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Sample records for secondary malignant neoplasms

  1. Secondary malignant neoplasms in testicular cancer survivors.

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    Curreri, Stephanie A; Fung, Chunkit; Beard, Clair J

    2015-09-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 15 to 40 years, and the incidence of testicular cancer is steadily increasing. Despite successful treatment outcomes and the rate of survival at 5 to 10 years being 95%, survivors can experience late effects of both their cancer and the treatment they received, including secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs). We discuss the development of non-germ cell SMNs that develop after diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer and their effect on mortality. Patients diagnosed with testicular cancer frequently choose postoperative surveillance if they are diagnosed with clinical stage I disease. These patients may experience an increased risk for developing SMNs following radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging. Similarly, radiotherapy for testicular cancer is associated with increased risks of developing both solid tumors and leukemia. Studies have reported that patients exposed to higher doses of radiation have an increased risk of developing SMNs when compared with patients who received lower doses of radiation. Patients treated with chemotherapy also experience an increased risk of developing SMNs following testicular cancer, though the risk following chemotherapy and radiation therapy combined is not well described. A large population-based study concluded that the rate ratios for both cancer-specific and all-cause mortality for SMNs among testicular cancer survivors were not significantly different from those of matched first cancers. Although it is known that patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or who undergo routine diagnostic or follow-up imaging for a primary testicular cancer are at an increased risk for developing SMNs, the extent of this risk is largely unknown. It is critically important that research be conducted to determine this risk and its contributing factors as accurately as possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

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    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  3. Estimate of the uncertainties in the relative risk of secondary malignant neoplasms following proton therapy and intensity-modulated photon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontenot, Jonas D; Bloch, Charles; Followill, David; Titt, Uwe; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical calculations have shown that proton therapy can reduce the incidence of radiation-induced secondary malignant neoplasms (SMN) compared with photon therapy for patients with prostate cancer. However, the uncertainties associated with calculations of SMN risk had not been assessed. The objective of this study was to quantify the uncertainties in projected risks of secondary cancer following contemporary proton and photon radiotherapies for prostate cancer. We performed a rigorous propagation of errors and several sensitivity tests to estimate the uncertainty in the ratio of relative risk (RRR) due to the largest contributors to the uncertainty: the radiation weighting factor for neutrons, the dose-response model for radiation carcinogenesis and interpatient variations in absorbed dose. The interval of values for the radiation weighting factor for neutrons and the dose-response model were derived from the literature, while interpatient variations in absorbed dose were taken from actual patient data. The influence of each parameter on a baseline RRR value was quantified. Our analysis revealed that the calculated RRR was insensitive to the largest contributors to the uncertainty. Uncertainties in the radiation weighting factor for neutrons, the shape of the dose-risk model and interpatient variations in therapeutic and stray doses introduced a total uncertainty of 33% to the baseline RRR calculation.

  4. Predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm incidence and mortality due to secondary neutrons in a girl and boy receiving proton craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, Phillip J; Mirkovic, Dragan; Zhang Rui; Giebeler, Annelise; Harvey, Mark; Newhauser, Wayne D; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Woo, Shiao

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) incidence and mortality from secondary neutrons for a 9-year-old girl and a 10-year-old boy who received proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI). SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons were predicted from equivalent doses to radiosensitive organs for cranial, spinal and intracranial boost fields. Therapeutic proton absorbed dose and equivalent dose from neutrons were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Risks of SMN incidence and mortality in most organs and tissues were predicted by applying risks models from the National Research Council of the National Academies to the equivalent dose from neutrons; for non-melanoma skin cancer, risk models from the International Commission on Radiological Protection were applied. The lifetime absolute risks of SMN incidence due to neutrons were 14.8% and 8.5%, for the girl and boy, respectively. The risks of a fatal SMN were 5.3% and 3.4% for the girl and boy, respectively. The girl had a greater risk for any SMN except colon and liver cancers, indicating that the girl's higher risks were not attributable solely to greater susceptibility to breast cancer. Lung cancer predominated the risk of SMN mortality for both patients. This study suggests that the risks of SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons may be greater for girls than for boys treated with proton CSI.

  5. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, W.C.; Klein, M.J.; Pitt, M.J.; Siegal, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in malignant chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. (orig.)

  6. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2006-12-15

    This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in malignant chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. (orig.)

  7. Incidence and significance of Multiple Primary Malignant Neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Cho, Moon June; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il; Bang, Young Ju; Kim, Noe Kyung

    1986-01-01

    To know the three questions about multiple primary cancers: 1) what are the characteristics of persons having multiple primary cancer? 2) Dose presence of a single primary concern after the susceptibility to multiple primary cancers? 3) Dose the location of one multiple primary cancer influence the site of others?, we analysed 121 cases of multiple primary malignant neoplasms registered in Seoul National University Hospital during 8years from July 1978 to August 1986. Of 121 cases, double primary malignant neoplasms were 119 cases and triple were 2 cases. The incidence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms was 0.7%. The metachronous tumor(> 6 months) was found in 70 cases and the median time between the first and the second was 32 months. The most commonly associated tumors were stomach and primary liver carcinoma. Cervix and Lung cancer, Stomach and Rectal cancer, Stomach and Esophagus cancer were also commonly associated

  8. Study to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of Avelumab in Combination With Other Anti-Cancer Therapies in Patients With Advanced Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-27

    Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Malignant Neoplasms of Bone and Articular Cartilage; Malignant Neoplasms of Digestive Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Eye Brain and Other Parts of Central Nervous System; Malignant Neoplasms of Female Genital Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Ill-defined Secondary and Unspecified Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Independent (Primary) Multiple Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Lip Oral Cavity and Pharynx; Malignant Neoplasms of Male Genital Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Mesothelial and Soft Tissue; Malignant Neoplasms of Respiratory and Intrathoracic Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Thyroid and Other Endocrine Glands; Malignant Neoplasms of Urinary Tract; Neoplasms of Uncertain or Unknown Behavior

  9. Second Malignant Neoplasms After Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K.; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Attarbaschi, Andishe

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rare events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data on risk factors and outcomes of 642 children with SMNs occurring after treatment for ALL from 18 collaborative study groups between 19...

  10. RENAL MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS: RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

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    Elisangela Giachini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of malignant kidney tumors, to contribute to identifying factors which the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas. Through this study, we understand that kidney disease over the years had higher incidence rates, especially in adults in the sixth decade of life. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the third most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract, affecting 2% to 3% of the population. There are numerous ways of diagnosis; however, the most important are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In general most of the patients affected by the CCR, have a good prognosis when diagnosed early and subjected to an effective treatment. This study conducted a literature review about the CCR, through this it was possible to understand the development needs of the imaging methods used for precise diagnosis and classification of RCC through the TNM system.

  11. [Oral complications of chemotherapy of malignant neoplasms].

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    Obralić, N; Tahmiscija, H; Kobaslija, S; Beslija, S

    1999-01-01

    Function and integrity disorders of the oral cavity fall into the most frequent complication of the chemotherapy of leucemias, malignant lymphomas and solid tumors. Complications associated with cancer chemotherapy can be direct ones, resulting from the toxic action of antineoplastic agents on the proliferative lining of the mouth, or indirect, as a result of myelosuppression and immunosuppression. The most frequent oral complications associated with cancer chemotherapy are mucositis, infection and bleeding. The principles of prevention and management of oral complications during cancer chemotherapy are considered in this paper.

  12. Food habits in atomic bomb survivors suffering from malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Kazue; Inoue, Hisako; Uchino, Chito

    1984-01-01

    Food habits were surveyed in patients admitted to 13 hospitals in Nagasaki prefecture and other prefectures to compare the incidence of malignant neoplasms according to the food intake between atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group. The incidence of malignant neoplasms was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of milk and salted fish than in those having the high intake of them in atomic bomb exposed group, while it was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of potatoes and milk and in female patients having the low intake of boiled fish paste than in those having the high intake of them in non-exposed group. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, J.G.; Levinsky, R.; Ohel, G.

    1984-01-01

    The data of an epidemiologic study of multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel are presented. During the 18-year period of the study 12,302 cases of breast carcinoma were diagnosed, and, of these, 984 patients (8%) had multiple primary malignant tumors. Forty-seven of these patients developed two multiple primary cancers. A significantly higher than expected incidence of second primary cancers occurred at the following five sites: the opposite breast, salivary glands, uterine corpus, ovary, and thyroid. Cancers of the stomach and gallbladder were fewer than expected. Treatment of the breast cancer by irradiation was associated with an increased risk of subsequent cancers of lung and hematopoietic system. The prognosis was mainly influenced by the site and malignancy of the second primary cancer. The incidence of multiple primary malignancies justifies a high level of alertness to this possibility in the follow-up of breast cancer patients

  14. Secondary myeloid neoplasms: bone marrow cytogenetic and histological features may be relevant to prognosis

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    Roberta Sandra da Silva Tanizawa

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Secondary myeloid neoplasms comprise a group of diseases arising after chemotherapy, radiation, immunosuppressive therapy or from aplastic anemia. Few studies have addressed prognostic factors in these neoplasms. Method: Forty-two patients diagnosed from 1987 to 2008 with secondary myeloid neoplasms were retrospectively evaluated concerning clinical, biochemical, peripheral blood, bone marrow aspirate, biopsy, and immunohistochemistry and cytogenetic features at diagnosis as prognostic factors. The International Prognostic Scoring System was applied. Statistical analysis employed the Kaplan–Meier method, log-rank and Fisher's exact test. Results: Twenty-three patients (54.8% were male and the median age was 53.5 years (range: 4–88 years at diagnosis of secondary myeloid neoplasms. Previous diseases included hematologic malignancies, solid tumors, aplastic anemia, autoimmune diseases and conditions requiring solid organ transplantations. One third of patients (33% were submitted to chemotherapy alone, 2% to radiotherapy, 26% to both modalities and 28% to immunosuppressive agents. Five patients (11.9% had undergone autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The median latency between the primary disease and secondary myeloid neoplasms was 85 months (range: 23–221 months. Eight patients were submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to treat secondary myeloid neoplasms. Important changes in bone marrow were detected mainly by biopsy, immunohistochemistry and cytogenetics. The presence of clusters of CD117+ cells and p53+ cells were associated with low survival. p53 was associated to a higher risk according to the International Prognostic Scoring System. High prevalence of clonal abnormalities (84.3% and thrombocytopenia (78.6% were independent factors for poor survival. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that cytogenetics, bone marrow biopsy and immunohistochemistry are very important

  15. Malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczkowski, J.; Starzynska, A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present 17 cases of malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck observed in the Department of Otolaryngology in the years 1948-1993. The latest opinions on etiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of these tumors were described. Age and sex of patients, localization of tumor, symptoms histopathology and treatment were analyzed. Progressions of the disease were estimated retrospectively. It has been proved that these tumors develop quickly, give pain and paresthesia. Their diagnosis is very difficult because of their submucosal growth and difficult histopathological interpretation. A characteristic feature of these neurogenic tumors is the ability to give distant metastases. This feature differentiates them from squamous neoplasms, which give mainly nodal metastases. All the patients were subjected to surgery combined with conventional or high voltage radiotherapy. The positive effect of combined chemotherapy in cases of esthesioneuroblastoma is worthy of note. The prognosis in these tumors is often unfavorable. In the group under discussion 13 patients died because of recurrences, two patients are considered to be cured and the remaining 2 patients have had no recurrence for 2 and 3 years. (author)

  16. Autopsy findings of malignant neoplasms treated with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Atsushi; Ito, Jun; Tatezawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Toshinobu; Niibe, Hideo.

    1984-01-01

    Autopsy findings in 26 cases of malignant neoplasms treated with radiation were analysed and following results were obtained. 1. Causes of death except for neoplastic extension were 58% (15/26) and infection was the single predominant cause of death (73% : 11/15) with 50% (4/8) in lung cancer. 2. Distant metastases were found in 73% (19/26). In 7 cases, no obvious metastasis was found before and after autopsy. On the other hand, the patients with metastases over 2 organs before autopsy revealed metastases in 82% (9/11) to the other organs at autopsy. 3. Radiation therapy was effective and the primary tumor disappeared completely in 71% (10/14) with curative irradiation. In metastatic lesions, tumor cells were almost disappeared with dosage over 40 Gy. (author)

  17. Current trend of malignant neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made on 7,589 admitted patients and 1,965 autopsy cases. The overall incidence of malignant neoplasms tended to decrease in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases and to increase in admitted patients. The incidence of pulmonary cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to increase up to 1975, and thereafter tended to decrease. The incidence of liver cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients, which was marked in males. The incidence of leukemia was high in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases, and in the group within 1 km and the group which entered the city after the explosion in admitted patients. The incidence of malignant lymphoma tended to decrease, and the incidence of carcinoma of the colon tended to gradually increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of multiple carcinomas tended to increase in both atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group, being higher in atomic bomb group than in non-exposed group. The incidence of breast cancer became constant since 1970. The incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland tended to decrease, although it was high in the group exposed near the explosion. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Meningioma as second malignant neoplasm after oncological treatment during childhood

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    Mueller, H.L.; Gebhardt, U. [Klinikum Oldenburg (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology; Warmuth-Metz, M. [University Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Pietsch, T. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology; Soerensen, N. [Evangelisches Krankenhaus, Oldenburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kortmann, R.D. [University Hospital Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology

    2012-05-15

    A total of 38 patients (18 female/20 male) with childhood meningioma were recruited from the German registry HIT-Endo (1989-2009). In 5 cases meningioma occurred as second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Histologies were confirmed by reference assessment in all cases (SMN: 2 WHO I, 1 WHO II, 2 WHO III). The SMNs were diagnosed at a median age of 12.4 years with a median latency of 10.2 years after primary malignancy (PMN; 4 brain tumors, 1 lymphoblastic leukemia; median age at diagnosis 2.7 years). Meningioma occurred as SMN in the irradiated field of PMN (range 12-54 Gy). The outcome after treatment of SMN meningioma (surgery/irradiation) was favorable in terms of psychosocial status and functional capacity in 4 of 5 patients (1 death). We conclude that survivors of childhood cancer who were exposed to radiation therapy at young age harbor the risk of developing meningioma as a SMN at a particularly short latency period in case of high dose exposure. (orig.)

  19. THE EFFECT OF POLYMORPHISM IN GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASES ON THE DEVELOPING SECOND MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS AFTER LEUKEMIA TREATMENT IN CHILDHOOD

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    Janez Jazbec

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Survivors of childhood leukemia have an increased risk of developing second malignant neoplasms and specific treatment factors such as alkylating agents, topoisomerase inhibitors and radiation have been associated with their occurrence. Genetic polymorphism in drug-metabolizing enzymes may result in impared detoxification of chemotherapeutics and may lead to increased risk for cancer.Methods. To test if polymorphism in glutathione S-transferases (GST genes is associated with occurrence of secondary malignant neoplasms, we compared GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes among 16 patients treated for childhood leukemia in whom second neoplasm occurred and matched the control group.Results. GSTM1 null genotype was found in 44% of patients with second neoplasms and in 50% in control group (p = 0.768, GSTT1 null genotype in 19% of cases and in 29% of controls (p = 0.729 and GSTP1 105 Ile/ile in 50% of cases and 37% of controls (p = 0.537. Differences in distribution of GST genotypes in patients with second neoplasms after childhood leukemia, compared to a matched control group of patients were not statistically significant.Conclusions. In our study we were not able to show relation between GST genotype and occurrence of second neoplasms after the childhood acute leukemia.

  20. Tumor registry data, Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1957-1959: malignant neoplasms

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    Harada, Tomin; Ide, Masao; Ishida, Morihiro; Troup, G M

    1963-10-03

    The report concerns three aspects of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Tumor Registry data, 1957-1959: comparability, reliability and validity of incidence rates of malignant neoplasms obtained from the Tumor Registries and various statistical problems of registered data related to the Life Span Study sample and Adult Health Study sample; incidence rates of main site of malignant neoplasms obtained from the Tumor Registries are compared with those of the United States and Denmark; and incidence of malignant neoplasm among Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. 15 references, 7 figures, 30 tables.

  1. Microvessel and mast cell densities in malignant laryngeal neoplasm

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    Balica Nicolae Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal neoplasm contributes to 30-40% of carcinomas of the head and neck. Mast cells are normal connective tissue residents, well represented in the respiratory tract. Experimental evidence suggests that the growth of a tumor beyond a certain size requires angiogenesis, which may also permit metastasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between mast cell density, microvascular density, histopathological type and histological grade. Our study included 38 laryngeal carcinomas as follows: adenoid cystic carcinoma (2 cases, malignant papilloma (2 cases and squamous cell carcinoma (34 cases. The combined technique of CD 34-alcian blue safranin (ABS was used to identify microvessel and mast cell density, which was quantified by the hot spot method. A significant correlation was found between both mast cell and microvascular density, and G1/G2 histological grade (p=0.002 and p=0.004, respectively. Squamous cell carcinoma was significantly correlated with mast cell density (p=0.003, but not with microvascular density (p=0.454.

  2. Esophageal and stomach malignant neoplasms characterization at Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Razuk Filho; Júlio César Martinez

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: the aim of this study is to collect and organize data on the incidence and prevalence of patients with malignant neoplasms of the esophagus and stomach in Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba of the past six years. Methods: we conducted a survey of data on incidence, prevalence, age and sex of patients with malignant neoplasms of the esophagus and stomach that were admitted, treated and/or surgery at Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba, in the last six years. Results: we analyz...

  3. Histologically benign but clinically malignant neoplasms in the thorax: CT–pathological overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.Y.; Kim, T.S.; Han, J.; Kim, H.; Choi, Y.S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the computed tomography (CT) and histopathological features of uncommon primary neoplasms of the thorax that can manifest clinically malignant features (multiplicity of pulmonary nodules, an invasive nature, and metastases or recurrence after surgery) with little evidence of histological malignancy.

  4. Assessing the occupational nature of malignant lung neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevc, J.; Klener, V.; Plank, V.

    1989-01-01

    The development of lung carcinoma in uranium miners is discussed. In spite of the decreasing radiation risks in mines, the absolute number of neoplasms has increased since the 1960's; this is due to the increasing number of miners, improved diagnostic methods and the aging of miners who thus enter higher age groups where a higher incidence of neoplasms can be expected. The probabilistic method was shown to be of help in deciding whether individual cases of lung carcinoma should be considered an occupational disease; new possible improvements of the method are suggested. (J.J.). 12 refs

  5. Second Primary Malignant Neoplasms and Survival in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors.

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    Keegan, Theresa H M; Bleyer, Archie; Rosenberg, Aaron S; Li, Qian; Goldfarb, Melanie

    2017-11-01

    Although the increased incidence of second primary malignant neoplasms (SPMs) is a well-known late effect after cancer, few studies have compared survival after an SPM to survival of the same cancer occurring as first primary malignant neoplasm (PM) by age. To assess the survival impact of SPMs in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) (15-39 years) compared with that of pediatric (cancer in 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results regions in the United States diagnosed from 1992 to 2008 and followed through 2013. Data analysis was performed between June 2016 and January 2017. Five-year relative survival was calculated overall and for each cancer occurring as a PM or SPM by age at diagnosis. The impact of SPM status on cancer-specific death was examined using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. A total of 15 954 pediatric, 125 750 AYAs, and 878 370 older adult patients diagnosed as having 14 cancers occurring as a PM or SPM were included. Overall, 5-year survival after an SPM was 33.1% lower for children, 20.2% lower for AYAs, and 8.3% lower for older adults compared with a PM at the same age. For the most common SPMs in AYAs, the absolute difference in 5-year survival was 42% lower for secondary non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 19% for secondary breast carcinoma, 15% for secondary thyroid carcinoma, and 13% for secondary soft-tissue sarcoma. Survival by SPM status was significantly worse in younger vs older patients for thyroid, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia, soft-tissue sarcoma, and central nervous system cancer. Adolescents and young adults with secondary Hodgkin lymphoma (hazard ratio [95% CI], 3.5 [1.7-7.1]); soft-tissue sarcoma (2.8 [2.1-3.9]); breast carcinoma (2.1 [1.8-2.4]); acute myeloid leukemia (1.9 [1.5-2.4]); and central nervous system cancer (1.8 [1.2-2.8]) experienced worse survival compared with AYAs with the same PMs. The adverse impact of SPMs on survival is substantial for AYAs and may partially

  6. Malignant Nonfunctioning Neuroendocrine Neoplasm of the Pancreas in a 10-Year-Old Child

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    Ahmed Marwan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant neoplasms of the pancreas are extremely rare in children and only represent a small percentage of pediatric cancer-related deaths. The paucity of cases reported in the literature, in addition to the lack of understanding of biologic behavior, has led to a lack of consensus concerning optimal management strategy. Presentation differs compared to adult counterparts and generally prognosis is improved even when lymph node metastases occur. Here we review the literature and report the case of a 10-year-old autistic female with a malignant nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine neoplasm of the head of the pancreas successfully extirpated via pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  7. P14.06 Central nervous system symptoms as the first manifestation of malignant neoplasm

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    Espírito Santo, V.; Almendra, R.; Mendes, M.; Veiga, A.; Velon, A.; Guimarães, P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Neurological involvement is a frequent complication of systemic neoplasm, but not all secondary lesions have clinical manifestations, and there are fewer cases in which first symptom is neurological. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study between January 2006 through November 2016 of patients in whom neurological manifestations due to metastases were the inaugural manifestation of systemic neoplasm. Results: Twenty-six patients (19 male, 7 female) between the ages of 48 and 85 were identified. The main complaints were motor deficit (n = 10), headache (n = 7), behaviour change (n = 3), sensory deficit (n = 2), language disorder (n=1), visual disorder (n=1), syncope (n = 1) and dizziness (n = 1), with 11 patients presenting with symptoms other than the main complaint. Twenty-four patients had brain metastases, in 9 patients, it was solitary, in 5 patients, 2 lesions were found and in the remaining 9, 3 or more lesions were found. Two patients had multiple spinal metastases and 1 patient presented meningeal carcinomatosis. The primary neoplasm were of pulmonary origin (n = 17), gastric (n = 1), prostatic (n = 1), rectal (n = 1) and skin (n=1). In 5 patients the primary lesion remained hidden. Histology results were available in 19 patients: adenocarcinoma (n = 13), small cell carcinoma (n = 3), spinous cell carcinoma (n = 1), melanoma (n = 1) and linitis plastica (n=1). The treatment consisted in corticosteroid treatment (n = 23), chemotherapy (n = 11), radiotherapy (n = 11), surgery (n = 2) and hormonal treatment (n = 1). The mean survival was 225 days, ranging from 9 to 801 days. Conclusions: With this work we verified a broad spectrum of central nervous system symptoms as clinical presentation of malignant neoplasm. In these cases, a detailed investigation is essential for the treatment and prognosis of these patients.

  8. Clinical parameters predictive of malignancy of thyroid follicular neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, N.L.; Gordon, M.; Germann, E.; Robins, R.E.; McGregor, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    Needle aspiration biopsy is commonly employed in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Unfortunately, the cytologic finding of a 'follicular neoplasm' does not distinguish between a thyroid adenoma and a follicular cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters that characterize patients with an increased risk of having a thyroid follicular cancer who preoperatively have a 'follicular neoplasm' identified by needle aspiration biopsy. A total of 395 patients initially treated at Vancouver General Hospital and the British Columbia Cancer Agency between the years of 1965 and 1985 were identified and their data were entered into a computer database. Patients with thyroid adenomas were compared to patients with follicular cancer using the chi-square test and Student's t-test. Statistically significant parameters that distinguished patients at risk of having a thyroid cancer (p less than 0.05) included age greater than 50 years, nodule size greater than 3 cm, and a history of neck irradiation. Sex, family history of goiter or neoplasm, alcohol and tobacco use, and use of exogenous estrogen were not significant parameters. Patients can be identified preoperatively to be at an increased risk of having a follicular cancer and accordingly appropriate surgical resection can be planned

  9. Endoscopic Ultrasound Fine-Needle Aspiration Characteristics of Primary Adenocarcinoma versus Other Malignant Neoplasms of The Pancreas

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    Veronika Gagovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS with fine-needle aspiration (FNA is often used to assist in the evaluation of pancreatic lesions and may help to diagnose benign versus malignant neoplasms. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding comparative EUS characteristics of various malignant pancreatic neoplasms (primary and metastatic.

  10. Second malignant neoplasms after childhood cancer: a report of three cases of osteogenic sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ironside, J.A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The rising incidence of second malignant neoplasms after childhood cancer, whilst due in part to increasing numbers of survivors, is also thought to be related to increasingly more intensive combined modality treatment schedules. Three illustrative cases are reported in which radiation therapy in childhood for the first cancer is thought to have been a significant aetiological factor in the pathogenesis of the second malignancy (which in all three patients was an osteogenic sarcoma). (author)

  11. Risk of malignant neoplasms in acromegaly: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, K; Stangierski, A; Dyrda, K; Nowicka, K; Pelka, M; Iqbal, A; Car, A; Lazizi, M; Bednarek, N; Czarnywojtek, A; Gurgul, E; Ruchala, M

    2017-03-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic disease resulting from pathological oversecretion of growth hormone and subsequently insulin growth factor-1. Several complications of the disease have been reported, including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders but also increased risk of benign and malignant neoplasms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of malignant neoplasms in the patients with acromegaly in comparison with the control group. Medical documentation of acromegalic patients treated in one medical center between 2005 and 2016 has been analyzed. Results were compared with sex- and age-matched group of subjects with prolactinomas and hormonally inactive pituitary lesions hospitalized in the same department. Two hundred patients with acromegaly were included. Control group was composed of 145 patients. Any malignant neoplasm in anamnesis was present in 27 (13.5 %) patients with acromegaly and six (4.1 %) subjects from control group (p = 0.003). Thyroid cancer was present in 14 (7.0 %) patients with acromegaly and two (1.4 %) in control group (p = 0.02). Breast cancer was present in seven women (5.4 % of women) in acromegaly group but none of subjects in control group (p = 0.02). Colon cancer-4 (2.0 %) patients in acromegaly group and 0 in control group (p = 0.14). Malignant neoplasms are significantly more common in patients with acromegaly. Particularly, risk of thyroid cancer was increased over fivefold. Systematic screening for neoplastic diseases should be important part of follow-up in these patients. Further case-control studies are strongly indicated to evaluate which neoplasms are more common in acromegalic patients and what is the exact risk of malignancy.

  12. Metachronous Multiple Primary Malignant Neoplasms of the Stomach and the Breast: Report of Two Cases With Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Sistla, Sarath Chandra; Srinivasan, Ramachandran; Basu, Debdatta; Panicker, Lakshmi C.; Ali, Sheik Manwar; Rajkumar, Nagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple primary malignant neoplasm is the occurrence of a second primary malignancy in the same patient within 6 months of the detection of first primary (synchronous), or 6 months or more after primary detection (metachronous). Multiple primary malignant neoplasms are not very frequently encountered in clinical practice. The relative risk for a second primary malignancy increases by 1.111-fold every month from the detection of the first primary malignancy in any individual. We present 2 patients treated for carcinoma of the breast who developed a metachronous primary malignancy in the stomach to highlight the rare occurrence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms. These tumors were histologically dissimilar, with distinct immunohistochemical parameters. The importance lies in carefully identifying the second primary malignancies, not dismissing them as metastases, and treating them accordingly. PMID:24444270

  13. Some correlations between eight types of malignant neoplasms: A hint from cancer dynamics of 31 European countries in 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the data of standardised death rates of malignant neoplasms per 100000 inhabitants in 31 European countries during 1994-2013 were used to analyze linear correlations between eight types of cancers in terms of induced death rates. The results showed that most pairs of cancers closely correlate to each other. The malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri (women and the malignant neoplasm of trachea, bronchus and lung correlate most closely (r=0.5915, followed by the malignant neoplasms (r=0.4832 of colon, rectosigmoid junction, rectum, anus and anal canal and lymphatic/haematopoietic tissue, the malignant neoplasms (r=-0.483 of stomach, and trachea, bronchus and lung, the malignant neoplasms (r=0.4605 of skin and prostate (men, the malignant neoplasms (r=0.4344 of colon, rectosigmoid junction, rectum, anus and anal canal and trachea, bronchus and lung, etc. These correlations are likely caused by common or adverse environmental, social, medical or even genetic / molecular factors.

  14. Role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the management of thrombocytopenic patients with malignant neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriuchi, N.; Korkmaz, M.; Kim, E.E.; Delpassand, E.S.; Wong, F.; Podoloff, D.A. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Wallace, S. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1998-03-01

    This study was done to investigate the role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant neoplasms. The study involved 20 consecutive patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms or hematological disorders and without evidence of underproduction of megakaryocytes due to chemotherapy or bone marrow infiltration by the malignancy. Splenic sequestration of platelets was evaluated by measuring spenic uptake of {sup 111}In-labelled platelets, and findings were correlated with the outcome of splenectomy and medication. Of the 20 patients, 13 had splenic sequestration of platelets. Seven of the 13 patients underwent splenectomy; six of these seven patients experienced a complete response. The other six patients received medication only and showed no response. Of the seven patients without splenic sequestration of platelets, five received medication, and four of them responded to it. {sup 111}In-labelled platelet scintigraphy has a role in selecting appropriate therapy and predicting its efficacy in patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms. (orig.)

  15. Role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the management of thrombocytopenic patients with malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriuchi, N.; Korkmaz, M.; Kim, E.E.; Delpassand, E.S.; Wong, F.; Podoloff, D.A.; Wallace, S.

    1998-01-01

    This study was done to investigate the role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant neoplasms. The study involved 20 consecutive patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms or hematological disorders and without evidence of underproduction of megakaryocytes due to chemotherapy or bone marrow infiltration by the malignancy. Splenic sequestration of platelets was evaluated by measuring spenic uptake of 111 In-labelled platelets, and findings were correlated with the outcome of splenectomy and medication. Of the 20 patients, 13 had splenic sequestration of platelets. Seven of the 13 patients underwent splenectomy; six of these seven patients experienced a complete response. The other six patients received medication only and showed no response. Of the seven patients without splenic sequestration of platelets, five received medication, and four of them responded to it. 111 In-labelled platelet scintigraphy has a role in selecting appropriate therapy and predicting its efficacy in patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms. (orig.)

  16. Resection for secondary malignancy of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hsia; Wang, Shin-E; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chen, Tien-Hua; Wu, Chew-Wun

    2012-01-01

    This study tried to clarify the role of pancreatic resection in the treatment of secondary malignancy with metastasis or local invasion to the pancreas in terms of surgical risk and survival benefit. Data of secondary malignancy of the pancreas from our 19 patients and cases reported in the English literature were pooled together for analysis. There were 329 cases of resected secondary malignancy of the pancreas, including 241 cases of metastasis and 88 cases of local invasion. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the pancreas and amenable to resection was renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (73.9%). More than half (52.3%) of the primary cancers with local invasion to the pancreas were colon cancer, and nearly half (40.9%) were stomach cancer. The median metastatic interval was 84 months (7 years) for overall primary tumors and 108 months (9 years) for RCC. The 5-year survival for secondary malignancy of the pancreas after resection was 61.1% for metastasis and 58.9% for local invasion, with 72.8% for RCC metastasis, 69.0% for colon cancer, and 43.8% for stomach cancer with local invasion to the pancreas. Pancreatic resection should not be precluded for secondary malignancy of the pancreas because long-term survival could be achieved with acceptable surgical risk in selected patients.

  17. Primary malignant melanoma of the female urethra: Report of a rare neoplasm of the urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Bhutani

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melanoma is a malignant tumor that can affect any area of the anatomical economy. Its occurance in the female urethra is extremely rare. We report a case of primary malignant urethral melanoma developed in an elderly female patient. Presentation of case: A 70 years old female presented with dysuria, poor stream, gross haematuria, intermittent blood spots, and a painful mass. On physical examination, there were no suspicious lesions on the skin. On external genital examination, a lesion at the level of the urethral meatus was observed. The mass was removed by wide local excision under spinal anaesthesia. The pathological diagnosis was malignant melanoma of the urethra. Discussion: The common presentations include bleeding and/or discharge per urethra, voiding dysfunction and the presence of tumor mass. Survival depends on the stage, location and size of the neoplasm at the time of diagnosis. Despite major surgery, radiotherapy or immunotherapy; malignant melanoma usually has a poor prognosis. Conclusion: Melanoma of the female urethra is an extremely uncommon pathology leading to paucity of literature and any definite recommendations regarding management. The histological and immunohistochemical findings can be helpful in making an early and accurate diagnosis of malignant melanoma in the urogenital region. Keywords: Case report, Female urethral cancer, Immunohistochemistry, Malignant melanoma, Urethral neoplasm

  18. Malignant Lymphatic and Hematopoietic Neoplasms Mortality in Serbia, 1991–2010: A Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data on mortality from malignant lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms have been published for Serbia. Methods The study covered population of Serbia during the 1991–2010 period. Mortality trends were assessed using the joinpoint regression analysis. Results Trend for overall death rates from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms significantly decreased: by −2.16% per year from 1991 through 1998, and then significantly increased by +2.20% per year for the 1998–2010 period. The growth during the entire period was on average +0.8% per year (95% CI 0.3 to 1.3). Mortality was higher among males than among females in all age groups. According to the comparability test, mortality trends from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms in men and women were parallel (final selected model failed to reject parallelism, P = 0.232). Among younger Serbian population (0–44 years old) in both sexes: trends significantly declined in males for the entire period, while in females 15–44 years of age mortality rates significantly declined only from 2003 onwards. Mortality trend significantly increased in elderly in both genders (by +1.7% in males and +1.5% in females in the 60–69 age group, and +3.8% in males and +3.6% in females in the 70+ age group). According to the comparability test, mortality trend for Hodgkin's lymphoma differed significantly from mortality trends for all other types of malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms (P<0.05). Conclusion Unfavourable mortality trend in Serbia requires targeted intervention for risk factors control, early diagnosis and modern therapy. PMID:25333862

  19. THE ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL DATA ON MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN P APILLOMAVIRUS

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    A. A. Kostin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study of statistical data for the first time in Russia the analysis of the morbidity and mortality of patients with malignant neoplasms that may be associated with human papilloma virus (HPV is performed: cervical cancer (cervical cancer, cancer of the vulva and vagina, cancer of penis, cancer of the rectum, anal canal and rectosigmoid junction cancer, cancer of the pharynx and larynx.

  20. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Keishi; Muto, Manabu; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Mera, Kiyomi; Doi, Toshihiko; Sano, Yasushi; Yoshida, Shigeaki

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed our clinical experiences of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for esophageal cancer (EC) in 44 patients with multiple primary malignant neoplasms. Among them, 34 were accompanied with synchronous tumors, 8 were accompanied with antecedent tumors and 8 with subsequent tumors. The sites of primary malignant neoplasms were as follows; stomach 24 (43.6%), head and neck 17 (30.9%), colon and rectum 4 (7.3%). Among the 19 patients with synchronous cancer in the stomach, 6 patients underwent gastrectomy or endoscopic mucosal resection before CRT, and the others received definitive CRT as initial treatment. While 5 patients were alive without recurrence of EC and gastric cancer, more than half of the patients died of EC. Among 11 patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), 9 patients underwent surgery for HNC before CRT, because the clinical stages of the HNC was more progressive than that of EC. Only 3 patients achieved complete cure of both EC and HNC. The number of patients who developed subsequent tumors after CRT for EC was too small for us to draw definitive conclusions from our discussion, so further long-term follow-up and analysis based on large-scale surveys are required. Although CRT has become one of the standard treatments for EC, there is no treatment strategy for patients with both EC and other malignant primary neoplasms. Our results suggest that we should consider the curability of EC by CRT when we treat such patients. (author)

  1. [Analysis of the causes of cancer negligence and low survival in the patients with malignant neoplasms of ENT and oral cavity in the city of Moscow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdvizhkov, A M; Kozhanov, L G; Shatskaia, N Kh; Belov, E N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the causes of late detection of malignant neoplasms of ENT and oral cavity and low survival of the patents with these tumours in Moscow. The secondary objective was to elaborate the organizational measures for reducing the level of negligence and mortality from these malignancies among the city population. It was shown that the main cause behind the negligence is the late application of the patients for the medical assistance. Next in importance are asymptomatic clinical course of the disease in the absence of the pathognomonic and early signs of malignant neoplasms, a combination of several pathologies, imperfection of medical knowledge, and the poor resolving power of the modern methods. It is emphasized that the lack of vigilance against cancer among the practicing health providers is one of the main causes of medical errors. A few ways to address the problem of negligence with respect to malignant neoplasms of ENT and oral cavity in Moscow are proposed.

  2. Esophageal and stomach malignant neoplasms characterization at Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Razuk Filho

    2014-04-01

    Objectives: the aim of this study is to collect and organize data on the incidence and prevalence of patients with malignant neoplasms of the esophagus and stomach in Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba of the past six years. Methods: we conducted a survey of data on incidence, prevalence, age and sex of patients with malignant neoplasms of the esophagus and stomach that were admitted, treated and/or surgery at Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba, in the last six years. Results: we analyzed the cases of 179 patients hospitalized in Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba between the years 2007 and 2012, with the diagnosis of malignancy of the esophagus and/or stomach. Of this total, 131 are male and 48 female, 106 were operated (total or subtotal gastrectomy, esophagectomy, esophagogastrectomy, 73 were diagnosed with esophageal cancer (ICD10: C15, C15 0 to 9 and 118 with cancer stomach (ICD10: C16, C16 0 to 9 and 54 died. The average age of patients was 59.74 years (being 60.32 years for males and 58.18 years for women. Conclusions: based on these data, we conclude that our record of cases is lower than expected in the literature.

  3. Second malignancies in hydroxyurea and interferon-treated Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Iben Onsberg; Sørensen, Anders Lindholm; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In an era of controversy in regard to 'hydroxyurea-leukaemogenicity' and when interferon-alfa2 (IFN) is being revived in the treatment of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), we aim in this single-centre observational study to describe the frequencies of second...... malignancies in a cohort of MPN patients treated with hydroxyurea (HU) or IFN monotherapy or the combination of these agents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Records of a MPN cohort of 196 patients were reviewed, and a retrospective analysis was performed on 90 patients treated with HU, 38 patients treated with IFN...

  4. A novel distinguishing system for the diagnosis of malignant pancreatic cystic neoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiaoyong, E-mail: shanlixinc@163.com [Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Lu, Di, E-mail: lcyxld@126.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiao, E-mail: zdyyxx@163.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Jianguo, E-mail: 21118059@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wu, Jian, E-mail: drwujian@hotmail.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Yan, Sheng, E-mail: shengyan@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Zheng, Shu-sen, E-mail: zyzss@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore a simple and reliable non-invasive distinguishing system for the pre-operative evaluation of malignancy in pancreatic cystic neoplasm (PCN). Methods: This study first enrolled an observation cohort of 102 consecutive PCN patients. Demographic information, results of laboratory examinations, and computed tomography (CT) presentations were recorded and analyzed to achieve a distinguishing model/system for malignancy. A group of 21 patients was then included to validate the model/system prospectively. Results: Based on the 11 malignancy-related features identified by univariate analysis, a distinguishing model for malignancy in PCN was established by multivariate analysis: PCN malignant score = 2.967 × elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) (≥6.16 mmol/L) ± 4.496 × asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules ≥ 4 mm) ± 1.679 × septum thickening (≥2 mm) − 5.134. With the optimal cut-off value selected as −2.8 in reference to the Youden index, the proposed system for malignant PCN was established: septum thickening (>2 mm), asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules > 4 mm), or elevated FBG (>6.16 mmol/L, accompanying commonly known malignant signs), the presence of at least one of these 3 features indicated malignancy in PCN. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of this system were 81.4%, 95.8% and 76.9%, respectively. MRI was performed on 32 patients, making correct prediction of malignancy explicitly in only 68.8% (22/32). The subsequent prospective validation study showed that the proposed distinguishing system had a predictive accuracy of 85.7% (18/21). Moreover, a higher model score, or aggregation of the features in the proposed system, indicated a higher grade of malignancy (carcinoma) in PCN. Conclusion: Elevated FBG (>6.16 mmol/L), asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules > 4 mm) and septum thickening (>2 mm) are of great value in differentiating the malignancy in PCN. The developed distinguishing system is

  5. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for pediatric cancer patients: The advantage and fear of second malignant neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy is used for delivering more efficient homogenous dose to the target and lowering of dose to the surrounding normal tissues. However, a second malignant neoplasm may develop after prolonged latent period. The use of modern precise radiotherapy techniques in the pediatric age group has many controversial issues in spite of its proven dosimetric distribution advantages and the considerable decrease of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). This concern is due to many factors; mainly the exposure of a larger volume of normal tissues to low dose radiotherapy. Children have more proliferating tissues compared to the adults. However, the epidemiological data did not detect an increase in the incidence of radiation-induced second malignancy. This issue is still controversial as IMRT and other precise radiotherapy techniques were not widely used except recently. This may entail a thorough careful follow up for children treated with these techniques to detect any incidence increase

  6. Immunohistochemical Differentiation between Urothelial Papillomas and Papillary Neoplasms of Low Malignant Potential of the Urinary Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashidy, Mohammed; Atef, Aliaa; Baky, Tarek Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Urothelial papilloma and non-invasive papillary carcinoma are common neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Distinguishing papillomas and papillary carcinomas, especially the low grade type, is often debatable on the basis of histological features alone. We investigated immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratin 20 (CK20), p53, and Ki-67 in a group of 20 urothelial papilloma cases and 30 noninvasive papillary neoplasms of low malignant potential (PNLMP) of the urinary bladder. Whole tissue sections were examined. Among the 30 carcinoma cases, 12 (40%) showed strong reactivity for the whole panel, 16 (53%) reacted positively for two markers, and 2 (7%) reacted just to one of them. Ki-67 was considered positive in 27 cases (90%) and p53 in 24 (80%), CK20 showed positive reactivity in 21 cases (70%). Only small percentages of papillomas were positive, and then only weakly. We concluded that the intense positivity of suspicious cells for at least one of these markers would confirm the presence of malignant changes and favours the diagnosis of carcinoma.

  7. Malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Shoji; Kawai, Kioko; Shimizu, Yukiko; Inai, Kouki; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Fujikura, Toshio; Kato, Hiroo.

    1988-09-01

    For 1950 - 80, 194 ovarian cancer cases were ascertained among the 70,030 females of the RERF Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample, and 106 autopsied cases with benign ovarian neoplasms were ascertained among all 3,046 autopsies performed in the same sample. On the basis of microscopic review, 66 % of the cancer and 84 % of the benign tumor cases were classified by histological type. The age-adjusted ovarian cancer incidence rates showed a statistically significant increase with increased exposure dose, both in the entire exposed group (P 0.10). The distribution of histological types of both cancer and benign tumor of the ovary did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that radiation injury of ovaries with secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones are important causative factors in the development of ovarian neoplasms. (author)

  8. Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor of the scalp with secondary infection in an elderly man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarshi Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man presented with the complaints of a growth on the scalp, which ruptured spontaneously leading to bleeding and foul smelling discharge associated with severe pain. Examination revealed ulceroproliferative growth with slough and surrounding induration, infested with maggots. Histopathological examination revealed proliferating trichilemmal tumor (PTT with secondary infection. Wide excision of the tumor was done with 1 cm margin all around it. PTT is a benign neoplasm that can rarely undergo malignant transformation thought to originate from trichilemmal cyst. Malignant PTT (MPTT predominantly affects the scalp, eyelids, neck, and face and the treatment recommended being a wide local excision.

  9. SINONASAL AND ORBITAL MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS IN PEDIATRIC POPULATION: A STUDY FROM A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyela Mondal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION : Paranasal and extra - ocular orbital malignant tumors are comparatively rare in pediatric patients and difficult to diagnose early. Malignant lesions in this region tend to be locally aggressive, often presenting at an advanced stage. Non osseous, extra ocular orbital tumors represent a different histologic spectrum in children than in adults. AIMS: To study the spectrum of malignant lesions of paranasal sinuses and orbital area in patients under 18 years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective and prospective study was done from July 2004 to June 2014. Malignant paranasal and orbital neoplasms were recorded including clinico - radiological and cytological data. Review of histopathological slides along with immunohistochemistry (IHC of selected cases were done. RESULTS: Total 69 cases were recorded over the ten year period as per our inclusion criteria. Out of these, 46 (67% patients presented with malignant paranasal neoplasm and 23 (33% with orbital mass. Most cases were found in the age group of 7 - 12 years, where females were preponderant. Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS was the commonest tumor arising in paranasal as well as in orbital area (33%. IHC aided the confirmation of our diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Paranasal malignancy in the pediatric population often presents with non - specific symptoms, and high index of suspicion along with better diagnostic tools like computed tomography (CT scan is necessary for a timely diagnosis . IHC should be done in all malignant neoplasms of pediatric population to arrive at a proper diagnosis, to facilitate proper management to these patients

  10. Involvement of mast cells by the malignant process in patients with Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Ishii, T; Zhang, W; Sozer, S; Dai, Y; Mascarenhas, J; Najfeld, V; Zhao, Z J; Hoffman, R; Wisch, N; Xu, M

    2009-09-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal hematologic malignancies frequently characterized by a mutation in JAK2 (JAK2V617F). Peripheral blood (PB) CD34(+) cells from patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) generated in vitro significantly fewer mast cells (MCs) than normal PB CD34(+) cells. The numbers of MC progenitors assayed from MPN CD34(+) cells were, however, similar to that assayed from normal CD34(+) cells. A higher percentage of the cultured MPN MCs expressed FcvarepsilonRIalpha, CD63 and CD69 than normal MCs, suggesting that cultured MPN MCs are associated with an increased state of MC activation. Further analysis showed that a higher proportion of cultured PV and PMF MCs underwent apoptosis in vitro. By using JAK2V617F, MplW515L and chromosomal abnormalities as clonality markers, we showed that the malignant process involved MPN MCs. JAK2V617F-positive MC colonies were assayable from the PB CD34(+) cells of each of the 17 JAK2V617F positive MPN patients studied. Furthermore, erlotinib, a JAK2 inhibitor, was able to inhibit JAK2V617F-positive PV MC progenitor cells, indicating that malignant MC progenitor cells are a potential cellular target for such JAK2 inhibitor-directed therapy.

  11. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy and local dose of radiation as risk factors for second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, S.; Guibout, C.; Vathaire, F. de; Shamsaldin, A.; Diallo, I.; Oberlin, O.; Hartmann, O.; Le Deley, M.C.; Dondon, M.G.; Hawkins, M.

    2006-01-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are associated with an increased risk of a second malignant neoplasm. after a cancer during childhood. This study specified the dose effect relationship between the local dose of radiation received at the site of the second malignant neoplasm and the risk of a second malignant neoplasm.It also investigated the effect of chemo radiotherapy on the risk of second malignant neoplasm. An European cohort of 4581 patients, treated for a solid cancer during childhood have been included in the study. 153 cases with a second malignant neoplasm, and 442 controls were matched according to sex, age at first cancer, calendar year, type of first cancer and follow-up. The local dose of radiation was estimated at the site of the second malignant neoplasm, for each case and at the same site, for his matched control. In conclusion, radiation was the foremost treatment related risk factor for the occurrence of a second malignant neoplasm. Compared to sequential treatment, concomitant chemo radiotherapy may lead to a higher risk of a second malignant neoplasm. (N.C.)

  12. Biological significance of TERT promoter mutation in papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Chieh; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Jhuang, Yu-Lin; Chen, Chih-Chi; Jeng, Yung-Ming

    2018-04-01

    Mutations in FGFR3 and the promoter region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene have been found frequently in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder. However, related data for papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP) are limited. In this study, we investigated the mutation status of the TERT promoter, FGFR3 and HRAS in low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms and evaluated their prognostic significance. The cases included in this study comprised 21 inverted papillomas, 30 PUNLMPs and 34 low-grade non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinomas (NIPUCs). TERT promoter mutations were observed in 10 (33%) PUNLMPs and 17 (50%) low-grade NIPUCs, but not in any inverted papilloma. FGFR3 mutations were observed more frequently in PUNLMP and low-grade NIPUC than in inverted papillomas (P = 0.009), whereas the opposite trend was noted for HRAS mutations (P low-grade NIPUC (P = 0.530). Notably, PUNLMP cases with TERT promoter mutations had a similar recurrence rate to that in low-grade NIPUC cases (P = 0.487). Our results suggest that the status of the TERT promoter mutation may serve as a biomarker of prognostic stratification in patients with PUNLMP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Presence of lung metastases in bitches affected by malignant mammary neoplasms in Medellin (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Gómez J.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define the presence of lung metastasis in bitches with malignant mammary neoplasms. Materials and methods. Thirty female dogs that were attended at Veterinary Hospital (University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia were selected for the study. At consultation clinical variables and grade of mammary and inguinal lymph node compromise were registered. Latero-lateral and ventral-dorsal radiographic images of thorax were done for identification of radiographic lesions suggestive of lung metastasis. At surgery biopsies of affected mammary glands were taken for histopathological study and classification of tumors. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results. The average (± standard error age at clinical diagnosis was 10.87±2.65 year old. French poodle (46.6% cross-breed (13.3% and Schnauzer (10% were the breeds most frequently affected by mammary tumors. The most frequent tumor found was carcinoma (81%, followed by adenoma (8.1%, and other types (10.8%. The most frequently affected mammary glands by tumors were the right and the left inguinal glands (70% and 66.6%, respectively. Five out of 30 bitches (16.6% had lung metastasis according to radiographic examination. From this group of dogs, 4 out of 5 neoplasms (80% were diagnosed as complex carcinoma by histopathology diagnosis. Conclusions. We provide evidence suggesting that complex carcinoma is the most frequent mammary tumor in bitches in our city and it is highly related to lung metastasis.

  14. Malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck; Zlosliwe nowotwory neurogenne glowy i szyi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuczkowski, J.; Starzynska, A. [Akademia Medyczna, Gdansk (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The authors present 17 cases of malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck observed in the Department of Otolaryngology in the years 1948-1993. The latest opinions on etiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of these tumors were described. Age and sex of patients, localization of tumor, symptoms histopathology and treatment were analyzed. Progressions of the disease were estimated retrospectively. It has been proved that these tumors develop quickly, give pain and paresthesia. Their diagnosis is very difficult because of their submucosal growth and difficult histopathological interpretation. A characteristic feature of these neurogenic tumors is the ability to give distant metastases. This feature differentiates them from squamous neoplasms, which give mainly nodal metastases. All the patients were subjected to surgery combined with conventional or high voltage radiotherapy. The positive effect of combined chemotherapy in cases of esthesioneuroblastoma is worthy of note. The prognosis in these tumors is often unfavorable. In the group under discussion 13 patients died because of recurrences, two patients are considered to be cured and the remaining 2 patients have had no recurrence for 2 and 3 years. (author) 15 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  15. A Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm of the Mesocolon Showing Features of Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiki Mistry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucinous cystic neoplasms are rare tumours of uncertain histogenesis. They arise from the ovaries, pancreas, and other intra-abdominal sites but more unusually from the mesocolon. They can present with abdominal pain, distension, or a palpable mass but are commonly an incidental finding. We describe the case of a 48-year-old woman who was found to have an incidental left pelvic cyst on computed tomography. Subsequent laparoscopic excision and histological analysis demonstrated the cyst to be a borderline malignant mucinous tumour arising from the mesocolon. Mucinous tumours should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all intra-abdominal cysts and treatment should be by surgical complete excision.

  16. Development of binary technologies of radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms: condition and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor N. Sheino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review is devoted to the problems of the development of binary technologies of radiation therapy - neutron and photon-capture therapy of malignant neoplasms. These technologies are based on the principle of “biological” targeting: irradiation of a tumor with pre-delivered special preparations increasing energy release and the relative biological efficiency of primary radiation. The basis of methods, characteristics of sources of external irradiation and used preparations, and stages of development of technologies are described. The development and implementation of binary technologies attract a great number of researchers but are restrained by the shortage of operating sources of epithermal neutrons (reactors, neutron generators based on accelerators and the lack of accurate radiation dosimetry planning systems that takes into account the dynamics and accumulation of drugs in tumors.

  17. Second Malignant Neoplasms and Cause of Death in Patients With Germ Cell Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kier, Maria G; Hansen, Merete K; Lauritsen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    radiotherapy (RT); bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP); or more than 1 line of treatment (MTOL). Main Outcomes and Measures: Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for SMN and death calculated by the Cox proportional hazards model were compared with those of age-matched controls. Results: The study......Importance: Patients given systemic treatment for testicular germ cell cancer (GCC) are at increased risk for a second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Previous studies on SMN and causes of death lacked information on the exact treatment applied or were based on patients receiving former treatment options....... Objective: To evaluate the treatment-specific risks for SMN and death in a nationwide population-based cohort of patients with GCC treated with current standard regimens. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study examined a Danish nationwide cohort of 5190 men with GCC who entered the Danish Testicular...

  18. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the occipital condyle imitating a malignant neoplasm - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sznajder, K.; Skrzelewski, S.

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a non-neoplastic process of unknown etiology characterized by proliferation of connective tissue with an inflammatory infiltrate. IPT most frequently arises in the orbit, but can also be found in the larynx, the paranasal sinus and rarely in the skull base. We present the case of a 20-year-old patient with a 4-month history of headache and insomnia. Neurological examination showed limited head mobility and hypoglossal nerve dysfunction. The patient was afebrile and no abnormalities in blood tests were found. CT revealed the presence of a tumor mass destructing the right occipital condyle. MRI was performed and the mass was surgically removed. The histological diagnosis was non-specific chronic inflammatory granulation tissue. Inflammatory pseudotumors can often mimic malignant neoplasms, especially in cases where bone destruction is observed. IPT of the occipital condyle is a rare but aggressive lesion that should be treated by surgical excision. (author)

  19. Analysis of elemental concentration censored distributions in breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Gozdz, S.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.

    2007-01-01

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence method was applied to study the trace element concentrations in human breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues taken from the women who were patients of Holycross Cancer Centre in Kielce (Poland). These investigations were mainly focused on the development of new possibilities of cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This systematic comparative study was based on relatively large (∼ 100) population studied, namely 26 samples of breast malignant and 68 samples of breast benign neoplasm tissues. The concentrations, being in the range from a few ppb to 0.1%, were determined for thirteen elements (from P to Pb). The results were carefully analysed to investigate the concentration distribution of trace elements in the studied samples. The measurements of concentration of trace elements by total reflection X-ray fluorescence were limited, however, by the detection limit of the method. It was observed that for more than 50% of elements determined, the concentrations were not measured in all samples. These incomplete measurements were treated within the statistical concept called left-random censoring and for the estimation of the mean value and median of censored concentration distributions, the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used. For comparison of concentrations in two populations, the log-rank test was applied, which allows to compare the censored total reflection X-ray fluorescence data. Found statistically significant differences are discussed in more details. It is noted that described data analysis procedures should be the standard tool to analyze the censored concentrations of trace elements analysed by X-ray fluorescence methods

  20. Oral malignant melanomas and other head and neck neoplasms in Danish dogs--data from the Danish Veterinary Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønden, Louise B; Eriksen, Thomas; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2009-12-18

    Head and neck cancers (HNC) are relatively common and often very serious diseases in both dogs and humans. Neoplasms originating in the head and neck region are a heterogeneous group. HNC often has an unfavourable prognosis and the proximity of the tissue structures renders extirpation of tumours with sufficient margins almost incompatible with preservation of functionality. In humans oral malignant melanoma (OMM) is extremely rare, but represents a particular challenge since it is highly aggressive as is the canine counterpart, which thus may be of interest as a spontaneous animal model. Canine cases entered in the Danish Veterinary Cancer Registry (DVCR) from May 15th 2005 through February 29th 2008 were included in this study. Fisher's exact test was used to compare proportions of HNC in dogs and humans as well as proportions of surgically treated cases of OMM and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Also the proportions of benign and malignant neoplasms of different locations in dogs were compared using Fisher's exact test. A total of 1768 cases of neoplasias (679 malignant, 826 benign, 263 unknown) were submitted. Of all neoplasias HNC accounted for 7.2% (n = 128). Of these, 64 (50%) were malignant and 44 (34%) benign. The most common types of malignant neoplasia were SCC (18; 28% of malignant), OMM (13; 20% of malignant), soft tissue sarcoma (11; 17% of malignant) and adenocarcinoma (5; 11% of malignant). The most common types of benign neoplasms were adenoma (7; 16% of benign), polyps (6; 14% of benign) and fibroma (5; 11% of benign). In the current study, the proportion of neoplasia in the head and neck region in dogs in Denmark was similar to other canine studies and significantly more common than in humans with a large proportion of malignancies. Spontaneous HNC in dogs thus, may serve as a model for HNC in humans.Canine OMM is a spontaneous cancer in an outbred, immune-competent large mammal population and could be a clinical model for OMM in humans.

  1. Myeloproliferative neoplasms and inflammation: whether to target the malignant clone or the inflammatory process or both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschmieder, S; Mughal, T I; Hasselbalch, H C; Barosi, G; Valent, P; Kiladjian, J-J; Jeryczynski, G; Gisslinger, H; Jutzi, J S; Pahl, H L; Hehlmann, R; Maria Vannucchi, A; Cervantes, F; Silver, R T; Barbui, T

    2016-05-01

    The Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal disorders involving hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and are associated with myeloproliferation, splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms. Similar signs and symptoms can also be found in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, and inflammatory processes have been found to play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of MPNs. Signal transduction pathways involving JAK1, JAK2, STAT3 and STAT5 are causally involved in driving both the malignant cells and the inflammatory process. Moreover, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating drugs have been used successfully in the treatment of MPNs. However, to date, many unresoved issues remain. These include the role of somatic mutations that are present in addition to JAK2V617F, CALR and MPL W515 mutations, the interdependency of malignant and nonmalignant cells and the means to eradicate MPN-initiating and -maintaining cells. It is imperative for successful therapeutic approaches to define whether the malignant clone or the inflammatory cells or both should be targeted. The present review will cover three aspects of the role of inflammation in MPNs: inflammatory states as important differential diagnoses in cases of suspected MPN (that is, in the absence of a clonal marker), the role of inflammation in MPN pathogenesis and progression and the use of anti-inflammatory drugs for MPNs. The findings emphasize the need to separate the inflammatory processes from the malignancy in order to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of patients with Philadelphia-negative MPNs.

  2. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated in a Tertiary Paediatric Oncology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jia Wei; Yeap, Frances Sh; Chan, Yiong Huak; Yeoh, Allen Ej; Quah, Thuan Chong; Tan, Poh Lin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction : One of the most feared complications of childhood cancer treatment is second malignant neoplasms (SMNs). This study evaluates the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of SMNs in a tertiary paediatric oncology centre in Singapore. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review was conducted on patients diagnosed with childhood cancer under age 21 and treated at the National University Hospital, Singapore, from January 1990 to 15 April 2012. Case records of patients with SMNs were reviewed. Results : We identified 1124 cases of childhood cancers with a median follow-up of 3.49 (0 to 24.06) years. The most common primary malignancies were leukaemia (47.1%), central nervous system tumours (11.7%) and lymphoma (9.8%). Fifteen cases developed SMNs, most commonly acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 7). Median interval between the first and second malignancy was 3.41 (0.24 to 18.30) years. Overall 20-year cumulative incidence of SMNs was 5.3% (95% CI, 0.2% to 10.4%). The 15-year cumulative incidence of SMNs following acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was 4.4% (95% CI, 0% to 8.9%), significantly lower than the risk after osteosarcoma of 14.2% (95% CI, 0.7% to 27.7%) within 5 years ( P <0.0005). Overall 5-year survival for SMNs was lower than that of primary malignancies. Conclusion : This study identified factors explaining the epidemiology of SMNs described, and found topoisomerase II inhibitor use to be a likely risk factor in our cohort. Modifications have already been made to our existing therapeutic protocols in osteosarcoma treatment. We also recognised the importance of other risk management strategies, including regular long-term surveillance and early intervention for detected SMNs, to improve outcomes of high risk patients.

