic exchange that takes place during the antagonistic interaction between M. roreri and T. harzianum. Using imprint-DESI-MS imaging we annotated the secondary metabolites released when T. harzianum and M. roreri were cultured in isolation and compared these to those produced after 3 weeks of coculture. We identified and localized four phytopathogen-dependent secondary metabolites, including T39 butenolide, harzianolide, and sorbicillinol. In order to verify the reliability of the imprint-DESI-MS imaging data and evaluate the capability of tape imprints to extract fungal metabolites while maintaining their localization, six representative plugs along the entire M. roreri/T. harzianum

  18. Screening of the in vitro antileishmanial activities of compounds and secondary metabolites isolated from Maytenus guianensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae chichuá Amazon

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    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION Maytenus guianensis is a member of the Celastraceae family that is used in traditional medicine, particularly for its anti-parasitic and anti-cancer effects. To explore the ethnopharmacological potential of this plant, the present study was designed to screen the in vitro antileishmanial activities of extracts and compounds isolated from M. guianensis. METHODS Maytenus guianensis stems and leaves were extracted in acetone, followed by the preparation of eluates and isolation of secondary metabolites using chromatography on a glass column with silica gel as the fixed phase. The chemical components were identified using spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen-1 and carbon-13, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The anti-Leishmania amazonensis activities of these eluates and compounds were evaluated by direct promastigote counting and viability assays. RESULTS It was found that the hexane bark eluate produced the strongest anti-L. amazonensis effect, with 90-100% inhibition of the promastigote form. The isolated metabolite that produced the best result was tingenone B, followed by a compound formed by the union of tingenone and tingenone B (80-90% inhibition. CONCLUSIONS Maytenus guianensis shows anti-parasite activity that warrants further investigation to determine the mechanisms underlying this antileishmanial effect and to evaluate the pharmacological potential of these eluates and isolated secondary metabolites, while minimizing any adverse effects.

  19. Screening of the in vitro antileishmanial activities of compounds and secondary metabolites isolated from Maytenus guianensis Klotzsch ex Reissek (Celastraceae) chichuá Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguetti, Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira; Lima, Renato Abreu; Hurtado, Fernanda Bay; Passarini, Guilherme Matos; Macedo, Sharon Rose Aragão; Barros, Neuza Biguinati de; Oliveira, Flávio Augusto de Souza; Medeiros, Patrícia Soares de Maria de; Militão, Júlio Sancho Linhares Teixeira; Nicolete, Roberto; Facundo, Valdir Alves

    2016-01-01

    Maytenus guianensis is a member of the Celastraceae family that is used in traditional medicine, particularly for its anti-parasitic and anti-cancer effects. To explore the ethnopharmacological potential of this plant, the present study was designed to screen the in vitro antileishmanial activities of extracts and compounds isolated from M. guianensis. Maytenus guianensis stems and leaves were extracted in acetone, followed by the preparation of eluates and isolation of secondary metabolites using chromatography on a glass column with silica gel as the fixed phase. The chemical components were identified using spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen-1 and carbon-13, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The anti-Leishmania amazonensis activities of these eluates and compounds were evaluated by direct promastigote counting and viability assays. It was found that the hexane bark eluate produced the strongest anti-L. amazonensis effect, with 90-100% inhibition of the promastigote form. The isolated metabolite that produced the best result was tingenone B, followed by a compound formed by the union of tingenone and tingenone B (80-90% inhibition). Maytenus guianensis shows anti-parasite activity that warrants further investigation to determine the mechanisms underlying this antileishmanial effect and to evaluate the pharmacological potential of these eluates and isolated secondary metabolites, while minimizing any adverse effects.

  20. Influence of colour type and previous cultivation on secondary metabolites in hypocotyls and leaves of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Céline; Diaz Grados, Diego A; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ihklas A; Mayer, Andrea C; Ponce Aguirre, Dante D; Manrique, Ivan; Kreuzer, Michael

    2010-04-15

    Maca is an Andean crop of the Brassicaceae family which is mainly known for its fertility-enhancing properties following consumption. The hypocotyls display various colours ranging from white to black. Each colour has different biological effects. The aim of this study was to analyse the concentrations of major secondary metabolites in hypocotyls and leaves of maca in a controlled planting experiment in the Peruvian Andes at 4130 m above sea level. The effects of colour type and of previous cultivation of the field were examined. In the hypocotyls, the colour type effect was significant for most secondary metabolites; exceptions were beta-sitosterol and campesterol. The lead-coloured, yellow and violet maca hypocotyls were rich in glucosinolates, macaene and macamides, respectively. Previous cultivation affected macaene, campesterol and indole glucosinolate concentrations. Effects on metabolite concentrations in the leaves were minor. Hypocotyls were richer in macaene, macamides and glucosinolates than were leaves, and were poorer in beta-sitosterol and total phenols. Colour type has to be considered in maca production, as colour associates with variations in concentrations of distinct bioactive metabolites. Leaves may be interesting for animal nutrition purposes as they contain essentially the same secondary metabolites as the hypocotyls but in clearly lower concentrations. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Genes Linked to Production of Secondary Metabolites in Talaromyces atroroseus Revealed Using CRISPR-Cas9.

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    Maria Lund Nielsen

    Full Text Available The full potential of fungal secondary metabolism has until recently been impeded by the lack of universal genetic tools for most species. However, the emergence of several CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing systems adapted for several genera of filamentous fungi have now opened the doors for future efforts in discovery of novel natural products and elucidation and engineering of their biosynthetic pathways in fungi where no genetic tools are in place. So far, most studies have focused on demonstrating the performance of CRISPR-Cas9 in various fungal model species, and recently we presented a versatile CRISPR-Cas9 system that can be successfully applied in several diverse Aspergillus species. Here we take it one step further and show that our system can be used also in a phylogenetically distinct and largely unexplored species from the genus of Talaromyces. Specifically, we exploit CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing to identify a new gene in T. atroroseus responsible for production of polyketide-nonribosomal peptide hybrid products, hence, linking fungal secondary metabolites to their genetic origin in a species where no genetic engineering has previously been performed.

  2. Influence of natural substrates and co-occurring marine bacteria on the production of secondary metabolites by Photobacterium halotolerans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Giobergia, Sonia; Møller, Kirsten A.

    Genome sequences reveal that our current standard laboratory conditions only support a fraction of the potential secondary metabolism in bacteria. Thus, we must rethink cultivation, detection, and isolation strategies for bacterial secondary metabolites in order to explore the huge, so far unchar...... uncharacterized chemical potential of these organisms. We are currently investigating the use of natural substrates and co-cultures with commensal bacteria to elicit or alter production of antibacterial compounds in marine bacteria....

  3. Evaluating methods for the isolation of marine-derived fungal strains and production of bioactive secondary metabolites

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    Miriam H. Kossuga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation we evaluate methods for the isolation and growth of marine-derived fungal strains in artificial media for the production of secondary metabolites. Inoculation of marine macroorganisms fragments in Petri dishes proved to be the most convenient procedure for the isolation of the largest number of strains. Among the growth media used, 3% malt extract showed the best result for strains isolation and growth, and yielded the largest number of strains from marine macroorganisms. The percentage of strains isolated using each of the growth media which yielded cytotoxic and/or antibiotic extracts was in the range of 23-35%, regardless of the growth media used. Further investigation of extracts obtained from different marine-derived fungal strains yielded several bioactive secondary metabolites, among which (E-4-methoxy-5-(3-methoxybut-1-enyl-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one is a new metabolite isolated from the Penicillium paxilli strain Ma(GK.

  4. Diversity in Secondary Metabolites Including Mycotoxins from Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Raw Cashew Nuts from Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian F; Linnemann, Anita R; Gezgin, Yüksel; Hell, Kerstin; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Tamo, Manuele; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins, the species of A. section Nigri may produce and thus threaten to contaminate the raw cashew kernels, 150 strains were isolated from cashew samples and assayed for their production of secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Seven species of black Aspergilli were isolated based on morphological and chemical identification: A. tubingensis (44%), A. niger (32%), A. brasiliensis (10%), A. carbonarius (8.7%), A. luchuensis (2.7%), A. aculeatus (2%) and A. aculeatinus (0.7%). From these, 45 metabolites and their isomers were identified. Aurasperone and pyranonigrin A, produced by all species excluding A. aculeatus and A. aculeatinus, were most prevalent and were encountered in 146 (97.3%) and 145 (95.7%) isolates, respectively. Three mycotoxins groups were detected: fumonisins (B2 and B4) (2.7%) ochratoxin A (13.3%), and secalonic acids (2%), indicating that these mycotoxins could occur in raw cashew nuts. Thirty strains of black Aspergilli were randomly sampled for verification of species identity based on sequences of β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. Among them, 27 isolates were positive to the primers used and 11 were identified as A. niger, 7 as A. tubingensis, 6 as A. carbonarius, 2 as A. luchuensis and 1 as A. welwitschiae confirming the species names as based on morphology and chemical features. These strains clustered in 5 clades in A. section Nigri. Chemical profile clustering also showed also 5 groups confirming the species specific metabolites production.

  5. Neuropharmacological and neuroprotective activities of some metabolites produced by cell suspension culture of Waltheria americana Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo, Jorge; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Gutiérrez, María Del Carmen; Arellano-García, Jesús; León-Rivera, Ismael; Perea-Arango, Irene

    2017-10-01

    Waltheria americana is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat some nervous system disorders. The aims of the present study were to isolate and determine the neuropharmacological and neurprotective activities of metabolites produced by a cell suspension culture of Waltheria americana. Submerged cultivation of W. americana cells provided biomass. A methanol-soluble extract (WAsc) was obtained from biomass. WAsc was fractionated yielding the chromatographic fractions 4WAsc-H 2 O and WAsc-CH 2 Cl 2 . For the determination of anticonvulsant activity in vivo, seizures were induced in mice by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). Neuropharmacological activities (release of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and neuroprotection) of chromatographic fractions were determined by in vitro histological analysis of brain sections of mice post mortem. Fraction 4WAsc-H 2 O (containing saccharides) did not produce neuronal damage, neurodegeneration, interstitial tissue edema, astrocytic activation, nor cell death. Pretreatment of animals with 4WAsc-H 2 O and WAsc-CH 2 Cl 2 from W. americana cell suspensions induced an increase in: GABA release, seizure latency, survival time, neuroprotection, and a decrease in the degree of severity of tonic/tonic-clonic convulsions, preventing PTZ-induced death of up to 100% of animals of study. Bioactive compounds produced in suspension cell culture of W. americana produce neuroprotective and neuropharmacological activities associated with the GABAergic neurotransmission system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol−1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  7. Plant secondary metabolites and gut health: the case for phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2011-08-01

    Plant-based diets contain a plethora of secondary metabolites that may impact on health and disease prevention. Much attention has been focused on the potential bioactivity and nutritional relevance of several classes of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, carotenoids, phyto-oestrogens and glucosinolates. Less attention has been paid to simple phenolic acids that are widely found in fruit, vegetables, herbs, spices and beverages. Daily intakes may exceed 100 mg. In addition, bacteria in the gut can perform reactions that transform more complex plant phenolics such as anthocyanins, procyanidins, flavanones, flavonols, tannins and isoflavones into simple phenolic metabolites. The colon is thus a rich source of potentially active phenolic acids that may impact both locally and systemically on gut health. Both the small and large intestine (colon) contain absorption sites for phenolic acids but low post-prandial concentrations in plasma indicate minimal absorption early in the gastrointestinal tract and/or rapid hepatic metabolism and excretion. Therefore, any bioactivity that contributes to gut health may predominantly occur in the colon. Several phenolic acids affect the expression and activity of enzymes involved in the production of inflammatory mediators of pathways thought to be important in the development of gut disorders including colon cancer. However, at present, we remain largely ignorant as to which of these compounds are beneficial to gut health. Until we can elucidate which pro-inflammatory and potentially carcinogenetic changes in gene expression can be moderated by simple phenolic acids, it is not possible to recommend specific plant-based foods rich in particular phenolics to optimise gut health.

  8. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Le Bourvellec

    Full Text Available Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee' managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26 over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013. The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic… encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside

  9. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine M G C; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee') managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the generic

  10. Engineering of Secondary Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Secondary (specialized) metabolites, produced by bacteria, fungi, plants, and other organisms, exhibit enormous structural variation, and consequently display a wide range of biological activities. Secondary metabolism improves and modulates the phenotype of the host producer. Furthermore, these biological activities have resulted in the use of secondary metabolites in a variety of industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Metabolic engineering presents a powerful strategy to improve access to these valuable molecules. A critical overview of engineering approaches in secondary metabolism is presented, both in heterologous and native hosts. The recognition of the increasing role of compartmentalization in metabolic engineering is highlighted. Engineering approaches to modify the structure of key secondary metabolite classes are also critically evaluated.

  11. Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from the Cave Sponge Xestospongia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi Ankisetty

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the cave sponge Xestospongia sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  12. Effects of Plant Secondary Metabolites on Methane Production and Fermentation Parameters in In vitro Ruminal Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Giuburunca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Enteric fermentation process is of concern worldwide for its contribution to global warming. It is known that ruminant animals, due to natural fermentation process contribute substantially to the increase in methane production. Methanogenesis process represents besides its contribution to greenhouse gases emissions an energy loss to the animal. To reduce ruminal methane productions in an ecologically and sustainable way, many attempts have been initiated, such as: uses of chemicals additives or ionophore antibiotics, defaunation process or immunization against ruminal methanogenesis. In the last years, a new strategy has been evaluated whether plant secondary metabolites can be used as natural additives to reduce ruminal methane emissions. The present study has been conducted to investigate the effects of trans-cinnamic, caffeic, p-coumaric acids and catechin hydrate, four plant secondary metabolites (PSMs on methane production and fermentation in in vitro ruminal cultures. The four PSMs were added anaerobically in a 6 mM concentration to 100 ml serum bottles containing 500 mg grass hay as a substrate, 10 ml rumen fluid collected from a fistulated sheep before morning feeding and 40 ml 141 DSM culture medium. The bottles were incubated at 39 ̊C. After 24 h, the following variables were measured: total gas volume, pH, methane and volatile fatty acids (VFAs production. The results showed that caffeic (p = 0.058 and p-coumaric (p = 0.052 acids tended to decrease methane production in comparison to control but the decrease was not statistic significantly at α= 0.05. The other two PSMs had no significant effect on methane production. Addition of PSMs did not affected the total gas volume, the pH and VFAs profile (P>0.05 in relation to the control (no PSM added. In conclusion, caffeic and p-coumaric acids in 6 mM concentration showed some promising effects for decreasing ruminal methane emissions without affecting ruminal fermentation parameters but

  13. An Overview of Herbal Products and Secondary Metabolites Used for Management of Type Two Diabetes

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    Ajda Ota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients. These are often used as treatments for diabetes, sometimes because they have lower costs, or are more accessible or “natural” compared to prescribed medications. Several vitamins, minerals, botanicals, and secondary metabolites have been reported to elicit beneficial effects in hypoglycemic actions in vivo and in vitro; however, the data remain conflicting. Many pharmaceuticals commonly used today are structurally derived from natural compounds from traditional medicinal plants. Botanicals that are most frequently used to help manage blood glucose include: bitter melon (Momordica charantia, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum, gurmar (Gymnema sylvestre, ivy gourd (Coccinia indica, nopal (Opuntia spp., ginseng, Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus, cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia, psyllium (Plantago ovata, and garlic (Allium sativum. In majority of the herbal products and secondary metabolites used in treating diabetes, the mechanisms of action involve regulation of insulin signaling pathways, translocation of GLUT-4 receptor and/or activation the PPARγ. Several flavonoids inhibit glucose absorption by inhibiting intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In-depth studies to validate the efficacies and safeties of extracts of these traditional medicinal plants are needed, and large, well designed, clinical studies need to be carried out before the use of such preparations can be

  14. An Overview of Herbal Products and Secondary Metabolites Used for Management of Type Two Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Ajda; Ulrih, Nataša P.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients. These are often used as treatments for diabetes, sometimes because they have lower costs, or are more accessible or “natural” compared to prescribed medications. Several vitamins, minerals, botanicals, and secondary metabolites have been reported to elicit beneficial effects in hypoglycemic actions in vivo and in vitro; however, the data remain conflicting. Many pharmaceuticals commonly used today are structurally derived from natural compounds from traditional medicinal plants. Botanicals that are most frequently used to help manage blood glucose include: bitter melon (Momordica charantia), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), gurmar (Gymnema sylvestre), ivy gourd (Coccinia indica), nopal (Opuntia spp.), ginseng, Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), psyllium (Plantago ovata), and garlic (Allium sativum). In majority of the herbal products and secondary metabolites used in treating diabetes, the mechanisms of action involve regulation of insulin signaling pathways, translocation of GLUT-4 receptor and/or activation the PPARγ. Several flavonoids inhibit glucose absorption by inhibiting intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In-depth studies to validate the efficacies and safeties of extracts of these traditional medicinal plants are needed, and large, well designed, clinical studies need to be carried out before the use of such preparations can be recommended

  15. Deletion of the signalling molecule synthase ScbA has pleiotropic effects on secondary metabolite biosynthesis, morphological differentiation and primary metabolism in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Alia, Davide; Eggle, D.; Nieselt, K.; Hu, W.-S.; Breitling, R.; Takano, E.

    2011-01-01

    Streptomycetes have high biotechnological relevance as producers of diverse metabolites widely used in medical and agricultural applications. The biosynthesis of these metabolites is controlled by signalling molecules, gamma-butyrolactones, that act as bacterial hormones. In Streptomyces coelicolor,

  16. Multivariate analyses of NP-TLC chromatographic retention data for grouping of structurally-related plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawky, Eman

    2016-09-01

    The chromatographic behavior of 28 plant secondary metabolites belonging to four chemically similar classes (alkaloids, flavonoids, flavone glycosides and sesquiterpenes) was studied by normal-phase thin-layer chromatography (NP-TLC) under 5 different chromatographic systems commonly used in plant drug analysis with the aim to explore whether the retention properties of these metabolites can determine the chemical group they belong to. The use of RM values as the retention parameter is implemented as a relatively new approach in plant analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering heat maps and discriminant analysis (DA), were used for statistical evaluation of the chromatographic data and extraction of similarities between chemically related compounds. The twenty eight metabolites were classified into four groups by principal component analysis. The heat map of hierarchical clustering revealed that all metabolites were clustered into four groups, except for caffeine, while linear discriminant analysis showed that 96.4% of metabolites are predicted correctly as the groupings identified by chemical class in original and cross-validated data. The main advantage of the approach described in current paper is its simplicity which can assist with preliminary identification of metabolites in complex plant extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabólitos secundários da família bromeliaceae Secondary metabolites from bromeliaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Maria Manetti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes aspects of the Bromeliaceae family dealing the traditional applications, biological activities and distribution of secondary metabolites in distinct subfamilies. Some species are used with medicinal purposed in the treatment of respiratory, diabetes or inflammation diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders. Special emphasis on cycloartane triterpenoids and flavonoids, typical metabolites of this family, are presented. Bromeliaceae is unique amongst the monocotyledons in the frequency and variety of flavonoids with hydroxylation or methoxylation at the 6-position. Other compound classes as steroids, hidroxycinnamic acids, phenylpropane diglycerides, lignans, are presented.

  18. Genome wide transcriptome profiling reveals differential gene expression in secondary metabolite pathway of Cymbopogon winterianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Mishra, Surajit K; Sahu, Jagajjit; Panda, Debashis; Modi, Mahendra K; Sen, Priyabrata

    2016-02-15

    Advances in transcriptome sequencing provide fast, cost-effective and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets especially suitable for non-model species to identify putative genes, key pathway and regulatory mechanism. Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) is an aromatic medicinal grass used for anti-tumoral, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral, detoxifying and natural insect repellent properties. Despite of having number of utilities, the genes involved in terpenes biosynthetic pathway is not yet clearly elucidated. The present study is a pioneering attempt to generate an exhaustive molecular information of secondary metabolite pathway and to increase genomic resources in Citronella. Using high-throughput RNA-Seq technology, root and leaf transcriptome was analysed at an unprecedented depth (11.7 Gb). Targeted searches identified majority of the genes associated with metabolic pathway and other natural product pathway viz. antibiotics synthesis along with many novel genes. Terpenoid biosynthesis genes comparative expression results were validated for 15 unigenes by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Thus the coverage of these transcriptome is comprehensive enough to discover all known genes of major metabolic pathways. This transcriptome dataset can serve as important public information for gene expression, genomics and function genomics studies in Citronella and shall act as a benchmark for future improvement of the crop.

  19. Salicornia ramosissima: Secondary metabolites and protective effect against acute testicular toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salicornia ramosissima J. Woods is a salt tolerant plant currently used in the human diet, whose genus not only displays great potential as a crop plant in deserts and highly saline soils, but also has value in traditional medicine and exhibits promising biological activities. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of S. ramosissima ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced testicular damage in a mouse model and identify secondary metabolites present in the tested extract. The histopathological analysis showed that the treatment with the ethanolic extract prior to CCl4 administration prevented significantly the architectural disorder of seminiferous epithelium and germ cell exfoliation. The phytochemical study allowed the identification of known phenolic and aliphatic compounds [ethyl linolenoate (1, sitostanol (2, octadecyl (3 and eicosanyl (4 (E-ferulates, ethyl (E-2-hydroxycinnamate (5, scopoletin (6, a triacylglycerol of tetracosanoic acid (7], and three new compounds: saliramoester, a long chain triester (8, saliramophenone, a propiophenone derivative (9 and saliramopyrrole a pyrrole-3-carbaldehyde derivative (10. Their chemical structures were elucidated using detailed spectroscopic studies (1D and 2D NMR and MS. These results enhance the value of S. ramosissima as an excellent source of structurally interesting phytochemicals and as protective agent against testicular toxicity.

  20. Yellow-Cedar, Callitropsis (Chamaecyparis) nootkatensis, Secondary Metabolites, Biological Activities, and Chemical Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchesy, Joseph J; Kelsey, Rick G; González-Hernández, M P

    2018-05-01

    Yellow-cedar, Callitropsis nootkatensis, is prevalent in coastal forests of southeast Alaska, western Canada, and inland forests along the Cascades to northern California, USA. These trees have few microbial or animal pests, attributable in part to the distinct groups of biologically active secondary metabolites their tissues store for chemical defense. Here we summarize the new yellow-cedar compounds identified and their biological activities, plus new or expanded activities for tissues, extracts, essential oils and previously known compounds since the last review more than 40 years ago. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the most abundant compounds in foliage, while heartwood contains substantial quantities of oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes, with one or more tropolones. Diterpenes occur in foliage and bark, whereas condensed tannins have been isolated from inner bark. Biological activities expressed by one or more compounds in these groups include fungicide, bactericide, sporicide, acaricide, insecticide, general cytotoxicity, antioxidant and human anticancer. The diversity of organisms impacted by whole tissues, essential oils, extracts, or individual compounds now encompasses ticks, fleas, termites, ants, mosquitoes, bacteria, a water mold, fungi and browsing animals. Nootkatone, is a heartwood component with sufficient activity against arthropods to warrant research focused toward potential development as a commercial repellent and biopesticide for ticks, mosquitoes and possibly other arthropods that vector human and animal pathogens.

  1. Microbial communication leading to the activation of silent fungal secondary metabolite gene clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eNetzker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms form diverse multispecies communities in various ecosystems. The high abundance of fungal and bacterial species in these consortia results in specific communication between the microorganisms. A key role in this communication is played by secondary metabolites (SMs, which are also called natural products. Recently, it was shown that interspecies ‘talk’ between microorganisms represents a physiological trigger to activate silent gene clusters leading to the formation of novel SMs by the involved species. This review focuses on mixed microbial cultivation, mainly between bacteria and fungi, with a special emphasis on the induced formation of fungal SMs in co-cultures. In addition, the role of chromatin remodeling in the induction is examined, and methodical perspectives for the analysis of natural products are presented. As an example for an intermicrobial interaction elucidated at the molecular level, we discuss the specific interaction between the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus with the soil bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus, which provides an excellent model system to enlighten molecular concepts behind regulatory mechanisms and will pave the way to a novel avenue of drug discovery through targeted activation of silent SM gene clusters through co-cultivations of microorganisms.

  2. Cytotoxicity of Secondary Metabolites from Dracaena viridiflora Engl & Krause and their Semisynthetic Analogues

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    Rémy Bertrand Teponno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The MeOH extract of Dracaena viridiflora was found to display significant cytotoxicity against some cancer cell lines. Systematic phytochemical investigation of this extract led to the isolation and structure elucidation of ten secondary metabolites including five spirostane (1-5 and one furostane (6 steroidal saponins. Furthermore, some acetylated spirostane analogues and three previously unreported derivatives with the 22,26-epoxycholesta-5,22-diene skeleton (15-17 were prepared from trillin (1, prosapogenin A of dioscin (2 and dioscin (4 by reaction with ZnCl 2/Ac 2O. Among the isolated and semisynthetic compounds, dioscin showed the most potent cytotoxicity against A549, Jurkat and Skov-3 cells with IC 50 values of 0.42, 1.70 and 1.90 µg/mL, respectively. It was noteworthy that acetylation of the bioactive compounds led to semisynthetic derivatives which unfortunately did not present any activity. This is the first report on the phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of Dracaena viridiflora.

  3. Plant Secondary Metabolites in some Medicinal Plants of Mongolia Used for Enhancing Animal Health and Production

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    Makkar, HPS.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and activities of a number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs are known to increase in response to increase in stress. The Mongolian plants considered to possess medicinal properties may contain novel compounds since they are exposed to severe conditions; such plants could become good candidates for modern drug discovery programmes. Information on distribution, palatability to livestock and opinion of local people on their nutritive and medicinal values was compiled for 15 plant materials from 14 plant species considered important for medicinal purposes. These plants were evaluated for nutritive value and PSMs: tannins, saponins, lectins, alkaloids and cyanogens. High levels of tannins were found in roots of Bergenia crassifolia and in leaves of B. crassifolia, Vaccinium vitisidaea and Rheum undulatum. High lectin activity (haemagglutination was present in B. crassifolia roots, and leaves of R. undulatum, Iris lacteal and Thymus gobicus contained weak lectin activity. Tanacetum vulgare, Serratula centauroids, Taraxacum officinale and Delphinum elatum leaves contained saponin activity (haemolysis. Alkaloids and cyanogens were not present in any of the samples. The paper discusses the known medicinal uses of these plants in light of the PSMs levels, and identifies plant samples for future applications in human and livestock health, welfare and safety.

