WorldWideScience

Sample records for secondary hydrocarbon migration

  1. Hydrocarbon migration characteristics of the Lower Cretaceous in the Erlian Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The paper systematically analyzes the hydrocarbon migration characteristics of the Lower Cretaceous in the Erlian Basin, based on the geochemical data of mudstone and sandstone in the main hydrocarbon-generating sags. (1) The source rocks in K1ba and K1bt1 are estimated to be the mature ones, their hydrocarbon expulsion ratio can reach 32%-72%. The Type-I sags in oil windows possess good hydrocarbon generation and expulsion conditions, where commercial reservoirs can be formed. (2) According to the curves of the mudstone compaction and evolution of clay minerals, the rapid compaction stage of mudstones is the right time of hydrocarbon expulsion, i.e., primary migration. (3) The timing between hydrocarbon generation and expulsion is mainly related to the accordance of the oil window and the rapid compaction stage of mudstones in the hydrocarbon generation sags of Type-I. That forms the most matching relation between hydrocarbon generation and migration. (4) The faults and unconformities are the important paths for the secondary hydrocarbon migration. Especially, the unconformity between K1ba and K1bt1 has a favorable condition for oil accumulation, where the traps of all types are the main exploration targets. (5) Hydrocarbon migration effect, in the Uliastai sag, is most significant; that in the Saihan Tal and Anan sags comes next, and that in the Bayandanan and Jargalangt sags is worst.

  2. Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation in Dongying Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chunguang; Shang Weirong

    1996-01-01

    @@ Dongying basin is a faulted basin rich in hydrocarbon and is under more exploration (wildcat well density is 0.155 well/km ) in the southern Bohai Bay area of China, covering an area of 5700 km. Based on the paleotopographic setting of Paleozoic basement rocks, the basin was evolved into Mesozoic and Cenozoic basin which was faulted in the north and overlapped in the south by the blockfaulting movement in J2-J3. So, each formation of the source rocks in Paleogene is characterized by thick deposit in the north and thin deposit in the south.

  3. Artificial Neural Network Model of Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海滨; 吴冲龙

    2002-01-01

    Based on the dynamic simulation of the 3-D structure the sedimentary modeling, the unit entity model has been adopted to transfer the heterogeneous complex pas sage system into limited simple homogeneous entity, and then the traditional dyn amic simulation has been used to calculate the phase and the drive forces of the hyd rocarbon , and the artificial neural network(ANN) technology has been applied to resolve such problems as the direction, velocity and quantity of the hydrocarbo n migration among the unit entities. Through simulating of petroleum migration a nd accumulation in Zhu Ⅲ depression, the complex mechanism of hydrocarbon migra tion and accumulation has been opened out.

  4. Numerical modeling of secondary migration and its applications to Chang-6 Member of Yanchang Formation (Upper Triassic), Longdong area, Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO; XiaoRong; YU; Jian; ZHANG; LiuPing; YANG; Yang; CHEN; RuiYin; CHEN; ZhanKun; ZHOU; Bo

    2007-01-01

    Mathematic modeling, established on the basis of physical experiments, is becoming an increasingly important tool in oil and gas migration studies. This technique is based on the observation that hydrocarbon migration tends to take relative narrow pathways. A mathematical model of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation is constructed using the percolation theory. It is then calibrated using physical experimental results, and is tested under a variety of conditions, to understand the applicability of the model in different migration cases. Through modeling, dynamic conditions of large-scale migration pathways within homogeneous formations can be evaluated. Basin-scale hydrocarbon migration pathways and their characteristics are analyzed during the model application to the Chang-8 Member of the Triassic Yanchang Formation in Longdong area of Ordos Basin. In heterogeneous formations, spatial changes in fluid potential determine the direction of secondary migration, and heterogeneity controls the characteristics and geometry of secondary migration pathways.