  3. Clinicopathological features of pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm and influencing factors for its malignancy

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    HOU Liyan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinicopathological features of pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN and influencing factors for benign and malignant MCN. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 43 patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic MCN who were treated from January 2013 to December 2015, and according to the results of pathological diagnosis, the patients were divided into benign group (mucinous cystadenoma and pancreatic MCN with low/middle-grade dysplasia and malignant group (MCN with high-grade dysplasia and MCN with invasive carcinoma. The clinicopathological features and radiological features were summarized, and the risk factors for malignant transformation of pancreatic MCN were analyzed. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors. ResultsThere were 14 male and 29 female patients aged 22-81 years (median 58.53 years. Of all patients, 30 (69.8% had clinical symptoms. The maximum tumor diameter was 4.8 cm (range 1.2-16 cm. Of all patients, 18 (41.9% had MCN in the head of the pancreas, 3 (7.0% had MCN in the neck of the pancreas, 20 (46.5% had MCN in the body and tail of the pancreas, and 2 (4.6% had multiple MCNs. There were significant differences between the two groups in age, tumor nature, tumor location, texture, tumor markers, heterogeneous enhancement of the cyst wall, heterogeneous enhancement of solid components, and cyst wall thickness >0.2 cm. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age and increased tumor markers were independent predictive factors for malignant pancreatic MCN (P <0.05. ConclusionAge, tumor nature, tumor location, texture, increased tumor markers, heterogeneous enhancement of the cyst wall, heterogeneous enhancement

  4. Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms Lined by Abundant Mucinous Epithelium Frequently Involve KRAS Mutations and Malignant Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hideki; Ohike, Nobuyuki; Norose, Tomoko; Isobe, Tomohide; Suzuki, Reika; Imai, Hideyuki; Shiokawa, Akira; Aoki, Takeshi; Murakami, Masahiko; Mizukami, Hiroki; Tanaka, Jun-Ichi; Takimoto, Masafumi

    2017-12-01

    Pancreatic and hepatic mucinous cyst neoplasms (MCNs) have a malignant potential, but indolent MCNs are not uncommon. The pathological and genetic characteristics of resected MCNs (n=15) categorized by the amount of mucin of the lining epithelium were investigated. MCNs were divided into two groups: (i) a rich (r)-MCN group (n=6), in which more than half of the epithelium was lined by abundant mucinous epithelium; and (ii) a poor (p)-MCN group (n=9), which consisted of the remaining cases. Three patients in the r-MCN group showed invasive carcinoma or high-grade dysplasia, whereas all patients in the p-MCN group showed low-grade dysplasia. Mutations of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) were more frequent in the r-MCN group (83%) (p-MCN; 11%, p<0.05). Mucinous MCNs more frequently have KRAS mutations and higher risk of malignant progression. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Chromatin Phenotype Karyometry Can Predict Recurrence in Papillary Urothelial Neoplasms of Low Malignant Potential

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    Rodolfo Montironi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A preceding exploratory study (J. Clin. Pathol. 57(2004, 1201–1207 had shown that a karyometric assessment of nuclei from papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential (PUNLMP revealed subtle differences in phenotype which correlated with recurrence of disease. Aim of the Study: To validate the results from the exploratory study on a larger sample size. Materials: 93 karyometric features were analyzed on haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from 85 cases of PUNLMP. 45 cases were from patients who had a solitary PUNLMP lesion and were disease-free during a follow-up period of at least 8 years. The other 40 were from patients with a unifocal PUNLMP, with one or more recurrences in the follow-up. A combination of the previously defined classification functions together with a new P-index derived classification method was used in an attempt to classify cases and identify a biomarker of recurrence in PUNLMP lesions. Results: Validation was pursued by a number of separate approaches. First, the exact procedure from the exploratory study was applied to the large validation set. Second, since the discriminant function 2 of the exploratory study had been based on a small sample size, a new discriminant function was derived. The case classification showed a correct classification of 61% for non-recurrent and 74% for recurrent cases, respectively. Greater success was obtained by applying unsupervised learning technologies to take advantage of phenotypical composition (correct classification of 92%. This approach was validated by dividing the data into training and test sets with 2/3 of the cases assigned to the training sets, and 1/3 to the test sets, on a rotating basis, and validation of the classification rate was thus tested on three separate data sets by a leave-k-out process. The average correct classification was 92.8% (training set and 84.6% (test set. Conclusions: Our validation study detected subvisual differences in

  6. Leukemia in patients following radiotherapy for malignant neoplasms in the pelvic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murohashi, Ikuo

    1985-01-01

    A prospective study of 1572 women treated with radiotherapy for cervical (1478 women) and ovarian cancer (95 women) was done. Patients had been followed clinically and especially by blood tests between 1961 and 1981, comprising 8990 women-years (WY). Following radiotherapy, 5 patients developed non-lymphocytic leukemia (2 acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), 1 acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL), and 2 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)). Based on rates for the general population, 0.45 case would be expected, and, therefore, the relative risk was 11.2. The average mean marrow dose for all our subjects was calculated to be 11.77 rad, the risk of radiation-induced leukemia was 0.43 excess case per year per one million women exposed to 1 rad of radiation to the bone marrow. Four patients with cervical cancer who developed leukemia were in a high-dose-rate group treated with both a linear accelerator (Linac) and remote afterloading system (RALS), and 1 patient with ovarian cancer who developed leukemia was treated with a Linac alone. This is the first report of a statistically significant increased risk of leukemia for patients treated with large doses of radiation for malignant neoplasms in the pelvic region. (author).

  7. Leukemia in patients following radiotherapy for malignant neoplasms in the pelvic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murohashi, Ikuo

    1985-01-01

    A prospective study of 1572 women treated with radiotherapy for cervical (1478 women) and ovarian cancer (95 women) was done. Patients had been followed clinically and especially by blood tests between 1961 and 1981, comprising 8990 women-years (WY). Following radiotherapy, 5 patients developed non-lymphocytic leukemia [2 acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), 1 acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL), and 2 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)]. Based on rates for the general population, 0.45 case would be expected, and, therefore, the relative risk was 11.2. The average mean marrow dose for all our subjects was calculated to be 11.77 rad, the risk of radiation-induced leukemia was 0.43 excess case per year per one million women exposed to 1 rad of radiation to the bone marrow. Four patients with cervical cancer who developed leukemia were in a high-dose-rate group treated with both a linear accelerator (Linac) and remote afterloading system (RALS), and 1 patient with ovarian cancer who developed leukemia was treated with a Linac alone. This is the first report of a statistically significant increased risk of leukemia for patients treated with large doses of radiation for malignant neoplasms in the pelvic region. (author)

  8. Methods for Diagnosing Some Malignant Neoplasms of the Canine Nasal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Florica Balint

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is to highlight the easiest method of investigation (nasal lavage or rhinoscopy depending on the animal condition. 18 dogs were investigated, which presented at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Bucharest, with respiratory distress due to obstruction of the nasal cavities. The sampling for cytological diagnosis was done using the two techniques, the nasal lavage and rhinoscopy. It is most useful to try the lavage first, because it is less invasive, and only then, if case of poor cellularity after centrifugation, or in case of a inflammatory process with unfavourable post-treatment evolution, endoscopy will be used. Cytomorphological diagnosis using, after rhinoscopy or nasal lavage, have evidentiated the following forms of nasal cancer: 10 cases out of 18 were epithelial neoplasms of the olfactory mucosa; 6 cases out of 18 were nerve tumors (malignant melanoma, estesiocarcinoma; 2 cases out of 18 were mesenchymal tumors (osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma. The nasal lavage is a good sampling method but has the disadvantage of sometimes encountering an acute or chronic inflammatory process that can shield the tumor process.

  9. Solid malignant neoplasms after childhood irradiation: decrease of the relative risk with time after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vathaire, F. de; Shamsaldin, A.; Grimaud, E.; Campbell, S.; Guerra, M.; Raquin, M.; Hardiman, C.; Jan, P.; Rumeau, N.; Diallo, I.; Nicolazic, G.; Lamon, A.; Oberlin, O.; Cervens, C. de; Suarez, A.; Meresse, V.; Eschwege, F.; Sancho-Garnier, H.; Chavaudra, J.; Lermerle, J.; Bessa, E.; Bell, J.; Hawkins, M.; Schlienger, J.Y.; Panis, X.; Lagrande, J.L.; Gaboriaud, G.; Zucker, J.M.; Daly-Schveitzer, N.

    1995-01-01

    The pattern of the temporal distribution of solid cancer incidence after irradiation in childhood is not well known, although, its importance in radioprotection is well known. We studied a cohort of 1 055 children from 8 European cancer centres, who received radiotherapy between 1942 and 1985 for a first cancer in childhood. After a mean follow-up of 19 years, 26 children developed a solid second malignant neoplasm (SMN), as compared to 5.6 expected from general population rates. Both the excess relative risk and the excess of absolute risk of solid SMN were higher among children who were younger at time of the irradiation. After reaching a maximum 15 to 20 years after irradiation, the excess relative risk of SMN decreased with time after irradiation, when controlling for age at irradiation and sex. The analysis of the risk of thyroid, brain and breast cancer together, as a function of the dose averaged on these 3 organs lead to similar results. (authors). 16 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Age, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography are predictive parameters of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, Juan C; Mesko, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To identify clinical predictors of malignancy in patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of 71 patients with intraoperative frozen-section diagnosis of follicular neoplasm who underwent thyroidectomy between January 1992 and December 2000. Age, sex, tumor size, and in-office ultrasonography characteristics of the lesions were assessed. These clinical factors were compared between cases that had benign definitive pathologic findings and those that were found to be carcinomas on permanent sections. Nine (13%) of the 71 follicular neoplasms were found to be carcinomas after definitive pathologic evaluation. The incidence of malignancy was 13% (2/16) in men and 13% (7/55) in women (P>.5). Patients younger than 45 years had a 27% (8/30) incidence of malignancy compared with 2% (1/41) in patients 45 years or older (P4 cm) tumors or if there are suspicious findings on in-office ultrasonography.

  11. Comparison between MRI with MR cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography for differentiating malignant from benign mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jiyoung; Hong, Seong Sook; Kim, Hyun-joo; Kim, Young Kon; Jeong, Woo Kyung; Min, Ji Hye

    2018-01-01

    To compare diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for differentiating malignant from benign intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN) of the pancreas. This retrospective study included 55 patients with 47 surgically confirmed IPMNs (12 malignant, 35 benign) and eight MCNs (two malignant, six benign) who underwent contrast-enhanced pancreas MRI and EUS. Contrast enhancement was not routinely used at EUS examination. Two observers independently evaluated the MRIs, and another reviewed EUS images. They recorded their confidence for malignancy with each imaging modality. We calculated diagnostic performance using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (A z ), and to determine the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive (NPV) values. The A z values of MRI were higher than those of EUS (0.712 and 0.688 for MRI vs. 0.543 for EUS; p = 0.007). The diagnostic accuracies (74.5%), specificity (78.0% and 80.5%) and PPV (50.0%) of MRI in two observers were higher than those (56.4%, 58.5% and 29.2%, respectively) of EUS (p = 0.013-0.049). MRI showed better diagnostic performance than EUS for differentiating malignant from benign pancreatic IPMN and MCN. (orig.)

  12. Comparison between MRI with MR cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography for differentiating malignant from benign mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jiyoung; Hong, Seong Sook; Kim, Hyun-joo [Seoul Hospital, Department of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kon; Jeong, Woo Kyung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Ji Hye [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-01-15

    To compare diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for differentiating malignant from benign intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN) of the pancreas. This retrospective study included 55 patients with 47 surgically confirmed IPMNs (12 malignant, 35 benign) and eight MCNs (two malignant, six benign) who underwent contrast-enhanced pancreas MRI and EUS. Contrast enhancement was not routinely used at EUS examination. Two observers independently evaluated the MRIs, and another reviewed EUS images. They recorded their confidence for malignancy with each imaging modality. We calculated diagnostic performance using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (A{sub z}), and to determine the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive (NPV) values. The A{sub z} values of MRI were higher than those of EUS (0.712 and 0.688 for MRI vs. 0.543 for EUS; p = 0.007). The diagnostic accuracies (74.5%), specificity (78.0% and 80.5%) and PPV (50.0%) of MRI in two observers were higher than those (56.4%, 58.5% and 29.2%, respectively) of EUS (p = 0.013-0.049). MRI showed better diagnostic performance than EUS for differentiating malignant from benign pancreatic IPMN and MCN. (orig.)

  13. All-union symposium on radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms in children; Luchevaya diagnostika i luchevaya terapiya zlokachestvennykh novoobrazovanij u detej. Materialy Vsesoyuznogo simposiuma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyb, A F; Durnov, L A [eds.

    1990-07-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the All-Union Symposium on Radcodiagnosis and Radiotherapy of Malignant Neoplasms in Children held in Obnisk, Russian SFSR May 10-11, 1990. Individual papers were prepared for the database.

  14. [Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant renal neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Xiao-qing; Xin, Xiao-jie; Xu, Yong

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the value of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant renal neoplasms. Two hundred and forty-five cases of renal space-occupying lesions confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology were included in this study. The CEUS features of the renal space-occupying lesions, i.e., the enhancement degree, homogeneity of enhancement, washing-in and washing-out time and enhancement pattern, were retrospectively analyzed. There were 210 cases of malignant renal tumors and 35 cases of benign lesions. The CEUS modes of the malignant renal tumors included "quick in and quick out" 82 cases, "quick in and slow out" 64 cases, "slow in and quick out" 18 cases and "slow in and slow out" 46 cases; good enhancement 150 cases (71.4%) and inhomogeneous enhancement 180 cases (85.7%).Both the contrast agent filling defect area and solid component enhancement of solid-cystic tumors were important features of malignant renal tumors. In the 35 cases of benign lesions,the CEUS modes included "quick in and quick out" 4 cases, "quick in and slow out" 8 cases, "slow in and quick out" 10 cases and "slow in and slow out" 13 cases. Most of the benign tumors showed low enhancement 51.4% (18/35) and inhomogeneous enhancement 54.3% (19/35). There were significant differences between the malignant and benign renal neoplasms in CEUS mode, degree of enhancement and homogeneity of enhancement (P benign and malignant tumors were 77.1% and 83.8%, respectively, while the two-dimensional ultrasound diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors were 68.6% and 76.7%, respectively, with a significant difference (P benign and malignant renal lesions.

  15. Oral malignant melanomas and other head and neck neoplasms in Danish dogs - data from the Danish Veterinary Cancer Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Head and neck cancers (HNC) are relatively common and often very serious diseases in both dogs and humans. Neoplasms originating in the head and neck region are a heterogeneous group. HNC often has an unfavourable prognosis and the proximity of the tissue structures renders extirpation of tumours with sufficient margins almost incompatible with preservation of functionality. In humans oral malignant melanoma (OMM) is extremely rare, but represents a particular challenge since it is highly aggressive as is the canine counterpart, which thus may be of interest as a spontaneous animal model. Methods Canine cases entered in the Danish Veterinary Cancer Registry (DVCR) from May 15th 2005 through February 29th 2008 were included in this study. Fisher's exact test was used to compare proportions of HNC in dogs and humans as well as proportions of surgically treated cases of OMM and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Also the proportions of benign and malignant neoplasms of different locations in dogs were compared using Fisher's exact test. Results A total of 1768 cases of neoplasias (679 malignant, 826 benign, 263 unknown) were submitted. Of all neoplasias HNC accounted for 7.2% (n = 128). Of these, 64 (50%) were malignant and 44 (34%) benign. The most common types of malignant neoplasia were SCC (18; 28% of malignant), OMM (13; 20% of malignant), soft tissue sarcoma (11; 17% of malignant) and adenocarcinoma (5; 11% of malignant). The most common types of benign neoplasms were adenoma (7; 16% of benign), polyps (6; 14% of benign) and fibroma (5; 11% of benign). Conclusions In the current study, the proportion of neoplasia in the head and neck region in dogs in Denmark was similar to other canine studies and significantly more common than in humans with a large proportion of malignancies. Spontaneous HNC in dogs thus, may serve as a model for HNC in humans. Canine OMM is a spontaneous cancer in an outbred, immune-competent large mammal population and could be a

  16. Analysis of Trends and Factors in Breast Multiple Primary Malignant Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Motuzyuk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study aims to evaluate the current state and tendencies in multiple primary breast cancer incidence, behavior, and treatment in Ukraine. Methods: A total of 2032 patients who received special treatment at the Department of Breast Tumors and Reconstructive Surgery of the National Cancer Institute from 2008 to 2015 were included in the study. Among them, there were 195 patients with multiple primary malignant neoplasms: 54.9% patients with synchronous cancer and 45.1% patients with metachronous cancer. The average age of patients was 46.6 years, and the percentage of postmenopausal women was 63.1%. Among patients with synchronous cancer, there were 56.1% patients with only breast localizations and 43.9% with combination of breast and other localizations, and among patients with metachronous cancer, there were 46.6% patients with only breast localizations and 53.4% with combination of breast and other localizations. All the patients were evaluated in terms of aggressiveness of the disease, survival rates, as well as risk factors and treatment options. Results: A more aggressive course of breast cancer is observed in patients exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident under the age of 30 years ( P  < .01. The clinical course of disease in patients with synchronous cancer is worse and prognostically unfavorable compared with metachronous cancer ( P  < .01. The course of the disease in patients who underwent mastectomy is worse compared with patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery ( P  < .01. Plastic and reconstructive surgery in patients with synchronous cancer was proven to be reasonable in terms of increase in survival ( P  < .01. Conclusions: The patients with multiple primary breast cancer should have attentive management and treatment. Multidisciplinary team should concern all the risk factors and provide the most sufficient option of management. This is crucial to continue research in this

  17. Inverse expression of somatostatin and CXCR4 chemokine receptors in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms of different malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaemmerer, Daniel; Träger, Tina; Hoffmeister, Maike; Sipos, Bence; Hommann, Merten; Sänger, Järg; Schulz, Stefan; Lupp, Amelie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are widely distributed in well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) and serve as primary targets for diagnostics and treatment. An overexpression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4, in contrast, is considered to be present mainly in highly proliferative and advanced tumors. Comparative data are still lacking, however, for neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC). Methods SSTR subtype (1, 2A, 3, 5) and CXCR4 expression was evaluated in G1 (n = 31), G2 (n = 47), and low (G3a; Ki-67: 21–49%; n = 21) and highly proliferative (G3b; Ki-67: >50%, n = 22) G3 (total n = 43) gastroenteropancreatic NEN samples by performing immunohistochemistry with monoclonal rabbit anti-human anti-SSTR and anti-CXCR4 antibodies, respectively, and was correlated with clinical data. Results Both CXCR4 and SSTR were widely expressed in all tumors investigated. CXCR4 expression differed significantly between the G1 and G3 specimens and within the G3 group (G3a to G3b), and was positively correlated with Ki-67 expression. SSTR2A, in contrast, exhibited an inverse association with Ki-67. SSTR2A was highly expressed in G1 and G2 tumors, but was significantly less abundant in G3 carcinomas. Additionally, SSTR1 expression was higher in G3a than in G3b tumors. Conclusion We observed an elevation in CXCR4 and a decrease in SSTR2A expression with increasing malignancy. Interestingly, 23% of the G3 specimens had strong SSTR2A expression. Because CXCR4 was strongly expressed in highly proliferative G3 carcinomas, it is an interesting new target and needs to be validated in larger studies. PMID:26259237

  18. The value of contrast-enhanced 64-row CT in differentiating benign from malignant serous ovarian neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Tianfa; Wu Meixian; Zhang Jiayun; Song Ting

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced 64-row CT scanning in deciding benign or malignant serous ovarian tumors. Methods: Fifty-eight cases of serous ovarian tumors proved pathologically were reviewed, including 25 malignant tumors, 25 benign, 8 borderline tumors. All patients underwent 64-row CT scanning, including plain scanning and contrast-enhance scanning. The tumors' shape, density, blood supply and enhancement features were evaluated. Results: Twenty-five cases of benign serous cystic adenoma were mostly unicameral, and showed a moderate mural enhancement only in 4 cases (16%) due to chronic pelvic infection and the others (21/25, 84%) had no of slight enhancement. Malignant tumors were cystic-solid mass with unclear margin, irregular shape and septa. Twenty-two cases of serous cystadenocarcinoma out of 25 cases (88%) appeared obvious enhancement and other 3 cases no enhancement. And 7 cases out of 8 (87.5%) borderlined serous cystadenomas showed different enhancement patterns. Conclusion: Benign ovarian serous neoplasms were mostly unicameral and no strong mural enhancement, suggesting a lack of blood supply. While, there were obvious enhancement in the ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma and borderline serous cystadenoma with malignant potential. The 64-row CT is helpful for differentiating the nature of the serous ovarian neoplasm. (authors)

  19. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mural nodule height as predictive factors for malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Niina, Yusuke; Nishihara, Kazuyoshi; Okayama, Takafumi; Tamiya, Sadafumi; Nakano, Toru

    2018-01-15

    Accurate preoperative prediction for malignant IPMN is still challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and mural nodule height (MNH) for predicting malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). The medical records of 60 patients who underwent pancreatectomy for IPMN were retrospectively reviewed. NLR tended to be higher in malignant IPMN (median: 2.23) than in benign IPMN (median: 2.04; p = .14). MNH was significantly greater in malignant IPMN (median: 16 mm) than in benign IPMN (median: 8 mm; p MNH were 3.60 and 11 mm, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of NLR ≥3.60 for predicting malignant IPMN were 40% and 93%, and those of MNH ≥11 mm were 73% and 77%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that NLR ≥3.60 (p MNH ≥11 mm (p MNH ≥11 mm were not. NLR and MNH are suboptimal tests in predicting malignant IPMN; however, they can be useful to assist in clinical decision-making.

  20. Implications of imaging criteria for the management and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms - benign versus malignant findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Thula Cannon; Steffen, Ingo G.; Stelter, Lars H.; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm; Grieser, Christian [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Maurer, Martin H. [Universitaetsklinik Bern, Universitaetsinstitut fuer Radiologe, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Bahra, Marcus; Faber, Wladimir; Klein, Fritz [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Blaeker, Hendrik [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Evaluation of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiation of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) subtypes based on objective imaging criteria. Fifty-eight patients with 60 histologically confirmed IPMNs were included in this retrospective study. Eighty-three imaging studies (CT,n = 42; MRI,n = 41) were analysed by three independent blinded observers (O1-O3), using established imaging criteria to assess likelihood of malignancy (-5, very likely benign; 5, very likely malignant) and histological subtype (i.e., low-grade (LGD), moderate-grade (MGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), early invasive carcinoma (IPMC), solid carcinoma (CA) arising from IPMN). Forty-one benign (LGD IPMN,n = 20; MGD IPMN,n = 21) and 19 malignant (HGD IPMN,n = 3; IPMC,n = 6; solid CA,n = 10) IPMNs located in the main duct (n = 6), branch duct (n = 37), or both (n = 17) were evaluated. Overall accuracy of differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs was 86/92 % (CT/MRI). Exclusion of overtly malignant cases (solid CA) resulted in overall accuracy of 83/90 % (CT/MRI). The presence of mural nodules and ductal lesion size ≥30 mm were significant indicators of malignancy (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). Invasive IPMN can be identified with high confidence and sensitivity using CT and MRI. The diagnostic problem that remains is the accurate radiological differentiation of premalignant and non-invasive subtypes. (orig.)

  1. [Mortality rates of circulatory system diseases and malignant neoplasms in Zagreb population younger than sixty-five--call for alarm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizintin, Marina Polić; Mrcela, Nada Tomasović; Kovacić, Luka

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the public health indicators for circulatory heart diseases and malignant neoplasms in the population younger than 65 in the City of Zagreb, Croatia, and compare them with the European Union (EU) countries. The purpose was to evaluate the situation and propose the public health preventive measures. The study population were Zagreb citizens aged 0-64 according to the 2001 census. Total Zagreb population was 779145, making 17.6% of total Croatian population. Data from the Croatian Bureau of Statistics and Dr Andrija Stampar Institute of Public Health were used. The standardized 0-64 mortality rates of the selected diseases 2006-2010 were used in the analysis. In 2010, the standardized mortality rates of all analyzed diseases were significantly higher in Zagreb population aged 0-64 than the EU averages except for cervical cancer. In 2010, the mortality rates in Zagreb population aged 0-64 were as follows: circulatory system diseases 61.22, ischemic heart disease 28.99, cerebrovascular diseases 12.51, malignant neoplasms 94.69, tracheal and lung cancer 24.92, breast cancer 21.08 and cervical cancer 2.05. Standardized mortality rates in Zagreb population aged 0-64 for circulatory system were lower than for Croatia (61.22 vs. 63.25), but higher for malignant neoplasms (94.69 vs. 91.2), except for cervical cancer (2.05 vs. 3.14). High standardized mortality rates for the selected diseases in the City of Zagreb, Croatia, were observed. The rates were higher in Zagreb population compared to EU averages except for cervical cancer. This situation urges revision of the public health strategy and implementation of more intensive preventive and screening measures to reduce the risk factors.

  2. F-18 FDG PET differentiation of benign from malignant chondroid neoplasms: a systematic review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhawong, Ty K.; Winn, Aaron; Shemesh, Shai S.; Pretell-Mazzini, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Discriminating among benign chondroid tumors, low-grade chondrosarcomas, and grade 2/3 chondrosarcomas is frequently difficult with standard imaging modalities. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the performance of PET-CT in making this distinction. A systematic review was performed identifying 811 PubMed- and Embase-indexed articles containing combinations of ''chondrosarcoma,'' ''enchondroma,'' ''chondroid,'' ''cartilage'' and ''PET/CT,'' ''PET,'' ''positron.'' Eight articles including 166 lesions were included. Age, gender, tumor size, histologic grade, and SUVmax values were extracted for individual lesions when possible and otherwise recorded as aggregated data. Comparisons in SUVmax among benign, low-grade, and intermediate-/high-grade chondroid neoplasms were made. Individual SUVs were available for 101 lesions; 65 additional lesions were reported as aggregated data. There were 101 malignant and 65 benign tumors. Benign tumors were seen more frequently in females (p = 0.04, Fischer's exact test), but malignancy was not associated with age or lesion size. SUVmax was lower for benign (1.6 ± 0.7) than malignant tumors (4.4 ± 2.5) (p < 0.0001, t-test). SUVmax was lower for grade 0/1 (2.0 ± 0.7) than grade 2/3 (6.0 ± 3.2) (p < 0.0001, t-test). Increasing SUVmax correlated with higher grade chondroid tumors (Spearman's rank, ρ = 0.78). SUVmax ≥4.4 was 99% specific for grade 2/3 chondrosarcoma. SUVmax correlates with histologic grade in intraosseous chondroid neoplasms; very low SUVmax supports a diagnosis of benign tumor, while elevated SUVmax is suggestive of higher grade chondrosarcoma. (orig.)

  3. F-18 FDG PET differentiation of benign from malignant chondroid neoplasms: a systematic review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhawong, Ty K.; Winn, Aaron [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Shemesh, Shai S.; Pretell-Mazzini, Juan [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics, Miami, FL (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Discriminating among benign chondroid tumors, low-grade chondrosarcomas, and grade 2/3 chondrosarcomas is frequently difficult with standard imaging modalities. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the performance of PET-CT in making this distinction. A systematic review was performed identifying 811 PubMed- and Embase-indexed articles containing combinations of ''chondrosarcoma,'' ''enchondroma,'' ''chondroid,'' ''cartilage'' and ''PET/CT,'' ''PET,'' ''positron.'' Eight articles including 166 lesions were included. Age, gender, tumor size, histologic grade, and SUVmax values were extracted for individual lesions when possible and otherwise recorded as aggregated data. Comparisons in SUVmax among benign, low-grade, and intermediate-/high-grade chondroid neoplasms were made. Individual SUVs were available for 101 lesions; 65 additional lesions were reported as aggregated data. There were 101 malignant and 65 benign tumors. Benign tumors were seen more frequently in females (p = 0.04, Fischer's exact test), but malignancy was not associated with age or lesion size. SUVmax was lower for benign (1.6 ± 0.7) than malignant tumors (4.4 ± 2.5) (p < 0.0001, t-test). SUVmax was lower for grade 0/1 (2.0 ± 0.7) than grade 2/3 (6.0 ± 3.2) (p < 0.0001, t-test). Increasing SUVmax correlated with higher grade chondroid tumors (Spearman's rank, ρ = 0.78). SUVmax ≥4.4 was 99% specific for grade 2/3 chondrosarcoma. SUVmax correlates with histologic grade in intraosseous chondroid neoplasms; very low SUVmax supports a diagnosis of benign tumor, while elevated SUVmax is suggestive of higher grade chondrosarcoma. (orig.)

  4. WHO Grade IV Gliofibroma: A Grading Label Denoting Malignancy for an Otherwise Commonly Misinterpreted Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A. Escalante Abril

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a 50-year-old woman with no relevant clinical history who presented with headache and loss of memory. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a left parieto-temporal mass with annular enhancement after contrast media administration, rendering a radiological diagnosis of high-grade astrocytic neoplasm. Tumour sampling was performed but the patient ultimately died as a result of disease. Microscopically, the lesion had areas of glioblastoma mixed with a benign mesenchymal constituent; the former showed hypercellularity, endothelial proliferation, high mitotic activity and necrosis, while the latter showed fascicles of long spindle cells surrounded by collagen and reticulin fibers. With approximately 40 previously reported cases, gliofibroma is a rare neoplasm defined as either glio-desmoplastic or glial/benign mesenchymal. As shown in our case, its prognosis is apparently determined by the degree of anaplasia of the glial component.

  5. Endoscopic surgery and photodynamic therapy for behign and malignant neoplasms of colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Razzhivina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature for current methods of endoscopic treatment for colon epithelial neoplasms is represented. Such types of endoscopic interventions as loop electroresection, submucosal dissection, coagulation and destruction of tumors and combination of several options depending on efficiency of previous therapy is analyzed. Limitations of every method, its special aspects and possible complications are described. Special focus is on specifics of neoplasms for which selected methods may be the most effective. Thus, hot biopsy and destruction using high-energy laser is efficient for small flat neoplasms, endoscopic electroexcision – far small pedunculated lesions, and fragmentation is adequate for exophytic tumors more than 2.0 cm. Long-term results of endoscopic treatment, recurrence rates after different options are represented. The literature for photodynamic therapy consists mostly articles about development (on pre-clenecal stage of new photosensitizers which are effective for colon cancer, new methods of treatment including combination with hyperthermia in low-dose light irradiation etc. The literature data shows the prospectivity of subsequent developments in this field. 

  6. Secondary Solid Organ Neoplasm in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Jen Teng

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is more common in children than in adults. Secondary neoplasms (SNs in childhood ALL have been widely reported. However, only one study has demonstrated SNs in adult ALL. Because of the poorer survival of adult ALL, the incidence might be underestimated.To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of secondary solid organ neoplasms among adult and child ALL patients.Newly diagnosed ALL patients between 1997 and 2011 were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. Those who had antecedent or combined malignancies were excluded. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs were analyzed to compare the risk of our cohort to general population in the same age, sex and calendar year. Risk factors for SN development were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards models. Effects of treatments were treated as time-dependent variables.The 15-year cumulative incidence of SN was 1.9% and 8.4% in 1,381 child and 2,154 adult ALL patients, respectively. The SIR was significantly increased in child ALL (SIR 6.06, but not in adult ALL (SIR 1.16. The SIRs of follow-up periods were 5.14, 2.24, .87 and .71 at ≥ 10 years, 5-10 years, 1-5 years and 0-1, respectively. Overall, 15 SNs developed, and CNS tumors (SIR 11.56 were the most common type. Multivariate analysis showed that age ≥ 20 years (hazard ratio [HR] 5.04, end-stage renal disease (HR 18.98 and cranial irradiation (HR 8.12 were independent risk factors for cancer development.When compared with the general population, child ALL shows a increased risk of developing SNs. CNS tumors are the most common type, and cranial irradiation is an independent risk factor. With longer follow-up, the risk of SNs increases. Hence, physicians need to pay more attention on the risk of developing SNs in long-term ALL survivors with risk factors.

  7. Non-traumatic myositis ossificans mimicking a malignant neoplasm in an 83-year-old woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio Jun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Myositis ossificans is a benign, self-limiting condition that usually affects young, athletically active men. To the best of our knowledge, this case report describes the oldest recorded patient with myositis ossificans. Case presentation Our patient was an 83-year-old Japanese woman who presented with a one week history of a palpable mass in the left thigh. She had a history of surgery for transverse colon cancer and lung cancer at the ages of 73 and 80, respectively. Clinical and radiological examinations suggested a malignant neoplasm such as metastatic carcinoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. A diagnosis of myositis ossificans was made by core needle biopsy. Our patient was asymptomatic and had no recurrence at one year follow-up. Conclusion Clinicians should consider myositis ossificans as a possible diagnosis for a soft tissue mass in the limb of an older patient, thereby avoiding unnecessarily aggressive therapy.

  8. Utility of whole-lesion ADC histogram metrics for assessing the malignant potential of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David H; Ream, Justin M; Hajdu, Christina H; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate whole-lesion ADC histogram metrics for assessing the malignant potential of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), including in comparison with conventional MRI features. Eighteen branch-duct IPMNs underwent MRI with DWI prior to resection (n = 16) or FNA (n = 2). A blinded radiologist placed 3D volumes-of-interest on the entire IPMN on the ADC map, from which whole-lesion histogram metrics were generated. The reader also assessed IPMN size, mural nodularity, and adjacent main-duct dilation. Benign (low-to-intermediate grade dysplasia; n = 10) and malignant (high-grade dysplasia or invasive adenocarcinoma; n = 8) IPMNs were compared. Whole-lesion ADC histogram metrics demonstrating significant differences between benign and malignant IPMNs were: entropy (5.1 ± 0.2 vs. 5.4 ± 0.2; p = 0.01, AUC = 86%); mean of the bottom 10th percentile (2.2 ± 0.4 vs. 1.6 ± 0.7; p = 0.03; AUC = 81%); and mean of the 10-25th percentile (2.8 ± 0.4 vs. 2.3 ± 0.6; p = 0.04; AUC = 79%). The overall mean ADC, skewness, and kurtosis were not significantly different between groups (p ≥ 0.06; AUC = 50-78%). For entropy (highest performing histogram metric), an optimal threshold of >5.3 achieved a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 70%, and an accuracy of 83% for predicting malignancy. No significant difference (p = 0.18-0.64) was observed between benign and malignant IPMNs for cyst size ≥3 cm, adjacent main-duct dilatation, or mural nodule. At multivariable analysis of entropy in combination with all other ADC histogram and conventional MRI features, entropy was the only significant independent predictor of malignancy (p = 0.004). Although requiring larger studies, ADC entropy obtained from 3D whole-lesion histogram analysis may serve as a biomarker for identifying the malignant potential of IPMNs, independent of conventional MRI features.

  9. Malignant neoplasms on the territories of Russia damaged owing to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remennik, L.V.; Starinsky, V.V.; Mokina, V.D.; Chissov, V.I.; Scheplyagina, L.A.; Petrova, G.V.; Rubtsova, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    The work presents the results of descriptive analysis of development of onco epidemiological situation in six of the most polluted regions owing to the Chernobyl accident in 1981-1994. The growth of malignancies incidence is marked in all territories as well as in the Russian Federation as a whole. The most adverse tendencies have been revealed in the Bryansk, Orel, Ryazan regions. It is marked that the formation of a structure, levels and trends of the malignancies incidence has been occurring under influence of a complex of factors usual up to the accident. The analysis of the data from the specialized cancer-register evidences that the incidence of thyroid malignancies is actively growing in the population of the Bryansk region. The probability of connection of growth of the thyroid cancer incidence in children of the Bryansk region with the Chernobyl accident is reasonably high, but should be confirmed through the application of methods of analytical epidemiology

  10. Adrenal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, G.; Dhliwayo, H.; Lomas, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Adenoma, myelolipoma, phaeochromocytoma, metastases, adrenocortical carcinoma, neuroblastoma, and lymphoma account for the majority of adrenal neoplasms that are encountered in clinical practice. A variety of imaging methods are available for evaluating adrenal lesions including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear medicine techniques such as meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy and positron-emission tomography (PET). Lipid-sensitive imaging techniques such as unenhanced CT and chemical shift MRI enable detection and characterization of lipid-rich adenomas based on an unenhanced CT attenuation of ≤10 HU and signal loss on opposed-phase compared to in-phase T1-weighted images, respectively. In indeterminate cases, an adrenal CT washout study may differentiate adenomas (both lipid-rich and lipid-poor) from other adrenal neoplasms based on an absolute percentage washout of >60% and/or a relative percentage washout of >40%. This is based on the principle that adenomas show rapid contrast washout while most other adrenal neoplasms including malignant tumours show slow contrast washout instead. 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose–PET ( 18 FDG-PET) imaging may differentiate benign from malignant adrenal neoplasms by demonstrating high tracer uptake in malignant neoplasms based on the increased glucose utilization and metabolic activity found in most of these malignancies. In this review, the multi-modality imaging appearances of adrenal neoplasms are discussed and illustrated. Key imaging findings that facilitate lesion characterization and differentiation are emphasized. Awareness of these imaging findings is essential for improving diagnostic confidence and for reducing misinterpretation errors.

  11. Malignant Neoplasms Of The Ear, Nose And Throat In North Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The few cases seen in this study are the tip of the Iceberg. The apperent low figure in this region could be due to high cost of hospitalization, distant location of health facilities and absence of radiotherapy unit in our centre. Key words: ENT cancers, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, malignant midline reticulosis, and north eastern ...

  12. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenova, Markhaba; Diallo, Ibrahima; Anderson, Harald; Hawkins, Mike; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Sankila, Risto; El Fayech, Chiraz; Winter, Dave; Rubino, Carole; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Haddy, Nadia; Oberlin, Odile; Moller, Torgil; Langmark, Froydis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong dose–response relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.7–16.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.6–35.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

  13. Indications and limitations of the radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, J.

    1978-01-01

    General remarks on the topic of oncoradiology precede the discussion of the problems of special oncoradiology concerning the respiratory system, the digestive tract, the mamma, the female genitals, the male genitals, the urinary tract, the nervous system, the hematopoietic system, the non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and malignant meoplasms of the supporting apparatus, of the thyroid, of the eye including malignant exophthalmus, of the ear, and of the skin. Each chapter contains introductory notes on morphological, radiobiological, and clinical aspects followed by discussions of the results of treatment, of the planning of radiotherapeutic measures as well as of problems of the patient's follow-up care. Numerous bibliographic references conclude the individual chapters. Of interest to physicians and scientists working in the field of radiotherapy

  14. Malignant neoplasms of decidual origin (deciduosarcomas) induced by estrogen-progestin-releasing intravaginal devices in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Zook, B. C.; Spiro, I.; Hertz, R.

    1987-01-01

    A combination of estrogen and levonorgestrel was continuously delivered to 23 adult rabbits for up to 2 years via a Silastic ring device sutured into the vagina. Twenty-one control rabbits were given similar rings devoid of drugs. A marked decidual reaction of the endometrium occurred in 16 of 23 test rabbits. In 14 test rabbits (61%) malignant tumors developed of decidual type cells not heretofore described. The deciduosarcomas were composed of anaplastic cells that invaded the uterine walls...

  15. Malignant neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a series of 256 patients in Mexico City and Monterrey. Is air pollution the missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Delgado, R; Calderón-Garcidueñas, A; Meneses, A; Ruiz, L M; De La Garza, J; Acuna, H; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Raab-Traub, N; Devlin, R

    2000-04-01

    Air pollution is a serious health problem in major cities in Mexico. The concentrations of monitored criteria pollutants have been above the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards for the last decade. To determine whether the number of primary malignant nasal and paranasal neoplasms has increased, we surveyed 256 such cases admitted to a major adult oncology hospital located in metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) for the period from 1976-1997 and to a tertiary hospital in Monterrey, an industrial city, for the period from 1993-1998. The clinical histories and histopathologic material were reviewed, and a brief clinical summary was written for each case. In the MMC hospital the number of newly diagnosed nasal and paranasal neoplasms per year for the period from 1976-1986 averaged 5.1, whereas for the next 11 years it increased to 12.5. The maximal increase was observed in 1995-1997, with an average of 20.3 new cases per year (P = 0.0006). The predominant neoplasms in these series were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, adenocarcinoma, Schneiderian carcinoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In the Monterrey hospital a 2-fold increase in the numbers of newly diagnosed nasal and paranasal neoplasms was recorded between 1993 and 1998. The predominant MMC neoplasm in this series, namely nasal T-cell/natural killer cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is potentially Epstein-Barr virus related. Nasal and paranasal malignant neoplasms are generally rare. Environmental causative factors include exposure in industries such as nickel refining, leather, and wood furniture manufacturing. Although epidemiologic studies have not addressed the relationship between outdoor air pollution and sinonasal malignant neoplasms, there is strong evidence for the nasal and paranasal carcinogenic effect of occupational aerosol complex chemical mixtures. General practitioners and ear, nose, and throat physicians working in highly polluted cities should be aware of the clinical

  16. Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node mapping in Japanese patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities. Comparison with previously investigated Japanese lymphatic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Hiroyuki; Ono, Shuichi; Nagahata, Morio

    2010-01-01

    Lymph nodes (LN) and lymphatic drainage were identified by lymphoscintigraphy using 99m Tc-phytate in order to map the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities, and to compare the results with an atlas of Japanese lymphatic anatomy. Sentinel lymphoscintigraphs of 18 patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities (9 men, 9 women; age range 45-84 years, mean age 66 years) were analyzed retrospectively, and the LNs detected were identified as SLNs or secondary nodes. The patterns of lymphatic drainage were divided into three different categories: initial drainage into inguinal LN without visualization of popliteal LNs (inguinal type), initial drainage into popliteal LNs and then into intrapelvic LNs (popliteal type), and initial drainage into both popliteal and inguinal LNs (inguinal and popliteal type). More than half of the cases were the inguinal and popliteal type, as both inguinal and popliteal LNs were identified as SLNs. In the cases in which the hallux and its surrounding area were injected, all were the inguinal type and popliteal LNs were not visualized. In one case, only dynamic images detected lymphatic drainage without visualization of popliteal LNs. In contrast to the previously published literature on Japanese lymphatic anatomy, SLN lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However, in agreement with currently accepted anatomy, only the great saphenous lymphatic vessel drained the skin of the hallux and its surrounding area. The present results suggest that it is important to confirm lymphatic drainage in order to identify SLNs in the lower extremities. The patterns of lymphatic drainage from the skin of the foot were divided into three different categories. In contrast to previously published Japanese lymphatic anatomy, lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However

  17. Hereditary multiple exostosis with secondary malignization: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, A.M.N.; Pitella, F.A.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Costa, P.L.A.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Sapienza, M.T.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Centro de Medicna Nuclear

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Hereditary Multiple Exostosis (HME) or multiple osteochondromatosis is a skeletal development anomaly which is characterized by generalized exostoses in the bones, mainly in long bone metaphyses, appearing during childhood and adolescence. The transmission is autosomal dominant, its prevalence varies from 1/50,000 to 9/1,000,000 in Europe, and around 10% of cases show no family history. Case Report: Description of an HME case with two secondary malignization episodes. The data was taken from the patient's chart and from imaging exams from the hospital files. WASB, a 19-year-old male, hospitalized after being pre-diagnosed with HME and complaints of bone-consistent mass in the right gluteal region and a lump in the posterior region of the right leg, associated to multiple bone lumps all over the body. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed along with a bone scintillography with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP which showed multiple osteogenic lesions in the thorax, pelvic bones and long bones with periarticular prevalence in the lower limbs. The suspicion of malignancy in the right iliac area was raised due to the MRI result and to the higher intensity captured in the scintillography, confirming chondrosarcoma grade I of malignancy in the biopsy. The patient suffered interileo abdominalis amputation of the right lower limb with good evolution and control scintillography performed after 1 and 1,5 years. In the second controlling procedure, the patient complained about pain in the left knee, and a MRI suggested a new secondary malignization. The hypothesis of a head of left fibula osteochondroma with signs of aggressiveness was confirmed following surgery. Discussion: In HME, the exostoses grow along with the individual, ceasing with the epiphyseal fusion. The growth of these formations after skeletal maturation suggests activity of exostoses and, in most times, it is a sign of malignant transformation, which turns almost every time into

  18. Optimisation of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for untreated Hodgkin lymphoma patients with respect to second malignant neoplasms, overall and progression-free survival: individual participant data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jeremy; Eichenauer, Dennis A; Becker, Ingrid; Monsef, Ina; Engert, Andreas

    2017-09-13

    Efficacy and the risk of severe late effects have to be well-balanced in treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Late adverse effects include secondary malignancies which often have a poor prognosis. To synthesise evidence on the risk of secondary malignancies after current treatment approaches comprising chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, we performed a meta-analysis based on individual patient data (IPD) from patients treated for newly diagnosed HL. We investigated several questions concerning possible changes in the risk of secondary malignancies when modifying chemotherapy or radiotherapy (omission of radiotherapy, reduction of the radiation field, reduction of the radiation dose, use of fewer chemotherapy cycles, intensification of chemotherapy). We also analysed whether these modifications affect progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). We searched MEDLINE and Cochrane CENTRAL trials databases comprehensively in June 2010 for all randomised trials in HL since 1984. Key international trials registries were also searched. The search was updated in March 2015 without collecting further IPD (one further eligible study found) and again in July 2017 (no further eligible studies). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for untreated HL patients which enrolled at least 50 patients per arm, completed recruitment by 2007 and performed a treatment comparison relevant to our objectives. Study groups submitted IPD, including age, sex, stage and the outcomes secondary malignant neoplasm (SMN), OS and PFS as time-to-event data. We meta-analysed these data using Petos method (SMN) and Cox regression with inverse-variance pooling (OS, PFS) for each of the five study questions, and performed subgroup and sensitivity analyses to assess the applicability and robustness of the results. We identified 21 eligible trials and obtained IPD for 16. For four studies no data were supplied despite repeated efforts, while one study was only identified in 2015 and IPD

  19. Estimating the impact of natural and technogenic factors on the incidence of malignant neoplasms in Altai krai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, A. N.; Kovrigin, A. O.; Lazarev, A. F.; Lubennikov, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution by industry and motor vehicles, the use of coal ash for the construction of residential and nonresidential buildings, and the presence of dead zones in the residential sector are the main factors of carcinogenic risk to human health. Natural factors (such as topography and prevailing wind directions) can weaken or strengthen technogenic factors. Based on the estimate of pollutant concentrations in the snow cover of Barnaul, we reveal residential areas that are located at the crossroads of atmospheric transport of carcinogenic substances and characterized by concentrations considerably exceeding the maximum allowable concentration. These areas are characterized by the integral accumulation of carcinogenic substances concurrently from multiple sources; for almost any wind rose, the impact of one of the pollution sources is observed throughout the year. The assessment of the carcinogenic risk for a territory depends much on the correlation between local topography and the height of apartments above ground level. Using cancer register data for Barnaul, we reveal an increased level of the incidence of malignant neoplasms in people living in high-rise buildings located in areas with a sharp change in topography (such as ledges, hills, and lowlands). This may occur due to stagnant zones and wind shadows; under certain correlation between topography and the height and shape of buildings, carcinogenic substances accumulate maximally.

  20. Clinical study of 89Sr therapy with radiosensitization by nicotinamide and carbogen in multiple bone metastasis of malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yajie; Wang Shubin; Guo Yiling; Chen Zuowei; Zhang Yingnan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the curative effect and side effects of 89 Sr therapy with radiosensitization by nicotinamide and carbogen in multiple bone metastasis of malignant neoplasms. Methods: Ninety-seven patients were divided into 4 groups respectively: group A, 89 Sr + nicotinamide + carbogen (24 patients); group B, 89 Sr + nicotinamide(22 patients); group C, 89 Sr + carbogen (25 patients); group D, 89 Sr, (26 patients). 89 SrCl was intravenously injected at a dose of 1.48-2.22 MBq/kg. Nicotinamide was taken orally 1 hour before 89 SrCl injection, 6 g/day, tid, d1-d5. Aspiration of carbogen(95%O 2 + 5%CO 2 ) gases, 6 L/min, 10 minutes, qd, d1-d5. Results: The effective rate of pain control and QOL improvement in A group were higher than in groups B, C and D (91.7% VS 77.3%, 76.0% and 69.2%, P=0.048). The lesions assessed by SPECT imaging in every group was not significantly different at three months after treatment. I to II degree toxic effect on bone marrow appeared in every group and there were no significantly inter-group differences. Conclusions: Combinative therapy using 89 Sr + nicotinamide + carbogen is more effective to treat multiple metastatic bone pain and for improvement of QOL. The side effects are not increased. (authors)

  1. Prognostic factors and survival in patients with radiation-related second malignant neoplasms following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Xi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the clinicopathological characteristics, treatment modalities, and potential prognostic factors of radiation-related second malignant neoplasms (SMNs in a large group of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Institutional electronic medical records of 39,118 patients with NPC treated by definitive radiotherapy between February 1964 and December 2003 were reviewed. A total of 247 patients with confirmed SMN attributable to radiotherapy were included. RESULTS: Median latency between radiotherapy for NPC and the diagnosis of SMN was 9.5 years (range, 3.1-36.8 years. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histologic type, followed by fibrosarcoma and adenocarcinoma. Median progression-free survival and overall survival (OS of the 235 patients who underwent treatment were 17.3 months and 28.5 months, respectively. The 5-year OS rates were 42.9%, 23.7%, and 0% for the surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy groups, respectively. The independent prognostic factors associated with survival were sex, histologic type, and treatment modality in both the early stage subgroup and the advanced stage subgroup of SMN. CONCLUSIONS: Sex, histologic type, and treatment modality were the significant prognostic factors for SMN. Complete resection offers the best chance for long-term survival. In select patients with locally advanced and unresectable SMN, reirradiation should be strongly considered as a curative option.

  2. Pattern of recurrence in children with midline posterior fossa malignant neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton-Gorges, S.L.; Foreman, N.K.; Albano, E.A.; Dertina, D.M.; Nein, P.K.; Shukert, B.; Cesario, K.B.; Gage, S.; Rumack, C.M.; Strain, J.D. [Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Denver, CO (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Background. Surveillance imaging of the brain and spinal neuraxis in patients with posterior fossa malignant tumors is commonly performed, with the assumption that early detection of tumor recurrence will improve outcome. However, the benefit of this imaging has not been proven. To evaluate the usefulness of spinal surveillance imaging in children with nonmetastatic (at diagnosis, M0) posterior fossa ependymoma and medulloblastoma. Materials and methods. This retrospective study included 65 children (3 months to 16 years, mean 5.7 years) treated between 1985 and 1997 for ependymoma (22) and medulloblastoma (43). Medical records were reviewed for pathology and treatment data. Serial imaging of the head and spine was reviewed for evidence of tumor recurrence. Results. Twenty-four patients (37 %) had tumor recurrence, including 13 with ependymoma and 11 with medulloblastoma. Of the 17/24 recurrent patients initially diagnosed as M0 (6 medulloblastoma and 11 ependymoma), 13 (76 %) had a cranial recurrence only, and 4 (24 %) presented with concomitant cranial and spinal recurrence. No M0 patient presented solely with spinal metastases at recurrence. Conclusion. This study suggests that spinal surveillance imaging in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma or medulloblastoma initially staged as M0 may not be useful, as these patients initially recur intracranially. Thus, until an intracranial recurrence is detected, these patients may be spared the time, expense and sedation risk necessary for spinal imaging. (orig.)

  3. Pattern of recurrence in children with midline posterior fossa malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton-Gorges, S.L.; Foreman, N.K.; Albano, E.A.; Dertina, D.M.; Nein, P.K.; Shukert, B.; Cesario, K.B.; Gage, S.; Rumack, C.M.; Strain, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Background. Surveillance imaging of the brain and spinal neuraxis in patients with posterior fossa malignant tumors is commonly performed, with the assumption that early detection of tumor recurrence will improve outcome. However, the benefit of this imaging has not been proven. To evaluate the usefulness of spinal surveillance imaging in children with nonmetastatic (at diagnosis, M0) posterior fossa ependymoma and medulloblastoma. Materials and methods. This retrospective study included 65 children (3 months to 16 years, mean 5.7 years) treated between 1985 and 1997 for ependymoma (22) and medulloblastoma (43). Medical records were reviewed for pathology and treatment data. Serial imaging of the head and spine was reviewed for evidence of tumor recurrence. Results. Twenty-four patients (37 %) had tumor recurrence, including 13 with ependymoma and 11 with medulloblastoma. Of the 17/24 recurrent patients initially diagnosed as M0 (6 medulloblastoma and 11 ependymoma), 13 (76 %) had a cranial recurrence only, and 4 (24 %) presented with concomitant cranial and spinal recurrence. No M0 patient presented solely with spinal metastases at recurrence. Conclusion. This study suggests that spinal surveillance imaging in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma or medulloblastoma initially staged as M0 may not be useful, as these patients initially recur intracranially. Thus, until an intracranial recurrence is detected, these patients may be spared the time, expense and sedation risk necessary for spinal imaging. (orig.)

  4. The role of USG in neck monitoring after surgery of malignant neoplasms of head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmeja, Z.; Kordylewska, M.; Dziamska, K.; Szyfter, W.; Kruk-Zagajewska, A.

    1994-01-01

    Metastases to regional lymph nodes of the neck in patients with larynx cancer are a more frequent cause of death in comparison to local recurrence. Thus it is necessary to thoroughly examine the treatment and after the treatment. The ultrasound examination introduced significant diagnostic value in the diagnosis of malignant cancers. Ultrasound monitoring of the lymphatic system after surgical treatment or radiation allows to diagnose early metastases which are not visible in palpation examination. In over 200 patients after surgical treatment of larynx cancer several ultrasound examinations of the neck were carried out. The time following the end of the treatment was 4 months to l 8 years. In the ultrasound examination of the neck changes in the lymphatic system were observed, which were not clinically manifested in 10 patients. Metastases to regional lymph nodes of the neck were most frequently observed in the first year after the operation. Patients who were diagnosed with metastases before operation and patients with supraglottic cancers were at more risk of having metastases. The ultrasound examination of the neck should be a routine, systematically repeated examination in the observation of patients after larynx cancer operation. (author)

  5. Multiple malignant primary neoplasms in patients with gastric neoplasms in the health district of León Neoplasias primarias malignas múltiples en pacientes con cáncer gástrico en el área sanitaria de León

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muela Molinero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: we analyzed the characteristics of patients with gastric tumors diagnosed with multiple malignant primary neoplasm (MMPN in the Health District of León. Material and methods: using the information in the Tumor Registry at León Hospital patients selected were those with gastric neoplasms diagnosed between 1993 and 2002. A follow-up was performed until December 31, 2004, and the characteristics of patients diagnosed with a second neoplasm were analyzed. Results: MMPN prevalence was 1,96%; 56% of patients had a history of cancer in first-degree relatives. The most frequent second neoplasms were digestive (26% and urologic (21%; 87% of patients were diagnosed with a second neoplasm within the first two years. No significative differences in survival were observed among patients with synchronous or metachronous MMPN. Conclusions: MMPN in patients with gastric neoplasms is a relevant problem. While external carcinogenic agents could act as promoters in the development of second neoplasms, these patients seem to have a genetic background favoring the development of MMPN. Secondary prevention is the best measure to avoid MMPN development.Objetivos: analizar las características de los pacientes con tumores gástricos diagnosticados de una neoplasia primaria maligna múltiple (NPMM en el área sanitaria de León. Pacientes y método: utilizando los datos del Registro de Tumores del Hospital de León se han seleccionado aquellos pacientes con tumores gástricos diagnosticados entre 1993 y 2002. Se realizó un seguimiento hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2004 analizando las características de los pacientes diagnosticados de una segunda neoplasia durante el periodo de seguimiento. Resultados: la prevalencia de NPMM fue del 1,96%. El 56% de los pacientes tenían antecedentes oncológicos en familiares de primer grado. Las segundas neoplasias más frecuentes fueron las digestivas (26% y las urológicas (21%. El 87% de los pacientes fueron

  6. Treatment of malignant neoplasms by combined radio- and chemotherapy with cell-cycle synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrov, G.; Dobrev, D.; Bakalov, M.; Angelova, J.

    1975-01-01

    Immediate and short-term results are reported from treatment of 12 cases of malignancies affecting the face jaw area by the method of cell-cycle synchronization using 5-fluorouracyl. The patients, ranging from 49 to 73 years of age, presented with developed differentiated planocellular carcinomas distributed according to the TNM system, as follows: T 1 , N 0 , M 0 , 2 subjects; T 2 , N 0 , M 0 , 2 subjects; T 3 , N 1 , M 0 , 4 subjects; and T 4 , N 1 , M 0 , 4 subjects. Based on a scheme, 750 mg 5-fluorouracyl was infused over a 12-hour period (drop-by-drop administration), the procedure being repeated twice weekly up to a total dose of 8.5-11.5 mg. Radiotherapy (gamma teletherapy) followed under the same schedule, namely 8 hours after discontinuing the drop-by drop system, at 500 rad daily tumor dose and 6000-7000 rad total focal dose delivered over a 6-7 week period. Directly after cessation of radiotherapy, clinical disappearance (100) of the tumor was observed in 8 patients, reduction by 90% in 1 patient, and by 80% in 3 patients. No recurrences were noted at 3 months following radiotherapy; the proportion of recurrences did not increase until after the 6th month (40%). The most common local response was radioepithelitis; severe cases calling for temporary interruption of treatment occurred in 7 of the 12 patients. The hematopoietic system showed no deviations from the norm. No marked general radiation reactions were observed. Long-term results as regards primary tumors and survival will be reported in a second paper. (author)

  7. Appendectomy in primary and secondary staging operations for ovarian malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P G; Reale, F R; Fisher, A; Hunter, R E

    1991-01-01

    Appendectomy was performed at primary or secondary staging operations in 100 patients with ovarian malignancies. Of 80 patients who underwent appendectomy at the time of their primary surgery, 25 (31.2%) had appendiceal metastases. Among 47 patients who were believed to have disease limited to the pelvis at the time of surgery--stage I (N = 34), II (N = 7), IIIA (N = 5), and those designated stage IIIC solely on the basis of microscopic para-aortic nodal metastasis (N = 1)--the appendix was involved with disease in only two patients (4.3%). However, among 33 patients with advanced disease--stage IIIB (N = 6), IIIC except those designated IIIC solely on the basis of microscopic paraaortic nodal metastasis (N = 19), and IV (N = 8)--the appendix was involved with disease in 23 patients (69.7%) (P less than .001). Poorly differentiated tumors and serous histologic cell types more frequently metastasized to the appendix (64, 15, 6, and 8% for grades 3, 2, and 1 and borderline histology, respectively; P less than .001; and 48, 13, and 8% for serous, endometrioid, and mucinous; P less than .001). Of 20 patients who underwent appendectomy at their secondary staging procedure, two had metastases. Metastatic disease in the appendix was microscopic in nine of 27 patients. Because the frequency of appendiceal metastasis is similar to that of other metastatic sites in stages I and II ovarian cancer, it should be removed at primary staging procedures. Appendectomy should also be performed in patients with advanced ovarian malignancies if it contributes to cytoreduction or at the time of secondary staging procedures.

  8. Secondary malignancy among seminoma patients treated with adjuvant radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Clifford K.S.; Lai, Peter P; Michalski, Jeff M; Perez, Carlos A

    1995-11-01

    Purpose: Early-stage testicular seminoma is among the most radiosensitive tumors, with an overall cure rate of over 90%. Among those cured of the disease by orchiectomy and postoperative irradiation, there is a risk of having a second malignancy. We conducted a study to determine the relative risk of the occurrence of secondary malignancy. Methods and Materials: From 1964 through 1988, 128 patients with histologically confirmed early-stage seminoma of the testis underwent orchiectomy and postoperative irradiation at the Radiation Oncology Center, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, and affiliate hospitals. The follow-up periods ranged from 5 to 29 years, with a median of 11.7 years. The expected rate of developing a second cancer was computed by the standardized incidence ratio using the Connecticut Tumor Registry Database. The rate is based on the number of person-years at risk, taking into account age, gender, and race. Results: Nine second nontesticular malignancies were found; the time of appearance in years is indicated in brackets: two squamous cell carcinomas of the lung [3, 11], one adenocarcinoma of the rectum [15], one chronic lymphocytic leukemia [2], one adenocarcinoma of the pancreas [14], one diffuse histiocytic lymphoma of the adrenal gland [7], one sarcoma of the pelvis [5], and two transitional cell carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter [14, 17]. One patient who developed a contralateral testicular tumor was excluded from risk assessment. The actuarial risk of second nontesticular cancer is 3%, 5%, and 20%, respectively, at 5, 10, and 15 years of follow-up. When compared with the general population, the overall risk of second nontesticular cancer in the study group did not reach the 0.05 significance level, with an observed/expected (O/E) ratio of 2.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-3.35). When analyzed by the latency period after radiation treatment, during the period of 11 to 15 years, the risk was higher (O/E ratio of 4.45, 95% confidence

  9. Prevention of malignant neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    D. G. Zaridze; D. M. Maksimovich

    2017-01-01

    Research in causation of cancer is an important part of cancer research in general and is an essential prerequisite for cancer prevention. The effective primary prevention is not visible without evidence based knowledge in the causation of cancer in humans.There is sufficient evidence that certain life style and environment factors cause cancer in humans. These factors include: smoking and other types of tobacco consumption, overweight and obesity, lack of physical activity, diet rich in proc...

  10. Prevention of malignant neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Zaridze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in causation of cancer is an important part of cancer research in general and is an essential prerequisite for cancer prevention. The effective primary prevention is not visible without evidence based knowledge in the causation of cancer in humans.There is sufficient evidence that certain life style and environment factors cause cancer in humans. These factors include: smoking and other types of tobacco consumption, overweight and obesity, lack of physical activity, diet rich in processed meat and poor in vegetables and fruits, certain types of viral and bacterial infection, ultraviolet radiation, ionizing radiation, ambient air pollution, carcinogens at workplace, exogenous hormones.Cancer mortality is decreasing in majority of developed countries, including Russia. This mortality trend is mostly due to decrease in incidence and death rates of lung and other smoking related cancers and is caused by decline in smoking prevalence and change in tar content of cigarette smoke.In Russia trend in mortality from all cancers is as well determined by decrease in incidence and mortality from gastric cancer, which is due to decline in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and improvement of diet, increase in consumption of fruits and vegetables. Thus the decline in cancer mortality is mostly the result of primary prevention which is the most effective avenue of cancer control. 

  11. Differentiation between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant neoplasms of the liver with free-breathing diffusion-weighted MR imaging: Comparison with T2-weighted fast spin-echo MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyer, Philippe; Corno, Lucie; Boudiaf, Mourad; Aout, Mounir; Sirol, Marc; Place, Vinciane; Duchat, Florent; Guerrache, Youcef; Fargeaudou, Yann; Vicaut, Eric; Pocard, Marc; Hamzi, Lounis

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To test interobserver variability of ADC measurements and compare the diagnostic performances of free-breathing diffusion-weighted (FBDW) with that of T2-weighted FSE (T2WFSE) MR imaging for differentiating between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant hepatic neoplasms. Materials and methods: Thirty-five patients with cavernous hemangiomas and 35 with untreated hepatic malignant neoplasms had FBDW and T2WFSE MR imaging. Hepatic lesions were characterized with ADC measurement and visual evaluation. Interobserver agreement for ADC measurement was calculated. Association between ADC value and lesion type was assessed using univariate analysis. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ADC values and visual evaluation of MR images for the diagnosis of untreated malignant hepatic neoplasm were compared. Results: ADC measurements showed excellent interobserver correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.980). Malignant neoplasms had lower ADC values than hemangiomas for the two observers (1.11 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s ± .21 x 10 -3 vs. 1.77 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s ± .29 x 10 -3 for observer 1 and 1.11 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s ± .19 x 10 -3 vs. 1.79 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s ± .32 x 10 -3 for observer 2) and univariate analysis found significant correlations between lesion type and ADC values. Depending on ADC threshold value, accuracy for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasm varied from 82.9% to 94.3%. Using visual evaluation, FBDW showed better specificity and accuracy than T2WFSE MR images for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasm (97.1% vs. 77.1% and 94.3% vs. 62.9%, respectively). Conclusion: FBDW imaging provides reproducible quantitative information and surpasses the value of T2WFSE MR imaging for differentiating between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant hepatic neoplasms.