  4. Comparative analysis of secondary metabolites contents in Fragaria vesca L. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najda, Agnieszka; Dyduch-Siemińska, Magdalena; Dyduch, Jan; Gantner, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) belongs to the Rosaceae family. Besides the leaves (Fragariae folium) and roots (Fragariae radix), the aromatic fruits (Fragariae fructus) of wild strawberry are also herbal materials used in medicine. The aim of this study was to compare the value of phytochemical and antioxidant activity of wild strawberry fruits (Fragaria vesca L.). The fruits were analyzed regarding their secondary metabolites contents (flavonoids, sum of phenolic acids, tannins, anthocyanins, DPPH), depending on the origin of the raw material (from natural habitats vs. cultivation). According to the obtained results, raw material originating from natural habitats contained significantly more flavonoids (0.559 mg∙g(-1)), compared to fruits harvested from cultivation (0.472 mg∙g(-1), on average). Mean concentration of phenolic acids ranged from 1.648 mg∙g(-1) - 2.348 mg∙g(-1), although the wild form was characterized by higher levels of examined substances. Tannins are an important fraction of phenolic compounds; their content in studied fruits ranged from 2.2% (from cultivation) - 3.0% (from natural habitats). When comparing the average contents of anthocyanins in the studied materials, it was revealed that remarkably more of these compounds were recorded in wild strawberry fruits harvested from natural habitats vs. those from cultivations: 132 mg∙100 g(-1) vs. 90 mg∙100 g(-1). A difference was indicated with respect to the ability of DPPH radical reduction to diphenylpicrylhydrazine by extracts made of examined fruits.

  5. Secondary metabolites from Glycine soja and their growth inhibitory effect against Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Ying; Luo, Shi-Hong; Yi, Ting-Shuang; Li, Chun-Huan; Luo, Qian; Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2011-06-08

    The wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) has been reported to be relatively resistant to insect and pathogenic pests. However, the responsible secondary metabolites in the aerial part of this important plant are largely unknown. From the aerial part of G. soja, 13 compounds were isolated and identified, including seven isoflavonoids (1-7), a cyclitol (8), two sterol derivatives (9 and 10), and three triterpenoids (11-13). Compound 7 is a new isoflavonoid, and compounds 9 and 10 are reported as natural products for the first time. The growth inhibitory activity of 1, 3, 4, and 8 against the larvae of Spodoptera litura was investigated. The most abundant isoflavonoid in the aerial part of G. soja, daidzein (1), which could not be metabolized by S. litura, was found to inhibit the insect larvae growth significantly in 3 days after feeding diets containing the compound. Compounds 3, 4, and 8, which could be partially or completely metabolized, were inactive. Our results suggested that the isoflavonoid daidzein (1) might function as a constitutive defense component in G. soja against insect pests.

  6. Effects of bacterial inoculants on the indigenous microbiome and secondary metabolites of chamomile plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ruth; Köberl, Martina; Mostafa, Amr; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Monschein, Marlene; Jensen, Kenneth B.; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Plant-associated bacteria fulfill important functions for plant growth and health. However, our knowledge about the impact of bacterial treatments on the host's microbiome and physiology is limited. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of bacterial inoculants on the microbiome of chamomile plants Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert grown in a field under organic management in Egypt. Chamomile seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous Gram-positive strains (Streptomyces subrutilus Wbn2-11, Bacillus subtilis Co1-6, Paenibacillus polymyxa Mc5Re-14) from Egypt and three European Gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens L13-6-12, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila P69, Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18) already known for their beneficial plant-microbe interaction. Molecular fingerprints of 16S rRNA gene as well as real-time PCR analyses did not show statistically significant differences for all applied bacterial antagonists compared to the control. In contrast, a pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed significant differences in the community structure of bacteria between the treatments. These differences could be clearly shown by a shift within the community structure and corresponding beta-diversity indices. Moreover, B. subtilis Co1-6 and P. polymyxa Mc5Re-14 showed an enhancement of the bioactive secondary metabolite apigenin-7-O-glucoside. This indicates a possible new function of bacterial inoculants: to interact with the plant microbiome as well as to influence the plant metabolome. PMID:24600444

  7. Plant Secondary Metabolites as Anticancer Agents: Successes in Clinical Trials and Therapeutic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. L. Seca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a multistage process resulting in an uncontrolled and abrupt division of cells and is one of the leading causes of mortality. The cases reported and the predictions for the near future are unthinkable. Food and Drug Administration data showed that 40% of the approved molecules are natural compounds or inspired by them, from which, 74% are used in anticancer therapy. In fact, natural products are viewed as more biologically friendly, that is less toxic to normal cells. In this review, the most recent and successful cases of secondary metabolites, including alkaloid, diterpene, triterpene and polyphenolic type compounds, with great anticancer potential are discussed. Focusing on the ones that are in clinical trial development or already used in anticancer therapy, therefore successful cases such as paclitaxel and homoharringtonine (in clinical use, curcumin and ingenol mebutate (in clinical trials will be addressed. Each compound’s natural source, the most important steps in their discovery, their therapeutic targets, as well as the main structural modifications that can improve anticancer properties will be discussed in order to show the role of plants as a source of effective and safe anticancer drugs.

  8. Proteomic profile of the Bradysia odoriphaga in response to the microbial secondary metabolite benzothiazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunhe; Cui, Kaidi; Xu, Chunmei; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Zhengqun; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Benzothiazole, a microbial secondary metabolite, has been demonstrated to possess fumigant activity against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Ditylenchus destructor and Bradysia odoriphaga. However, to facilitate the development of novel microbial pesticides, the mode of action of benzothiazole needs to be elucidated. Here, we employed iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis to investigate the effects of benzothiazole on the proteomic expression of B. odoriphaga. In response to benzothiazole, 92 of 863 identified proteins in B. odoriphaga exhibited altered levels of expression, among which 14 proteins were related to the action mechanism of benzothiazole, 11 proteins were involved in stress responses, and 67 proteins were associated with the adaptation of B. odoriphaga to benzothiazole. Further bioinformatics analysis indicated that the reduction in energy metabolism, inhibition of the detoxification process and interference with DNA and RNA synthesis were potentially associated with the mode of action of benzothiazole. The myosin heavy chain, succinyl-CoA synthetase and Ca+-transporting ATPase proteins may be related to the stress response. Increased expression of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, energy production and conversion pathways was responsible for the adaptive response of B. odoriphaga. The results of this study provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of benzothiazole at a large-scale translation level and will facilitate the elucidation of the mechanism of action of benzothiazole. PMID:27883048

  9. Effects of bacterial inoculants on the indigenous microbiome and secondary metabolites of chamomile plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ruth; Köberl, Martina; Mostafa, Amr; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Monschein, Marlene; Jensen, Kenneth B; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Plant-associated bacteria fulfill important functions for plant growth and health. However, our knowledge about the impact of bacterial treatments on the host's microbiome and physiology is limited. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of bacterial inoculants on the microbiome of chamomile plants Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert grown in a field under organic management in Egypt. Chamomile seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous Gram-positive strains (Streptomyces subrutilus Wbn2-11, Bacillus subtilis Co1-6, Paenibacillus polymyxa Mc5Re-14) from Egypt and three European Gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens L13-6-12, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila P69, Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18) already known for their beneficial plant-microbe interaction. Molecular fingerprints of 16S rRNA gene as well as real-time PCR analyses did not show statistically significant differences for all applied bacterial antagonists compared to the control. In contrast, a pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed significant differences in the community structure of bacteria between the treatments. These differences could be clearly shown by a shift within the community structure and corresponding beta-diversity indices. Moreover, B. subtilis Co1-6 and P. polymyxa Mc5Re-14 showed an enhancement of the bioactive secondary metabolite apigenin-7-O-glucoside. This indicates a possible new function of bacterial inoculants: to interact with the plant microbiome as well as to influence the plant metabolome.

  10. Inducing secondary metabolite production by the endophytic fungus Fusarium tricinctum through coculture with Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Antonius R B; Thomy, Dhana; Lai, Daowan; Brötz-Oesterhelt, Heike; Proksch, Peter

    2013-11-22

    Coculturing the fungal endophyte Fusarium tricinctum with the bacterium Bacillus subtilis 168 trpC2 on solid rice medium resulted in an up to 78-fold increase in the accumulation in constitutively present secondary metabolites that included lateropyrone (5), cyclic depsipeptides of the enniatin type (6-8), and the lipopeptide fusaristatin A (9). In addition, four compounds (1-4) including (-)-citreoisocoumarin (2) as well as three new natural products (1, 3, and 4) were not present in discrete fungal and bacterial controls and only detected in the cocultures. The new compounds were identified as macrocarpon C (1), 2-(carboxymethylamino)benzoic acid (3), and (-)-citreoisocoumarinol (4) by analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR and HRMS data. Enniatins B1 (7) and A1 (8), whose production was particularly enhanced, inhibited the growth of the cocultivated B. subtilis strain with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 16 and 8 μg/mL, respectively, and were also active against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis with MIC values in the range 2-8 μg/mL. In addition, lateropyrone (5), which was constitutively present in F. tricinctum, displayed good antibacterial activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, and E. faecalis, with MIC values ranging from 2 to 8 μg/mL. All active compounds were equally effective against a multiresistant clinical isolate of S. aureus and a susceptible reference strain of the same species.

  11. Release of resource constraints allows greater carbon allocation to secondary metabolites and storage in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Forkelová, Lenka; Hartmann, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    The atmospheric CO 2 concentration ([CO 2 ]) is rapidly increasing, and this may have substantial impact on how plants allocate metabolic resources. A thorough understanding of allocation priorities can be achieved by modifying [CO 2 ] over a large gradient, including low [CO 2 ], thereby altering plant carbon (C) availability. Such information is of critical importance for understanding plant responses to global environmental change. We quantified the percentage of daytime whole-plant net assimilation (A) allocated to night-time respiration (R), structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during 8 weeks of vegetative growth in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) growing at low, ambient and elevated [CO 2 ] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). R/A remained relatively constant over a large gradient of [CO 2 ]. However, with increasing C availability, the fraction of assimilation allocated to biomass (SG + NSC + SMs), in particular NSC and SMs, increased. At low [CO 2 ], biomass and NSC increased in leaves but decreased in stems and roots, which may help plants achieve a functional equilibrium, that is, overcome the most severe resource limitation. These results reveal that increasing C availability from rising [CO 2 ] releases allocation constraints, thereby allowing greater investment into long-term survival in the form of NSC and SMs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Secondary metabolites of Mirabilis jalapa structurally inhibit Lactate Dehydrogenase A in silico: a potential cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawati, R.; Nasrullah, A. H.; Pesik, R. N.; Muthmainah; Indarto, D.

    2018-03-01

    Altered energy metabolism from phosphorylated oxidation to aerobic glycolysis is one of the cancer hallmarks. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is a major enzyme that catalyses pyruvate to lactate in such condition. The aim of this study was to explore LDHA inhibitors derived from Indonesian herbal plants. In this study, LDHA and oxamate molecular structures were obtained from protein data bank. As a standard ligand inhibitor, oxamate was molecularly re-validated using Autodock Vina 1.1.2 software and showed binding energy -4.26 ± 0.006 kcal/mol and interacted with LDHA at Gln99, Arg105, Asn137, Arg168, His192, and Thr247 residues. Molecular docking was used to visualize interaction between Indonesian phytochemicals and LDHA. Indonesian phytochemicals with the lowest binding energy and similar residues with standard ligand was Miraxanthin-III (-8.53 ± 0.006 kcal/mol), Vulgaxanthin-I (-8.46 ± 0.006 kcal/mol), Miraxanthin-II (-7.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol) and Miraxanthin-V (-7.96 ± kcal/mol). Lower energy binding to LDHA and binding site at these residues was predicted to inhibit LDHA activity better than standard ligand. All phytochemicals were found in Mirabilis jalapa plant. Secondary metabolites in Mirabilis jalapa have LDHA inhibitor property in silico. Further in vitro study should be performed to confirm this result.

  13. Microbial communication leading to the activation of silent fungal secondary metabolite gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzker, Tina; Fischer, Juliane; Weber, Jakob; Mattern, Derek J; König, Claudia C; Valiante, Vito; Schroeckh, Volker; Brakhage, Axel A

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms form diverse multispecies communities in various ecosystems. The high abundance of fungal and bacterial species in these consortia results in specific communication between the microorganisms. A key role in this communication is played by secondary metabolites (SMs), which are also called natural products. Recently, it was shown that interspecies "talk" between microorganisms represents a physiological trigger to activate silent gene clusters leading to the formation of novel SMs by the involved species. This review focuses on mixed microbial cultivation, mainly between bacteria and fungi, with a special emphasis on the induced formation of fungal SMs in co-cultures. In addition, the role of chromatin remodeling in the induction is examined, and methodical perspectives for the analysis of natural products are presented. As an example for an intermicrobial interaction elucidated at the molecular level, we discuss the specific interaction between the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus with the soil bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus, which provides an excellent model system to enlighten molecular concepts behind regulatory mechanisms and will pave the way to a novel avenue of drug discovery through targeted activation of silent SM gene clusters through co-cultivations of microorganisms.

  14. Antiproliferative, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of the Lichen Xanthoria parietina and Its Secondary Metabolite Parietin

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    Adriana Basile

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are valuable natural resources used for centuries throughout the world as medicine, food, fodder, perfume, spices and dyes, as well as for other miscellaneous purposes. This study investigates the antiproliferative, antibacterial and antifungal activity of the acetone extract of the lichen Xanthoria parietina (Linnaeus Theodor Fries and its major secondary metabolite, parietin. The extract and parietin were tested for antimicrobial activity against nine American Type Culture Collection standard and clinically isolated bacterial strains, and three fungal strains. Both showed strong antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains and matched clinical isolates, particularly against Staphylococcus aureus from standard and clinical sources. Among the fungi tested, Rhizoctonia solani was the most sensitive. The antiproliferative effects of the extract and parietin were also investigated in human breast cancer cells. The extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis, both effects being accompanied by modulation of expression of cell cycle regulating genes such as p16, p27, cyclin D1 and cyclin A. It also mediated apoptosis by activating extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways, modulating Tumor Necrosis Factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2, and inducing Bcl-2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD phosphorylation. Our results indicate that Xanthoria parietina is a major potential source of antimicrobial and anticancer substances.

  15. Applications of genome editing by programmable nucleases to the metabolic engineering of secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Ana Lúcia; Costa, Marina C; Enguita, Francisco J

    2017-01-10

    Genome engineering is a branch of modern biotechnology composed of a cohort of protocols designed to construct and modify a genotype with the main objective of giving rise to a desired phenotype. Conceptually, genome engineering is based on the so called genome editing technologies, a group of genetic techniques that allow either to delete or to insert genetic information in a particular genomic locus. Ten years ago, genome editing tools were limited to virus-driven integration and homologous DNA recombination. However, nowadays the uprising of programmable nucleases is rapidly changing this paradigm. There are two main families of modern tools for genome editing depending on the molecule that controls the specificity of the system and drives the editor machinery to its place of action. Enzymes such as Zn-finger and TALEN nucleases are protein-driven genome editors; while CRISPR system is a nucleic acid-guided editing system. Genome editing techniques are still not widely applied for the design of new compounds with pharmacological activity, but they are starting to be considered as promising tools for rational genome manipulation in biotechnology applications. In this review we will discuss the potential applications of programmable nucleases for the metabolic engineering of secondary metabolites with biological activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette Fofie, N'Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus.

  17. [Study on secondary metabolites of marine fungus Penicillium sp. FS60 from the South China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Dong-Li; Chen, Yu-Chan; Tao, Mei-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2012-07-01

    To study the secondary metabolites of the marine fungus Penicillium sp. FS60 from the South China Sea and their cytotoxicities. The compounds were isolated from the culture of strain FS60 by various chromatographic methods (silica gel, reverse silica gel, Sephadex-LH20, preparative TLC, HPLC and PTLC) and recrystallization. Their structures were identified by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds were tested for their cytotoxicities against SF-268, MCF-7, and NCI-H460 cell lines by SRB method. While, Compounds were tested for their antibacterial activities against S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Seven compounds were isolated from the culture and identified as methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-3,5,6-trimethylbenzoate (1), 4-hydroxyacetophenone (2), 5-hydroxymethyl-furoic acid (3), isochromophilones VIII (4), ergosterol (5), ergosterol peroxide (6), and cerevisterol (7). Compound 1 is isolated from the genus Penicillium for the first time. Compound 3 is demonstrated to have significant inhibition against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Compound 4 is demonstrated to have significant inhibition against the three cell lines.

  18. Secondary metabolite content in Fabiana imbricata plants and in vitro cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Jordan, Miguel; Gerth, André; Wilken, Dirk; Hormazabal, Emilio; Tapia, Alejandro A

    2004-01-01

    A rapid in vitro propagation system leading to the formation of shoots, calli, roots, cell suspensions and plantlets was developed for the Andean medicinal plant Fabiana imbricata (Solanaceae). Massive propagation of shoots and roots was achieved by the temporary immersion system (TIS), morphogenesis and maintenance of cell suspensions by standard in vitro culture techniques. Oleanolic acid (OA), rutin, chlorogenic acid (CA) and scopoletin content in aerial parts of wild growing Fabiana imbricata plants as well as in plantlets regenerated in vitro, callus cultures, cell suspensions and biomass, obtained by the TIS system was assessed by HPLC. On a dry weight basis, the OA content in the aerial parts of the plant ranged between 2.26 and 3.47% while in vitro plantlets, callus and root cultures presented values ranging from not detected up to 0.14%. The rutin content of the samples presented a similar trend with maxima between 0.99 and 3.35% for the aerial parts of the plants to 0.02 to 0.20% for plantlets, 0.12% for cell suspensions and 0.28% for callus. Rutin was not detected in the roots grown by the TIS principle. The CA and scopoletin content in the aerial parts of F. imbricata ranged between 0.22-1.15 and secondary metabolite, scopoletin was found between a range of 0.99 and 1.41% with CA between of 0.11 and 0.42%.

  19. Fermentation conditions optimization of secondary metabolites of crocus sativus L in endophytic fungi

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    DU Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,Endophytic fungi,isolated from corm of saffron,were selected.Strains Q31 fermentation conditions on production of carotenoids were studied.Three kinds of carbon sources were selected.Study found that sucrose could promote cell growth and carotenoid accumulation,and amount of mycelium had an increase of 50.83% in the experimental group than the control group.Carotenoid yield was 23.15 times of the control group.Select three kinds of nitrogen and crosscombinations between them,found that add ammonium sulfate,Mycelium of experimental group had an increased of 86.43% than the control group and carotenoid yield was 5.91 times of the control group.the optimal conditions was found by orthogonal test:sucrose 40 g/L,ammonium sulfate 1.0 g/L,bottling amout 100 mL/250 mL,Inoculum size 5%.By using LC-MS to analyze secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi Q31 from saffron,we found it could steady metabolize one kind of carotinoid,its peak time was 22.447min,maximum absorption peaks were 414.4 and 438.3nm,MW was 738.

  20. Metabolites produced by antagonistic microbes inhibit the principal avocado pathogens in vitro

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    Sara Ramírez R.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for Hass avocado in the global market exceeds the supply by over 50%. Colombia has a remarkable advantage as a producer in the region due to its high yields. However, the productivity of this crop can be seriously affected by diseases such as root rot, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, postharvest body rot and stem end rot, caused by Colletotrichum sp. and Phomopsis sp., respectively. The potential of 76 bacterial isolates obtained from avocado rhizosphere to produce inhibitory metabolites against avocado's pathogens was evaluated. The antagonistic effect of the rhizobacteria against P. cinnamomi, Colletotrichum sp. and Phomopsis sp. was tested through dual cultures. Thirty-six percent of the tested isolates presented inhibition halos against P. cinnamomi, 36% against Colletotrichum sp. and 67% against Phomopsis sp. Additionally, three isolates were selected for fermentation tests using different broth cultures. The extracts obtained from fermentations in the minimal medium of isolates ARP5.1 and AED06 showed inhibitory activity against the evaluated pathogens, but this effect was not observed with the AED26 extract. The media supplemented with copper chloride did not enhance activity of the extracts. These results suggest that using microbial metabolic extracts is a viable alternative for controlling avocado pathogens in vitro.

  1. Isolation and characterization of bioactive metabolites producing marine Streptomyces parvulus strain sankarensis-A10

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    Mobeen Shaik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The significance and frequency of marine microorganisms as producers of bioactive metabolites-a natural source of drug discovery had varied significantly during the last decades, making marine ecosystem a huge treasure trove of novel isolates and novel compounds. Among the twelve actinomycetes isolated from marine sediment sample (Lat. 17°41′962″N, Long. 83°19′633″E, amylase, protease, lipase and cellulase activities were exhibited by 8,7,4,3 isolates respectively. Five isolates exhibited l-asparaginase activity, while 5, 6, 2 isolates exhibited antibacterial, antifungal and antimicrobial activities respectively. One isolate VMS-A10 efficiently producing alpha-amylase (25.53 ± 0.50 U/mL, protease (19.26 ± 0.25 U/mL, lipase (36.25 ± 0.10 U/mL, cellulase (14.43 ± 0.513 U/mL, l-asparaginase (0.125 ± 0.004 U/mL, antimicrobial metabolites against B. subtilis (503.33 ± 5.77 U/mL, S. aureus (536.66 ± 5.77 U/mL, E. coli (533.33 ± 5.77 U/mL, P. aeruginosa (500.00 ± 10.0 U/mL, MRSA (538.33 ± 5.77 U/mL, C. albicans (353.33 ± 11.54 U/mL and A. niger (443.33 ± 15.27 U/mL was selected, identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties together with 16S rDNA sequence, designated as Streptomyces parvulus strain sankarensis-A10 and sequencing product (1490 bp was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number KT906299, Culture Deposit No: NCIM-5601. Isolation and characterization of each potential actinobacteria having immense industrial and therapeutic value on an unprecedented scale from marine sediments of Visakhapatnam coast will have a burgeoning effect.

  2. A fish-feeding laboratory bioassay to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Micah J; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-11

    Marine chemical ecology is a young discipline, having emerged from the collaboration of natural products chemists and marine ecologists in the 1980s with the goal of examining the ecological functions of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. The result has been a progression of protocols that have increasingly refined the ecological relevance of the experimental approach. Here we present the most up-to-date version of a fish-feeding laboratory bioassay that enables investigators to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. Organic metabolites of all polarities are exhaustively extracted from the tissue of the target organism and reconstituted at natural concentrations in a nutritionally appropriate food matrix. Experimental food pellets are presented to a generalist predator in laboratory feeding assays to assess the antipredatory activity of the extract. The procedure described herein uses the bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum, to test the palatability of Caribbean marine invertebrates; however, the design may be readily adapted to other systems. Results obtained using this laboratory assay are an important prelude to field experiments that rely on the feeding responses of a full complement of potential predators. Additionally, this bioassay can be used to direct the isolation of feeding-deterrent metabolites through bioassay-guided fractionation. This feeding bioassay has advanced our understanding of the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine invertebrates on Caribbean coral reefs and may inform investigations in diverse fields of inquiry, including pharmacology, biotechnology, and evolutionary ecology.

  3. Cultivar-Specific Changes in Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Pak Choi (Brassica Rapa, Chinensis Group by Methyl Jasmonate

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    Moo Jung Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates, their hydrolysis products and primary metabolites were analyzed in five pak choi cultivars to determine the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA on metabolite flux from primary metabolites to glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products. Among detected glucosinolates (total 14 glucosinolates; 9 aliphatic, 4 indole and 1 aromatic glucosinolates, indole glucosinolate concentrations (153–229% and their hydrolysis products increased with MeJA treatment. Changes in the total isothiocyanates by MeJA were associated with epithiospecifier protein activity estimated as nitrile formation. Goitrin, a goitrogenic compound, significantly decreased by MeJA treatment in all cultivars. Changes in glucosinolates, especially aliphatic, significantly differed among cultivars. Primary metabolites including amino acids, organic acids and sugars also changed with MeJA treatment in a cultivar-specific manner. A decreased sugar level suggests that they might be a carbon source for secondary metabolite biosynthesis in MeJA-treated pak choi. The result of the present study suggests that MeJA can be an effective agent to elevate indole glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products and to reduce a goitrogenic compound in pak choi. The total glucosinolate concentration was the highest in “Chinese cabbage” in the control group (32.5 µmol/g DW, but indole glucosinolates increased the greatest in “Asian” when treated with MeJA.

  4. Secondary metabolite profiling of Curcuma species grown at different locations using GC/TOF and UPLC/Q-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jueun; Jung, Youngae; Shin, Jeoung-Hwa; Kim, Ho Kyoung; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Ryu, Do Hyun; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2014-07-04

    Curcuma, a genus of rhizomatous herbaceous species, has been used as a spice, traditional medicine, and natural dye. In this study, the metabolite profile of Curcuma extracts was determined using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF MS) and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) to characterize differences between Curcuma aromatica and Curcuma longa grown on the Jeju-do or Jin-do islands, South Korea. Previous studies have performed primary metabolite profiling of Curcuma species grown in different regions using NMR-based metabolomics. This study focused on profiling of secondary metabolites from the hexane extract of Curcuma species. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) plots showed significant differences between the C. aromatica and C. longa metabolite profiles, whereas geographical location had little effect. A t-test was performed to identify statistically significant metabolites, such as terpenoids. Additionally, targeted profiling using UPLC/Q-TOF MS showed that the concentration of curcuminoids differed depending on the plant origin. Based on these results, a combination of GC- and LC-MS allowed us to analyze curcuminoids and terpenoids, the typical bioactive compounds of Curcuma, which can be used to discriminate Curcuma samples according to species or geographical origin.

  5. Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Curcuma Species Grown at Different Locations Using GC/TOF and UPLC/Q-TOF MS

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    Jueun Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma, a genus of rhizomatous herbaceous species, has been used as a spice, traditional medicine, and natural dye. In this study, the metabolite profile of Curcuma extracts was determined using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF MS and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS to characterize differences between Curcuma aromatica and Curcuma longa grown on the Jeju-do or Jin-do islands, South Korea. Previous studies have performed primary metabolite profiling of Curcuma species grown in different regions using NMR-based metabolomics. This study focused on profiling of secondary metabolites from the hexane extract of Curcuma species. Principal component analysis (PCA and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA plots showed significant differences between the C. aromatica and C. longa metabolite profiles, whereas geographical location had little effect. A t-test was performed to identify statistically significant metabolites, such as terpenoids. Additionally, targeted profiling using UPLC/Q-TOF MS showed that the concentration of curcuminoids differed depending on the plant origin. Based on these results, a combination of GC- and LC-MS allowed us to analyze curcuminoids and terpenoids, the typical bioactive compounds of Curcuma, which can be used to discriminate Curcuma samples according to species or geographical origin.