  12. Molecular imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and molecular testing for mutations in differentiating benign from malignant follicular neoplasm: a prospective comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanella, L.; Treglia, G.; Ceriani, L. [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Thyroid Centre, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Campenni, A. [Policlinico Universitario, Istituto di Medicina Nucleare, Messina (Italy); Verburg, F.A. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Trimboli, P. [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Thyroid Centre, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Ospedale Israelitico, Sezione di Endocrinologia e Diabetologia, Roma (Italy); Bongiovanni, M. [Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudouise, Institut de Pathologie, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    To compare mutation analysis of cytology specimens and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI thyroid scintigraphy for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules in patients with a cytological reading of follicular neoplasm. Patients ≥18 years of age with a solitary hypofunctioning thyroid nodule (≥10 mm), normal thyrotropin and calcitonin levels, and a cytological diagnosis of follicular neoplasm were prospectively enrolled. Mutation analysis and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy were performed and patients were subsequently operated on to confirm or exclude a malignant lesion. Mutations for KRAS, HRAS and NRAS and for BRAF and translocations of PAX8/PPARγ, RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 were investigated. Static thyroid scintigraphic images were acquired 10 and 60 min after intravenous injection of 200 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and visually assessed. Additionally, the MIBI washout index was calculated using a semiquantitative method. In our series, 26 % of nodules with a follicular pattern on cytology were malignant with a prevalence of follicular carcinomas. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy was found to be significantly more accurate (positive likelihood ratio 4.56 for visual assessment and 12.35 for semiquantitative assessment) than mutation analysis (positive likelihood ratio 1.74). A negative {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scan reliably excluded malignancy. In patients with a thyroid nodule cytologically diagnosed as a follicular proliferation, semiquantitative analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy should be the preferred method for differentiating benign from malignant nodules. It is superior to molecular testing for the presence of differentiated thyroid cancer-associated mutations in fine-needle aspiration cytology sample material. (orig.)

  13. Molecular imaging with (99m)Tc-MIBI and molecular testing for mutations in differentiating benign from malignant follicular neoplasm: a prospective comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, L; Campenni, A; Treglia, G; Verburg, F A; Trimboli, P; Ceriani, L; Bongiovanni, M

    2016-06-01

    To compare mutation analysis of cytology specimens and (99m)Tc-MIBI thyroid scintigraphy for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules in patients with a cytological reading of follicular neoplasm. Patients ≥18 years of age with a solitary hypofunctioning thyroid nodule (≥10 mm), normal thyrotropin and calcitonin levels, and a cytological diagnosis of follicular neoplasm were prospectively enrolled. Mutation analysis and (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy were performed and patients were subsequently operated on to confirm or exclude a malignant lesion. Mutations for KRAS, HRAS and NRAS and for BRAF and translocations of PAX8/PPARγ, RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 were investigated. Static thyroid scintigraphic images were acquired 10 and 60 min after intravenous injection of 200 MBq of (99m)Tc-MIBI and visually assessed. Additionally, the MIBI washout index was calculated using a semiquantitative method. In our series, 26 % of nodules with a follicular pattern on cytology were malignant with a prevalence of follicular carcinomas. (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy was found to be significantly more accurate (positive likelihood ratio 4.56 for visual assessment and 12.35 for semiquantitative assessment) than mutation analysis (positive likelihood ratio 1.74). A negative (99m)Tc-MIBI scan reliably excluded malignancy. In patients with a thyroid nodule cytologically diagnosed as a follicular proliferation, semiquantitative analysis of (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy should be the preferred method for differentiating benign from malignant nodules. It is superior to molecular testing for the presence of differentiated thyroid cancer-associated mutations in fine-needle aspiration cytology sample material.

  14. Methotrexate/6-mercaptopurine maintenance therapy influences the risk of a second malignant neoplasm after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the NOPHO ALL-92 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Al-Modhwahi, Ibrahim; Andersen, Mette Klarskov

    2009-01-01

    Among 1614 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with the Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL-92 protocol, 20 patients developed a second malignant neoplasm (SMN) with a cumulative risk of 1.6% at 12 years from the diagnosis of ALL. Nine of the 16...... acute myeloid leukemias or myelodysplastic syndromes had monosomy 7 (n = 7) or 7q deletions (n = 2). In Cox multivariate analysis, longer duration of oral 6-mercaptopurine (6MP)/methotrexate (MTX) maintenance therapy (P = .02; longest for standard-risk patients) and presence of high hyperdiploidy (P...

  15. Trends in the incidence and mortality rates of malignant neoplasms in regions with radio ecological problems (Seslavtsi, Eleshnitsa, Yana) during the period 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobanova, N.; Yagova, A.; Bajrakova, A.

    2001-01-01

    A retrospective study is carried out to examine incidence and mortality trends of some malignant neoplasms in regions at high radioecological risk (Seslavtsi, Eleshnitsa, Yana) during the period 1995-1999. The analysis is made according to sex and age groups. Information sources are official medical statistics data, original records and database of the Oncological Dispensary in Sofia. The analysis of incidence and mortality dynamics doesn't show an increase in the incidence/mortality rate of the selected radiation-related oncological diseases compared with the same indices for the country within that period. (author)

  16. Modeling the Risk of Secondary Malignancies after Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Schneider

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, more than half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy at some stage in the management of their disease. However, a radiation-induced secondary malignancy can be the price of success if the primary cancer is cured or at least controlled. Therefore, there is increasing concern regarding radiation-related second cancer risks in long-term radiotherapy survivors and a corresponding need to be able to predict cancer risks at high radiation doses. Of particular interest are second cancer risk estimates for new radiation treatment modalities such as intensity modulated radiotherapy, intensity modulated arc-therapy, proton and heavy ion radiotherapy. The long term risks from such modern radiotherapy treatment techniques have not yet been determined and are unlikely to become apparent for many years, due to the long latency time for solid tumor induction. Most information on the dose-response of radiation-induced cancer is derived from data on the A-bomb survivors who were exposed to γ-rays and neutrons. Since, for radiation protection purposes, the dose span of main interest is between zero and one Gy, the analysis of the A-bomb survivors is usually focused on this range. With increasing cure rates, estimates of cancer risk for doses larger than one Gy are becoming more important for radiotherapy patients. Therefore in this review, emphasis was placed on doses relevant for radiotherapy with respect to radiation induced solid cancer. Simple radiation protection models should be used only with extreme care for risk estimates in radiotherapy, since they are developed exclusively for low dose. When applied to scatter radiation, such models can predict only a fraction of observed second malignancies. Better semi-empirical models include the effect of dose fractionation and represent the dose-response relationships more accurately. The involved uncertainties are still huge for most of the organs and tissues. A major reason for

  17. Renal complications secondary to radiation treatment of upper abdominal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, C.G.; Tepper, J.E.; Orlow, E.L.; Shipley, W.U.

    1986-01-01

    A retrospective review of all patients undergoing radiotherapy for carcinoma of the colon, pancreas, stomach, small bowel and bile ducts, lymphomas of the stomach, and other GI sites and retroperitoneal sarcomas was completed to assess the effects of secondary irradiation on the kidney. Eighty-six adult patients were identified who received greater than 50% unilateral kidney irradiation to doses of at least 2600 cGy and survived for 1 year or more. Following treatment, the clinical course, blood pressure, addition of anti-hypertensive medications, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were determined. The percent change in creatinine clearance from pre-treatment values was analyzed. Of the thirteen patients with pre-radiotherapy hypertension, four required an increase in the number of medications for control and nine required no change in medication. Two patients developed hypertension in follow-up, one controlled with medication and the other malignant hypertension. Acute or chronic renal failure was not observed in any patient. The serum creatinine for all 86 patients prior to radiation therapy was below 2 mg/100 ml; in follow-up it rose to between 2.2-2.9 mg/100 ml. in five patients. The mean creatinine clearance for all 86 patients prior to radiotherapy was 77 ml/minute and for 16 patients with at least 5 years of follow-up it was 62 ml/minute. The mean percent decrease in creatinine clearance appeared to correspond to the percentage of kidney irradiated: for 38 patients with only 50% of the kidney irradiated the mean percent decrease was 10%, whereas for 31 patients having 90 to 100% of the kidney treated the decrease was 24%

  18. Predictors of malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: analysis of 310 pancreatic resection patients at multiple high-volume centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Yamaue, Hiroki; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Yamao, Kenji; Hirono, Seiko; Osanai, Manabu; Hijioka, Susumu; Hosoda, Waki; Nakamura, Yasushi; Shinohara, Toshiya; Yanagisawa, Akio

    2013-07-01

    The present study was a retrospective investigation of predictors of malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. The subjects were 310 patients who underwent pancreatic resection at 3 high-volume centers. Preoperative laboratory and imaging findings were analyzed in logistic regression analyses. Endoscopic ultrasonography measurements were essential for the size of mural nodules, and a central review was conducted for pathological diagnosis. Pathological diagnosis was benign IPMN in 150 cases and malignant in 160 (noninvasive carcinoma, n = 100; invasive, n = 60). In multivariate analysis, size of mural nodules, diameter of main pancreatic duct, and cyst size of branch pancreatic duct were independent predictors of malignancy, and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for these 3 factors were 0.798, 0.643, and 0.601, respectively. With 7 mm taken as the cutoff value for the size of mural nodules, the diagnosis of malignant IPMN had sensitivity of 74.3% and specificity of 72.7%. Carcinoma without nodules was present in 15 patients (15/160 [9.4%]). The size of mural nodules measured with endoscopic ultrasonography showed high predictive ability. However, about 10% of carcinoma patients did not have nodules, and the handling of the diagnosis in such cases is a problem for the future.

  19. Risk Factors for Progression or Malignancy in Main-Duct and Mixed-Type Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong Kee; Ryu, Ji Kon; Chung, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Ban Seok; Park, Joo Kyung; Lee, Sang Hyub; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2016-08-01

    The 2012 international guidelines state that surgery should be considered for all surgically fit patients with pancreatic main-duct (MD)/mixed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). This study evaluated the follow-up results of MD/mixed IPMNs and risk factors for progression or malignancy. Patients with MD/mixed IPMNs were retrospectively enrolled and divided into surgical and nonsurgical groups. These 2 groups were compared and further categorized as progression/malignancy or not. In the nonsurgical group, disease progression was defined as radiologic tumor growth or adjacent organ invasion. Data from 101 patients (73 males; mean [SD] age, 66.3 [9.1] years), including 27 and 74 in the nonsurgical and surgical groups, respectively, were analyzed. Mural nodules were more frequently detected in the surgical group (7.4% vs 31.1%, P = 0.018), whereas more multifocal cysts were observed in the nonsurgical group (40.7% vs 20.3%, P = 0.037). Forty-one patients (40.6%) showed progression or malignancy. Multivariate analysis showed that main pancreatic duct of 10 mm or greater (odds ratio, 4.368; P = 0.024) and pre-existing diabetes (odds ratio, 3.077; P = 0.046) were independent risk factors for progression or malignancy. A watchful waiting strategy could be feasible for some patients with MD/mixed IPMNs, particularly those with a main pancreatic duct of less than 10 mm and without diabetes.

  20. Abnormal serum pancreatic enzymes, but not pancreatitis, are associated with an increased risk of malignancy in patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Alexandra M; Parikh, Janak A; Al-Haddad, Mohammad A; DeWitt, John M; Ceppa, Eugene P; House, Michael G; Nakeeb, Attila; Schmidt, C Max

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatitis is associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). This association is in part due to inflammation from pancreatic ductal obstruction. Although the correlation between pancreatitis and the malignant potential of IPMN is unclear, the 2012 International Consensus Guidelines (ICG) consider pancreatitis a "worrisome feature." We hypothesized that serum pancreatic enzymes, markers of inflammation, are a better predictor of malignancy than pancreatitis in patients with IPMN. Between 1992 and 2012, 364 patients underwent resection for IPMN at a single university hospital. In the past decade, serum amylase and lipase were collected prospectively as an inflammatory marker in 203 patients with IPMN at initial surveillance and "cyst clinic" visits. The latest serum pancreatic enzyme values within 3 months preoperatively were studied. Pancreatitis was defined according to the 2012 revision of the Atlanta Consensus. Of the 203 eligible patients, there were 76 with pancreatitis. Pancreatitis was not associated with an increased rate of malignancy (P = .51) or invasiveness (P = .08). Serum pancreatic enzymes categorically outside of normal range (high or low) were also not associated with malignancy or invasiveness. In contrast, as a continuous variable, the higher the serum pancreatic enzymes were, the greater the rate of invasive IPMN. Of the 127 remaining patients without pancreatitis, serum pancreatic enzymes outside of normal range (low and high) were each associated with a greater rate of malignancy (P enzyme levels above normal range (high) were associated with a greater rate of invasiveness (P = .02). In patients with IPMN without a history of pancreatitis, serum pancreatic enzymes outside of the normal range are associated with a greater risk of malignancy. In patients with a history of pancreatitis, there is a positive correlation between the levels of serum pancreatic enzymes and the presence of invasive IPMN. These data suggest

  1. Main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: clinical predictors of malignancy and long-term survival following resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia, Roberto; Fernández-del Castillo, Carlos; Bassi, Claudio; Thayer, Sarah P; Falconi, Massimo; Mantovani, William; Pederzoli, Paolo; Warshaw, Andrew L

    2004-05-01

    To describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of a large cohort of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas affecting the main pancreatic duct. IPMNs are being diagnosed with increasing frequency. Preoperative determination of malignancy remains problematic, and reported results of long-term survival following resection are conflicting. The combined databases from the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Pancreatic Unit of the University of Verona were analyzed. To avoid confusing overlap with mucinous cystic neoplasms, only patients with tumors of the main pancreatic duct (with or without side branch involvement) were included. A total of 140 tumors consecutively resected between 1990 and 2002 were classified as either benign (adenoma and borderline tumors) or malignant (carcinoma in situ or invasive cancer) to compare their characteristics and survival. Men and women were equally affected (mean age 65 years). Seven patients (12%) had adenomas, 40 (28%) borderline tumors, 25 (18%) carcinoma in situ, and 58 (42%) invasive carcinoma. The median age of patients with benign IPMN was 6.4 years younger than those with malignant tumors (P = 0.04). The principal symptoms were abdominal pain (65%), weight loss (44%), acute pancreatitis (23%), jaundice (17%), and onset or worsening of diabetes (12%); 27% of patients were asymptomatic. Jaundice and diabetes were significantly associated with malignant tumors. Five- and 10-year cancer-specific survival for patients with noninvasive tumors was 100%, and comparable survival of the 58 patients with invasive carcinoma was 60% and 50%. Cancer is found in 60% of patients with main-duct IPMNs. Patients with malignant tumors are 6 years older than their benign counterparts and have a higher likelihood of presenting with jaundice or new onset diabetes. No patients with benign tumors or carcinoma in situ died of their disease following resection, and those with invasive cancer had a markedly better

  2. IGF-IEc expression is increased in secondary compared to primary foci in neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandraki, Krystallenia I; Philippou, Anastassios; Boutzios, Georgios; Theohari, Irini; Koutsilieris, Michael; Delladetsima, Ioanna Kassiani; Kaltsas, Gregory A

    2017-10-03

    Different Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) mRNA transcripts are produced by alternative splicing and particularly the IGF-IEc isoform has been implicated in the development and/or progression of various types of cancer. In the present study, we examined the potential role of IGF-IEc expression as a new immunohistochemical marker of aggressiveness in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). We utilized immunohistochemical analysis in tissue specimens of 47 patients with NENs, to evaluate the expression of IGF-IEc (%) and Ki-67 proliferation index (%). Specimens from patients with tumors of different tissue origin, of either primary or metastatic lesions and of different grade were examined. Cytoplasmic IGF-IEc staining was found in 23 specimens of NENs or NECs: 10 pancreatic, 4 small bowel, 3 gastric, 1 lung, 1 uterine and 4 poorly differentiated of unknown primary origin. Ki-67 and IGF-IEc expression was positively correlated in all the samples studied (r=0.31, p=0.03). IGF-1Ec expression was more prevalent in specimens originating from metastatic foci with high Ki-67 compared to primary sites with low Ki-67 expression (p=0.036). These findings suggest a possible role of IGF-IEc in NEN tumorigenesis and progression to metastases that could be used as an additional new marker of a more aggressive behavior and a potential drugable target.

  3. Multivariate analysis of structure and contribution per shares made by potential risk factors at malignant neoplasms in trachea, bronchial tubes and lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Aydinov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of multivariate analysis of structure and contribution per shares made by potential risk factors at malignant neoplasms in trachea, bronchial tubes and lung. The authors used specialized databases comprising personified records on oncologic diseases in Taganrog, Rostov region, over 1986-2015 (30,684 registered cases of malignant neoplasms, including 3,480 cases of trachea cancer, bronchial tubes cancer, and lung cancer. When carrying out analytical research we applied both multivariate statistical techniques (factor analysis and hierarchical cluster correlation analysis and conventional techniques of epidemiologic analysis including etiologic fraction calculation (EF, as well as an original technique of assessing actual (epidemiologic risk. Average long-term morbidity with trachea, bronchial tubes and lung cancer over 2011-2015 amounts to 46.64 o / oooo . Over the last 15 years a stable decreasing trend has formed, annual average growth being – 1.22 %. This localization holds the 3rd rank place in oncologic morbidity structure, its specific weight being 10.02 %. We determined etiological fraction (EF for smoking as a priority risk factor causing trachea, bronchial tubes and lung cancer; this fraction amounts to 76.19 % for people aged 40 and older, and to 81.99 % for those aged 60 and older. Application of multivariate statistical techniques (factor analysis and cluster correlation analysis in this research enabled us to make factor structure more simple; namely, to highlight, interpret, give a quantitative estimate of self-descriptiveness and rank four group (latent potential risk factors causing lung cancer.

  4. Molecular Testing of Nodules with a Suspicious or Malignant Cytologic Diagnosis in the Setting of Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features (NIFTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Kyle C; Eszlinger, Markus; Paschke, Ralf; Angell, Trevor E; Alexander, Erik K; Marqusee, Ellen; Nehs, Matthew A; Jo, Vickie Y; Lowe, Alarice; Vivero, Marina; Hollowell, Monica; Qian, Xiaohua; Wieczorek, Tad; French, Christopher A; Teot, Lisa A; Cibas, Edmund S; Lindeman, Neal I; Krane, Jeffrey F; Barletta, Justine A

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is an indolent thyroid tumor characterized by frequent RAS mutations and an absence of the BRAF V600E mutation commonly seen in classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC). The ability to differentiate potential NIFTP/follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) from cPTC at the time of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) can facilitate conservative management of NIFTP. The aim of the current study was to investigate how molecular testing may add to cytologic assessment in the pre-operative differentiation of potential NIFTP/FVPTC and cPTC. We had previously evaluated cytologists' ability to prospectively distinguish potential NIFTP/FVPTC from cPTC in a cohort of 56 consecutive FNAs diagnosed as malignant or suspicious for malignancy. We utilized this cohort to perform molecular analysis. Detected molecular abnormalities were stratified into two groups: (1) those supporting malignancy and (2) those supporting a diagnosis of potential NIFTP/FVPTC. The cytologists' characterization of cases and the detected molecular alterations were correlated with the final histologic diagnoses. Molecular testing was performed in 52 (93%) of the 56 cases. For the 37 cases cytologists favored to be cPTC, 31 (84%) had a molecular result that supported malignancy (28 BRAF V600E mutations, 2 NTRK1 fusions, 1 AGK-BRAF fusion). For the 8 cases that were favored to be NIFTP/FVPTC by cytologists, 7 (88%) had a molecular result that supported conservative management (1 NRAS mutation, 6 wild-type result). Seven cases were designated as cytomorphologically indeterminate for NIFTP/FVPTC or cPTC, of which 6 (86%) had a molecular result that would have aided in the pre-operative assessment of potential NIFTP/FVPTC or cPTC/malignancy. These included 3 BRAF V600E mutations in nodules that were cPTC on resection, an HRAS mutation, and a wild-type result in the 2 nodules that were NIFTP, and a TERT promoter

  5. Risk of secondary malignancies after radiation therapy for breast cancer: Comprehensive results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Lindsay M; Ying, Jian; Poppe, Matthew M; Suneja, Gita; Gaffney, David K

    2017-10-01

    To assess risks of secondary malignancies in breast cancer patients who received radiation therapy compared to patients who did not. The SEER database was used to identify females with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer as their first malignancy, during 1973-2008. We excluded patients with metastatic disease, age breast cancer recurrence, or who developed a secondary malignancy within 1 year of diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios and absolute excess risk were calculated using SEER*Stat, version 8.2.1 and SAS, version 9.4. There were 374,993 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, with 154,697 who received radiation therapy. With a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 13% of patients (49,867) developed a secondary malignancy. The rate of secondary malignancies was significantly greater than the endemic rate in breast cancer patients treated without radiation therapy, (O/E 1.2, 95% CI 1.19-1.22) and with radiation therapy (O/E 1.33, 95% CI 1.31-1.35). Approximately 3.4% of secondary malignancies were attributable to radiation therapy. The increased risk of secondary malignancies in breast cancer patients treated with radiation therapy compared to those without was significant regardless of age at breast cancer diagnosis (p breast cancer patients both with and without radiation therapy compared to the general population. There was an increased risk in specific sites for patients treated with radiation therapy. This risk was most evident in young patients and who had longer latency periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Primary peritoneal anaplastic giant cell carcinoma: case report of an unusual and highly malignant müllerian neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xian; Zhang, Cunxian; Liu, Fang; Sung, C James; Steinhoff, Margaret M; Lawrence, W Dwayne

    2008-01-01

    Virtually all primary peritoneal carcinomas (PPCs) are of serous papillary type. We report an unusual histologic type of PPC composed of anaplastic giant cells, which exhibited an aggressive clinical course. A 72-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed a diffuse omental thickening. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy with omentectomy, total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and appendectomy. Pathologic examination revealed extensive omental replacement by tumor but only superficial surface cortical involvement of both ovaries, a disease distribution consistent with a typical müllerian-derived PPC. However, this neoplasm was composed of diffuse anaplastic tumor giant cells, rather than serous carcinoma, which is the usual histologic type encountered in PPC. The patient died within 1 month after surgery. We report this unusual histologic variant of PPC to raise awareness that anaplastic giant cell carcinoma may arise in the pelvic peritoneum as a primary tumor.

  7. Evaluation and treatment of malignant ascites secondary to gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Michiya; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2015-10-21

    Malignant ascites affects approximately 10% of patients with gastric cancer (GC), and poses significant difficulties for both patients and clinicians. In addition to the dismal general condition of affected patients and the diversity of associated complications such as jaundice and ileus, problems in assessing scattered tumors have hampered the expansion of clinical trials for this condition. However, the accumulation of reported studies is starting to indicate that the weak response to treatment in GC patients with malignant ascites is more relevant to their poor prognosis rather than to the ascites volume at diagnosis. Therefore, precise assessment of initial state of ascites, repetitive evaluation of treatment efficacy, selection of suitable treatment, and swift transition to other treatment options as needed are paramount to maximizing patient benefit. Accurately determining ascites volume is the crucial first step in clinically treating a patient with malignant ascites. Ultrasonography is commonly used to identify the existence of ascites, and several methods have been proposed to estimate ascites volume. Reportedly, the sum of the depth of ascites at five points (named "five-point method") on three panels of computed tomography images is well correlated to the actual ascites volume and/or abdominal girth. This method is already suited to repetitive assessment due to its convenience compared to the conventional volume rendering method. Meanwhile, a new concept, "Clinical Benefit Response in GC (CBR-GC)", was recently introduced to measure the efficacy of chemotherapy for malignant ascites of GC. CBR-GC is a simple and reliable patient-oriented evaluation system based on changes in performance status and ascites, and is expected to become an important clinical endpoint in future clinical trials. The principal of treatment for GC patients with ascites is palliation and prevention of ascites-related symptoms. The treatment options are various, including a

  8. Computational study of incidence of secondary neoplasms in cancer therapy of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, W.S.; Valeriano, C.C.S.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Neves, L.P.; Perini, A.P.; Silva, R.M.V.

    2016-01-01

    There is a serious, and growing, concern about the increased risk of the emergence of a second cancer, induced by radiation associated with the radiation treatment. To assess the radiation doses to organs outside the target volume, in this work, we modeled several computational exposure scenarios, based on Monte Carlo simulation (MCNPX code). We used a VARIAN 2100c accelerator, and a female virtual anthropomorphic phantom to simulate a treatment of uterine cancer. The results presented show that the computational exposure scenario provides a versatile and accurate tool to assess the risk of secondary cancer. (author)

  9. Are Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm Applicable to Other Malignancies—Assessment of Nodal Distribution in Gynecological Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Fulay, Suyash; Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy is used to reduce dose to adjacent critical structures while maintaining adequate target coverage, but it requires precise target localization. We report the 3-dimensional distribution of para-aortic (PA) lymph nodes (LN) in pelvic malignancies. We propose a guideline to accurately define the PA LN by anatomic landmarks and compare our data with published guidelines for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on 46 patients with pelvic malignancies and positive PA LNs. Positive LNs were defined based on size and morphology or fluorodeoxyglucose avidity. All PA LNs were characterized into 3 groups based on location: left PA (between aorta and left psoas muscle), aortocaval (between aorta and inferior vena cava), and right paracaval (between inferior vena cava and right psoas muscle). Patients with retrocrural LNs were also analyzed. Results: One hundred thirty-three positive PA LNs were evaluated. The majority of the PA LNs were in the left PA (59%) and aortocaval (35) regions, and only 8% were in the right paracaval region. All patients with positive right paracaval LNs also had involved left PA LNs, with only 1 exception. The highest PA LN involvement was at the level of the renal vessels and was seen in 28% of patients. Of these patients with disease extending to renal vessels, 38% had retrocrural LN involvement. Conclusions: The nodal contouring for the PA region should not be defined by a fixed circumferential margin around the vessels. The left PA and aortocaval spaces should be covered adequately because these are common locations of PA LNs. For microscopic disease superiorly, contouring should extend up to renal vessels rather than a fixed bony landmark. For patients who have nodal involvement at renal vessels, one can consider including retrocrural LNs. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm are not applicable to

  10. Are Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm Applicable to Other Malignancies—Assessment of Nodal Distribution in Gynecological Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Fulay, Suyash; Beriwal, Sushil

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy is used to reduce dose to adjacent critical structures while maintaining adequate target coverage, but it requires precise target localization. We report the 3-dimensional distribution of para-aortic (PA) lymph nodes (LN) in pelvic malignancies. We propose a guideline to accurately define the PA LN by anatomic landmarks and compare our data with published guidelines for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on 46 patients with pelvic malignancies and positive PA LNs. Positive LNs were defined based on size and morphology or fluorodeoxyglucose avidity. All PA LNs were characterized into 3 groups based on location: left PA (between aorta and left psoas muscle), aortocaval (between aorta and inferior vena cava), and right paracaval (between inferior vena cava and right psoas muscle). Patients with retrocrural LNs were also analyzed. Results: One hundred thirty-three positive PA LNs were evaluated. The majority of the PA LNs were in the left PA (59%) and aortocaval (35) regions, and only 8% were in the right paracaval region. All patients with positive right paracaval LNs also had involved left PA LNs, with only 1 exception. The highest PA LN involvement was at the level of the renal vessels and was seen in 28% of patients. Of these patients with disease extending to renal vessels, 38% had retrocrural LN involvement. Conclusions: The nodal contouring for the PA region should not be defined by a fixed circumferential margin around the vessels. The left PA and aortocaval spaces should be covered adequately because these are common locations of PA LNs. For microscopic disease superiorly, contouring should extend up to renal vessels rather than a fixed bony landmark. For patients who have nodal involvement at renal vessels, one can consider including retrocrural LNs. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm are not applicable to

  11. Vascular patterns in nodules of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms depicted under contrast-enhanced ultrasonography are helpful for evaluating malignant potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Naoko; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Okamoto, Yuko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Fujii, Masakuni; Kato, Hironari; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CE-US) to differentiate between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). Patients and methods: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with a contrast agent was performed on 22 consecutive patients with IPMN suspected of being malignant. This revealed 10 carcinomas, 1 borderline lesion and 11 adenomas. All patients underwent surgery, and the histological diagnosis was confirmed by examination of resected specimens. CE-US was performed using a contrast agent. The detection rates of mural nodules were compared between CE-US and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT), and the imaging of mural nodules depicted under CE-US was analyzed. Results: Seventeen of 22 resected specimens (77.3%) had mural nodules. There was no significant difference in the detection rate between CE-US (n = 15; 88.2%) and CE-CT (n = 12; 70.6%). In 12 (80.0%) of these patients, CE-US revealed small vessels in the mural nodule. The spotty or linear-shaped pattern was detected in 4 patients and the branch-shaped pattern in 8. The branch-shaped pattern lesion was associated with carcinoma. These mural nodules were 10 mm or more in height. In the perfusion image phase, cystic walls and mural nodules were also enhanced in all cases. Conclusion: The vessel shapes of the mural nodules depicted under CE-US were associated with size and pathological findings. These results suggested that CE-US with a contrast agent is a powerful modality with which to evaluate the malignant potential of IPMN.

  12. Survival results in five malignant neoplasms separated by a decade at Institut Català d'Oncologia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germá-Lluch, José Ramón; Petriz, Lourdes; Lopez, Pau; Asensio, Esther

    2018-02-23

    Five years' data relative survival (RS) is presented in 3 solid tumours: breast, colorectal (CRC) and lung and 2 haematologic neoplasms: large B cell lymphoma (NHL-B) and multiple myeloma (MM) treated at Institut Català d'Oncologia between 2010-2011 in comparison with the results obtained in a historical special cohort from 1998-1999. A database was created in a common safe and accessible repository. We have introduced more than 5,000 medical records. To analyse the results the statistical package R ® was used for RS. The overall RS at 5 years for 2010-2011 was: CRC 67%, breast 93.6%, lung 28%, NHL-B 68% and MM 62%, while for 1998-1999 is was: CRC 61.8%, breast 88.8%, lung 23.1%, NHL-B 67.7%, and MM 43.4%. Comparative results have shown a 5% overall improvement in RS for the 3 solid tumours, a significant increase in MM and a stabilisation in the NHL-B. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Renal Atrophy Secondary to Chemoradiotherapy of Abdominal Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Gary Y.; May, Kilian Salerno; Iyer, Renuka V.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela M.A.; Wilding, Gregory E.; McCloskey, Susan A.; Khushalani, Nikhil I.; Yendamuri, Saikrishna S.; Gibbs, John F.; Fakih, Marwan; Thomas, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To identify factors predictive of renal atrophy after chemoradiotherapy of gastrointestinal malignancies. Methods and Materials: Patients who received chemotherapy and abdominal radiotherapy (RT) between 2002 and 2008 were identified for this study evaluating change in kidney size and function after RT. Imaging and biochemical data were obtained before and after RT in 6-month intervals. Kidney size was defined by craniocaudal measurement on CT images. The primarily irradiated kidney (PK) was defined as the kidney that received the greater mean kidney dose. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to predict risk for renal atrophy. Results: Of 130 patients, median age was 64 years, and 51.5% were male. Most primary disease sites were pancreas and periampullary tumors (77.7%). Median follow-up was 9.4 months. Creatinine clearance declined 20.89%, and size of the PK decreased 4.67% 1 year after completion of chemoradiation. Compensatory hypertrophy of the non-PK was not seen. Percentage volumes of the PK receiving ≥10 Gy (V 10 ), 15 Gy (V 15 ), and 20 Gy (V 20 ) were significantly associated with renal atrophy 1 year after RT (p = 0.0030, 0.0029, and 0.0028, respectively). Areas under the ROC curves for V 10 , V 15 , and V 20 to predict >5% decrease in PK size were 0.760, 0.760, and 0.762, respectively. Conclusions: Significant detriments in PK size and renal function were seen after abdominal RT. The V 10 , V 15 , and V 20 were predictive of risk for PK atrophy 1 year after RT. Analyses suggest the association of lower-dose renal irradiation with subsequent development of renal atrophy.

  14. Intravesical instillation of Formalin for hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to radiation for gynecologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnam, K.; Patil, U.B.; Mariano, E.

    1983-01-01

    Our experience with the use of Formalin instillation in intractable gross hematuria secondary to radiation cystitis in patients with gynecological malignancies is reported. This study indicates coagulative effect of low concentration of Formalin with minimal side effects as a method to control hemorrhage

  15. Management strategies in malignant glaucoma secondary to antiglaucoma surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo-Hong Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the outcomes of various interventions for malignant glaucoma (MG. METHODS: A retrospective, comparative analysis of case series were performed on 38 eyes of 35 MG patients treated in Aier Eye Hospital of Wuhan between Jan. 2009 and Dec. 2012. Numerous treatments were administered including medical therapy, neodymium: yttrium- aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy and hyaloidotomy as well as 3 surgical options. The characteristic, treatment option and outcome of MG in every individual patient were reviewed and analyzed among all patients who were followed up for an average of 27.1±9.1mo. RESULTS: Four eyes of 3 patients achieved complete resolution with medical therapy. Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy and hyaloidotomy were performed on 2 eyes, both of which achieved resolution after initial intervention. Thirty-two eyes were given surgical treatments with anterior vitrectomy- reformation of anterior chamber in 13 eyes, phacoemulsification- intraocular lens implantation in 10 eyes and phacoemulsification- intraocular lens implantation- anterior vitrectomy in 9 eyes. Resolution of MG was seen in almost all patients. The mean intraocular pressure decreased from 41.87±9.44 mm Hg at presentation to 15.84±3.73 mm Hg at the last visit. The mean anterior chamber depth improved from 0.28±0.27 mm to 2.28±0.19 mm. Twenty eyes with preoperative visual acuity better than counting figure/ 50 cm had various visual improvements. Complications occurred in 3 eyes of 3 patients including bleeding at the entry site of vitrectomy into vitreous cavity, corneal endothelial decompensation and allergic to atropine respectively. CONCLUSION: MG occurs as a result of multiple mechanisms involved simultaneously or sequentially.Medical therapy is advocated as the initial treatment, laser therapy is beneficial in pseudophakic eyes, and different surgical regimen is recommended based on different pathogenesis of MG when non-response occurs

  16. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, Phillip J., E-mail: pt06@aub.edu.lb [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1202, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX 77225 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Khater, Nabil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital, University of St. Joseph, P.O. Box 166830, Alfred Naccache Blvd, Beirut (Lebanon); Zhang, Rui [Medical Physics Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Geara, Fady B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Mahajan, Anita [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1202, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX 77225 (United States); Jalbout, Wassim [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Pérez-Andújar, Angélica [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1202, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Youssef, Bassem [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Newhauser, Wayne D. [Medical Physics Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patient’s body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care.

  17. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, Phillip J.; Khater, Nabil; Zhang, Rui; Geara, Fady B.; Mahajan, Anita; Jalbout, Wassim; Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Youssef, Bassem; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2015-01-01

    Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patient’s body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care

  18. Papillary neoplasia of the breast: immunohistochemically defined myoepithelial cells in the diagnosis of benign and malignant papillary breast neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, U B; Lee, M W; Zarbo, R J; Crissman, J D

    1989-11-01

    The presence or absence of myoepithelial cells (ME) has been considered as an important feature in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast. We evaluated the distribution of myoepithelial cells in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 25 papillomas and 18 papillary carcinomas by ABC immunoperoxidase technique with antibodies to muscle actin (HHF-35) and high molecular weight (HMW) keratin (clone 34BE12, cytokeratins 1, 5, 10, and 14; reacting preferentially with ME cells) and an antiserum to S-100 protein. Also included in the study were eight cases of micropapillary ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) having a few fibrovascular cores and five peripheral papillomas with accompanying ductal carcinoma in situ or atypical hyperplasia. The antibodies to muscle actin were sensitive and relatively specific for ME cells of the breast and uniformly labeled ME cells in all 25 papillomas. ME cells were absent or extremely sparse in papillary carcinomas. They were present focally in some of the fibrovascular cores of the micropapillary DCIS, and a mixed pattern was observed in peripheral papillomas with areas of carcinoma. HMW keratin was variably expressed in ME cells in most cases with positive internal controls and was present in several normal ductal and papilloma epithelial cells but not in epithelial cells of papillary carcinomas. HMW keratin, although less specific for ME cells, was a useful adjunct because of its reactivity with ME cells as well as hyperplastic epithelial cells in papillomas, which resulted in a combined positive reaction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Predicted Rates of Secondary Malignancies From Proton Versus Photon Radiation Therapy for Stage I Seminoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Charles B., E-mail: csimone@alumni.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Kramer, Kevin [Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, Maryland (United States); O' Meara, William P. [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Belard, Arnaud [Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, Maryland (United States); McDonough, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); O' Connell, John [Radiation Oncology Service, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Photon radiotherapy has been the standard adjuvant treatment for stage I seminoma. Single-dose carboplatin therapy and observation have emerged as alternative options due to concerns for acute toxicities and secondary malignancies from radiation. In this institutional review board-approved study, we compared photon and proton radiotherapy for stage I seminoma and the predicted rates of excess secondary malignancies for both treatment modalities. Methods and Material: Computed tomography images from 10 consecutive patients with stage I seminoma were used to quantify dosimetric differences between photon and proton therapies. Structures reported to be at increased risk for secondary malignancies and in-field critical structures were contoured. Reported models of organ-specific radiation-induced cancer incidence rates based on organ equivalent dose were used to determine the excess absolute risk of secondary malignancies. Calculated values were compared with tumor registry reports of excess secondary malignancies among testicular cancer survivors. Results: Photon and proton plans provided comparable target volume coverage. Proton plans delivered significantly lower mean doses to all examined normal tissues, except for the kidneys. The greatest absolute reduction in mean dose was observed for the stomach (119 cGy for proton plans vs. 768 cGy for photon plans; p < 0.0001). Significantly more excess secondary cancers per 10,000 patients/year were predicted for photon radiation than for proton radiation to the stomach (4.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.22-5.01), large bowel (0.81; 95% CI, 0.39-1.01), and bladder (0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.58), while no difference was demonstrated for radiation to the pancreas (0.02; 95% CI, -0.01-0.06). Conclusions: For patients with stage I seminoma, proton radiation therapy reduced the predicted secondary cancer risk compared with photon therapy. We predict a reduction of one additional secondary cancer for every 50 patients

  20. Prognosis and management of extramammary Paget's disease and the association with secondary malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierie, Jean Pierre E N; Choudry, Umar; Muzikansky, Alona; Finkelstein, Dianne M; Ott, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare clinical entity and can be associated with other malignancies. We analyzed our experience for prognosis and impact of therapy on outcomes. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients (n = 33) with EMPD treated at a tertiary care center from 1971 to 1998. Pathologic features of EMPD, concurrent secondary malignancies, and the effect of operations on recurrence were analyzed. Overall survival was compared with that of the general population. Male-to-female ratio was 4:29, and median age was 70 years. Median followup was 68 months, and no patient died from EMPD. The lesion was predominantly found on the vulva (76%). Patch-like, nonconfluent growth was present in 45% of patients, and no patient had pathologic lymph nodes. The most common signs and symptoms were irritation or pruritus (73%) and rash (61%). The presence of patches, invasive tumor growth, or a second malignancy were significantly associated with a higher recurrence rate. The type of operation, either local excision or hemivulvectomy, was not related to the time to recurrence. Complete gross resection was achieved in 94% of cases. Fifty-six percent of patients had microscopically positive margin and this correlated with a significantly higher recurrence rate (p = 0.002). The tumor recurred clinically in 14 of 33 patients (42%) after a median of 152 months (range 5 to 209 months). In those patients, between one and six reexcisions were performed. In 14 of 33 patients with EMPD (42%), 16 concurrent secondary malignancies were found. Overall survival rates for EMPD patients were similar to those of the general population. EMPD is an infrequently diagnosed disease that is preferably managed with complete local excision and reexcisions if needed. A thorough search for frequently occurring secondary malignancies might be beneficial to provide the best outcomes for these patients. Copyright 2003 by the American College of Surgeons

  1. The Role of Dicentric Chromosome Formation and Secondary Centromere Deletion in the Evolution of Myeloid Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Ruth N.; Campbell, Lynda J.

    2011-01-01

    Dicentric chromosomes have been identified as instigators of the genome instability associated with cancer, but this instability is often resolved by one of a number of different secondary events. These include centromere inactivation, inversion, and intercentromeric deletion. Deletion or excision of one of the centromeres may be a significant occurrence in myeloid malignancy and other malignancies but has not previously been widely recognized, and our reports are the first describing centromere deletion in cancer cells. We review what is known about dicentric chromosomes and the mechanisms by which they can undergo stabilization in both constitutional and cancer genomes. The failure to identify centromere deletion in cancer cells until recently can be partly explained by the standard approaches to routine diagnostic cancer genome analysis, which do not identify centromeres in the context of chromosome organization. This hitherto hidden group of primary dicentric, secondary monocentric chromosomes, together with other unrecognized dicentric chromosomes, points to a greater role for dicentric chromosomes in cancer initiation and progression than is generally acknowledged. We present a model that predicts and explains a significant role for dicentric chromosomes in the formation of unbalanced translocations in malignancy. PMID:22567363

  2. The Role of Dicentric Chromosome Formation and Secondary Centromere Deletion in the Evolution of Myeloid Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth N. MacKinnon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dicentric chromosomes have been identified as instigators of the genome instability associated with cancer, but this instability is often resolved by one of a number of different secondary events. These include centromere inactivation, inversion, and intercentromeric deletion. Deletion or excision of one of the centromeres may be a significant occurrence in myeloid malignancy and other malignancies but has not previously been widely recognized, and our reports are the first describing centromere deletion in cancer cells. We review what is known about dicentric chromosomes and the mechanisms by which they can undergo stabilization in both constitutional and cancer genomes. The failure to identify centromere deletion in cancer cells until recently can be partly explained by the standard approaches to routine diagnostic cancer genome analysis, which do not identify centromeres in the context of chromosome organization. This hitherto hidden group of primary dicentric, secondary monocentric chromosomes, together with other unrecognized dicentric chromosomes, points to a greater role for dicentric chromosomes in cancer initiation and progression than is generally acknowledged. We present a model that predicts and explains a significant role for dicentric chromosomes in the formation of unbalanced translocations in malignancy.

  3. Imaging findings, prevalence and outcome of de novo and secondary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplas, Monica C.; Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute/A21, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lefkowitz, Robert A.; Landa, Jonathan [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Bauer, Thomas W. [Cleveland Clinic, Anatomic Pathology/L25, Cleveland, OH (United States); Joyce, Michael J. [Cleveland Clinic, Orthopaedic and Rheumatologic Institute/A41, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To evaluate the radiographic and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of primary and secondary malignant fibrous histiocytoma in bone and determine the demographics, prevalence and outcome of patients with this tumor. A retrospective search of files from two institutions identified 28 patients with malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone. Microscope slides were reviewed to confirm diagnosis and identify any pre-existing lesions. Medical records were reviewed with respect to patients' demographic characteristics and outcomes. Radiographic features demonstrated an aggressive osteolytic lesion with a permeative pattern of bone destruction. Periosteal reaction was seen in three of 13 lesions. T1-weighted images (T1WIs) demonstrated signal intensity iso- to slightly hyperintense to muscle. T2-weighted images (T2WIs) demonstrated mildly higher signal intensity than that of muscle. The 5-year survival rate was 53%. The tumor arose secondarily in pre-existing lesions in 43% of patients. Metastases occurred in 46% of patients during the course of the disease, with pulmonary and osseous metastases being the most common. Secondary MFH of bone was slightly less common than primary MFH and had a prognosis similar to that of primary MFH of bone. MR imaging showed variable and somewhat unusual low to intermediate T2 signal characteristics for a radiographically malignant osteolytic lesion. (orig.)

  4. Imaging findings, prevalence and outcome of de novo and secondary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplas, Monica C.; Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali; Lefkowitz, Robert A.; Landa, Jonathan; Bauer, Thomas W.; Joyce, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the radiographic and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of primary and secondary malignant fibrous histiocytoma in bone and determine the demographics, prevalence and outcome of patients with this tumor. A retrospective search of files from two institutions identified 28 patients with malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone. Microscope slides were reviewed to confirm diagnosis and identify any pre-existing lesions. Medical records were reviewed with respect to patients' demographic characteristics and outcomes. Radiographic features demonstrated an aggressive osteolytic lesion with a permeative pattern of bone destruction. Periosteal reaction was seen in three of 13 lesions. T1-weighted images (T1WIs) demonstrated signal intensity iso- to slightly hyperintense to muscle. T2-weighted images (T2WIs) demonstrated mildly higher signal intensity than that of muscle. The 5-year survival rate was 53%. The tumor arose secondarily in pre-existing lesions in 43% of patients. Metastases occurred in 46% of patients during the course of the disease, with pulmonary and osseous metastases being the most common. Secondary MFH of bone was slightly less common than primary MFH and had a prognosis similar to that of primary MFH of bone. MR imaging showed variable and somewhat unusual low to intermediate T2 signal characteristics for a radiographically malignant osteolytic lesion. (orig.)

  5. Colon neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura F, K.

    1991-01-01

    The main aspects of colon neoplasms are described, including several factors that predispose the disease, the occurrence, the main biomedical radiography and the evaluation after the surgery. (C.G.C.)

  6. Myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roaldsnes, Christina; Holst, René; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and myelofibrosis (MF) are clonal disorders collectively named as myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Published data on epidemiology of MPN after the discovery of the JAK2 mutation and the 2008 WHO classifications are scarce. We...

  7. Stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal pain secondary to recurrent malignant skull base tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jack; Pollard, Courtney; Brown, Paul D; Guha-Thakurta, Nandita; Garden, Adam S; Rosenthal, David I; Fuller, Clifton D; Frank, Steven J; Gunn, G Brandon; Morrison, William H; Ho, Jennifer C; Li, Jing; Ghia, Amol J; Yang, James N; Luo, Dershan; Wang, He C; Su, Shirley Y; Raza, Shaan M; Gidley, Paul W; Hanna, Ehab Y; DeMonte, Franco

    2018-04-27

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to assess outcomes after Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) re-irradiation for palliation of patients with trigeminal pain secondary to recurrent malignant skull base tumors. METHODS From 2009 to 2016, 26 patients who had previously undergone radiation treatment to the head and neck received GKRS for palliation of trigeminal neuropathic pain secondary to recurrence of malignant skull base tumors. Twenty-two patients received single-fraction GKRS to a median dose of 17 Gy (range 15-20 Gy) prescribed to the 50% isodose line (range 43%-55%). Four patients received fractionated Gamma Knife Extend therapy to a median dose of 24 Gy in 3 fractions (range 21-27 Gy) prescribed to the 50% isodose line (range 45%-50%). Those with at least a 3-month follow-up were assessed for symptom palliation. Self-reported pain was evaluated by the numeric rating scale (NRS) and MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck (MDASI-HN) pain score. Frequency of as-needed (PRN) analgesic use and opioid requirement were also assessed. Baseline opioid dose was reported as a fentanyl-equivalent dose (FED) and PRN for breakthrough pain use as oral morphine-equivalent dose (OMED). The chi-square and Student t-tests were used to determine differences before and after GKRS. RESULTS Seven patients (29%) were excluded due to local disease progression. Two experienced progression at the first follow-up, and 5 had local recurrence from disease outside the GKRS volume. Nineteen patients were assessed for symptom palliation with a median follow-up duration of 10.4 months (range 3.0-34.4 months). At 3 months after GKRS, the NRS scores (n = 19) decreased from 4.65 ± 3.45 to 1.47 ± 2.11 (p control.

  8. Malignant neoplasm rate in inhabitants of the Kozloduy NPP area; Zabolevaemost` zlokachestvennymi novoobrazovaniyami sredi naselenya v rajone AEhS `Kozloduy`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, P [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    Illness incidence of malignant formations in lungs, mammary gland, thyroid gland, lymph and blood producing tissues is investigated in the 30 km area around Kozloduy and compared to data from two other locations in Bulgaria. The number of malignant growth in the lungs, mammary or thyroid gland on 100 000 persons is lower than the average number for the country as a whole. The number of malignant formations in lymph and blood producing tissues is higher than the average number for the country but the difference is statistically insignificant. Thyroid gland diseases occur with very small frequency for the investigated period (1985-1990). 8 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Additional value of FDG PET/CT to contrast-enhanced CT in the differentiation between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas with mural nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanami, Kentaro; Hiraide, Tomomichi; Tsuda, Masashi; Nakamura, Yausuhiro; Kaneta, Tomohiro; Takase, Kei; Takahashi, Shoki; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the additional value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT to contrast-enhanced CT in the differentiation between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas with mural nodules. This retrospective review of medical records was approved by our institutional review board. The preoperative PET/CT images of 16 non-diabetic patients with surgically proven IPMN, where mural nodules of 3 mm or larger were shown by preoperative contrast-enhanced CT, were retrospectively evaluated. The 16 patients were divided into two groups: 7 patients with benign IPMN [adenoma (n=1) and borderline tumor (n=6)] and 9 patients with malignant IPMN [carcinoma in situ (CIS) (n=8) and invasive carcinoma (n=1)]. Nuclear medicine physician blinded to the pathologic assessment of malignancy of IPMN set a spherical volume of interest (VOI) over the mural nodules on PET/CT images and recorded the peak standardized uptake value (SUV max ) in the VOI, referring the contrast-enhanced CT images. Statistical differences in the size of mural nodule, the diameter of main pancreatic duct (MPD), and SUV max of the tumors between benign IPMNs and malignant IPMNs were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical significance was set at p max of the malignant IPMNs with mural nodules of 3 mm or larger was higher than that of benign IPMNs (2.7±0.6 vs. 1.9±0.3, p<0.01). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in mural nodule diameter and MPD diameter between the two groups. FDG PET/CT showed an excellent diagnostic accuracy for the differentiation between malignant and benign IPMNs with mural nodules: the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy in malignant IPMN with mural nodule of FDG PET/CT were 77.8, 100, 100, 77.8, and 87.5 for the cutoff value of 2.3; and 100, 57.1, 75.0, 100, and 81.3 for the cutoff value of 2

  10. Scoliosis secondary to an unusual rib lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N G

    2012-04-01

    Tumours of the chest wall are uncommon and are usually malignant. A bone haemangioma is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, which more commonly occurs in middle-aged patients. We present the case of a scoliosis caused by a rib haemangioma in an adolescent male. Other causes of scoliosis secondary to rib lesions are discussed.

  11. Malignant Ewing-Like Neoplasm With an EWSR1-KLF15 Fusion: At the Crossroads of a Myoepithelial Carcinoma and a Ewing-Like Sarcoma. A Case Report With Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Todd M; Qarmali, Morad; Morlote, Diana; Mikhail, Fady M; Swensen, Jeffrey; Gatalica, Zoran; Siegal, Gene P; Conry, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    We present a case of a malignant Ewing-like neoplasm of the parotid gland in a 20-year-old woman with an EWSR1-KLF15 gene fusion that presented with pulmonary metastasis. Despite the fact that the tumor was essentially immunohistochemically negative for keratins, p63, and p40, we interpret this neoplasm as an unusual form of a high-grade myoepithelial carcinoma based on its focal plasmacytoid cytology, chondromyxoid matrix, SOX10, S100 protein, and calponin expression, and the knowledge that the EWSR1-KLF15 gene fusion has, to date, only been identified in 2 tumors, both myoepithelial carcinomas of the kidney. We also present a cytogenetic analysis of this unusual tumor. This "Ewing-like myoepithelial carcinoma" initially did not respond to 2 cycles of ifosfamide and etoposide alternated with a cycle of cytoxan, adriamycin, and vincristine, a standard regimen for Ewing sarcoma. Subsequent oral pazopanib therapy did result in a reduction of the patient's pulmonary and nodal disease.

  12. Secondary malignancies in patients with stage IA-IIIA Hodgkin's lymphoma after radiation (chemoradiation) therapy using accelerated dose fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinajko, V.V.; Minajlo, I.I.; Veyakin, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of secondary malignancies was investigated in 367 patients with stage IA-IIIA Hodgkin's lymphoma after radiation therapy using accelerated fractionation. For 20 years of the observation 24 of them developed 27(7.4%) tumors, besides their frequency did not depend on the disease stage and method of treatment.

  13. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 1, benign lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, and the Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This two-part review presents an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. This first part presents a brief review of methods in molecular pathology along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. Malignant chondroid neoplasms will be considered in the second part of this review. (orig.)

  14. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 1, benign lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, W.C.; Klein, M.J.; Pitt, M.J.; Siegal, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    This two-part review presents an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. This first part presents a brief review of methods in molecular pathology along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. Malignant chondroid neoplasms will be considered in the second part of this review. (orig.)

  15. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  16. Some peculiarities of radioactive elements metabolism in body according to the indices of activity of blood and urine in malignant neoplasms of different localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelashvili, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    Background beta-radioactivity of blood and day urine in 115 patients (36 healthy ones and 79 suffering from malignant tumor of different localization) taking into account age was determined. It is shown that changes in background radioactivity of blood and urine both in healthy and oncologic patients are mostly presented in old age. Increase of background radioactivity of blood and urine takes place mainly not due to 40 K, but other beta-active elements - in healthy persons. Activity of blood and day urine in patients with malignant tumors decreases due to other beta-emittor, but not 40 K. Some changes in metabolic processes of beta-active elements of an organism both with the growth increase and when developing malignant tumors are established. 1 tab

  17. DOES URINARY DIVERSION IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN OBSTRUCTIVE UROPATHY SECONDARY TO ADVANCED PELVIC MALIGNANCY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivashankarappa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The incidence of patients presenting with advanced pelvic malignancy with obstructive uropathy is high in our country. Relentless progress of the malignancy will cause deterioration of renal function, aggravation of pain, infection, deterioration of Quality of Life (QOL, uremia and death. Decreased renal function is considered as a contraindication for palliative chemo and radiotherapy. However urinary diversion in these patients will lead to improvement in renal function and may help in administration of palliative therapy and thus, improve the quality of life of these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study includes the obstructive uropathy patients secondary to pelvic malignancy referred to our institution for urinary diversion between Jan 2010 to Dec 2014. Total 40 patients were included, of which, 25 patients underwent PCN, 9 patients retrograde DJ stenting, 4 patients refused the treatment, 2 patients were not fit for any intervention due to coagulopathy & comorbid conditions. Of 34 treated patients, 30 were female patients and 4 were male patients. All the patients were explained about the procedure and proper consent taken. Laboratory investigations like CBC, coagulation profile, LFT, routine urine analysis, urine C&S and serum electrolytes were carried out. Haemodialysis was done for 10 patients whose serum creatinine was >6mg% & potassium >6meq. USG guided PCN insertion was done in 8 patients, and in those who failed in this procedure, fluoroscopic C-ARM guided PCN insertion done in 17 patients. Post operatively RFT and serum electrolytes were assessed on 3, 7, 15, & 30th day. PCN catheter was changed once in 3 months. RESULTS 8 patients succeeded in USG guided PCN insertion and 17 patients who failed USG PCN insertion, was done under C–Arm guidance. 3 patients received blood transfusion. No deaths were seen during or post procedure in the hospital. Renal functions improved and normalised in most of the

  18. Perspectives on the role of bystander effect and genomic instability on therapy-induced secondary malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perumal, Venkatachalam; Raavi, Venkateswarlu; Kanagaraj, Karthik; Shangamithra, V.; Paul, Solomon F.D.; Chinnadurai, M.

    2017-01-01

    Deviation from the orchestra of regulated cell division into unregulated and then result into the formation of tumor, is known as carcinogenesis. While causes and hallmarks of many cancer types are well established, newer concepts on tumor cell response to treatment, challenges established therapeutic regime and drives into alternative toward the better management. The phenomena of therapeutics induced bystander response, and genomic instability on late effects of cancer therapy is emerging as a newer challenge. Bystander response is defined as the manifestation of radiation/chemotherapy drug signatures on the unexposed cells which are in the closer vicinity of the directly exposed; on the other hand, genomic instability is defined as the expression of radiation/chemotherapy drug signatures in the progeny of exposed cells. Unequivocally, existence of those phenomena has been demonstrated with many cell types (both in vitro and in vivo) followed by radiation and widely used chemotherapeutic drugs. Nevertheless, it is also revealed that the effects are variable and depend on dose, type of radiation/chemicals agents, experimental model, type of donor and recipient cells, and biomarkers adopted; moreover, to observe those effects, reactive oxygen species has been reported as leading mediators of those responses when compared to other molecules such as interleukins, cytokines, and inflammatory markers. Available data on those phenomena and our findings suggest that a role of therapeutic drugs induced bystander effects, and genomic instability on the development of secondary malignancy cannot be ruled out completely. (author)

  19. Asbestos-related malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antmann, K.; Aisner, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Radiology of Asbestosis and Related Neoplasms; Computed Tomography and Malignant Mesothelioma; Radiation Therapy for Pleural Mesothelioma; and Radiation Therapy of Peritoneal Mesothelioma

  20. Linear Malignant Melanoma In Situ: Reports and Review of Cutaneous Malignancies Presenting as Linear Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-09-18

    Melanomas usually present as oval lesions in which the borders may be irregular. Other morphological features of melanoma include clinical asymmetry, variable color, diameter greater than 6 mm and evolving lesions. Two males whose melanoma in situ presented as linear skin lesions are described and cutaneous malignancies that may appear linear in morphology are summarized in this report. A medical literature search engine, PubMed, was used to search the following terms: cancer, cutaneous, in situ, linear, malignant, malignant melanoma, melanoma in situ, neoplasm, and skin. The 25 papers that were generated by the search and their references, were reviewed; 10 papers were selected for inclusion. The cancer of the skin typically presents as round lesions. However, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma may arise from primary skin conditions or benign skin neoplasms such as linear epidermal nevus and linear porokeratosis. In addition, linear tumors such as basal cell carcinoma can occur. The development of linear cutaneous neoplasms may occur secondary to skin tension line or embryonal growth patterns (as reflected by the lines of Langer and lines of Blaschko) or exogenous factors such as prior radiation therapy. Cutaneous neoplasms and specifically melanoma in situ can be added to the list of linear skin lesions.

  1. Antioxidant defence-related genetic variants are not associated with higher risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodusek, Ana Lina; Goricar, Katja; Gazic, Barbara; Dolzan, Vita; Jazbec, Janez

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Thyroid gland is very sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation, especially in children. Imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidant factors may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between genetic variability of antioxidant defence-related genes and the risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. In a retrospective study, we compared patients with childhood or adolescence primary malignancy between 1960 and 2006 that developed a secondary thyroid cancer (cases) with patients (controls), with the same primary malignancy but did not develop any secondary cancer. They were matched for age, gender, primary diagnosis and treatment (especially radiotherapy) of primary malignancy. They were all genotyped for SOD2 p.Ala16Val, CAT c.-262C>T, GPX1 p.Pro200Leu, GSTP1 p.Ile105Val, GSTP1 p.Ala114Val and GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions. The influence of polymorphisms on occurrence of secondary cancer was examined by McNemar test and Cox proportional hazards model. Between 1960 and 2006 a total of 2641 patients were diagnosed with primary malignancy before the age of 21 years in Slovenia. Among them 155 developed a secondary cancer, 28 of which were secondary thyroid cancers. No significant differences in the genotype frequency distribution were observed between cases and controls. Additionally we observed no significant influence of investigated polymorphisms on time to the development of secondary thyroid cancer. We observed no association of polymorphisms in antioxidant genes with the risk for secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. However, thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers in patients treated for malignancy in childhood or adolescence and the lifelong follow up of these patients is of utmost

  2. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenner, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  3. Covered self-expandable metallic stent placement for a post-operative malignant anastomotic stricture secondary to recurrent gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woon Ha; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Kim, Kyu Jong; Lee, Sang Ho; Ko, Ji Ho; Jeong, Kyung Soon

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical effectiveness of stent placement for the treatment of a post-operative malignant anastomotic stricture secondary to recurrent gastric cancer. Under fluoroscopic guidance, one or two covered stents were placed in 20 consecutive patients (age range, 44-75 years) with an anastomotic stricture due to a recurrent gastric malignancy. Before stent placement, all patients had severe nausea and recurrent vomiting after ingestion. Stent placement was technically successful for all patients, and no procedural complications occurred. After stent placement, 18 of 20 (90.0%) patients were able to ingest at least a liquid diet and had a markedly decreased incidence of vomiting. During the follow-up of 2-116 weeks (mean, 25.5 weeks), stent migration occurred in two patients (10.0%) on one day after the procedure. All patients with stent migration were treated successfully by means of placing a second stent. Three patients showed a recurrence of the stricture due to tumor overgrowth; two of the patients were treated with coaxial placement of a second stent. Another patient refused additional management. Covered self-expandable metallic stent placement seems to be technically feasible and effective for palliative treatment of a post-operative malignant anastomotic stricture secondary to recurrent gastric cancer

  4. Covered self-expandable metallic stent placement for a post-operative malignant anastomotic stricture secondary to recurrent gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woon Ha; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Kim, Kyu Jong; Lee, Sang Ho [Gospel Hospital, College of Medicine, Kosin University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Ji Ho [Masan Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of University, Masan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kyung Soon [University of Ulsan Colleg of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical effectiveness of stent placement for the treatment of a post-operative malignant anastomotic stricture secondary to recurrent gastric cancer. Under fluoroscopic guidance, one or two covered stents were placed in 20 consecutive patients (age range, 44-75 years) with an anastomotic stricture due to a recurrent gastric malignancy. Before stent placement, all patients had severe nausea and recurrent vomiting after ingestion. Stent placement was technically successful for all patients, and no procedural complications occurred. After stent placement, 18 of 20 (90.0%) patients were able to ingest at least a liquid diet and had a markedly decreased incidence of vomiting. During the follow-up of 2-116 weeks (mean, 25.5 weeks), stent migration occurred in two patients (10.0%) on one day after the procedure. All patients with stent migration were treated successfully by means of placing a second stent. Three patients showed a recurrence of the stricture due to tumor overgrowth; two of the patients were treated with coaxial placement of a second stent. Another patient refused additional management. Covered self-expandable metallic stent placement seems to be technically feasible and effective for palliative treatment of a post-operative malignant anastomotic stricture secondary to recurrent gastric cancer.

  5. Risk of Late Mortality and Second Malignant Neoplasms among 5-Year Survivors of Young Adult Cancer: A Report of the Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer Survivors Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Spinelli, J. J.; Gotay, C.; McBride, M. L.; Zhang, Y.; Spinelli, J. J.; Goddard, K.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a population-based retrospective study to assess the long-term risks of overall and cause-specific mortality and second malignant neoplasm (SMN) among survivors of young adult cancer compared to the risk in British Columbia (BC) population and to evaluate the effects of demographic and clinical factors on risk. 1248 5-year survivors of young adult cancer diagnosed 1970-1995 between 20 and 24 years of age were identified from the BC Cancer Registry and followed to the end of 2007. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the effects of different demographic and disease-related characteristics on the risk of death and SMN. A total of 138 deaths and 62 SMNs were observed during follow-up. The overall SMR was 5.9 (95% CI 4.9-6.9) and the absolute excess risk was 5.3 per 1,000 person-years. The overall SIR was 3.0 (95% CI 2.3-3.8). Treatment with radiation resulted in increased risks of death and SMN. These observed increased risks emphasize the importance of prevention, surveillance, and treatment of late effects in survivors of young adult cancers.

  6. THE THYMIDINE KINASE-1(TK-1 AS A POTENTIAL TUMOR MARKER: SERUM LEVELS IN SERUM OF PATIENTS WITH SOLID AND SYSTEM MALIGNANCE NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Sergeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review summarizes the results of studies of levels and/or activity in the blood serum of a metabolic marker thymidine kinase-1 (TK-1 of proliferating cells in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD and malignant neopasms (NM.Comparison of the data in the literature in some cases have been difficult due to the fundamentally different methods of detection the activity or concentration of TK-1, used by authors, even despite the presence of relatively high (but not absolute correlation between these parameters (maximum 0.8.Many clinical and laboratory studies have shown levels of correlation and/or TK-1 activity with clinical stages and different types of LPD and solid MN and can serve as a prognostic factor for overall and recurrence-free survival of patients. When solid MN shown that the activity of TK-1 accurately reflects the proliferative status of tumor.A comparison of the dynamics of TC-1 in the process of chemotherapy and its clinical efficacy, different authors have received fundamentally different results: in some cases the marker reduction was associated with treatment efficacy, and in part of publications they show that the clinically relevant effects of the treatment observed increase in the marker after the first chemotherapy.The entire set of received data demonstrates the relevance of the further development of the algorithm use of TK-1 in oncology practice.

  7. Defining PET / CT Protocols With Optimized F18-FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose) Dose, Focusing on Reduced Radiation Dose and Improved Image Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Hodgkin Disease; Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Follicular (Nodular); Malignant Neoplasm of Bronchus and Lung; Malignant Neoplasm of Colon; Secondary Neoplasm Malignant and Unspecified Lymph Nodes; Malignant Melanoma of the Skin; Malignant Neoplasm of Small Intestine

  8. Radio-isotope scanning using labelled bleomycin in positive and differential diagnosis of primary and secondary malignant pulmonary lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, J.; Bertrand, A.; Nouel, J.P.; Witz, H.

    1975-01-01

    A lung scan using bleomycin labelled with cobalt 57 was carried out in 308 patients representing 191 primary malignant tumours, 48 pulmonary metastases and 69 benign lesions. The primary and secondary malignant lesions always gave rise to a hyperactive focus except in 8 cases of primary lung tumour. The negative examination may be explained, either by the small size of the lesion or by radiotherapy in progress. Among the benign lesions, only advanced tuberculosis and very inflammatory lung diseases frequently took up labelled bleomycin (15 hyperactive foci out of 69 benign lesions). Quantitative measurements, i.e. ratio of the lesional activity/activity of healthy lung tissue, were carried out in all patients. The malignant lesions were usually more active than the benign lesions. There was no definite correlation between the uptake of labelled bleomycin and the histological nature of the lesion. However, undifferentiated and anaplastic carcinomas were often more active. One should emphasize that these results show that a hyperactive focus has a 94% chance of being a carcinoma. The absence of bleomycin uptake means that there is a 92% chance of a benign lesion [fr

  9. Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, J.M.; Sheikh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

  10. The new WHO nomenclature: lymphoid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair, Susan J; Rodak, Bernadette F

    2002-01-01

    The development of the WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms is a remarkable example of cooperation and communication between pathologists and oncologists from around the world. Joint classification committees of the major hematopathology societies will periodically review and update this classification, facilitating further progress in the understanding and treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  11. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms and subsequent cancer risk: a Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we...

  12. Cardiac effects of noncardiac neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, F.J.; Berger, B.M.; Guerina, N.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities may occur as secondary manifestations of noncardiac neoplasms. The principal cardiac effects of noncardiac tumors include the direct results of metastases to the heart or lungs, the indirect effects of circulating tumor products (causing nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, myeloma-associated amyloidosis, pheochromocytoma-associated cardiac hypertrophy and myofibrillar degeneration, and carcinoid heart disease), and the undesired cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 89 references

  13. One Patient, Two Uncommon B-Cell Neoplasms: Solitary Plasmacytoma following Complete Remission from Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma Involving Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycelyn Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Second lymphoid neoplasms are an uncommon but recognized feature of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, putatively arising secondary to common genetic or environmental risk factors. Previous limited evaluations of clonal relatedness between successive mature B-cell malignancies have yielded mixed results. We describe the case of a man with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma involving the central nervous system who went into clinical remission following immunochemotherapy and brain radiation, only to relapse 2 years later with a plasmacytoma of bone causing cauda equina syndrome. The plasmacytoma stained strongly for the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 on immunohistochemistry, while the original intravascular large cell lymphoma was negative, a disparity providing no support for clonal identity between the 2 neoplasms. Continued efforts atcataloging and evaluating unique associations of B-cell malignancies are critical to improving understanding of overarching disease biology in B-cell malignancies.

  14. Interventional bronchoscopy for treatment of tracheal obstruction secondary to benign or malignant thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppen, Marc; Poppe, Kris; D'Haese, Jan; Meysman, Marc; Velkeniers, Brigitte; Vincken, Walter

    2004-02-01

    Surgery is the treatment of choice for symptomatic tracheal obstruction due to benign or malignant thyroid disease. In case of inoperability, or when surgery is refused, few therapeutic alternatives are available. Interventional bronchoscopic procedures have only been reported anecdotally. The objective of this study is to evaluate the results of interventional bronchoscopic procedures in the treatment of severe tracheal obstruction due to thyroid disease. Retrospective cohort analysis. University hospital, tertiary referral center. Thirty consecutive patients referred for bronchoscopic treatment of benign (n = 17) or malignant (n = 13) thyroid-related upper airway obstruction due to tracheomalacia, extrinsic compression, and/or tracheal ingrowth. Indications for bronchoscopic treatment were medical or surgical inoperability, prevention or treatment of tracheomalacia, and refusal of surgery. There were no procedure-related complications. Rigid bronchoscopy with dilatation, stenting and/or Nd-YAG laser treatment, and clinical follow-up. Subjective improvement, pulmonary function tests, early and late complications, and survival. In the benign group, immediate (100% relief of dyspnea) and long-term (88% relief of dyspnea) results were excellent after airway stenting (21 stents used in 17 patients). There was one unrelated death 1 week after stenting in a 98-year-old patient. There were 6% and 30% short-term and long-term complications, respectively, that could be managed endoscopically. In the malignant group, Nd-YAG laser treatment (n = 3) and stenting (n = 13) yielded immediate and long-term success in 92% of patients. There were 15% short-term and 8% long-term complications. Median survival time was 540 days. Interventional bronchoscopic procedures including Nd-YAG laser treatment and stenting are valuable alternatives to surgery in inoperable thyroid-induced tracheal obstruction, or when surgery is refused.

  15. Chodroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst in the sphenoid sinus: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Yu, In Kyu; Kim, Seong Min; Kim, Ju Heon; Lee, Seung Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Chondroblastomas are rare benign cartilaginous neoplasms found in young patients. These tumors typically arise in the epiphysis or apophysis of a long bone. Chondroblastomas arising in the skull and facial bones are extremely rare. We describe a rare case of a patient presenting with chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst in the sphenoid sinus that mimicked invasive sinusitis or malignant bone tumor

  16. Chodroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst in the sphenoid sinus: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Yu, In Kyu; Kim, Seong Min; Kim, Ju Heon; Lee, Seung Yeon [Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Chondroblastomas are rare benign cartilaginous neoplasms found in young patients. These tumors typically arise in the epiphysis or apophysis of a long bone. Chondroblastomas arising in the skull and facial bones are extremely rare. We describe a rare case of a patient presenting with chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst in the sphenoid sinus that mimicked invasive sinusitis or malignant bone tumor.

  17. Utility of diuretic renography in patients with urinary diversion procedures secondary to pelvic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podoloff, D.A.; Lamki, L.A.; Kim, E.E.; Haynie, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors performed diuretic renography in 17 patients with pelvic malignancy and urinary tract diversion. After injection of 10 mCi of Tc-99m-labeled DTPA, perfusion and dynamic images of renal function were obtained. Patients received furosemide, 0.5 mg/kg intravenously, 20-21 minutes into the study. Background subtracted whole-kidney time activity curves were generated. Studies were interpreted as normal, intermediate, or obstructed, depending on the contour of the washout phase of the renogram. In the immediate postoperative period, 82% of patients showed an intermediate pattern. In these patients with urinary diversion procedures, the standard criterion of a half-life of 10 minutes or less could not be used. Instead, serial studies over time best separated patients into three groups: normal, dilated without obstruction, and obstruction. Diuretic renography is useful in the follow-up of patients who have undergone urinary diversion procedures

  18. [Diffuse Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma with Secondary Liver Invasion Diagnosed Using Laparoscopy - A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Okumura, Satoshi; Toyoda, Shou; Yamamoto, Kansuke; Mizumura, Naoto; Itou, Aya; Ogawa, Masao; Kawasaki, Masayasu; Kameyama, Masao

    2018-03-01

    A 69-year-old man with right upper quadrant abdominal pain and fever was referred to our hospital. He had a history of asbestosis exposure. Computed tomography(CT)revealed a mass at the right subhepatic space, and an antibiotic was administered after a diagnosis of an abdominal abscess. However, the patient did not respond to the treatment, and finally, exploratory laparoscopy was performed. A sheet of combined white nodules surrounding the right lobe of the liver was found, and the mass was continuous with the covering particles. Biopsy of the mass and immunohistochemical examination was performed. The resulting diagnosis was diffuse epithelial malignant peritoneal mesothelioma(MPM). Postoperative systematic chemotherapy of pemetrexed and cisplatin was administered. Laparoscopy was useful to evaluate the distribution of the MPM, which led to adequate therapeutic determination.

  19. Abdominal-Pelvic Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Pusiol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis is often mistaken for other conditions, presenting a preoperative diagnostic challenge. In a 46-year-old female, computed tomography showed an abdominal-pelvic retroperitoneal mass extending from the lower pole of the right kidney to the lower pelvis. The patient had a 3-year history of intrauterine device. The mass appeared to involve the ascending colon, cecum, distal ileum, right Fallopian tube and ovary, and ureter anteriorly and the psoas muscle posteriorly. The resection of retroperitoneal mass, distal ileum appendicectomy, right hemicolectomy, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. The retroperitoneal mass measured 4.5 × 3.5 × 3 cm, surrounded adjacent organs and histologically showed inflammatory granulomatous tissue, agglomeration of filaments, and sulfur granules of Actinomyces, with positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff. Right tubo-ovarian abscess was present. Abdominalpelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intrauterine device.

  20. Radiology of pancreatic neoplasms: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Santa, Luis Gijón; Retortillo, José Antonio Pérez; Miguel, Ainhoa Camarero; Klein, Lea Marie

    2014-09-15

    Diagnostic imaging is an important tool to evaluate pancreatic neoplasms. We describe the imaging features of pancreatic malignancies and their benign mimics. Accurate detection and staging are essential for ensuring appropriate selection of patients who will benefit from surgery and for preventing unnecessary surgeries in patients with unresectable disease. Ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging can help to do a correct diagnosis. Radiologists should be aware of the wide variety of anatomic variants and pathologic conditions that may mimic pancreatic neoplasms. The knowledge of the most important characteristic key findings may facilitate the right diagnosis.

  1. Integral Dose and Radiation-Induced Secondary Malignancies: Comparison between Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano G. Masciullo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to compare the integral dose received by non-tumor tissue (NTID in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT with modified LINAC with that received by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT, estimating possible correlations between NTID and radiation-induced secondary malignancy risk. Eight patients with intrathoracic lesions were treated with SBRT, 23 Gy × 1 fraction. All patients were then replanned for 3D-CRT, maintaining the same target coverage and applying a dose scheme of 2 Gy × 32 fractions. The dose equivalence between the different treatment modalities was achieved assuming α/β = 10Gy for tumor tissue and imposing the same biological effective dose (BED on the target (BED = 76Gy10. Total NTIDs for both techniques was calculated considering α/β = 3Gy for healthy tissue. Excess absolute cancer risk (EAR was calculated for various organs using a mechanistic model that includes fractionation effects. A paired two-tailed Student t-test was performed to determine statistically significant differences between the data (p ≤ 0.05. Our study indicates that despite the fact that for all patients integral dose is higher for SBRT treatments than 3D-CRT (p = 0.002, secondary cancer risk associated to SBRT patients is significantly smaller than that calculated for 3D-CRT (p = 0.001. This suggests that integral dose is not a good estimator for quantifying cancer induction. Indeed, for the model and parameters used, hypofractionated radiotherapy has the potential for secondary cancer reduction. The development of reliable secondary cancer risk models seems to be a key issue in fractionated radiotherapy. Further assessments of integral doses received with 3D-CRT and other special techniques are also strongly encouraged.

  2. Radiobiologic comparison of helical tomotherapy, intensity modulated radiotherapy, and conformal radiotherapy in treating lung cancer accounting for secondary malignancy risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komisopoulos, Georgios [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Mavroidis, Panayiotis, E-mail: mavroidis@uthscsa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Rodriguez, Salvador; Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Nikos [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Nikiforidis, Georgios C.; Sakellaropoulos, Georgios C. [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Patras, Patras (Greece)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the importance of using measures to predict the risk of inducing secondary malignancies in association with the clinical effectiveness of treatment plans in terms of tumor control and normal tissue complication probabilities. This is achieved by using radiobiologic parameters and measures, which may provide a closer association between clinical outcome and treatment delivery. Overall, 4 patients having been treated for lung cancer were examined. For each of them, 3 treatment plans were developed based on the helical tomotherapy (HT), multileaf collimator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (CRT) modalities. The different plans were evaluated using the complication-free tumor control probability (p{sub +}), the overall probability of injury (p{sub I}), the overall probability of control/benefit (p{sub B}), and the biologically effective uniform dose (D{sup ¯¯}). These radiobiologic measures were used to develop dose-response curves (p-D{sup ¯¯} diagram), which can help to evaluate different treatment plans when used in conjunction with standard dosimetric criteria. The risks for secondary malignancies in the heart and the contralateral lung were calculated for the 3 radiation modalities based on the corresponding dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of each patient. Regarding the overall evaluation of the different radiation modalities based on the p{sub +} index, the average values of the HT, IMRT, and CRT are 67.3%, 61.2%, and 68.2%, respectively. The corresponding average values of p{sub B} are 75.6%, 70.5%, and 71.0%, respectively, whereas the average values of p{sub I} are 8.3%, 9.3%, and 2.8%, respectively. Among the organs at risk (OARs), lungs show the highest probabilities for complications, which are 7.1%, 8.0%, and 1.3% for the HT, IMRT, and CRT modalities, respectively. Similarly, the biologically effective prescription doses (D{sub B}{sup ¯¯}) for the

  3. Risks of secondary malignancies with heterotopic bone radiation therapy for patients younger than 40 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadieux, Catherine L., E-mail: ccadieux@umail.iu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); DesRosiers, Colleen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); McMullen, Kevin [Department of Radiation Oncology, IU Health Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) of the bone is defined as a benign condition in which abnormal bone formation occurs in soft tissue. One of the most common prophylactic treatments for HO is radiation therapy (RT). This study retrospectively reviewed 20 patients younger than the age of 40 who received radiation to prevent HO in a single fraction of 7 Gray. The purpose of this study is to assess the risk of a second malignancy in these patients by recreating their treatment fields and contouring organs at risk to estimate the radiation dose absorbed by normal tissues outside the radiation treatment field. Diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans for each patient were used to recreate treatment fields and to calculate dose to structures of interest. The distance from the field edge to each structure and its depth was recorded. Dose measurements in a water phantom were performed for the range of depths, distances, and field sizes used in the actual treatment plans. Computer-generated doses were compared to estimates based on measurement. The structure dose recorded was the higher dose generated between the 2 methods. Scatter dose was recorded to the rectum, bladder, sigmoid colon, small bowel, ovaries and utero-cervix in female patients, and prostate and gonads in male patients. In some patients, there is considerable dose received by certain organs from scatter because of their proximity to the radiation field. The average dose to the ovarian region was 4.125 Gy with a range of 1.085 to 6.228 Gy. The risk estimate for these patients ranged from 0.16% to 0.93%. The average total lifetime risk estimate for the bladder in all patients is 0.22% and the average total lifetime risk estimate for the remainder organs in all patients is 1.25%. In conclusions, proper shielding created from multileaf collimators (MLCs), blocks, and shields should always be used when possible.

  4. Risks of secondary malignancies with heterotopic bone radiation therapy for patients younger than 40 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadieux, Catherine L.; DesRosiers, Colleen; McMullen, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) of the bone is defined as a benign condition in which abnormal bone formation occurs in soft tissue. One of the most common prophylactic treatments for HO is radiation therapy (RT). This study retrospectively reviewed 20 patients younger than the age of 40 who received radiation to prevent HO in a single fraction of 7 Gray. The purpose of this study is to assess the risk of a second malignancy in these patients by recreating their treatment fields and contouring organs at risk to estimate the radiation dose absorbed by normal tissues outside the radiation treatment field. Diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans for each patient were used to recreate treatment fields and to calculate dose to structures of interest. The distance from the field edge to each structure and its depth was recorded. Dose measurements in a water phantom were performed for the range of depths, distances, and field sizes used in the actual treatment plans. Computer-generated doses were compared to estimates based on measurement. The structure dose recorded was the higher dose generated between the 2 methods. Scatter dose was recorded to the rectum, bladder, sigmoid colon, small bowel, ovaries and utero-cervix in female patients, and prostate and gonads in male patients. In some patients, there is considerable dose received by certain organs from scatter because of their proximity to the radiation field. The average dose to the ovarian region was 4.125 Gy with a range of 1.085 to 6.228 Gy. The risk estimate for these patients ranged from 0.16% to 0.93%. The average total lifetime risk estimate for the bladder in all patients is 0.22% and the average total lifetime risk estimate for the remainder organs in all patients is 1.25%. In conclusions, proper shielding created from multileaf collimators (MLCs), blocks, and shields should always be used when possible.

  5. Colonic lymphoid follicles associated with colonic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, S.N.; Teplick, S.K.; Ross, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated 62 patients over 40 years old in whom lymphoid follicles were demonstrated on double-contrast enema examinations. Eighteen patients (29%) had no current radiographic evidence of, or history of, colonic neoplasms. Forty-four patients (71%) had an associated neoplasm. Fourteen patients had associated colonic carcinoma, and ten patients had a history of a previously resected colon cancer. One patient had previously undergone resection for ''polyps.'' Twenty-two patients had an associated ''polyp.'' There were no clinical or radiographic features that could reliably distinguish the neoplastic from the nonneoplastic groups. However, lymphoid follicles in the left colon or diffusely involving the colon were more likely to be associated with a colonic neoplasm. Lymphoid follicles were almost always identified near a malignant lesion

  6. Study of the Pan-ERBB Inhibitor Neratinib Given in Combination With Everolimus, Palbociclib or Trametinib in Advanced Cancer Subjects With EGFR Mutation/Amplification, HER2 Mutation/Amplification or HER3/4 Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-26

    Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Malignant Neoplasms of Digestive Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Female Genital Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Ill-defined Secondary and Unspecified Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Independent (Primary) Multiple Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Lip Oral Cavity and Pharynx; Malignant Neoplasms of Mesothelial and Soft Tissue; Malignant Neoplasms of Respiratory and Intrathoracic Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Thyroid and Other Endocrine Glands; Malignant Neoplasms of Urinary Tract; Neoplasms of Uncertain or Unknown Behavior

  7. Myeloproliferative neoplasm stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Adam J; Mullally, Ann

    2017-03-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) arise in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment as a result of the acquisition of somatic mutations in a single HSC that provides a selective advantage to mutant HSC over normal HSC and promotes myeloid differentiation to engender a myeloproliferative phenotype. This population of somatically mutated HSC, which initiates and sustains MPNs, is termed MPN stem cells. In >95% of cases, mutations that drive the development of an MPN phenotype occur in a mutually exclusive manner in 1 of 3 genes: JAK2 , CALR , or MPL The thrombopoietin receptor, MPL, is the key cytokine receptor in MPN development, and these mutations all activate MPL-JAK-STAT signaling in MPN stem cells. Despite common biological features, MPNs display diverse disease phenotypes as a result of both constitutional and acquired factors that influence MPN stem cells, and likely also as a result of heterogeneity in the HSC in which MPN-initiating mutations arise. As the MPN clone expands, it exerts cell-extrinsic effects on components of the bone marrow niche that can favor the survival and expansion of MPN stem cells over normal HSC, further sustaining and driving malignant hematopoiesis. Although developed as targeted therapies for MPNs, current JAK2 inhibitors do not preferentially target MPN stem cells, and as a result, rarely induce molecular remissions in MPN patients. As the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the clonal dominance of MPN stem cells advances, this will help facilitate the development of therapies that preferentially target MPN stem cells over normal HSC. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  8. Outcomes of secondary self-expandable metal stents versus surgery after delayed initial palliative stent failure in malignant colorectal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin Young; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2013-01-01

    When re-intervention is required due to an occluded first colorectal self-expanding metal stent for malignant colorectal obstruction, serious controversies exist regarding whether to use endoscopic re-stenting or surgery. To compare the clinical outcomes in patients who underwent stent re-insertion versus palliative surgery as a second intervention. A total of 115 patients who received either self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) insertion or palliative surgery for treatment of a second occurrence of malignant colorectal obstruction after the first SEMS placement were retrospectively studied between July 2005 and December 2009. The median overall survival (8.2 vs. 15.5 months) and progression-free survival (4.0 vs. 2.7 months) were not significantly different between the stent and surgery groups (p = 0.895 and 0.650, respectively). The median lumen patency in the stent group was 3.4 months and that in the surgery group was 7.9 months (p = 0.003). The immediate complication rate after second stent insertion was 13.9% and late complication rate was observed in 12 of 79 (15.2%) patients. There was no mortality related to the SEMS procedure. The complication and mortality rates associated with palliative surgery were 3.5% (2/57) and 12.3% (7/57), respectively. Although there is no significant difference in the overall survival between stenting and surgery, a secondary stent insertion had a lower mortality rate despite a shorter duration of temporary colorectal decompression compared to that of palliative surgery.

  9. Primary bone neoplasms in dogs: 90 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Trost

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of necropsy and biopsy cases of 90 primary bone tumors (89 malignant and one benign in dogs received over a period of 22 years at the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, was performed. Osteosarcoma was the most prevalent bone tumor, accounting for 86.7% of all malignant primary bone neoplasms diagnosed. Most cases occurred in dogs of large and giant breeds with ages between 6 and 10-years-old. The neoplasms involved mainly the appendicular skeleton, and were 3.5 times more prevalent in the forelimbs than in the hindlimbs. Osteoblastic osteosarcoma was the predominant histological subtype. Epidemiological and pathological findings of osteosarcomas are reported and discussed.

  10. [Approach to diagnosis and management of myeloproliferative neoplasm variants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumori, Toru; Kirito, Keita

    2015-08-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) variants are defined as relatively uncommon myeloid neoplasms which do not meet the criteria for either classical MPN or myelodysplastic syndrome. Due to the lack of specific markers, it has been challenging to accurately diagnose these malignant diseases. Recent studies have revealed new genetic abnormalities in MPN variants. These research advances are anticipated to open new approaches to not only achieving accurate diagnosis but also novel therapeutic options for these diseases.

  11. Plurihormonal Cosecretion by a Case of Adrenocortical Oncocytic Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corrales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms (oncocytomas are extremely rare; only approximately 159 cases have been described so far. The majority are nonfunctional and benign. We describe an unusual case of a functional oncocytoma secreting an excess of glucocorticoids (cortisol and androgens (androstenedione and DHEAS, a pattern of plurihormonal cosecretion previously not reported in men, presenting with endocrine manifestations of Cushing’s syndrome. The neoplasm was considered to be of uncertain malignant potential (borderline according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria.

  12. Are written information or counseling (WOMAN-PRO II program) able to improve patient satisfaction and the delivery of health care of women with vulvar neoplasms? Secondary outcomes of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, Larissa; Kobleder, Andrea; Werner, Birgit; Denhaerynck, Kris; Senn, Beate

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients with vulvar neoplasms report a lack of information, missing support in self-management and a gap in delivery of health care. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate if written information or counseling based on the WOMAN-PRO II program are able to improve patient satisfaction and the delivery of health care from the health professional's perspective of women with vulvar neoplasms. Method: Patient satisfaction and the delivery of health care have been investigated as two secondary outcomes in a multicenter randomized controlled parallel-group phase II study (Clinical Trial ID: NCT01986725). In total, 49 women, from four hospitals (CH, AUT), completed the questionnaire PACIC-S11 after written information (n = 13) and counseling (n = 36). The delivery of health care was evaluated by ten Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) by using the G-ACIC before and after implementing counseling based on the WOMAN-PRO II program. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups identified (p = 0.25). Only few aspects were rated highly by all women, such as the overall satisfaction (M = 80.3 %) and satisfaction with organization of care (M = 83.0 %). The evaluation of delivery of health care by APNs in women who received counseling improved significantly (p = 0.031). Conclusions: There are indications, that the practice of both interventions might have improved patient satisfaction and counseling the delivery of health care. The aspects that have been rated low in the PACIC-S11 and G-ACIC indicate possibilities to optimize the delivery of health care.

  13. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  14. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  15. Ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Shoji

    1986-01-01

    A recent pathological and epidemiological study on females with ovarian neoplasms among the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Life Span Study (LSS) Extended Sample ascertained 194 malignant and 106 benign ovarian tumor cases which had occurred during the period 1950 - 80. Of the 194 cases of ovarian cancer, 128 (66 %) were reviewed microscopically and the age-adjusted incidence of ovarian cancer revealed a statistically significant linear increase with increasing exposure dose, both in microscopically reviewed and in all cases. The radiation-related excess of ovarian cancer appeared to be highest in women less than 20 years of age when exposed, with these women having the longest latent period for tumor development, compared to the older age groups. The histological distribution of cancer types among exposed individuals appeared not very different from that seen in the general population. The analysis of 106 autopsy subjects with benign ovarian tumors, of which 89 were reviewed microscopically, depicted a trend of increasing radiation-related tumor excess with increasing exposure dose among exposed cases, though the trend is not statistically significant when observation was limited to microscopically reviewed subjects. The histological distribution of benign tumor types among exposed cases appeared not very different from that seen in the general population. The findings are consistent with a hypothesis that radiation-injured ovaries in association with secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones are important causative factors in the development of ovarian tumors, which has been suggested by experimental findings concerning the induction of ovarian tumors by ionizing radiation and by a recent analysis of breast carcinogenesis in exposed females of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (author)

  16. Computational study of incidence of secondary neoplasms in cancer therapy of uterine cervix; Estudo computacional da incidencia de tumores secundarios em tratamentos de cancer de colo uterino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, W.S.; Valeriano, C.C.S.; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neves, L.P.; Perini, A.P., E-mail: lucio.neves@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Belinato, W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil); Silva, R.M.V. [Instituto do Cancer do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    There is a serious, and growing, concern about the increased risk of the emergence of a second cancer, induced by radiation associated with the radiation treatment. To assess the radiation doses to organs outside the target volume, in this work, we modeled several computational exposure scenarios, based on Monte Carlo simulation (MCNPX code). We used a VARIAN 2100c accelerator, and a female virtual anthropomorphic phantom to simulate a treatment of uterine cancer. The results presented show that the computational exposure scenario provides a versatile and accurate tool to assess the risk of secondary cancer. (author)

  17. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2016-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. Malignant thymona with symptoms of myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miarzynska, M.; Szlezak, L.; Fibak, J.; Wolski, M.; Lis-Podrzycka, E.; Miarzynski, K.

    1994-01-01

    The rare case of malignant tumor of thymus - Thymoma malignum was described. The initial diagnosis was difficult, because of the irregular symptoms of myasthenia gravis. The diagnostic difficulties, treatment and clinical features of this neoplasm were also discussed. (author)

  19. X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for analysis of iodine concentration in vitro in benign and malignant thyroid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Marie; Berg, Gertrud; Ericsson, Lars; Grunditz, Torsten; Isaksson, Mats; Jansson, Svante; Nystrom, Ernst; Sodervall, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The thyroid ability to store and concentrate iodine is of importance for radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer. It is known that a normal thyroid contains 2-20 mg iodine while the information regarding malignant thyroid tissue is scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the iodine concentration in benign compared to malignant tissue. Methods: Thyroid tissue samples from healthy patients and from patients with papillary cancer were collected and frozen in connection with surgery. For the thyroid cancer patients, tissue was taken from both benign and malignant tissue. The iodine concentration was analysed with an XRF system consisting of a 241-Am source and an HPGe detector. When irradiating iodine containing tissue, characteristic X-rays are emitted. That radiation is detected with the strength of the detected signal being proportional to the amount of iodine in the sample. SIMS was used on glutaraldehyde fixed tissue as a histological tool for quantification and localization of iodine by sputtering and analysis of secondary ions. Results: The iodine concentration in benign tissue is considerably higher than in malignant samples. XRF measurements showed a medium iodine concentration in healthy thyroid tissue of 0.5 mg/mL. For the cancer patients, the iodine concentration was 0.3 mg/mL in benign tissue while no iodine could be detected in the malignant samples. These findings were consistent with the results from the SIMS investigation that gave a 100 times lower iodine concentration in malignant than in benign tissue. SIMS also showed that the iodine in benign tissue was predominantly located in the follicle lumen, while in the cancer cells low iodine concentration was found intra cellular as well as in the lumen. Conclusion: Iodine concentration in tissue from papillary cancer can be 100 times lower than in normal thyroid tissue. This is in accordance with the empirical knowledge that thyroid cancer should need about 100 times higher activity

  20. An extremely rare neoplasm, histiocytic sarcoma: A report of two cases with an aggressive clinical course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Kayikcioglu

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: HS is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm of the monocytic/macrophage lineage, with no standardized chemotherapy regimen for multisystemic disease. Metastatic patients have a more aggressive clinical course than those with unifocal disease.

  1. Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabayegit Ozlem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oncocytic neoplasms occur in several organs and are most commonly found in the thyroid, kidneys and salivary glands. Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal cortex are extremely rare and are usually non-functioning. Case presentation We report the case of an adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential in a 31-year-old man with Cushing's syndrome. The patient had been operated on following diagnosis of a 7 cm adrenal mass. Following surgery, the Cushing's syndrome resolved. The patient is still alive with no metastases one year after the surgery. Conclusion Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms must be considered in the differential diagnosis of both functioning and non-functioning adrenal masses.

  2. Neoplasms HIV associated Kaposi sarcoma not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, K.; Sosa, A.; Krygier, G.; Muse, I.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - The incidence of malignancies in virus carriers acquired immunodeficiency (HIV) has increased in conjunction with the disease during the past decade. 40% of all AIDS patients develop cancer during the course of HIV infection. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and cervical cancer have an impact extremely high in HIV infected patients, and they are considered as disease AIDS-defining stage. Many reports suggest that other neoplasms they can have a high impact on the population of HIV carrier, including head and neck carcinoma, rectal cancer - anal, plasma cytomas, and melanoma lung cancer. Methods - We examined the spectrum of cancer in HIV-infected patients, specifically neoplasms except Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed between 1/1998 - 6/2004. Information on age, sex, factors was gathered risk for AIDS, neoplasms and mortality rate. Results: The total number of patients in our study was 21 patients, what 15 were male (71%) and 6 females (29%); the median age was 36 (29-70). Tumors were reported: 11 Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (52%), 2 Hodgkin's lymphoma (6.6%), 1 medullary thyroid cancer (6.6%), 1 melanoma (6.6%), 1 rectal cancer (5%) and three head and neck cancers (14%), 1 cancer 1 lung and breast cancer. Five of the patients were intravenous drug abusers (24%); 4 patients were homosexual, bisexual March 8 straight, on 6 patients know the data. Conclusions - The spectrum of malignancies associated with infection HIV in our study was similar to that described in other populations. ratio between the immune system and the epidemiology of the virus-induced tumors is to importance to identify new therapeutic approaches in the treatment and / or prevention of these neoplasms

  3. Second malignancies in children: the usual suspects?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moppett, John; Oakhill, Anthony E-mail: anthony.oakhill@nildram.co.uk; Duncan, Andrew W

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an up to date review of second malignant neoplasms (SMN's) following treatment for childhood cancer, referring to their incidence, the role of genetic factors, and how the primary malignancy and treatment received influence the type, site and prognosis of SMN's. The role of genetic factors will be discussed as far as they impact upon a predisposition to later development of SMN's. The primary malignancies that have important associations with SMN's will then be discussed, in particular Hodgkin's disease, retinoblastoma and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The important second malignancies will be highlighted, including tumours of the CNS and thyroid, osteosarcoma, secondary acute myeloid leukaemia and melanoma. Emphasis will be put upon identifying which patients are most likely to suffer from these tumours. An important part of the article are case histories. These are provided in combination with illustrations as a useful adjunct to the text, with a particular emphasis on radiological features, diagnosis and screening. Finally, the important but different roles of causal agents, in particular chemotherapy and radiotherapy are highlighted.

  4. Kidney fibroxanthoma (malignant fibrous xanthoma): a rare tumor and an unusual cause of retroperitoneal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witz, M; Bernheim, J; Dinbar, A; Griffel, B

    1984-06-01

    A case of kidney fibroxanthoma (malignant fibrous xanthoma, malignant variant of xanthogranuloma), a rare malignant neoplasm of kidney, is described. In addition to the typical histologic features of retroperitoneal xanthogranuloma, this tumor showed obvious pleomorphism and mitotic activity of the histiocytes. We present this case in view of the rarity of this neoplasm and the unusual presentation as massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage.

  5. The neoplasms imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giger, M.; Pilizzari, CH.

    1996-01-01

    New devices of NMR imaging and computed tomography give three-dimensional images of the human body and automatically interpret the anatomical pictures. These new techniques are useful for the detection and the treatment of neoplasms. They are explained into details. (O.M.)

  6. Childhood neoplasms presenting at autopsy: A 20-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Victoria A; Booth, John; Palm, Liina; Ashworth, Michael; Jacques, Thomas S; Sebire, Neil J

    2017-09-01

    The aims of the review are to establish the number of undiagnosed neoplasms presenting at autopsy in a single centre and to determine the incidence and most common causes of sudden unexpected death due to neoplasia in infancy and childhood (SUDNIC). Retrospective observational study of paediatric autopsies performed on behalf of Her Majesty's Coroner over a 20-year period (1996-2015; n = 2,432). Neoplasms first diagnosed at autopsy were identified from an established database and cases meeting the criteria for sudden unexpected death were further categorised. Thirteen previously undiagnosed neoplasms were identified, including five haematological malignancies, two medulloblastomas, two neuroblastomas, two cardiac tumours and two malignancies of renal origin. Eight cases met the criteria for SUDNIC (0.33% of autopsies), the commonest group of which were haematological malignancies (n = 3). Neoplasms presenting as unexpected death in infancy and childhood and diagnosed at autopsy are rare. The findings suggest that haematological malignancies are the commonest cause of SUDNIC and highlight the importance of specialist autopsy in cases of sudden unexpected death. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Characterization of efficacy and toxicity after high-dose pelvic reirradiation with palliative intent for genitourinary second malignant neoplasms or local recurrences after full-dose radiation therapy in the pelvis: A high-volume cancer center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Kamran, MD

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: This small series suggests that aggressive re-RT of inoperable and symptomatic GU malignancies that is undertaken with meticulous treatment planning is well tolerated and provides excellent, durable relief without undue short-term toxicity. Validation in a larger prospective cohort is required.

  8. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the urinary bladder as a post-radiation secondary cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimmanon Thirayost

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Malignant fibrous histiocytomas have been periodically reported as the primary tumor in various organs including the urinary bladder, and is the second most frequent sarcoma of the urinary tract in adults. This report discusses a case of the well established diagnosis of a malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bladder occurring as a post-radiation cancer after the treatment of a cervical carcinoma. Our findings support those of many previous studies and make the view of the nature of the disease clearer. Case presentation We report the case of a 54-year-old Thai woman who had been treated with radiation therapy for cervical cancer, who presented to our facility with urinary incontinence. Initially, our patient was diagnosed as having a high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Subsequent radical surgery rendered the final pathological diagnosis, confirmed histologically and immunohistochemically as malignant fibrous histiocytoma, with clinical and pathological staging of T4b N0 M0. Adjuvant chemotherapy was provided for our patient. Conclusions This type of malignancy is very aggressive and easily misdiagnosed due to its rarity. Therefore, in a patient with a prior history of irradiation in the pelvic area, this should be considered as a differential diagnosis to ensure early correct diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Indications and limitations of the radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms. An introduction for physicians and scientists working in oncology and radiology. Indikationen und Grenzen der Strahlentherapie boesartiger Neubildungen. Eine Einfuehrung fuer onkologisch und radiologisch taetige Aerzte und Naturwissenschaftler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, J [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik

    1978-01-01

    General remarks on the topic of oncoradiology precede the discussion of the problems of special oncoradiology concerning the respiratory system, the digestive tract, the mamma, the female genitals, the male genitals, the urinary tract, the nervous system, the hematopoietic system, the non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and malignant meoplasms of the supporting apparatus, of the thyroid, of the eye including malignant exophthalmus, of the ear, and of the skin. Each chapter contains introductory notes on morphological, radiobiological, and clinical aspects followed by discussions of the results of treatment, of the planning of radiotherapeutic measures as well as of problems of the patient's follow-up care. Numerous bibliographic references conclude the individual chapters. Of interest to physicians and scientists working in the field of radiotherapy.

  11. Impact of environmental pollution on the incidence of malignant neoplasms of upper respiratory tract in the population of Mysłowice, Imielin and Chełm Śląski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Stockfisch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The paper presents a retrospective analysis of cases of the upper respiratory tract malignant tumors in the settlement: Mysłowice, Imielin, Chełm Śląski based on the patients’ medical history treated in a hospital laryngological ward in Mysłowice between 1995 and 2004. The inspiration to write the paper was the significant frequency of the upper respiratory tract malignant tumor cases in the main areas of Mysłowice; Piasek and Rymera estate. The aim of the study was the assessment of relationship between environmental pollution and territorial diversity in the morbidity of head and neck cancer. Material and methods. The study involved a group of 130 patients with cancer of the upper respiratory tract and a control group of 145 healthy subjects of similar age and sex, living in the different regions of the surveyed towns in the comparable proportions and in the group of patients. The paper aimed to assess the relationship between territorial diversity of the upper respiratory tract cancers, and environmental risk factors. Results. The analysis was based on environmental pollution data. It was confirmed that the geographic picture of the incidence of the upper airways malignant tumors showed that Mysłowice central districts: Piasek and estate Rymera, indicated this region to be particularly critical one. Conclusions. The increased number of morbidity cases in these districts may be associated with: environmental risk factors, increased consumption of high percentage alcohol, excessive amount of smoked cigarette and low socio-economic status of the patients.

  12. Effect of stereotactic body radiotherapy versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy in primary liver cancer patients with secondary malignant tumor of vertebra

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    SUN Jing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in primary liver cancer (PLC patients with secondary malignant tumor of vertebra. MethodsA total of 49 PLC patients with secondary metastatic tumor of vertebra, who were treated in our hospital from December 2011 to January 2014, were enrolled and divided into group A (20 patients treated with SBRT and group B (29 patients treated with IMRT. The prescribed dose was 35 Gy in 5 fractions in group A and 35 Gy in 10 fractions in group B. The time to pain relief, imaging findings, and survival analysis were used to evaluate pain-relieving effect, the condition of lesions, and survival time. The t-test was used to compare continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used to compare categorical data between groups. The K-M method was used to plot survival curves for both groups, and the log-rank test was used for survival difference analysis. ResultsThe proportion of patients who achieved complete or partial remission and stable disease shown by radiological examination after radiotherapy showed no significant difference between group A and group B (P=0.873. The pain relief rate also showed no significant difference between group A and group B (P=0.908. The time of pain relief showed a significant difference between group A and group B (t=-3.353, P<0.01. The overall survival showed no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.346. ConclusionRadiotherapy has a definite therapeutic effect in PLC patients with secondary malignant tumor of vertebra. SBRT and IMRT have similar pain-relieving effects. However, with the same prescribed dose, SBRT has a short time to pain relief and does not lead to serious intolerable acute or late toxic and side effects in surrounding fast-response tissues.

  13. Lympho- and Myeloproliferative Malignancies Occurring in the Same Host: Description of a Nationwide Discovery Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Johanne Marie; Plesner, Trine Lindhardt; Pedersen, Martin Bjerregård

    2017-01-01

    Background: So far, myeloid and lymphoid malignancies have been considered as diseases with distinct pathogenetic mechanisms. However, recent studies (Frederiksen H et al, Blood 2011) have reported an increased risk of lymphoid malignancies in patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (M...

  14. Morphological patterns of malignant cercival lessons in Warri, Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of this, 77 cases (43.7%) were malignant and 99 cases (56.3%) were either benign neoplasm, pseudoneoplastic and inflammatory lesions. The patients' age range for all malignant cervical lesions was 30-87 years. The peak age and mean age incidence for all malignant cervical tumours were 40-49 years and 49.6±8.4 ...

  15. Neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima City. First report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Tomin; Ishida, Morihiro

    1960-04-01

    The 1957-1958 incidence of neoplasms among the survivors of the Hiroshima A-bomb, varies directly with radiation dose insofar as it may be inferred from distance from the hypocenter at exposure. The incidence of all malignant neoplasms among the survivors who were within 1000 meters is more than 4 times that of the non-exposed population. The incidence of benign neoplasms among the survivors exposed within 1500 meters is also significantly higher than that among the non-exposed. For survivors under 1500 meters significant differences are seen between the numbers of observed cancers of the lung, stomach, uterus and ovary and the expected cases calculated from the age-specific rates of the non-exposed portion of the Hiroshima population. The increased incidence among survivors within 1500 meters is not related to sex or age. 18 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  16. Malignant priapism due to penile metastases: Case series and literature review

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    Francesco De Luca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant priapism secondary to penile metastases is a rare condition. This term was originally used by Peacock in 1938 to describe a condition of painful induration and erection of the penis due to metastatic infiltration by a neoplasm. In the current literature there are 512 case reports. The primary tumor sites are bladder, prostate and rectum. The treatment has only palliative intent and consists of local tumor excision, penectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We present one case of malignant priapism originated from prostate cancer, and two from urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Different approaches in diagnosis and therapy were performed. The entire three patient reported a relief of the pain following the treatment, with an improvement of their quality of life, even though it was only temporary as a palliative. Malignant priapism is a rare medical emergency. Penile/pelvis magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan and corporal biopsies are considered an effective method of diagnosis of the primary organ site.

  17. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demas, B.E.; Hricak, H.; Braga, C.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four women with suspected gestational trophoblastic neoplasms were evaluated prospectively to identify imaging algorithms optimal for treatment planning. All underwent chest radiography, chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. Ten also underwent pelvic CT, 13 pelvic US. The most sensitive imaging combination was chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. However, correct assignment to ACOG therapeutic categories was achieved by means of history, physical examination, beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin measurements, and chest radiography in 81% of patients. Hepatic and cranial imaging defined the need for radiation therapy. Chest CT was needed only when chest radiographs were negative. Pelvic imaging aided diagnosis but did not assist in treatment planning

  18. Cystic lesion of pancreas - Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Baijal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN of the pancreas is an intraductal mucin-producing epithelial neoplasm that arises from the main and/or branched pancreatic duct. It usually presents as cystic lesion of pancreas. There are well known differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesion. Pancreatic cystic neoplasms are detected at an increasing frequency due to an increased use of abdominal imaging. The diagnosis and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors (IPMN of the pancreas has evolved over the past decade. IPMN represents a spectrum of disease, ranging from benign to malignant lesions, making the early detection and characterization of these lesions important. Definitive management is surgical resection for appropriate candidates, as benign lesions harbor malignant potential. IPMN has a prognosis, which is different from adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. We report a case of a 58-year-old male with intraductal papillary neoplasm involving main duct and side branches presenting to us with clinical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis with obstructive jaundice and cholangitis treated surgically.

  19. Transformed chest chardomas in malignant fibrous histiocytorme: presentation of case and reviewing of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelastegui, A.; Mateos, B.; Astigarraga, E.; Pastor, A.; Pomposo, I.; Egurbide, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    Chest chordomas are rare neoplasms, and their transformation into malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is even more exceptional. We present a new case, including magnetic resonance (MR) images. The literature on the subject is reviewed, focussing especially on the dorsal location of these neoplasms and their possible malignant transformation, as well as the role of MR in the assessment of these lesions. (Author)

  20. Neoplasms in young dogs after irradiation during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.A.; Williams, J.S.; Angleton, G.M.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Lee, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    To study the lifetime effects of irradiation during development, 1680 beagle dogs were given single, whole body exposures to 60Co gamma radiation at one of 6 pre- or postnatal ages. Four groups of 120 dogs each (480 or 29%) received 0.16 or 0.83 Gy at early prenatal times, 8 or 28 days postcoitus (dpc). Four groups of 120 dogs each (29%) received 0.16 or 0.83 Gy in the perinatal period at 55 dpc or 2 days postpartum (dpp). Groups of 120 and 240 dogs (21%) received 0.83 Gy at later postnatal times, 70 or 365 dpp, respectively. A group of 360 dogs (21%) were sham-irradiated. The youngest dogs are now 12 years old. Through 4 years of age, 20 dogs had neoplasms diagnosed. Five malignancies and one benign tumor were seen in the first two years, including the only fatal malignancies which occurred in 4 perinatally irradiated dogs. Up to two years of age, the other non-fatal malignancy and benign tumor were found in dogs irradiated at 365 dpp and 55 dpc. The remaining 14 neoplasms, 12 benign and 2 non-fatal malignant, were diagnosed between two and four years of age. Respective numbers of these benign and non-fatal malignant tumors found in control, perinatally irradiated, and all other irradiated dogs were 2 and 0; 5 and 1; and 5 and 1. Eight of the benign lesions were minute papillomas of the eyelids which were more frequent in the perinatally irradiated dogs. Overall, 71% (5 of 7) of the malignancies seen in the first four years of life occurred in the 29% of the dogs irradiated in the perinatal period. Sixty-seven percent (8 of 12) of all neoplasms, excluding eyelid papillomas, also occurred in perinatally irradiated dogs. These data suggest an increased risk for neoplasia after perinatal irradiation

  1. Outcome of secondary high-grade glioma in children previously treated for a malignant condition: A study of the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carret, Anne-Sophie; Tabori, Uri; Crooks, Bruce; Hukin, Juliette; Odame, Isaac; Johnston, Donna L.; Keene, Daniel L.; Freeman, Carolyn; Bouffet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reports of secondary high-grade glioma (HGG) in survivors of childhood cancer are scarce. The aim of this study was to review the pattern of diagnosis, the treatment, and outcome of secondary pediatric HGG. Patients and methods: We performed a multi-center retrospective study among the 17 paediatric institutions participating in the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium (CPBTC). Results: We report on 18 patients (14 males, 4 females) treated in childhood for a primary cancer, who subsequently developed a HGG as a second malignancy. All patients had previously received radiation therapy +/- chemotherapy for either acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 9) or solid tumour (n = 9). All HGG occurred within the previous radiation fields. At the last follow-up, 17 patients have died and the median survival time is 9.75 months. Conclusion: Although aggressive treatment seems to provide sustained remissions in some patients, the optimal management is still to be defined. Further documentation of such cases is necessary in order to better understand the pathogenesis, the natural history and the prevention of these tumours

  2. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

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    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  3. Surgical and molecular pathology of pancreatic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackeng, Wenzel M; Hruban, Ralph H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Brosens, Lodewijk A A

    2016-06-07

    Histologic characteristics have proven to be very useful for classifying different types of tumors of the pancreas. As a result, the major tumor types in the pancreas have long been classified based on their microscopic appearance. Recent advances in whole exome sequencing, gene expression profiling, and knowledge of tumorigenic pathways have deepened our understanding of the underlying biology of pancreatic neoplasia. These advances have not only confirmed the traditional histologic classification system, but also opened new doors to early diagnosis and targeted treatment. This review discusses the histopathology, genetic and epigenetic alterations and potential treatment targets of the five major malignant pancreatic tumors - pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm, acinar cell carcinoma and pancreatoblastoma.

  4. Multiple neoplasms, single primaries, and patient survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Magid H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple primary neoplasms in surviving cancer patients are relatively common, with an increasing incidence. Their impact on survival has not been clearly defined. This was a retrospective review of clinical data for all consecutive patients with histologically confirmed cancer, with emphasis on single versus multiple primary neoplasms. Second primaries discovered at the workup of the index (first) primary were termed simultaneous, if discovered within 6 months of the index primary were called synchronous, and if discovered after 6 months were termed metachronous. Between 2005 and 2012, of 1,873 cancer patients, 322 developed second malignancies; these included two primaries (n=284), and three or more primaries (n=38). Forty-seven patients had synchronous primaries and 275 had metachronous primaries. Patients with multiple primaries were predominantly of Caucasian ancestry (91.0%), with a tendency to develop thrombosis (20.2%), had a strong family history of similar cancer (22.3%), and usually presented with earlier stage 0 through stage II disease (78.9%). When compared with 1,551 patients with a single primary, these figures were 8.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 50.9%, respectively (P≤0.001). Five-year survival rates were higher for metachronous cancers (95%) than for synchronous primaries (59%) and single primaries (59%). The worst survival rate was for simultaneous concomitant multiple primaries, being a median of 1.9 years. The best survival was for patients with three or more primaries (median 10.9 years) and was similar to the expected survival for the age-matched and sex-matched general population (P=0.06991). Patients with multiple primaries are usually of Caucasian ancestry, have less aggressive malignancies, present at earlier stages, frequently have a strong family history of similar cancer, and their cancers tend to have indolent clinical behavior with longer survival rates, possibly related to genetic predisposition

  5. Child haematological malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Yves

    2016-01-01

    As haematological malignancies represent about 40 per cent of cancers before 15 years of age, and as the international classification makes the distinction between syndromes and leukaemia on the one hand, and lymphomas and neoplasms on the other hand, this document first briefly discuss epidemiological data on these both types of cancer, and then the various environmental risk factors: ionizing radiations, non ionizing radiations, exposure to radon, exposure to pesticides, and other exposures. It finally evokes recent evolutions related to the existence of national paediatric records, and to planned or current epidemiological studies

  6. Safety and efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization with degradable starch microspheres (DSM-TACE) in the treatment of secondary liver malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicho, Andreas; Pereira, Philippe L; Michalik, Katharina; Beyer, Lukas P; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of degradable starch microspheres (DSM) as embolic agents in transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the treatment of secondary liver metastases. This was a national, multicenter observational study. Primary endpoints were safety and treatment response according to Modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) criteria. A total of 77 DSM-TACE procedures were performed in 20 patients. Minor immediate adverse events (AEs) were epigastric pain with an incidence of 45.5% (35/77), and nausea and vomiting at an incidence of 23.4% (18/77). Delayed minor AEs were epigastric pain in 13/77 (16.9%) treatments and nausea and vomiting in 10 (13.0%) treatments. No severe AEs were documented. Therapeutic efficacy of DSM-TACE procedures according to mRECIST was as follows: complete response 0/77, partial response 17/77, stable disease 33/77 and progressive disease 6/77, no data was available for 21/77 treatments. Overall, objective response was achieved in 8 of 20 patients (40.0%). DSM as embolic agent for TACE is safe in the treatment of liver metastases. An objective response in 40.0% of patients and disease control in 64.9% of procedures was achieved, and this should lead to further evaluation of DSM-TACE as treatment option for nonresectable liver metastases.

  7. Odontogenic Cysts and Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Elizabeth Ann; Collins, Bobby M

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews a myriad of common and uncommon odontogenic cysts and tumors. The clinical presentation, gross and microscopic features, differential diagnosis, prognosis, and diagnostic pitfalls are addressed for inflammatory cysts (periapical cyst, mandibular infected buccal cyst/paradental cyst), developmental cysts (dentigerous, lateral periodontal, glandular odontogenic, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst), benign tumors (keratocystic odontogenic tumor, ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, ameloblastic fibroma and fibroodontoma, odontoma, squamous odontogenic tumor, calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, primordial odontogenic tumor, central odontogenic fibroma, and odontogenic myxomas), and malignant tumors (clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, ameloblastic carcinoma, ameloblastic fibrosarcoma). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: importance of clinical and cytological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-García, Martín; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; del Carmen González-Ramírez, Imelda; Cano-Valdez, Ana María; Flores-Hernández, Lorena; Aguilar-Ponce, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid cancer presents as nodules. Thyroid nodules are frequent, but only 5-30% are malignant. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is useful for initial evaluation; nevertheless, malignancy is uncertain when follicular neoplasm is reported. Some factors can be associated with malignancy. Therefore, we analyzed our follicular neoplasms in order to identify those factors associated with a higher risk of malignancy. We analyzed the clinical files of consecutive patients with cytological diagnoses of follicular neoplasm. From 1,005 cases of thyroid nodules, 121 were follicular neoplasms according to cytology. Of these, 75 were surgically treated. Definitive report showed 45 benign (60%) and 30 malignant (40%) cases. Benign cases included 29 goiters, 11 follicular adenomas, and 5 cases of thyroiditis. Malignant cases were comprised of 12 papillary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 3 papillary carcinomas-follicular variant, 1 lymphoma, 1 teratoma, 5 medullary carcinomas, 2 insular carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma and 1 metastatic breast carcinoma. Tumor size of benign lesions was 3.43 ± 2.04 cm, and 4.67 ± 2.78 (p = 0.049) for malignant lesions. Age was 46.95 ± 15.39 years for benign lesions and 48.67 ± 17.28 for malignant lesions (p = 0.66). Fifty percent of males showed malignancy vs. 37.7% of females (p < 0.005). Our results suggest that size and gender, but not age, are associated with cytological pattern. Ultrasonographic characteristics may be useful discriminating patients with a higher risk of malignancy. FNAB is a useful tool for initial evaluation of thyroid nodules, but clinical evaluation can enhance predictive value.

  9. Simulants of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald E. Piérard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the recent period, dermoscopy has yielded improvement in the early disclosure of various atypical melanocytic neoplasms (AMN of the skin. Beyond this clinical procedure, AMN histopathology remains mandatory for establishing their precise diagnosis. Of note, panels of experts in AMN merely report moderate agreement in various puzzling cases. Divergences in opinion and misdiagnosis are likely increased when histopathological criteria are not fine-tuned and when facing a diversity of AMN types. Furthermore, some AMN have been differently named in the literature including atypical Spitz tumor, metastasizing Spitz tumor, borderline and intermediate melanocytic tumor, malignant Spitz nevus, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma or animal-type melanoma. Some acronyms have been further suggested such as MELTUMP (after melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential and STUMP (after Spitzoid melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential. In this review, such AMN at the exclusion of cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM variants, are grouped under the tentative broad heading skin melanocytoma. Such set of AMN frequently follows an indolent course, although they exhibit atypical and sometimes worrisome patterns or cytological atypia. Rare cases of skin melanocytomas progress to loco regional clusters of lesions (agminate melanocytomas, and even to regional lymph nodes. At times, the distinction between a skin melanocytoma and MM remains puzzling. However, multipronged immunohistochemistry and emerging molecular biology help profiling any malignancy risk if present.

  10. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN: clinico-pathological correlations and surgical indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantù Massimiliano

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs are increasingly recognized entities, whose management remains sometimes controversial, due to the high rate of benign lesions and on the other side to the good survival after resection of malignant ones. Methods Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected Western series of IPMN. Results Forty cases of IPMN were analysed (1992-2007. Most patients were symptomatic (72.5%; cholangio-MRI had the best diagnostic accuracy both for the tumour nature (83.3% and for the presence of malignancy (57.1%. ERCP was done in 8 cases (20%, and the results were poor. Thirteen patients were treated by pancreatic resection and 27 were maintained in follow-up. Total pancreatectomy was performed in 46% of the cases; in situ and invasive carcinoma were recognized in 15.4% and 38.4% of the cases, respectively. The mean follow-up was 42 months (range 12-72. One only patients with nodal metastases died 16 months after the operation for disease progression, while 91.6% of the operated patients are disease free. Out of the 27 not resected patients, 2 out of 4 presenting a lesion at high risk for malignancy died, while the remaining are in good conditions and disease free, with a mean follow-up of 31 months. Conclusion Therapeutic indication for IPMNs is mainly based upon radiological evaluation of the risk of malignancy. While the main duct tumours should be resected, preserving whenever possible a portion of the gland, the secondary ducts tumours may be maintained under observation, in absence of radiological elements of suspicion such as size larger than 3 cm, or a wall greater than 3 mm or nodules or papillae in the context of the cyst.

  11. Multiple neoplasms, single primaries, and patient survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer MH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Magid H Amer Department of Medicine, St Rita's Medical Center, Lima, OH, USA Background: Multiple primary neoplasms in surviving cancer patients are relatively common, with an increasing incidence. Their impact on survival has not been clearly defined. Methods: This was a retrospective review of clinical data for all consecutive patients with histologically confirmed cancer, with emphasis on single versus multiple primary neoplasms. Second primaries discovered at the workup of the index (first primary were termed simultaneous, if discovered within 6 months of the index primary were called synchronous, and if discovered after 6 months were termed metachronous. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, of 1,873 cancer patients, 322 developed second malignancies; these included two primaries (n=284, and three or more primaries (n=38. Forty-seven patients had synchronous primaries and 275 had metachronous primaries. Patients with multiple primaries were predominantly of Caucasian ancestry (91.0%, with a tendency to develop thrombosis (20.2%, had a strong family history of similar cancer (22.3%, and usually presented with earlier stage 0 through stage II disease (78.9%. When compared with 1,551 patients with a single primary, these figures were 8.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 50.9%, respectively (P≤0.001. Five-year survival rates were higher for metachronous cancers (95% than for synchronous primaries (59% and single primaries (59%. The worst survival rate was for simultaneous concomitant multiple primaries, being a median of 1.9 years. The best survival was for patients with three or more primaries (median 10.9 years and was similar to the expected survival for the age-matched and sex-matched general population (P=0.06991. Conclusion: Patients with multiple primaries are usually of Caucasian ancestry, have less aggressive malignancies, present at earlier stages, frequently have a strong family history of similar cancer, and their cancers tend to have indolent

  12. The intestinal leiomyoblastoma and its classification as benign or malignant neoplasm; Report on a rare case of benign multiple leiomyosarcoma finally developing into a malignant tumour. Intestinales Leiomyoblastom - gutartig oder boesartig; Der seltene Fall eines gutartigen Leiomyoblastoms mit dreifacher Lokalisation und einer protrahierten malignen Entartung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A. (Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Krankenanstalten Konstanz (Germany)); Lieke, M. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik, Freiburg Univ. (Germany)); Mundinger, A. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik, Freiburg Univ. (Germany)); Adler, H.P. (Pathologisches Inst., Freiburg Univ. (Germany))

    1993-04-01

    A symptom-causing duodenal stenosis diagnosed in a 47-year-old patient was found to be attributable to a malignant leiomyoblastoma. Ultrasonography, computerized tomography and MRI permitted a space-occupying process to be detected in the duodenum and a further tumour in the jejunum could be revealed by examinations of gastrointestinal transit. The presence of a total of three substantial tumours, one each in duodenum, jejunum and ileum, was however proven by angiography alone. (orig./MG)

  13. [About the signs of malignant pheochromocytoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonenko, V B; Makanin, M A; Dulin, P A; Vasilchenko, M I; Lesovik, V S

    2012-01-01

    Morphological criteria for malignant pheochromocytoma remain to be developed According to the WHO recommendations, the sole absolute criteria is the presence of metastases in the organs normally containing no chromaffin tissue. Such signs as cellular and nuclear polymorphism, mytotic activity, vascular invasion, capsular ingrowth are not sufficient to describe a pheochromocytoma as malignant. It is equally dfficult to differentiate between malignant and benign tumours based on histological data since histologically mature neoplasms can produce metastases. Based on the results of original studies, the authors believe that such histological features as vascular and capsular invasion do not necessarily suggest unfavourable prognosis. Therefore, the conclusion of malignancy based on such features can not be regarded as absolute. Probably such neoplasms should be called "pheochromocytomas with morphological signs of malignant growths". They should be referred to the tumours with uncertain malignancy potential based on the known discrepancy between morphological structure and biological activity of neoplasms. Comparative studies of clinical and morphological features of pheochromocytomas showed that their histological type (alveolar; solid, dyscomplexed, trabecular) and morphological signs of malignant growth influence both the clinical picture and arterial hypertension. There are no significant relationship between the above morphological signs, timour mass and clinical manifestations of pheochromocytomas.