  6. Influence of Growth Regulators on Secondary Metabolites of Medicinally Important Oil Yielding Plant Simarouba glauca DC. under Water Stress Conditions

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    Awate P.D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One year old seedlings of Simarouba glauca were subjected to water stress for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days. The foliar sprays of 50 ppm salicylic acid (SA and 10 ppm Putriscine, Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA and Abscisic acid (ABA were applied before and after water stress. It was observed that polyphenols, tannins, alkaloid and flavonoid contents were increased with increasing water stress treatments. Foliar applications of growth regulators ameliorate water stress and exhibits induction of secondary metabolites like coumarins, sterols, xanthoproteins, cardiac glycosides and saponins. It was also noticed that foliar application of SA, GABA, ABA considerably increases all these secondary metabolites which will help to improve the medicinal potential of Simarouba glauca under water stressed condition.

  7. The cross-pathway control system regulates production of the secondary metabolite toxin, sirodesmin PL, in the ascomycete, Leptosphaeria maculans

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    Fox Ellen M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirodesmin PL is a secondary metabolite toxin made by the ascomycetous plant pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans. The sirodesmin biosynthetic genes are clustered in the genome. The key genes are a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, sirP, and a pathway-specific transcription factor, sirZ. Little is known about regulation of sirodesmin production. Results Genes involved in regulation of sirodesmin PL in L. maculans have been identified. Two hundred random insertional T-DNA mutants were screened with an antibacterial assay for ones producing low levels of sirodesmin PL. Three such mutants were isolated and each transcribed sirZ at very low levels. One of the affected genes had high sequence similarity to Aspergillus fumigatus cpcA, which regulates the cross-pathway control system in response to amino acid availability. This gene was silenced in L. maculans and the resultant mutant characterised. When amino acid starvation was artificially-induced by addition of 3-aminotriazole for 5 h, transcript levels of sirP and sirZ did not change in the wild type. In contrast, levels of sirP and sirZ transcripts increased in the silenced cpcA mutant. After prolonged amino acid starvation the silenced cpcA mutant produced much higher amounts of sirodesmin PL than the wild type. Conclusions Production of sirodesmin PL in L. maculans is regulated by the cross pathway control gene, cpcA, either directly or indirectly via the pathway-specific transcription factor, sirZ.

  8. Application of an Efficient Gene Targeting System Linking Secondary Metabolites to their Biosynthetic Genes in Aspergillus terreus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Knox, Benjamin P.; Sanchez, James F.; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Wang, Clay C.

    2013-07-19

    Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) are natural products biosynthesized by NRP synthetases. A kusA-, pyrG- mutant strain of Aspergillusterreus NIH 2624 was developed that greatly facilitated the gene targeting efficiency in this organism. Application of this tool allowed us to link four major types of NRP related secondary metabolites to their responsible genes in A. terreus. In addition, an NRP related melanin synthetase was also identified in this species.

  9. The effect of hybridization on secondary metabolites and herbivore resistance: implications for the evolution of chemical diversity in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Dandan; Vrieling, Klaas; Klinkhamer, Peter G. L.

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of secondary metabolites (SMs) has been poorly understood from both a mechanistic and a functional perspective. Hybridization is suggested to contribute to the evolution of diversity of SMs. In this paper we discuss the effects of hybridization on SMs and herbivore resistance by evaluating the literature and with special reference to our own research results from the hybrids between Jacobaea vulgaris (syn. Senecio jacobaea) and Jacobaea aquatica (syn. Senecio aquaticus). We also...

  10. Toxicity of Secondary Metabolites from Meliaceae Against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giongo, A M M; Vendramim, J D; Freitas, S D L; Silva, M F G F

    2016-12-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the bioactivity of secondary metabolites from Trichilia pallida, Trichilia pallens, and Toona ciliata against fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) larvae. The studied compounds included (+/-)-catechins, a triglyceride, and cedrelone isolated from T. ciliata branches, fruits, and stems, respectively; dammaradienol isolated from T. pallida leaves; and scopoletin isolated from T. pallens branches. The compounds' activity was evaluated through ingestion and topic treatment. Treated artificial diet was offered to first instar larvae to evaluate ingestion effect, while an application on the dorsal thoracic region of third instar larvae was used to evaluate the topic effect. Mortality was assessed daily, and larval weight was recorded after 7 days for ingestion and 5 days for topic application. Scopoletin and triglyceride caused low mortality rates and reduction in larval weight by ingestion, (+/-)-catechins caused larval weight reduction by ingestion, and scopoletin reduced survival by topic treatment. The most effective compound was cedrelone that affected larval survival and development mainly by ingestion. The estimated LC 50 , LC 90 , and EC 50 for cedrelone were 0.0365, 0.0659, and 0.0095%, respectively. Further, cedrelone-treated corn leaf discs were offered to fourth instar larvae during 16 h in choice and no-choice tests. The deterrence indexes obtained in the choice tests were 23.5 and 36.3% at concentrations of 0.0365 and 0.0659, respectively. Consumption of cedrelone-treated leaf discs at the concentration of 0.0659% was lower compared to the control in the no-choice test. Thus, cedrelone caused lethal and sublethal effects and phagodeterrence on S. frugiperda and should be further studied.

  11. Evaluation of primary and secondary metabolites in selected varieties of potatoes.

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    Ján Mareček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine primary and secondary metabolites in selected varieties of potatoes. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. are good source of bioactive compounds, mainly phenols as one of the most important components. The chemical composition with reducing sugar, starch, ascorbic acid, total polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed in five potato varieties (Agria, Marabel, Red Anna, Picasso, Princess. Values of dry matter content ranged from 20.34 to 23.64%. In terms of tubers storage, its content above 20% is required. The highest level of starch was detected in variety Princess (16.82%. The lowest reducing sugar content was recorded by variety Marabel (0.08%. Similarly, low values reached varieties Princess (0.12%, Agria (0.14 and Red Anna (0.16%. These would be appropriate to use for food processing and for production of fried potato chips or fries. Variety Red Anna reached the highest amount of vitamin C (73.72 mg.kg-1. The lower levels of this vitamin showed tubers of varieties Picasso (35.02 mg.kg-1 and Princess (36.89 mg.kg-1. The antioxidant activity was measured with radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical as well as phosphomolybdenic assay. Potato varieties contained high levels of total polyphenols (0.474 – 1.550 mg GAE per dry weight and flavonoids (1.407 – 15.933 μg QE per dry weight. The consumption of potatoes can provide nutritional value along with antioxidant potential that can be helpful for proper functioning of the body physiological systems. Statistical evaluation by the single factor analysis of variance detected high significant impact of variety on the content of all the analytical parameters in evaluated varieties of potato tubers. Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  12. Distribution and evolution of secondary metabolites in Eriocaulaceae, Lythraceae and Velloziaceae from "campos rupestres"

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    Salatino Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypotheses are presented on the evolution of structural patterns of secondary metabolites (flavonoids and foliar wax alkanes and fatty acids of families of "campos rupestres". The distribution of fatty acids is given for genera of Lythraceae, with emphasis on Cuphea (supposedly more advanced and Diplusodon. Compounds with saturated short chains represent a derived condition in Lythraceae although they are probably restricted to Cuphea. It is suggested that evolution selected for more complex flavonoid patterns in Cuphea, with the inclusion of C-glycoflavones and methoxylated flavonols (rhamnetin and isorhamnetin, which are not found in members of Diplusodon and Lafoensia. The supposedly primitive groups of Eriocaulaceae (e.g., Paepalanthus presented more complex flavonoid patterns characterized by flavones and flavonols, the latter frequently being 6-hydroxylated or methoxylated. More advanced groups of Eriocaulaceae (e.g., Leiothrix and Syngonanthus apparently possess only flavones, C-glycoflavones are a salient feature of species with smaller habits. In Velloziaceae, members of the primitive subfamily Vellozioideae show distribution of alkanes of foliar epicuticular wax in which C27, C29 or C31 predominate; members of the derived subfamily Barbacenioideae usually show distributions with a predominance of C33 or C35, while species of Pleurostima (Barbacenioideae have C31 as the main homologue, thus being intermediate between the two subfamilies. It is suggested that the evolution of alkanes in Velloziaceae follows a trend toward elongation of carbon chains. The condition of advanced or primitive chemical patterns is inferred from the results of cladistic analyses based on morphological characters (Eriocaulaceae and Lythraceae, and morphological and molecular characters (Velloziaceae.

  13. Effects of bacterial inoculants on the indigenous microbiome and secondary metabolites of chamomile plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth eSchmidt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant-associated bacteria fulfil important functions for plant growth and health of their host. However, our knowledge about the impact of bacterial treatments on the host’s microbiome and physiology is limited. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of bacterial inoculants on the microbiome of chamomile plants Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert grown in a field under organic management in Egypt. Chamomile seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous Gram-positive strains (Streptomyces subrutilus Wbn2-11, Bacillus subtilis Co1-6, Paenibacillus polymyxa Mc5Re-14 from Egypt and three European Gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens L13-6-12, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila P69, Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18 already known for their beneficial plant-microbe interaction. Molecular fingerprints of 16S rRNA gene as well as real-time PCR analyses did not show statistically significant differences for all applied bacterial antagonists compared to the control. In contrast, a pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed significant differences in the community structure of bacteria between the treatments. These differences could be clearly shown by a shift within the community structure and corresponding beta-diversity indices. Moreover, B. subtilis Co1-6 and P. polymyxa Mc5Re-14 showed an enhancement of the bioactive secondary metabolite apigenin-7-O-glucoside. This indicates a possible new function of bacterial inoculants: to interact with the plant microbiome as well as with the plant metabolome.

  14. Toxicity of Plant Secondary Metabolites Modulating Detoxification Genes Expression for Natural Red Palm Weevil Pesticide Development

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    Ahmed Mohammed AlJabr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the larvicidal and growth-inhibiting activities, and underlying detoxification mechanism of red palm weevil against phenylpropanoids, an important class of plant secondary metabolites. Toxicity of α-asarone, eugenol, isoeugenol, methyl eugenol, methyl isoeugenol, coumarin, coumarin 6, coniferyl aldehyde, diniconazole, ethyl cinnamate, and rosmarinic acid was evaluated by incorporation into the artificial diet. All of the phenylpropanoids exhibited dose- and time-dependent insecticidal activity. Among all the tested phenylpropanoids, coumarin exhibited the highest toxicity by revealing the least LD50 value (0.672 g/L. In addition, the most toxic compound (coumarin observed in the current study, deteriorated the growth resulting tremendous reduction (78.39% in efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD, and (ECI efficacy of conversion of ingested food (70.04% of tenth-instar red palm weevil larvae. The energy-deficient red palm weevil larvae through their intrinsic abilities showed enhanced response to their digestibility resulting 27.78% increase in approximate digestibility (AD compared to control larvae. The detoxification response of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae determined by the quantitative expression of cytochrome P450, esterases, and glutathione S-transferase revealed enhanced expression among moderately toxic and ineffective compounds. These genes especially cytochrome P450 and GST detoxify the target compounds by enhancing their solubility that leads rapid excretion and degradation resulting low toxicity towards red palm weevil larvae. On the other hand, the most toxic (coumarin silenced the genes involved in the red palm weevil detoxification mechanism. Based on the toxicity, growth retarding, and masking detoxification activities, coumarin could be a useful future natural red palm weevil-controlling agent.

  15. Toxicity of Plant Secondary Metabolites Modulating Detoxification Genes Expression for Natural Red Palm Weevil Pesticide Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlJabr, Ahmed Mohammed; Hussain, Abid; Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Al-Ayedh, Hassan

    2017-01-20

    This study aimed to explore the larvicidal and growth-inhibiting activities, and underlying detoxification mechanism of red palm weevil against phenylpropanoids, an important class of plant secondary metabolites. Toxicity of α-asarone, eugenol, isoeugenol, methyl eugenol, methyl isoeugenol, coumarin, coumarin 6, coniferyl aldehyde, diniconazole, ethyl cinnamate, and rosmarinic acid was evaluated by incorporation into the artificial diet. All of the phenylpropanoids exhibited dose- and time-dependent insecticidal activity. Among all the tested phenylpropanoids, coumarin exhibited the highest toxicity by revealing the least LD 50 value (0.672 g/L). In addition, the most toxic compound (coumarin) observed in the current study, deteriorated the growth resulting tremendous reduction (78.39%) in efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD), and (ECI) efficacy of conversion of ingested food (70.04%) of tenth-instar red palm weevil larvae. The energy-deficient red palm weevil larvae through their intrinsic abilities showed enhanced response to their digestibility resulting 27.78% increase in approximate digestibility (AD) compared to control larvae. The detoxification response of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae determined by the quantitative expression of cytochrome P450 , esterases , and glutathione S-transferase revealed enhanced expression among moderately toxic and ineffective compounds. These genes especially cytochrome P450 and GST detoxify the target compounds by enhancing their solubility that leads rapid excretion and degradation resulting low toxicity towards red palm weevil larvae. On the other hand, the most toxic (coumarin) silenced the genes involved in the red palm weevil detoxification mechanism. Based on the toxicity, growth retarding, and masking detoxification activities, coumarin could be a useful future natural red palm weevil-controlling agent.

  16. Comparative analysis of secondary metabolites contents in[i] Fragaria vesca[/i] L. fruits

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    Agnieszka Najda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available [i]Fragaria vesca[/i] (wild strawberry belongs to the Rosaceae family. Besides the leaves ([i]Fragariae folium[/i] and roots ([i]Fragariae radix[/i], the aromatic fruits ([i]Fragariae fructus[/i] of wild strawberry are also herbal materials used in medicine. The aim of this study was to compare the value of phytochemical and antioxidant activity of wild strawberry fruits ([i]Fragaria vesca L[/i].. The fruits were analyzed regarding their secondary metabolites contents (flavonoids, sum of phenolic acids, tannins, anthocyanins, DPPH, depending on the origin of the raw material (from natural habitats vs. cultivation. According to the obtained results, raw material originating from natural habitats contained significantly more flavonoids (0.559 mg∙g [sup]-1[/sup] , compared to fruits harvested from cultivation (0.472 mg∙g [sup]-1[/sup] , on average. Mean concentration of phenolic acids ranged from 1.648 mg∙g[sup] -1[/sup] – 2.348 mg∙g [sup]-1[/sup] , although the wild form was characterized by higher levels of examined substances. Tannins are an important fraction of phenolic compounds; their content in studied fruits ranged from 2.2% (from cultivation – 3.0% (from natural habitats. When comparing the average contents of anthocyanins in the studied materials, it was revealed that remarkably more of these compounds were recorded in wild strawberry fruits harvested from natural habitats vs. those from cultivations: 132 mg∙100 g [sup]-1[/sup] vs. 90 mg∙100 g [sup]-1[/sup] . A difference was indicated with respect to the ability of DPPH radical reduction to diphenylpicrylhydrazine by extracts made of examined fruits.

  17. Halophilic and halotolerant actinomycetes from a marine saltern of Goa, India producing anti-bacterial metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballav, Shuvankar; Kerkar, Savita; Thomas, Sabu; Augustine, Nimmy

    2015-03-01

    Marine salterns are estuarine ecosystems in Goa, receiving inputs from riverine and marine waters. The Salinity fluctuates between 0 and 300 psu which makes it a conducive niche for salt tolerant and salt loving Actinomycetales. Halotolerant and halophilic Actinomycetales producing anti-bacterial metabolites were studied from crystallizer pond sediments of Ribandar saltern, Goa. Three media viz. Starch casein, R2A and Inorganic salt starch agar at four different salinities (35, 50, 75 and 100 psu) were used for isolation. R2A agar at 35 psu was the most preferred by hypersaline actinomycetes. The dominant group was halotolerant Streptomyces spp. others being rare actinomycetes viz. Nocardiopsis, Micromonospora and Kocuria spp. More than 50% of the isolates showed anti-bacterial activity against one or more of the fifteen human pathogens tested. Eight strains from 4 genera showed consistent anti-bacterial activity and studied in detail. Most halotolerant isolates grew from 0 to 75 psu, with optimum antibiotic production at 35 psu whereas halophiles grew at 20 to 100 psu with optimum antibiotic production at 35 psu. Four Streptomyces strains showed multiple inhibition against test organisms while four rare actinomycetes were specific in their inhibitory activity. This is the first report of a halophilic Kocuria sp., Nocardiopsis sp., and halotolerant Micromonospora sp. producing anti-bacterial compound(s) against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus citreus, and Vibrio cholerae, respectively. Sequential extraction with varying polarity of organic solvents showed that the extracts inhibited different test pathogens. These results suggest that halophilic and halotolerant actinomycetes from marine salterns are a potential source of anti-bacterial compounds. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lichen secondary metabolites are responsible for induction of apoptosis in HT-29 and A2780 human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačkorová, M; Jendželovský, R; Kello, M; Bačkor, M; Mikeš, J; Fedoročko, P

    2012-04-01

    Lichens are a known source of approximately 800 unique secondary metabolites, many of which play important ecological roles, including regulating the equilibrium between symbionts. However, only a few of these compounds have been assessed for their effectiveness against various in vitro cancer models. Moreover, the mechanisms of biological activity of lichen secondary metabolites on living cells (including cancer cells) are still almost entirely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of four lichen secondary metabolites (parietin, atranorin, usnic acid and gyrophoric acid) on A2780 and HT-29 cancer cell lines. We found that usnic acid and atranorin were more effective anti-cancer compounds when compared to parietin and gyrophoric acid. Usnic acid and atranorin were capable of inducing a massive loss in the mitochondrial membrane potential, along with caspase-3 activation (only in HT-29 cells) and phosphatidylserine externalization in both tested cell lines. Induction of both ROS and especially RNS may be responsible, at least in part, for the cytotoxic effects of the tested compounds. Based on the detection of protein expression (PARP, p53, Bcl-2/Bcl-xL, Bax, p38, pp38) we found that usnic acid and atranorin are activators of programmed cell death in A2780 and HT-29, probably through the mitochondrial pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Research of mechanism of secondary metabolites of phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root induced by jasmonate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyuan; Gao, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Cui, Guanghong; Shao, Aijuan; Huang, Luqi

    2012-01-01

    To study the mechanism of secondary metabolites of some phenolic acids in the hairy roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza induced by methyl jasmonate. The hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza were induced with methyl jasmonate (100 micromol x L(-1)) and collected at 0, 12, 24, 36 h after treatment. Real-time quantitative PCR was used for detecting the mRNA expression level of the key enzyme genes on the secondary metabolites pathway of rosmarinic acid, while a LC-MS method was developed to determine the content of rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B. The concentration of phenolic acids grew up and accumulated quickly in the hairy roots with exogenous signal molecule MJ induced, and it was showed that the content of CA and RA reached the maximum after 24 h and the content of LAB reached the maximum in 36 h by MJ induced. The induction mechanism may be activated with different levels of RA synthesis in PAL, 4CL, C4H genes on the key enzyme phenylalanine pathway and TAT, HPPR genes on tyrosine pathway. The time of gene expression was different, among them, 4CL and PAL genes were more important. In a word, the result can provide some basis data about the mechanism of secondary metabolites of phenolic acids for further research.

  20. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticle by using secondary metabolites from Pseudomonas aeruginosa DM1 and its anti-algal effect on Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rima; Barsainya, Manjari; Singh, Devendra Pratap

    2017-02-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using extracellular metabolites from the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa DM1 offers an eco-friendly and sustainable way of metal nanoparticle synthesis. The present work highlights the biotransformation of silver nitrate solution into AgNP, mediated by extracellular secondary metabolite pyoverdine, a siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa. The bioreduction of silver ions into AgNPs by using pyoverdine was recorded in terms of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis and color change in the reaction mixture (AgNO 3 + pyoverdine) from pale yellow to dark brown with absorption maxima at 415 nm. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of AgNPs showed its crystalline face-centered cubic structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) pictures of AgNPs showed spherical morphology of AgNP in the range of 45-100 nm, with tendency of agglomerations. The energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis of particles provided strong signal of elemental silver with few minor peaks of other impurities. The present approach offers a unique in vitro method of metal nanoparticle synthesis by exogenously produced bacterial secondary metabolites, where direct contact between the toxic metal and biological resource material can be avoided. The biologically synthesized AgNPs are found to have anti-algal effects against two species of Chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyenoidosa), as indicated by zone of growth inhibition on algal culture plates. Further results exhibit concentration-dependent progressive inhibition of chlorophyll content in the algal cells by AgNPs, confirming the algicidal effect of AgNPs.

  1. Fungal community, Fusarium head blight complex and secondary metabolites associated with malting barley grains harvested in Umbria, central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccari, Giovanni; Senatore, Maria Teresa; Tini, Francesco; Sulyok, Michael; Covarelli, Lorenzo

    2018-05-20

    In recent years, due to the negative impact of toxigenic mycobiota and of the accumulation of their secondary metabolites in malting barley grains, monitoring the evolution of fungal communities in a certain cultivation area as well as detecting the different mycotoxins present in the raw material prior to malting and brewing processes have become increasingly important. In this study, a survey was carried out on malting barley samples collected after their harvest in the Umbria region (central Italy). Samples were analyzed to determine the composition of the fungal community, to identify the isolated Fusarium species, to quantify fungal secondary metabolites in the grains and to characterize the in vitro mycotoxigenic profile of a subset of the isolated Fusarium strains. The fungal community of barley grains was mainly composed of microorganisms belonging to the genus Alternaria (77%), followed by those belonging to the genus Fusarium (27%). The Fusarium head blight (FHB) complex was represented by nine species with the predominance of Fusarium poae (37%), followed by Fusarium avenaceum (23%), Fusarium graminearum (22%) and Fusarium tricinctum (7%). Secondary metabolites biosynthesized by Alternaria and Fusarium species were present in the analyzed grains. Among those biosynthesized by Fusarium species, nivalenol and enniatins were the most prevalent ones. Type A trichothecenes (T-2 and HT-2 toxins) as well as beauvericin were also present with a high incidence. Conversely, the number of samples contaminated with deoxynivalenol was low. Conjugated forms, such as deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and HT-2-glucoside, were detected for the first time in malting barley grains cultivated in the surveyed area. In addition, strains of F. avenaceum and F. tricinctum showed the ability to biosynthesize in vitro high concentrations of enniatins. The analysis of fungal secondary metabolites, both in the grains and in vitro, revealed also the presence of other compounds, for which

  2. Tracing fungi secondary metabolites in Brazil nuts using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-Silva, Otniel; de Lourdes, Maria; de Souza, Mendes; Venãncio, Armando

    2011-08-01

    This screening aimed to evaluate quantitatively the occurrence of fungal metabolites in Brazil nuts. Nuts were collected from Agroforest production areas in Amazon basin region. A total of 235 mycotoxins (including the most prominent ones) was screened by a multi-mycotoxin method based on HPLC-MS/MS. The recovery of metabolites by the method was between 56 and 136%. Fifteen mycotoxins were detected and quantified, in at least one sample; namely, aflatoxins (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and AFM(1)), sterigmatocystin, methyl-sterigmatocystin, kojic acid, citrinin, cyclosporin A, cyclosporin C, cyclosporin D, cyclosporin H, rugulosin, alternariol-methylether and emodin. This is the first study dealing with the detection of the latter nine metabolites in Brazil nuts. Alternariol-methylether (from 0.75 to 3.2 µg/kg) was the only metabolite detected in all analyzed samples.

  3. LC-MS based analysis of secondary metabolites from Chaetomium and Stachybotrys growth in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosen, Ina

    Living and working in fungi-ridden buildings can be detrimental for occupants both in terms of the effects on their health and in an economic sense. This is especially true for hypersensitive, asthmatic and allergic individuals who often experience exacerbation of their conditions when present...... in wet, fungi contaminated indoor environment. Otherwise healthy people may also experience negative health effects, such as skin rashes, headaches, dizziness and chronic fatigue. During their growth on building materials, indoor fungi produce and release many different kinds of components....... These components are suspected of causing adverse health effects, however that causality has yet to be documented. Fungi produce biomass in the form of mycelium and spores both of which contain an array of secondary metabolites and bioactive compounds. When fungal biomass dries up, whole viable spores, fragmented...

  4. Antimicrobial efficacy of secondary metabolites from Glomerella cingulata Eficiência antimicrobiana do extrato bruto de Glomerella cingulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hara Kishore

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are known to produce a vast array of secondary metabolites that are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. Early reports suggest that G. cingulata has the capability to transform many compounds by various enzymatic actions. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activity of crude ethyl acetate extract of G. cingulata using agar cup bioassay method. Crude extract of G. cingulata exhibited remarkable antifungal activity against Rhizopus oryzae, Chrysoporium tropicum and Beauveria bassiana but no antifungal activity was found against Alternaria tenuissima and Aspergillus niger at any concentrations. The crude extract presented no antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at any concentration.Fungos são conhecidos produtores de uma vasta coleção de metabólitos secundários que vem mostrando importância crescente na sua aplicação biotecnológica. Publicações anteriores sugerem que G. cingulata tem a capacidade de transformar vários componentes por diferentes ações enzimáticas. Logo, o foco deste estudo foi determinar a atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica do extrato bruto de G. cingulata obtido por acetato de etila utilizando-se um método envolvendo bloco de agar. O extrato bruto de G. cingulata demonstrou marcante atividade antifungica contra Rhizopus oryzae, Chrysoporium tropicum e Beauveria bassiana entretanto, não foi possível detectar, em nenhuma concentração, atividade antifungica contra Alternaria tenuissima e Aspergillus niger. O mesmo extrato não apresentou atividade antibacteriana, em nenhuma concentração, contra bactérias Gram negativa e positiva.