  14. Genomic and Expression Profiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    DAMD17-03-1-0297 Title: Genomic and Expression Pr ofiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Patients...have determined the gene expression signature for benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and found that the major trend in transformation...However, EGFR data in soft tissue neoplasms is limited. Using a variety of benign and malignant spindle cell neoplasms, we assessed EGFR status by

  15. Multiple neoplasms among cervical cancer patients in the material of the lower Silesian cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmajłowicz, Barbara; Kornafel, Jan; Błaszczyk, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    According to the definition by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), primary multiple neoplasms are two or more neoplasms of different histopathological build in one organ, or two or more tumors occurring in one patient, regardless of the time of their occurrence (synchronic - up to 6 months, metachronous - after 6 months), coming from an organ or a tissue and not being an infiltration from another neoplasm, a relapse or a metastasis. It was the aim of the study to analyze the frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasms among patients suffering from uterine cervix cancer, with a special interest in coexistent neoplasms, the time of their occurrence and total 5-year survivals. The data from the Lower Silesian Cancer Registry concerning the years 1984-2009 formed the material of the present study. 5.3% of all cervix neoplasms occurred as multiple cancers. Cervix neoplasms were 13.4% of multiple neoplasms. On average, cervical cancer occurred as a subsequent cancer in 6 patients yearly (60.7% of the occurrences of cervical cancer were in the period of 5 years following treatment for the first neoplasm). 5-year survival in patients suffering from primarily multiple cervix neoplasms constituted 57% and was convergent with the results for all patients suffering from cervical cancer. Cervical cancer as the first neoplasm occurred in 287 patients, on average in 11 patients annually. In the period of the first 5 years after the treatment of cervical cancer, there were 42.8% occurrences of other cancers. Cervical neoplasms most frequently coexisted with cancers of the breast, lung and large intestine. The frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasm among cervical cancer patients is increasing. Most frequently they coexist with other tobacco-related neoplasms, those related to HPV infections and with secondary post-radiation neoplasms. These facts should be taken into consideration during post-treatment observation and when directing diagnostic

  16. [Diagnostic molecular pathology of lymphatic and myeloid neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapper, W; Kreipe, H

    2015-03-01

    Molecular pathology has been an integral part of the diagnostics of tumors of the hematopoietic system substantially longer than for solid neoplasms. In contrast to solid tumors, the primary objective of molecular pathology in hematopoietic neoplasms is not the prediction of drug efficacy but the diagnosis itself by excluding reactive proliferation and by using molecular features for tumor classification. In the case of malignant lymphomas, the most commonly applied molecular tests are those for gene rearrangements for immunoglobulin heavy chains and T-cell receptors. However, this article puts the focus on new and diagnostically relevant assays in hematopathology. Among these are mutations of MYD88 codon 265 in lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas, B-raf V600E in hairy cell leukemia and Stat3 exon 21 in indolent T-cell lymphomas. In myeloproliferative neoplasms, MPL W515, calreticulin exon 9 and the BCR-ABL and JAK2 V617F junctions are the most frequently analyzed differentiation series. In myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative neoplasms, SRSF2, SETBP1 and CSF3R mutations provide important differential diagnostic information. Genes mutated in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are particularly diverse but their analysis significantly improves the differential diagnostics between reactive conditions and MDS. The most frequent changes in MDS include mutations of TET2 and various genes encoding splicing factors.

  17. Dendritic cell neoplasms: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairouz, Sebastien; Hashash, Jana; Kabbara, Wadih; McHayleh, Wassim; Tabbara, Imad A

    2007-10-01

    Dendritic cell neoplasms are rare tumors that are being recognized with increasing frequency. They were previously classified as lymphomas, sarcomas, or histiocytic neoplasms. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies dendritic cell neoplasms into five groups: Langerhans' cell histiocytosis, Langerhans' cell sarcoma, Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma/tumor, Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma/tumor, and Dendritic cell sarcoma, not specified otherwise (Jaffe, World Health Organization classification of tumors 2001; 273-289). Recently, Pileri et al. provided a comprehensive immunohistochemical classification of histiocytic and dendritic cell tumors (Pileri et al., Histopathology 2002;59:161-167). In this article, a concise overview regarding the pathological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of follicular dendritic, interdigitating dendritic, and Langerhans' cell tumors is presented.

  18. Malignant neoplasms of the pancreas, liver, and biliary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, T.L.; Berland, L.L.; Foley, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is of increasing medical importance in the United States. The age-adjusted mortality rate has risen from 2.9 to 9.0 per 100,000 population between the years 1920 and 1970. This represents an increase of over 300%. Since the mean survival from time of diagnosis is only 4.3 months, the mortality and incidence rates essentially are equal. Pancreatic carcinoma now accounts for 3% of all cancers and 5% of all cancer deaths in the United States. It is the fourth most common cause of death from cancer in men and the fifth most common in women. Despite advances in chemotherapy and radiation therapy, these modalities are primarily palliative and have not been shown to alter survival significantly

  19. Non-diagnostic AIDS-associated malignant neoplasms | Barnardt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conjunction with HIV infection: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), including primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), and invasive cancer of the cervix. Data from the AIDS-Cancer Match Registry Study Group1 demonstrate the relative increased risk for the development of the three current ...

  20. Oral Malignant Melanoma in a Ferret ( Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Rossi, Giacomo; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    Oral malignant melanomas are one of the most common oral malignant neoplasms in dogs but are rare in other domesticated species. This case report describes the clinical manifestations and histological appearance of oral melanoma in a ferret ( Mustela putorius furo). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published description of a clinical case and histopathological findings of oral melanoma in this species.

  1. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski JM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between

  2. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langabeer, S. E.; Andrikovics, H.; Asp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been...

  4. Pediatric liver neoplasms: a radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, T.K.; Reiser, M.F.; Ros, P.R.; Mergo, P.J.; Tomczak, R.

    1999-01-01

    Only 1-2 % of all pediatric tumors occur in the liver. Two thirds of these tumors are malignant and almost all of the tumors cause clinical symptoms due to their mass effects. Besides the poor prognosis in most of the malignant tumors, for further treatment the origin and nature of the neoplasm has to be known. Due to the mostly unimpeded growth into the peritoneal cavity, the origin of the tumors is primarily often unclear and can non-invasively only be determined by advanced imaging techniques. The display of the macro- and microhistological key features of primary pediatric liver neoplasms, including hepatoblastoma (HB), infantile hemangioendothelioma (IHE), mesenchymal hamartoma (MH), undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma (UES), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), together with their imaging representation by ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, may deepen the understanding of the underlying pathology and its imaging appearance. Furthermore, in many cases sufficient information may be provided not only to differentiate benign from malignant tumors, but also to guide for adequate treatment. (orig.)

  5. RARE METASTASES OF MALIGNANT MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Trenkić-Božinović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are malignant neoplasms that originate from melanocytes. The most common are on the skin and mucous membranes. Choroidal melanomas are quite different from cutaneous melanomas with regard to presentation, metastases, and treatment. We report two cases of metastatic gastric malignant melanoma of the eye and skin, with reference to the literature. The first patient was a woman aged 23 years, who underwent gastrectomy 22 months after enucleation of the eye due to malignant choroid melanoma. The second patient was a man, 72 years old, who underwent surgery 28 months before because of malignant melanoma of the skin of the forehead. Paraffin sections, 4 μm thick were stained using a classic method, as well as immunohistochemical DAKO APAAP method, using a specific S - 100 antibody and Melan A antibodies. The stomach is considered a rare place for the development of metastases. Metastases in the stomach are often limited to the submucosal as well as the serousmuscular layer, as noted in one of our patients. Metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract should be suspected in any patient with a history of malignant melanoma and new gastrointestinal symptoms. Because of the similarity between certain common histopathological types of malignant melanoma, primarily achromatic, and types of primary cancers of the stomach, the following immunohistochemical studies are needed: Melan A and S - 100 protein ( markers of malignant melanoma , as well as mucins: MUC5AC, MUC2 and CDX2 ( markers of different types of primary gastric carcinoma.

  6. Malignant chondroid syringoma of the pinna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Aggarwal, Niharika; Deen, Suhail; Majhi, Urmila; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Chondroid syringoma (CS) represents the cutaneous counterpart of mixed tumor (pleomorphic adenoma) of salivary glands. The malignant counterpart of CS, termed as “malignant CS” is a malignant eccrine neoplasm which lacks distinctive clinical features, often delaying initial diagnosis. Unlike its benign counterpart which often localizes in the head and neck region, malignant CS most often encountered in the trunk and the extremities. We report a rare case of an aggressive malignant CS of the left pinna with cervical lymph node metastasis. Our patient, to the best of our knowledge, possibly is the first case of malignant CS of the pinna and the fourth to arise in the head and neck region. The diagnostic challenges with an added emphasis on the role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography in aiding the management of this rare tumor are discussed

  7. Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumour presenting early in life: An uncommon feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalinee Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumour is a rare cutaneous malignant neoplasm usually occurring in elderly women. We present a case of malignant trichilemmal tumour in a young lady of 26 years of age with a previous history of proliferating trichilemmal tumour at the same site.

  8. Hypothetical atopic dermatitis-myeloproliferative neoplasm (AD-MPN syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki eKawakami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs are hematopoietic malignancies caused by uncontrolled proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Recent studies have described several mutant mice exhibiting both AD-like skin inflammation and MPN. Common pathways for skin inflammation encompass overexpression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and reduced signaling of epidermal growth factor receptor in the epidermis, while overproduction of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor by keratinocytes and constitutive activation of Stat5 in hematopoietic stem cells are important for the development of MPN. The murine studies suggest the existence of a similar human disease tentatively termed the AD-MPN syndrome.

  9. Postirradiation sarcoma (malignant fibrous histiocytoma) following cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkston, J.A.; Sekine, Ichiro.

    1980-12-01

    A case of postirradiation sarcoma is described. The tumor, a malignant fibrous histiocytoma, occurred in the radiation field 11 years following postoperative external beam radiation therapy (7,000 rad) for carcinoma of the cervix. Reports of postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma are rare, and the occurrence of this neoplasm following treatment for cervix cancer has not previously been described. The literature concerning postirradiation bone and soft tissue sarcomas is briefly reviewed, with special attention to malignant fibrous histiocytomas. (author)

  10. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura: a rare but usually benign intrathoracic neoplasm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)) and low performance status usually preclude surgical treatment of lung neoplasms. Earlier case reports have suggested that curative, safe surgery is possible in extrapulmonal intrathoracic neoplasms. METHODS: A case report of an 83-year-old women...... with progressing dyspnoea secondary to a huge left-side neoplasm. RESULTS: Work-up reveal an FEV(1) of 0.4 L, and a giant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura. The tumor was surgically removed in toto without complications: weighting approximately 3 kg, and benign histology. The patient was without dyspnoea...

  11. Molecular Diagnostics in the Neoplasms of the Pancreas, Liver, Gallbladder, and Extrahepatic Biliary Tract: 2018 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Bluth, Martin H; Bhalla, Amarpreet

    2018-06-01

    Pancreatic neoplasms, including ductal adenocarcinoma, solid pseudopapillary neoplasm, pancreatic endocrine neoplasms, acinar cell carcinoma, and pancreatoblastoma, are associated with different genetic abnormalities. Hepatic adenomas with beta-catenin exon 3 mutation are associated with a high risk of malignancy. Hepatic adenoma with arginosuccinate synthetase 1 expression or sonic hedgehog mutations are associated with a risk of bleeding. Hepatocellular carcinoma and choangiocarcinoma display heterogeneity at both morphologic and molecular levels Cholangiocellular carcinoma is most commonly associated with IDH 1/2 mutations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms of mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Ross L

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, a series of studies have provided genetic insight into the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). It is now known that JAK2V617F mutations are present in 90% of patients with polycythaemia vera (PV), 60% of patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET) and 50% of patients with myelofibrosis (MF). Despite the high prevalence of JAK2V617F mutations in these three myeloid malignancies, several questions remain. For example, how does one mutation contribute to the pathogenesis of three clinically distinct diseases, and how do some patients develop these diseases in the absence of a JAK2V617F mutation? Single nucleotide polymorphisms at various loci and somatic mutations, such as those in MPLW515L/K, TET2 and in exon 12 of JAK2, may also contribute to the pathogenesis of these MPNs. There are likely additional germline and somatic genetic factors important to the MPN phenotype. Additional studies of large MPN and control cohorts with new techniques will help identify these factors.

  13. A comparative study of 99Tcm (V)-DMSA imaging with histopathological examination in ovarian neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xinming; Wang Jianfang; Xu Fang; Yin Jie; Wei Lanxiu; Sun Li

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of 99 Tc m (V)-Dmsa imaging in detecting the ovarian and the pelvic cavity neoplasms. Methods: 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA imaging was performed on 24 patients with diagnosed ovarian neoplasms which were pathologically confirmed after operation. Results: 14 of the 15 patients with malignant ovarian tumors had positive 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA scintigraphy. However, 7 of 9 cases with benign ovarian tumors had negative 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA scintigraphy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive rate, false negative rate, and accuracy of 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA imaging for detecting malignant ovarian tumors were 93.33%, 77.78%, 87.50%, 87.50%, 14.29%, 6.67% and 87.50%, respectively. Conclusions: 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA imaging is of important value in detecting malignant and benign ovarian and pelvic tumors

  14. Appendiceal pathology at the time of oophorectomy for ovarian neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Julia; Galgano, Mary T; Stoler, Mark H; Lachance, Jason A; Modesitt, Susan C; Jazaeri, Amir A

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of appendiceal pathology in women undergoing surgery for a suspected ovarian neoplasm and the predictive value of intraoperative findings to determine the need for appendectomy at the time of surgery. Retrospective analysis of patients who underwent oophorectomy and appendectomy during the same surgical procedures at the University of Virginia Health System from 1992 to 2007. Observations were stratified based on the nature (benign, borderline, or malignant) and histology (serous compared with mucinous) of the ovarian neoplasm, frozen compared with final pathological diagnosis, and the gross appearance of the appendix. Among the 191 patients identified, frozen section was consistent with seven mucinous and 35 serous carcinomas, 16 serous and 33 mucinous borderline tumors, 71 mucinous and serous cystadenomas, and 29 cases of suspected metastatic tumor from a gastrointestinal primary. The highest rates of coexisting appendiceal pathology were associated with serous ovarian cancers (94.4% of grossly abnormal and 35.3% of normal appendices) and ovarian tumors suspected to be of primary gastrointestinal origin (83.3% grossly abnormal and 60.0% normal appendices harbored coexisting mucinous neoplasms). Linear regression analysis revealed that appearance of the appendix and frozen section diagnosis of the ovarian pathology were statistically significant predictors of coexisting appendiceal pathology, but the latter was more important. The prevalence of coexisting, clinically significant appendiceal pathology is low with a frozen section diagnosis of serous or mucinous cystadenoma. Appendectomy is recommended when frozen section diagnosis is mucinous or serous ovarian carcinoma, borderline tumor or metastatic carcinoma of suspected gastrointestinal origin.

  15. Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm mimicking an adnexal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian, Daniel Alin; Grama, Florin Andrei; Becheanu, Gabriel; Pop, Anamaria; Popa, Ileana; Şurlin, Valeriu; Stănilescu, Sorin; Bratu, Ana Magdalena; Burcoş, Traean

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of malignant epithelial neoplasm of the appendix, an uncommon disorder encountered in clinical practice, which poses a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We report a particular case in which the appendix was abnormally located in the pelvis, mimicking an adnexal mass. Therefore, it was difficult to make the preoperative diagnosis on clinical examination, imaging studies and laboratory tests and we discovered the lesion during the diagnostic laparoscopy. No lymphadenopathy or mucinous ascites were found. The case was completely handled via the laparoscopic approach keeping the appendix intact during the operation. The frozen section, the detailed histopathology overview as well as multiple immunostaining with a complex panel of markers report diagnosed a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) with no invasion of the wall. No adjuvant therapy was considered needed. At a one-year follow-up oncological assessment, the patient was free of disease. In women with cystic mass in the right iliac fossa an appendiceal mucocele should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Laparoscopic appendectomy can represent an adequate operation for the appendiceal mucinous neoplasm if the histological report is clear and surgical precautionary measures are taken.

  16. Malignant thymona with symptoms of myasthenia gravis; Grasiczak zlosliwy z objawami nuzliwosci miesni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miarzynska, M.; Szlezak, L.; Fibak, J.; Wolski, M.; Lis-Podrzycka, E.; Miarzynski, K. [Szpital im. F. Raszei, Poznan (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The rare case of malignant tumor of thymus - Thymoma malignum was described. The initial diagnosis was difficult, because of the irregular symptoms of myasthenia gravis. The diagnostic difficulties, treatment and clinical features of this neoplasm were also discussed. (author)

  17. Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of metastatic neoplasms of the breast. A three-case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Garza-Guajardo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastases to the breast are unusual lesions that make up approximately 2% of all malignant mammary neoplasms and may mimic both benign and malignant primary neoplasms from a clinical point of view, as well as in imaging studies. Arriving at a correct diagnosis is therefore essential in order to establish appropriate management. We present three cases of metastatic neoplasms diagnosed through fine needle aspiration biopsy and immunocytochemistry. The cytological diagnoses were: medulloblastoma in an 18-year-old woman, melanoma in a 26-year-old man, and an exceptional case of ovarian sarcoma originating from a granulosa cell tumor with metastases to both breasts. A metastatic disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a palpable mass in the breast, especially if there is a history of an extramammary malignant neoplasm. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the method of choice for the management of these cases. Whenever possible the exam of the material obtained should be compared to the previous biopsy, which is usually enough to arrive at a correct diagnosis, thus preventing unnecessary surgical procedures.

  18. Dermal Squamomelanocytic Tumor: Neoplasm of Uncertain Biological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsad Dorić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of exceedingly rare cutaneous neoplasm with histological features of malignancy and uncertain biological potential. The nodular, darkly pigmented facial tumor with central exulceration, size 12x10x7 mm, of the skin 61-year-old man preauricular left was completely exised.Histologically tumor consists of atypical squamous cells, which express signs of moderate to significant pleomorphism, mitotically active, with foci forming of parakeratotic horn cysts (“pearls”. Characteristically tumor also consists of large number of atypical melanocytes with multifocal pattern, inserted between atypical squamous cells, and which contain large amount of dark brown pigment melanin. Immunohistochemically, squamous cells stain positively with keratin (CK116, melanocytes were stained with S -100 protein, HMB 45, and vimentin, but failed to stain with CK 116.To our knowledge this is the sixth reported case in world literature. The follow-up time of four years no evidence of recurrence or metastasis, similar all reported cases, but it is too short period in estimation to guarantee a benign course. However, it appears that this group of neoplasm may have different prognosis from pure squamous carcinoma or malignant melanoma.

  19. Molecular pathology of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Marina; Crippa, Stefano; Partelli, Stefano; Scopelliti, Filippo; Tamburrino, Domenico; Baldoni, Andrea; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-08-07

    Since the first description of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in the eighties, their identification has dramatically increased in the last decades, hand to hand with the improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques for the study of pancreatic diseases. However, the heterogeneity of IPMNs and their malignant potential make difficult the management of these lesions. The objective of this review is to identify the molecular characteristics of IPMNs in order to recognize potential markers for the discrimination of more aggressive IPMNs requiring surgical resection from benign IPMNs that could be observed. We briefly summarize recent research findings on the genetics and epigenetics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, identifying some genes, molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways correlated to the pathogenesis of IPMNs and their progression to malignancy. The knowledge of molecular biology of IPMNs has impressively developed over the last few years. A great amount of genes functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes have been identified, in pancreatic juice or in blood or in the samples from the pancreatic resections, but further researches are required to use these informations for clinical intent, in order to better define the natural history of these diseases and to improve their management.

  20. Malignant mesothelioma

    OpenAIRE

    Parker Robert J; Moore Alastair J; Wiggins John

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Malignant mesothelioma is a fatal asbestos-associated malignancy originating from the lining cells (mesothelium) of the pleural and peritoneal cavities, as well as the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis. The exact prevalence is unknown but it is estimated that mesotheliomas represent less than 1% of all cancers. Its incidence is increasing, with an expected peak in the next 10–20 years. Pleural malignant mesothelioma is the most common form of mesothelioma. Typical presenting featu...

  1. Classification tree analysis of second neoplasms in survivors of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jazbec, Janez; Todorovski, Ljupčo; Jereb, Berta

    2007-01-01

    Reports on childhood cancer survivors estimated cumulative probability of developing secondary neoplasms vary from 3,3% to 25% at 25 years from diagnosis, and the risk of developing another cancer to several times greater than in the general population. In our retrospective study, we have used the classification tree multivariate method on a group of 849 first cancer survivors, to identify childhood cancer patients with the greatest risk for development of secondary neoplasms. In observed group of patients, 34 develop secondary neoplasm after treatment of primary cancer. Analysis of parameters present at the treatment of first cancer, exposed two groups of patients at the special risk for secondary neoplasm. First are female patients treated for Hodgkin's disease at the age between 10 and 15 years, whose treatment included radiotherapy. Second group at special risk were male patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who were treated at the age between 4,6 and 6,6 years of age. The risk groups identified in our study are similar to the results of studies that used more conventional approaches. Usefulness of our approach in study of occurrence of second neoplasms should be confirmed in larger sample study, but user friendly presentation of results makes it attractive for further studies

  2. Gastrointestinal Surgery of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Knigge, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and should always be considered as the first-line treatment if radical resection can be achieved. Even in cases where radical surgery is not possible, palliative resection may...... be performed to reduce local or hormone-induced symptoms and to improve quality of life. The surgical procedures for GEP-NENs are accordingly described below. In most patients life-long follow-up is required, even following radical surgery, as recurrence may occur several years later....

  3. Second neoplasms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, I.

    1982-01-01

    While radiotherapy and antineoplastic chemotherapy often control malignancies they may, paradoxically, cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Although almost any type of neoplasm can occur, radiation-induced malignancies are most likely to affect the myelopoietic tissues and the thyroid gland. The former tissues are also most frequently involved by chemotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. Acute myeloid leukemia has occurred with increased frequency following treatment of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, polycythemia vera, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and carcinoma of the breast. Radiation-induced malignancies usually occur in the field of irradiation. Tumors developing in an irradiated field include a substantial number of soft tissue sarcomas or osteosarcomas. There is a 20-fold increase of second cancers following treatment of childhood malignancies, mostly sarcomas of bone and soft tissues, but including leukemia, and carcinomas of the thyroid gland, skin, and breast. The latent period between radiotherapy and the appearance of a second cancer ranges from 2 years to several decades, often being 10-15 years. With chemotherapy the mean latent period is shorter, approximately 4 years. The mechanism of oncogenesis by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is poorly understood and probably involves a complex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncogenic effects, depression of host immunity, stimulation of cellular proliferation, and genetic susceptibility

  4. Parathyroid carcinoma: an unusual presentation of a rare neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti, Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignant endocrine neoplasm that is very challenging in its diagnosis as well as its treatment. Clinically the disease is detected earlier in patients who present with hyperparathyroidism with signs of profound hypercalcemia. Differentiation between benign and malignant disease of the parathyroid is challenging both for the clinician and for the pathologist. Complete surgical resection at the time of first operation offers the best chance of cure. Even after radical excision which is the standard management, local recurrence and metastases are frequent. The disease usually has a slow indolent course and most patients suffer from complications of hypercalcemia rather than tumor invasion or metastasis.We report a case of a 31-year-old woman who presented with renal colic. Various hematological, biochemical and radiological investigations were performed and a slightly enlarged right parathyroid was found. A clinical diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma was made and a right parathyroidectomy was done. Intraoperatively the surgeon had no suspicion of malignancy but microscopically the lesion was malignant and a final diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was rendered based on the criteria of invasion. Since there is no gold standard, a multidisciplinary approach, including the entire clinical, biochemical, radiological and pathological profile of the disease aids in an accurate diagnosis. Here we are reporting a case of a functional parathyroid carcinoma presenting in a relatively young patient with all the biochemical and radiological investigations and findings pointing towards a benign parathyroid disease.

  5. Prenatal ultrasound findings of fetal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2002-01-01

    A variety of neoplasms can develop in each tetal organ. Most fetal neoplasms can be detected by careful prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Some neoplosms show specific ultrasonographic findings suggesting the differential diagnosis, but others do not. Knowledge of the presence of a neoplasm in the fetus may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitates immediate postnatal treatment. During the last five years, we experienced 32 cases of fetal neoplasms in a variety of organs. We describe their typical and ultrasonographic findings with correlating postnatal CT, MRI, and pathologic findings

  6. Intrapontine malignant nerve sheath tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozić, Dusko; Nagulić, Mirjana; Samardzić, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    . On pathological examination, the neoplasm appeared to be an intrapontine nerve sheath tumor originating most likely from the intrapontine segment of one of the cranial nerve fibres. The tumor showed exophytic growth, with consequent spread to adjacent subaracnoid space. MR spectroscopy revealed the presence......The primary source of malignant intracerebral nerve sheath tumors is still unclear We report the imaging and MR spectroscopic findings in a 39-year-old man with a very rare brain stem tumor MR examination revealed the presence of intraaxial brain stem tumor with a partial exophytic growth...

  7. Malignant mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Alkul

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventy percent of patients with malignant mesothelioma have had exposure to asbestos fibers. Other patients without this exposure have had chronic pleural inflammation or received radiation to the thorax. Occasionally patients present with no obvious exposure history relevant to the development of malignant mesothelioma. This diagnosis needs to be in the differential diagnosis of all patients with unexplained pleural disease.

  8. The Spindle Cell Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are defined as neoplasms that consist of spindle-shaped cells in the histopathology. Spindle cell neoplasms can affect the oral cavity. In the oral cavity, the origin of the spindle cell neoplasms may be traced to epithelial, mesenchymal and odontogenic components. This article aims to review the spindle cell neoplasms of the oral cavity with emphasis on histopathology.

  9. Malignant Tumors Of The Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrava, J.

    2007-01-01

    Autoptic prevalence of the heart tumors is 0,01 – 0,3 %. 12 – 25 % of them are malignant tumors and 75 – 88 % are benign. Malignancies are more frequently found in the right heart. Metastatic tumors occur 20 – 40-times more frequently than primary neoplasms. Even 94 % of primary malignant tumors are sarcomas. Most frequent of them are angio sarcomas. Heart metastases are only found in extensive dissemination. Highest prevalence of heart metastases is observed in melanoma, followed by malignant germ cell tumors, leukemia, lymphoma, lung cancer. The clinical presentation is due to the combination of heart failure, embolism, arrhythmias, pericardial effusion or tamponade. The symptoms depend on anatomical localization and the tumor size but not on the histological type. Prognosis of the heart malignancies is poor. Untreated patients die within several weeks to 2 years after the diagnosis was determined. Whenever possible the heart tumor should be resected, despite the surgery is usually neither definite nor sufficiently effective therapy. The patients with completely resectable sarcomas have better prognosis (median of survival 12 – 24 months) than the patients with incomplete resection (3 – 10 months). Complete excision is possible in only less than half of the patients. In some patients chemotherapy, radiotherapy, heart transplantation or combination of them prolonged the survival up to 2 years. Despite of this treatment median of the survival is only 1 year. (author)

  10. Malignant diseases as suicidal motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Suicide is a conscious and intentional destruction of one’s own life, which occurs as a result of mutual influence of a person’s disposition and motives (facts inspiring the commitment of suicide. It is well known that various diseases, including malignancies, could be important and in some cases the only motive for committing suicide. Objective The purpose of the study was to analyze in detail suicides of persons whose only motive was an established malignant disease. Method The analysis was performed using the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, during the period from 1990 to 2004. The reports on performed medico-legal autopsies were used, as well as history data obtained from the family members of suicidal persons, investigation reports and the available medical documents. Results In 1931 cases there was established suicidal nature of a violent death. Neoplasms were the suicidal motive in 37 persons (1.9%. The basic characteristics of the analyzed sample were predominance of males (26:11, ratio 2.4:1, the age of over 70 years and the highest incidence of malignant lung and breast tumors. Almost all cases were the persons who underwent treatment for malignant neoplasms over a longer period of time. During 19 autopsies (51.3% out of 37, a progressive phase of malignancy was established, i.e. metastases. The data on prior oral announcement of suicide intention were obtained for 70.3% (26 cases, and on previous suicidal attempts only for 13.5% (5 cases. In the majority of cases (78.4% the place of committed suicide was the person’s home. In 16 cases (43.2% the suicide was committed with a firearm. Hanging as a manner of destroying one’s own life was chosen by 12 persons (32.4%, while other ways were less frequently used. Conclusion Although malignancies were not present with high incidence as a suicidal motive in our analyzed sample, such cases require particular

  11. Fluorescence spectroscopy for neoplasms control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratchenko, I. A.; Kristoforova, Yu. A.; Myakinin, O. O.; Artemyev, D. N.; Kozlov, S. V.; Moryatov, A. A.; Zakharov, V. P.

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of malignant skin tumors diagnosis was performed involving two setups for native tissues fluorescence control in visible and near infrared regions. Combined fluorescence analysis for skin malignant melanomas and basal cell carcinomas was performed. Autofluorescence spectra of normal skin and oncological pathologies stimulated by 457 nm and 785 nm lasers were registered for 74 skin tissue samples. Spectra of 10 melanomas and 27 basal cell carcinomas were registered ex vivo. Skin tumors analysis was made on the basis of autofluorescence spectra intensity and curvature for analysis of porphyrins, lipo-pigments, flavins and melanin. Separation of melanomas and basal cell carcinomas was performed on the basis of discriminant analysis. Overall accuracy of basal cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas separation in current study reached 86.5% with 70% sensitivity and 92.6% specificity.

  12. Anal channel neoplasm: a neoplasm radio chemo curable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Lopez, M.; Avondet, I.; Vazquez, J.; Santini Blasco, A.

    1997-01-01

    Presently work is made an exhaustive revision of the anatomy of the region, the history of the treatments and of the current treatments of channel cancer anal. It makes emphasis in the importance of the conservative treatment with radiochemotherapy (RQT). The present is a prospective study,longitudinal and descriptive. Material and method: between January of 1989 and December of 1994 20 patients attended with cancer of anal channel with an illness metastasis. An average age it was of 62.4 years.The sex, 16 men and 4 women. The performance status 0,1 or 2 of the scale of the ECOQ. In the pathological anatomy: 15 patient epidermic neoplasm, 5 patient basal neoplasm. State I: 2 patients, II: 12 patients, III: 6 patients, IV: 0 patients.Treatment: the radiotherapy one carries out with cobalt 60 and it irradiates the primary tumour and the ganglion structures region, pelvic and inguinal. It surrendered to Gy/dia from Monday to Friday up to 50 Gy. The chemotherapy one carries out with mitomicine C 10 mg/ previous day to the radiotherapy and 5-UGH 1 intravenous g/my in infusion the days from 1 to 4 and from 29 to 32 after the radiotherapy.Results: to) control locorregional patient RC-16 (80%) ,RP 2 patients (10%) , without answer or with progression lesional a patient (5%) .b) State vital: living 15 patients, died 5 patients(continuation 12 to 60 months) .e)Tolerance: there were not deaths for the gastrointestinal treatment and haematological with toxicity moderate.To conclude:1) The radiochemotherapy is the treatment of elect.2)A feasible treatment of being carried out in our environment.3)Required of a good relationship predictable interdisciplinary.4)Toxicity and tolerable.5)Results of conservation of the sphincter in 80%(AU) [es

  13. VACCINATION OF CHILDREN WITH MALIGNANCIES

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    D.Yu. Kachanov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Children suffering from oncological diseases fall into the group of immunocompromised patients. They are more at risk of severe children’s banal infections. Development of safe and efficient methods for immunological prevention of preventable infections diseases in this group of children is one of priorities for modern medicine. It is also important to properly organise the process of vaccinating the persons surrounding the patient to eliminate the risk of postvaccinal complications in the sick (non-vaccinated child. The article provides a detailed overview of the global experience in vaccinating children with malignant neoplasms. It describes modern principles of immunological prevention in children both being administered the standard anticancer therapy and those have undergone transplantation of hemopoietic stem cells. Key words: children, malignancy, vaccination.(Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:28-34

  14. [Cardiac transplantation and neoplasms: experiences at Escola Paulista de Medicina of the Federal University of São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello Junior, Walter Teixeira de; Branco, João Nelson R; Catani, Roberto; Aguiar, Luciano de Figueiredo; Paez, Rodrigo Pereira; Buffolo, Enio

    2006-02-01

    To study the occurrence and types of neoplasms developed by patients who underwent an orthotopic cardiac transplantation under the Program of Cardiac Transplantation of Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo. This is an observational study of 106 patients who underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation from November 1986 to September 2002 and survived at least thirty days following the procedure. The triple immunosuppressive regimen given included cyclosporin A, azathioprine and a corticosteroid agent. Only two patients received OKT3 in addition to the regimen established. Mean follow-up was 61.4 months (ranging from two months to 192 months). Twenty-three patients (21.3%) developed neoplasms--56.5% of these were skin neoplasm, 30.1%, solid tumors, and 13.4% of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Mean interval between transplantation and diagnosis of neoplasm was: 54.9 months for skin neoplasm; 24.8 months for solid tumors and 70.3 months for PTLD. Malignant neoplasms are relatively common in the population studied. Skin cancer was the most common type compared to the other types of neoplasms. Solid tumors were more frequently diagnosed than the lymphoproliferative diseases in the population examined.

  15. Neurological Findings in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Paydas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN arise from genetic deficiencies at the level of pluripotent stem cells. Each of these neoplasms is a clonal stem cell disorder with specific phenotypic, genetic and clinical properties. Age is one of the most important factors in the development of symptoms and complications associated with MPNs.High white blood cell counts in chronic myelocytic leukemia also known as leukocytosis may lead to central nervous system findings. Tumors developing outside the bone marrow named as extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMT could be detected at the initial diagnosis or during the prognosis of the disease, which may cause neurological symptoms due to pressure of leukemic cell mass on various tissues along with spinal cord. Central nervous system involvement and thrombocytopenic hemorrhage may lead to diverse neurological symptoms and findings.Transient ischemic attack and thrombotic stroke are the most common symptoms in polycythemia vera. Besides thrombosis and hemorrage, transformation to acute leukemia can cause neurological symptoms and findings. Transient ischemic attack, thrombotic stroke and specifically hemorrage can give rise to neurological symptoms similar to MPN in essential thrombocytosis.Extramedullary hematopoiesis refers to hematopoietic centers arise in organ/tissues other than bone marrow in myelofibrosis. Extramedullar hematopoietic centers may cause intracranial involvement, spinal cord compression, seizures and hydrocephalia. Though rare, extramedullary hematopoiesis can be detected in cranial/spinal meninges, paraspinal tissue and intracerebral regions. Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been reported in peripheral neurons, choroid plexus, pituitary, orbits, orbital and lacrimal fossa and in sphenoidal sinuses. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 157-169

  16. Hidradenocarcinoma: A Rare Sweat Gland Neoplasm Presenting as Small Turban Tumor of the Scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asati, Dinesh P; Brahmachari, Swagata; Kudligi, Chandramohan; Gupta, Chandramohan

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  17. Hidradenocarcinoma: A rare sweat gland neoplasm presenting as small turban tumor of the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh P Asati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  18. Bortezomib as a new therapeutic approach for blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Laure; Ceroi, Adam; Bôle-Richard, Elodie; Jenvrin, Alizée; Biichle, Sabeha; Perrin, Sophie; Limat, Samuel; Bonnefoy, Francis; Deconinck, Eric; Saas, Philippe; Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Angelot-Delettre, Fanny

    2017-11-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an aggressive hematologic malignancy with a poor prognosis. No consensus regarding optimal treatment modalities is currently available. Targeting the nuclear factor-kappa B pathway is considered a promising approach since blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm has been reported to exhibit constitutive activation of this pathway. Moreover, nuclear factor-kappa B inhibition in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cell lines, achieved using either an experimental specific inhibitor JSH23 or the clinical drug bortezomib, interferes in vitro with leukemic cell proliferation and survival. Here we extended these data by showing that primary blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cells from seven patients were sensitive to bortezomib-induced cell death. We confirmed that bortezomib efficiently inhibits the phosphorylation of the RelA nuclear factor-kappa B subunit in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cell lines and primary cells from patients in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model. We then demonstrated that bortezomib can be associated with other drugs used in different chemotherapy regimens to improve its impact on leukemic cell death. Indeed, when primary blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cells from a patient were grafted into mice, bortezomib treatment significantly increased the animals' survival, and was associated with a significant decrease of circulating leukemic cells and RelA nuclear factor-kappa B subunit expression. Overall, our results provide a rationale for the use of bortezomib in combination with other chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Based on our data, a prospective clinical trial combining proteasome inhibitor with classical drugs could be envisaged. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  19. Canine ovarian neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 71 cases, including histology of 12 granulosa cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, A K; Greenlee, P G

    1987-11-01

    In a retrospective study of 71 primary ovarian tumors in the dog, epithelial tumors (46%) were more common than sex cord stromal (34%) and germ cell tumors (20%). There were more adenocarcinomas (64%) than adenomas. Sex cord stromal tumors were equally divided into Sertoli-Leydig (12/24) and granulosa cell tumors (12/24). There were equal numbers (7/14) of dysgerminomas and teratomas among the germ cell tumors. Most teratomas (6/7) were malignant. Most granulosa cell tumors were solid; two were mostly cystic. Patterns included sheets of round and ovoid to spindle-shaped cells separated by thin, fibrovascular stroma; neoplastic cells formed rosettes or Call-Exner bodies. In some areas, neoplastic cells were in cords or columns and formed cyst-like structures. Four granulosa cell tumors were macrofollicular, having cysts lined with granulosa cells. Median ages of dogs with different ovarian neoplasms were similar; all were more than 10 years old, except the dogs with teratoma (mean age, 4 years). Most neoplasms were unilateral (84%), except the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, many of which were bilateral (36%). Size of ovarian neoplasms varied (2 cm3 to 15,000 cm3). Twenty-nine percent of neoplasms metastasized; adenocarcinomas (48%) and malignant teratomas (50%) had the highest rates, and distant metastasis was more common in malignant teratoma. Endometrial hyperplasia was in 67% of the dogs; it was most common in dogs with sex cord stromal tumors (95%). Uterine malignancy was not seen in dogs with granulosa cell tumors, although hyperplasia endometrium was in all dogs with this tumor. Cysts in the contralateral ovaries were most common in dogs with sex cord stromal tumors.

  20. Trisomy 19 as the sole chromosomal anomaly in hematologic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, B; Billström, R; Mauritzson, N; Mitelman, F

    1994-05-01

    Trisomy 19 was found as the sole chromosomal aberration in three hematologic malignancies: one chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and two cases of of immunophenotypically immature acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A compilation of previously published hematologic neoplasms with +19 as the only change reveals that this anomaly is strongly associated with myeloid malignancies; 25 of 31 cases have been myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or AML. Eight of the 11 MDS cases have been either refractory anemia (RA) or RA with excess of blasts, and four of the 14 AML cases have had preleukemic myelodysplastic cases phase, with the +19 accruing during the time of leukemic transformation. The AML cases have, in general, been either or early maturation arrest, i.e. undifferentiated or AML-M1/M2, or of myelomonocytic-monoblastic origin, i.e., AML-M4/M5. None of the MDS or AML cases with +19 had had a previous history of radio- or chemotherapy. We conclude that trisomy 19, as the sole anomaly, is a characteristic abnormality in de novo myeloid malignancies. No clinical features seem to characterize patients with +19 AML and MDS and the prognostic impact of the aberration remains to be elucidated.

  1. Intralesional and metastatic heterogeneity in malignant melanomas demonstrated by stereologic estimates of nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Erlandsen, M

    1990-01-01

    Regional variability of nuclear 3-dimensional size can be estimated objectively using point-sampled intercepts obtained from different, defined zones within individual neoplasms. In the present study, stereologic estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vv, within peripheral...... on average larger in the peripheral zones of primary melanomas, than nuclear vv in central zones (2p = 6.7 x 10(-4), whereas no zonal differences were demonstrated in metastatic lesions (2p = 0.21). A marked intraindividual variation was demonstrated between primary and corresponding secondary melanomas (2p...... melanomas showed large interindividual variation. This finding emphasizes that unbiased estimates of nuclear vv are robust to regional heterogeneity of nuclear volume and thus suitable for purposes of objective, quantitative malignancy grading of melanomas....

  2. Neoplasms in dogs receiving low-level gamma radiation during pre- and postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.A.; Thomassen, R.W.; Hargis, A.M.; Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    Mortality because of neoplasia was examined in Segment III dogs exposed to 0,20, or 100 R of 60 Co gamma radiation in prenatal and early postnatal life. During the inital 10 years of the experiment (through January 31, 1978) 20 dogs died or were killed because of neoplasia, 19 having been irradiated. Tumors in these 19 irradiated dogs included 5 malignant lymphomas, 8 carcinomas (2 of mammary origin, 2 of prostatic origin, and 1 each or oral mucosa, ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid origin), 4 sarcomas (2 hemangiosarcomas, 1 fibrosarcoma and 1 mast cell sarcoma), 1 astrocytoma, and 1 hepatocellular adenoma. Neoplasms occurred in all irradiated groups except 8 dpc (20 and 100R) and 70 dpp (100R). Eleven neoplasms developed in dogs irradiated perinatally (55 dpc or 2 dpp) with 20 or 100R. Four of the tumors in the perinatally irradiated dogs were detected before 2 years of age. The earliest death was at 3 months, because of an astrocytoma. A single sham-irradiated dog died or a malignant tumor, a mammary carcinoma. Preliminary analyses point to three findings of particular interest: the preponderance of neoplasms causing death or euthanasia occurred in irradiated dogs, the unusual finding of four deaths because of neoplasia prior to 2 years of age in perinatally irradiated dogs, and the occurrence of five malignant lymphomas in this relatively small irradiated population

  3. Large mid-esophageal granular cell tumor: benign versus malignant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Roselil Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumors are rare soft tissue neoplasms, among which only 2% are malignant, arising from nervous tissue. Here we present a case of a large esophageal granular cell tumor with benign histopathological features which metastasized to the liver, but showing on positron emission tomography-computerized tomography standardized uptake value suggestive of a benign lesion.

  4. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and neoplasms: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Nilza N F; Caran, Eliana M; Lee, Maria Lucia; Silva, Nasjla Saba; Rocha, André Caroli; Macedo, Carla R D

    2010-01-01

    Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder exhibiting high penetrance and variable expressivity. It is characterized by facial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts (OKC), palmar and plantar pits, bifid ribs, vertebral anomalies and a variety of other malformations. Various neoplasms, such as medulloblastomas, meningiomas, ovarian and cardiac fibromas are also found in this syndrome. To describe a twelve-year-old patient with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, with basal cell carcinomas and promyelocytic leukemia developed after receiving craniospinal radiation for a medulloblastoma. Bifid ribs as well as mandibular and maxillar OKC were also diagnosed Conclusion: The patient with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome should receive close follow-up for early detection of malformations nd malignant neoplasias.

  5. CT diagnosis of hyperdense intracranial neoplasms. Review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Reiichi; Ando, Kumiko; Tominaga, Satoru; Nakao, Norio; Ikeda, Jouta; Takemura, Yuriko; Morikawa, Tsutomu

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to typical astrocytic tumors that show hypodense areas on computed tomographic images, some intracranial tumors show hyperdense areas on CT images. The major reasons for hyperdensity on CT images are hypercellular lesions, intratumoral calcification, and intratumoral hemorrhage. Malignant lymphomas, germinomas, and medulloblastomas show homogenous hyperdensity on CT images because of their hypercellularity. Tumorous lesions such as subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, central neurocytomas, craniopharyngiomas, and meningiomas often present with hyperdense calcified lesions on CT images. Intratumoral hemorrhage also causes hyperdensity on CT images, and is often associated with metastatic brain tumors, glioblastomas, pituitary adenomas, and rarely with any of the other intracranial tumors. Although magnetic resonance imaging is now the major diagnostic tool for diseases of the central nervous system, the first imaging studies for patients with neurologic symptoms are still CT scans. Hyperdense areas on CT images are a clue to making an accurate diagnosis of intracranial neoplasms. (author)

  6. Malignant Catatonia

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    Ayca Ozkul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is a syndrome characterized by mutism, immobility, negativism, stereotypy, mannerisms, echophenomena, perseveration and passive obedience. The underlying causes can be psychiatric or may be associated with general medical status or neurological diseases. Additionally catatonia has two subtypes as malignant and nonmalignant catatonia. Main symptoms of malignant catatonia are hyperthermia and autonomic symptoms such as tachycardia, tachypnea and hyperhidrosis. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible for an appropriate medical treatment. Clinicians should be aware of the fatal outcome of the disease.

  7. Brain and spinal cord neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Bragg, D.G.; Youker, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional means of detecting CNS neoplasms include plain film studies, isotope brain scans, angiography, pneumoencephalography, and myelography. Computed tomography (CT) scanning has replaced nearly all of these studies in both the initial detection and follow-up of brain tumors. Air studies (pneumoencephalography and ventriculography) have been virtually eliminated, except in certain unusual circumstances when two positions need to be checked, or hydrocephalus followed. The nuclear brain scan has a very limited role at present, being useful primarily for detecting skull or meningeal metastases. Myelography, however, remains a valuable imaging tool for the assessment of tumors of the spinal canal. CT scanning has not only improved our ability to detect smaller brain tumors, but also CT guided stereotactic biopsy techniques provide a safer means of obtaining tissue from these smaller lesions, regardless of location. Surgical techniques, guided by CT sterotactic techniques, show promise as well, but the impact of these therapeutic techniques on survival statistics remains to be defined. CT has revolutionized the approach to the detection and diagnosis of space-occupying lesions in the brain. Tumors can be detected at a smaller site

  8. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, Stephen E; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Asp, Julia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Carillo, Serge; Haslam, Karl; Kjaer, Lasse; Lippert, Eric; Mansier, Olivier; Oppliger Leibundgut, Elisabeth; Percy, Melanie J; Porret, Naomi; Palmqvist, Lars; Schwarz, Jiri; McMullin, Mary F; Schnittger, Susanne; Pallisgaard, Niels; Hermouet, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been identified. These discoveries have been rapidly incorporated into evolving molecular diagnostic algorithms. Whilst many of these mutations appear to have prognostic implications, establishing MPN diagnosis is of immediate clinical importance with selection, implementation and the continual evaluation of the appropriate laboratory methodology to achieve this diagnosis similarly vital. The advantages and limitations of these approaches in identifying and quantitating the common MPN-associated mutations are considered herein with particular regard to their clinical utility. The evolution of molecular diagnostic applications and platforms has occurred in parallel with the discovery of MPN-associated mutations, and it therefore appears likely that emerging technologies such as next-generation sequencing and digital PCR will in the future play an increasing role in the molecular diagnosis of MPN. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sarcoma as a second malignancy after treatment for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Johnny; Chuba, Paul J.; Thomas, Ron; Aref, Amr; Lucas, David; Severson, Richard K.; Hamre, Merlin

    2002-01-01

    Background: Second malignant neoplasms may be a consequence of radiotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer. Prior studies evaluating sarcomas as second malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients have been limited by the numbers of patients and relatively low incidence of sarcoma. Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries, we evaluated the influence of radiation therapy on the development of subsequent sarcomas in cases with primary breast cancer. Methods: Cases with primary invasive breast cancer (n=274,572) were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Cancer Incidence Public-Use Database (1973-1997). The database was then queried to determine the cases developing subsequent sarcomas (n=263). Eighty-seven of these cases received radiation therapy, and 176 had no radiation therapy. The cumulative incidence of developing secondary sarcoma and the survival post developing secondary sarcoma were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The occurrence of sarcoma was low, regardless of whether cases received or did not receive radiation therapy: 3.2 per 1,000 (SE [standard error] = 0.4) and 2.3 per 1,000 (SE=0.2) cumulative incidence at 15 years post diagnosis, respectively (p=0.001). Of the sarcomas occurring within the field of radiation, angiosarcoma accounted for 56.8%, compared to only 5.7% of angiosarcomas occurring in cases not receiving radiotherapy. The cumulative incidence of angiosarcoma at 15 years post diagnosis was 0.9 per 1,000 for cases receiving radiation (SE=0.2) and 0.1 per 1,000 for cases not receiving radiation (SE<0.1). Overall survival was poor for cases of sarcoma after breast cancer (27-35% at 5 years), but not significantly different between patients receiving or not receiving radiation therapy for their primary breast cancer. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer is associated with an increased risk of subsequent sarcoma, but the magnitude of this risk is

  10. The effect of 6 and 15 MV on intensity-modulated radiation therapy prostate cancer treatment: plan evaluation, tumour control probability and normal tissue complication probability analysis, and the theoretical risk of secondary induced malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, M; Aldridge, S; Guerrero Urbano, T; Nisbet, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 and 15-MV photon energies on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) prostate cancer treatment plan outcome and to compare the theoretical risks of secondary induced malignancies. Methods Separate prostate cancer IMRT plans were prepared for 6 and 15-MV beams. Organ-equivalent doses were obtained through thermoluminescent dosemeter measurements in an anthropomorphic Aldersen radiation therapy human phantom. The neutron dose contribution at 15 MV was measured using polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate neutron track etch detectors. Risk coefficients from the International Commission on Radiological Protection Report 103 were used to compare the risk of fatal secondary induced malignancies in out-of-field organs and tissues for 6 and 15 MV. For the bladder and the rectum, a comparative evaluation of the risk using three separate models was carried out. Dose–volume parameters for the rectum, bladder and prostate planning target volume were evaluated, as well as normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and tumour control probability calculations. Results There is a small increased theoretical risk of developing a fatal cancer from 6 MV compared with 15 MV, taking into account all the organs. Dose–volume parameters for the rectum and bladder show that 15 MV results in better volume sparing in the regions below 70 Gy, but the volume exposed increases slightly beyond this in comparison with 6 MV, resulting in a higher NTCP for the rectum of 3.6% vs 3.0% (p=0.166). Conclusion The choice to treat using IMRT at 15 MV should not be excluded, but should be based on risk vs benefit while considering the age and life expectancy of the patient together with the relative risk of radiation-induced cancer and NTCPs. PMID:22010028

  11. Bone morbidity in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, Sarah; Ocias, Lukas Frans; Vestergaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the classical Philadelphia chromosome-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms including essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis often suffer from comorbidities, in particular, cardiovascular diseases and thrombotic events. Apparently, there is also...

  12. A Case of Mature Natural Killer-Cell Neoplasm Manifesting Multiple Choroidal Lesions: Primary Intraocular Natural Killer-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Tagawa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Natural killer (NK cell neoplasm is a rare disease that follows an acute course and has a poor prognosis. It usually emerges from the nose and appears in the ocular tissue as a metastasis. Herein, we describe a case of NK-cell neoplasm in which the eye was considered to be the primary organ. Case: A 50-year-old female displayed bilateral anterior chamber cells, vitreous opacity, bullous retinal detachment, and multiple white choroidal mass lesions. Although malignant lymphoma or metastatic tumor was suspected, various systemic examinations failed to detect any positive results. A vitrectomy was performed OS; however, histocytological analyses from the vitreous sample showed no definite evidence of malignancy, and IL-10 concentration was low. Enlarged choroidal masses were fused together. Three weeks after the first visit, the patient suddenly developed an attack of fever, night sweat, and hepatic dysfunction, and 5 days later, she passed away due to multiple organ failure. Immunohistochemisty and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of atypical cells positive for CD3, CD56, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs, resulting in the diagnosis of NK-cell neoplasm. With the characteristic clinical course, we concluded that this neoplasm was a primary intraocular NK-cell lymphoma. Conclusions: This is the first report to describe primary intraocular NK-cell neoplasm. When we encounter atypical choroidal lesions, we should consider the possibility of NK-cell lymphoma, even though it is a rare disease.

  13. Peritoneal dissemination complicating morcellation of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Seidman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Power morcellation has become a common technique for the minimally invasive resection of uterine leiomyomas. This technique is associated with dissemination of cellular material throughout the peritoneum. When morcellated uterine tumors are unexpectedly found to be leiomyosarcomas or tumors with atypical features (atypical leiomyoma, smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential, there may be significant clinical consequences. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency and clinical consequence of intraperitoneal dissemination of these neoplasms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2005-2010, 1091 instances of uterine morcellation were identified at BWH. Unexpected diagnoses of leiomyoma variants or atypical and malignant smooth muscle tumors occurred in 1.2% of cases using power morcellation for uterine masses clinically presumed to be "fibroids" over this period, including one endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS, one cellular leiomyoma (CL, six atypical leiomyomas (AL, three smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMPs, and one leiomyosarcoma (LMS. The rate of unexpected sarcoma after the laparoscopic morcellation procedure was 0.09%, 9-fold higher than the rate currently quoted to patients during pre-procedure briefing, and this rate may increase over time as diagnostically challenging or under-sampled tumors manifest their biological potential. Furthermore, when examining follow-up laparoscopies, both from in-house and consultation cases, disseminated disease occurred in 64.3% of all tumors (zero of one ESS, one of one CL, zero of one AL, four of four STUMPs, and four of seven LMS. Only disseminated leiomyosarcoma, however, was associated with mortality. Procedures are proposed for pathologic evaluation of morcellation specimens and associated follow-up specimens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While additional study is warranted, these data suggest uterine morcellation carries a risk of disseminating

  14. [Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with perineural differentiation (malignant perineurinoma) of the cervix uteri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzhikov, A A; Mukhina, T S

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a case of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with perineural differentiation and at the rare site of the cervix uteri in a 57-year-old patient. The diagnosis was established on the basis of extensive immunohistochemical examination, by excluding the similar neoplasms and detecting an immunophenotype characteristic of perineural differentiation. There are data available in the literature on the morphological and immunophenotypical characteristics of this tumor.

  15. 18FFDG PET in evaluating malignancies compared with CT, MRI and pathology in 58 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.

    2000-01-01

    This article discussed the practical application of 18 F-FDG PET imaging techniques to depict, state, or define recurrences for five important malignancies: lung cancer, colorectal and head-and-neck cancer, intracranial malignant glioma and primary or secondary hepatic malignant diseases. And comparisons of 18 F-FDG PET with CT, MRI imaging were addressed specifically. We reviewed our initial experience with 48 malignant and ten non-malignant cases. Among malignant group, 36 cases were confirmed by operation or biopsy, Other ten non-malignant diseases, including brain infarction, post-radiotherapy necrosis or scar and lung abscesses were followed with CT or MRI at least 6 months. All patients received intravenous administration of 18 F-FDG 10-15 mCi, followed by a 40 minutes uptake phase, and subsequent imaged using a Siemens ECAT 931 whole-body scanner with resolution of 4 mm FWHM in the center of the field of view. Filtered back projection reconstruction was used to display attenuated or non-attenuated corrected images. The result of 18 F-FDG PET was retrospectively evaluated to assess the degree of uptake of 18 F-FDG PET in the tumor tissues and compared with CT, MRI and pathology. CT and MRI exam were taken before or after PET study in two weeks. 18 F-FDG PET scans showed a significantly increased FDG metabolism in 47 malignant lesions, The tumor / normal tissue FDG uptake rate were 4.16 ±2.11. In 47 cases with neoplasm, 18 F-FDG PET findings were constant with or further confirmed the CT or MRI diagnosis in 35/47 (74.5%) and 12/47 (253%) cases. Another one small intracranial metastasis ( 18 F-FDG PET imaging in oncology has demonstrated powerful advantage in characterizing tumor lesions, differentiating recurrent disease from treatment effects, staging tumors, evaluating the extent of disease, and monitoring therapy. But 18 F-FDG PET still cant replace CT or MRI in malignance diagnosis. It will be used to approach and hopefully answer the difficult diagnosis

  16. HCV Virus and Lymphoid Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tsutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the viruses known to cause hepatic cancer. HCV is also believed to be involved in malignant lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated characteristics of malignant lymphoma cases that were anti-HCV antibody (HCV-Ab positive. We were able to perform pathological examinations on 13 out of 14 HCV-positive cases. Of these, lymphoid tissues of 10 stained positive for HCV-Ab. There was no significant correlation between the degree of HCV staining and the rate of recurrence or resistance to treatment. However, there did appear to be a consistent decrease in the amount of HCV-RNA between pre- and posttreatment among HCV-Ab-positive cases; that is, treatment-resistant cases that exhibited resistance from the first treatment and recurrent cases more frequently had a higher HCV level at treatment termination compared to the pretreatment level. This suggests that the HCV virus either accelerates oncogenesis by direct interaction with B cells or indirectly affects lymphoma prognosis.

  17. Clinico-roentgenological characteristic of early stomach neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Peculiarities of clinic and roentgenosemiotics of early stomach neoplasms in patients were analyzed. Roentgenological picture of early stomach neoplasms depends on anatomic growth shape and size of neoplasms, its localization and on manifestation of inflammatory and functional chages accompanying the neoplasm. Application of complex of gastrological examination including roentgenological diagnostic method, gastrofibroscopy and morphological examination of the tissue permits to diagnose early stomach neoplasm in 95,4 % of patients. 8 refs

  18. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

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    Noa Lavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph− myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET and primary myelofibrosis (PMF. At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph− MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review.

  19. Malignant transformation of breast fibroadenoma to malignant phyllodes tumor: long-term outcome of 36 malignant phyllodes tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makoto; Miyata, Satoshi; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Iijima, Kotaro; Makita, Masujiro; Akiyama, Futoshi; Iwase, Takuji

    2011-10-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare neoplasm for which clinical findings remain insufficient for determination of optimal management. We examined the clinical behavior of these lesions in an attempt to determine appropriate management. We evaluated long-term outcome and clinical characteristics of malignant phyllodes tumors arising from fibroadenomas of the breast. A total of 173 patients were given a diagnosis of phyllodes tumor and underwent surgery at the Cancer Institute Hospital in Japan between January 1980 and December 1999. Of these patients, 39 (22.5%) were given a diagnosis of malignant phyllodes tumor; in three of these cases, detailed medical records were lost. Malignant phyllodes tumors were classified into two groups based on history of malignant transformation. Of the 36 malignant cases, 11 (30.6%) were primary and were given a diagnosis of fibroadenoma, experienced recurrence during the follow-up period, and were diagnosed with malignant phyllodes tumor (cases with a history of fibroadenoma). The other group was defined as cases without history of fibroadenoma and in whom lesions initially occurred as malignant phyllodes tumors. Based on differences between the two groups, overall survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan–Meier method, and statistical comparisons were performed using the log-rank test and Peto and Peto’s test. The outcome of cases with history of fibroadenoma was significantly better than that of cases without history of fibroadenoma. Patients with malignant phyllodes tumors but without prior history of malignant transformation who exhibit rapid growth within 6 months require aggressive treatment.

  20. Paediatric parotid neoplasms: a 10 year retrospective imaging and pathology review of these rare tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamlouk, M.D.; Rosbe, K.W.; Glastonbury, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relative incidence of benign and malignant paediatric parotid gland tumours and whether particular presenting symptoms or imaging characteristics were more likely to predict malignancy. Materials and methods: Hospital records were reviewed for all patients <18 years with histopathology-proven parotid neoplasms over the 10 year period from 2003–2013. Infantile haemangiomas and patients with neurofibromatosis type I were excluded. The presenting clinical symptoms for each patient were recorded. All available CT and MRI examinations for these patients were evaluated for tumour imaging characteristics. Results: Seventeen patients (nine boys, eight girls; age range 2–17 years) were identified with neoplastic parotid masses; 11 tumours were malignant (65%) and six were benign (35%). The malignant tumours consisted of three acinic cell carcinomas, two mucoepidermoid carcinomas, one alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, one poorly differentiated carcinoma, one low-grade adenocarcinoma, and three metastases (two melanoma, one orbital medulloepithelioma). The benign tumours consisted of five pleomorphic adenomas and one schwannoma. Presenting clinical symptoms were similar between benign and malignant tumours. Twelve MRI and six CT examinations were available for review with five patients undergoing both techniques. MRI features commonly identified with malignant tumours included: hypointense T2 signal, restricted diffusion, ill-defined borders, and focal necrosis. Only four of the six tumours imaged at CT were visualized, and of those, the margins were indeterminate in three patients. Conclusion: Paediatric parotid masses are more likely to be malignant than benign. Presenting clinical symptoms and CT are not helpful for distinguishing benign and malignant disease. MRI features such as T2 hypointensity, restricted diffusion, ill-defined borders, and focal necrosis, although not specific, should raise concern for malignancy. - Highlights: • Pediatric parotid

  1. Mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis of "uncertain malignant potential" - an evolving concept: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Asli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis is a rare neoplasm, typically demonstrating frankly malignant morphology and aggressive behavior. Rare cases of well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas have also been reported, which, in contrast, demonstrate indolent behavior. There are, however, cases which do not fit into the well-differentiated or diffuse malignant mesothelioma categories and can be considered mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis of "uncertain malignant potential", which is an emerging diagnostic category. A 57-year-old man presented with a neoplasm in a hydrocele sac. The neoplasm was non-invasive, but showed focal complex and solid growth and it was difficult to categorize either as well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas or malignant mesothelioma. After the initial limited resection, the patient underwent radical orchiectomy with hemiscrotectomy and is alive and without disease progression after 6 years. Documentation of these rare tumors will allow their distinction from true malignant mesotheliomas and will facilitate the development of specific treatment recommendations.

  2. Malignant melanomas of the meninges (MR and CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuknecht, B.; Nadjmi, M.; Mueller, J.

    1990-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the meninges is a rare neoplasm derived from melanocytes of the cranial or spinal meninges. Histologically classified as grade IV tumours, malignant melanoma may present either as a diffuse meningeal neoplasm, first described by Virchow in 1859, or as a circumscribed tumour attached to the meninges. Although diagnosis is rarely established prior to surgery or autopsy, MR and CT may provide indispensable information probably leading to earlier diagnosis. In 4 patients, diagnosis of a primary meningeal melanoma was based on MR and CT findings and histology. Histology was obtained in 3 cases by surgery, in one patient by autopsy and showed a melanotic and an amelanotic malignant melanoma in 2 patients each. Autopsy was carried out in 3 cases after survival of 4, 5, and 18 months; in a single case, the follow-up period is almost 3 years. (orig.) [de

  3. Advances in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma

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    Tristan D. Yan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma is increasing worldwide. Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM represents one-fourth of all mesotheliomas. Association of asbestos exposure with DMPM has been observed, especially in males. A great majority of patients present with abdominal pain and distension, caused by accumulation of tumors and ascitic fluid. In the past, DMPM was considered a pre-terminal condition; therefore attracted little attention. Patients invariably died from their disease within a year. Recently, several prospective trials have demonstrated median survival of 40 to 90 months and 5-year survival of 30% to 60% after the combined treatment using cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This improvement in survival has prompted new searches into the medical science related to DMPM, a disease previously ignored as uninteresting. This review article focuses on the key advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatments and prognosis of DMPM that have occurred in the past decade.

  4. Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy in diagnosis of abdominal and pelvic neoplasm in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailing; Li, Fangxuan; Liu, Juntian; Zhang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of abdominal and pelvic masses in adults has gained tremendous popularity. However, the application of the same treatment in children is not as popular because of apprehensions regarding inadequate tissues for the biopsy and accidental puncture of vital organs. Data of the application of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy in 105 pediatric patients with clinically or ultrasound-diagnosed abdominopelvic masses were reviewed. Diagnostic procedures were conducted in our institution from May 2011 to May 2013. The biopsies were conducted on 86 malignant lesions and 19 benign lesions. 86 malignant tumors comprised neuroblastomas (30 cases), hepatoblastomas (15 cases), nephroblastomas (11 cases), and primitive neuroectodermal tumors/malignant small round cells (6 cases). Among malignant tumor cases, only a pelvic primitive neuroectodermal tumor did not receive a pathological diagnosis. Therefore, the biopsy accuracy was 98.8 % in malignant tumor. However, the biopsies for one neuroblastomas and one malignant small round cell tumor were inadequate for cytogenetic analysis. Therefore, 96.5 % of the malignant tumor patients received complete diagnosis via biopsy. 19 benign tumors comprised mature teratoma (10 cases), hemangioendothelioma (3 cases), paraganglioma (2 cases), and infection (2 cases). The diagnostic accuracy for benign neoplasm was 100 %. Five patients experienced postoperative complications, including pain (2 patients), bleeding from the biopsy site (2 patients), and wound infection (1 patient). Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy is an efficient, minimally invasive, accurate, and safe diagnostic method that can be applied in the management of abdominal or pelvic mass of pediatric patients.

  5. [Malignant pheochromocytoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornex, R; Berthezene, F; Peyrin, L; Tran Minh, V; Martin, J P; Fulchiron, D

    1979-11-01

    The reported incidence of malignant pheochromocytoma varies from series to series. In this series 4 cases (7.2 p. 100) were observed out of a total of 55. In two cases the tumour progressed rapidly but in the other two cases, metastases were detected 3 to 12 years after the apparent cure of a histologically benign pheochromocytoma. The urinary levels of catecholamines and their metabolites gave no indication of the underlying malignancy. The diagnosis was only made from the clinical and radiological detection of metastases (2 hepatic, 2 bone). There is no satisfactory treatment and various therapeutic methods have to be used in succession; surgery for a single metastasis, radiotherapy and antiadrenergic agents to combat clinical manifestations. The natural history of this tumour is relatively long.

  6. Dynamic MRI of pancreatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Nobuyoshi; Takayasu, Ken-ichi; Muramatu, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    The usefulness of dynamic MRI study using contrast media is studied on pancreatic tumors. This method was useful in detecting small lesion of pancreatic tumor, however, T1-weighted SE method was more useful in detecting swelling lesions or diagnosing degree of tumors. Although endocrine tumors are depicted by contrast media, careful attention is needed since there are some hypovascular cases. T2-weighted image is commonly performed to detect the morphology of cystic content and the correlation between the pancreas and bile duct in cystic tumors, however, dynamic study was more useful in proving vascularity of serous cystadenoma and differentiating malignant or benign mucous cystic tumors by depicting intracystic torous components. In performing MR imaging on pancreatic diseases, it is necessary to select appropriate imaging procedure, and dynamic study should be included and used in a rational manner. (S.Y.)

  7. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for pancreatic neoplasms without hematoxylin and eosin stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youting; Chen, Jing; Chen, Hong; Hong, Zhipeng; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Yanling; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of tissue samples is the standard approach in histopathology for imaging and diagnosing cancer. Recent reports have shown that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides better sample interface with single-cell resolution, which enhances traditional H&E staining and offers a powerful diagnostic tool with potential applications in oncology. The purpose of this study was to further expand the versatility of MPM by establishing the optical parameters required for imaging unstained histological sections of pancreatic neoplasms, thereby providing an efficient and environmentally sustainable alternative to H&E staining while improving the accuracy of pancreatic cancer diagnoses. We found that the high-resolution MPM images clearly distinguish between the structure of normal pancreatic tissues compared with pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections, and discernable differences in tissue architecture and cell morphology between normal versus tumorigenic cells led to enhanced optical diagnosis of cancerous tissue. Moreover, quantitative assessment of the cytomorphological features visualized from MPM images showed significant differences in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios of pancreatic neoplasms compared with normal pancreas, as well as further distinguished pancreatic malignant tumors from benign tumors. These results indicate that the MPM could potentially serve as an optical tool for the diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections.

  8. Single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy for low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm after laparoscopic rectectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Shiki; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Noura, Shingo; Shingai, Tatsushi; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Ohue, Masayuki; Yano, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    In this case report, we discuss single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy for low-grade appendiceal neoplasm after laparoscopic anterior resection for rectal cancer. The optimal surgical therapy for low-grade appendiceal neoplasm is controversial; currently, the options include appendectomy, cecectomy, right hemicolectomy, and open or laparoscopic surgery. Due to the risk of pseudomyxoma peritonei, complete resection without rupture is necessary. We have encountered 5 cases of low-grade appendiceal neoplasm and all 5 patients had no lymph node metastasis. We chose the appendectomy or cecectomy without lymph node dissection if preoperative imaging studies did not suspect malignancy. In the present case, we performed cecectomy without lymph node dissection by single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), which is reported to be a reduced port surgery associated with decreased invasiveness and patient stress compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery. We are confident that SILS is a feasible alternative to traditional surgical procedures for borderline tumors, such as low-grade appendiceal neoplasms. PMID:24868331

  9. Admission factors associated with hospital mortality in patients with haematological malignancy admitted to UK adult, general critical care units: a secondary analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Peter A; Welch, Catherine A; McCrossan, Lawrence A; Francis, Katharine; Harrison, David A

    2009-01-01

    Patients with haematological malignancy admitted to intensive care have a high mortality. Adverse prognostic factors include the number of organ failures, invasive mechanical ventilation and previous bone marrow transplantation. Severity-of-illness scores may underestimate the mortality of critically ill patients with haematological malignancy. This study investigates the relationship between admission characteristics and outcome in patients with haematological malignancies admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and assesses the performance of three severity-of-illness scores in this population. A secondary analysis of the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme Database was conducted on admissions to 178 adult, general ICUs in England, Wales and Northern Ireland between 1995 and 2007. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with hospital mortality. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and ICNARC score were evaluated for discrimination (the ability to distinguish survivors from nonsurvivors); and the APACHE II, SAPS II and ICNARC mortality probabilities were evaluated for calibration (the accuracy of the estimated probability of survival). There were 7,689 eligible admissions. ICU mortality was 43.1% (3,312 deaths) and acute hospital mortality was 59.2% (4,239 deaths). ICU and hospital mortality increased with the number of organ failures on admission. Admission factors associated with an increased risk of death were bone marrow transplant, Hodgkin's lymphoma, severe sepsis, age, length of hospital stay prior to intensive care admission, tachycardia, low systolic blood pressure, tachypnoea, low Glasgow Coma Score, sedation, PaO2:FiO2, acidaemia, alkalaemia, oliguria, hyponatraemia, hypernatraemia, low haematocrit, and uraemia. The ICNARC model had the best discrimination

  10. Admission factors associated with hospital mortality in patients with haematological malignancy admitted to UK adult, general critical care units: a secondary analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Patients with haematological malignancy admitted to intensive care have a high mortality. Adverse prognostic factors include the number of organ failures, invasive mechanical ventilation and previous bone marrow transplantation. Severity-of-illness scores may underestimate the mortality of critically ill patients with haematological malignancy. This study investigates the relationship between admission characteristics and outcome in patients with haematological malignancies admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and assesses the performance of three severity-of-illness scores in this population. Methods A secondary analysis of the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme Database was conducted on admissions to 178 adult, general ICUs in England, Wales and Northern Ireland between 1995 and 2007. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with hospital mortality. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and ICNARC score were evaluated for discrimination (the ability to distinguish survivors from nonsurvivors); and the APACHE II, SAPS II and ICNARC mortality probabilities were evaluated for calibration (the accuracy of the estimated probability of survival). Results There were 7,689 eligible admissions. ICU mortality was 43.1% (3,312 deaths) and acute hospital mortality was 59.2% (4,239 deaths). ICU and hospital mortality increased with the number of organ failures on admission. Admission factors associated with an increased risk of death were bone marrow transplant, Hodgkin's lymphoma, severe sepsis, age, length of hospital stay prior to intensive care admission, tachycardia, low systolic blood pressure, tachypnoea, low Glasgow Coma Score, sedation, PaO2:FiO2, acidaemia, alkalaemia, oliguria, hyponatraemia, hypernatraemia, low haematocrit, and uraemia. The ICNARC

  11. The role of the accessory pathway radiofrequency catheter ablation in the secondary prevention of the malignant tachyarrhythmias in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

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    Mujović Nebojša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF in the presence of an accessory pathway (AP that conducts rapidly is potentially lethal because the rapid ventricular response may lead to ventricular fibrillation (VF. The aim of the study was to determine long-term efficacy of AP catheter-ablation using radiofrequency (RF current in secondary prevention of VF in WPW patients. Methods. Study included a total of 192 symptomatic WPW patients who underwent RF catheter-ablation of AP in our institution from 1994 to 2007 and were available for clinical follow-up for more than 3 months after procedure. Results. Before ablation, VF was recorded in total of 27 patients (14.1%. In 14 of patients (51.9% VF was the first clinical manifestation of WPW syndrome. A total of 35 VF episodes were identified in 27 patients. The occurrence of VF was preceded by physical activity or emotional stress in 17.1% of cases, by alcohol abuse in 2.9% and by inappropriate intravenous drug administration in 28.6%. In addition, no clear precipitating factor was identified in 40% of VF cases, while informations about activities preceding 11.4% of VF episodes were not available. The follow-up of 5.7 ± 3.3 years was obtained in all of 27 VF patients. Of the 20 patients who underwent successful AP ablation, all were alive, without syncope or ventricular tachyarrhythmias during long-term follow-up. In 4 of 7 unsuccessfully treated patients, recurrence of supraventricular tachycardia and/or preexcited atrial fibrillation were recorded; one of these patients suddenly died of VF, 6 years after procedure. Conclusion. In significant proportion of WPW patients, VF was the first clinical manifestation of WPW syndrome, often precipitated by physical activity, emotional stress or inappropriate drug administration. Successful elimination of AP by percutaneous RF catheter-ablation is highly effective in secondary prevention of life-threatening tachyarrhythmias in patients with

  12. Radiotherapy of malignant eyelid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.I.; Chentsova, O.B.; Korshunov, A.I.; Biryukov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Immediate, early and delayed results of short-remote and combined radiotherapy in 348 patients with malignant eyelid neoplasms were presented. A single focal dose was 1.5.-2.5 Gy, an integral dose 45-80 Gy with relation to tumor prevalence and histological strucute. The eyeball was protected with the help of a lead lens (''eye prosthesis'') and a universal tun.gsten membrane. The devices ensured nearly 100% protection of the eyelid against ionizing radiation. Direct clinical cure was noted in 342 patients, partial tumor resorption in 6 patients. Three-year recurrence-free survival was noted in 330 patients (94.8%), five-year survival in 319 (92.8%)

  13. Nutritional survey of neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinli; Zhu Shengtao

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In order to know the nutriture of neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy and give nutritional guidance properly, the authors make the following survey. Methods: A dietary survey of twenty-four-hour retrospective method was used; The patients' activity was recorded and their twenty-four hours caloric consumption was calculated. Results: Of all the patients, the intake of protein is more than recommended, percentage of calorific proportion is about 15%-19% of gross caloric. A larger portion of patients' caloric intake, especially female patients, is lower than caloric consumption. Among all the patients, the intake of vegetables is not enough; The consumption of milk and milky products is lower; it is common and serious that neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy have vitamine and mineral's scarcity. Conclusions: Nutriture of neoplasm patients is not optimistic, it is imperative to improve their nutriture

  14. Orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H; Hitchon, Patrick W; Smoker, Wendy R K; Lee, Andrew G; Nerad, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to report an orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive orbital neoplasm. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon but can mimic neoplasm. One potential mechanism for the orbital roof destruction is a post-traumatic "growing orbital roof fracture." The growing fracture has been reported mostly in children but can occur in adults. Alternative potential etiologies for the encephalocele are discussed, including Gorham syndrome. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon in adults, and the findings can superficially resemble an orbital neoplasm. Radiographic and clinical features that might suggest the correct diagnosis include a prior history of trauma, overlying frontal lobe encephalomalacia without significant mass effect or edema, and an orbital roof defect. The "growing fracture" mechanism may be a potential explanation for the orbital roof destruction in some cases.

  15. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life

  16. Radiation Therapy and Late Mortality From Second Sarcoma, Carcinoma, and Hematological Malignancies After a Solid Cancer in Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenova, Markhaba; Guibout, Catherine; Hawkins, Mike; Quiniou, Eric; Mousannif, Abddedahir; Pacquement, Helene; Winter, David; Bridier, Andre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Oberlin, Odile; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vathaire, Florent de

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare patterns of long-term deaths due to secondary carcinomas, sarcomas, and hematological malignancies occurring after childhood cancer in a cohort of patients followed over a median of 28 years. Methods and Materials: The study included 4,230 patients treated at eight institutions, who were at least 5-year survivors of a first cancer, representing 105,670 person-years of observation. Complete clinical, chemotherapeutic, and radiotherapeutic data were recorded, and the integral radiation dose was estimated for 2,701 of the 2,948 patients who had received radiotherapy. The integral dose was estimated for the volume inside the beam edges. The causes of death obtained from death certificates were validated. Results: In total, 134 events were due to second malignant neoplasm(s) (SMN). We found that the standardized mortality ratio decreased with increasing follow-up for second carcinomas and sarcomas, whereas the absolute excess risk (AER) increased for a second carcinoma but decreased for second sarcomas. There was no clear variation in SMN and AER for hematological malignancies. We found a significant dose-response relationship between the radiation dose received and the mortality rate due to a second sarcoma and carcinoma. The risk of death due to carcinoma and sarcoma as SMN was 5.2-fold and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, in patients who had received a radiation dose exceeding 150 joules. Conclusions: Among patients who had received radiotherapy, only those having received the highest integral radiation dose actually had a higher risk of dying of a second carcinoma or sarcoma.

  17. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF COLORECTAL MALIGNANCIES

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    Sarvesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in men and in women worldwide. Incidence rates of colorectal cancer vary 10 - fold in both sexes worldwide, Within Asia, the incidence rates vary widely and are uniformly low in all south Asian countries and high i n all developed Asian countries. Fortunately, the age adjusted incidence rates of colorectal cancer in all the Indian cancer registries are very close to the lowest rates in the world. The present study is under taken to study the prevalence and types of c olorectal cancer among the patients in the rural population in and around Chidambaram. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of malignant colorectal neoplasms among the speci mens received in the Department of Pathology and the gross and histomorphological pa ttern of the lesions and finally to correlate the findings with clinical data. METHOD: The materials consisted of 68 specimens who were submitted to the Department of Pathology, during the period of Jan 2008 - Dec 2012. Data collected and entered in MS - Excel and were analyzed using SPSS - 16. RESULTS : Out of 8454 colonoscopic specimens, 68(0.8% showed colorectal malignancy. A higher frequency of colorectal was seen in 6 th decade. Out of 68 specimens of malignant neoplasms majority were Carcinoma of the Rectum (79.41% followed in decreasing order of frequency by malignant lesions of descending colon(8.82%, ascending and Sigmoid colon (4.41% each, recto - sigmoid (2.94% and cecum (2.63%, and transverse colon (2.63%. Youngest patient was 19 years old and the o ldest patient was 80 years old with a mean age of 49.5 years and median age of 50 years. CONCLUSION: Colorectal cancer is a common and lethal disease. The adenoma carcinoma. S equence offers a window of opportunity in which the precursor lesion or early car cinoma can be removed endoscopically to prevent systematic disease. The result of a careful and systematic examination of surgical specimens from patients with

  18. Epidemiological profile of patients with malignant skin tumors at the plastic surgery secondary service in the countryside of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Simoneti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-melanoma skin tumor is the one with highest prevalence and incidence in Brazil, comprising squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and basal cell carcinoma (CBC. The main risk factor for the development of these tumors is chronic exposure to sunlight, justifying the most affected age group and anatomical locations. Treatment aims to excise the lesion with minimal deformity. Surgical excision with safe margins is the main therapeutic option; others depend on the number of lesions, location, histological type, general health and medical comorbidity. Objectives: To describe the epidemiological profile of patients with skin tumors; to identify the prevalence of non-melanoma; and to evaluate surgical margin. Methods: Observational, longitudinal and retrospective study of patients undergoing resection of suspicious lesions in secondary service. Results: We identified 140 lesions in 67 patients, 59% were male and 71.6% over 60 years of age. The most affected regions were head and neck (72.1%; 69.1% were CBC, 29.2% CBC, and 1.6% melanoma; 80.4% informed free margins, 7.3% indicated affected margins; the mean age of these patients was 75.2 years and the mean number of concomitant injuries was 8.7. The association was significant between female gender and presence of lesions <5 mm. Conclusions: The prevalence of lesions in elderly men (over 60 years is in accordance with the pattern described in literature. Free margins, which were obtained in most of the cases in this study, indicate therapeutic efficacy of the simple surgical excision. Marcroscopic margins adopted in the preoperative marking favor effectiveness, reserving Möhs surgery for recurrence or margin involvement. öhs para recidivas ou comprometimento de margem.

  19. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: reporting clinically relevant features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Chiaro, Marco; Verbeke, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas can exhibit a wide spectrum of macroscopic and microscopic appearances. This not only causes occasional difficulties for the reporting pathologist in distinguishing these tumours from other lesions, but is also relevant clinically. As evidence accumulates, it becomes clear that multiple macroscopic and histological features of these neoplasms are relevant to the risk for malignant transformation and, consequently, of prime importance for clinical patient management. The need for detailed reporting is therefore increasing. This review discusses the panoply of gross and microscopic features of IPMN as well as the recommendations from recent consensus meetings regarding the pathology reporting on this tumour entity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Role of intraoperative imprint cytology in diagnosis of suspected ovarian neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Soumit; Misra, Vatsala; Singh, P A; Mishra, Sanjay; Sharma, Nishant

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess whether cytology can help in rapid diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms and thus facilitate individualised treatment. A prospective investigation was performed on 30 cases of suspected ovarian neoplasms. Imprint smears were made intraperatively from fresh samples from various representative areas, and stained with Leishman Giemsa for air-dried smears, and with hematoxylin and eosin and Papanicolaou for alcohol-fixed smears. A rapid opinion regarding the benign or malignant nature of the lesion and the type of tumour was given. The overall sensitivity was 96.2%, specificity 75%, positive predictive value 96.3%, and diagnostic accuracy of 83.3%. Characteristic cytological patterns were noted in various epithelial and germ cell tumours. Imprint cytology can be used as an adjunct to histopathology for rapid and early diagnosis in the operation theatre, thus helping better management of patients.

  1. Primary Malignant Bone Tumours at the University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Primary malignant bone tumours include malignancies arising primarily from bone tissue. This is opposed to secondary bone tumours in which case the neoplastic elements arise primarily from other sites within the body and secondarily spread to bone. Primary malignant bone tumours are generally ...

  2. Radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms are presented. The results of combined (surgical and radiation) treatment of tumors are studied. On the whole it is noted that radiation treatment of initial spinal cord tumours is not practised on a large scale because of low radiostability of spinal cord

  3. Benign neoplasms of the trachea : case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Hee; Mun, Kyung Mi; Kim, Bum Soo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital Catholic Univ. Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    Benign tumors of the trachea are rare, accounting for approximately 10% of all primary tracheal neoplasms. They are frequently misdiagnosed and managed as bronchial asthma or chronic bronchitis. We report a lipoma and a leiomyoma of the trachea with emphasis on the clinical, radiographic and CT findings, and review the literature.

  4. Myeloproliferative neoplasms in five multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2013-01-01

    The concurrence of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is unusual. We report five patients from a localized geographic area in Denmark with both MS and MPN; all the patients were diagnosed with MPNs in the years 2007-2012. We describe the patients' history and treatment...

  5. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monill, J.; Pernas, J.; Montserrat, E.; Perez, C.; Clavero, J.; Martinez-Noguera, A.; Guerrero, R.; Torrubia, S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus by two radiologists. Diagnoses were made from biopsy, surgery and/or clinical follow-up findings. Multiple myeloma was found in seven patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in four patients. All patients with multiple myeloma had multifocal disease with involvement of perirenal space (4/7), retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes (3/7), peritoneum (3/7), liver (2/7), subcutaneous tissues (2/7) and kidney (1/7). In three of the four patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma, a single site was involved, namely stomach, vagina and retroperitoneum. In the fourth patient, a double site of abdominal involvement was observed with rectal and jejunal masses. Plasma cell neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of single or multiple enhancing masses in the abdomen or pelvis. Abdominal plasma cell neoplasms were most frequently seen as well-defined enhancing masses (10/11). (orig.)

  6. Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of the Pancreas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm is a rare pancreatic tumour predominantly affecting young women. We present two cases in young female patients. Both tumours were surgically removed as abdominal masses, one from the pancreatic tail and the other posterior to the stomach with an unclear organ of origin. On gross ...

  7. Goblet cell carcinoid neoplasm of the appendix: Clinical and CT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.S.; Tang, L.H.; Shia, J.; Paty, P.B.; Weiser, M.R.; Guillem, J.G.; Temple, L.K.; Nash, G.M.; Reidy, D.; Saltz, L.; Gollub, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the clinical and CT imaging features of goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) neoplasm of the appendix. Methods and materials: A computer search of pathology and radiology records over a 19-year period at our two institutions was performed using the search string “goblet”. In the patients with appendiceal GCC neoplasms who had abdominopelvic CT, imaging findings were categorized, blinded to gross and surgical description, as: “Appendicitis”, “Prominent appendix without peri-appendiceal infiltration”, “Mass” or “Normal appendix”. The CT appearance was correlated with an accepted pathological classification of: low grade GCC, signet ring cell adenocarcinoma ex, and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma ex GCC group. Results: Twenty-seven patients (age range, 28–80 years; mean age, 52 years; 15 female, 12 male) with pathology-proven appendiceal GCC neoplasm had CT scans that were reviewed. Patients presented with acute appendicitis (n = 12), abdominal pain not typical for appendicitis (n = 14) and incidental finding (n = 1). CT imaging showed 9 Appendicitis, 9 Prominent appendices without peri-appendiceal infiltration, 7 Masses and 2 Normal appendices. Appendicitis (8/9) usually correlated with typical low grade GCC on pathology. In contrast, the majority of Masses and Prominent Appendices without peri-appendiceal infiltration were pathologically confirmed to be signet ring cell adenocarcinoma ex GCC. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma ex GCC was seen in only a small minority of patients. Hyperattenuation of the appendiceal neoplasm was seen in a majority of cases. Conclusions: GCC neoplasm of the appendix should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with primary appendiceal malignancy. Our cases demonstrated close correlation between our predefined CT pattern and the pathological classification

  8. Goblet cell carcinoid neoplasm of the appendix: Clinical and CT features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.S., E-mail: kyungmouklee@alum.mit.edu [Department of Radiology Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Tang, L.H., E-mail: tangl@mskc.org [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Shia, J., E-mail: shiaj@mskcc.org [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Paty, P.B., E-mail: patyp@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Weiser, M.R., E-mail: weiser1@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Guillem, J.G., E-mail: guillemj@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Temple, L.K., E-mail: temple@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Nash, G.M., E-mail: nashg@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Reidy, D., E-mail: reidyd@mskcc.org [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Saltz, L., E-mail: saltzl@mskcc.org [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Gollub, M.J., E-mail: gollubm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiology Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To describe the clinical and CT imaging features of goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) neoplasm of the appendix. Methods and materials: A computer search of pathology and radiology records over a 19-year period at our two institutions was performed using the search string “goblet”. In the patients with appendiceal GCC neoplasms who had abdominopelvic CT, imaging findings were categorized, blinded to gross and surgical description, as: “Appendicitis”, “Prominent appendix without peri-appendiceal infiltration”, “Mass” or “Normal appendix”. The CT appearance was correlated with an accepted pathological classification of: low grade GCC, signet ring cell adenocarcinoma ex, and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma ex GCC group. Results: Twenty-seven patients (age range, 28–80 years; mean age, 52 years; 15 female, 12 male) with pathology-proven appendiceal GCC neoplasm had CT scans that were reviewed. Patients presented with acute appendicitis (n = 12), abdominal pain not typical for appendicitis (n = 14) and incidental finding (n = 1). CT imaging showed 9 Appendicitis, 9 Prominent appendices without peri-appendiceal infiltration, 7 Masses and 2 Normal appendices. Appendicitis (8/9) usually correlated with typical low grade GCC on pathology. In contrast, the majority of Masses and Prominent Appendices without peri-appendiceal infiltration were pathologically confirmed to be signet ring cell adenocarcinoma ex GCC. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma ex GCC was seen in only a small minority of patients. Hyperattenuation of the appendiceal neoplasm was seen in a majority of cases. Conclusions: GCC neoplasm of the appendix should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with primary appendiceal malignancy. Our cases demonstrated close correlation between our predefined CT pattern and the pathological classification.

  9. Radiologic features of cystic, endocrine and other pancreatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balci, N. Cem; Semelka, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents imaging features of cystic, endocrine and other pancreatic neoplasms. Microcystic adenoma which is composed of small cysts ( 2 cm) are accounted for mucinous cystic neoplasms, its variant along pancreatic duct is ductectatic mucinous cystic neoplasm. Endocrine tumors of pancreas are hypervascular and can be depicted on early dynamic enhanced crosssectional imaging modalities or on angiography when they are <1 cm. Pancreatic metastases and lymphomas are rare neoplasms which should also be included in differential diagnosis for pancreatic masses

  10. Second Malignanat Solid Neoplasms in Children Treated with Radiotherapy-Report of Two Cases and Review of Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Ji; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon; Lyu, Chuhl Joo; Kim, Byung Soo

    1995-01-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy can effectively control cancer but can also cause new second cancers to develop as long-term complications especially in childhood cancer. We experienced two patients with second malignant solid neoplasm who had been treated with radiation and chemotherapy for childhood cancers. One female patients with rhabdomyosarcoma of the right popliteal fossa was treated with radiotherapy at total dose of 54 Gy. Three years and seven months later, osteosarcoma developed in the field of radiation therapy. The other male patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the small bowel was treated with radiotherapy and leiomyosarcoma developed in the field of radiotherapy 18 years later. We reviewed the literature of the second malignant neoplasm in children in respect of risk factors. The risk for a second primary cancer following radiotherapy or chemotherapy emphasizes the need for life long follow-up of patients receiving such treatments. Particularly patients treated for childhood cancers

  11. An international consortium proposal of uniform response criteria for myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savona, Michael R; Malcovati, Luca; Komrokji, Rami; Tiu, Ramon V; Mughal, Tariq I; Orazi, Attilio; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Padron, Eric; Solary, Eric; Tibes, Raoul; Itzykson, Raphael; Cazzola, Mario; Mesa, Ruben; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Fenaux, Pierre; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Gerds, Aaron; Sanz, Guillermo; Niemeyer, Charlotte M; Cervantes, Francisco; Germing, Ulrich; Cross, Nicholas C P; List, Alan F

    2015-03-19

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are hematologically diverse stem cell malignancies sharing phenotypic features of both myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms. There are currently no standard treatment recommendations for most adult patients with MDS/MPN. To optimize efforts to improve the management and disease outcomes, it is essential to identify meaningful clinical and biologic end points and standardized response criteria for clinical trials. The dual dysplastic and proliferative features in these stem cell malignancies define their uniqueness and challenges. We propose response assessment guidelines to harmonize future clinical trials with the principal objective of establishing suitable treatment algorithms. An international panel comprising laboratory and clinical experts in MDS/MPN was established involving 3 independent academic MDS/MPN workshops (March 2013, December 2013, and June 2014). These recommendations are the result of this collaborative project sponsored by the MDS Foundation. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in a nuclear engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huncharek, M.

    1988-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma accounts for a large proportion of deaths among occupational cohorts exposed to asbestos. Of particular interest are recent reports of a high risk of mesothelioma among occupational groups previously thought to be at low risk for developing this neoplasm. In the present report we present a case of pleural mesothelioma associated with bystander exposure to asbestos in a nuclear engineer. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the disease occurring in a member of this occupational group after work related exposure to asbestos. (author)

  13. Somatic CALR mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangalia, J.; Massie, C.E.; Baxter, E.J.; Nice, F.L.; Gundem, G.; Wedge, D.C.; Avezov, E.; Li, J.; Kollmann, K.; Kent, D.G.; Aziz, A.; Godfrey, A.L.; Hinton, J.; Martincorena, I.; Loo, P. Van; Jones, A.V.; Guglielmelli, P.; Tarpey, P.; Harding, H.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.D.; Goudie, C.T.; Ortmann, C.A.; Loughran, S.J.; Raine, K.; Jones, D.R.; Butler, A.P.; Teague, J.W.; O'Meara, S.; McLaren, S.; Bianchi, M.; Silber, Y.; Dimitropoulou, D.; Bloxham, D.; Mudie, L.; Maddison, M.; Robinson, B.; Keohane, C.; Maclean, C.; Hill, K.; Orchard, K.; Tauro, S.; Du, M.Q.; Greaves, M.; Bowen, D.; Huntly, B.J.; Harrison, C.N.; Cross, N.C.; Ron, D.; Vannucchi, A.M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Campbell, P.J.; Green, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing

  14. Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm of the Liver or Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Bile Duct? A Case Report and a Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunovsky, Lumir; Kala, Zdenek; Svaton, Roman; Moravcik, Petr; Mazanec, Jan; Husty, Jakub; Prochazka, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver (MCN-L) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct (IPMN-B) are diagnoses that were classified by the World Health Organization in 2010 as mucin-producing bile duct tumors of the hepatobiliary system. The preoperative differential diagnosis between these two entities is difficult; the presence of a communication with the bile duct is usually considered as a typical sign of IPMN-B. However, the presence of an ovarian-like stroma (OLS) has been established to define the diagnosis of MCN-L. We present the case of a 33-year-old woman with a rapid progression of a cystic tumor of the liver. In 2 years, the lesion increased from 27 to 64 mm and a dilation of the left hepatic duct appeared. Percutaneous transhepatic drainage with a biopsy was performed. No malignant cells were found on biopsy. Because of the rapid progression of the cystic tumor and unclear malignant potential, left hemihepatectomy was performed. Even though tumor masses were present in the biliary duct, on the basis of the presence of OLS, histology finally confirmed MCN-L with intermediate-grade intraepithelial dysplasia to high-grade intraepithelial dysplasia. The patient is currently under oncologic follow-up with no signs of recurrence of the disease. We present a rare case where MCN-L caused a dilation of the left hepatic duct, a sign that is usually a characteristic of IPMN-B.

  15. A THREE YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF OVARIAN NEOPLASMS WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON SURFACE EPITHELIAL TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Bharathi Yarlagadda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ovarian tumours being second most common gynaecological cancer in India account for 30% of all cancers of female genital tract. Study conducted to determine relative frequencies of various histological types based on WHO classification and their age distribution with particular emphasis on surface epithelial tumours. This study is undertaken to find out the frequency of incidence of different histopathological subtypes with particular emphasis on surface epithelial tumours and age distribution of ovarian tumours in our institute located in coastal Andhra Pradesh. METHODS This is a retrospective study of 100 cases of ovarian neoplasms collected during a period of 3 years from June 2013 to May 2016 from the Department of Pathology, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Chinakondrupadu, Guntur, A. P, India. The patients attending our hospital are mostly from rural areas around. Paraffin blocks of all 100 ovarian neoplasms retrieved. Complete clinical and radiological findings analysed from our records. RESULTS The tumours are grouped according to the nature of tumour whether benign or borderline or malignant according to cell of origin, histological subtyping, and age group. Surface epithelial tumours are the most common. Benign tumours outnumber the malignant tumours. Benign ovarian tumours showed a peak in 21-40 Yrs. age group and malignant in the age group of 41- 60 Yrs. Results of our study compared with other studies. CONCLUSION Because of the geographic location, poverty, and illiteracy, patients seek medical advice late. So, awareness among public by health education, passive surveillance, and community screening facility will be helpful in early detection of ovarian neoplasms.

  16. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas. Personal series and synthetic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gallucci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs are rare pancreatic tumors, accounting for less than 1-2% of all neoplasms of the pancreas. The main characteristic of IPMNs is their favorable prognosis, as these pre-malignant or malignant lesions are usually slow-growing tumors and radical surgery is frequently possible. According to the localization of the lesions, three different tumor types have been identified: the main-duct IPMN, the branch-duct IPMN and the mixed-type IPMN (involving both the main pancreatic duct and the side branches. IMPNs do not present pathognomonic signs or symptoms. The obstruction of the main pancreatic duct system may cause abdominal pain and acute pancreatitis (single or recurrent episodes. The tumor may be incidentally discovered in asymptomatic patients, particularly in those with branch-duct IPMNs. In clinical practice, any non-inflammatory cystic lesion of the pancreas should be considered as possible IPMN. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging with cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography can localize an IPMN and assess its morphology and size. The choice between non-operative and surgical management depends on the risk of malignancy and on the definitive distinction between benign and malignant IPMNs. Main-duct IPMNs have a high risk of malignant degeneration, especially in older patients. The clinical and radiological features, as well as treatment and outcome, of eight patients with IPMN (five with main-duct, two with branch-duct and one with mixed-type observed by the authors over the last ten years are presented.

  17. Therapy of malignant brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellinger, K [ed.

    1987-01-01

    The tumors of the brain claim for a separate position in scientific medicine regarding biology, morphology, features of clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy. During the past years due to rapid progress in medical biotechnics the situation of the neuroclinician in front of brain tumors has been dramatically changed. The prerequisites for early and accurate diagnosis as well as for successful treatment also of malignant neoplasms have increased and remarkably improved. At the same time the information necessary for an appropriate pragmatic use of the available cognitive methods and therapeutic means increased along the same scale. These facts necessitate the preparation of publications in which the state of the art is presented in possible completeness, systematic order and proper dis-posability for rational management and therapeutic strategies. The primary aim of the present book is to serve these purposes. With 8 chapters, two of them are indexed for INIS, the collective of competent authors deal on the biology, pathology and immunology of malignant brain tumors of adults and of children including relevant basic and recent data of experimental research; further on the available methods of therapy: neurosurgery, radiology and chemotherapy, the fundamental principals of their efficacy and the differing models of single respective combined application, in comprehensive critical form. 111 figs.

  18. Therapy of malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellinger, K.

    1987-01-01

    The tumors of the brain claim for a separate position in scientific medicine regarding biology, morphology, features of clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy. During the past years due to rapid progress in medical biotechnics the situation of the neuroclinician in front of brain tumors has been dramatically changed. The prerequisites for early and accurate diagnosis as well as for successful treatment also of malignant neoplasms have increased and remarkably improved. At the same time the information necessary for an appropriate pragmatic use of the available cognitive methods and therapeutic means increased along the same scale. These facts necessitate the preparation of publications in which the state of the art is presented in possible completeness, systematic order and proper dis-posability for rational management and therapeutic strategies. The primary aim of the present book is to serve these purposes. With 8 chapters, two of them are indexed for INIS, the collective of competent authors deal on the biology, pathology and immunology of malignant brain tumors of adults and of children including relevant basic and recent data of experimental research; further on the available methods of therapy: neurosurgery, radiology and chemotherapy, the fundamental principals of their efficacy and the differing models of single respective combined application, in comprehensive critical form. 111 figs

  19. Constitutional abnormalities of IDH1 combined with secondary mutations predispose a patient with Maffucci syndrome to acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Shinsuke; Seki, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Kato, Motohiro; Hyakuna, Nobuyuki; Shuo, Takuya; Kimura, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Kenichi; Kataoka, Keisuke; Fujii, Yoichi; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Miyano, Satoru; Ogawa, Seishi; Takita, Junko; Manabe, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    Maffucci syndrome is a nonhereditary disorder caused by somatic mosaic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1 or IDH2) mutations and is characterized by multiple enchondromas along with hemangiomas. Malignant transformation of enchondromas to chondrosarcomas and secondary neoplasms, such as brain tumors or acute myeloid leukemia, are serious complications. A 15-year-old female with Maffucci syndrome developed B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). A somatic mutation in IDH1 was detected in hemangioma and leukemic cells. KRAS mutation and deletion of IKZF1 were detected in leukemic cells. Patients with Maffucci syndrome may, therefore, be at risk of BCP-ALL associated with secondary genetic events that affect lymphocyte differentiation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor or small cell carcinoma of the kidney, arare neoplasm: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, A.; Ratnakar, K.S.; Al-Durazi, M.; Khalifa, F.

    2002-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma is a malignancy primarily recognized in thebronchopulmonary region. Extrapulmonary locations are extremely uncommon. Wereport here a case of renal tumor encountered in a 34-year-old female, withextensive metastases in liver, lung and bone. Histological examination wasmost compatible with primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) small cellcarcinoma. There were negative immunohistochemical markers for cytokeratin,any hormonal peptides and epithelial membrane antigens, which is consistentwith the designation of neoplasm as PNET. Previously reported cases have allbeen in the elderly and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first caseof proven PNET of the kidney described in a young female. (author)

  1. Neoplasm mortality of urban population, living in houses with different level of natural gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, B.N.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship of cancer mortality among urban dwellers to an equation of the gamma background in dwellings was explored. The following most representative pairs of distribution were compared: all those who died of lung cancer and of stomach cancer; men and women who died of stomach cancer; men and women who died of lung cancer; men and women who died of cardiovascular diseases; all those who died of lung cancer and of cardiovascular diseases. Comparison of death rates for various kinds of malignant neoplasms in two cities of the RSFSR with different gamma backgrounds failed to show significant differences between these rates

  2. Impact of oral hygiene on the development of oropharyngeal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kiparisova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the impact of oral hygiene on the development of oropharyngeal malignancies.Subjects and methods. The data of a prospective study of dental health indicators were analyzed in 586 patients (there were 76.4 % men and 23.6 % women with oropharyngeal malignancies. In the examinees, the sites of oropharyngeal neoplasms were as follows: the tongue in 195 (33 % cases, mouth floor in 147 (25 %, oropharynx in 139 (24 %, maxilla in 36 (6 %, buccal mucosa in 21 (4 %, soft palate in 18 (3 %, retromolar area in 14 (2 %, mandibula in 12 (2 %, and nose in 4 (1 %. The patients, examination employed routine dental examinations, determination of oral hygiene index, CFE index (a sum of carious, filled, and extracted teeth, and assessment of a patient, s skill and desire to perform individual oral hygiene. The patient hygiene performance (PHP index (Podshadley, Haley, 1968 was used to estimate his/her baseline ability. The rates of initial visits made by patients with oropharyngeal tumors to physicians of different specialties were also analyzed.Results. In the patients with oropharyngeal malignancies, the CFE index was high and amounted to 15 ± 0.4 с with a preponderance of carious and extracted teeth in the pattern; the PHP index was 1.4 ± 0.1, which corresponded to a satisfactory index. Thus, among the comparison group patients, satisfactory oral cavity sanitation was noted in only 4.8 % of the patients having a sanitation certificate. Consequently, 95.2 % of the patients were unready for specialized treatment. Out of the examinees, 176 (30 % made an initial visit for complaints to a dentist, 155 (26.5 % to an oncologist, 107 (18.3 % to an ENT doctor, 103 (17.7 % to a local therapist, and 43 (7.5 % to a surgeon. The collected history data also revealed that 59.2 % of the patients had self-treatment before going to specialists (according to them. Self-treatment or treatment by a noncancer specialist was ascertained to take an average of

  3. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings.

  4. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk

    1990-01-01

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings

  5. Malignant vascular lesions of bone: radiologic and pathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, D.E. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Wold, L.E. [Dept. of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2000-11-01

    The malignant vascular tumors of bone represent an uncommon diverse group of tumors with widely variable clinical and radiographic presentations. Although the radiographic imaging features of the lytic osseous lesions typically seen with this group of tumors are relatively nonspecific, the propensity to develop multifocal disease in an anatomic region is a feature that can be helpful in suggesting the diagnosis of a vascular tumor. The differential diagnosis varies according to the age of the patient and presence of solitary or multifocal disease. The histologic features are variable and range from tumors with vasoformative features to those that mimic mesenchymal neoplasm or metastatic carcinoma. Familiarity with the radiographic and pathologic spectrum of disease is essential for making an accurate diagnosis in this diverse group of neoplasms. This paper will provide a review of the nomenclature for the malignant vascular tumors of bone and discuss the radiographic and pathologic differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. Role of imprint/exfoliative cytology in ulcerated skin neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Babu, Ravindra; Pai, Dinker; Verma, Surendra Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Imprint cytology is a method of studying cells by taking an imprint from the cut surface of a wedge biopsy specimen or from the resected margins of a surgical specimen. It is rapid, simple and fairly accurate. Exfoliative cytology is an offshoot from the imprint cytology where in cells obtained from the surface of ulcers, either by scrape or brush, are analyzed for the presence of malignant cells. We undertook this study to see the role of imprint/exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of ulcerated skin neoplasm and to check the adequacy of resected margins intra-operatively. This was a prospective investigative study conducted from September 2003 to July 2005. All patients presenting to surgical clinic with ulcerated skin and soft tissue tumours were included in the study. A wedge biopsy obtained from the ulcer and imprint smears were taken from the cut surface. Exfoliative cytology was analyzed from the surface smears. Wedge biopsy specimen was sent for histopathological (HPE) examination. The cytology and HPE were analyzed by a separate pathologist. Imprint cytology was also used to check the adequacy of resected margins in case of wide excision. This was compared with final HPE. Total of 107 patients was included in the present study and 474 imprint smears were done, with an average of 4.43 slides per lesion. Out of 59 wide excision samples, 132 imprint smears were prepared for assessing resected margins accounting for an average of 2.24 slides per each excised lesion. On combining imprint cytology with exfoliative cytology the overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were 90.38 %, 100 % and 90.38 % respectively. Only one out of 59 cases had a positive resected margin which was not picked by imprint cytology. Imprint cytology can be used for rapid and accurate diagnosis of various skin malignancies. It can also be used to check the adequacy of the resected margin intraoperatively.

  7. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  8. Solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L J; Hansen, A B; Burcharth, F

    1992-01-01

    In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well as zymoge......In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well...... as zymogenlike granules were demonstrated. Measurements of mean nuclear volume and volume-corrected mitotic index discriminated between SPN and well-differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, with notably lower values being seen in SPN. Silver-stained nucleolar organizer region counts showed wide...

  9. Giant hydronephrosis mimicking progressive malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Andres Jan; Anderer, Georgia; von Knobloch, Rolf; Heidenreich, Axel; Hofmann, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Background Cases of giant hydronephroses are rare and usually contain no more than 1–2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. We report a remarkable case of giant hydronephrosis mimicking a progressive malignant abdominal tumour. Case presentation A 78-year-old cachectic woman presented with an enormous abdominal tumour, which, according to the patient, had slowly increased in diameter. Medical history was unremarkable except for a hysterectomy >30 years before. A CT scan revealed a giant cystic tumour filling almost the entire abdominal cavity. It was analysed by two independent radiologists who suspected a tumour originating from the right kidney and additionally a cystic ovarian neoplasm. Subsequently, a diagnostic and therapeutic laparotomy was performed: the tumour presented as a cystic, 35 × 30 × 25 cm expansive structure adhesive to adjacent organs without definite signs of invasive growth. The right renal hilar vessels could finally be identified at its basis. After extirpation another tumourous structure emerged in the pelvis originating from the genital organs and was also resected. The histopathological examination revealed a >15 kg hydronephrotic right kidney, lacking hardly any residual renal cortex parenchyma. The second specimen was identified as an ovary with regressive changes and a large partially calcified cyst. There was no evidence of malignant growth. Conclusion Although both clinical symptoms and the enormous size of the tumour indicated malignant growth, it turned out to be a giant hydronephrosis. Presumably, a chronic obstruction of the distal ureter had caused this extraordinary hydronephrosis. As demonstrated in our case, an accurate diagnosis of giant hydronephrosis remains challenging due to the atrophy of the renal parenchyma associated with chronic obstruction. Therefore, any abdominal cystic mass even in the absence of other evident pathologies should include the differential diagnosis of a possible hydronephrosis. Diagnostic

  10. AIDS-related malignancies: clinico-radiological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrozzi, F.; Bova, D.; Campodonico, F.; DeChiara, F.; Marini, M.; Bassi, P.

    1995-01-01

    Our goal is to report the imaging findings of the most frequent HIV-related malignant neoplasms and outline them in relation to their atypical biological and structural behaviour. It is our opinion that a careful evaluation of clinical history and status is mandatory for the proper diagnosis and staging in such pathologies. We also review the current etiopathogenetic theories that attempt to link these two deadly pathologies. (orig./MG)

  11. Degenerated uterine leiomyomas mimicking malignant bilateral ovarian surface epithelial tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yi Boem Ha; Lee, Hae Kyung; Lee, Min Hee; Choi, Seo Youn; Chung, Soo Ho [Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine neoplasms. Undegenerated uterine leiomyomas are easily recognizable by the typical imaging findings on radiologic studies. However, degenerated fibroids can have unusual and variable appearances. The atypical appearances due to degenerative changes may cause confusion in diagnosis of leiomyomas. In this article, we report a case of a patient with extensive cystic and myxoid degeneration of uterine leiomyoma, mimicking malignant bilateral ovarian surface epithelial tumors.

  12. The neoplasms of the operated stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ositrova, L.I.; Golubovich, I.A.; Mashevskaya, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that operation and rexction in case of primary and recurrent neoplasm of operated stomach remains low. However radical operation is the only method permitting to hope for healing of shuch patients. A thorough medical examination is necessary at first 3 years following operation. Surgical treatment is accompanied by preoperational irradiation in such patients. Au 198 in 1.48 GBq is intravenously injected to some patients. 10 refs

  13. Granular cell tumor: An uncommon benign neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthankar Gayen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor is a distinctly rare neoplasm of neural sheath origin. It mainly presents as a solitary asymptomatic swelling in the oral cavity, skin, and rarely internal organs in the middle age. Histopathology is characteristic, showing polyhedral cells containing numerous fine eosinophilic granules with indistinct cell margins. We present a case of granular cell tumor on the back of a 48-year-old woman which was painful, mimicking an adnexal tumor.

  14. Current approaches to challenging scenarios in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimran, Eran; Hoffman, Ronald; Kremyanskaya, Marina

    2018-06-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis are clonal hematological malignancies that originate at the level of the hematopoietic stem cell, and are characterized by excessive proliferation of cells belonging to one or more of the myeloid lineages. Central to the pathogenesis of the MPNs is constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway due to a family of driver mutations affecting JAK2, CALR or MPL. These disorders share common clinical and laboratory features, a significant burden of systemic symptoms, increased risk of developing arterial and venous thrombotic events, and the potential to progress to myelofibrosis and acute leukemia. Areas covered: We identified four clinical situations which represent challenging management dilemmas for patients with MPNs. Our conclusions and recommendations are based on a literature search using MEDLINE and recent meeting abstracts using the keywords, focusing on publications directly addressing these scenarios and on recent contributions to the field. Expert commentary: Multi-center efforts to study large cohorts of MPN patients have led to more uniform and evidence-based approaches to key aspects in MPN management. However, treatment strategies to deal with specific clinical scenarios are lacking.

  15. Impact of Inflammation on Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Symptom Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Geyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (essential thrombocythemia, ET; polycythemia vera, PV; myelofibrosis, MF are monoclonal malignancies associated with genomic instability, dysregulated signaling pathways, and subsequent overproduction of inflammatory markers. Acknowledged for their debilitating symptom profiles, recent investigations have aimed to determine the identity of these markers, the upstream sources stimulating their development, their prevalence within the MPN population, and the role they play in symptom development. Creation of dedicated Patient Reported Outcome (PRO tools, in combination with expanded access to cytokine analysis technology, has resulted in a surge of investigations evaluating the potential associations between symptoms and inflammation. Emerging data demonstrates clear relationships between individual MPN symptoms (fatigue, abdominal complaints, microvascular symptoms, and constitutional symptoms and cytokines, particularly IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Information is also compiling on the role symptoms paradoxically play in the development of cytokines, as in the case of fatigue-driven sedentary lifestyles. In this paper, we explore the symptoms inherent to the MPN disorders and the potential role inflammation plays in their development.

  16. Neoplasm carcinoid: Description of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Luis; Abarca, Jaysoom; Penaherrera, Vicente; Legarda, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of small bowel obstruction associated with a carcinoid neoplasm of the ileum in a 78 year old man who was presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, and a mass in right lower quadrant. Carcinoids are neuroendocrine neoplasm originating in multiple locations throughout the body human. About 75% of such neoplasm are located within the gastrointestinal tract and are capable of rpoducing various peptides. Their clinical course is often indolent but can also be aggressive and resistant to therapy. The incidence of these tumours is approximately 2.5 in 100.000 people per year. The former classification system of fore gut, midgut and hind gut tumors is still used in clinical routine. Determination of the histopathology of carcinoid tumors is of utmost importance and involves specific immunohistochemical staining for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, serotonin and gastrin. New localization procedures include somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and positron emission tomography. Surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment and provides the only chance of a cure. Other cytoreductive procedures include radiofrequency ablation, laser treatment and chemo embolization. New therapies, such as ling acting somatostatin analogs, together with further development of tumor targeted treatments, will come into clinical use in the near future. (The author)

  17. MR appearance of skeletal neoplasms following cryotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.L. [Dept. of Radiology SB-05, Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Lough, L.R. [Pitts Radiological Associates, Columbia, SC (United States); Shuman, W.P. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Lazerte, G.D. [Dept. of Pathology RC-72, Washington Univ., Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Conrad, E.U. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery RK-10, Washington Univ., Medical Center of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular mode of therapy adjunctive to surgical curettage in the treatment of certain skeletal neoplasms, such as giant cell tumors or chondrosarcomas. The magnetic resonance (MR) findings following cryotherapy have not been previously reported. We reviewed the MR findings in seven patients with skeletal neoplasms following curettage and cryotherapy. In six cases we found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins, corresponding to an area of cryoinjury to medullary bone. This zone displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, consistent with the presence of marrow edema. This zone of edema almost certainly reflects underlying thermal osteonecrosis. This zone may vary in size and intensity over time as the area of cryoinjury evolves or resolves. MR is currently the imaging procedure of choice for follow-up of most musculoskeletal neoplasms. Knowledge of the MR findings following cryotherapy should help prevent confusion during the interpretation of follow-up MR examinations. (orig.)

  18. MR appearance of skeletal neoplasms following cryotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.L.; Lough, L.R.; Shuman, W.P.; Lazerte, G.D.; Conrad, E.U.

    1994-01-01

    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular mode of therapy adjunctive to surgical curettage in the treatment of certain skeletal neoplasms, such as giant cell tumors or chondrosarcomas. The magnetic resonance (MR) findings following cryotherapy have not been previously reported. We reviewed the MR findings in seven patients with skeletal neoplasms following curettage and cryotherapy. In six cases we found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins, corresponding to an area of cryoinjury to medullary bone. This zone displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, consistent with the presence of marrow edema. This zone of edema almost certainly reflects underlying thermal osteonecrosis. This zone may vary in size and intensity over time as the area of cryoinjury evolves or resolves. MR is currently the imaging procedure of choice for follow-up of most musculoskeletal neoplasms. Knowledge of the MR findings following cryotherapy should help prevent confusion during the interpretation of follow-up MR examinations. (orig.)

  19. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the tongue: A rare occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Munlima; Rahman, Tashnin; Sarma, Anupam; Krishnatreya, Manigreeva

    2014-05-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are highly aggressive neoplasms that most commonly occur in the kidneys of young children. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the tongue is an extremely rare entity and very few have been reported in the literature. The course of extra-renal MRT is short and its prognosis is very poor. A 19-year-old female presented with a progressive swelling and restricted mobility of the tongue for over 3 months duration. We present here a locally advanced case of MRT of the tongue, its diagnosis, management and review of the literature related to it.

  20. Primary malignant mesothelioma of the pericardium : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Hong; Choi, Young Hi; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Young Kwon; Han, Dong Sun; Cho, Jeong Hee; Yu, Pil Mun [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    Primary malignant mesothelioma of the pericardium is a very rare and highly lethal neoplasm. Diagnosis is a difficult problem and most of the cases reported in the literature were diagnosed at postmortem. We report a case of primary malignant mesothelioma of the pericardium in a 22 year-old man. CT and MR imaging both showed diffuse irregular pericardial thickening, soft tissue density with cystic lesion, nodular bulging into the myocardium, permeative growth of the tumor, and encasement of the hear and two great vessels.

  1. [Primary malignant schwannoma of the buccal branch of facial nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumine, M; Thiery, G; Harroudi, T; Amrani, M; El Othmany, A; Rzin, A

    2012-06-01

    Primary malignant schwannomas are rare neoplasms of nerve sheath origin, especially in the location of the head and neck where few cases are described in the literature. We report the case of a 65-year-old male diagnosed with malignant schwannoma in the left cheek. The patient underwent surgery with wide local excision, reconstruction were made later by skin graft. The treatment of choice is radical excision of the lesion with wide margins. In fact, to reduce local tumor recurrence, the use of adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy is still controversial. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Mimicking Peritoneal Carcinomatosis on F-18 FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum is a rare neoplasm with a rapidly fatal course. The tumour arises from the mesothelial cells lining the pleura and peritoneum or, rarely, in the pericardium or tunica vaginalis. This neoplasm is characterized by being difficult to diagnose, having a rapid evolution and a poor response to therapy. Mesothelioma is very glucose avid, and malignant pleural mesothelioma has been reported concerning the utility of F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT. But little has been known about the imaging finding of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma on F-18 FDG PET/CT. We report a case of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma mimicking peritoneal carcinomatosis of F-18 FDG PET/CT

  3. Primary Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Mimicking Peritoneal Carcinomatosis on F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    Malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum is a rare neoplasm with a rapidly fatal course. The tumour arises from the mesothelial cells lining the pleura and peritoneum or, rarely, in the pericardium or tunica vaginalis. This neoplasm is characterized by being difficult to diagnose, having a rapid evolution and a poor response to therapy. Mesothelioma is very glucose avid, and malignant pleural mesothelioma has been reported concerning the utility of F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT. But little has been known about the imaging finding of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma on F-18 FDG PET/CT. We report a case of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma mimicking peritoneal carcinomatosis of F-18 FDG PET/CT.

  4. Non-neoplastic cystic and cystic-like lesions of the pancreas: may mimic pancreatic cystic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Brian K P; Tan, Yu-Meng; Chung, Yaw-Fui A; Chow, Pierce K H; Ong, Hock-Soo; Lim, Dennis T H; Wong, Wai-Keong; Ooi, London L P J

    2006-05-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas consist of a broad range of pathological entities. With the exception of the pancreatic pseudocyst, these are usually caused by pancreatic cystic neoplasms. Non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic and cystic-like lesions are extremely rare. In the present article, the surgical experience with these unusual entities over a 14-year period is reported. Between 1991 and 2004, all patients who underwent surgical exploration for a cystic lesion of the pancreas were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with a pancreatic pseudocyst were excluded. There were 106 patients of whom 8 (7.5%) had a final pathological diagnosis consistent with a non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic or cystic-like lesion, including 3 patients with a benign epithelial cyst, 2 with a pancreatic abscess (one tuberculous and one foreign body), 2 with mucous retention cysts and 1 with a mucinous non-neoplastic cyst. These eight patients are the focus of this study. There were six female and two male patients with a median age of 61.5 years (range, 41-71 years). All the patients were of Asian origin including seven Chinese and one Indian. Four of the patients were asymptomatic and their pancreatic cysts were discovered incidentally on radiological imaging for other indications. All the patients underwent preoperative radiological investigations, including ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a cystic lesion of the pancreas. Three patients, all of whom were symptomatic, were diagnosed preoperatively with a malignant cystic neoplasm on the basis of radiological imaging. Two patients were eventually found to have a pancreatic abscess, one tuberculous and the other, secondary to foreign body perforation. The third patient was found on final histology to have chronic pancreatitis with retention cysts. The remaining five patients had a preoperative diagnosis of an indeterminate cyst; on pathological examination, they were found to have a benign

  5. Undifferentiated (embryonal) liver sarcoma: synchronous and metachronous occurrence with neoplasms other than mesenchymal liver hamartoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasljevic, Gorana; Lamovec, Janez; Jancar, Janez

    2011-08-01

    Undifferentiated (embryonal) liver sarcoma (UELS) is a rare tumor that typically occurs in children. The association of UELS with neoplasm other than mesenchymal liver hamartoma is exceedingly rare. The aim of the study was to report 3 cases of UELS, 2 of them being interesting because of their association with another neoplasm, vaginal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a teenage girl and B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a middle-aged woman. Besides, one of our cases of UELS, in a 58-year-old woman, is an extremely rare presentation of such a tumor in a middle-aged adult. The patient's clinical features, therapy, and pathologic results were reviewed; immunohistochemical analysis and, in 2 cases, electron microscopy were performed. In this study, all 3 patients were females aged 13, 13, and 58 years. Histopathologic evaluation of resected liver tumors confirmed the diagnosis of UELS in all of them. In 2 of the cases, metachronous occurrence of UELS with vaginal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a teenage girl and B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a middle-aged woman is described. Careful clinical analysis, histologic studies, and immunohistochemistry are mandatory to distinguish UELS from other hepatic malignancies with similar or overlapping features and to exclude the possibility of other tumors that may be considered in the differential diagnosis. The association of UELS with another neoplasm is exceedingly rare. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Epithelioid malignant mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis with deciduoid features: An unusual malignancy clinically masquerading an inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharique Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paratesticular/scrotal and inguinal canal mass lesions in elderly patients may pose a diagnostic challenge to both the surgeon as well as the pathologist. In most cases, these represent hernial sacs with their contents, and true neoplasms like lipomas, rhabdomyosarcomas, and fibrous pseudotumors are infrequent. Malignant mesotheliomas arising from the tunica layers are rare cause of inguinal and paratesticular tumors. Herein, we report a case of an elderly patient who presented with an inguinal hernia which pathologically had features of deciduoid malignant mesothelioma.

  7. Malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollock Neil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000–100,000 anesthesias. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 3,000 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs, horses, and probably other animals. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia to marked degree, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH, specifically elevation of end-expired carbon dioxide, provides the clinical diagnostic clues. In humans the syndrome is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs in autosomal recessive. The pathophysiologic changes of MH are due to uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation. Due to ATP depletion, the muscle membrane integrity is compromised leading to hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 90 mutations have been identified in the RYR-1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 25 are causal for MH. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction, on a limited basis so far, of genetic testing for susceptibility to MH. As the sensitivity of genetic testing increases, molecular genetics will be used for identifying those at risk with

  8. Hypercalcemia and high parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration associated with malignant melanoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Barrak M; Rotstein, David S; Law, Jerry M; Rosol, Thomas J; LeRoy, Bruce; Keene, Bruce W; Jackson, Mark W

    2002-07-15

    A 12-year-old Cocker Spaniel with an oral malignant melanoma was evaluated for progressive lethargy and anorexia. No metastases were identified during antemortem evaluation, but severe hypercalcemia was evident. Antemortem diagnostic testing failed to identify a cause for the hypercalcemia. No neoplasms other than the melanoma were identified on postmortem examination. Serum parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration was markedly high, and the melanoma had moderate to marked immunostaining for this protein. Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare in dogs with malignant melanoma.

  9. Optical imaging for the diagnosis of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Imaging is being conducted as a therapeutic non-invasive. Many kinds of the light source are selected for this purpose. Recently the oral cancer screening is conducted by using light-induced tissue autofluorescence examination such as several kinds of handheld devices. However, the mechanism of its action is still not clear. Therefore basic experimental research was conducted. One of auto fluorescence Imaging (AFI) device, VELscopeTM and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using ICG-labeled antibody as a probe were compared using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) mouse models. The experiments revealed that intracutaneous tumor was successfully visualized as low density image by VELscopeTM and high density image by NIR image. In addition, VELscopeTM showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity than that of NIR fluorescence imaging and the sensitivity of identification of carcinoma areas with the VELscopeTM was good results. However, further more studies were needed to enhance the screening and diagnostic uses, sensitivity and specificity for detecting malignant lesions and differentiation from premalignant or benign lesions. Therefore, additional studies were conducted using a new developed near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging method targeting podoplanine (PDPN) which consists of indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-human podoplanin antibody as a probe and IVIS imaging system or a handy realtime ICG imaging device that is overexpressed in oral malignant neoplasm to improve imaging for detection of early oral malignant neoplasm. Then evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm in xenografted mice model and compared with VELscopeTM. The results revealed that ICG fluorescence imaging method and VELscopeTM had the almost the same sensitivity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm. The current topics of optical imaging about oral malignant neoplasm were reviewed.