  5. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1 as a source of potent antibiotics and other secondary metabolites for biocontrol of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brans Alain

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytopathogenic fungi affecting crop and post-harvested vegetables are a major threat to food production and food storage. To face these drawbacks, producers have become increasingly dependent on agrochemicals. However, intensive use of these compounds has led to the emergence of pathogen resistance and severe negative environmental impacts. There are also a number of plant diseases for which chemical solutions are ineffective or non-existent as well as an increasing demand by consumers for pesticide-free food. Thus, biological control through the use of natural antagonistic microorganisms has emerged as a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for more rational and safe crop management. Results The genome of the plant-associated B. amyloliquefaciens GA1 was sample sequenced. Several gene clusters involved in the synthesis of biocontrol agents were detected. Four gene clusters were shown to direct the synthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides surfactin, iturin A and fengycin as well as the iron-siderophore bacillibactin. Beside these non-ribosomaly synthetised peptides, three additional gene clusters directing the synthesis of the antibacterial polyketides macrolactin, bacillaene and difficidin were identified. Mass spectrometry analysis of culture supernatants led to the identification of these secondary metabolites, hence demonstrating that the corresponding biosynthetic gene clusters are functional in strain GA1. In addition, genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis and export of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin were highlighted. However, only its chlorinated derivative, chlorotetaine, could be detected in culture supernatants. On the contrary, genes involved in ribosome-dependent synthesis of bacteriocin and other antibiotic peptides were not detected as compared to the reference strain B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Conclusion The production of all of these antibiotic compounds highlights B. amyloliquefaciens GA1 as

  6. Long-term response on growth, antioxidant enzymes, and secondary metabolites in salicylic acid pre-treated Uncaria tomentosa microplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rojo, Silvia; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Esparza-García, Fernando; Plasencia, Javier; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C

    2015-12-01

    To obtain micro propagated Uncaria tomentosa plantlets with enhanced secondary metabolites production, long-term responses to salicylic acid (SA) pre-treatments at 1 and 100 µM were evaluated after propagation of the plantlets in a SA-free medium. SA pre-treatments of single node cuttings OF U. tomentosa produced long-term responses in microplants grown for 75 days in a SA-free medium. Reduction in survival rate, root formation, and stem elongation were observed only with 100 µM SA pre-treatments with respect to the control (0 + DMSO).Both pre-treatments enhanced H2O2 and inhibited superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, while guaiacol peroxidase was increased only with 1 µM SA. Also, both pre-treatments increased total monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloids by ca. 55 % (16.5 mg g(-1) DW), including isopteropodine, speciophylline, mitraphylline, isomitraphylline, rhynchopylline, and isorhynchopylline; and flavonoids by ca. 21 % (914 μg g(-1) DW), whereas phenolic compounds were increased 80 % (599 μg g(-1) DW) at 1 µM and 8.2 % (359 μg g(-1) DW) at 100 µM SA. Pre-treatment with 1 µM SA of U.tomentosa microplants preserved the survival rate and increased oxindole alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds in correlation with H2O2 and peroxidase activity enhancements, offering biotechnological advantages over non-treated microplants.

  7. Comparative SNP diversity among four Eucalyptus species for genes from secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways

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    Foley William J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information about the DNA sequence variation within and between closely related plant species. The combination of re-sequencing technologies, large-scale DNA pools and availability of reference gene sequences allowed the extensive characterisation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes of four biosynthetic pathways leading to the formation of ecologically relevant secondary metabolites in Eucalyptus. With this approach the occurrence and patterns of SNP variation for a set of genes can be compared across different species from the same genus. Results In a single GS-FLX run, we sequenced over 103 Mbp and assembled them to approximately 50 kbp of reference sequences. An average sequencing depth of 315 reads per nucleotide site was achieved for all four eucalypt species, Eucalyptus globulus, E. nitens, E. camaldulensis and E. loxophleba. We sequenced 23 genes from 1,764 individuals and discovered 8,631 SNPs across the species, with about 1.5 times as many SNPs per kbp in the introns compared to exons. The exons of the two closely related species (E. globulus and E. nitens had similar numbers of SNPs at synonymous and non-synonymous sites. These species also had similar levels of SNP diversity, whereas E. camaldulensis and E. loxophleba had much higher SNP diversity. Neither the pathway nor the position in the pathway influenced gene diversity. The four species share between 20 and 43% of the SNPs in these genes. Conclusion By using conservative statistical detection methods, we were confident about the validity of each SNP. With numerous individuals sampled over the geographical range of each species, we discovered one SNP in every 33 bp for E. nitens and one in every 31 bp in E. globulus. In contrast, the more distantly related species contained more SNPs: one in every 16 bp for E. camaldulensis and one in 17 bp for E. loxophleba, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest frequency of SNPs

  8. Secondary metabolites extracted from marine sponge associated Comamonas testosteroni and Citrobacter freundii as potential antimicrobials against MDR pathogens and hypothetical leads for VP40 matrix protein of Ebola virus: an in vitro and in silico investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Acharya, Archana B; Subramaniyan, Saumya; Babu, Sumangala; Kulkarni, Shruthi; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2016-09-01

    The current study explores therapeutic potential of metabolites extracted from marine sponge (Cliona sp.)-associated bacteria against MDR pathogens and predicts the binding prospective of probable lead molecules against VP40 target of Ebola virus. The metabolite-producing bacteria were characterized by agar overlay assay and as per the protocols in Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. The antibacterial activities of extracted metabolites were tested against clinical pathogens by well-diffusion assay. The selected metabolite producers were characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing. Chemical screening and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis for selected compounds were performed. The probable lead molecules present in the metabolites were hypothesized based on proximate analysis, FTIR data, and literature survey. The drug-like properties and binding potential of lead molecules against VP40 target of Ebola virus were hypothesized by computational virtual screening and molecular docking. The current study demonstrated that clear zones around bacterial colonies in agar overlay assay. Antibiotic sensitivity profiling demonstrated that the clinical isolates were multi-drug resistant, however; most of them showed sensitivity to secondary metabolites (MIC-15 μl/well). The proximate and FTIR analysis suggested that probable metabolites belonged to alkaloids with O-H, C-H, C=O, and N-H groups. 16S rDNA characterization of selected metabolite producers demonstrated that 96% and 99% sequence identity to Comamonas testosteroni and Citrobacter freundii, respectively. The docking studies suggested that molecules such as Gymnastatin, Sorbicillactone, Marizomib, and Daryamide can designed as probable lead candidates against VP40 target of Ebola virus.

  9. 7-Dehydrocholesterol metabolites produced by sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) modulate liver X receptor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo-Umeda, Kaori; Yasuda, Kaori; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Honda, Akira; Ohta, Miho; Ishikawa, Minoru; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Makishima, Makoto

    2014-03-01

    7-Dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) is a common precursor of vitamin D3 and cholesterol. Although various oxysterols, oxygenated cholesterol derivatives, have been implicated in cellular signaling pathways, 7-DHC metabolism and potential functions of its metabolites remain poorly understood. We examined 7-DHC metabolism by various P450 enzymes and detected three metabolites produced by sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) using high-performance liquid chromatography. Two were further identified as 25-hydroxy-7-DHC and 26/27-hydroxy-7-DHC. These 7-DHC metabolites were detected in serum of a patient with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Luciferase reporter assays showed that 25-hydroxy-7-DHC activates liver X receptor (LXR) α, LXRβ and vitamin D receptor and that 26/27-hydroxy-7-DHC induces activation of LXRα and LXRβ, although the activities of both compounds on LXRs were weak. In a mammalian two-hybrid assay, 25-hydroxy-7-DHC and 26/27-hydroxy-7-DHC induced interaction between LXRα and a coactivator fragment less efficiently than a natural LXR agonist, 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol. These 7-DHC metabolites did not oppose agonist-induced LXR activation and interacted directly to LXRα in a manner distinct from a potent agonist. These findings indicate that the 7-DHC metabolites are partial LXR activators. Interestingly, 25-hydroxy-7-DHC and 26/27-hydroxy-7-DHC suppressed mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, an LXR target gene, in HepG2 cells and HaCaT cells, while they weakly increased mRNA levels of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, another LXR target, in HaCaT cells. Thus, 7-DHC is catabolized by CYP27A1 to metabolites that act as selective LXR modulators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Light and Nutrient Dependent Responses in Secondary Metabolites of Plantago lanceolata Offspring Are Due to Phenotypic Plasticity in Experimental Grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret Miehe-Steier

    Full Text Available A few studies in the past have shown that plant diversity in terms of species richness and functional composition can modify plant defense chemistry. However, it is not yet clear to what extent genetic differentiation of plant chemotypes or phenotypic plasticity in response to diversity-induced variation in growth conditions or a combination of both is responsible for this pattern. We collected seed families of ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata from six-year old experimental grasslands of varying plant diversity (Jena Experiment. The offspring of these seed families was grown under standardized conditions with two levels of light and nutrients. The iridoid glycosides, catalpol and aucubin, and verbascoside, a caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside, were measured in roots and shoots. Although offspring of different seed families differed in the tissue concentrations of defensive metabolites, plant diversity in the mothers' environment did not explain the variation in the measured defensive metabolites of P. lanceolata offspring. However secondary metabolite levels in roots and shoots were strongly affected by light and nutrient availability. Highest concentrations of iridoid glycosides and verbascoside were found under high light conditions, and nutrient availability had positive effects on iridoid glycoside concentrations in plants grown under high light conditions. However, verbascoside concentrations decreased under high levels of nutrients irrespective of light. The data from our greenhouse study show that phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation rather than genetic differentiation in response to plant community diversity is responsible for variation in secondary metabolite concentrations of P. lanceolata in the six-year old communities of the grassland biodiversity experiment. Due to its large phenotypic plasticity P. lanceolata has the potential for a fast and efficient adjustment to varying environmental conditions in

  11. Catalytic tar removal from biomass producer gas with secondary air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammers, G.; Beenackers, A.A.C.M. [University of Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Corella, J. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of air addition on biomass tar conversion in catalytic packed bed crackers was studied using both an isothermal micro reactor and a fluidised bed bench scale biomass gasification set up with down stream tar crackers. The micro reactor was applied for experiments with artificial biomass producer gas containing naphthalene as a model tar compound. Experiments were carried out with inert silica and catalytically active calcined dolomite bed material both with and without air addition. Experimental results with real tar from the fluidised bed bench scale gasification set up were in qualitative agreement with results from the micro reactor experiments. (author)

  12. Interrelation between the content of secondary metabolites of species Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia and some physicochemical properties of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Santacoloma Varón

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Samples were collected from 2 forage plants (leaf stalk of the species Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia in different soil conditions (departments of Valle del Cauca and Cesar and evaluated for total polyphenol content, total tannins, condensed tannins and Saponinas. The purpose was to detect the effect of the conditions of electrical conductivity on the concentration of these secondary fitobiomoléculas metabolized by the plant cell. We applied analytical techniques and instrumental AOAC (2005 to determine the presence of such fitometabolitos side. The results obtained for each variable were subjected to analysis of variance two-way, in order to determine statistical differences between areas sampled and evaluated species. Additionally, we performed a multiple correlation analysis using the Pearson coefficient, in order to detect any correlation between electrical conductivity and the content of secondary metabolites quantified in the species sampled. It was concluded that the content of total polyphenols, total tannins, condensed tannins and saponins did not show statistically significant differences between the three areas sampled, and there was high correlation between the value of the electrical conductivity of soil and content of secondary metabolites.

  13. Ultrahigh Pressure Processing Produces Alterations in the Metabolite Profiles of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mee Youn; Singh, Digar; Kim, Sung Han; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-06-22

    Ultrahigh pressure (UHP) treatments are non-thermal processing methods that have customarily been employed to enhance the quality and productivity of plant consumables. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UHP treatments on ginseng samples (white ginseng: WG; UHP-treated WG: UWG; red ginseng: RG; UHP-treated RG: URG; ginseng berries: GB; and UHP-treated GB: UGB) using metabolite profiling based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). Multivariate data analyses revealed a clear demarcation among the GB and UGB samples, and the phenotypic evaluations correlated the highest antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid compositions with the UGB samples. Overall, eight amino acids, seven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar derivatives, two fatty acids, three notoginsenosides, three malonylginsenosides, and three ginsenosides, were identified as significantly discriminant metabolites between the GB and UGB samples, with relatively higher proportions in the latter. Ideally, these metabolites can be used as quality biomarkers for the assessment of ginseng products and our results indicate that UHP treatment likely led to an elevation in the proportions of total extractable metabolites in ginseng samples.

  14. Dereplication Guided Discovery of Secondary Metabolites of Mixed Biosynthetic Origin from Aspergillus aculeatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj; Hoeck, Casper; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of the chemical profile of the industrially important black filamentous fungus Aspergillus aculeatus by UHPLC-DAD-HRMS and subsequent dereplication has led to the discovery of several novel compounds. Isolation and extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses allowed for structura...... Candida albicans, however all showed only weak or no activity. Aspergillus aculeatus IBT 21030 was additionally shown to be capable of producing sclerotia. Examination of the sclerotia revealed a highly regulated production of metabolites in these morphological structures....

  15. [The secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungi ZZF13 and Guignardia sp. 4382 from the South China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xue-kui; Liu, Chang-heng; Yuan, Wen-peng; Wang, Xiao-jun; Meng, Xiu-mei; Zhang, Mian-song; She, Zhi-gang; Lin, Yong-cheng

    2009-09-01

    The secondary metabolites of the fungus ZZF13 isolated from the leaves of the mangrove sample Kandelia candel in Zhanjiang and Guignardia sp. 4382 isolated from bark of Kandelia candel (endophyte) of Mai Po, Hong Kong were studied. The compounds were isolated by siliga gel, and their structures were identified by IR, MS and NMR. Four compounds were isolated from the culture of this strain. Their structures were identified as Bacillpsporin C (1), 5-carboxymellein (2), 5-methylmellein (3) and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) butanone (4). The compounds 2 - 4 are isolated from the Guignardia sp. of Marine fungi for the first time.

  16. An Insight into the Secondary Metabolism of Muscodor yucatanensis: Small-Molecule Epigenetic Modifiers Induce Expression of Secondary Metabolism-Related Genes and Production of New Metabolites in the Endophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Masroor; Nalli, Yedukondalu; Jain, Shreyans K; Chaubey, Asha; Ali, Asif; Strobel, Gary A; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2017-05-01

    Muscodor spp. are proficient producers of bioactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with many potential applications. However, all members of this genus produce varying amounts and types of VOCs which suggests the involvement of epigenetics as a possible explanation. The members of this genus are poorly explored for the production of soluble compounds (extrolites). In this study, the polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes from an endophyte, Muscodor yucatanensis Ni30, were cloned and sequenced. The PKS genes belonged to reduced, partially reduced, non-reduced, and highly reduced subtypes. Strains over-expressing PKS genes were developed through the use of small-molecule epigenetic modifiers (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and 5-azacytidine). The putative epigenetic variants of this organism differed considerably from the wild type in morphological features and cultural characteristics as well as metabolites that were produced. Each variant produced a different set of VOCs distinct from the wild type, and several VOCs including methyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)hexane-2,4-diol and 2-carboxymethyl-3-n-hexylmaleic appeared in the variant strains, the production of which could be attributed to the activity of otherwise silent PKS genes. The bioactive extrolite brefeldin A was isolated and characterized from the wild type. However, this metabolite was not detected in EV-1, but instead, two other products were isolated and characterized as ergosterol and xylaguaianol C. Hence, M. yucatanensis has the genetic potential to produce several previously undetectable VOCs and organic solvent soluble products. It is also the case that small-molecule epigenetic modifiers can be used to produce stable variant strains of fungi with the potential to produce new molecules. Finally, this work hints to the prospect that the epigenetics of an endophytic microorganism can be influenced by any number of environmental and chemical

  17. Linking fungal secondary metabolites and pathways to their genes in Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj

    . oryzae metabolites, however, revealed the chemical link between the two species. In two parallel projects, involving A. niger and A. aculeatus respectively, the polyketide 6-methyl salicylic acid (6-MSA), and corresponding biosynthetic pathways, were investigated. In A. niger, 6-MSA was converted...

  18. [Secondary metabolites, lethality and antimicrobial activity of extracts from three corals and three marine mollusks from Sucre, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz, Gabriel; D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Hernández, Juan; Camacho, Angel

    2010-06-01

    The study of biochemical activity of extracts obtained from marine organisms is gaining interest as some have proved to have efficient health or industrial applications. To evaluate lethality and antimicrobial activities, some chemical tests were performed on crude extracts of the octocorals Eunicea sp., Muricea sp. and Pseudopterogorgia acerosa and the mollusks Pteria colymbus, Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons, collected in Venezuelan waters. The presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, unsaturated sterols and pentacyclic triterpenes in all invertebrates, was evidenced. Additionally, sesquiterpenlactones, saponins, tannins, cyanogenic and cardiotonic glycosides were also detected in some octocoral extracts, suggesting that biosynthesis of these metabolites is typical in this group. From the lethality bioassays, all extracts resulted lethal to Artemia salina (LC50<1000 microg/ml) with an increased of lethal activity with exposition time. P. pomum extract showed the highest lethality rate (LC50=46.8 microg/ml). Compared to the octocorals, mollusks extracts displayed more activity and a greater action spectrum against different bacterial strains, whereas octocorals also inhibited some fungi strains growth. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible to the antimicrobial power of the extracts (66.7%), whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were not affected. The antibiosis shown by marine organisms extracts indicates that some of their biosynthesized metabolites are physiologically active, and may have possible cytotoxic potential or as a source of antibiotic components.

  19. New bioactive metabolites produced by Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Geraldo H.; Teles, Helder L.; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria C.M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Pfenning, Ludwig H. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Haddad, Renato [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Costa-Neto, Claudio M. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia

    2005-11-15

    Two new metabolites, ethyl 2,4-dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylbenzoate (1) and phomopsilactone (2) were isolated from Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, MS and IR spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed strong antifungal activity against the phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as cytotoxicity against human cervical tumor cell line (HeLa), in in vitro assays. (author)

  20. Systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species for the production of secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep

    2014-01-01

    have been more systematized with high-throughput techniques through inspections of correlations among components of the primary and secondary metabolisms at the genome scale. Moreover, up-to-date information on the genome of Streptomyces species with emphasis on their secondary metabolism has been...... collected in the form of databases and knowledgebases, providing predictive information and enabling one to explore experimentally unrecognized biological spaces of secondary metabolism. Herein, we review recent trends in the systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species....

  1. Impact of elevated carbon dioxide on primary, secondary metabolites and antioxidant responses of Eleais guineensis Jacq. (oil palm) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2012-05-04

    A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, TF; total phenolics, TP), phenylalanine lyase (PAL) activity (EC 4.3.1.5), protein and antioxidant activity (FRAP) of three progenies of oil palm seedlings, namely Deli AVROS, Deli Yangambi and Deli URT, under three levels of CO₂ enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) for 15 weeks of exposure. During the study, the treatment effects were solely contributed by CO₂ enrichment levels; no progenies and interaction effects were observed. As CO₂ levels increased from 400 to 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹, the production of carbohydrate increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar. The production of total flavonoids and phenolics contents, were the highest under 1,200 and lowest at 400 μmol·mol⁻¹. It was found that PAL activity was peaked under 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹ followed by 800 μmol·mol⁻¹ and 400 μmol·mol⁻¹. However, soluble protein was highest under 400 μmol·mol⁻¹ and lowest under 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹. The sucrose/starch ratio, i.e., the indication of sucrose phosphate synthase actvity (EC 2.4.1.14) was found to be lowest as CO₂ concentration increased from 400 > 800 > 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹. The antioxidant activity, as determined by the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, increased with increasing CO₂ levels, and was significantly lower than vitamin C and α-tocopherol but higher than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Correlation analysis revealed that nitrogen has a significant negative correlation with carbohydrate, secondary metabolites and FRAP activity indicating up-regulation of production of carbohydrate, secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of oil palm seedling under elevated CO₂ was due to reduction in nitrogen content in oil palm seedling expose to high CO₂ levels.

  2. Heavy metals in contaminated environment: Destiny of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, oxidative status and phytoextraction in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari Lajayer, Behnam; Ghorbanpour, Mansour; Nikabadi, Shahab

    2017-11-01

    Contamination of soils, water and air with toxic heavy metals by various human activities is a crucial environmental problem in both developing and developed countries. Heavy metals could be introduced into medicinal plant products through contaminated environment (soil, water and air resources) and/or poor production practices. Growing of medicinal plants in heavy metal polluted environments may eventually affect the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, causing significant changes in the quantity and quality of these compounds. Certain medicinal and aromatic plants can absorb and accumulate metal contaminants in the harvestable foliage and, therefore, considered to be a feasible alternative for remediation of polluted sites without any contamination of essential oils. Plants use different strategies and complex arrays of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative defense systems to cope with overproduction of ROS causes from the heavy metals entered their cells through foliar and/or root systems. This review summarizes the reports of recent investigations involving heavy metal accumulation by medicinal plants and its effects on elicitation of secondary metabolites, toxicity and detoxification pathways, international standards regarding in plants and plant-based products, and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil-medicinal plants systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effects of elicitors on growth of adventitious roots and contents of secondary metabolites in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Lei; Cui, Lei; Lei, Jiamin; Zhang, Xing

    2015-05-01

    To study the effects of the extract of fungal elicitor, AgNO3, MeJA and yeast on the growth and content of secondary metabolites of adventitious roots in Tripterygium wilfordii. The above elicitors were supplemented to the medium, the growth and the content of secondary metabolites were measured. When the medium was supplemented with the elicitor Glomerella cingulata or Collectotrichum gloeosporioides, the content of triptolide was increased by 2.24 and 1.93-fold, the alkaloids content was increased by 2.02 and 2.07-fold, respectively. The optimal concentration of G. cingulata was 50 μg/mL for accumulation of triptolide, alkaloids and for the growth of adventitious roots. AgNO3 inhibited the growth of adventitious roots and the accumulation of the alkaloids, whereas it (at 25 μmol/L) increased the accumulation of triptolide by 1.71-fold compared to the control. The growth of adventitious roots, the contents of triptolide and alkaloids were increased 1.04, 1.64 and 2.12-folds, respectively when MeJA was at 50 μmol/L. When the concentration of yeast reached 2 g/L, the content of triptolide increased 1.48-folds. This research demonstrated that supplementation of AgNO3 and yeast enhanced the biosynthesis of triptolide in adventitious roots and the synergism of G. cingulata and MeJA could promote the biosynthesis of both triptolide and alkaloids.

  4. Effects of Secondary Plant Metabolites on Microbial Populations: Changes in Community Structure and Metabolic Activity in Contaminated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Musilova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary plant metabolites (SPMEs play an important role in plant survival in the environment and serve to establish ecological relationships between plants and other organisms. Communication between plants and microorganisms via SPMEs contained in root exudates or derived from litter decomposition is an example of this phenomenon. In this review, the general aspects of rhizodeposition together with the significance of terpenes and phenolic compounds are discussed in detail. We focus specifically on the effect of SPMEs on microbial community structure and metabolic activity in environments contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Furthermore, a section is devoted to a complex effect of plants and/or their metabolites contained in litter on bioremediation of contaminated sites. New insights are introduced from a study evaluating the effects of SPMEs derived during decomposition of grapefruit peel, lemon peel, and pears on bacterial communities and their ability to degrade PCBs in a long-term contaminated soil. The presented review supports the “secondary compound hypothesis” and demonstrates the potential of SPMEs for increasing the effectiveness of bioremediation processes.

  5. Computer Aided Drug Design Studies in the Discovery of Secondary Metabolites Targeted Against Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus Tullius

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are plant products that occur usually in differentiated cells, generally not being necessary for the cells themselves, but likely useful for the plant as a whole. Neurodegeneration can be found in many different levels in the neurons, it always begins at the molecular level and progresses toward the systemic levels. Usually, alterations are observed such as decreasing cholinergic impulse, toxicity related to reactive oxygen species (ROS, inflammatory "amyloid plaque" related processes, catecholamine disequilibrium, etc. Computer aided drug design (CADD has become relevant in the drug discovery process; technological advances in the areas of molecular structure characterization, computational science, and molecular biology have contributed to the planning of new drugs against neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses scientific CADD studies of the secondary metabolites. Flavonoids, alkaloids, and xanthone compounds have been studied by various researchers (as inhibitory ligands in molecular docking; mainly with three enzymes: acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; EC 3.1.1.8, and monoamine oxidase (MAO; EC 1.4.3.4. In addition, we have applied ligand-based-virtual screening (using Random Forest, associated with structure-based- virtual screening (docking of a small dataset of 469 alkaloids of the Apocynaceae family from an in-house data bank to select structures with potential inhibitory activity against human AChE. This computer-aided drug design study selected certain alkaloids that might be useful in further studies for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

  6. An extensive case study of hairy-root cultures for enhanced secondary-metabolite production through metabolic-pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Rahman, Laiq Ur; Kukreja, Arun Kumar

    2010-08-23

    An intrinsic improvement is taking place in the methodologies for the development of culture systems with first-rate production of plant-based molecules. The blending of HR (hairy root) cultures with ME (metabolic engineering) approaches offers new insights into, and possibilities for, improving the system productivity for known and/or novel high-value plant-derived active compounds. The introduction and expression of foreign genes in plants results in improvement of cellular activities by manipulating enzymatic, regulatory and transport function of the cell. The rational amendments in the rate-limiting steps of a biosynthetic pathway as well as inactivating the inefficient pathway(s) for by-product formation can be accomplished either through single-step engineering or through the multi-step engineering. The hierarchical control of any metabolic process can lead the engineer to apply the ME ideas and principles to any of the strata, including transcriptional, moving on to translational and enzymatic activity. The HR culture systems offer a remarkable potential for commercial production of a number of low-volume, but high-value, secondary metabolites. Taking HR as a model system, in the present review, we discuss engineering principles and perceptions to exploit secondary-metabolite pathways for the production of important bioactive compounds. We also talk about requisites and possible challenges that occur during ME, with emphasis on examples of various HR systems. Furthermore, it also highlights the utilization of global information obtained from '-omic' platforms in order to explore pathway architecture, structural and functional aspects of important enzymes and genes that can support the design of sets of engineering, resulting in the generation of wide-ranging views of DNA sequence-to-metabolite passageway networking and their control to obtain desired results.

  7. Microbial secondary metabolites are an alternative approaches against insect vector to prevent zoonotic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharumadurai Dhanasekaran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1500 naturally occurring microorganisms have been identified as potentially insecticidal agents. Metabolites from 942 microbial isolates were screened for insecticidal and properties. The isolates included 302 streptomycetes, 502 novel actinobacteria including representatives of 18 genera, 28 unidentified aerobic actinobacteria, 70 fungi and 40 bacteria other than actinobacteria showed the insecticidal activity. Most spore-forming bacteria pathogenic to insects belong to the family Bacillaceae. Only four Bacillus species namely Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus popilliae, Bacillus lentimorbus, Bacillus sphaericus have been closely examined as insect control agents. Fungi are applied directly in the form of spores, mycelia or blastospores or by their metabolites. Many viruses that belong to the family Baculoviridae are pathogenic in insects. The microbial insecticides are generally pest-specific, readily biodegradable and usually lack toxicity to higher animals. This review paper communicates the insect problem in the transmission of diseases in human, animals, plants and problem of chemical insecticides control of insects using microbial metabolites from actinobacteria, bacteria, fungi and viruses.

  8. Herbivory-induced jasmonates constrain plant sugar accumulation and growth by antagonizing gibberellin signaling and not by promoting secondary metabolite production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ricardo A R; Baldwin, Ian T; Erb, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Plants respond to herbivory by reconfiguring hormonal networks, increasing secondary metabolite production and decreasing growth. Furthermore, some plants display a decrease in leaf energy reserves in the form of soluble sugars and starch, leading to the hypothesis that herbivory-induced secondary metabolite production and growth reduction may be linked through a carbohydrate-based resource trade-off. In order to test the above hypothesis, we measured leaf carbohydrates and plant growth in seven genetically engineered Nicotiana attenuata genotypes that are deficient in one or several major herbivore-induced, jasmonate-dependent defensive secondary metabolites and proteins. Furthermore, we manipulated gibberellin and jasmonate signaling, and quantified the impact of these phytohormones on secondary metabolite production, sugar accumulation and growth. Simulated herbivore attack by Manduca sexta specifically reduced leaf sugar concentrations and growth in a jasmonate-dependent manner. These effects were similar or even stronger in defenseless genotypes with intact jasmonate signaling. Gibberellin complementation rescued carbohydrate accumulation and growth in induced plants without impairing the induction of defensive secondary metabolites. These results are consistent with a hormonal antagonism model rather than a resource-cost model to explain the negative relationship between herbivory-induced defenses, leaf energy reserves and growth. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. In vitro production of secondary metabolite using Atropa komarovii Bline&Shal (Solanaceae hairy root culture via Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Banihashemi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim:A new sustainable tissue-based system is presented by plant hairy roots, preserving all of the several specialized types of cell with critical roles in allowing bioactive secondary molecules to be synthesized more consistently as usual. The system is also essential for studying the production of alkaloid in culture. Experimental: The Atropa komarovii leaves were wounded and infected with soil gram-negative bacterium Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834. After three weeks, the transformation roots and control roots without infection, appeared, and for confirming that T-DNA Ri plasmid fragments were transformed and integrated to plant genome, the rolB gene region, was amplified using PCR. HPLC method was then used for assaying how two tropane alkaloids such as atropine (hyosciamine and scopolamine (hyoscine were produced in hairy roots,control roots, leaves and roots of plantlet. Results: The data indicated that diagnostic 500bp rol B product amplification was exhibited to be present by all the transformed hairy roots. Scopolamine content in hairy roots was considerably greater than that in control roots but greatest (Hyoscyamine atropine content was observed in control roots. Analysis of DW, FW and root length showed that fresh and dry root weight increased in hairy roots compared with that in non transformed root. Recommended applications/industries: The present study demonstrated that secondary metabolite production using medicinal plants concerns many researchers worldwide today and hairy root culture is a useful method for producing tropane alkaloids in solanaceae.

  10. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, M.; Epping, Janina; Schulze Gronover, C.; Fricke, Julia; Aziz, Zohra; Brillatz, Théo; Swyers, Michael; Kollner, T.G.; Vogel, H.; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Robert, Christelle A.M.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Preite, V.; Gershenzon, J.; Erb, M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under

  11. Turmeric (Curcuma longa): miRNAs and their regulating targets are involved in development and secondary metabolite pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Noopur; Sharma, Ashok

    Turmeric has been used as a therapeutic herb over centuries in traditional medicinal systems due to the presence of several secondary metabolite compounds. microRNAs are known to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by transcriptional cleavage or translation repression. miRNAs have been demonstrated to play an active role in secondary metabolism regulation. The present work was focused on the identification of the miRNAs involved in the regulation of secondary metabolite and development process of turmeric. Eighteen miRNA families were identified for turmeric. Sixteen miRNA families were observed to regulate 238 target transcripts. LncRNAs targets of the putative miRNA candidates were also predicted. Our results indicated their role in binding, reproduction, stress, and other developmental processes. Gene annotation and pathway analysis illustrated the biological function of the targets regulated by the putative miRNAs. The miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network also revealed co-regulated targets that were regulated by two or more miRNA families. miR156 and miR5015 were observed to be involved in rhizome development. miR5021 showed regulation for terpenoid backbone biosynthesis and isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis pathways. The flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was observed to be regulated by miR2919. The analysis revealed the probable involvement of three miRNAs (miR1168.2, miR156b and miR1858) in curcumin biosynthesis. Other miRNAs were found to be involved in the growth and developmental process of turmeric. Phylogenetic analysis of selective miRNAs was also performed. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes of primary and secondary metabolites in barley plants exposed to CdO nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřová, Kristýna; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Dočekal, Bohumil; Oravec, Michal; Pompeiano, Antonio; Tříska, Jan; Urban, Otmar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 218, NOV (2016), s. 207-218 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2315; GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15039 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:68081715 Keywords : Barley * CdO nanoparticles * Gas chromatography * High performance liquid chromatography * Mass spectrometry * Plant metabolites Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UIACH-O) Impact factor: 5.099, year: 2016

  13. Amino Acid Sensor Kinase Gcn2 Is Required for Conidiation, Secondary Metabolism, and Cell Wall Integrity in the Taxol-Producer Pestalotiopsis microspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The canonical Gcn2/Cpc1 kinase in fungi coordinates the expression of target genes in response to amino acid starvation. To investigate its possible role in secondary metabolism, we characterized a gcn2 homolog in the taxol-producing fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora. Deletion of the gene led to severe physiological defects under amino acid starvation, suggesting a conserved function of gcn2 in amino acid sensing. The mutant strain Δgcn2 displayed retardation in vegetative growth. It generated dramatically fewer conidia, suggesting a connection between amino acid metabolism and conidiation in this fungus. Importantly, disruption of the gene altered the production of secondary metabolites by HPLC profiling. For instance, under amino acid starvation, the deletion strain Δgcn2 barely produced secondary metabolites including the known natural product pestalotiollide B. Even more, we showed that gcn2 played critical roles in the tolerance to several stress conditions. Δgcn2 exhibited a hypersensitivity to Calcofluor white and Congo red, implying a role of Gcn2 in maintaining the integrity of the cell wall. This study suggests that Gcn2 kinase is an important global regulator in the growth and development of filamentous fungi and will provide knowledge for the manipulation of secondary metabolism in P. microspora.

  14. Secondary metabolite perturbations in Phaseolus vulgaris leaves due to gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramabulana, T; Mavunda, R D; Steenkamp, P A; Piater, L A; Dubery, I A; Madala, N E

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition in which the balance between the production and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is disturbed. However, plants have developed a very sophisticated mechanism to mitigate the effect of ROS by constantly adjusting the concentration thereof to acceptable levels. Electromagnetic radiation is one of the factors which results in oxidative stress. In the current study, ionizing gamma radiation generated from a Cobalt-60 source was used to induce oxidative stress in Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings. Plants were irradiated with several radiation doses, with 2 kGy found to be the optimal, non-lethal dose. Metabolite distribution patterns from irradiated and non-irradiated plants were analyzed using UHPLC-qTOF-MS and multivariate data models such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). Metabolites such as hydroxycinnamic phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenes, and a novel chalcone were found to be perturbed in P. vulgaris seedlings treated with the aforementioned conditions. The results suggest that there is a compensatory link between constitutive protectants and inducible responses to injury as well as defense against oxidative stress induced by ionizing radiation. The current study is also the first to illustrate the power of a metabolomics approach to decipher the effect of gamma radiation on crop plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Seaweed allelopathy against coral: surface distribution of a seaweed secondary metabolite by imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andras, Tiffany D; Alexander, Troy S; Gahlena, Asiri; Parry, R Mitchell; Fernandez, Facundo M; Kubanek, Julia; Wang, May D; Hay, Mark E

    2012-10-01

    Coral reefs are in global decline, with seaweeds increasing as corals decrease. Although seaweeds inhibit coral growth, recruitment, and survivorship, the mechanism of these interactions is poorly understood. Here, we used field experiments to show that contact with four common seaweeds induces bleaching on natural colonies of Porites rus. Controls in contact with inert, plastic mimics of seaweeds did not bleach, suggesting seaweed effects resulted from allelopathy rather than shading, abrasion, or physical contact. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the hydrophobic extract from the red alga Phacelocarpus neurymenioides revealed a previously characterized antibacterial metabolite, neurymenolide A, as the main allelopathic agent. For allelopathy of lipid-soluble metabolites to be effective, the compounds would need to be deployed on algal surfaces where they could transfer to corals on contact. We used desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to visualize and quantify neurymenolide A on the surface of P. neurymenioides, and we found the molecule on all surfaces analyzed, with highest concentrations on basal portions of blades.

  16. Qualitatively and quantitatively comparing secondary metabolites in three medicinal parts derived from Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS-based chemical profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lixia; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Shijin; Wang, Rujing; Huang, Qing; Chen, Hubiao; Dong, Xiaoping; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2018-02-20

    Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf, is a fungus that grows on dead pine roots, producing a solid white sclerotium (fruiting body). Three parts of the sclerotium are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine, namely, the epidermis, known as Poria Cutis or fulingpi in Chinese; the middle part, known as Poria or baifuling; and the sclerotium with some host attached, known as fushen. For fushen, the hostwood is the inner part, known as fushenmu. The epidermis, middle part and middle-plus-inner parts have long been used for different syndromes or diseases, but the differences in their chemistry have not been established. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) was used to explore the differences of secondary metabolites in these three botanical parts of Poria cocos. In 13 batches of samples, a total of 147 chromatographic peaks were unequivocally or tentatively identified. Of these, 15 peaks were common to all three parts (the epidermis, middle, and inner part), while the rest were found in only one or two of the parts. Meanwhile, dissimilarities among the chemical compositions of three botanical parts were further investigated by principal component analysis (PCA), and supervised orthogonal partial least squares-discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). Eight major bioactive triterpene acids that played important roles in differentiating the epidermis, middle and inner part were simultaneously quantified using the extracting ion mode of UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. The quantitative results showed that the analytes accumulated mostly in the epidermis and inner part, with the least accumulation in the middle part. This systematic information on the differences in secondary metabolites in the three botanical regions of Poria cocos provides a factual chemical basis not only for discrimination in therapeutic practice but also for quality evaluation of Poria cocos. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative Genomics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strains Reveals a Core Genome with Traits for Habitat Adaptation and a Secondary Metabolites Rich Accessory Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbahri, Lassaad; Chenari Bouket, Ali; Rekik, Imen; Alenezi, Faizah N.; Vallat, Armelle; Luptakova, Lenka; Petrovova, Eva; Oszako, Tomasz; Cherrad, Semcheddine; Vacher, Sébastien; Rateb, Mostafa E.

    2017-01-01

    The Gram positive, non-pathogenic endospore-forming soil inhabiting prokaryote Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens processes wide biocontrol abilities and numerous strains have been reported to suppress diverse bacterial, fungal and fungal-like pathogens. Knowledge about strain level biocontrol abilities is warranted to translate this knowledge into developing more efficient biocontrol agents and bio-fertilizers. Ever-expanding genome studies of B. amyloliquefaciens are showing tremendous increase in strain-specific new secondary metabolite clusters which play key roles in the suppression of pathogens and plant growth promotion. In this report, we have used genome mining of all sequenced B. amyloliquefaciens genomes to highlight species boundaries, the diverse strategies used by different strains to promote plant growth and the diversity of their secondary metabolites. Genome composition of the targeted strains suggest regions of genomic plasticity that shape the structure and function of these genomes and govern strain adaptation to different niches. Our results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens: (i) suffer taxonomic imprecision that blurs the debate over inter-strain genome diversity and dynamics, (ii) have diverse strategies to promote plant growth and development, (iii) have an unlocked, yet to be delimited impressive arsenal of secondary metabolites and products, (iv) have large number of so-called orphan gene clusters, i.e., biosynthetic clusters for which the corresponding metabolites are yet unknown, and (v) have a dynamic pan genome with a secondary metabolite rich accessory genome. PMID:28824571

  18. Comparative Genomics ofBacillus amyloliquefaciensStrains Reveals a Core Genome with Traits for Habitat Adaptation and a Secondary Metabolites Rich Accessory Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbahri, Lassaad; Chenari Bouket, Ali; Rekik, Imen; Alenezi, Faizah N; Vallat, Armelle; Luptakova, Lenka; Petrovova, Eva; Oszako, Tomasz; Cherrad, Semcheddine; Vacher, Sébastien; Rateb, Mostafa E

    2017-01-01

    The Gram positive, non-pathogenic endospore-forming soil inhabiting prokaryote Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens processes wide biocontrol abilities and numerous strains have been reported to suppress diverse bacterial, fungal and fungal-like pathogens. Knowledge about strain level biocontrol abilities is warranted to translate this knowledge into developing more efficient biocontrol agents and bio-fertilizers. Ever-expanding genome studies of B. amyloliquefaciens are showing tremendous increase in strain-specific new secondary metabolite clusters which play key roles in the suppression of pathogens and plant growth promotion. In this report, we have used genome mining of all sequenced B. amyloliquefaciens genomes to highlight species boundaries, the diverse strategies used by different strains to promote plant growth and the diversity of their secondary metabolites. Genome composition of the targeted strains suggest regions of genomic plasticity that shape the structure and function of these genomes and govern strain adaptation to different niches. Our results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens : (i) suffer taxonomic imprecision that blurs the debate over inter-strain genome diversity and dynamics, (ii) have diverse strategies to promote plant growth and development, (iii) have an unlocked, yet to be delimited impressive arsenal of secondary metabolites and products, (iv) have large number of so-called orphan gene clusters, i.e., biosynthetic clusters for which the corresponding metabolites are yet unknown, and (v) have a dynamic pan genome with a secondary metabolite rich accessory genome.

  19. Bacillus velezensis RC 218 as a biocontrol agent to reduce Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation: Genome sequencing and secondary metabolite cluster profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzini, Juan M; Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Chulze, Sofía N

    2016-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis RC 218 was originally isolated from wheat anthers as a potential antagonist of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). It was demonstrated to have antagonist activity against the plant pathogen under in vitro and greenhouse assays. The current study extends characterizing B. subtilis RC 218 with a field study and genome sequencing. The field study demonstrated that B. subtilis RC 218 could reduce disease severity and the associated mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol) accumulation, under field conditions. The genome sequencing allowed us to accurately determine the taxonomy of the strain using a phylogenomic approach, which places it in the Bacillus velezensis clade. In addition, the draft genome allowed us to use bioinformatics to mine the genome for potential metabolites. The genome mining allowed us to identify 9 active secondary metabolites conserved by all B. velezensis strains and one additional secondary metabolite, the lantibiotic ericin, which is unique to this strain. This study represents the first confirmed production of ericin by a B. velezensis strain. The genome also allowed us to do a comparative genomics with its closest relatives and compare the secondary metabolite production of the publically available B. velezensis genomes. The results showed that the diversity in secondary metabolites of strains in the B. velezensis clade is driven by strains making different antibacterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. [Review on the secondary metabolites from Xestospongia sponges and their bioactivities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lin-Fu; Liu, Hai-Li; Li, Yu-Fen; Ma, Wen-Quan; Guo, Yue-Wei; He, Wen-Fei

    2014-09-01

    The genus Xestospongia is one of the most widespread genera of sponges, containing abundant secondary metatolites with novel structures and potent bioactivities. The main structure types of secondary metatolites found in this genus are alkaloids, quinines, terpens, steroids, lipids, polyketones, etc. These metatolites exhibit a variety of bioactivities, such as cytotoxic, antibacterial and antiviral activities. This paper reviews the progress in the chemistry and pharmacological activities of the second metabolities from sponges of Xestospongia, especially for recent five years, with the aim for further research.

  1. SECONDARY METABOLITE OF Aspergillus fumigatus, ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT Garcinia griffithii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Indah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the tissues of the fruits of Garcinia griffithii. The fungalstrain was identified from the colony, and it was characteristic of cell morphology. The ethyl acetate extracts derivedfrom fungus cultures showed major spots on TLC under UV light, which was continued to the isolation of thesecondary metabolites. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated on the basis of NMR analyses (1H-NMR,13C-NMR, HMQC, HMBC and H-H COSY. The compounds were identified as: 4,6-dihydroxy, 3,8a-dimethyl-1-oxo-5-(3’-oxobutan-2’-yl-1,4,4a,5,6,8a-hexahydronaphthalen-2-yl-1”,2”-dimethyl-5”-(2”’-methylprop-1”’-enylcyclopentanecarboxylate.

  2. In Vivo and In Vitro Evaluation of Pharmacological Potentials of Secondary Bioactive Metabolites of Dalbergia candenatensis Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anisuzzman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dalbergia species has wide range of secondary metabolites and is traditionally used in treatment of painful micturition, swelling, and leprosy and as blood tonic. The study evaluates membrane stabilizing, anticoagulant, analgesic, cytotoxic, subacute anti-inflammatory, and depression potentials of D. candenatensis leaves metabolites. Methods. Membrane stabilizing activity was evaluated by hypotonic induced hemolysis assay, whereas anticoagulant activity is done through extrinsic pathway by measuring prothrombin time. Analgesic action, cytotoxic effect, and subacute anti-inflammatory activity were determined by acetic acid induced writhing model, brine shrimp lethality bioassay, and formaldehyde induced model, respectively. Depression activity was measured by the Open Field, Hole Cross, Hole Board, and thiopentone induced sleeping time measuring methods. Results. D. candenatensis contains phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin, quantified as 416.25 mg, 330.00 mg, and 432.22 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent/100 g of dry extract, respectively. Extract showed maximum inhibition of writhe, hemolysis, and edema, approximate to 57.14%, 36.62%, and 34.1%, respectively. LC50 value for nauplii was 151.499 μg/ml. Mean prothrombin time was approximate to 31.0 ± 2.31 seconds at 1.0 mg/ml. Extract showed depression activity, and maximum sleeping time was noted to be about 141 minutes. Conclusion. D. candenatensis leaves show dose dependent membrane stabilizing, anticoagulant, depression, analgesic, moderate cytotoxic, and subacute anti-inflammatory activities.

  3. THE EVOLUTION OF CARBON ALLOCATION TO PLANT SECONDARY METABOLITES: A GENETIC ANALYSIS OF COST IN DIPLACUS AURANTIACUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kaiping; Lincoln, David E

    1994-10-01

    Diplacus aurantiacus contains large amounts of a leaf phenolic resin, an important deterrent to a leaf-eating caterpillar, Euphydryas chalcedona. The resin can also retard water loss during drought. Furthermore, the leaf resin content differs among plants and populations. This study investigates the existence of heritable variation (h 2 ) in resin production and tests for a genetic correlation (r G ) between carbon allocation to secondary metabolites and growth rate, as well as with three other vegetative traits. Nine dam and 10 sire plants were chosen randomly at a field site and used to generate 78 full-sib families (19 half-sib families) by crossing all males to all females in a factorial design. Heritability was estimated in two ways, and genetic correlations were estimated by three methods. We found: (1) the heritability of resin production estimated by the regression of offspring on sires was significantly greater than zero (hs2=0.32, PEvolution.

  4. Thuringiensin: A Thermostable Secondary Metabolite from Bacillus thuringiensis with Insecticidal Activity against a Wide Range of Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thuringiensin (Thu, also known as β-exotoxin, is a thermostable secondary metabolite secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis. It has insecticidal activity against a wide range of insects, including species belonging to the orders Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, and Isoptera, and several nematode species. The chemical formula of Thu is C22H32O19N5P, and it is composed of adenosine, glucose, phosphoric acid, and gluconic diacid. In contrast to the more frequently studied insecticidal crystal protein, Thu is not a protein but a small molecule oligosaccharide. In this review, a detailed and updated description of the characteristics, structure, insecticidal mechanism, separation and purification technology, and genetic determinants of Thu is provided.

  5. Using secondary metabolites in the monitoring of the condition of tree stands under industrial pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. L. Fuksman

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine tile optimal physiological indicator in diagnosing the condition of tree stands under the stress of industrial pollution. Based on experimental results of the fumigation on pine seedlings with sulphur dioxide, acid rain treatment, and the effect of heavy metals on the seedlings, it is reasonable to use the secondary substances or...

  6. Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M; Hendrich, Connor G; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Li, Bin; Wu, Dousheng; Mitra, Raka; Dalsing, Beth L; Ricca, Patrizia; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cook, David; Jancewicz, Amy; Masson, Patrick; Thomma, Bart; Lahaye, Thomas; Michael, Anthony J; Allen, Caitilyn

    2017-12-07

    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from healthy plants. Untargeted GC/MS metabolomics identified 22 metabolites enriched in R. solanacearum-infected sap. Eight of these could serve as sole carbon or nitrogen sources for R. solanacearum. Putrescine, a polyamine that is not a sole carbon or nitrogen source for R. solanacearum, was enriched 76-fold to 37 µM in R. solanacearum-infected sap. R. solanacearum synthesized putrescine via a SpeC ornithine decarboxylase. A ΔspeC mutant required ≥ 15 µM exogenous putrescine to grow and could not grow alone in xylem even when plants were treated with putrescine. However, co-inoculation with wildtype rescued ΔspeC growth, indicating R. solanacearum produced and exported putrescine to xylem sap. Intriguingly, treating plants with putrescine before inoculation accelerated wilt symptom development and R. solanacearum growth and systemic spread. Xylem putrescine concentration was unchanged in putrescine-treated plants, so the exogenous putrescine likely accelerated disease indirectly by affecting host physiology. These results indicate that putrescine is a pathogen-produced virulence metabolite. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Changes of Enzymes Activity and Production of Secondary Metabolites of Artemisia aucheri in Different Altitudes and Its Relation to Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Zare-maivan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia plants are the most abundant plants species in Iran which contain strong antioxidant properties and as such, have medicinal and economic value. Despite wide distribution of Artemisisa species, ecophysiology of its adaptation to changes in altitude and soil property had not been investigated. In this study, the relationships between ecophysiological and adaptation capabilities of A. aucheri to altitude changes through measuring changes in the activity of its antioxidant enzymes and secondary metabolites in situ was investigated based on a completely randomized experiment. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and the amount of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, malondialdehyde and chlorophylls A and B were measured in A. aucheri plants growing in three different altitudes at and above the 36° latitude on the southern slopes of Eastern Alborz Mountain ranges in triplicate 10*10 m quadrates. Statistical analysis of data showed that soil type was loamy significantly becoming more sandy- loam with lowering in altitude and the soil contained greater amounts of oxides of silicone, aluminum, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus in upper altitude except calcium which was present in greater quantity in lower altitude. With increasing altitude, activity of superoxide dismutase and quantities of chlorophylls and total phenols in leaves increased. Some biochemical factors in A. aucheri showed significant positive correlation(P ≤ 0.05 between them. Adaptation of A. aucheri to changes in altitude occurred through changing its antioxidant enzymes activity and production of secondary metabolites in response to factors related to the altitude including soil type and texture, moisture level, temperature and most importantly radiation

  8. Combined effects of O3 and UV radiation on secondary metabolites and endogenous hormones of soybean leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Bing; Yin, Hong; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Tian-Hong; Tian, Rong-Rong; Wang, Wei; Ye, Jia-Shu

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced ultraviolet radiation (UV) and elevated tropospheric ozone (O3) may individually cause reductions in the growth and productivity of important agricultural crops. However, research regarding their combined effects on important agricultural crops is still scarce, especially on changes in secondary metabolites and endogenous hormones, which are important protective substances and signal components that control plant responses to environment stresses. In this study, using an experimental setup of open top chambers, we monitored the responses of seed yield per plant, leaf secondary metabolites and leaf endogenous hormones under the stress of elevated O3 and enhanced UV radiation individually, as well as their combined stress. The results indicated that elevated O3 (110 ± 10 nmol mol-1 for 8 hours per day) and enhanced UV radiation (1.73 kJ h-1 m-2) significantly decreased seed yield per plant. Concentrations of rutin, queretin and total flavonoids were significantly increased under the elevated O3 treatment or the enhanced UV radiation treatment or the combination treatment at flowering and podding stages, and concentrations of rutin, queretin and total flavonoids showed significant correlations with seed yield per plant. Concentrations of ABA and IAA decreased under the three treatments. There was a significant positive correlation between the ABA concentration and seed yield and a negative correlation between the IAA concentration and seed yield. We concluded that the combined stress of elevated O3 and UV radiation significantly decreased seed yield per plant. Yield reduction was associated with changes in the concentrations of flavonoids, ABA and IAA in soybean leaves. The effects of the combined O3 and UV stress were always greater than those of the individual stresses alone.

  9. Combined effects of O3 and UV radiation on secondary metabolites and endogenous hormones of soybean leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Mao

    Full Text Available Enhanced ultraviolet radiation (UV and elevated tropospheric ozone (O3 may individually cause reductions in the growth and productivity of important agricultural crops. However, research regarding their combined effects on important agricultural crops is still scarce, especially on changes in secondary metabolites and endogenous hormones, which are important protective substances and signal components that control plant responses to environment stresses. In this study, using an experimental setup of open top chambers, we monitored the responses of seed yield per plant, leaf secondary metabolites and leaf endogenous hormones under the stress of elevated O3 and enhanced UV radiation individually, as well as their combined stress. The results indicated that elevated O3 (110 ± 10 nmol mol-1 for 8 hours per day and enhanced UV radiation (1.73 kJ h-1 m-2 significantly decreased seed yield per plant. Concentrations of rutin, queretin and total flavonoids were significantly increased under the elevated O3 treatment or the enhanced UV radiation treatment or the combination treatment at flowering and podding stages, and concentrations of rutin, queretin and total flavonoids showed significant correlations with seed yield per plant. Concentrations of ABA and IAA decreased under the three treatments. There was a significant positive correlation between the ABA concentration and seed yield and a negative correlation between the IAA concentration and seed yield. We concluded that the combined stress of elevated O3 and UV radiation significantly decreased seed yield per plant. Yield reduction was associated with changes in the concentrations of flavonoids, ABA and IAA in soybean leaves. The effects of the combined O3 and UV stress were always greater than those of the individual stresses alone.