  10. Management and Prevention of Breast Cancer After Radiation to the Chest for Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adulthood Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Eva; Henderson, Michael A; Dwyer, Mary; Skandarajah, Anita R

    2015-12-01

    Women treated with chest irradiation for childhood, adolescent, and young adulthood (CAYA) malignancies, in particular Hodgkin's lymphoma, have an increased risk of developing second cancers of the breast (SCB). However, there are few uniform guidelines regarding surveillance and prevention for this high-risk group. A systematic search using PUBMED and OVID MEDLINE was performed. Publications listed under the terms "breast neoplasm", "neoplasm, radiation-induced", "therapeutic radiation-induced breast cancer", "screening", "surveillance", "prevention", and "prophylaxis" between January 1992 and January 2015 were assessed. A total of 138 publications were reviewed. Factors associated with increased SCB risk include young age at irradiation, prolong duration since irradiation (peak relative risk 13.87 at 15-19 years postradiation), and increased radiation dose and field. Early menopause reduces SCB risk. Annual screening mammography and breast MRI is recommended from age 25 or 8 years posttreatment for women treated with ≥20 Gy chest radiation before age 30 years. Compared with sporadic primary breast cancers (PBC), SCB more often are bilateral (6-34 %), managed with mastectomy (56-100 %), hormone receptor-negative (27-49 %), and high-grade (35 %). Women with SCB have a similar breast cancer event-free survival and breast cancer-specific survival compared to women with PBC. However, their overall survival is worse due to comorbid conditions. There is paucity of information regarding secondary prevention of SCB. Survivors of CAYA malignancy are at risk of many late effects, including iatrogenic breast cancer from chest irradiation. They are best managed in a multidisciplinary late-effects setting where tailored risk management can be provided.

  11. Differential expression and prognostic value of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Elisa; Wirtz, Ralph M.; Sayeg, Manal; Baum, Richard P.; Schulz, Stefan; Lupp, Amelie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For many tumors, the overexpression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is associated with increased malignancy and poor patient outcomes. However, comprehensive data for neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung are still lacking. Methods CXCR4 expression was evaluated in a panel of bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms (BP-NEN) comprising typical carcinoids (n = 26), atypical carcinoids (n = 30), and small cell lung cancers (SCLC, n = 34). Samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using the novel monoclonal rabbit anti-human CXCR4 antibody UMB-2 and by qRT-PCR. The expression was correlated with clinical data and overall patient survival. Results CXCR4 was predominantly localized at the plasma membrane of the tumor cells. CXCR4 was expressed with a high intensity in almost all of the 30 SCLC samples. In contrast, it was detected infrequently and with low intensity in the typical carcinoid and atypical carcinoid samples. There was a significant correlation between the immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR data. Additionally, there was a significant negative relationship between CXCR4 expression and overall survival. Conclusions With increasing malignancy, BP-NEN clearly differ in the extent of CXCR4 expression. As in other tumor entities, CXCR4 overexpression significantly correlates with negative patient outcome. Due to its particular high expression rate in SCLC, CXCR4 may serve as a promising new target for diagnostic and pharmacological intervention as well as for peptide receptor-based radionuclide therapy. PMID:25671300

  12. Is there an increased rate of additional malignancies in patients with mantle cell lymphoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barista, I; Cabanillas, F; Romaguera, J E; Khouri, I F; Yang, Y; Smith, T L; Strom, S S; Medeiros, L J; Hagemeister, F B

    2002-02-01

    To examine the frequency of additional neoplasms preceding and following the diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). A total of 156 patients with MCL treated on the hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone alternated with methotrexate and cytosine arabinoside (Hyper-CVAD/M-A) program with or without rituximab from 1994 to 2000 were the subjects of this report. These patients were followed for a median time of 26 months, and a total of 32 (21%) additional neoplasms were diagnosed, 21 preceding the diagnosis of MCL and 11 following MCL. After excluding certain types of non-invasive neoplasms, including basal cell carcinoma, meningioma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, we observed seven second malignancies after the diagnosis of MCL, and the 5-year cumulative incidence rate of second malignancy was 11%. The observed-to-expected (O/E) ratio was 7/0.07 = 100 [95% confidence interval (CI) 49.3 to 186.6; P <0.0001]. Of the 21 malignancies diagnosed prior to MCL, 16 were invasive and five non-invasive. There were a total of 10 urologic malignancies occurring before or after the diagnosis of MCL was established. Our findings suggest that there is an increased incidence of second malignancies in patients with MCL. In addition, the high number of cases with urinary tract cancer in our series may substantiate prior reports describing a possible association between lymphoma and urologic malignancies.

  13. Non-squamous cell neoplasms of the larynx: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M; Moulin, G; Kurt, A M; Dulgerov, P; Vukanovic, S; Zbären, P; Marchal, F; Rüfenacht, D A; Terrier, F

    1998-01-01

    A variety of benign and malignant non-squamous cell neoplasms may affect the larynx. Most of these uncommon laryngeal neoplasms are located beneath an intact mucosa, making diagnosis difficult with endoscopy alone, and sampling errors may occur if only traditional superficial biopsies are performed. In some laryngeal neoplasms, radiologic evaluation allows the correct diagnosis. Hemangiomas have very high signal intensity at T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and strong enhancement at both computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging after administration of contrast material. Phleboliths, which are pathognomonic for hemangiomas, are easily identified at CT. Chondrogenic tumors typically manifest with coarse or stippled calcifications at CT. Because of their high water content, chondrogenic tumors have very high signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images, whereas only moderate enhancement is observed after administration of contrast material. Lipomas typically manifest at both CT and MR imaging as homogeneous nonenhancing lesions. They are isoattenuating to subcutaneous fat at CT and isointense relative to subcutaneous fat with all MR pulse sequences. Metastases from renal adenocarcinoma typically demonstrate strong contrast enhancement and flow voids at MR imaging, and metastases from melanotic melanoma usually have high signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images and low signal intensity on T2-weighted images owing to the paramagnetic properties of melanin. Although radiologic findings are nonspecific in most other non-squamous cell neoplasms of the larynx (eg, Kaposi sarcoma, hematopoietic tumors, tumors of the minor salivary glands, metastases from amelanotic melanoma), cross-sectional imaging can play an important role in the diagnostic work-up of these unusual tumors by delineating the extent of submucosal tumor spread and directing the endoscopist to the appropriate site for the deep, transmucosal biopsies needed to establish the diagnosis. In addition, CT

  14. Differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors by high frequency molybdenum-target X-ray photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Yuanqi; Wang Maosheng; Huang Jian; Cui Guoru; Liang Zhicong; Lu Yingying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the X-ray Image of benign and malignant breast lesions (tumors) in order to improve their differcatial diagnostic level. Methods: X-ray image changes of 63 malignant breast neoplasms were described by the mammography and in comparision with those of 43 benign masses. Results: The accordance percentages between the X-ray and histological examinations for the benign and malignant neoplasms were shown as 85% and 90.6% respectively. Spiculated mass, calcification granules in clusters and other images were found to be indication of benign or malignant breast lesion. Conclusion: The High Frequency Molybdenum-target X-ray Photography can provide effective imaging data for diagnosis and distinguish between the benign and malignant breast lesions. (authors)

  15. Neoplasms in dogs receiving low-level gamma radiation during pre- and postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, R.W.; Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.; Phemister, R.D.; Benjamin, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Beagle dogs were given whole-body exposure to 60 Co gamma radiation at one of six ages of pre- or postnatal life. Four-hundred and eighty dogs, 120 for each age at exposure, received 20 R at 8, 28 or 55 days postcoitus (dpc) or at 2 days postpartum (dpp). Similarity 480 dogs, in groups of 120, were exposed to 100 R at these same ages. Exposures of 100 R were also given to 118 dogs at 70 dpp and 231 dogs at 365 dpp. An additional 359 dogs were sham-irradiated. Mean values for each age at exposure ranged from 15.6 to 17.5 rads for 20 R exposures and from 80.8 to 88.3 rads for exposure to 100 R. Mortality due to neoplasia during the initial ten years of the experiment was examined. Twenty dogs died or were killed because of neoplasia, 19 having been irradiated. Tumours in these 19 irradiated dogs included five malignant lymphomas, eight carcinomas (two of mammary origin, two of prostatic origin, and one each of oral mucosa, ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid origin), four sarcomas (two haemangiosarcomas, one fibrosarcoma and one mast cell sarcoma), one astrocytoma, and one hepatocellular adenoma. Neoplasms occurred in all irradiated groups except 8 dpc (20 and 100 R) and 70 dpp (100 R). Eleven neoplasms developed in dogs irradiated perinatally (55 dpc or 2 dpp) with 20 or 100 R. Four of the tumours in the perinatally irradiated dogs were detected before two years of age. The earliest death was at three months, due to an astrocytoma. Preliminary analyses point to findings of particular interest: (1) the preponderance of neoplasms causing death or euthanasia occurred in irradiated dogs; (2) the unusual finding of four deaths due to neoplasia before two years of age in perinatally irradiated dogs; and (3) the occurrence of five malignant lymphomas in this relatively small irradiated population

  16. The Utilization of Imaging Features in the Management of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Palmucci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs represent a group of cystic pancreatic neoplasms with large range of clinical behaviours, ranging from low-grade dysplasia or borderline lesions to invasive carcinomas. They can be grouped into lesions originating from the main pancreatic duct, main duct IPMNs (MD-IPMNs, and lesions which arise from secondary branches of parenchyma, denominated branch-duct IPMNs (BD-IPMNs. Management of these cystic lesions is essentially based on clinical and radiological features. The latter have been very well described in the last fifteen years, with many studies published in literature showing the main radiological features of IPMNs. Currently, the goal of imaging modalities is to identify “high-risk stigmata” or “worrisome feature” in the evaluation of pancreatic cysts. Marked dilatation of the main duct (>1 cm, large size (3–5 cm, and intramural nodules have been associated with increased risk of degeneration. BD-IPMNs could be observed as microcystic or macrocystic in appearance, with or without communication with main duct. Their imaging features are frequently overlapped with cystic neoplasms. The risk of progression for secondary IPMNs is lower, and subsequently an imaging based follow-up is very often proposed for these lesions.

  17. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynt, Kelsey A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.; Strouse, Peter J.; Davenport, Matthew S.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Else, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  18. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynt, Kelsey A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Davenport, Matthew S.; Caoili, Elaine M. [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Else, Tobias [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  19. Malignant lymphoma in african lions (panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, T M; McKnight, C A; Sikarskie, J G; Kitchell, B E; Garner, M M; Raymond, J T; Fitzgerald, S D; Valli, V E; Agnew, D; Kiupel, M

    2010-09-01

    Malignant lymphoma has become an increasingly recognized problem in African lions (Panthera leo). Eleven African lions (9 male and 2 female) with clinical signs and gross and microscopic lesions of malignant lymphoma were evaluated in this study. All animals were older adults, ranging in age from 14 to 19 years. Immunohistochemically, 10 of the 11 lions had T-cell lymphomas (CD3(+), CD79a(-)), and 1 lion was diagnosed with a B-cell lymphoma (CD3(-), CD79a(+)). The spleen appeared to be the primary site of neoplastic growth in all T-cell lymphomas, with involvement of the liver (6/11) and regional lymph nodes (5/11) also commonly observed. The B-cell lymphoma affected the peripheral lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. According to the current veterinary and human World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic neoplasms, T-cell lymphoma subtypes included peripheral T-cell lymphoma (4/11), precursor (acute) T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (2/11), chronic T-cell lymphocytic lymphoma/leukemia (3/11), and T-zone lymphoma (1/11). The single B-cell lymphoma subtype was consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) testing by immunohistochemistry on sections of malignant lymphoma was negative for all 11 lions. One lion was seropositive for FeLV. In contrast to domestic and exotic cats, in which B-cell lymphomas are more common than T-cell lymphomas, African lions in this study had malignant lymphomas that were primarily of T-cell origin. Neither FeLV nor FIV, important causes of malignant lymphoma in domestic cats, seems to be significant in the pathogenesis of malignant lymphoma in African lions.

  20. Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm Involving the Endometrium and Presenting with Mucinous Vaginal Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavinskaya, Vera; Baumgartner, Joel M; Ko, Albert; Saenz, Cheryl C; Valasek, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Primary appendiceal mucinous lesions are uncommon and represent a spectrum from nonneoplastic mucous retention cysts to invasive adenocarcinoma. Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) represent an intermediate category on this spectrum and can be classified according to whether or not they are confined to the appendix. Although LAMNs are frequently confined to the appendix, they can also spread to the peritoneum and clinically progress as pseudomyxoma peritonei (i.e., mucinous ascites). Thus, the appropriate classification of appendiceal primary neoplasia is essential for prognosis and influences clinical management. In addition, the precise classification, management, and clinical outcome of patients with disseminated peritoneal disease remain controversial. Here, we report an unusual case of LAMN with pseudomyxoma peritonei that initially presented with mucinous and bloody vaginal discharge. Pathological evaluation revealed low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm with secondary involvement of the peritoneum, ovaries, and endometrial surface. Therefore, LAMN should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mucinous vaginal discharge.

  1. Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm Involving the Endometrium and Presenting with Mucinous Vaginal Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vavinskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary appendiceal mucinous lesions are uncommon and represent a spectrum from nonneoplastic mucous retention cysts to invasive adenocarcinoma. Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs represent an intermediate category on this spectrum and can be classified according to whether or not they are confined to the appendix. Although LAMNs are frequently confined to the appendix, they can also spread to the peritoneum and clinically progress as pseudomyxoma peritonei (i.e., mucinous ascites. Thus, the appropriate classification of appendiceal primary neoplasia is essential for prognosis and influences clinical management. In addition, the precise classification, management, and clinical outcome of patients with disseminated peritoneal disease remain controversial. Here, we report an unusual case of LAMN with pseudomyxoma peritonei that initially presented with mucinous and bloody vaginal discharge. Pathological evaluation revealed low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm with secondary involvement of the peritoneum, ovaries, and endometrial surface. Therefore, LAMN should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mucinous vaginal discharge.

  2. Metastases in cranean of differential neoplasm tyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Chapuis, D.; Garrido Vazquez, P.; Vallverdu Carbajal, M.

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of matastases are presented in cranial calota of differentiated neoplasm of tyroids, one of them without other distance lesions ,in which the cranial tumours was the element that it take was to the diagnose. For the local control the surgical resection of the metastasis is recommended in calota, associated to external radiotherapy , while that the total thyroidectomy allows the detection and treatment of other metastasis with Iodine. In this situation the prediction it is unfavourable, with a half survive of 4,5 year(AU) [es

  3. Treatment of hepatic neoplasm through extrahepatic collaterals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, C.S.; Chuang, V.P.; Wallace, S.; Charnsangavej, C.; Carrasco, H.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-nine patients with hepatic artery occlusion were treated with additional hepatic infusion or embolization through extrahepatic collaterals. Seventeen courses of hepatic infusion were performed in 13 patients through the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, left gastric artery, or right gastric artery. Twenty-five hepatic embolization procedures were performed in 16 patients through the right and left phrenic arteries, left and right gastric arteries, pancreaticoduodenal artery, gastroduodenal artery, or omentoepiploic artery. In one patient gastric ulcers developed following left gastric artery infusion. No complication related to the embolization procedure was observed in the embolization group. The extrahepatic collaterals are important alternative routes for continuous transcatheter management of hepatic neoplasms following hepatic artery occlusion.

  4. Treatment of hepatic neoplasm through extrahepatic collaterals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, C.S.; Chuang, V.P.; Wallace, S.; Charnsangavej, C.; Carrasco, H.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with hepatic artery occlusion were treated with additional hepatic infusion or embolization through extrahepatic collaterals. Seventeen courses of hepatic infusion were performed in 13 patients through the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, left gastric artery, or right gastric artery. Twenty-five hepatic embolization procedures were performed in 16 patients through the right and left phrenic arteries, left and right gastric arteries, pancreaticoduodenal artery, gastroduodenal artery, or omentoepiploic artery. In one patient gastric ulcers developed following left gastric artery infusion. No complication related to the embolization procedure was observed in the embolization group. The extrahepatic collaterals are important alternative routes for continuous transcatheter management of hepatic neoplasms following hepatic artery occlusion

  5. A case series of clinically undiagnosed hematopoietic neoplasms discovered at autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podduturi, Varsha; Guileyardo, Joseph M; Soto, Luis R; Krause, John R

    2015-06-01

    In the United States, autopsy rates have diminished to less than 5% during the last half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century for a multitude of reasons. Many believe this results in unrecognized malignancies that could have explained a patient's death. We describe six deaths in which hematopoietic neoplasms were identified at autopsy but were not diagnosed clinically. The six undiagnosed hematopoietic malignancy cases discovered at autopsy include four men and two women ranging from 50 to 78 years of age. One patient was African American and five patients were white, all with multiple comorbidities. The tumors included diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, activated B-cell type, intravascular large B-cell lymphoma, ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma arising in a setting of human immunodeficiency virus, and a myeloid sarcoma. These cases illustrate the importance of the traditional postmortem examination in not only confirming clinical diagnoses but also identifying previously unknown diagnoses. Hematologic malignancies may present with nonspecific clinical manifestations, and this series of cases also emphasizes the necessity for widening the differential diagnosis in patients with unexplained lactic acidosis and hepatic failure to include hematopoietic malignancies since prompt treatment may be lifesaving. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  6. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: Correlation of helical CT features with pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu; Lin Xiaozhu; Upadhyaya, Manavendra; Song Qi; Chen Kemin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT features of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs), and to compare with pathological findings in order to identify CT features that can be helpful in differentiating benign IPMNs from malignant IPMNs. Materials and methods: The CT findings in 25 patients were reviewed for tumor location, tumor type, dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), MPD involvement, mural node or solid attenuating component, tumor size in branch duct or mixed duct type, dilatation of common bile duct (CBD) and invasion of surrounding structures. The data was subjected to Chi-Square Tests or Fisher's Exact Test using SPSS13.0 software with p value < 0.05 indicating significant statistical difference. Results: Presence of mural node or solid enhancing component, size of mural node or solid enhancing component ≥7 mm, dilatation of CBD was more common in malignant IPMNs (p < 0.05). None of tumor location, tumor type, dilatation of MPD, MPD involvement, tumor size, and invasion of surrounding structures was statistically significant in differentiating benign from malignant IPMNs. Conclusions: CT features suggestive of malignant or invasive IPMNs include presence of mural node or solid enhancing component, size of mural node or solid enhancing component ≥7 mm, and dilatation of CBD.

  7. Four types of neoplasms in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and observe four types of neoplasms on different parts (external and internal organs of an Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer. Methods: The sample was collected from local fish landing center (south east coast of India. Histopathology of normal and tumour tissues were analyzed. Results: A total of 83 tumour masses (neoplasm were recorded on the fish skin, also the neoplasms were recorded in internal organs of fish such as liver, stomach and ovary. Conclusions: Aetiology of such neoplasm’s are unknown, further more researches need to confirm the causative agent for this type of neoplasm.

  8. Unusual cystic pancreatic neoplasms -image-pathological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilendarov, A.; Simova, E.; Petrova, A.; Traikova, N.; Deenichin, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim is to present the variety of signs and symptoms from the diagnostic imaging methods of atypical neoplasms of the pancreas, presented as a type of cystic lesions. This often leads to unnecessary surgery or inappropriate tracking. In 115 patients (85 men and 30 women) with cystic lesions of the pancreas ultrasonic (US),computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed and verified through histological and macroscopic pathology preparations. The ultrasound machines equipped with linear and convex transducers, MDCT and MRI imaging systems were used. In 14 of 115 patients atypical neoplasms of the pancreas were diagnosed: two cases with macroscopic serous cystic neoplasms, two nonmucinous cystic neoplasms, two hemorrhagic mucinous neoplasms, two ductal adenocarcinomas with cystic changes, one islet cell cystic tumor, two lymphoepithetial cysts, one lymphangioma, one solid papillary epithelial neoplasm and one mucinous adenocarcinoma. The authors take into consideration and overlapping of clinical symptoms and laboratory tests. Although much of the imaging features and morphological characteristics of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are well known, should be known about the atypical unusual images in so-called 'typical' cystic neoplasms, cystic images in solid neoplasms and various atypical tumors with cystic lesions. (authors)

  9. Management of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas: a comparison with standard pancreatic neoplasms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, S. M. M.; Singhal, D.; Aronson, D. C.; Busch, O. R. C.; van Gulik, T. M.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) of the pancreas are increasingly diagnosed, but the exact surgical management in terms of extent of the resection is not well defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients operated on in our hospital between January 1993 and March 2005 formed the study

  10. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of secondary tumors involving the pancreas: An institution′s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed K Alomari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pancreatic masses may seldom represent a metastasis or secondary involvement by lymphoproliferative disorders. Recognition of this uncommon occurrence may help render an accurate diagnosis and avoid diagnostic pitfalls during endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA. In this study, we review our experience in diagnosing secondary tumors involving the pancreas. Materials and Methods: The electronic database of cytopathology archives was searched for cases of secondary tumors involving the pancreas at our institution and a total of 31 cases were identified. The corresponding clinical presentations, imaging study findings, cytological diagnoses, the results of ancillary studies, and surgical follow-up, if available, were reviewed. Results: Nineteen of the patients were male and 12 female, with a mean age of 66 years. Twenty-three patients (74% had a prior history of malignancy, with the latency ranging from 6 months to 19 years. The secondary tumors involving the pancreas included metastatic carcinoma (24 cases, metastatic sarcoma (3 cases, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (2 cases, and plasma cell neoplasm (2 cases. The most common metastatic tumors were renal cell carcinoma (8 cases and lung carcinoma (7 cases. Correct diagnoses were rendered in 29 cases (94%. The remaining two cases were misclassified as primary pancreatic carcinoma. In both cases, the patients had no known history of malignancy, and no ancillary studies were performed. Conclusions: Secondary tumors involving the pancreas can be accurately diagnosed by EUS-FNA. Recognizing uncommon cytomorphologic features, knowing prior history of malignancy, and performing ancillary studies are the keys to improve diagnostic performance and avoid diagnostic pitfalls.

  11. The JAK2V617F and CALR exon 9 mutations are shared immunogenic neoantigens in hematological malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrom, Morten Orebo; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 90% of patients with the hematological malignancies termed the chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms harbor either the JAK2V617F-mutation or CALR exon 9 mutation. Both of these are recognized by T-cells, which make the mutations ideal targets for cancer immune therapy as they are sha......Approximately 90% of patients with the hematological malignancies termed the chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms harbor either the JAK2V617F-mutation or CALR exon 9 mutation. Both of these are recognized by T-cells, which make the mutations ideal targets for cancer immune therapy...

  12. Peptichemio in pretreated patients with plasmacell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, A; Salvagno, L; Chiarion-Sileni, V; Bolzonella, S; De Besi, P; Frizzarin, M; Pappagallo, G L; Fosser, V P; Fornasiero, A; Segati, R

    1986-09-01

    Twenty-one patients with alkylator-resistant plasmacell neoplasms were treated with Peptichemio (PTC) at a dose of 40 mg/m2 for 3 days every 3 weeks or, in the case of persistent leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia, at the single dose of 70 mg/m2 every 2-3 weeks according to haematological recovery. Seventeen patients, 10 with multiple myeloma and seven with extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP), were fully evaluable. Six of 17 patients (35%) responded: three of seven EMP patients had a complete remission and 3 of 10 multiple myeloma patients had an objective response greater than 50%. The median duration of response was 8.5 months. An EMP patient obtained a complete response lasting for 16 months. The most frequent toxic effect were phlebosclerosis, occurring in all the patients, and myelosuppression, which was severe in only one case. PTC appears to be an active drug in patients with plasmacell neoplasms even if resistant to alkylating agents.

  13. Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; Neuroendokrine Neoplasien des Pankreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiderwellen, K.; Lauenstein, T.C. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Sabet, A.; Poeppel, T.D. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Lahner, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Endokrinologie und Stoffwechselerkrankungen, Essen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) account for 1-2 % of all pancreatic neoplasms and represent a rare differential diagnosis. While some pancreatic NEN are hormonally active and exhibit endocrine activity associated with characteristic symptoms, the majority are hormonally inactive. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) or as combined PET/CT play a crucial role in the initial diagnosis, therapy planning and control. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and multiphase CT represent the reference methods for localization of the primary pancreatic tumor. Particularly in the evaluation of small liver lesions MRI is the method of choice. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and somatostatin receptor PET/CT are of particular value for whole body staging and special aspects of further therapy planning. (orig.) [German] Neuroendokrine Neoplasien (NEN) des Pankreas stellen mit einem Anteil von 1-2 % aller pankreatischen Tumoren eine seltene Differenzialdiagnose dar. Ein Teil der Tumoren ist hormonell aktiv und faellt klinisch durch charakteristische Symptome auf, wohingegen der ueberwiegende Anteil hormonell inaktiv ist. Bildgebende Verfahren wie Sonographie, Computertomographie (CT), Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und nicht zuletzt Positronenemissionstomographie (PET oder kombiniert als PET/CT) spielen eine zentrale Rolle fuer Erstdiagnose, Therapieplanung und -kontrolle. Die Endosonographie und die multiphasische CT stellen die Referenzmethoden zur Lokalisation des Primaertumors dar. Fuer die Differenzierung insbesondere kleiner Leberlaesionen bietet die MRT die hoechste Aussagekraft. Fuer das Ganzkoerperstaging und bestimmte Aspekte der Therapieplanung lassen sich die Somatostatinrezeptorszintigraphie und v. a. die Somatostatinrezeptor-PET/CT heranziehen. (orig.)

  14. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  15. Radiotherapy of malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawska, J [Instytut Onkologii, Krakow (Poland)

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses current views on the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with malignant lymphomas. Principles of radiotherapy employed in the Institute of Oncology in Cracow in case of patients with malignant lymphomas are also presented.

  16. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Much of this research focuses on finding ways to prevent and treat the disorder. Show More Show Less Search Disorders SEARCH SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is ...

  17. Actinomycosis mimicking abdominal neoplasm. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, P; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    1988-01-01

    In a patient with a 6-month history of nonspecific abdominal complaints, preoperative examination indicated malignant disease involving the right ovary, rectum and sigmoid, but laparotomy revealed abdominal actinomycosis. Removal of the ovary and low anterior colonic resection followed by penicil......In a patient with a 6-month history of nonspecific abdominal complaints, preoperative examination indicated malignant disease involving the right ovary, rectum and sigmoid, but laparotomy revealed abdominal actinomycosis. Removal of the ovary and low anterior colonic resection followed...... by penicillin treatment gave a good result....

  18. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells form cancerous tumors. When there is only one tumor, the disease is called a plasmacytoma. When there are multiple tumors, it is called multiple myeloma. Start here to find information on plasma cell neoplasms treatment, research, and statistics.

  19. [Closed needle-biopsy in the diagnosis of neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, M; Perelli Ercolini, M; Beani, G

    1979-04-01

    The AA. demonstrate with this communication the validity of the needle biopsie for the diagnosis of neoplasms. They had used it for the breast, thyroid, flg and some other superficial tumefactions. In the mass-screening for the feminine neoplasms the clinical examination and the needle biopsy are very good method for a careful diagnosis.

  20. Characteristic radionuclide appearance of certain pediatric central nervous system neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The results of 5 years experience in the localization of brain neoplasms in children are summarized. The radiopharmaceutical of choice was /sup 99m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate administered in a dosage of 100μ Ci/lb. The appearance of the most common neoplasms of the central nervous system in childhood is characterized. (U.S.)

  1. A Case of Primary Subglottic Malignant Melanoma with a Successful Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary subglottic malignant melanoma is a very rare and underdiagnosed neoplasm. We are reporting a case of primary malignant melanoma of subglottic mucosa in a 78-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with shortness of breath and hoarseness of voice. Laryngoscopy and excisional biopsy along with immunoreactivity to S-100 and human melanoma black-45 (HMB-45 confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was treated with laryngectomy followed by radiotherapy. Five years following surgical treatment, she continues to be asymptomatic. To our knowledge, there is only one reported case of primary malignant melanoma of subglottic mucosa in the medical literatures.

  2. Oral malignant melanoma: A case report of an unusual clinical and histologic presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Iqbal Belgaumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a potentially aggressive tumor of melanocytic origin. Primary oral malignant melanoma is a rare neoplasm, accounting for 0.5% of all oral malignancies. The present case occurred in a 60-year-old female patient, as a pedunculated growth involving the palate and alveolar ridge and histologically showing a desmoplastic differentiation. The article discusses the distinct clinico-pathologic presentation of this case and emphasizes on the need to identify and report such cases for further understanding of their biologic behavior.

  3. Combination of cyst fluid CEA and CA 125 is an accurate diagnostic tool for differentiating mucinous cystic neoplasms from intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashio, Yoshikuni; Hijioka, Susumu; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hara, Kazuo; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Bhatia, Vikram; Niwa, Yasumasa; Tajika, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Hosoda, Waki; Yatabe, Yasushi; Yamao, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in imaging techniques, diagnosis and management of pancreatic cystic lesions still remains challenging. The objective of this study was to determine the utility of cyst fluid analysis (CEA, CA 19-9, CA 125, amylase, and cytology) in categorizing pancreatic cystic lesions, and in differentiating malignant from benign cystic lesions. A retrospective analysis of 68 patients with histologically and clinically confirmed cystic lesions was performed. Cyst fluid was obtained by surgical resection (n = 45) or endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) (n = 23). Cyst fluid tumor markers and amylase were measured and compared between the cyst types. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the tumor markers demonstrated that cyst fluid CEA provided the greatest area under ROC curve (AUC) (0.884) for differentiating mucinous versus non-mucinous cystic lesions. When a CEA cutoff value was set at 67.3 ng/ml, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing mucinous cysts were 89.2%, 77.8%, and 84.4%, respectively. The combination of cyst fluid CEA content >67.3 ng/ml and cyst fluid CA 125 content >10.0 U/ml segregated 77.8% (14/18) of mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) from other cyst subtypes. On the other hand, no fluid marker was useful for differentiating malignant versus benign cystic lesions. Although cytology (accuracy 83.3%) more accurately diagnosed malignant cysts than CEA (accuracy 65.6%), it lacked sensitivity (35.3%). Our results demonstrate that cyst fluid CEA can be a helpful marker in differentiating mucinous from non-mucinous, but not malignant from benign cystic lesions. A combined CEA and CA 125 approach may help segregate MCNs from IPMNs. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensitization of malignant lymphomas by irradiation and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoppe, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    In malignant lymphomas the alternating combination of chemo- and radiotherapy is well established in far advanced stages or with risk factors. The well known combinations of cytostatic drugs used in malignant lymphomas contain radiosensitizing substances. The side effects of combined modality treatments can be separated into early complications and delayed toxicity. In Hodgkin lymphomas the appearance of acute non-lymphocytic leukemias and solid neoplasms is a well known long term complication. Further trials are going on to reduce such severe side effects by eliminating carcinogenic cytostatics. In non-Hodgkin lymphomas long term remissions are rare in high malignant subtypes. Improved remission rates and long term survival are the present goals. The German Hodgkin Study Group could demonstrate in their HD 1 protocol that radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy did not show higher early side effects if the cytostatic regimen is intensified using 7 instead of 3 drugs. (orig.) [de

  5. The war and its influence on the malignant tumors’ incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Blažičević

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available We have observed the incidence of malignant tumours among 254 patients of Osijek University Hospital in the pre-war period (1990-92 and 255 patients after the war (June 1992-93. After the war there has been a significant decrease of well differentiated malignant tumors incidence: 84 cases (33,07% before the war, 30 cases (11,76% after the war, however, there has been a significantly increased incidence of anaplastic tumours: 9 cases (3,54% before the war, 21 cases (8,24% after the war. There has been statistically significant increase of stomach, ovaries and testis malignant neoplasm incidence in the observed period (2=76,559, p<0,0001.

  6. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Munde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant melanoma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that originates from the proliferation of melanocytes. Although, it comprises 1.3% of all cancers, malignant melanoma of the oral cavity accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas and occurs approximately 4 times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate or alveolar gingivae. Most of the mucosal melanomas are usually asymptomatic in early stages, and presents as pigmented patch or a mass delaying the diagnosis until symptoms of swelling, ulceration, bleeding, or loosening of teeth are noted. The prognosis is extremely poor, especially in advanced stages. Therefore, any pigmented lesion of undetermined origin should always be biopsied. We herewith report of two cases of oral malignant melanoma in a 60 and 75-year-old female.

  7. Musculoskeletal Imaging Findings of Hematologic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Shannon M; Matcuk, George R; Patel, Dakshesh B; Skalski, Matthew; White, Eric A; Tomasian, Anderanik; Schein, Aaron J

    2017-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies comprise a set of prevalent yet clinically diverse diseases that can affect every organ system. Because blood components originate in bone marrow, it is no surprise that bone marrow is a common location for both primary and metastatic hematologic neoplasms. Findings of hematologic malignancy can be seen with most imaging modalities including radiography, computed tomography (CT), technetium 99m ( 99m Tc) methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scanning, fluorine 18 ( 18 F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Because of the diversity of imaging appearances and clinical behavior of this spectrum of disease, diagnosis can be challenging, and profound understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic changes and current treatment modalities can be daunting. The appearance of normal bone marrow at MR imaging and FDG PET/CT is also varied due to dynamic compositional changes with normal aging and in response to hematologic demand or treatment, which can lead to false-positive interpretation of imaging studies. In this article, the authors review the normal maturation and imaging appearance of bone marrow. Focusing on lymphoma, leukemia, and multiple myeloma, they present the spectrum of imaging findings of hematologic malignancy affecting the musculoskeletal system and the current imaging tools available to the radiologist. They discuss the imaging findings of posttreatment bone marrow and review commonly used staging systems and consensus recommendations for appropriate imaging for staging, management, and assessment of clinical remission. © RSNA, 2017.

  8. Actinomycosis mimicking abdominal neoplasm. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, P; Dziegiel, M

    1988-01-01

    In a patient with a 6-month history of nonspecific abdominal complaints, preoperative examination indicated malignant disease involving the right ovary, rectum and sigmoid, but laparotomy revealed abdominal actinomycosis. Removal of the ovary and low anterior colonic resection followed by penicil...

  9. Zosteriform cutaneous leiomyoma: a rare cutaneous neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, A.U.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leiomyomas are firm, round to oval, skin-coloured to brownish papules and nodules that may present as a solitary, few discrete or multiple clustered lesions. Different uncommon patterns of multiple leiomyoma distribution have been noted as bilateral, symmetrical, linear, zosteriform, or dermatomal-like arrangement. One such rare presentation was seen in a 23-year-old patient who presented with zosteriform skin coloured, occasionally painful cutaneous lesions over left shoulder region. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma. He was symptomatically managed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and topical capcicum cream. Case is reported here due to rare occurrence of this benign cutaneous neoplasm in an atypical pattern and on uncommon site. (author)

  10. Radioisotope diagnostics of neoplasms in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Sinyuta, B.T.; Borisyuk, T.B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of radioisotope studies of 111 children with neoplasms of locomotor system, retroperitoneal space, maxillofacial region and neck, the limits and possibilities of the method of positive radiodiagnostics with short-life radionuclides sup(99M)Tc pertechnetate and 99 Tc pyrophosphate have been analyzed. It is pointed out that sensitivity of the investigation method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate is higher (91.6%) than that of the method with 99 Tc pertechnetate (84.5%). Specificity of the investigation method with 99 Tc p.ertechnetate is higher (71.5%) than that of the method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate (30%). The method of positive radiodiagnostics is characterized by safety, atraumatism, low radiation burdens and possibility of its realization in ambulatory conditions

  11. Rectal neoplasms. Postoperative follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galano Urgelles, Rolando; Rodriguez Fernandez, Zenen; Casaus Prieto, Arbelio

    1997-01-01

    A study of 31 patients operated on for rectal neoplasms between September, 1989 and September, 1995 in SantiAug de Cuba was performed. Patients Webre followed-up during this period for the purpose of the study. There was a frank predominance of males and ages between 45 and 64, of the stage II and the groups BI and BII according to Dukes' classification. Most patients received 5-fluoracil, without tumor relapses. The current survival rate of the series was 76 % at the end of the investigation. It is recommended that all patients operated on for this segment be followed-up after the operation; to continue with cytostatic treatment using 5-fluoracil, and to emphasize the importance of the use of tumor markers during the follow-up, in addition to transrectal ultrasound, as well as to make an early diagnosis through mass screening methods

  12. Prognostic factors in childhood intracranial neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampil, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-six cases of primary intracranial neoplasm in children (over 1 year but under 13 years of age) seen at the university medical center between 1951 and 1982 were reviewed because of concern as to the results and after-effects of applied therapy. The overall 5-year actuarial survival rate was 17 %. Several factors of possible prognostic relevance, such as patient's age, intracranial location of the tumor, application or nonapplication of therapy, single or multiple modes of therapy, and extent of surgery, were analyzed. Completeness of surgical removal of the tumor proved to be the only statistically significant factor that correlated with survival. There was only one recorded case of severe learning disability and abnormal neuropsychologic development among the 12 living patients. The influence of patient's age (and technical factors) at the time of irradiation in correlation with the child's subsequent posttreatment functional performance, as reported in the literature, is reviewed. (author)

  13. Malignant disease and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Graham; Seymour, Robin A

    2009-11-01

    Reports of an ageing population, increasing incidence of malignancy and improved treatments mean that dentists may have an increasing number of patients with, or who have recovered from, a malignancy. Dental professionals are expected to have an understanding of this important disease group so that appropriate dental care can be provided safely. In this first of three articles, we shall describe the important epidemiological and clinical features of the commonest malignancies in the United Kingdom. Dentists should understand the clinical implications of a patient with, or recovering from, a malignancy. This article gives a summary of the relevant features of the commonest malignancies.

  14. Percutaneous thermal ablation of renal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacke, J.; Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Due to modern examination techniques such as multidetector computed tomography and high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the detection rate of renal neoplasms is continually increasing. Even though tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter rarely metastasize, all renal lesions that are possible neoplasms should be treated. Traditional treatment techniques include radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing resection, which are increasingly performed laparoscopically. Modern thermal ablation techniques such as hyperthermal techniques like radiofrequency ablation RFA, laser induced thermal ablation LITT, focused ultrasound FUS and microwave therapy MW, as well as hypothermal techniques (cryotherapy) may be a useful treatment option for patients who are unfit for or refuse surgical resection. Cryotherapy is the oldest and best known thermal ablation technique and can be performed laparoscopically or percutaneously. Since subzero temperatures have no antistyptic effect, additional maneuvers must be performed to control bleeding. Percutaneous cryotherapy of renal tumors is a new and interesting method, but experience with it is still limited. Radiofrequency ablation is the most frequently used method. Modern probe design allows volumes between 2 and 5 cm in diameter to be ablated. Due to hyperthermal tract ablation, the procedure is deemed to be safe and has a low complication rate. Although there are no randomized comparative studies to open resection, the preliminary results for renal RFA are promising and show RFA to be superior to other thermal ablation techniques. Clinical success rates are over 90% for both, cryo- and radiofrequency ablation. Whereas laser induced thermal therapy is established in hepatic ablation, experience is minimal with respect to renal application. For lesions of more than 2 cm in diameter, additional cooling catheters are required. MR thermometry offers temperature control during ablation. Microwave ablation is characterized by small ablation volumes

  15. Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasms--a clinicopathologic study of 13 new cases emphasizing the importance of their recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel D; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Bisceglia, Michele; Havlat, Marek; McCallum, Dugald; Platten, Michael A

    2011-04-01

    Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasms (OANs) are a rare but important subtype of adrenal tumors with unique clinical and morphological features. We present 13 previously unpublished cases, of which 3 were classified as benign, 2 as having borderline malignant potential, and 8 as malignant according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria. Seven tumors (54%) showed evidence of endocrine activity. All were composed of more than 90% oncocytes confirmed immunohistochemically using the antimitochondrial antibody mES-13 and ultrastructurally in 4 cases. Small oncocytes were a frequent finding that challenges the conventional notion of oncocytes as necessarily having abundant cytoplasm. Most cases were immunoreactive for vimentin, synaptophysin, inhibin-α, melan A, and calretinin, the latter being a novel finding in this group of neoplasms. Cytokeratin positivity with AE1/AE3 and CAM5.2 was variable. The literature was comprehensively reviewed to identify all cases of OANs reported to date. Hormone production is not as uncommon as previously believed, occurring in 30%. The Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria were retrospectively applied to all published cases with sufficient information and were shown to effectively separate tumors according to their future risk of recurrence and survival using Kaplan-Meier survival curves (log-rank test, P interval = 27.5-88.5 months), providing the first preliminary evidence that the prognosis of malignant OANs is likely to be more favorable than conventional adrenocortical carcinomas, in which the reported median survival is between 14 and 32 months. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Malignant tumors arising in the maxillary region after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Sawamichi; Shirahata, Yuichi; Uchida, Yutaka

    1984-01-01

    Although radiotherapy has proven of great therapeutic value in the treatment of malignant tumors, it should also be borne in mind that radiation has a serious potential risk of giving rise to a secondary malignancy. We recently experienced 2 cases each of carcinoma and sarcoma arising in the irradiated areas long after radiation therapy for malignant tumors. In these 4 cases, 2 males and 2 females, the primary neoplastic diseases were squamous cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, carcinoma of unknown pathology and malignant lymphoma, and the secondary tumors were epidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, respectively. The sites of occurrence of these malignancies were invariably in the maxillary region; the mean latent period was 15 years, aside from an infantile case with a latent period of 5 years. In view of the primary diseases being malignant tumors the following criteria were set up for the diagnosis of radiation-induced malignancies: (1) the site of occurrence is within the confines of a previously irradiated area, (2) the latent period is prolonged and (3) the malignancy occurs as a double tumor. Therapy was primarily by operation. The prognosis was exceedingly ominous, the average survival time being 22 months. This was probably and mainly because of rapidity of tumor growth. Thus, the secondary tumors had already spread back to inward by the time they were first discovered. This should be kept in mind during a long-term follow-up of patients receiving radiotherapy for malignancy. (author)

  17. Late cutaneous metastases to the face from malignant pleural mesothelioma: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Julia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant Mesothelioma is a rare primary neoplasm affecting the serosal membranes. During its relative short course, this malignant neoplasm can give local and, rarely, distant haematogenous metastases in different organs. The reported metastatic sites include liver, lung, heart, brain, thyroid, adrenals, kidneys, pancreas, bone, soft tissue, skin and lymph nodes. Case Presentation We report a sixty one year-old man with a history of malignant pleural epithelioid mesothelioma treated with six cycles of Pemetrexed and Carboplatin completed 03/11/04 followed by radiotherapy to the drain site 250 Kv/TD20Gy/5F completed 13/12/2004. Then he developed multiple facial skin lesions 4 years later. These lesions were proved to be metastatic malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Conclusion Mesothelioma metastases should be suspected in any known Mesothelioma patient with newly developed skin lesion.

  18. Ewing's Sarcoma as a Second Malignancy in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Fabian; Grotzer, Michael A; Niggli, Felix; Zimmermann, Dieter; Rushing, Elisabeth; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Modern multimodal treatment has significantly increased survival for patients affected by hematologic malignancies, especially in childhood. Following remission, however, the risk of developing a further malignancy is an important issue. The long-term estimated risk of developing a sarcoma as a secondary malignancy is increased severalfold in comparison to the general population. Ewing's sarcoma family encompasses a group of highly aggressive, undifferentiated, intra- and extraosseous, mesenchymal tumors, caused by several types of translocations usually involving the EWSR1 gene. Translocation associated sarcomas, such as Ewing sarcoma, are only rarely encountered as therapy associated secondary tumors. We describe the clinical course and management of three patients from a single institution with Ewing's sarcoma that followed successfully treated lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The literature on secondary Ewing's sarcoma is summarized and possible pathogenic mechanisms are critically discussed.

  19. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Aslaner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH or undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma is a type of malignt neoplasm that arises from any soft tissue and bone involving extremities, abdomen and retroperitoneum. MFH of the external oblique abdominis muscle is rare. Surgical resection of the mass is the treatment of choice depending on the stage of the disease and the invasion depth of the tumor. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy are the other treatment methods. We present a case of a 71-year old man with the diagnosis of MFH on external oblique muscle which was completely resected. We believe that adjuvant chemoradiotherapy following surgical resection of the tumor was the most appropriate treatment for this disease.

  20. Diagnosis of mediastinal neoplasms using mediastinoscopy and CT-guided needle biopsy supported by gene analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Wataru; Sawai, Satoru; Ishida, Hisao; Hanawa, Takeshi; Matsubara, Yoshito; Ikeda, Sadao; Kinoshita, Moritoshi; Ikei, Nobuhiro.

    1993-01-01

    Of 140 cases of mediastinal neoplasms in our hospital, histological diagnosis was confirmed in 129 cases. We examined the methods of preoperative biopsy with those 129 cases. Biopsy had been performed in 25 cases. Mediastinoscopy was performed in seven cases, needle biopsy in eight cases, lymph node biopsy in eight cases, esophageal biopsy using a gastrofiberscope in one case, transbronchial biopsy using a bronchoscope in one case. The true positive rates of those methods were 100% for both mediastinoscopy and lymph node biopsy, and 75% for needle biopsy. Preoperative misdiagnosis occurred in two cases of needle biopsy. The postoperative histological diagnosis was malignant lymphoma in both cases. We performed gene analysis of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene, light chain κ and λ genes, and the T-cell receptor β gene by use of biopsied specimens, and we found rearrangement bands of these genes in the cases of malignant lymphoma. Therefore, we summarize that gene analysis is a reliable method if malignant lymphoma is suspected. If a needle biopsy is performed under CT guidance, the needle is sure to puncture the tumor. We concluded, therefore, that if a tumor is located in the anterior mediastinum, CT-guided needle biopsy should be performed first of all. Mediastinoscopy is a useful method if the tumor is located in the mid-mediastinum. (author)

  1. Two Metachronous Neoplasms in the Radiotherapy Fields of a Young Man With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A. Williams BS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is recognized that various radiation-induced malignancies often follow childhood radiotherapy. Radiation-induced neoplasms have been shown to occur with increased frequency in syndromes due to mutated tumor suppressor genes. There exist no recommendations for the management of cancer patients with germline APC gene mutations. Preclinical data suggest that APC gene mutations cause enhanced radiosensitivity, but no clinical observations exist that show that patients with this mutation are at higher risk for radiation-induced malignancies. Results: We report the case of a 32-year-old man with a genetic diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP who initially presented at age 10 with a medulloblastoma treated with radiotherapy and surgery. Radiation-induced papillary thyroid carcinoma followed 13 years later. Finally, radiation-induced soft tissue osteosarcoma occurred with widespread metastasis 20 years thereafter. Conclusions: This is the first report of 2 malignancies in the prior radiotherapy fields of a patient with a genetic diagnosis of FAP. More important, this suggests that APC-defective cells are at an enhanced sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of radiotherapy compared with APC-proficient cells. This could argue for genetic screening in affected members of these families and for creation of treatment recommendations to more seriously consider the risks of radiation therapy.

  2. Efficient adenovector CD40 ligand immunotherapy of canine malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Euler, Henrik; Sadeghi, Arian; Carlsson, Björn; Rivera, Patricio; Loskog, Angelica; Segall, Thomas; Korsgren, Olle; Tötterman, Thomas H

    2008-05-01

    Cutaneous canine melanomas are usually benign in contrast to human malignant melanoma. However, the canine oropharyngeal, uveal, and mucocutaneous neoplasms are aggressive and have metastatic potential. Surgery and to a lesser extent radiotherapy and chemotherapy are widely adopted treatments but are seldom curative in advanced stages. The similarities between human and canine melanoma make spontaneous canine melanoma an excellent disease model for exploring novel therapies. Herein, we report the first 2 adenovector CD40L immunogene (AdCD40L) treatments of aggressive canine malignant melanoma. Case no. 1 was an advanced stage III oral melanoma that was cured from malignant melanoma with 2 intratumor AdCD40L injections before cytoreductive surgery. After treatment, the tumor tissue was infiltrated with T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes suggesting immune activation. This dog survived 401 days after the first round of gene therapy and was free of melanoma at autopsy. Case no. 2 had a conjunctival malignant melanoma with a rapid progression. This case was treated with 6 AdCD40L injections over 60 days. One hundred and twenty days after start of gene therapy and 60 days after the last injection, the tumor had regressed dramatically, and the dog had a minimal tumor mass and no signs of progression or metastasis. Our results indicate that AdCD40L immunogene therapy is beneficial in canine malignant melanoma and could be considered for human malignant melanoma as well.

  3. Neoplasms in persons treated with x-rays in infancy: fourth survey in 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempelmann, L.H.; Hall, W.J.; Phillips, M.; Cooper, R.A.; Ames, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    The incidence of neoplastic disease was determined by a mail survey of 2,872 young adults given x-ray treatments in infancy and of their 5,005 nonirradiated siblings. Newly diagnosed benign and malignant neoplasms appeared more frequently in the irradiated subjects than in their siblings or the age- and sex-matched general population of upstate New York. Only thyroid neoplasms occurred in sufficient numbers to permit statistical analysis for the effects on incidence of sex, age, and dose, and of being in a high-risk group (sub-group C). Thyroid cancers developed earlier in life than did benign neoplasms, especially in boys; benign goiters occurred after smaller doses, predominantly in females. Females had a greater risk of developing thyroid cancer than males--2.3 times for females of all ages and 5 times for young adults. Except for young adult females, there was no definite age effect. The risk of cancer (but not of benign goiter) was proportional to the thyroid dose, with a linear risk coefficient of 2.5/year/million people exposed to 1 rad for the entire irradiated population and 4.0 for subgroup C. The high risk of thyroid cancer in subgroup C may be the result of the high percentage of Jews, who had a 3.4-fold greater risk than non-Jews. Young adult Jewish females had a 17-fold increased risk. An incidental observation was an apparent increased incidence of asthma and rare diseases with abnormal immunologic features in the irradiated population. (auth)

  4. Malignant transformation in chronic osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lino Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Carcinomatous degeneration is a rare and late complication developing decades after the diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis. OBJECTIVES: To present the results from a retrospective study of six cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic osteomyelitis. METHODS: Six cases of chronic osteomyelitis related to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The cause and characteristics of the osteomyelitis were analyzed, as well as time up to malignancy, the suspicion signs for malignancy, the localization and histological type of the cancer, and the type and result of the treatment. RESULTS: The mean time between osteomyelitis onset and the diagnosis of malignant degeneration was 49.17 years (range: 32-65. The carcinoma resulted from tibia osteomyelitis in five cases and from femur osteomyelitis in one. The pathological examination indicated cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in all cases. All the patients were staged as N0M0, except for one, whose lomboaortic lymph nodes were affected. The treatment consisted of amputation proximal to the tumor in all patients. No patient presented signs of local recurrence and only one had carcinoma metastasis. CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and proximal amputation are essential for prognosis and final results in carcinomatous degeneration secondary to chronic osteomyelitis.

  5. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in a fixed population of A-bomb survivors, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Midori; Yokoyama, Naokata; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Takagi, Miwako; Kitano, Koei; Toyama, Kyoko; Fujikura, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    In a fixed population (7,564 A-bomb survivors) for Adult Health Study performed until December 1985, 28 A-bomb survivors (5 men and 23 women) were diagnosed as having thyroid cancer, and 79 (including one man) as breast cancer. There was an evident tendency among the group receiving 100 rad or more towards higher incidence of cancers of the thyroid and breast and synchronous or metachronous multiple primaries. The incidence of thyroid cancer tended to be higher in A-bomb survivors less than 20 years of age at the time of exposure; however, this tendency was not seen in the case of breast cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer - in contrast to breast cancer - tended to decrease from year to year. Multiple primaries were associated with thyroid cancer in 5 A-bomb survivors and breast cancer in 9 A-bomb survivors. Three A-bomb survivors had both thyroid and breast cancers. Among the 11 A-bomb survivors with multiple primaries, nine had received 100 rad or more. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Incidence of malignant neoplasm in single nodules of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kligerman, J.; Braz, J.M.; Cabas Neto, J. (Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1982-12-01

    Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultrasound results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients.

  7. New trends in the use of biological response modifiers for treatment of malignant neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, Sherif Y.

    2002-01-01

    Biological response modifiers are critical controllers of cell division and hence tissue, growth, migration development and differentiation. The family of biological response modifiers includes interferons, tumor necrosis factor, interleukins, colony stimulating factors and hematopoietic growth factors as well as tumor vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. Biological response modifiers have important roles in cancer development and progression, control of cell replication and apoptosis and modulation of immune reactions such as sensitization. This article reviews the biology, pharmacology and clinical application of biological response modifiers in oncology. The antitumor activity of biological response modifiers may be augmented immune response including activation of natural killer lymphocytes and enhanced expression of cell surface antigens (MHC I and II). Combination of biological therapy with chemotherapy improves the response of those tumors refractory to conventional therapies. Colony stimulating factors are used for manipulating immune system to fight against cancer and to prevent chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Recent advances in tumor immunology, most notably the identification of genes encoding for cancer regression antigens, have paved the way for the development of a variety of novel and specific vaccines and monoclonal antibody approaches. These approaches are discussed from a therapeutic perspective. (author)

  8. Wants of information of out-patients undergoing irradiation for malignant neoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieger, M.M.

    1981-05-01

    In the course of final check-up, after a series of irradiations, the remarks of 80 patients have been recorded. The want of information was expressed by 74%. Stage I-II patients were primarily interested in the results of medical examination and hoped for cure, whereas depressive reactions and anxiousness were found more frequently in stage III-IV, but the intention not to abandon hope and the desire for detailed information were also existent. Prognosis, anxiousness and fear of death are discussed, in general, not earlier than after several meetings, the question of the prognosis particularly being important to patients under 50. Special characteristics of the correlation physician-patient in the case of radiation treatment are interpreted considering the role adopted by the patient and his response to cancerous desease.

  9. Therapeutic effect of 60Co teletherapy and radium treatment to various malignant neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Yong; Park, Sang Sook; Chung, Jin Woo

    1970-01-01

    In radiation therapy, a complete study of patients on the indication of radiotherapy, delicate consideration during the radiotherapy, adequate after-care, the follow-up study and reconsideration are necessary. The radiotherapy patients are quite different in treatment and care. It takes, time to evaluate. Sometimes the misjudgement of patients last several years. However, the great endurance and efforts are vital necessity for the radiotherapy evaluation and improvement of radiotherapy techniques. At the Radiological Research Institute, all the radiotherapy patients from November 23, 1963 to December 31, 1968 were observed, and among them, those who survived three years after radiotherapy were analyzed in order to report the difficulty in follow-up study and to help formulate a better method of radiotherapy. All the follow-up study was done by questionnaire form. We have sent 8,470 letters, and received 2,084 Positive answers (24.6%) and the returned and no-reply were 6,386 (75.4%). As a sample case, 121 patients, who reside in Chongro-ku Seoul, were selected for home-visiting by our staffs. 67 patients (48.6%) could be located easily where as 71 patients (51.4%) could not be located. The results of follow-up correspondences were analyzed and categorized by the international classification of disease. Three-years survivors and the surviving rate are listed

  10. Risk of malignant neoplasms in workers of the Czechoslovak uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vich, Z.; Dienstbier, Z.

    1991-01-01

    A historical account is presented of the findings which made it possible to define the most serious occupational disease in uranium miners - bronchogenic carcinoma. In 1952 - 61, 44 cases of lung cancer were reported related to radioactive substances, in 1962 - 85 as much as 1511 patients were recompensed. In a prospective epidemiologic survey covering 4803 workers who for reasons of prevention left their risk-involving workplaces in 1968 - 75, it was found that 20.5% had died by 1985. The rate of mortality from lung tumors was in this case 3.5 times higher than in the male population of the Czech Republic. Occupational risk indicators of importance for the prevention of this occupational disease are discussed. From the medical point of view the reduction of uranium mining is welcome, as the work involves a high risk. 11 refs

  11. The wants of information of out-patients undergoing irradiation for malignant neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    In the course of final check-up, after a series of irradiations, the remarks of 80 patients have been recorded. The want of information was expressed by 74%. Stage I-II patients were primarly interested in the results of medical examination and hoped for cure, whereas depressive reactions and anxiousness were found more frequently in stage III-IV, but the intention not to abandon hope and the desire for detailed information were also existent. Prognosis, anxiousness and fear of death are discussed, in general, not earlier than after several meetings, the question of the prognosis particularly being important to patients under 50. Special characteristics of the correlation physician-patient in the case of radiation treatment are interpreted considering the role adopted by the patient and his response to cancerous desease. (orig.) [de

  12. Breast neoplasms in women treated with x-rays for acute postpartum mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Kowaluk, E.; Mansur, P.S.; Pasternack, B.S.; Albert, R.E.; Haughie, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Breast cancer has been studied by mail survey up to 34 years in 571 of 606 women treated with x-rays for acute postpartum mastitis. The incidence of neoplasms was compared with that of three nonirradiated control groups--nonirradiated sisters of the treated women, women with acute postpartum mastitis not treated with X-rays, and their nonirradiated sisters. For the irradiated group, with a mean dose of 247 rads to both breasts, the overall relative risk of breast cancer was 2.2 for years 10 to 34 post irradiation and 3.6 for 20 to 34. The dose response for malignant and benign breast neoplasms was compatible with a linear fit. For comparable total doses, fractionation of exposure did not reduce carcinogenic action. Women over age 30 years at radiation treatment had as great an excess risk of breast cancer as did younger women. The overall excess risk of developing breast cancer was about 8 to 10 cases per million women per rad per year, an increase of about 0.5% per rad

  13. Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas: Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of nine cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Yilmaz Ozguven

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPPN of the pancreas is a distinctive tumor of low malignant potential with a predilection for female patients in the second and third decades of life. We studied nine cases of SPPN of the pancreas and reviewed the literature concerning these uncommon tumors. Materials and Methods: A total of 7 cases of SPPN located in the tail of the pancreas and two located in the head of the pancreas were presented. Distal pancreatectomy in three patients and distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy in two patients Whipple′s operation in four patients were performed. Histological diagnosis was made by performing hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining, immunohistochemical staining. Follow-up of the patients was between 2 months and 12 years. Results: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were found as equivocal for diagnosis. Mass containing cystic and solid areas were not characteristic but raised suspicion of SPPN. Pathologic examination showed SPPN in all patients. No metastasis or recurrence was detected during follow-up. Conclusions: Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm is a relatively rare tumor, and patients tend to survive for a long period. Preoperative imaging is not characteristic. Pathologic examination is the mainstay in the diagnosis. Complete surgical removal is the best choice of treatment.

  14. Computed tomographic brain scanning in the diagnosis of metastatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringelstein, E.B.; Zeumer, H.; Hacke, W.; Keulers, P.

    1981-01-01

    Clinical investigations and computed brain scanning were done in 305 patients with primary extracerebral malignant tumours. One third of the patients had cerebral metastases. In most patients with brain metastases extracerebral secondary tumours were known already. Silent brain metastases were present in only 0.6% of all investigated tumour patients. All other patients had either objective neurologic-psychiatric defects or at least symptoms (headache, vomiting). Use of cranial computed tomography in all tumour patients as a pure screening method is thus not justified. The indication for the investigation is dependent on the clinical symptomatology. However, not only objective neurologic-psychiatric defects must be taken into account, but also occurrence of new symptoms. (orig.) [de

  15. Group G streptococcal myositis in a patient with myeloproliferative neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Midha, MD MBS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While many cases of streptococcal infection are due to Lancefield groups A and B, there has been a rise in reported cases of infections due to group G streptococcus. We present a case of an individual with a hematologic malignancy who developed myositis secondary to group G streptococcus, with no clearly identifiable source of infection. The patient was managed with antibiotic therapy rather than surgical intervention due to high surgical risk related to severe thrombocytopenia. Targeted antibiotics initiated early in the course of disease may prevent the need for surgical intervention. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to avoid the high morbidity and mortality of life-threatening infections caused by group G streptococcus.

  16. Colorectal neuroendocrine neoplasms - management guidelines (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyńska, Teresa; Londzin-Olesik, Magdalena; Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Blicharz-Dorniak, Jolanta; Bolanowski, Marek; Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Borowska, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Andrzej; Ćwikła, Jarosław B; Deptała, Andrzej; Falconi, Massimo; Foltyn, Wanda; Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Jarząb, Barbara; Junik, Roman; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Agnieszka; Kowalska, Aldona; Król, Robert; Królicki, Leszek; Kunikowska, Jolanta; Kuśnierz, Katarzyna; Lampe, Paweł; Lange, Dariusz; Lewczuk-Myślicka, Anna; Lewiński, Andrzej; Lipiński, Michał; Marek, Bogdan; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa; Pilch-Kowalczyk, Joanna; Remiszewski, Piotr; Rosiek, Violetta; Ruchała, Marek; Siemińska, Lucyna; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Steinhof-Radwańska, Katarzyna; Strzelczyk, Janusz; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Syrenicz, Anhelli; Szawłowski, Andrzej; Szczepkowski, Marek; Wachuła, Ewa; Zajęcki, Wojciech; Zemczak, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech; Kos-Kudła, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms/tumours (NENs/NETs) of the large intestine are detected increasingly often, especially rectal tumours, which is probably associated with the widespread use of screening colonoscopy. There is a growing body of evidence supporting the thesis that the NENs of the rectum and the NENs of the colon are two different diseases. Rectal NENs are usually small lesions, of low to moderate histological malignancy, associated with good prognosis, and most may be treated endoscopically. NENs of the colon, however, are often aggressive, poorly differentiated, associated with a poor or uncer-tain prognosis, and require surgical treatment. The management guidelines regarding these groups of patients are constantly changing. On the basis of the recent literature data and conclusions reached by the working meeting of the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours (December 2016), this study completes and updates the data and management guidelines regarding colorectal NENs published in Endokrynologia Polska 2013; 64: 358-368.