  10. Secondary metabolites inhibiting ABC transporters and reversing resistance of cancer cells and fungi to cytotoxic and antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eWink

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal, bacterial and cancer cells can develop resistance against antifungal, antibacterial or anticancer agents. Mechanisms of resistance are complex and often multifactorial. Mechanisms include: 1. Activation of ABC transporters, such as P-gp, which pump out lipophilic compounds that have entered a cell, 2. Activation of cytochrome p450 oxidases which can oxidise lipophilic agents to make them more hydrophilic and accessible for conjugation reaction with glucuronic acid, sulphate or amino acids, and 3. Activation of glutathione transferase, which can conjugate xenobiotics. This review summarises the evidence that secondary metabolites of plants, such as alkaloids, phenolics and terpenoids can interfere with ABC transporters in cancer cells, parasites, bacteria and fungi. Among the active natural products several lipophilic terpenoids ( monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes (including saponins, steroids (including cardiac glycosides and tetraterpenes but also some alkaloids (isoquinoline, protoberberine, quinoline, indole, monoterpene indole, and steroidal alkaloids function probably as competitive inhibitors of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP in cancer cells, or efflux pumps in bacteria (NorA and fungi. More polar phenolics (phenolic acids, flavonoids, catechins, chalcones, xanthones, stilbenes, anthocyanins, tannins, anthraquinones, and naphthoquinones directly inhibit proteins forming several hydrogen and ionic bonds and thus disturbing the 3D structure of the transporters. The natural products may be interesting in medicine or agriculture as they can enhance the activity of active chemotherapeutics or pesticides or even reverse MDR, at least partially, of adapted and resistant cells. If these secondary metabolites are applied in combination with a cytotoxic or antimicrobial agent, they may reverse resistance in a synergistic fashion.

  11. Secondary photons and neutrinos from cosmic rays produced by distant blazars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essey, Warren; Kalashev, Oleg E; Kusenko, Alexander; Beacom, John F

    2010-04-09

    Secondary photons and neutrinos produced in the interactions of cosmic ray protons emitted by distant active galactic nuclei (AGN) with the photon background along the line of sight can reveal a wealth of new information about the intergalactic magnetic fields, extragalactic background light, and the acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. The secondary photons may have already been observed by gamma-ray telescopes. We show that the secondary neutrinos improve the prospects of discovering distant blazars by IceCube, and we discuss the ramifications for the cosmic backgrounds, magnetic fields, and AGN models.

  12. Metabolites produced by antagonistic microbes inhibit the principal avocado pathogens in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Ramírez R.; Julián David Arias M.; Juan Carlos Bedoya; Ever Antoni Rueda L.; Claudia Yaneth Sánchez; Sinar David Granada G.

    2015-01-01

    The demand for Hass avocado in the global market exceeds the supply by over 50%. Colombia has a remarkable advantage as a producer in the region due to its high yields. However, the productivity of this crop can be seriously affected by diseases such as root rot, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, postharvest body rot and stem end rot, caused by Colletotrichum sp. and Phomopsis sp., respectively. The potential of 76 bacterial isolates obtained from avocado rhizosphere to produce inhibitory met...

  13. Secondary metabolites with ecologic and medicinal implications in Anthemis cretica subsp. petraea from Majella National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Venditti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthemis cretica subsp. petraea (Ten. Greuter is a plant belonging to the Asteraceae family and endemic of central Italy. In this paper, the first analysis of the ethanolic fraction of samples collected in the Majella National Park is reported. Seven compounds were isolated and identified namely parthenolide (1, 9α-acetoxyparthenolide (2, tamarixetin (3, 7-hydroxycoumarin (4, 4'-hydroxyacetophenone (5, leucanthemitol (conduritol F (6, and proto-quercitol (7. Isolation of the compounds was achieved by means of column chromatography (CC, while their identification was achieved through spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The presence of these compounds is of great relevance. Compounds 1 and 2 are chemosystematic markers of the family, thus confirming the correct botanical classification of the species. Conversely, compounds 3, 5, and 7 were identified for the first time in the species and, instead, confirm the tendency of endemic entities to develop characteristic metabolite patterns in respect to cosmopolite species. Moreover, the presence of compounds 6 and 7 has ecologic implications and may be linked to this taxon’s adaption to dry environments. The production of these osmolytes may, in fact, represent the reason why this species is able to survive in extreme conditions of aridity. Lastly, from a medicinal standpoint, the isolated compounds are endowed with interesting biological activities and may justify, on a molecular base, the widespread traditional uses of the Anthemis species, as well as a basis for the use of the subspecies petraea.

  14. Aerobic biodegradation of 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid produced from dibenzothiophene metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.F.; Cheng, S.M.; Fedorak, P.M. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Science

    2006-01-15

    Dibenzothiophene is a sulfur heterocycle found in crude oils and coal. The biodegradation of dibenzothiophene through the Kodama pathway by Pseudomonas sp. strain BT1d leads to the formation of three disulfides: 2-oxo-2-(2-thiophenyl)ethanoic acid disulfide, 2-oxo-2-(2-thiophenyl)ethanoic acid-2-benzoic acid disulfide, and 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid. When provided as the carbon and sulfur source in liquid medium, 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid was degraded by soil enrichment cultures. Two bacterial isolates, designated strains RM1 and RM6, degraded 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid when combined in the medium. Isolate RM6 was found to have an absolute requirement for vitamin B{sub 12}, and it degraded 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid in pure culture when the medium was supplemented with this vitamin. Isolate RM6 also degraded 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid in medium containing sterilized supernatants from cultures of isolate RM1 grown on glucose or benzoate. Isolate RM6 was identified as a member of the genus Variovorax using the Biolog system and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Although the mechanism of disulfide metabolism could not be determined, benzoic acid was detected as a transient metabolite of 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid biodegradation by Variovorax sp. strain RM6. In pure culture, this isolate mineralized 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid, releasing 59% of the carbon as carbon dioxide and 88% of the sulfur as sulfate.

  15. Aerobic Biodegradation of 2,2′-Dithiodibenzoic Acid Produced from Dibenzothiophene Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rozlyn F.; Cheng, Stephanie M.; Fedorak, Phillip M.

    2006-01-01

    Dibenzothiophene is a sulfur heterocycle found in crude oils and coal. The biodegradation of dibenzothiophene through the Kodama pathway by Pseudomonas sp. strain BT1d leads to the formation of three disulfides: 2-oxo-2-(2-thiophenyl)ethanoic acid disulfide, 2-oxo-2-(2-thiophenyl)ethanoic acid-2-benzoic acid disulfide, and 2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid. When provided as the carbon and sulfur source in liquid medium, 2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid was degraded by soil enrichment cultures. Two bacterial isolates, designated strains RM1 and RM6, degraded 2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid when combined in the medium. Isolate RM6 was found to have an absolute requirement for vitamin B12, and it degraded 2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid in pure culture when the medium was supplemented with this vitamin. Isolate RM6 also degraded 2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid in medium containing sterilized supernatants from cultures of isolate RM1 grown on glucose or benzoate. Isolate RM6 was identified as a member of the genus Variovorax using the Biolog system and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Although the mechanism of disulfide metabolism could not be determined, benzoic acid was detected as a transient metabolite of 2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid biodegradation by Variovorax sp. strain RM6. In pure culture, this isolate mineralized 2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid, releasing 59% of the carbon as carbon dioxide and 88% of the sulfur as sulfate. PMID:16391083

  16. Novel mechanism of metabolic co-regulation coordinates the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in Pseudomonas protegens

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Qing; Philmus, Benjamin; Chang, Jeff H; Loper, Joyce E

    2017-01-01

    eLife digest Bacteria live almost everywhere on Earth and often compete with one another for limited resources, like space or nutrients. Certain bacteria produce molecules that are toxic to other microorganisms to give themselves a competitive advantage. These toxic molecules are more commonly referred as antibiotics, and are perhaps best known for their importance in medicine. Yet, antibiotics benefit the bacteria that produce them in other ways too. Some bacteria, for example, use antibioti...

  17. Egg production, faecal pH and microbial population, small intestine morphology, and plasma and yolk cholesterol in laying hens given liquid metabolites produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, D W; Loh, T C; Foo, H L; Hair-Bejo, M; Awis, Q S

    2012-01-01

    1. Various dosages of metabolite combinations of the Lactobacillus plantarum RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (COM456) were used to study the egg production, faecal microflora population, faecal pH, small intestine morphology, and plasma and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens. 2. A total of 500 Lohmann Brown hens were raised from 19 weeks to 31 weeks of age. The birds were randomly divided into 5 groups and fed on various treatment diets: (i) basal diet without supplementation of metabolites (control); (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0·3% COM456 metabolites; (iii) basal diet supplemented with 0·6% COM456 metabolites; (iv) basal diet supplemented with 0·9% COM456 metabolites; and (v) basal diet supplemented with 1·2% COM456 metabolites. 3. The inclusion of 0·6% liquid metabolite combinations, produced from three L. plantarum strains, demonstrated the best effect in improving the hens' egg production, faecal lactic acid bacteria population, and small intestine villus height, and reducing faecal pH and Enterobacteriaceae population, and plasma and yolk cholesterol concentrations. 4. The metabolites from locally isolated L. plantarum are a possible alternative feed additive in poultry production.

  18. Ganoderma applanatum secondary metabolites induced apoptosis through different pathways: In vivo and in vitro anticancer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhateeb, Waill A; Zaghlol, Gihan M; El-Garawani, Islam M; Ahmed, Eman F; Rateb, Mostafa E; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2018-02-26

    Ganoderma applanatum is a widely distributed saprobic or parasitic mushroom, it was found at the bases of decaying logs in Hakozaki Higashi-ku Fukuoka-shi. Japan. The mushroom was extracted with 80% methanol, and LC-HRMS analysis was conducted to illustrate the bioactive ingredients. The cytotoxicity of the total metabolite extract was evaluated against human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2) which showed IC 50 value of 160 ± 4.08 μg/ml. G. applanatum methanolic extract caused different morphological alterations and increased glutathione level in the treated cells. Interestingly, G. applanatum increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio significantly (P ˂ 0.05) at concentrations of 80 and 160 μg/ml on Caco-2 undergoing apoptotic p53-independent pathway with lake expression of p53 protein and up-regulated Cas-3 mRNA. The in vivo study on solid Ehrlich tumor (SEC) revealed a decrease in the volume of the developed tumor mass after five days of G. applanatum (200 μg/ml) treatment. The apoptotic p53-dependant pathway was confirmed by mRNA Bax/Bcl-2 increased ratio in addition to p53 and Cas-3 up-regulation. In conclusion, G. applanatum could exert apoptotic antitumor properties in Caco-2 by p53-independent pathway and p53-dependant in SEC. The findings proved that G. applanatum can be a promising candidate as alternative or co-anticancer medications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Host plant secondary metabolite profiling shows a complex, strain-dependent response of maize to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria of the genus Azospirillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vincent; Bertrand, Cédric; Bellvert, Floriant; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Bally, René; Comte, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Most Azospirillum plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) benefit plant growth through source effects related to free nitrogen fixation and/or phytohormone production, but little is known about their potential effects on plant physiology. These effects were assessed by comparing the early impacts of three Azospirillum inoculant strains on secondary metabolite profiles of two different maize (Zea mays) cultivars. After 10d of growth in nonsterile soil, maize methanolic extracts were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and secondary metabolites identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Seed inoculation resulted in increased shoot biomass (and also root biomass with one strain) of hybrid PR37Y15 but had no stimulatory effect on hybrid DK315. In parallel, Azospirillum inoculation led to major qualitative and quantitative modifications of the contents of secondary metabolites, especially benzoxazinoids, in the maize plants. These modifications depended on the PGPR strain×plant cultivar combination. Thus, Azospirillum inoculation resulted in early, strain-dependent modifications in the biosynthetic pathways of benzoxazine derivatives in maize in compatible interactions. This is the first study documenting a PGPR effect on plant secondary metabolite profiles, and suggests the establishment of complex interactions between Azospirillum PGPR and maize. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  20. Effect of Glomus mosseae and plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPR's on growth, nutrients and content of secondary metabolites in Begonia malabarica Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavel Selvaraj

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae is one of the important medicinal plants whose main secondary metabolites are luteolin, quercetin and β-sitosterol. The leaves are used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, diarrhoea, blood cancer and skin diseases. A study was undertaken to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, and some plant growth promoting rhizomicro-organisms (PGPR's on the growth, biomass, nutrients, and content of secondary metabolites of B. malabarica plant under green house conditions. Various plant growth parameters (total plant biomass, mycorrhizal parameter, shoot and root phosphorus, mineral content (potassium, iron, zinc, and copper, and secondary metabolites (total phenols, ortho-dihydroxy phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids were determined and found to vary with different treatments. Among all the treatments, plants inoculated with 'microbial consortium' consisting of Glomus mosseae + Bacillus coagulans + Trichoderma viride performed better than with other treatments or uninoculated control plants. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that inoculation of B. malabarica with G. mosseae along with PGPR's enhanced its growth, biomass yield, nutrients and secondary metabolites.

  1. Secondary metabolites and phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes as influenced under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation in Withania somnifera Dunal, an indigenous medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Swabha; Agrawal, S B

    2014-11-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of supplemental ultraviolet B (3.6 kJ m(-2)day(-1) above ambient) radiation on secondary metabolites and phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes of Withania somnifera under field conditions at 40, 70, and 100 days after transplantation. Secondary metabolites' (alkaloids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, flavonoids, lignin, phytosterols, saponins, and tannins) concentrations were analysed at the end of the treatments. Activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone-flavanone isomerase (CHI), and dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) were also determined. In treated plants, secondary metabolite-concentrations generally increased (higher concentrations being recorded in roots compared to leaves). Anomalies were recorded for lycopene in roots and phytosterols in leaves (all sampling ages); β-carotene declined in leaves at third sampling age. s-UV-B-treated plants depicted decrease in withanolide A content with concomitant increase in withaferin A (two major alkaloids analysed by HPLC) compared to their respective controls. Phenylpropanoid pathway enzyme-activities increased in leaves and roots under s-UV-B treatment, the latter showing greater increase. The study concludes that s-UV-B is a potent factor in increasing the concentrations of secondary metabolites and their biosynthetic pathway enzymes in W. somnifera. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physicochemical Characteristics Identification and Secondary Metabolite Analysis of Solid Herbal Waste as Source of Feed Rich Fiber and Supplement for Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nindyo Kisworo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the potency, physicochemical characteristics, and analyzed the secondary metabolites content of solid herbal waste (SWH as a substitute source of feed rich fibre and feed supplements in ruminants. The first study includes an analysis of production potential, physical analysis, and chemical composition analysis of SWH. The second study was an analysis of secondary metabolites content of SWH. The results showed that SWH volume reached 6-8 m3/day or 4020-5360 kg/day, the chemical composition of herbal solid waste was similar to king grass with high lignin content (17.53%. SWH containing total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins , alkaloids and essential oils which generally have antimicrobial activity. According to the potential availability, chemical composition and secondary metabolites content of SWH, it can be used as an alternative for substitute of feed rich fiber or feed supplements with attention to the content of secondary metabolites that can affect the process of fermentation and digestibility in the rumen. Further in vitro and in vivo research ore needed to determine the effect of SWH on rumen fermentation parameters and its application in the ration in ruminant livestock.

  3. Production of trichothecenes and other secondary metabolites by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium equiseti on common laboratory media and a soil organic matter agar: An ecological interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbjerg, H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Thrane, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    trichothecene production was detected for 94 of 102 F culmorum isolates, only 8 of 57 F equiseti isolates were positive. Profiles of secondary metabolites were compared by following growth on yeast extract sucrose agar (YES), potato sucrose agar (PSA), and an agar medium, prepared from soil organic matter (SOM...

  4. Review of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins from the Aspergillus niger group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Johansen, Maria

    2009-01-01

    ) are currently the most problematic compounds. Especially in foods and feeds such as coffee, nuts, dried fruits, and grape-based products where fumonisin-producing fusaria are not a problem, fumonisins pose a risk. Moreover, compounds such as malformins, naptho-γ-pyrones, and bicoumarins (kotanins) call...

  5. Metabolitos secundários como fontes de bioherbicidas: situação actual e perspectivas Secondary metabolites as sources of bioherbicides: present situation and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Dias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolitos secundários produzidos e libertados por plantas, bactérias e fungos estão envolvidos numa variedade de processos ecológicos, nomeadamente como semioquímicos e alelopatinos. Adicionalmente, e para além das suas possíveis funções ecológicas, muitos dos metabolitos secundários são fitotóxicos, constituindo uma fonte relativamente inexplorada de novos herbicidas. Solanum nigrum (erva-moira é uma infestante importante e muito bem sucedida num grande número de culturas, nomeadamente hortícolas e será usada como exemplo principal das utilizações actuais de aleloquímicos vegetais bem como das perspectivas de utilização deste tipo de compostos como bioherbicidas. Nesse âmbito revêem-se as principais estratégias de pesquisa de bioherbicidas e apresenta-se o estado da arte dos modos de acção de aleloquímicos já comercializados como herbicidas (Bialaphos e PPT, patenteados (AAL-toxina e em investigação, quer produzidos por plantas superiores (sorgoleona e derivados do cineol quer de origem bacteriana (hidantocidina e fúngica (fumonisinas, coletotriquina.Secondary metabolites produced and released by plants, bacteria, and fungi are involved in a number of ecological processes, namely as semiochemicals and allelopathins. In addition, and beside their possible ecological roles, a greater number of secondary metabolites are phytotoxic and represent a relatively unexplored source of new herbicides. Solanum nigrum (black nightshade is an important and successful weed in many crops, namely in horticulture, and will be used as a major example of actual and prospective uses of phytoallelochemicals as bioherbicides. Therefore, the main strategies for bioherbicides search are reviewed and the state of art of the modes of action of allelochemicals is presented, including those already in use as herbicides (Bialaphos and PPT, patented (AAL-toxin, and under investigation, whether produced by plants (sorgoleone and cineol

  6. Kytococcus sedentarius (formerly Micrococcus sedentarius) and Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis (formerly Micrococcus nishinomiyaensis) produce monensins, typical Streptomyces cinnamonensis metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospísil, S; Benada, O; Kofronová, O; Petrícek, M; Janda, L; Havlícek, V

    1998-10-01

    The environmental isolate Kytococcus sedentarius TR-2 was found to be a new producer of the oligoketide antibiotics monensin A and B. Electron microscopic studies demonstrated that the TR-2 strain had coccoid cells and DNA analysis revealed no close relationship to Streptomyces cinnamonensis, a typical monensin producer. Production of monensins was also proven with six culture collection K. sedentarius strains and three Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis strains. The secondary metabolism of micrococci demonstrates a high degree of instability. Biosynthesis of monensins by micrococci endorses a phylogenetic relationship to Streptomyces spp.

  7. Antitumor activity of hierridin B, a cyanobacterial secondary metabolite found in both filamentous and unicellular marine strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro N Leão

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are widely recognized as a valuable source of bioactive metabolites. The majority of such compounds have been isolated from so-called complex cyanobacteria, such as filamentous or colonial forms, which usually display a larger number of biosynthetic gene clusters in their genomes, when compared to free-living unicellular forms. Nevertheless, picocyanobacteria are also known to have potential to produce bioactive natural products. Here, we report the isolation of hierridin B from the marine picocyanobacterium Cyanobium sp. LEGE 06113. This compound had previously been isolated from the filamentous epiphytic cyanobacterium Phormidium ectocarpi SAG 60.90, and had been shown to possess antiplasmodial activity. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from both strains confirmed that these cyanobacteria derive from different evolutionary lineages. We further investigated the biological activity of hierridin B, and tested its cytotoxicity towards a panel of human cancer cell lines; it showed selective cytotoxicity towards HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.

  8. Pharmacological synergism of bee venom and melittin with antibiotics and plant secondary metabolites against multi-drug resistant microbial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Issam; Zimmermann, Stefan; Reichling, Jürgen; Wink, Michael

    2015-02-15

    The goal of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of bee venom and its main component, melittin, alone or in two-drug and three-drug combinations with antibiotics (vancomycin, oxacillin, and amikacin) or antimicrobial plant secondary metabolites (carvacrol, benzyl isothiocyanate, the alkaloids sanguinarine and berberine) against drug-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant microbial pathogens. The secondary metabolites were selected corresponding to the molecular targets to which they are directed, being different from those of melittin and the antibiotics. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated by the standard broth microdilution method, while synergistic or additive interactions were assessed by checkerboard dilution and time-kill curve assays. Bee venom and melittin exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against 51 strains of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with strong anti-MRSA and anti-VRE activity (MIC values between 6 and 800 µg/ml). Moreover, bee venom and melittin showed significant antifungal activity (MIC values between 30 and 100 µg/ml). Carvacrol displayed bactericidal activity, while BITC exhibited bacteriostatic activity against all MRSA and VRE strains tested (reference strains and clinical isolates), both compounds showed a remarkable fungicidal activity with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values between 30 and 200 µg/ml. The DNA intercalating alkaloid sanguinarine showed bactericidal activity against MRSA NCTC 10442 (MBC 20 µg/ml), while berberine exhibited bacteriostatic activity against MRSA NCTC 10442 (MIC 40 µg/ml). Checkerboard dilution tests mostly revealed synergism of two-drug combinations against all the tested microorganisms with FIC indexes between 0.24 and 0.50, except for rapidly growing mycobacteria in which combinations exerted an additive effect (FICI = 0.75-1). In time-kill assays all three

  9. Radioprotection offered by bacterial secondary metabolite RK-IP-006.G to the mice by oral route of administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ashutosh K.; Malhotra, Poonam; Singh, Praveen K.; Chhachhia, Neha; Singh, Shravan K.; Kumar, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to cause oxidative damage in biological system primarily by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Gastrointestinal system is considered one of the most radiosensitive biological systems. The most radiosensitive cells type found in the intestine are continuously proliferative crypt cells. Damage to intestinal crypt cells lead to gastrointestinal functions impairment that contribute to mortality. In the present study, whole body radioprotective efficacy of bacterial secondary metabolite RK-IP-006.G was evaluated in C57BL/6 male mice. To determine free radical scavenging properties of RK-IP-006.G 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) assay was performed. Radiation induced lipid peroxidation and its inhibition by RK-IP-006.G pretreatment was assessed in intestinal tissue homogenate. To find out cellular antioxidant status of the irradiated and RK-IP- 006.G treated mice, SOD, Catalase, and Glutathion-S-Transferase activity were estimated in intestinal tissue homogenate. Anti-apoptotic and mitochondrial membrane hypopolarization effect of the RK-IP-006.G was also analyzed using fluorescent probes Acridine Orange and Rhodamine123 respectively. Results of the study demonstrated that, RK-IP-006.G pretreatment (∼2h; 150 mg/kg.b.wt. oral administration) to the lethally irradiated (9 Gy) C57BL/6 male mice contributes to >83% whole body radioprotection in mice. Significant (P>0.05%) inhibition in lipid peroxidation was observed in intestinal tissue of irradiated mice pretreated with RK-IP-006.G compared to only irradiated controls. Significant (P>0.05%) increase in antioxidant enzyme i.e. Catalase, SOD and GST activities was reported in irradiated mice pretreated with RK-IP-006.G compared to irradiated control groups. RK-IP-006.G pretreatment also found to be instrumental in inhibiting radiation induced apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization. In conclusion, present study revealed that bacterial secondary

  10. Comparative Genome Structure, Secondary Metabolite, and Effector Coding Capacity across Cochliobolus Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condon, Bradford J.; Leng, Yueqiang; Wu, Dongliang; Bushley, Kathryn E.; Ohm, Robin A.; Otillar, Robert; Martin, Joel; Schackwitz, Wendy; Grimwood, Jane; MohdZainudin, NurAinlzzati; Xue, Chunsheng; Wang, Rui; Manning, Viola A.; Dhillon, Braham; Tu, Zheng Jin; Steffenson, Brian J.; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lowry, Steve; LaButti, Kurt; Han, James; Copeland, Alex; Lindquist, Erika; Barry, Kerrie; Schmutz, Jeremy; Baker, Scott E.; Ciuffetti, Lynda M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Zhong, Shaobin; Turgeon, B. Gillian

    2013-01-24

    The genomes of five Cochliobolus heterostrophus strains, two Cochliobolus sativus strains, three additional Cochliobolus species (Cochliobolus victoriae, Cochliobolus carbonum, Cochliobolus miyabeanus), and closely related Setosphaeria turcica were sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI). The datasets were used to identify SNPs between strains and species, unique genomic regions, core secondary metabolism genes, and small secreted protein (SSP) candidate effector encoding genes with a view towards pinpointing structural elements and gene content associated with specificity of these closely related fungi to different cereal hosts. Whole-genome alignment shows that three to five of each genome differs between strains of the same species, while a quarter of each genome differs between species. On average, SNP counts among field isolates of the same C. heterostrophus species are more than 25 higher than those between inbred lines and 50 lower than SNPs between Cochliobolus species. The suites of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), polyketide synthase (PKS), and SSP encoding genes are astoundingly diverse among species but remarkably conserved among isolates of the same species, whether inbred or field strains, except for defining examples that map to unique genomic regions. Functional analysis of several strain-unique PKSs and NRPSs reveal a strong correlation with a role in virulence.

  11. How the oligophage codling moth Cydia pomonella survives on walnut despite its secondary metabolite juglone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorski, Rafal; Dorn, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Besides apple, its primary host, the codling moth Cydia pomonella uses walnut as a secondary host. Abundance of toxic naphthoquinones, among which juglone prevails, does not restrain this economically important pest insect from infesting walnut, but processes underlying the suitability of this host were yet unknown. Larvae feeding on an artificial diet supplemented with juglone at naturally occurring concentrations survived to adulthood at a similarly high proportion as those in the juglone-devoid control. However, their development time was prolonged, their weight gain was reduced, and adult sex ratio was distorted. Results from the natural system with walnut and apple fruits were in line with data gained on artificial diet. Remarkably, a twofold increase of the maximal juglone content reported from the walnut husk was lethal to the larvae. Chemical analyses showed that larvae feeding on the artificial diet supplemented with juglone concentrations present in walnut contained 1,4,5-trihydroxynaphthalene and excreted it in their frass, whereas the hemolymph contained neither detectable amounts of juglone nor the product of its reduction. Hence, effective metabolism of juglone in the intestinal system of the larvae underlies their survival on host plants containing this defensive compound. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative genome structure, secondary metabolite, and effector coding capacity across Cochliobolus pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford J Condon

    Full Text Available The genomes of five Cochliobolus heterostrophus strains, two Cochliobolus sativus strains, three additional Cochliobolus species (Cochliobolus victoriae, Cochliobolus carbonum, Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and closely related Setosphaeria turcica were sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI. The datasets were used to identify SNPs between strains and species, unique genomic regions, core secondary metabolism genes, and small secreted protein (SSP candidate effector encoding genes with a view towards pinpointing structural elements and gene content associated with specificity of these closely related fungi to different cereal hosts. Whole-genome alignment shows that three to five percent of each genome differs between strains of the same species, while a quarter of each genome differs between species. On average, SNP counts among field isolates of the same C. heterostrophus species are more than 25× higher than those between inbred lines and 50× lower than SNPs between Cochliobolus species. The suites of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS, polyketide synthase (PKS, and SSP-encoding genes are astoundingly diverse among species but remarkably conserved among isolates of the same species, whether inbred or field strains, except for defining examples that map to unique genomic regions. Functional analysis of several strain-unique PKSs and NRPSs reveal a strong correlation with a role in virulence.

  13. Use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) for profiling the volatile metabolites produced by Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Kimura, Minako; Yabe, Yoshito; Tsukamoto, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Masaya; Horibe, Isao; Okuno, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    The profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from Glomerella cingulata using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with different fibers, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), was investigated. C4-C6 aliphatic alcohols were the predominant fraction of VOCs isolated by CAR/PDMS fiber. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons represented 20.3% of VOCs isolated by PDMS fiber. During the growth phase, Ochracin was produced in the large majority of VOCs. 3-Methylbutanol and phenylethyl alcohol were found in the log phase of it. Alcohols were found in cultures of higher age, while sesquiterpenes were found to be characteristic of initial growth stage of G. cingulata.

  14. Why are Aspergilli so different in their expression of secondary metabolites from section to section?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Rank, Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    for example Bipolaris, Chaetomium, Humicola, & Podospora. On the other hand SMs such as the ochratoxins have only been found in Aspergillus and Penicillium so far, and the aflatoxins have only been found in Aspergillus. Within Aspergillus, which comprises 9 very different teleomorphs (Eurotium, Chaetosartorya...... produced by species in different sections (Fig. 1, Fig. 2). Aspergillic acids and ochratoxins have been found in Flavi and Circumdati, pseurotins have been found in Fumigati and Clavati , kojic acid + aflatoxins have been found in few Nidulantes but many Flavi species; cyclopiazonic acid has been found...

  15. Production of Some Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites From Marine-derived Fungus Varicosporina ramulosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalla, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a screening of fungal isolates associated with marine algae collected from Abou-keer, Alexanderia during the four seasons of 2004, to obtain new biologically active compounds. Varicosporina ramulosa isolate was identified and selected as a producer of 13 compounds. Out of 13 pure compounds produced, compounds 3 and 10 were considered as antibacterial and antifungal compounds, respectively as they were active against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and a fungus. Optimization of conditions (fermentation media, incubation period, temperature, initial pH, aeration levels which activate compounds 3 and 10 production were studied. Also the spectral properties (UV, MS, GC/MS, IR and 1H-NMR of the purified compounds were determined. Compound 3 suggested to be dibutyl phthalate and compound 10 may be ergosterol or one of its isomers. Biological evaluation of the two compounds towards 6 different types of tumor cell lines showed weak effect of compound 3 at different concentrations on the viable cell count of the different tumor cell lines. While compound 10 showed different activities against the viable cell count of the 6 different tumor cell lines. It kills 50% of the viable infected liver and lung cells at concentrations equal to 99.7 µg/mL, 74.9µg/mL, respectively. Compound 10 can be recommended as new anticancer compounds.

  16. Linking secondary metabolites to gene clusters through genome sequencing of six diverse Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbølling, Inge; Vesth, Tammi C.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2018-01-01

    to determine phylogeny and genetic diversity, showing that each presented genome contains 15–27% genes not found in other sequenced Aspergilli. In particular, A. novofumigatus was compared with the pathogenic species A. fumigatus. This suggests that A. novofumigatus can produce most of the same allergens......, virulence, and pathogenicity factors as A. fumigatus, suggesting that A. novofumigatus could be as pathogenic as A. fumigatus. Furthermore, SMs were linked to gene clusters based on biological and chemical knowledge and analysis, genome sequences, and predictive algorithms. We thus identify putative SM....... campestris, A. novofumigatus, A. ochraceoroseus, and A. steynii) have been whole-genome PacBio sequenced to provide genetic references in three Aspergillus sections. A. taichungensis and A. candidus also were sequenced for SM elucidation. Thirteen Aspergillus genomes were analyzed with comparative genomics...

  17. Antimutagenicity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) juice on the mutagenesis produced by plant metabolites of aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier

    2004-11-02

    Aromatic amines are metabolically activated into mutagenic compounds by both animal and plant systems. The 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOP) is a well-known direct-acting mutagen whose mutagenic potential can be enhanced by plant metabolism; m-phenylenediamine (m-PDA) is converted to mutagenic products detected by the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain, and 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) is the plant-activated promutagen most extensively studied. Plant cells activate both 2-AF and m-PDA into potent mutagens producing DNA frameshift mutations. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is a common plant included in the Mexican diet, usually consumed uncooked. The antimutagenic activity of coriander juice against the mutagenic activity of 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, m-phenylenediamine and 2-aminofluorene was investigated using the Ames reversion mutagenicity assay (his- to his+) with the S. typhimurium TA98 strain as indicator organism. The plant cell/microbe coincubation assay was used as the activating system for aromatic transformation and plant extract interaction. Aqueous crude coriander juice significantly decreased the mutagenicity of metabolized aromatic amines (AA) in the following order: 2-AF (92.43%) > m-PDA (87.14%) > NOP (83.21%). The chlorophyll content in vegetable juice was monitored and its concentration showed a positive correlation with the detected antimutagenic effect. Protein content and peroxidase activity were also determined. The concentration of coriander juice (50-1000 microl/coincubation flask) was neither toxic nor mutagenic. The similar shape of the antimutagenic response curves obtained with coriander juice and chlorophyllin (used as a subrogate molecule of chlorophyll) indicated that comparable mechanisms of mutagenic inhibition could be involved. The negative correlation between chlorophyll content and mutagenic response of the promutagenic and direct-acting used amines allows us to deduce that a chemical interaction takes place between the two molecules

  18. Endophytic Actinobacteria from the Brazilian Medicinal Plant Lychnophora ericoides Mart. and the Biological Potential of Their Secondary Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Raphael; Chagas, Fernanda Oliveira; Caraballo-Rodriguez, Andrés Mauricio; Melo, Weilan Gomes da Paixão; do Nascimento, Andréa Mendes; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Pessoa, Cláudia; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Krogh, Renata; Andricopulo, Adriano Defini; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2016-06-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria from the Brazilian medicinal plant Lychnophora ericoides were isolated for the first time, and the biological potential of their secondary metabolites was evaluated. A phylogenic analysis of isolated actinobacteria was accomplished with 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the predominance of the genus Streptomyces was observed. All strains were cultured on solid rice medium, and ethanol extracts were evaluated with antimicrobial and cytotoxic assays against cancer cell lines. As a result, 92% of the extracts showed a high or moderate activity against at least one pathogenic microbial strain or cancer cell line. Based on the biological and chemical analyses of crude extracts, three endophytic strains were selected for further investigation of their chemical profiles. Sixteen compounds were isolated, and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzamide (9) and 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-4(1H)-quinazolinone (15) are reported as natural products for the first time in this study. The biological activity of the pure compounds was also assessed. Compound 15 displayed potent cytotoxic activity against all four tested cancer cell lines. Nocardamine (2) was only moderately active against two cancer cell lines but showed strong activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. Our results show that endophytic actinobacteria from L. ericoides are a promising source of bioactive compounds. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. Identification of Minor Secondary Metabolites from the Latex of Croton lechleri (Muell-Arg and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Iorizzi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dragon’s blood (Sangre de drago, a viscous red sap derived from Croton lechleri Muell-Arg (Euphorbiaceae, is extensively used by indigenous cultures of the Amazonian basin for its wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to identify the minor secondary metabolites and test the antioxidant activity of this sustance. A bioguided fractionation of the n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol, and aqueous extracts led to the isolation of 15 compounds: three megastigmanes, four flavan-3-ols, three phenylpropanoids, three lignans, a clerodane, and the alkaloid taspine. In addition to these known molecules, six compounds were isolated and identified for the first time in the latex: blumenol B, blumenol C, 4,5-dihydroblumenol A, erythro-guaiacyl-glyceryl-β-O-4’- dihydroconiferyl ether, 2-[4-(3-hydroxypropyl-2-methoxyphenoxy]-propane-1,3-diol and floribundic acid glucoside. Combinations of spectroscopic methods (1H-, 13C- NMR and 2D-NMR experiments, ESI-MS, and literature comparisons were used for compound identification. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by DPPH, total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation assays. Flavan-3-ols derivatives (as major phenolic compounds in the latex exhibited the highest antioxidant activity.

  20. In silico profiling for secondary metabolites from Lepidium meyenii (maca) by the pharmacophore and ligand-shape-based joint approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fan; Tan, Xiao-Lei; Yan, Xin; Liu, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii Walpers (maca) is an herb known as a traditional nutritional supplement and widely used in Peru, North America, and Europe to enhance human fertility and treat osteoporosis. The secondary metabolites of maca, namely, maca alkaloids, macaenes, and macamides, are bioactive compounds, but their targets are undefined. The pharmacophore-based PharmaDB targets database screening joint the ligand shape similarity-based WEGA validation approach is proposed to predict the targets of these unique constituents and was performed using Discovery Studio 4.5 and PharmaDB. A compounds-targets-diseases network was established using Cytoscape 3.2. These suitable targets and their genes were calculated and analyzed using ingenuity pathway analysis and GeneMANIA. Certain targets were identified in osteoporosis (8 targets), prostate cancer (9 targets), and kidney diseases (11 targets). This was the first study to identify the targets of these bioactive compounds in maca for cardiovascular diseases (29 targets). The compound with the most targets (46) was an amide alkaloid (MA-24). In silico target fishing identified maca's traditional effects on treatment and prevention of osteoporosis, prostate cancer, and kidney diseases, and its potential function of treating cardiovascular diseases, as the most important of this herb's possible activities.

  1. Responses to mild water deficit and rewatering differ among secondary metabolites but are similar among provenances within Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiernan, Adam B; Potts, Brad M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Hovenden, Mark J; Davies, Noel W; McAdam, Scott A M; Ross, John J; Rodemann, Thomas; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M

    2016-02-01

    Water deficit associated with drought can severely affect plants and influence ecological interactions involving plant secondary metabolites. We tested the effect of mild water deficit and rewatering on physiological, morphological and chemical traits of juvenile Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. We also tested if responses of juvenile eucalypts to water deficit and rewatering varied within species using provenances across a rainfall gradient. Both species and all provenances were similarly affected by mild water deficit and rewatering, as only foliar abscisic acid levels differed among provenances during water deficit. Across species and provenances, water deficit decreased leaf water potential, above-ground biomass and formylated phloroglucinol compound concentrations, and increased condensed tannin concentrations. Rewatering reduced leaf carbon : nitrogen, and total phenolic and chlorogenic acid concentrations. Water deficit and rewatering had no effect on total oil or individual terpene concentrations. Levels of trait plasticity due to water deficit and rewatering were less than levels of constitutive trait variation among provenances. The overall uniformity of responses to the treatments regardless of native provenance indicates limited diversification of plastic responses when compared with the larger quantitative variation of constitutive traits within these species. These responses to mild water deficit may differ from responses to more extreme water deficit or to responses of juvenile/mature eucalypts growing at each locality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Anticancer Activity of Ramalin, a Secondary Metabolite from the Antarctic Lichen Ramalina terebrata, against Colorectal Cancer Cells

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    Sung-Suk Suh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and occurs through the highly complex coordination of multiple cellular pathways, resulting in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have increasingly revealed that constituents of lichen extracts exhibit potent pharmaceutical activities, including anticancer activity against various cancer cells, making them promising candidates for new anticancer therapeutic drugs. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the anticancer capacities of ramalin, a secondary metabolite from the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata, in the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. In this study, ramalin displayed concentration-dependent anticancer activity against HCT116 cells, significantly suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, ramalin induced cell cycle arrest in the gap 2/mitosis (G2/M phase through the modulation of hallmark genes involved in the G2/M phase transition, such as tumour protein p53 (TP53, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A, cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 and cyclin B1 (CCNB1. At both the transcriptional and translational level, ramalin caused a gradual increase in the expression of TP53 and its downstream gene CDKN1A, while decreasing the expression of CDK1 and CCNB1 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, ramalin significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these data suggest that ramalin may be a therapeutic candidate for the targeted therapy of colorectal cancer.

  3. Relation between microbiological quality, metabolite production and sensory quality of equilibrium modified atmosphere packaged fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Devlieghere, F; Ragaert, P; Vanneste, E; Debevere, J

    2003-06-25

    The quality of four types of fresh-cut produce, packaged in consumer-sized packages under an equilibrium modified atmosphere and stored at 7 degrees C, was assessed by establishing the relation between the microbial outgrowth and the corresponding production of nonvolatile compounds and related sensory disorders. In vitro experiments, performed on a lettuce-juice-agar, demonstrated the production of nonvolatile compounds by spoilage causing lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae. Pseudomonas fluorescens and yeasts, however, were not able to produce detectable amounts of nonvolatile metabolites. The type of spoilage and quality deterioration in vivo depended on the type of vegetable. Mixed lettuce and chicory endives, leafy tissues, containing naturally low concentrations of sugars, showed a spoilage dominated by Gram-negative microorganisms, which are not producing nonvolatile compounds. Sensory problems were associated with visual properties and the metabolic activity of the plant tissue. Mixed bell peppers and grated celeriac, on the other hand, demonstrated a fast and intense growth of spoilage microorganisms, dominated by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. This proliferation resulted in detectable levels of organic acids and the rejection by the trained sensory panel was based on the negative perception of the organoleptical properties (off-flavour, odour and taste). The applied microbiological criteria corresponded well with detectable changes in sensory properties and measurable concentrations of nonvolatile compounds, surely in the cases where lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were provoking spoilage. Consequently, the freshness of minimally processed vegetables, sensitive for outgrowth of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts (e.g., carrots, celeriac, bell peppers, mixtures with non-leafy vegetables) can be evaluated via analysis of the produced nonvolatile compounds.

  4. Fungal Root Microbiome from Healthy and Brittle Leaf Diseased Date Palm Trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Reveals a Hidden Untapped Arsenal of Antibacterial and Broad Spectrum Antifungal Secondary Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefteh, Fedia B.; Daoud, Amal; Chenari Bouket, Ali; Alenezi, Faizah N.; Luptakova, Lenka; Rateb, Mostafa E.; Kadri, Adel; Gharsallah, Neji; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore and compare the composition, metabolic diversity and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi colonizing internal tissues of healthy and brittle leaf diseased (BLD) date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) widely cultivated in arid zones of Tunisia. A total of 52 endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy and BLD roots of date palm trees, identified based on internal transcribed spacer-rDNA sequence analysis and shown to represent 13 species belonging to five genera. About 36.8% of isolates were shared between healthy and diseased root fungal microbiomes, whereas 18.4 and 44.7% of isolates were specific to healthy and BLD root fungal microbiomes, respectively. All isolates were able to produce at least two of the screened enzymes including amylase, cellulase, chitinase, pectinase, protease, laccase and lipase. A preliminary screening of the isolates using disk diffusion method for antibacterial activity against four Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and antifungal activities against three phytopathogenic fungi indicated that healthy and BLD root fungal microbiomes displayed interesting bioactivities against examined bacteria and broad spectrum bioactivity against fungal pathogens. Some of these endophytic fungi (17 isolates) were fermented and their extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial potential against bacterial and fungal isolates. Results revealed that fungal extracts exhibited antibacterial activities and were responsible for approximately half of antifungal activities against living fungi. These results suggest a strong link between fungal bioactivities and their secondary metabolite arsenal. EtOAc extracts of Geotrichum candidum and Thielaviopsis punctulata originating from BLD microbiome gave best results against Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 0.78 mg/mL) and minimum bactericidal concentration (6.25 mg/mL). G. candidum gave the best result against

  5. The Pseudomonas secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol is a signal inducing rhizoplane expression of Azospirillum genes involved in plant-growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes-Meynet, Emeline; Pothier, Joël F; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

    2011-02-01

    During evolution, plants have become associated with guilds of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which raises the possibility that individual PGPR populations may have developed mechanisms to cointeract with one another on plant roots. We hypothesize that this has resulted in signaling phenomena between different types of PGPR colonizing the same roots. Here, the objective was to determine whether the Pseudomonas secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) can act as a signal on Azospirillum PGPR and enhance the phytostimulation effects of the latter. On roots, the DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 strain but not its phl-negative mutant enhanced the phytostimulatory effect of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245-Rif on wheat. Accordingly, DAPG enhanced Sp245-Rif traits involved in root colonization (cell motility, biofilm formation, and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production) and phytostimulation (auxin production). A differential fluorescence induction promoter-trapping approach based on flow cytometry was then used to identify Sp245-Rif genes upregulated by DAPG. DAPG enhanced expression of a wide range of Sp245-Rif genes, including genes involved in phytostimulation. Four of them (i.e., ppdC, flgE, nirK, and nifX-nifB) tended to be upregulated on roots in the presence of P. fluorescens F113 compared with its phl-negative mutant. Our results indicate that DAPG can act as a signal by which some beneficial pseudomonads may stimulate plant-beneficial activities of Azospirillum PGPR.

  6. Ability of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to detoxify juglone, the main secondary metabolite of the non-host plant walnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorski, Rafal; Ineichen, Simon; Dorn, Silvia

    2011-10-01

    Many plant species produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit attacks by herbivorous insects, and may thereby constrain insect expansion to new hosts. Walnut is a host for the codling moth Cydia pomonella, which efficiently detoxifies the main walnut defensive compound juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, which also belongs to the tribe Grapholitini, does not feed on walnut. We tested the performance of G. molesta, a highly invasive species, on artificial diets containing juglone at levels mimicking those found in walnut over the growing season. Juglone-fed G. molesta survived relatively well to adulthood, but larval and adult body weights were reduced, and larval developmental time was prolonged in a dose-dependent fashion. Chemical analysis of frass from larvae that had been fed a juglone-containing diet suggests that G. molesta reduces juglone to non-toxic 1,4,5-trihydroxynaphthalene in its gut. This unexpected tolerance of G. molesta to high levels of juglone may facilitate expansion of the host range beyond the current rosacean fruit trees used by this invasive pest.

  7. Screening of Secondary Metabolites Compounds in Stem Bark of Frangipangi (Plumeria alba and Toxicity Test on Shrimp Larvae (Brine Shrimp Lethality Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Nur Handayani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Frangipani  is  a  plant  belonging  to  the  family  Apocynacea  and  potential  for development as anti-cancer drug material. Content of secondary metabolites, anti-cancer compounds from frangipani (Plumeria alba steam bark, especially it has not been made. This  research aims  to  identify compounds  secondary metabolites  from  frangipani  steam bark extract potential for development as anti-cancer drug material. Steps undertaken in this study include:  Extraction of secondary metabolites with frangipani  stem  bark  maceration  method  of  storey  with  n-hexane,  chloroform,  ethyl acetate, and ethanol. Each tested extracts obtained using prawn shrimp toxicity A. salina Leach  and  continued  with  the  testing  of  secondary  metabolites  using  color  reagents. fraction  extract  has  potential  as  an  anti-cancer  drugs  is  purified  using  gravity  column chromatography  technique  with  elusi  gradient  technique  using  a  solvent  mixture  n-hexane:ethyl acetate hen conducted toxicity tests followed by identification using GC-MS  Extraction  results obtained by  the  four extracts namely: n-hexane extract  (E1  is positive flavonoid groups, chloroform extract (E2, ethyl acetate extract (E3 and ethanol extract (E4  is positive for secondary metabolite groups flavonoid and alkaloid. Toxicity test results obtained LC50 values respectively participated: 973. 7 ppm (E1, 451.35 ppm (E2, 112.557 ppm(E3, and 637.50 ppm(E4.   Keywords: Plumeria alba, secondary metabolite, toxicity test, and A. salina Leach

  8. CYP27A1 acts on the pre-vitamin D3 photoproduct, lumisterol, producing biologically active hydroxy-metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckey, Robert C; Li, Wei; Ma, Dejian; Cheng, Chloe Y S; Wang, Katie M; Kim, Tae-Kang; Jeayeng, Saowanee; Slominski, Andrzej T

    2018-02-13

    Prolonged exposure of the skin to UV radiation causes previtamin D3, the initial photoproduct formed by opening of the B ring of 7-dehydrocholesterol, to undergo a second photochemical reaction where the B-ring is reformed giving lumisterol3 (L3), a stereoisomer of 7-dehydrocholesterol. L3 was believed to be an inactive photoproduct of excessive UV radiation whose formation prevents excessive vitamin D production. Recently, we reported that L3 is present in serum and that CYP11A1 can act on L3 producing monohydroxy- and dihydroxy-metabolites which inhibit skin cell proliferation similarly to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. In this study we tested the ability of human CYP27A1 to hydroxylate L3. L3 was metabolized by purified CYP27A1 to 3 major products identified as 25-hydroxyL3, (25R)-27-hydroxyL3 and (25S)-27-hydroxyL3, by NMR. These three products were also seen when mouse liver mitochondria containing CYP27A1 were incubated with L3. The requirement for CYP27A1 for their formation by mitochondria was confirmed by the inhibition of their synthesis by 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α-triol, an intermediate in bile acid synthesis which serves as an efficient competitive substrate for CYP27A1. CYP27A1 displayed a high k cat for the metabolism of L3 (76 mol product/min/mol CYP27A1) and a catalytic efficiency (k cat /K m ) that was 260-fold higher than that for vitamin D3. The CYP27A1-derived hydroxy-derivatives inhibited the proliferation of cultured human melanoma cells and colony formation with IC 50 values in the nM range. Thus, L3 is metabolized efficiently by CYP27A1 with hydroxylation at C25 or C27 producing metabolites potent in their ability to inhibit melanoma cell proliferation, supporting that L3 is a prohormone which can be activated by CYP-dependent hydroxylations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rhizobacteria able to produce phytotoxic metabolites Rizobactérias produtoras de substâncias fitotóxicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D.C. Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To contribute for the development of environmental friendly methods for weed control, a selection of rhizobacteria able to produce phytotoxic substances was carried out. Initially, 35 strains previously isolated from plants in the south of Minas Gerais State (Brazil were grown in tryptic soy broth. After removal of bacterial cells, the resulting liquids were freeze-dried and extracted with methanol/ethyl acetate (1:1. The extracts were concentrated under vacuum and dissolved in water to be submitted to a lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seed assay. Metabolites produced by five strains reduced the number of normal seedlings to values statistically bellow the one observed for the negative control, being the most expressive results obtained with Bacillus cereus Frankland and Frankland, isolated from Ricinus communis L., which was able to cause rotted rootlets to 82.4% of seedlings. The bacterium metabolites also avoided germination of 52% Brachiaria decumbens Stapf seeds and the remaining 48% resulted in abnormal seedlings. Metabolites from B. cereus were submitted to a purification process guided by the lettuce seed assay. As a consequence, one substance causing rotted rootlets to all lettuce seedlings during the seed assay at 0.057 g/L was isolated and will be identified in future studies.Com vistas a contribuir para o desenvolvimento de métodos não agressivos ao meio ambiente, para o controle de plantas invasoras, buscou-se selecionar rizobactérias produtoras de substâncias fitotóxicas. Inicialmente, 35 culturas previamente isoladas de plantas da região sul do Estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil foram cultivadas em caldo soja tripticaseína. Após remoção das células bacterianas, os líquidos resultantes foram liofilizados e extraídos com metanol/acetato de etila (1:1. Os extratos foram concentrados sob vácuo e submetidos a testes com sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L.. Os metabólitos produzidos por cinco isolados bacterianos reduziram o n

  10. Comprehensive separation of secondary metabolites in natural products by high-speed counter-current chromatography using a three-phase solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Akio; Yamakawa, Yutaka; Noji, Ryoko; Oda, Ako; Shindo, Heisaburo; Ito, Yoichiro; Shibusawa, Yoichi

    2007-06-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) using the three-phase solvent system n-hexane-methyl acetate-acetonitrile-water at a volume ratio of 4:4:3:4 was applied to the comprehensive separation of secondary metabolites in several natural product extracts. A wide variety of secondary metabolites in each natural product was effectively extracted with the three-phase solvent system, and the filtered extract was directly submitted to the HSCCC separation using the same three-phase system. In the HSCCC profiles of crude natural drugs listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, several physiologically active compounds were clearly separated from other components in the extracts. The HSCCC profiles of several tea products, each manufactured by a different process, clearly showed their compositional difference in main compounds such as catechins, caffeine, and pigments. These HSCCC profiles also provide useful information about hydrophobic diversity of whole components present in each natural product.

  11. Genotype × herbivore effect on leaf litter decomposition in Betula Pendula saplings: ecological and evolutionary consequences and the role of secondary metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Silfver

    Full Text Available Plant genetic variation and herbivores can both influence ecosystem functioning by affecting the quantity and quality of leaf litter. Few studies have, however, investigated the effects of herbivore load on litter decomposition at plant genotype level. We reduced insect herbivory using an insecticide on one half of field-grown Betula Pendula saplings of 17 genotypes, representing random intrapopulation genetic variation, and allowed insects to naturally colonize the other half. We hypothesized that due to induced herbivore defence, saplings under natural herbivory produce litter of higher concentrations of secondary metabolites (terpenes and soluble phenolics and have slower litter decomposition rate than saplings under reduced herbivory. We found that leaf damage was 89 and 53% lower in the insecticide treated saplings in the summer and autumn surveys, respectively, which led to 73% higher litter production. Litter decomposition rate was also affected by herbivore load, but the effect varied from positive to negative among genotypes and added up to an insignificant net effect at the population level. In contrast to our hypothesis, concentrations of terpenes and soluble phenolics were higher under reduced than natural herbivory. Those genotypes, whose leaves were most injured by herbivores, produced litter of lowest mass loss, but unlike we expected, the concentrations of terpenes and soluble phenolics were not linked to either leaf damage or litter decomposition. Our results show that (1 the genetic and herbivore effects on B. pendula litter decomposition are not mediated through variation in terpene or soluble phenolic concentrations and suggest that (2 the presumably higher insect herbivore pressure in the future warmer climate will not, at the ecological time scale, affect the mean decomposition rate in genetically diverse B. pendula populations. However, (3 due to the significant genetic variation in the response of decomposition to

  12. Brain Metabolite Changes in Patients with Relapsing-Remitting and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Obert, Dorothea; Helms, Gunther; S?ttler, Muriel B.; Jung, Klaus; Kretzschmar, Benedikt; B?hr, Mathias; Dechent, Peter; Diem, Ricarda; Hein, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides the unique ability to monitor several disease-related pathological processes via their characteristic metabolic markers in vivo. In the present study metabolic compositions were assessed every six months over the period of two years in 36 patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) including 21 relapsing-remitting (RR), 15 secondary progressive (SP) patients and 12 normal subjects. The concentrations of the main MRS-detectable metabolites N-acetylaspar...