  17. Impact of Reclassification on Thyroid Nodules with Architectural Atypia: From Non-Invasive Encapsulated Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas to Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji Jeon

    Full Text Available The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC, especially the encapsulated non-invasive subtype, is a controversial entity. Recent study suggested using 'non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP' for these indolent carcinomas. We evaluated the impact of reclassification from non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (EFVPTCs to NIFTPs in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia.We reviewed 1301 thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in core needle biopsy (CNB specimens obtained from March 2012 to February 2013. Nodules were classified into atypia of undetermined significance with architectural atypia (AUS-A, 984, 76% or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN, 317, 24%. Among them, diagnostic surgery was performed in 384 nodules (30%.In total, 160 nodules (42% presented final malignant diagnoses including 39 non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (10%. The malignancy rate was estimated to be 7-35% in AUS-A nodules and 28-49% in FN/SFN nodules. After reclassification, the malignancy rate was much decreased and estimated to be 5-24% in AUS-A nodules, and 23-39% in FN/SFN nodules. Thyroid nodules with final malignant diagnoses were significantly more likely to have a FN/SFN CNB diagnosis, malignant US features and concomitant nuclear atypia in CNB specimens. However, these factors could not differentiate NIFTPs from other malignancies.After reclassification of non-invasive EFVPTCs to NIFTPs, the malignancy rate of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in CNB specimens was decreased. However, there were no preoperative factors differentiating other malignancies from NIFTPs. The presence of malignant US features or concomitant nuclear atypia might help clinicians deciding diagnostic surgery but, these features also might indicate NIFTPs.

  18. Biphasic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Masquerading as a Primary Skeletal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Benjamin Gleason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor, usually presenting as a pleural-based mass in a patient with history of chronic asbestos exposure. We herein report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and had a chest computed tomography (CT scan suggestive of a primary skeletal tumor originating from the ribs (chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma, with no history of asbestos exposure. CT-guided core needle biopsies were diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Surgical resection and chest wall reconstruction were performed, confirming the diagnosis and revealing a secondary histologic component (epithelioid, supporting the diagnosis of biphasic malignant mesothelioma.

  19. Eponyms in cardiothoracic radiology: Part I. Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Saettele, Megan R; Saettele, Timothy; Patel, Vikas; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms serve the purpose of honoring individuals who have made important observations and discoveries. As with other fields of medicine, eponyms are frequently encountered in radiology, particularly in chest radiology. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in medical literature. Furthermore, in some circumstances, more than one individual may have contributed to the description or discovery of a particular anatomical structure or disease, whereas in others, an eponym may have been incorrectly applied initially and propagated for years in medical literature. Nevertheless, radiologic eponyms are a means of honoring those who have made lasting contributions to the field of radiology, and familiarity with these eponyms is critical for proper reporting and accurate communication. In addition, the acquisition of some historical knowledge about those whose names are associated with various structures or pathologic conditions conveys a sense of humanity in the field of medicine. In this article, the first of a multipart series, the authors discuss a number of chest radiology eponyms as they relate to neoplasms, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographic information of the respective eponym׳s namesake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2012-04-01

    We have previously defined a new syndrome "Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms" in which choriocarcinoma or persistent hydatidiform mole has a minimal growth rate and becomes chemorefractory. Previously we described a new treatment protocol, waiting for hCG rise to >3000 mIU/ml and disease becomes more advanced, then using combination chemotherapy. Initially we found this treatment successful in 8 of 8 cases, here we find this protocol appropriate in a further 16 cases. Initially we used hyperglycosylated hCG, a limited availability test, to identify this syndrome. Here we propose also using hCG doubling rate to detect this syndrome. Minimally aggressive gestational trophoblastic disease can be detected by chemotherapy resistance or low hyperglycosylated hCG, disease by hyperglycosylated hCG and by hCG doubling test. All were recommended to hold off further chemotherapy until hCG >3000mIU/ml. One case died prior to the start of the study, one case withdrew because of a lung nodule and one withdrew refusing the suggested combination chemotherapy. The remaining 16 women were all successfully treated. A total of 8 plus 16 or 24 of 24 women were successfully treated using the proposed protocol, holding back on chemotherapy until hCG >3000mIU/ml. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Malignant Melanoma - from Classical Histology towards Molecular Genetic Testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryška, A; Horký, O; Berkovcová, J; Tichá, I; Kalinová, M; Matějčková, M; Bóday, Á; Drábek, J; Martínek, P; Šimová, J; Sieglová, K; Vošmiková, H

    Malignant melanoma is - in comparison with other skin tumors - a relatively rare malignant neoplasm with highly aggressive biologic behavior and variable prognosis. Recent data in pathology and molecular diagnostics indicate that malignant melanoma is in fact not a single entity but a group of different neoplasms with variable etiopathogenesis, biologic behavior and prognosis. New therapeutic options using targeted treatment blocking MAPK signaling pathway require testing of BRAF gene mutation status. This helps to select patients with highest probability of benefit from this treatment. This article summarizes information on the correlation of morphological findings with genetic changes, discusses the representation of individual genetic types in various morphological subgroups and deals with the newly proposed genetic classification of melanoma and the current possibilities, pitfalls and challenges in BRAF testing of malignant melanoma. It also describes the current testing situation in the Czech Republic - the methods used, the representation of BRAF mutations in the tested population and the future of testing. It also shows the limitations of the BRAF and MEK targeted treatment concept resulting from the heterogeneity of the tumor population. Mechanisms of acquired resistance to MAPK pathway inhibitors, possibilities of their detection, and issues of combination of targeted therapy and immunotherapy are discussed.Key words: malignant melanoma - BRAF - mutation - molecular targeted therapy - tumor microenvironment - tumor heterogeneity This work was supported by projects PROGRES Q40/11, BBMRICZ LM2015089, SVV 260398 and GACR 17-10331S. The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 28. 3. 2017Accepted: 16. 5. 2017.

  2. INTRACRANIAL NEOPLASMS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA B.J. OLASODE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-01-01

    Jan 1, 2000 ... Results: Two hundred and ten intracronial neoplasms comprising 172 ... accounted for the largest group of tumours followed by metastases to the brain. ..... Percentage .... astrocytomas may be attributed to the increasing use.

  3. Inheritance of the chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Ajenthen; Penninga, E; Jelsig, Am

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review investigated the inheritance of the classical chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Sixty-one articles were included and provided 135...

  4. An Extra-adrenal Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Malignant Hypertension-A Report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar U, Mahesh; Pande, Pankaj; Savita, SS; PK, Ashwin; Yelikar, Balasaheb Ramling

    2013-01-01

    Malignant hypertension is a complication of hypertension characterized by elevated blood pressure (200mm/140mm Hg), is considered a medical emergency and is rarely secondary to paraganglioma. Malignant hypertension is unique in its relationship to a catecholamine secreting paraganglioma. We present two rare cases of malignant hypertension associated with paraganglioma of tonsil and urinary bladder.

  5. Preoperation diagnosis of stomach neoplasm metases in the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.E.; Zholnerovich, E.M.; Zelenkevich, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that application of ultrasonography and computerized tomography in examining the upper part of abdomen in patients with stomach neoplasm permits to judge on metastases into the liver. Application of invasive methods of examination is indicated only in case of indefinite data of ultrasonography and computerized tomography. It is shown that application of invasive methods isn't advisable in patients with stomach neoplasm to which palliative operations are indicated. 4 refs

  6. Respiratory muscle strength of patients with esophagus and stomach neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Aline Boscolo Ruivo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In cancer patients, the reduced food intake causes weight loss and promotes protein-calorie malnutrition. This results in loss of lean body mass, which affects both skeletal muscles and respiratory muscles. Objective: Evaluate and compare the respiratory muscle strength of patients with esophageal and stomach neoplasia during the preoperative period. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out with 24 patients of both genders hospitalized in a teaching hospital. They underwent a physical therapy evaluation composed of anthropometric data and measurement of respiratory muscle strength through manovacuometry. Paired and unpaired t-tests were used to compare the values obtained with the predicted equations. Results: Regarding the disease prevalence, 66.66%(16 of the individuals had stomach neoplasm and 33.33%(8 esophageal neoplasm. Of the patients with esophageal neoplasm, 100% were men with a mean age of 63 ± 9.16 years. Of those with stomach neoplasm, 68.75% were men with a mean age of 69.36 ± 10.92 years. Female patients with stomach neoplasm had significantly higher BMI (p = 0.01 than male patients, and they were classified as overweight. Both neoplasms had significantly lower real values (p ≤ 0.05 than predicted values at the maximal expiratory pressure. Conclusion: Patients with esophageal and stomach neoplasms in the preoperative period present reduction in the expiratory muscle strength. There were no statistically significant differences, when we compared the maximum respiratory pressures between the two types of neoplasms investigated.

  7. Squamous neoplasms arising within tattoos: clinical presentation, histopathology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, A L; Wanat, K A; Farah, R S

    2017-08-01

    Tattooing, which involves the placement of ink into the skin, is an ancient decorative technique that has remained popular in modern society. Tattoos have long been known to cause cutaneous reactions, which include the emergence of neoplasms such as keratoacanthoma (KA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in tattooed areas of the skin. We review the clinical presentations, histology and treatment options for squamous neoplasms, primarily KA and SCC, arising in tattoos. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Inferior phrenic artery embolization in the treatment of hepatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprat, G.; Charnsangavej, C.; Wallace, S.; Carrasco, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-nine inferior phrenic artery embolizations were performed in 20 patients with primary or metastatic hepatic neoplasms. All patients had interruption of their hepatic arteries by previous infusion of chemotherapy, hepatic arterial embolization or surgical ligation. In one patient, bilateral pleural effusions developed following embolization of the inferior phrenic artery. No other severe complications occurred. Inferior phrenic artery embolization is a safe procedure and permits the continuation of transcatheter treatment of hepatic neoplasms. (orig.)

  9. Inferior phrenic artery embolization in the treatment of hepatic neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprat, G.; Charnsangavej, C.; Wallace, S.; Carrasco, C.H.

    Twenty-nine inferior phrenic artery embolizations were performed in 20 patients with primary or metastatic hepatic neoplasms. All patients had interruption of their hepatic arteries by previous infusion of chemotherapy, hepatic arterial embolization or surgical ligation. In one patient, bilateral pleural effusions developed following embolization of the inferior phrenic artery. No other severe complications occurred. Inferior phrenic artery embolization is a safe procedure and permits the continuation of transcatheter treatment of hepatic neoplasms.

  10. Cholestatic jaundice by malignant lesions: pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Anna, Tatiana Kelly Brasileiro de; Santana, Alex Menezes; Rizzuto, Mauricio Soares; Chagas, Alessandro Rosa Rodrigues; Zuppani, Aguinaldo Cunha; Rezende, Marcelo Bruno; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo

    2009-01-01

    Malignant obstructive jaundice is most commonly caused by cancer of pancreatic head, papilla tumor, cholangiocarcinoma and biliary obstruction induced by secondary lesions of the liver or lymph nodes. Patients usually present with weight loss, abdominal pain, jaundice and progressive increase of direct bilirubin, being essential the evaluation by imaging methods for the proper diagnosis, staging and therapeutic planning. This essay illustrates the imaging aspects of ultrasound and computed tomography - and in specific situations magnetic resonance cholangiography - of the major malignancies that lead to cholestatic jaundice. (author)

  11. Diagnosis and treatment in cystic neoplasms of the pancreas: Analysis of 12 cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Karateke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas (CNPaccounts for only 1-5% of all pancreatic neoplasms but inrecent years approximately 30% of all pancreatic resectionsare performed for CNP. In this study we aimed toargue diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of the patientswhom operated in our clinic for CNP.Materials and methods: The demographic characteristics,preoperative findings, surgical procedures, histopathologicaldiagnosis, postoperative complications andlong term follow-up outcomes of the CNP patients operatedin our clinic between 2009 -Jan and 2012-Feb wereevaluated.Results: One patient was male,11 patients were femaleand mean age was 51,5 years (19-73 years.Localizationsof the lesions were in the head of pancreas for 4 patients,in the body for 2 patients and in tail for 6 patients.Mean size of the cysts was 5.1 cm (3-10 cm.Pylorus-reservedpancreaticoduodenectomy for 4 patients, subtotal/distal pancreatectomy + splenectomy for 7 patients andspleen reserved distal pancreatectomy was performedfor 1 patient. Histopathological diagnosis was reportedas serous cystadenoma in 6, mucinous cystadenoma in3, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in 2 and pseudocystin 1 patient respectively. Postoperative complication ratewas 33%. Mean follow-up time was 18.4 months (2-38months.Conclusions: Management should be based upon oncarefully weighting the malignant potential of a pancreaticcystic lesions and the risk of surgery.Key words: Pancreas, cystic neoplasm, resection

  12. Molecular genetics of pancreatic neoplasms and their morphologic correlates: an update on recent advances and potential diagnostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Michelle D; Saka, Burcu; Balci, Serdar; Goldblum, Andrew S; Adsay, N Volkan

    2014-02-01

    To summarize the most clinically and biologically relevant advances in molecular/genetic characteristics of various pancreatic neoplasms, with morphologic correlation. Whole-exome sequencing of numerous benign and malignant pancreatic tumors, along with the plethora of highly sensitive molecular studies now available for analyzing these tumors, provide mounting evidence to support the long-held belief that cancer is essentially a genetic disease. These genetic discoveries have not only helped to confirm the age-old, morphology-based classifications of pancreatic neoplasia but have shed new light on their mechanisms. Many of these molecular discoveries are currently being used in preoperative diagnosis. Mutations in KRAS, P16/CDKN2A, TP53, and SMAD4/DPC4 are commonly seen in ductal neoplasia but not in nonductal tumors; ductal adenocarcinomas with SMAD4/DPC4 loss are associated with widespread metastasis and poor prognosis. GNAS and RNF43 mutations have been discovered in most intraductal pancreatic mucinous neoplasms, providing critical molecular fingerprints for their diagnosis. Mutation in DAXX/ATRX is only seen in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, making it a useful potential marker in distinguishing these tumors from mimics. When combined with morphologic observations, molecular studies will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis and morphomolecular signatures associated with specific neoplasms and provide new horizons for precision medicine and targeted therapies.

  13. Origin of B-Cell Neoplasms in Autoimmune Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Hemminki

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs are associated with a number of B-cell neoplasms but the associations are selective in regard to the type of neoplasm and the conferred risks are variable. So far no mechanistic bases for these differential associations have been demonstrated. We speculate that developmental origin of B-cells might propose a mechanistic rationale for their carcinogenic response to autoimmune stimuli and tested the hypothesis on our previous studies on the risks of B-cell neoplasms after any of 33 ADs. We found that predominantly germinal center (GC-derived B-cells showed multiple associations with ADs: diffuse large B cell lymphoma associated with 15 ADs, follicular lymphoma with 7 ADs and Hodgkin lymphoma with 11 ADs. Notably, these neoplasms shared significant associations with 5 ADs (immune thrombocytopenic purpura, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosis. By contrast, primarily non-GC neoplasms, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and myeloma associated with 2 ADs only and mantle cell lymphoma with 1 AD. None of the neoplasms shared associated ADs. These data may suggest that autoimmune stimulation critically interferes with the rapid cell division, somatic hypermutation, class switch recombination and immunological selection of maturing B-cell in the GC and delivers damage contributing to transformation.

  14. CT characteristics of primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yufeng; Wang Jichen; Peng Yun; Zeng Jinjin

    2010-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms are uncommon in children. Retroperitoneal neoplasms are either mesodermal, neurogenic, germ cell ectodermal or lymphatic in origin. In general, primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children have different spectrum and prevalence compared to those in adults. Neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, benign teratoma and lymphoma are the common retroperitoneal neoplasms. In this review, the clinical and CT futures of common retroperitoneal neoplasms in children are described. Coarse, amorphous, and mottled calcification are very common in neuroblastoma. Paraganglioma tends to show marked and early enhancement and may present with clinical symptoms associated with the excess catecholamine. Sarcomas are often very large and have heterogeneous appearance. Imaging cannot be reliably used to identify the type of retroperitoneal sarcomas due to overlapped radiographic features. In children, lipoblastoma is the most common lipomatous tumor in the retroperitoneum. The percentage of visible fat in tumor varies depending on the cellular composition of the lesion. The CT characteristics of teratoma are quite variable, which may be cystic, solid, on a combination of both. Typically teratoma appears as a large complex mass containing fluid, fat, fat-fluid level, and calcifications. Lymphoma is often homogeneous on both enhanced and unenhanced CT scans. Necrosis and calcification are rare on CT. In conclusion, making a final histological diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor base on CT features is not often possible; however, CT can help to develop a differential diagnosis and determine the size and extent of the retroperitoneal neoplasms.

  15. Outcomes following splenectomy in patients with myeloid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rialon, Kristy L; Speicher, Paul J; Ceppa, Eugene P; Rendell, Victoria R; Vaslef, Steven N; Beaven, Anne; Tyler, Douglas S; Blazer, Dan G

    2015-03-15

    Myeloid neoplasms are classified into five major categories. These patients may develop splenomegaly and require splenectomy to alleviate mechanical symptoms, to ameliorate transfusion-dependent cytopenias, or to enhance stem cell transplantation. The objective of this study was to determine which clinical variables significantly impacted morbidity, mortality, and survival in patients with myeloid neoplasms undergoing splenectomy, and to determine if operative outcomes have improved over time. The records of all patients with myeloid neoplasms undergoing splenectomy from 1993 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Eighty-nine patients (n = 89) underwent splenectomy for myeloid neoplasms. Over half of patients who had symptoms preoperatively had resolution of their symptoms post-splenectomy. The morbidity rate was 38%, with the most common complications being bleeding (14%) or infection (20%). Thirty-day mortality rate was 18% and median survival after splenectomy was 278 days. Decreased survival was associated with a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm, anemia, abnormal white blood cell count, and hypoalbuminemia. Patients who underwent stem cell transplantation did not show an increased risk for morbidity or mortality. Patients with myeloid neoplasms have a poor prognosis after splenectomy and the decision to operate is a difficult one, associated with high morbidity and mortality. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Case report: study of a beagle with a malignant ectopic thyroid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, R.D.; Miller, C.W.; Stephens, L.C.; Jaenke, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    A Segment III beagle was noted clinically to have cervical edema and muffled heart sounds. Radiographically, masses were found at the base of the heart and throughout the lung field. An electrocardiogram revealed right bundle branch blockage. An echocardiogram demonstrated thickening of the left ventricle and conduction disturbances in the heart which could not be visualized by conventional diagnostic techniques. At necropsy, a neoplasm was found at the base of the heart that had extended into the pulmonary artery, right atria-auricle, interatrial septum, dorsal interventricular septum, and between the pericardium and epicardium over the surface of the right and left ventricles. The location of the tumor masses accounted for the clinical signs and the abnormalities in the electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. Light and electron microscopic examination of the neoplasm at the base of the heart and metastatic neoplasms in the lungs, kidney, and pancreas established a diagnosis of malignant ectopic thyroid tumor

  17. Symptomatic Cushing's syndrome and hyperandrogenemia in a steroid cell ovarian neoplasm: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedhom, Ramy; Hu, Sophia; Ohri, Anupam; Infantino, Dorian; Lubitz, Sara

    2016-10-12

    Malignant steroid cell tumors of the ovary are rare and frequently associated with hormonal abnormalities. There are no guidelines on how to treat rapidly progressive Cushing's syndrome, a medical emergency. A 67-year-old white woman presented to our hospital with rapidly developing signs and symptoms of Cushing's syndrome secondary to a steroid-secreting tumor. Her physical and biochemical manifestations of Cushing's syndrome progressed, and she was not amenable to undergoing conventional chemotherapy secondary to the debilitating effects of high cortisol. Her rapidly progressive Cushing's syndrome ultimately led to her death, despite aggressive medical management with spironolactone, ketoconazole, mitotane, and mifepristone. We report an unusual and rare case of Cushing's syndrome secondary to a malignant steroid cell tumor of the ovary. The case is highlighted to discuss the complications of rapidly progressive Cushing's syndrome, an underreported and often unrecognized endocrine emergency, and the best available evidence for treatment.

  18. Malignent diseases in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havers, W.

    1980-01-01

    As malignant diseases in childhood are rare, and only a small group of radiotherapists have been able to gain experience in this field, this chapter treats the particularities of childhood from this aspect. The side effects of radiotherapy are particularly important here for the growing and developing organism of the child. The most frequently occuring malignant diseases are treated individually. (MG) [de

  19. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  20. Primary malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferhat Mısır

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanomas (MM of the oral cavity are extremely rare, accounting for 0.2% to 8.0% of all malignant melanomas. Malignant melanomas is more frequently seen at the level of the hard palate and gingiva. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for reducing morbidity. Malignant melanoma cells stain positively with antibodies to human melanoma black 45, S-100 protein, and vimentin; therefore, immunohistochemistry can play an important role in evaluating the depth of invasion and the location of metastases. A 76-year-old man developed an oral malignant melanoma, which was originally diagnosed as a bluish reactive denture hyperplasia caused by an ill-fitting lower denture. The tumor was removed surgically, and histopathological examination revealed a nodular-type MM. There was no evidence of recurrence over a 4-year follow-up period.

  1. Diagnostic and interventional radiology in gynecologic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorvinger, B.

    1990-05-01

    The role and clinical value of the modern radiologic methods for evaluation of gynecologic tumors is not finally settled. The aims of our investigation were therefore to compare clinical examination with CT in patients with possible recurrence of cervical carcinoma; to evaluate the usefulness of CT in patients with fistulas following gynecologic tumors or their treatment; to evaluate the ability of transabdominal US and MR imaging in intrauterine staging including myometrial invasion on patients with endometrial carcinoma; to evaluate CT in the capacity of monitoring therapy response, probable recurrence or clinical remission in patients with ovarian carcinoma; and to evaluate the effect of intraarterial occlusion in facilitating surgery and in evaluating the role of the intraarterial infusion in gynecologic tumors otherwise refractory to all therapy given. CT was more accurate (91%) than clinical pelvic examination (78%) in revealing extensive disease after radiation and/ or surgical treatment. CT was also a most valuable tool in demonstrating genital fistulas following gynecologic malignancy or its treatment. Transabdominal US did not improve staging in early endometrila carcinoma while MR had potential for delineating intrauterine tumor growth (accuracy for myometrial invasion 95%). CT was most valuable in the evaluation of therapeutic response of ovarian malignancy. For possible recurrence or in clinical remission, only positive CT was of clinical significance. The potentials of transcatheter intraarterial management in order to facilitate operability are also discussed. (92 refs.)

  2. Sodium MR imaging of human brain neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Takakura, Kintomo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    We reported the experience of the sodium magnetic resonance imaging of 5 patients with brain tumors (4 astrocytomas and 1 craniopharyngioma), using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla superconductive magnet. We used two-dimensional Fourier imaging with a spin-echo scanning sequence (and with the repetition time of 140 msec and the echo time of 11 - 14 msec). The radiofrequency was maintained at 17 MHz. Sodium MR imaging was achieved with a 64 x 64 data acquisition (30 mm slice thickness) in 19.1 min. On the sodium MRI, all four astrocytomas, along with the eye balls and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces, appeared as high-intensity areas. Peritumoral edema is also visualized as highly intense, so that it is difficult to discriminate tumor extent from the surrounding edema. Our comparative studies with malignant glioma cases using the same equipment are needed to clarify the relationship between sodium signal intensities and the malignancy of gliomas, and to evaluate the potential clinical utility of sodium MRI. A craniopharyngioma than contained a yellowish cystic fluid with a sodium concentration as high as CSF was shown on sodium MRI as a mass with highly intense signals. The ability to differentiate extracellular from intracellular sodium, that has been studied by several investigators, would greatly augment the clinical specificity of MR imaging. (author)

  3. Radionuclide imaging of soft tissue neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.; Enneking, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Two classes of radiopharmaceuticals may be used for imaging tumors of the musculoskeletal system. The first is comprised of soft tissue or tumor specific agents such as gallium-67, bleomycin, and radionuclide-labeled antibodies, which may be useful for detecting and localizing these tumors. The other class of tracer is comprised of those with avidity for bone. The 99mTc-labeled-phosphate skeletal imaging compounds have been found to localize in a variety of soft tissue lesions, including benign and malignant tumors. In 1972, Enneking began to include bone scans in the preoperative evaluation of soft tissue masses. Later, he and his associates reported that these scans were useful in planning operative treatment of sarcomas by detecting involvement of bone by the tumors. Nearly all malignant soft tissue tumors take up bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, and bone involvement was indicated in two-thirds of the scans we reviewed. About half of benign soft tissue lesions had normal scans, but the other half showed uptake within the lesion and a few also showed bone involvement. Careful, thorough imaging technique is essential to proper evaluation. Multiple, high-resolution static gamma camera images in different projections are necessary to adequately demonstrate the presence or absence of soft tissue abnormality and to define the precise relationship of the tumor to the adjacent bone

  4. Malignant Transformation of Radiotherapy-Naïve Craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunhui, Liu; Chuzhong, Li; Zhenye, Li; Yilin, Sun; Yazhuo, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a rare benign intracranial neoplasm that is successfully managed with surgery or adjuvant radiotherapy. The malignant transformation of craniopharyngioma has seldom been reported. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of amenorrhea and was admitted to the hospital. She underwent surgical resection for three times and died at last. MRI revealed a new solid component of craniopharyngioma. Pathologic examination revealed malignant changes in the craniopharyngioma. In addition, We analyzed the expression of Ki-67, p53, VEGF, and MMP-9 in this malignant case after the third operation and in samples from 9 benign craniopharyngiomas. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the Ki-67 index was higher in malignant craniopharyngiomas (50%) compared with benign craniopharyngiomas (3.0% ± 1.5%; range, 1.0%-6.0%). The p53, MMP-9, and VEGF protein levels were higher in the malignant craniopharyngioma compared with the benign craniopharyngiomas. Patients with a high Ki-67 index and high p53, MMP-9, and VEGF protein levels and a new solid component of craniopharyngioma on MRI may benefit from aggressive treatment and close surveillance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Rare Case of Malignant Glomus Tumor of the Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvinder Singh Bali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumors are rare neoplasms that usually occur on the hands in a subungual location, or sometimes in palms, wrists or soles of the feet. They are described as purple/pink tiny painful lesions with a triad of pain, local point tenderness, and cold hypersensitivity. They are almost always benign, but rare malignant variants have been reported. They have also been reported to be present at unusual locations, like the lung, stomach, or liver. Gastrointestinal glomus tumors are extremely rare tumors and very few cases have been reported in the literature. Most that have been reported were usually benign in nature. A rare esophageal glomangioma, mimicking a papilloma, was reported in 2006. We report a case of glomangiosarcoma (malignant glomus tumor in a 49-year-old female, who presented with symptoms of dysphagia including some spasm and hoarseness and subjective unintentional weight loss. On endoscopic exam, she was found to have a distal esophageal mass with malignant features. Radiologically, the mass had a size of about 8 cm on the CT scan without evidence of metastases. Pathology and immunostaining of the biopsy showed features resembling a malignant glomus tumor. She underwent an endoscopic and laparoscopic staging of the tumor along with ultrasound. Based on the laparoscopic findings, which were consistent with the preoperative diagnosis, she was scheduled for an esophagectomy. Histopathology and immunophenotypic features of the excised mass were consistent with a diagnosis of malignant glomus tumor.

  6. Myeloid malignancies: mutations, models and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murati, Anne; Brecqueville, Mandy; Devillier, Raynier; Mozziconacci, Marie-Joelle; Gelsi-Boyer, Véronique; Birnbaum, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Myeloid malignant diseases comprise chronic (including myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative neoplasms and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia) and acute (acute myeloid leukemia) stages. They are clonal diseases arising in hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells. Mutations responsible for these diseases occur in several genes whose encoded proteins belong principally to five classes: signaling pathways proteins (e.g. CBL, FLT3, JAK2, RAS), transcription factors (e.g. CEBPA, ETV6, RUNX1), epigenetic regulators (e.g. ASXL1, DNMT3A, EZH2, IDH1, IDH2, SUZ12, TET2, UTX), tumor suppressors (e.g. TP53), and components of the spliceosome (e.g. SF3B1, SRSF2). Large-scale sequencing efforts will soon lead to the establishment of a comprehensive repertoire of these mutations, allowing for a better definition and classification of myeloid malignancies, the identification of new prognostic markers and therapeutic targets, and the development of novel therapies. Given the importance of epigenetic deregulation in myeloid diseases, the use of drugs targeting epigenetic regulators appears as a most promising therapeutic approach

  7. Endothelial cell markers in vascular neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study comparing factor VIII-related antigen, blood group specific antigens, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and Ulex europaeus 1 lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D; Said, J W; Siegel, R J; Fealy, M; Fishbein, M C

    1986-06-01

    Markers for endothelial cells including Ulex europaeus 1 lectin, blood group A, B, and H, and the prostaglandin metabolite 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were evaluated in paraffin secretions from formalin-fixed benign and malignant vascular neoplasms using a variety of immunohistochemical techniques, and results compared with staining for factor VIII-related antigen. Staining for Ulex appeared more sensitive than factor VIII-related antigen in identifying poorly differentiated neoplasms including haemangiosarcomas and spindle cell proliferations in Kaposi's sarcoma. Staining for blood group related antigens correlated with blood group in all cases. Ulex europaeus 1 lectin was the only marker for endothelial cells in lymphangiomas.

  8. Correlation between CT perfusion and vascular endothelial growth factor in neoplasm of head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyun; Meng Quanfei; Xu Qiaolan; Li Shurong; Yan Chaogui; Xie Hongbo; Yang Xufeng; Peng Qian; Lai Yingrong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between the CT perfusion and microvessel density (MVD), expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in neoplasm of head and neck. Methods: Eighty-eight lesions of head and neck were scanned by spiral CT. The largest axial surface of the mass was searched on unenhanced imaging, and at this level the dynamic contrast enhanced scan series was acquired. Time-density curves (TDC) were created from circular or oval regions of the interest drawn over the mass, target artery by Toshiba Xpress/SX spiral CT with perfusion functional software. The parameters were measured including: peak height (PH), peak time (PT), mean transit time (MTT), contrast enhancement ratio (RPH), and perfusion flow (PF). Histopathological slides of 35 masses were carefully prepared for the anti-CD34 and VEGF immunohistochemical staining and tumor microvessel density and calculation of VEGF expression scores. The parameters of CT perfusion were correlatively study with MVD and VEGF. Results: (1) The TDC of CT perfusion imaging could be classified into 3 types. The TDC of 53/77 (68.9%) malignant tumors presented the type with rapid ascending and rapid descending after injecting contrast. The TDC of 6/9 malignant lymphomas showed low platform curve o (2)The PF median of thyroid carcinoma was 82. 2(41.0,183.4)ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 . There was significantly difference in the parameters of CT perfusion among thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell cancer (Median 23.8 (7.0, 108.4) ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 ) and lymphomas (Median 24.5 (13.2, 78.6) ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 ). (3) MVD in benign tumors was (44.7±3.4), and in malignant tumors, it is (49.6±14.8). There was no significantly difference in MVD between benign and malignant tumors. High VEGF expression was found in 15 malignant tumors and 1 benign tumors, low VEGF expression was found in 9 malignant tumors and 10 benign tumors. (4)There were no significantly difference in VEGF expression and MVD. There

  9. External suction versus water seal after selective pulmonary resection for lung neoplasm: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Qiu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether external suction is more advantageous than water seal in patients undergoing selective pulmonary resection (SPR for lung neoplasm. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Whether external suction should be routinely applied in postoperative chest drainage is still unclear, particularly for lung neoplasm patients. To most surgeons, the decision is based on their clinical experience. METHODS: Randomized control trials were selected. The participants were patients undergoing SPR with lung neoplasm. Lung volume reduction surgery and pneumothorax were excluded. Suction versus non-suction for the intervention. The primary outcome was the incidence of persistent air leak (PAL. The definition of PAL was air leak for more than 3-7 days. The secondary outcomes included air leak duration, time of drainage, postoperative hospital stay and the incidence of postoperative pneumothorax. Studies were identified from literature collections through screening. Bias was analyzed and meta-analysis was used. RESULTS: From the 1824 potentially relevant trials, 6 randomized control trials involving 676 patients were included. There was no difference between external suction and water seal in decreasing the incidence of PAL [95% confidence interval (CI 0.81-2.16; z = 1.10; P = 0.27]. Regarding secondary outcomes, there were no differences in time of drainage (95% CI-0.36-1.56, P = 0.22, postoperative hospital stay (95% CI -.31-.54, P = 0.87 or incidence of postoperative pneumothorax (95% CI 0.18-.02, P = 0.05 between external suction and water seal. CONCLUSIONS: For participants, no differences are identified in terms of PAL incidence, drainage time, length of postoperative hospital stay or incidence of postoperative pneumothorax between external suction and water seal. The bias analysis should be emphasized. To the limitations of the bias and methodological differences among the included studies, we have no recommendation on

  10. The association between thyroid malignancy and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis: should it alter the surgical approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükaşık, Oktay; Hasdemir, Ahmet Oğuz; Yalçın, Erol; Celep, Bahadır; Sengül, Serkan; Yandakçı, Kemal; Tunç, Gündüz; Küçükpınar, Tevfik; Alkoy, Seval; Cöl, Cavit

    2011-01-01

    The relation between thyroid neoplasms and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) is controversial. While it is accepted that focal lymphocytic thyroiditis develops secondarily to malignancy, it is not clear whether diffuse lymphocytic thyroiditis has a tendency to develop into thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between CLT and malignant tumours of the thyroid and evaluate the surgical approach to CLT cases. In this study, 917 patients operated on for thyroid diseases were investigated retrospectively. Seventy-seven (8.4%) patients histopathologically diagnosed as having CLT (either non-specific or Hashimoto's thyroiditis) were investigated for any concurrent malignant neoplasm. Fifteen patients in whom CLT and thyroid malignancy were coexisting were included in the study. In the pathological evaluation of 917 cases, malignancy in the thyroid was found in 97 (10.6%) cases. Seventy-seven cases were categorised as CLT. Of these 77, 16 (20.8%) were Hashimoto's thyroiditis (specific CLT) and the other 61 (79.2%) were non-specific CLT. In 15 cases, thyroid malignancy was found to be concurrent with CLT. Of the malignities, nine (60%) were papillary carcinoma, three (20%) medullar carcinoma, one (6.6%) follicular carcinoma, one (6.6%) Hurthle cell carcinoma, and one (6.6%) lymphoma. In our series, the rate of the development of malignancy against the background of CLT was 19.48%, while the rate in the groups without CLT was 9.76%, with a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.008). CLT cases should be evaluated more carefully in terms of malignancy. If a nodule is detected on thyroiditis, the minimal surgical intervention should be lobectomy. Total thyroidectomy should be considered as preferable to subtotal thyroidectomy because of its many advantages such as controlling thyroiditis, removing the probability of reoperation, and hormonal stability.

  11. Epithelioid variant of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (malignant schwannoma) of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltoum, I A; Moore, R J; Cook, W; Crowe, D R; Rodgers, W H; Siegal, G P

    1999-10-01

    Sarcoma represents less than 2% of all neoplasms diagnosed or recognized in effusions. Epithelioid peripheral nerve sheath tumor is a rare tumor that is difficult to differentiate from other epithelioid tumors without the use of ancillary studies. A 39-year-old paraplegic man presented with hematuria and a bladder mass that extended to involve the pelvic peritoneum. Light microscopy using hematoxylin-eosin, Papanicolaou, and immunohistochemical stains as well as transmission electron microscopy showed features of epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with rhabdoid features and an accompanying eosinophilic infiltrate. Cytologic smears confirmed the similarities between the primary tumor in the bladder and the cells in the pelvic fluid and excluded the possibility of reactive changes related to postsurgical radiation. Ancillary studies were critical in narrowing the differential diagnoses and reaching the final conclusion.

  12. Recurrent malignant variant of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor with oncogenic osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogose, A.; Hotta, Tetsuo; Hatano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoto; Emura, Iwao; Umezu, Hajime; Inoue, Yoshiya

    2001-01-01

    Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor is a rare neoplasm which causes osteomalacia or rickets. The tumor typically follows a benign clinical course. Even in the rare malignant cases, local recurrence and distant metastasis are uncommon. We report on an example of a malignant phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor which recurred several times over 16 years concurrently causing hypophosphatemia, bone pain, and osteomalacia. Following each surgery, symptoms and hypophosphatemia improved. The patient died of disease 17 years after the first surgery. Histologically, the initial tumor was composed of small spindle cells with clusters of giant cells, prominent blood vessels, poorly formed cartilaginous areas, and crystalline material. Cytological atypia was minimal. Following multiple recurrences, the tumor demonstrated areas of high-grade sarcoma exhibiting marked pleomorphism, numerous mitotic figures, and p53 overexpression. This case illustrates the potential lethality of incompletely removed phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors. (orig.)

  13. Recurrent malignant variant of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor with oncogenic osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogose, A.; Hotta, Tetsuo; Hatano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoto [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Niigata University School of Medicine, Asahimachi, Niigata (Japan); Emura, Iwao; Umezu, Hajime [Dept. of Pathology, Niigata University School of Medicine, Niigata (Japan); Inoue, Yoshiya [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor is a rare neoplasm which causes osteomalacia or rickets. The tumor typically follows a benign clinical course. Even in the rare malignant cases, local recurrence and distant metastasis are uncommon. We report on an example of a malignant phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor which recurred several times over 16 years concurrently causing hypophosphatemia, bone pain, and osteomalacia. Following each surgery, symptoms and hypophosphatemia improved. The patient died of disease 17 years after the first surgery. Histologically, the initial tumor was composed of small spindle cells with clusters of giant cells, prominent blood vessels, poorly formed cartilaginous areas, and crystalline material. Cytological atypia was minimal. Following multiple recurrences, the tumor demonstrated areas of high-grade sarcoma exhibiting marked pleomorphism, numerous mitotic figures, and p53 overexpression. This case illustrates the potential lethality of incompletely removed phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors. (orig.)

  14. Bone marrow oedema associated with benign and malignant bone tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steven.james@roh.nhs.uk; Panicek, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Bone marrow oedema is associated with a wide variety of pathological processes including both benign and malignant bone tumours. This imaging finding in relation to intraosseous tumours can aid in providing a more focused differential diagnosis. In this review, we will discuss the MR imaging of bone marrow oedema surrounding intraosseous neoplasms. The different pulse sequences used in differentiating underlying tumour from surrounding oedema are discussed along with the role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Benign lesions commonly associated with bone marrow oedema include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. Metastases and malignant primary bone tumours such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma may also be surrounded by bone marrow oedema. The imaging findings of these conditions are reviewed and illustrated. Finally, the importance of bone marrow oedema in assessment of post chemotherapeutic response is addressed.

  15. The Short-Term and Intermediate-Term Risk of Second Neoplasms After Diagnosis and Treatment of Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma: Analysis of 9460 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Matthew L.; Glasgow, Amy E.; Jacob, Jeffrey T.; Habermann, Elizabeth B.; Link, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of second intracranial neoplasms after the diagnosis and treatment of sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS). Methods and Materials: Analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database including all patients identified with a diagnosis of VS and a second intracranial tumor. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the incidence of second tumors while allowing for censoring at loss to follow-up or death. Multivariable associations between treatment modality and second tumor formation were explored using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Two illustrative cases are also presented. Results: In all, 9460 patients with unilateral VS were identified between 2004 and 2012. Overall, 66 (0.7%) patients experienced a separate intracranial tumor, benign or malignant, after treatment of VS. Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to second neoplasm at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0.3%, 0.7%, and 0.8%, respectively. Multivariable comparison between VS treatment modalities revealed that the risk of second tumor formation was similar between radiation and surgery (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-1.51; P=.93) but greater for tumors managed with observation alone compared with radiation (HR 2.48; 95% CI 1.31-4.71; P<.01). A total of 6 (0.06%) intracranial malignancies were diagnosed after VS treatment. Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to malignancy at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. After adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, and treatment modality, the probability of malignancy after radiation was not greater than after observation alone or microsurgery (HR 4.88; 95% CI 0.85-28.14; P=.08) during the study period. Conclusions: The risk for the development of a second intracranial neoplasm, benign or malignant, at 5 years after treatment of unilateral VS is approximately 0.8%, whereas the risk of acquiring a separate malignancy is 0.1%, or approximately 1 per 1000 cases

  16. The Short-Term and Intermediate-Term Risk of Second Neoplasms After Diagnosis and Treatment of Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma: Analysis of 9460 Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Matthew L., E-mail: carlson.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Glasgow, Amy E. [Division of Health Care Policy and Research and the Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jacob, Jeffrey T. [Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Habermann, Elizabeth B. [Division of Health Care Policy and Research and the Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Link, Michael J. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of second intracranial neoplasms after the diagnosis and treatment of sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS). Methods and Materials: Analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database including all patients identified with a diagnosis of VS and a second intracranial tumor. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the incidence of second tumors while allowing for censoring at loss to follow-up or death. Multivariable associations between treatment modality and second tumor formation were explored using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Two illustrative cases are also presented. Results: In all, 9460 patients with unilateral VS were identified between 2004 and 2012. Overall, 66 (0.7%) patients experienced a separate intracranial tumor, benign or malignant, after treatment of VS. Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to second neoplasm at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0.3%, 0.7%, and 0.8%, respectively. Multivariable comparison between VS treatment modalities revealed that the risk of second tumor formation was similar between radiation and surgery (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-1.51; P=.93) but greater for tumors managed with observation alone compared with radiation (HR 2.48; 95% CI 1.31-4.71; P<.01). A total of 6 (0.06%) intracranial malignancies were diagnosed after VS treatment. Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to malignancy at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. After adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, and treatment modality, the probability of malignancy after radiation was not greater than after observation alone or microsurgery (HR 4.88; 95% CI 0.85-28.14; P=.08) during the study period. Conclusions: The risk for the development of a second intracranial neoplasm, benign or malignant, at 5 years after treatment of unilateral VS is approximately 0.8%, whereas the risk of acquiring a separate malignancy is 0.1%, or approximately 1 per 1000 cases

  17. Coexisting Primary Ovarian and Omental Hydatid Disease Mimicking an Ovarian Neoplasm: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Emre E; Yegin Akcay, Gulin F; Yildirim, Fatma; Yavuz, Filiz

    2018-05-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection that most commonly affects the liver and lungs, although the disease can arise in any part of the body. Cysts may mimic many benign and malignant conditions. The diagnosis cannot be confirmed preoperatively in all cases. A 44-yr-old menopausal woman was admitted to the department of gynecology with complaints of abdominal distention. A fixed abdominopelvic mass was identified. Radiology revealed a 20-cm mass with branched septations and solid components. CA-125 level was 55 kU/L, and Risk of Malignancy Index-2 score was 880. These findings suggested the presence of an ovarian neoplasm, and laparotomy was performed. Cystic masses measuring 22 cm and 4 cm, originating from the omentum majus and left ovary, respectively, were found during surgery. Frozen-section analysis revealed hydatid disease. Infracolic omentectomy and total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy were performed. Results of a serum Echinococcus hemagglutination test performed immediately after surgery were negative. The patient was prescribed albendazole for 6 mo and discharged on the third postoperative day with no complaints. The incidence of hydatid disease in the female reproductive system is very rare; however, clinicians must be aware of this disease and take necessary precautions while operating because any spillage may lead to anaphylactic shock and increased risk of recurrence.

  18. Intralesional and metastatic heterogeneity in malignant melanomas demonstrated by stereologic estimates of nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Erlandsen, M

    1990-01-01

    Regional variability of nuclear 3-dimensional size can be estimated objectively using point-sampled intercepts obtained from different, defined zones within individual neoplasms. In the present study, stereologic estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vv, within peripheral...... melanomas showed large interindividual variation. This finding emphasizes that unbiased estimates of nuclear vv are robust to regional heterogeneity of nuclear volume and thus suitable for purposes of objective, quantitative malignancy grading of melanomas....

  19. Abdominal tuberculosis with periportal lymph node involvement mimicking pancreatic malignancy in an immunocompetent adolescent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeoun Joo; Park, Su-Eun [Pusan National University, Department of Pediatrics, Pusan National University Children' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Woo; Lee, Jun Woo [Pusan National University, Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Abdominal tuberculosis manifesting as isolated lymphadenopathy is rare, particularly in children. Tuberculous involvement of the pancreatic head and peripancreatic area can simulate a neoplasm of the pancreatic head. To our knowledge, obstructive jaundice caused by tuberculous lymphadenopathy has not been reported in children or adolescents. Here we present radiologic findings in a case of tuberculous lymphadenopathy that mimicked malignancy of the pancreatic head and caused obstructive jaundice in an immunocompetent adolescent. (orig.)

  20. Factors influencing malignant evolution and long-term survival in solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-González, Marta; Novoa, Nuria M.; Gomez, Maria T.; García, Juan L.; Ludeña, María Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Solitary pleuro-pulmonary fibrous tumours are relatively uncommon neoplasms that are difficult to manage therapeutically and which, cytogenetically, have been poorly studied. The aim of the present work was to analyse the characteristics of a series of consecutive operated solitary pleural fibrous tumours in an attempt to discover a malignant pattern of evolution. This was a retrospective observational study of 19 cases. Samples were studied for clinical, histological, immunohistochemical and...

  1. Abdominal tuberculosis with periportal lymph node involvement mimicking pancreatic malignancy in an immunocompetent adolescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeoun Joo; Park, Su-Eun; Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Woo; Lee, Jun Woo

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal tuberculosis manifesting as isolated lymphadenopathy is rare, particularly in children. Tuberculous involvement of the pancreatic head and peripancreatic area can simulate a neoplasm of the pancreatic head. To our knowledge, obstructive jaundice caused by tuberculous lymphadenopathy has not been reported in children or adolescents. Here we present radiologic findings in a case of tuberculous lymphadenopathy that mimicked malignancy of the pancreatic head and caused obstructive jaundice in an immunocompetent adolescent. (orig.)

  2. A Rare Case of Breast Malignant Phyllodes Tumor With Metastases to the Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Karczmarek-Borowska, Bożenna; Bukala, Agnieszka; Syrek-Kaplita, Karolina; Ksiazek, Mariusz; Filipowska, Justyna; Gradalska-Lampart, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phyllodes tumors are rare breast neoplasms. Surgery is the treatment of choice. The role of postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still under dispute, as there are no equivocal prognostic factors. Treatment failure results in the occurrence of distant metastasis—mainly to the lungs, bones, liver, and brain. We have described the case of a woman with a malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast that was surgically treated. She did not receive adjuvant therapy because there is no...

  3. Bone scintigraphy with 99m Tc MIBI. Its importance for the detection of malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero, Luis O.; Tamayo, Alicia; Rodriguez, Oscar; Solano, Maria E.; Perera, Alejandro; Perez, Marylin

    1997-01-01

    99mT c-MIBI is a radiopharmaceutical widely employed for the detection and follow-up of different oncological diseases. The aim of the present work was to determine the value of the scintigraphy with 99mT c-MIBI for the diagnosis of malignant bone tumors, its metastases and recurrences. Twenty patients aged 24+- years old, suspected of having bone neoplasms, were studied. I

  4. Imaging findings of abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Sin; Byun, Jae Ho; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, Ah Young; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Moon Gyu; Bae, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm. From April 2000 to January 2005, eight patients (four men, four women; mean age, 50.6 years) with pathologically proved, extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm involving the abdominal organs were included in this study. The diagnoses were based on consensus agreement between two radiologists who retrospectively reviewed CT, ultrasonography, and enteroclysis findings. We evaluated the findings by focusing on the location, size, margin, and enhancement pattern of the lesion, and lymphadenopathy on each image. There were multiple myeloma in four patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in the remaining four. Involved abdominal organs were the liver (n = 4), spleen (n 4), lymph node (n = 3), stomach (n = 1), small bowel (n = 1), and colon (n 1). The hepatic involvement of plasma cell neoplasm presented as a homogeneous, well-defined, solitary mass (n = 1), multiple nodules (n = 1), and hepatomegaly (n = 2). Its involvement of the spleen and lymph node appeared as splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, respectively. Its involvement of the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach, small bowel, and colon, presented as a homogeneous, diffuse wall thickening or mass in the gastrointestinal tract. Abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm involves occasionally the liver, spleen, and lymph node, and rarely the gastrointestinal tract. When we encounter a well-defined, homogeneous lesion of the abdominal organs in patients diagnosed or suspected as having plasma cell neoplasm, we should consider its involvement of the abdominal organs

  5. Malignancy risk prediction for primary jejunum-ileal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARQUES Ruy Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at identifying factors associated with primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy, defining a prediction model with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to distinguish malign from benign neoplasms. These tumors are rare, have highly unspecific presentation and, frequently, are diagnosed late. We reviewed the charts of 42 patients with primary jejunum-ileal tumors treated in the Department of General Surgery of Rio de Janeiro State University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, from 1969 to 1998. We performed bivariate analyses, based on chi² test, searching associations between tumors malignancy and demographic and clinical variables. Then logistic regression was employed to consider the independent effect of variables previously identified on malignancy risk. The malign tumors included 11 adenocarcinomas, 7 leiomyosarcomas, 5 carcinoids and 4 lymphomas; the benign tumors included 10 leiomyomas, 2 hamartomas, and single cases of adenoma, multiple neurilemoma and choristoma. The bivariate analyses indicated the association between malignancy and palpable abdominal mass (P = 0.003, period from signs and symptoms onset to diagnosis (P = 0.016, anemia (P = 0.020, anorexia (P = 0.003, abdominal pain (P = 0.031, weight loss (P = 0.001, nausea and vomit (P = 0.094, and intestinal obstruction (P = 0.066; no association with patients demographic characteristics were found. In the final logistic regression model, weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction were statistically associated with the dependent variable of interest. Based only on three variables -- weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction -- the model defined was able to predict primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy with sensitivity of 85.2%, specificity of 80.0%, and accuracy of 83.3%.

  6. Secondary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary hypertension Overview Secondary hypertension (secondary high blood pressure) is high blood pressure that's caused by another medical condition. Secondary hypertension can be caused by conditions that affect your kidneys, ...

  7. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT appearances of the intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Fengxiang; Zhou Jianjun; Zeng Mengsu; Zhou Kangrong; Ding Yuqin; He Deming; Shi Yuxin; Zhou Jun

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the dynamic contrast-enhanced CT appearances of intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct and improve its diagnostic accuracy. Methods: Sixteen patients with intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct confirmed histopathologically after surgical operation underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced multi-detector row CT scans. All imaging data were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively in correlation with surgical and pathological findings. CT values of 38 well-visualized lesions in 12 of the 16 patients at the pre-contrast phase, arterial phase and venous phase were measured. Four of the 12 patients with 17 lesions had benign tumors, and 8 of the 12 patients with 21 lesions had malignant tumors. Comparisons of CT values at the three phases between the two groups were carried out using independent sample t test. The bile CT values were measured in these 12 cases, 40 normal volunteers, and 40 subjects with bile duct stones, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied to compare the bile CT values between tumor group and the normal group and between tumor group and the bile duct stone group. The diameters of the bile ducts proximal to and distal to tumors were also measured, and Fisher exact method was carried to analyze the data. Results: Lesions located at the left lobe in 8 out of the 16 patients, the right lobe in 1 case, both the left and right lobes in 1 case, the hepatic hilum in 1 case, the common bile duct in 3 cases, and both the right lobe and the common bile duct in 2 cases. Eleven lesions appeared as papillary masses, 3 as flat masses, 1 as mixed papillary and flat masses. In one case, tumor mass could not be definitely visualized, and only dilated bile ducts and stones were demonstrated. The mean CT values of the benign tumors were (25.8 ± 8.0), (37.7 ± 10.3) and (51.7 ± 17.1) HU respectively at pre-contrast phase, arterial phase, and venous phase, and the malignant tumors were (38.4 ± 10.2), (56.6 ± 18.0) and (68.4

  8. Malignant Struma Ovarii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant Struma Ovarii: Case Report and a Review of the Literature. Philip CN Okere, Daniel ... uterus was grossly unremarkable. .... abnormal vaginal bleeding, ascites, hydrothorax our patient ... In: Somers SAC, Rosen MR, eds. Pathology.

  9. Dark-lumen MR colonography with fecal tagging: a comparison of water enema and air methods of colonic distension for detecting colonic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Gomez, Sonia; Pages Llinas, Mario; Juan Garcia, Carmen de; Rimola Gibert, Jordi; Ayuso Colella, Juan R.; Ayuso Colella, Carmen; Castells Garangou, Antoni; Bordas Alsina, Josep M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate MR colonography (MRC) with barium fecal tagging in detecting colorectal pathology and to determine how air-based and water-based colonic distension influences MRC. We studied 83 patients with high risk of colonic neoplasms. All received oral barium sulfate for colonic preparation before unenhanced and enhanced T1-weighted gradient-echo MRC using either water (n=54) or air (n=29) for colonic distension. Fecal tagging, distension, and artifacts were recorded. All patients underwent conventional colonoscopy within 2 weeks of MRC; the techniques were compared for detection of malignant neoplasms and polyps ≥1 cm, 6-9 mm, and ≤5 mm. Fecal tagging was ''good'' in 76% of the colonic segments in water-distended patients and 46% of air-distended patients. The degree of distension was ''good'' in 90.7% of water-distended patients and 44% of air-distended patients. Severe artifacts were present in 15% air-distended patients and 0.3% of water-distended patients. Both water-distended and air-distended MRC detected all malignant neoplasms and polyps ≥1 cm, but more air-distended MRC were excluded for poor quality. MRC with fecal tagging is useful for detecting lesions ≥1 cm. Air distension was inferior to water distension in most aspects. Water-based colonic distension should be used for barium-tagging MRC. (orig.)

  10. Morbid obesity increases risk of morbidity and reoperation in resection of benign cranial nerve neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Meghan E; McCutcheon, Brandon A; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Porter, Amanda; Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Daniel; Rayan, Tarek; Maloney, Patrick R; Carter, Bob S; Bydon, Mohamad; Gompel, Jamie J Van; Link, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased risk for postoperative CSF leak in patients with benign cranial nerve tumors. Other measures of postoperative morbidity associated with obesity have not been well characterized. Patients enrolled in the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) from 2007 to 2013 with a diagnosis code of a benign neoplasm of a cranial nerve were included. The primary outcome of postoperative morbidity was analyzed as well as secondary outcomes of readmission and reoperation. The main covariate of interest was body mass index (BMI). A total of 561 patients underwent surgery for a benign cranial nerve neoplasm between 2007 and 2013. Readmission data, available for 2012-2013(n=353), revealed hydrocephalus, facial nerve injury, or CSF leak requiring readmission or reoperation occurred in 0.85%, 1.42%, and 3.12%, respectively. Composite morbidity included wound complications, infection, respiratory insufficiency, transfusion requirement, stroke, venous thromboembolism, coma and cardiac arrest. On multivariable analysis patients with class I (BMI 30-34.9) and II (BMI 35-39.9) obesity showed trends towards increasing return to operating room, though not significant, but there was no trend for composite complications in class I and II obesity patients. However, class III obesity, BMI≥40, was associated with increased odds of composite morbidity (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.24-15.88) and return to the operating room (OR 5.97, 95% CI 1.20-29.6) relative to patients with a normal BMI, 18.5-25. Obesity is an independent and important risk factor for composite morbidity in resection of benign cranial nerve neoplasms, and as such, merits discussion during preoperative counseling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Surgical Management of Malignant Tumors of the Trachea: Report of Two Cases and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Yasumatsu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Malignant neoplasms occurring from the trachea are extremely rare. Therefore, their clinical characteristics and surgical results have not been thoroughly discussed. These tumors are often misdiagnosed and treated as bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is critically important to probe the cause-effect relationship between the medical presentations and the clinical diagnosis. In this report, two cases of tracheal malignancy suffering from dyspnea due to obstruction of the proximal trachea are described, and a review of the literature is presented.

  12. [Malignant diseases of the inner nose--epidemiology and occupational medicine aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, M

    1989-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas are the most frequent malignancies of the inner nose, followed by adenocarcinomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, and other malignant neoplasms. Carcinomas of the nose can be recognized as occupational diseases if there has been a professional exposition to ionizing rays, certain arsenic compounds, hexavalent chrome compounds, nickel, oak or beech wood dust. The sources of danger relevant in industrial medicine are indicated. At present, adenocarcinomas induced by dust of wood are of special significance: 16 out of 22 carcinomas of the nose recognized as occupational diseases between 1978 and 1986 are due to oak and beech wood dust.

  13. Successful Preoperative Chemoembolization in the Treatment of a Giant Malignant Phyllodes Tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kazuki, E-mail: kazkik1980@gmail.com; Mimura, Hidefumi; Arai, Yasunori [St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Doi, Masatomo [St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology (Japan); Kojima, Yasuyuki; Tsugawa, Koichiro [St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Division of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery (Japan); Nakajima, Yasuo [St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    The malignant phyllodes tumor is a relatively rare neoplasm and has not previously been a therapeutic target of interventional radiology. Herein, we report a successful case of preoperative chemoembolization of a giant malignant phyllodes tumor. The objective was to achieve sufficient tumor shrinkage before surgery to avoid the requirement for skin grafting after resection. Intra-arterial epirubicin infusion and subsequent embolization with Embosphere Microspheres (BioSphere Medical, Rockland, MA, USA) was undertaken three times over the course of 6 weeks and was well tolerated. The patient underwent surgery without skin grafting. Neither local recurrence nor distant metastasis was observed at 6 months after surgery.

  14. Successful Preoperative Chemoembolization in the Treatment of a Giant Malignant Phyllodes Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kazuki; Mimura, Hidefumi; Arai, Yasunori; Doi, Masatomo; Kojima, Yasuyuki; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    The malignant phyllodes tumor is a relatively rare neoplasm and has not previously been a therapeutic target of interventional radiology. Herein, we report a successful case of preoperative chemoembolization of a giant malignant phyllodes tumor. The objective was to achieve sufficient tumor shrinkage before surgery to avoid the requirement for skin grafting after resection. Intra-arterial epirubicin infusion and subsequent embolization with Embosphere Microspheres (BioSphere Medical, Rockland, MA, USA) was undertaken three times over the course of 6 weeks and was well tolerated. The patient underwent surgery without skin grafting. Neither local recurrence nor distant metastasis was observed at 6 months after surgery.

  15. Imaging malignant and apparent malignant transformation of benign gynaecological disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.Y.; Poder, L.; Qayyum, A.; Wang, Z.J.; Yeh, B.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Coakley, F.V., E-mail: Fergus.Coakley@radiology.ucsf.ed [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Common benign gynaecological diseases, such as leiomyoma, adenomyosis, endometriosis, and mature teratoma, rarely undergo malignant transformation. Benign transformations that may mimic malignancy include benign metastasizing leiomyoma, massive ovarian oedema, decidualization of endometrioma, and rupture of mature teratoma. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of imaging findings in malignant and apparent malignant transformation of benign gynaecological disease.

  16. Malignant vagal paraganglioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Camilla S; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise S

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 20 cases of malignant vagal paragangliomas (MVP)have been reported in English literature. Malignancy is based on the presence of metastases. A careful preoperative evaluation is necessary to detect multicentricity and/or significant production of catecholamines. A new case of MVP...... treated with embolization and surgery is presented and the literature discussed. It is concluded, that preoperative embolization followed by radical surgical resection is a rational treatment of patients with unilateral MVP....

  17. Malignant eccrine paramar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ahwal, Mahmoud S.; Zimmo, Sameer K; Sawan, Ali S.

    2005-01-01

    Benign eccrine poroma arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine gland duct. Malignant transformation is rare and should be suspected when these lesions present with pain, bleeding or itching. We report a 44-year-old male patient who presented primarily with a lesion diagnostic of benign eccrine poroma of the right foot sole with no clear evidence of malignancy, which was incompletely excised, followed 5 months later by local recurrence, ulceration, occasional bleeding and right inguinal lymphadenopathy. Incomplete excision of the primary tumor as well as excision of a skin lesion on the right knee joint revealed malignant eccrine poroma with aggressive histology, lymphovascular and perineural invasion. Investigations revealed no evidence of distant metastasis. This tumor might be malignant at the first presentation, which was not confirmed histopathologically considering the short duration of only 5 months for malignant transformation. The patient received 3 cycles of Docetaxel Taxotere, Cisplatin combination chemotherapy with partial response. The management of metastatic malignant eccrine poroma is difficult. It has proven resistant to many chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Correlations between cutaneous malignant melanoma and other cancers: An ecological study in forty European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson′s correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.68-0.89], myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46-0.81], prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43-0.80], and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39-0.78]. In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64-0.88], colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52-0.83], and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-0.83]. Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular.

  19. Lymphoscintigraphy and radioguided surgery in cervical and vulvar malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Guzman-Barron, Rosanna E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To validate a combined technique in the detection of sentinel nodes in early cervix and vulvar cancer patients. Material and Methods: Seventy patients, 24 to 63 years old (average 40 years), with cervical cancer stages IA2, IB1 and IIA, and fourteen patients, 28 to 80 years old (median 68 years) with vulval neoplasm, stage I and II, had sentinel node (SN) detection using lymphoscintigraphy and a gamma probe in the surgical room, after injection of Tc 99m dextran and patent blue dye. Sentinel nodes were seen between 20 and 135 minutes after injection, in cervical cancer, and between one and sixty minutes in vulvar neoplasms. In patients with cervical tumors, 99 sentinel nodes were localized in the obturator r