  13. CONTENT OF SECONDARY METABOLITES WITH INSECTICIDAL AND REPELLENT ACTIVITY IN THE ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT AND ESSENTIAL OIL OF CHAEROPHYLLUM AROMATICUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. VORONOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most of plant secondary metaboliteshave a safety function to protect plants from pathogens and herbivorous. The important role in the protection of plants from insect pests plays terpenoids and their derivatives.We studied the Chaerophyllumaromaticumessential oil composition in order toreveal the substances which have an insecticidal and repellent activity. This knowledge can make us closer to understand the biochemical basis of host choice in phytophagous, such as close related species of aphids that feed and not feed on Ch.aromaticum.An alcoholic extract and essential oil of Ch.aromaticum were prepared and analyzed with gas chromatography. The alcoholic extract of Ch.aromaticumcontained 39 individual substances.Aninsecticidal and repellent activityis known for14 of them. The average content of sabinenduring the growing season was 15.8 per cent(3.06 and 23.68 per cent at the beginning and at the end of season respectfully.Pinene (13.87%, limonene (1%,γ-terpinene (9.32%, germacrene (6.27%, catechol (3.12%, hydroquinone (3.21% were also presented in the high concentration. Thymol (0.52%, hydrocoumarin (0.71%, β-caryophyllene (0.87%, trans-β-farnesene (4.91%, carotol (3.82% were rarely detected during the growing season. 3-hexen-1-ol which is the phytophagous predator attractant,was only found at the end of the spring in a concentration near 1.5 percent.The total concentrationof metabolites with insecticidal and repellent activity in the Ch. aromaticumessential oil was 6.49 per cent in May, 24.35 per cent in June, and 37.37 per cent in July.The component composition of theessential oil varied during the period of observation. Except of sabinen, catechol and hydroquinone were only presented at the beginning of May.In June the number of toxic componentsincreases to 10 substances, but in July decreases to 8 ones.

  14. Effect of secondary metabolite of Actinidia deliciosa on the biofilm and extra-cellular matrix components of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vishvanath; Tiwari, Deepika; Patel, Varsha; Tiwari, Monalisa

    2017-09-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii, opportunistic nosocomial pathogen, increases gradually in the clinical setup. The high level of resistance mechanisms acquired by these bacteria makes their eradication difficult and biofilm formation is one of them. Biofilm comprises of closely packed bacterial population crowded together by extra-cellular matrix (ECM). ECM contains bacterial secreted polymers such as exopolysaccharides (EPS), proteins and extracellular-DNA (e-DNA) and rarely amyloidogenic proteins. Biofilm offers protection of underlying bacterial population against chemotherapeutic agents and host immune system. Therefore, present efforts are focused to find a novel therapeutic that targets biofilm-associated infections. Plants are used as a natural therapeutic for numerous ailments. In order to find an alternative of the available antibacterial drugs, we have focused on the natural herbal active compounds. In this study, we have extracted active compounds from various medicinal plants and screened its anti-biofilm activity against carbapenem resistant strain of A. baumannii. Results showed that polar extract of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) exhibit effective anti-biofilm activity. These two plants were also used for their phytochemical screening and TLC profiling to find out the constituting secondary metabolites. Actinidia deliciosa extract contains an alkaloid (sanquinarine) as well as a flavonoid (hydroxyflavone). Anti-biofilm effect of this extract on the ECM of A. baumannii showed that it reduces EPS, protein and eDNA contents in the ECM. Proteins of ECM have also shown to form amyloid like structure, which was evident from its interaction with the Congo Red. CFU counting after Actinidia deliciosa extract treatment also supported the results. Therefore, it can be concluded that polar extract of A. deliciosa can be used to find suitable alternative therapeutic to control biofilm formation by carbapenem resistant strain of

  15. Shielding implications for secondary neutrons and photons produced within the patient during IMPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMarco, J.; Kupelian, P.; Santhanam, A.; Low, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) uses a combination of computer controlled spot scanning and spot-weight optimized planning to irradiate the tumor volume uniformly. In contrast to passive scattering systems, secondary neutrons and photons produced from inelastic proton interactions within the patient represent the major source of emitted radiation during IMPT delivery. Various published studies evaluated the shielding considerations for passive scattering systems but did not directly address secondary neutron production from IMPT and the ambient dose equivalent on surrounding occupational and nonoccupational work areas. Thus, the purpose of this study was to utilize Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the energy and angular distributions of secondary neutrons and photons following inelastic proton interactions within a tissue-equivalent phantom for incident proton spot energies between 70 and 250 MeV.Methods: Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to calculate the ambient dose equivalent of secondary neutrons and photons produced from inelastic proton interactions in a tissue-equivalent phantom. The angular distribution of emitted neutrons and photons were scored as a function of incident proton energy throughout a spherical annulus at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 m from the phantom center. Appropriate dose equivalent conversion factors were applied to estimate the total ambient dose equivalent from secondary neutrons and photons.Results: A reference distance of 1 m from the center of the patient was used to evaluate the mean energy distribution of secondary neutrons and photons and the resulting ambient dose equivalent. For an incident proton spot energy of 250 MeV, the total ambient dose equivalent (3.6 × 10 −3 mSv per proton Gy) was greatest along the direction of the incident proton spot (0°–10°) with a mean secondary neutron energy of 71.3 MeV. The dose equivalent decreased by a factor of 5 in the backward direction (170°–180°) with a mean

  16. Shielding implications for secondary neutrons and photons produced within the patient during IMPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarco, J.; Kupelian, P.; Santhanam, A.; Low, D. [UCLA Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) uses a combination of computer controlled spot scanning and spot-weight optimized planning to irradiate the tumor volume uniformly. In contrast to passive scattering systems, secondary neutrons and photons produced from inelastic proton interactions within the patient represent the major source of emitted radiation during IMPT delivery. Various published studies evaluated the shielding considerations for passive scattering systems but did not directly address secondary neutron production from IMPT and the ambient dose equivalent on surrounding occupational and nonoccupational work areas. Thus, the purpose of this study was to utilize Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the energy and angular distributions of secondary neutrons and photons following inelastic proton interactions within a tissue-equivalent phantom for incident proton spot energies between 70 and 250 MeV.Methods: Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to calculate the ambient dose equivalent of secondary neutrons and photons produced from inelastic proton interactions in a tissue-equivalent phantom. The angular distribution of emitted neutrons and photons were scored as a function of incident proton energy throughout a spherical annulus at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 m from the phantom center. Appropriate dose equivalent conversion factors were applied to estimate the total ambient dose equivalent from secondary neutrons and photons.Results: A reference distance of 1 m from the center of the patient was used to evaluate the mean energy distribution of secondary neutrons and photons and the resulting ambient dose equivalent. For an incident proton spot energy of 250 MeV, the total ambient dose equivalent (3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mSv per proton Gy) was greatest along the direction of the incident proton spot (0 Degree-Sign -10 Degree-Sign ) with a mean secondary neutron energy of 71.3 MeV. The dose equivalent decreased by a factor of 5 in the

  17. Reclassification of the Specialized Metabolite Producer Pseudomonas mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 as a Member of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveridge, E Joel; Jones, Cerith; Bull, Matthew J; Moody, Suzy C; Kahl, Małgorzata W; Khan, Zainab; Neilson, Louis; Tomeva, Marina; Adams, Sarah E; Wood, Andrew C; Rodriguez-Martin, Daniel; Pinel, Ingrid; Parkhill, Julian; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Crosby, John

    2017-07-01

    Pseudomonas mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is a Gram-negative bacterium, first isolated from Japanese soil samples, that produces the monobactam isosulfazecin and the β-lactam-potentiating bulgecins. To characterize the biosynthetic potential of P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433, its complete genome was determined using single-molecule real-time DNA sequence analysis. The 7.8-Mb genome comprised four replicons, three chromosomal (each encoding rRNA) and one plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 was misclassified at the time of its deposition and is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, most closely related to Burkholderia ubonensis The sequenced genome shows considerable additional biosynthetic potential; known gene clusters for malleilactone, ornibactin, isosulfazecin, alkylhydroxyquinoline, and pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis and several uncharacterized biosynthetic gene clusters for polyketides, nonribosomal peptides, and other metabolites were identified. Furthermore, P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 harbors many genes associated with environmental resilience and antibiotic resistance and was resistant to a range of antibiotics and metal ions. In summary, this bioactive strain should be designated B. cepacia complex strain ATCC 31433, pending further detailed taxonomic characterization. IMPORTANCE This work reports the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas mesoacidophila ATCC 31433, a known producer of bioactive compounds. Large numbers of both known and novel biosynthetic gene clusters were identified, indicating that P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is an untapped resource for discovery of novel bioactive compounds. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is in fact a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, most closely related to the species Burkholderia ubonensis Further investigation of the classification and biosynthetic potential of P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is warranted. Copyright © 2017

  18. Diglycolic acid, the toxic metabolite of diethylene glycol, chelates calcium and produces renal mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Taylor; Landry, Greg M; Aw, Tak Yee; Nichols, Royce; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2016-07-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) has caused many cases of acute kidney injury and deaths worldwide. Diglycolic acid (DGA) is the metabolite responsible for the renal toxicity, but its toxic mechanism remains unclear. To characterize the mitochondrial dysfunction produced from DGA by examining several mitochondrial processes potentially contributing to renal cell toxicity. The effect of DGA on mitochondrial membrane potential was examined in normal human proximal tubule (HPT) cells. Isolated rat kidney mitochondria were used to assess the effects of DGA on mitochondrial function, including respiratory parameters (States 3 and 4), electron transport chain complex activities and calcium-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. DGA was compared with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) to determine calcium chelating ability. DGA cytotoxicity was assessed using lactate dehydrogenase leakage from cultured proximal tubule cells. DGA decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in HPT cells. In rat kidney mitochondria, DGA decreased State 3 respiration, but did not affect State 4 respiration or the ADP/O ratio. DGA reduced glutamate/malate respiration at lower DGA concentrations (0.5 mmol/L) than succinate respiration (100 mmol/L). DGA inhibited Complex II activity without altering Complex I, III or IV activities. DGA blocked calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling, indicating inhibition of the calcium-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition. DGA and EGTA reduced the free calcium concentration in solution in an equimolar manner. DGA toxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction occurred as similar concentrations. DGA inhibited mitochondrial respiration, but without uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. The more potent effect of DGA on glutamate/malate respiration and the inhibition of mitochondrial swelling was likely due to its chelation of calcium. These results indicate that DGA produces mitochondrial dysfunction by chelating calcium to

  19. Effects of Developmental Stages and Reduced UVB and Low UV Conditions on Plant Secondary Metabolite Profiles in Pak Choi (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Mandy; Hanschen, Franziska S; Wiesner-Reinhold, Melanie; Baldermann, Susanne; Gräfe, Jan; Schreiner, Monika; Neugart, Susanne

    2018-02-21

    Pak choi (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) is rich in secondary metabolites and contains numerous antioxidants, including flavonoids; hydroxycinnamic acids; carotenoids; chlorophylls; and glucosinolates, which can be hydrolyzed to epithionitriles, nitriles, or isothiocyanates. Here, we investigate the effect of reduced exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) and UV (UVA and UVB) light at four different developmental stages of pak choi. We found that both the plant morphology and secondary metabolite profiles were affected by reduced exposure to UVB and UV, depending on the plant's developmental stage. In detail, mature 15- and 30-leaf plants had higher concentrations of flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, carotenoids, and chlorophylls, whereas sprouts contained high concentrations of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products. Dry weights and leaf areas increased as a result of reduced UVB and low UV. For the flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in 30-leaf plants, less complex compounds were favored, for example, sinapic acid acylated kaempferol triglycoside instead of the corresponding tetraglycoside. Moreover, also in 30-leaf plants, zeaxanthin, a carotenoid linked to protection during photosynthesis, was increased under low UV conditions. Interestingly, most glucosinolates were not affected by reduced UVB and low UV conditions. However, this study underlines the importance of 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl glucosinolate in response to UVA and UVB exposure. Further, reduced UVB and low UV conditions resulted in higher concentrations of glucosinolate-derived nitriles. In conclusion, exposure to low doses of UVB and UV from the early to late developmental stages did not result in overall lower concentrations of plant secondary metabolites.

  20. Chemical Elicitor-Induced Modulation of Antioxidant Metabolism and Enhancement of Secondary Metabolite Accumulation in Cell Suspension Cultures of Scrophularia kakudensis Franch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinaya Manivannan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Scrophularia kakudensis is an important medicinal plant with pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites. To develop a sustainable source of naturaceuticals with vital therapeutic importance, a cell suspension culture was established in S. kakudensis for the first time. Friable calli were induced from the leaf explants cultured on a Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing 3.0 mg·L−1 6-benzyladenine (BA in a combination with 2 mg·L−1 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. From the callus cultures, a cell suspension culture was initiated and the cellular differentiation was investigated. In addition, the effect of biotic elicitors such as methyl jasmonate (MeJa, salicylic acid (SA, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP on the accumulation of secondary metabolites and antioxidant properties was demonstrated. Among the elicitors, the MeJa elicited the accumulation of total phenols, flavonoids, and acacetin, a flavonoid compound with multiple pharmaceutical values. Similarly, the higher concentrations of the MeJa significantly modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes and enhanced the scavenging potentials of free radicals of cell suspension extracts. Overall, the outcomes of this study can be utilized for the large scale production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites from S. kakudensis through cell suspension cultures.

  1. Chemical Elicitor-Induced Modulation of Antioxidant Metabolism and Enhancement of Secondary Metabolite Accumulation in Cell Suspension Cultures of Scrophularia kakudensis Franch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2016-03-18

    Scrophularia kakudensis is an important medicinal plant with pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites. To develop a sustainable source of naturaceuticals with vital therapeutic importance, a cell suspension culture was established in S. kakudensis for the first time. Friable calli were induced from the leaf explants cultured on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 3.0 mg·L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) in a combination with 2 mg·L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). From the callus cultures, a cell suspension culture was initiated and the cellular differentiation was investigated. In addition, the effect of biotic elicitors such as methyl jasmonate (MeJa), salicylic acid (SA), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the accumulation of secondary metabolites and antioxidant properties was demonstrated. Among the elicitors, the MeJa elicited the accumulation of total phenols, flavonoids, and acacetin, a flavonoid compound with multiple pharmaceutical values. Similarly, the higher concentrations of the MeJa significantly modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes and enhanced the scavenging potentials of free radicals of cell suspension extracts. Overall, the outcomes of this study can be utilized for the large scale production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites from S. kakudensis through cell suspension cultures.

  2. Can Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. in vitro culture be a potential source of secondary metabolites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, Karuppiah; Gokulanathan, Ananda; Jayanthi, Malayandi; Govindasamy, Vaithiyanathan; Milella, Luigi; Lee, Sungyoung; Yang, Deok Chun; Girija, Shanmugam

    2016-03-01

    In this study Ocimum basilicum L. (OB) and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (OT) in vitro culture standardisation for increasing eugenol distribution, in comparison to their respective field grown parts was carried out. Eugenol was quantified using an optimised HPLC method and its relation with the total phenolic content (TPC) was measured. In vitro grown leaves and somatic embryos, of both OB and OT were found to contain similar quantities of eugenol (85μg/g approximately), higher than OB and OT field-grown leaves (30.2μg/g and 25.1μg/g respectively). It was also determined that in vitro grown leaves were richer in TPC than the field-grown intact organs. Results demonstrated the prominence of in vitro cultures for eugenol extraction. This study underlines that important food flavouring metabolites (e.g. vanillin, vanillic acids) might be produced, via the eugenol pathway, in Ocimum species that may be a good potential source of eugenol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Comparison of the secondary electrons produced by proton and electron beams in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: m-r-kia@aut.ac.ir; Noshad, Houshyar [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The secondary electrons produced in water by electron and proton beams are compared with each other. The total ionization cross section (TICS) for an electron impact in water is obtained by using the binary-encounter-Bethe model. Hence, an empirical equation based on two adjustable fitting parameters is presented to determine the TICS for proton impact in media. In order to calculate the projectile trajectory, a set of stochastic differential equations based on the inelastic collision, elastic scattering, and bremsstrahlung emission are used. In accordance with the projectile trajectory, the depth dose deposition, electron energy loss distribution in a certain depth, and secondary electrons produced in water are calculated. The obtained results for the depth dose deposition and energy loss distribution in certain depth for electron and proton beams with various incident energies in media are in excellent agreement with the reported experimental data. The difference between the profiles for the depth dose deposition and production of secondary electrons for a proton beam can be ignored approximately. But, these profiles for an electron beam are completely different due to the effect of elastic scattering on electron trajectory.

  4. Antiproton Radiotherapy Peripheral Dose from Secondary Neutrons produced in the Annihilation of Antiprotons in the Target

    CERN Document Server

    Fahimian, Benjamin P; Keyes, Roy; Bassler, Niels; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; Zankl, Maria; Holzscheiter, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    The AD-4/ACE collaboration studies the biological effects of antiprotons with respect to a possible use of antiprotons in cancer therapy. In vitro experiments performed by the collaboration have shown an enhanced biological effectiveness for antiprotons relative to protons. One concern is the normal tissue dose resulting from secondary neutrons produced in the annihilation of antiprotons on the nucleons of the target atoms. Here we present the first organ specific Monte Carlo calculations of normal tissue equivalent neutron dose in antiproton therapy through the use of a segmented CT-based human phantom. The MCNPX Monte Carlo code was employed to quantify the peripheral dose for a cylindrical spread out Bragg peak representing a treatment volume of 1 cm diameter and 1 cm length in the frontal lobe of a segmented whole-body phantom of a 38 year old male. The secondary neutron organ dose was tallied as a function of energy and organ.

  5. National economic aspects of non-electric secondary energy carriers produced by nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Bohn, T.

    1976-01-01

    The potential for nuclear process heat is being disclosed on the basis of energy requirements and, in particular, with a view to heat demand. Secondary energy carriers, which can be produced with the aid of nuclear process heat, are gaining particular significance in a time where shortages in oil and natural gas are to be expected. Competing with electric power, they will acquire a noticeable share in the supply of final energy for reasons of an increased security of supply as well as for economical reasons. The various technical possibilities for the production of line-dependent secondary energy carriers are being demonstrated. Following this, it will be pointed out that the long lead times required for these technologies necessitate an expeditious and energetic pursuance of adequate developments even today. Finally it will be shown at what rates an implementation of the different technologies is possible. (orig.) [de

  6. Traffic of secondary metabolites to cell surface in the red alga Laurencia dendroidea depends on a two-step transport by the cytoskeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M Reis

    Full Text Available In Laurencia dendroidea, halogenated secondary metabolites are primarily located in the vacuole named the corps en cerise (CC. For chemical defence at the surface level, these metabolites are intracellularly mobilised through vesicle transport from the CC to the cell periphery for posterior exocytosis of these chemicals. The cell structures involved in this specific vesicle traffic as well as the cellular structures related to the positioning and anchoring of the CC within the cell are not well known. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of cytoskeletal elements in both processes. Cellular and molecular assays were conducted to i determine the ultrastructural apparatus involved in the vesicle traffic, ii localise cytoskeletal filaments, iii evaluate the role of different cytoskeletal filaments in the vesicle transport, iv identify the cytoskeletal filaments responsible for the positioning and anchoring of the CC, and v identify the transcripts related to cytoskeletal activity and vesicle transport. Our results show that microfilaments are found within the connections linking the CC to the cell periphery, playing an essential role in the vesicle traffic at these connections, which means a first step of the secondary metabolites transport to the cell surface. After that, the microtubules work in the positioning of the vesicles along the cell periphery towards specific regions where exocytosis takes place, which corresponds to the second step of the secondary metabolites transport to the cell surface. In addition, microtubules are involved in anchoring and positioning the CC to the cell periphery. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the expression of genes coding for actin filaments, microtubules, motor proteins and cytoskeletal accessory proteins. Genes related to vesicle traffic, exocytosis and membrane recycling were also identified. Our findings show, for the first time, that actin microfilaments and microtubules play an underlying cellular role

  7. Chemistry of Secondary Polyphenols Produced during Processing of Tea and Selected Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This review will discuss recent progress in the chemistry of secondary polyphenols produced during food processing. The production mechanism of the secondary polyphenols in black tea, whisky, cinnamon, and persimmon fruits will be introduced. In the process of black tea production, tea leaf catechins are enzymatically oxidized to yield a complex mixture of oxidation products, including theaflavins and thearubigins. Despite the importance of the beverage, most of the chemical constituents have not yet been confirmed due to the complexity of the mixture. However, the reaction mechanisms at the initial stages of catechin oxidation are explained by simple quinone–phenol coupling reactions. In vitro model experiments indicated the presence of interesting regio- and stereoselective reactions. Recent results on the reaction mechanisms will be introduced. During the aging of whisky in oak wood barrels, ellagitannins originating from oak wood are oxidized and react with ethanol to give characteristic secondary ellagitannins. The major part of the cinnamon procyanidins is polymerized by copolymerization with cinnamaldehyde. In addition, anthocyanidin structural units are generated in the polymer molecules by oxidation which accounts for the reddish coloration of the cinnamon extract. This reaction is related to the insolubilization of proanthocyanidins in persimmon fruits by condensation with acetaldehyde. In addition to oxidation, the reaction of polyphenols with aldehydes may be important in food processing.

  8. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on secondary metabolites in forage plants and potential consequences for multiple trophic responses involving mammalian herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thines, Nicole J.; Bassman, John H.; Shipley, Lisa A.; Slusser, James R.

    2004-10-01

    Herbivores represent the interface between primary production and higher trophic levels. The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on microbes, invertebrate herbivores, and detritivores has received limited study in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, although direct effects (e.g. melanoma, cataracts) on mammals have been documented, indirect effects (e.g., resulting from changes in plant chemistry) of enhanced UV-B on mammalian herbivores have not been evaluated. Although the diet of mammalian herbivores has little effect on nutritional quality for their associated predators, to the extent changes in plant chemistry affect aspects of population dynamics (e.g., growth, fecundity, densities), higher trophic levels can be affected. In this study, different forage species of varying inherent levels of key secondary metabolites are being grown in the field under either ambient or ambient plus supplemental UV-B radiation simulating a 15% stratospheric ozone depletion for Pullman, Washington. At various time intervals, foliage is being sampled and analyzed for changes in secondary metabolites and other attributes. Using controlled feeding trials, changes in plant secondary metabolites are being related to preference and digestibility in specialist and generalist mammalian hindgut herbivores, digestion in ruminants and non-ruminants, and to selected aspects of population dynamics in mammalian herbivores. Results suggest how UV-B-induced changes in plant secondary chemistry affect animal nutrition, and thus animal productivity in a range of mammalian herbivores. Reductions in palatability and digestibility of plant material along with reductions in fecundity and other aspects of population dynamics could have significant economic ramifications for farmers, ranchers and wildlife biologists.

  9. Metabolites of the phenylurea herbicides chlorotoluron, diuron, isoproturon and linuron produced by the soil fungus Mortierella sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badawi, Nora; Ronhede, Stig [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Ostervoldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Olsson, Stefan [Section of Genetics and Microbiology, Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Kragelund, Birthe B. [Structural Biology and NMR Laboratory, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen N (Denmark); Johnsen, Anders H. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Jacobsen, Ole Stig [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Ostervoldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Aamand, Jens, E-mail: jeaa@geus.d [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Ostervoldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2009-10-15

    Phenylurea herbicides are used worldwide, and often pollute surface- and groundwater in concentrations exceeding the limit value for drinking water (0.1 mug l{sup -1}). Bacteria degrade phenylurea herbicides by successive N-dealkylation to substituted aniline products. Little is known about the corresponding fungal pathways, however. We here report degradation of chlorotoluron, diuron, isoproturon and linuron by the soil fungus Mortierella sp. Gr4. Degradation was fastest with linuron and resulted in successively dealkylated metabolites and 3,4-dichloroaniline. A major new metabolite was detected that has not yet been fully identified. Thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicate that it is a non-aromatic diol. Degradation of isoproturon, chlorotoluron and diuron involved successive N-demethylation and, in the case of isoproturon and chlorotoluron, additional hydroxylation. A new hydroxylated isoproturon metabolite was detected. The study thus shows that the fungal pathways differ from the bacterial pathways and yield new metabolites of possible environmental concern. - Fungal degradation of phenylurea herbicides results in the formation of hydroxylated metabolites and 3,4-dichloroaniline.

  10. Silencing Onion Lachrymatory Factor Synthase Causes a Significant Change in the Sulfur Secondary Metabolite Profile1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eady, Colin C.; Kamoi, Takahiro; Kato, Masahiro; Porter, Noel G.; Davis, Sheree; Shaw, Martin; Kamoi, Akiko; Imai, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Through a single genetic transformation in onion (Allium cepa), a crop recalcitrant to genetic transformation, we suppressed the lachrymatory factor synthase gene using RNA interference silencing in six plants. This reduced lachrymatory synthase activity by up to 1,544-fold, so that when wounded the onions produced significantly reduced levels of tear-inducing lachrymatory factor. We then confirmed, through a novel colorimetric assay, that this silencing had shifted the trans-S-1-propenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide breakdown pathway so that more 1-propenyl sulfenic acid was converted into di-1-propenyl thiosulfinate. A consequence of this raised thiosulfinate level was a marked increase in the downstream production of a nonenzymatically produced zwiebelane isomer and other volatile sulfur compounds, di-1-propenyl disulfide and 2-mercapto-3,4-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrothiophene, which had previously been reported in trace amounts or had not been detected in onion. The consequences of this dramatic simultaneous down- and up-regulation of secondary sulfur products on the health and flavor attributes of the onion are discussed. PMID:18583530

  11. Vitamin D3 metabolite calcidiol primes human dendritic cells to promote the development of immunomodulatory IL-10-producing T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakdash, Ghaith; van Capel, Toni M. M.; Mason, Lauren M. K.; Kapsenberg, Martien L.; de Jong, Esther C.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is recognized as a potent immunosuppressive drug. The suppressive effects of vitamin D are attributed to its physiologically active metabolite 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 (calcitriol), which was shown, to prime dendritic cells (DCs) to promote the development of regulatory T (Treg) cells.</