  5. Concerning the petroleum hydrocarbons migration in the permafrost zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, I. V.; Panova, E.; Grinko, A.; Dudarev, O.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms controlling methane emissions in the Laptev Sea it is extremely important to know the distribution patterns of subsea permafrost in the coastal zone. One possible solution to this problem is to analyze the hydrocarbon fluids in the bottom sediments. The object of our study was the core sample from Ivashkinskaya lagoon (Lena Delta, Sakha Republic). Pyrolytic studies were performed for this core sample (ROCK- EVAL 6 TURBO). According to the pyrolysis results there were 5 samples from the upper section in the range 0.36-5.58m selected for the further studies. The common feature of these samples is high content level of the pelitic component. They contain more than 1.0% of TOC and are composed of volatile organic compounds. Extracts obtained from the core sample were analyzed by GC-MS («Hewlett Packard» 6890/5973). Analyzed extracts demonstrated different classes of organic compounds in their composition with saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons and acids dominating. Here are the histograms of n-alkanes in function of the carbon atoms number in the molecule (Figure). Considering our work experience with the Black Sea sediments we suggest that the samples with a high degree of even n-alkanes are confined to zones of petroleum hydrocarbons migration coming from the deep oil deposits. Figure. Typical n-alkanes distribution in the extracts (horizontal axis - the number of carbon atoms in the molecule, vertical axis - relative abundance)

  6. Arsenic cycling in hydrocarbon plumes: secondary effects of natural attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Schreiber, Madeline E.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Ziegler, Brady A.

    2016-01-01

    Monitored natural attenuation is widely applied as a remediation strategy at hydrocarbon spill sites. Natural attenuation relies on biodegradation of hydrocarbons coupled with reduction of electron acceptors, including solid phase ferric iron (Fe(III)). Because arsenic (As) adsorbs to Fe-hydroxides, a potential secondary effect of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons coupled with Fe(III) reduction is a release of naturally occurring As to groundwater. At a crude-oil-contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota, anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons coupled to Fe(III) reduction has been well documented. We collected groundwater samples at the site annually from 2009 to 2013 to examine if As is released to groundwater and, if so, to document relationships between As and Fe inside and outside of the dissolved hydrocarbon plume. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater in the plume reached 230 µg/L, whereas groundwater outside the plume contained less than 5 µg/L As. Combined with previous data from the Bemidji site, our results suggest that (1) naturally occurring As is associated with Fe-hydroxides present in the glacially derived aquifer sediments; (2) introduction of hydrocarbons results in reduction of Fe-hydroxides, releasing As and Fe to groundwater; (3) at the leading edge of the plume, As and Fe are removed from groundwater and retained on sediments; and (4) downgradient from the plume, patterns of As and Fe in groundwater are similar to background. We develop a conceptual model of secondary As release due to natural attenuation of hydrocarbons that can be applied to other sites where an influx of biodegradable organic carbon promotes Fe(III) reduction.

  7. From places to flows. International secondary migration and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Frank, John W; Glazier, Richard H

    2010-11-01

    Research on the health status of international migrants to industrialised countries in general, and on perinatal outcomes in particular, has assumed an interpretative model based on primary migration, characterised by one permanent cross-border movement from the migrant's country of birth. However, many migrants experience more complex migration patterns that may also be associated with human health. Secondary migration, defined as a migration from a country of residence other than the country where the immigrant was born, has been growing during the last two decades, favoured by globalisation. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between secondary migration and preterm birth (PTB) and infant birthweight at term (BW) using a Canadian official immigration database to build a cohort of immigrants to Ontario, Canada, who obtained their permanent residence in the years 1985-2000. The study population comprised 320,398 singleton live infants born to immigrant women during 1988-2007. Primary and secondary migrants were categorised according to whether they were born in an industrialised country or not. Secondary migrants were further subdivided according to whether the country from which they migrated to Canada was industrialised or not. We found that compared to primary migrants, secondary migrants to Canada born in non-industrialised countries had lower odds of PTB and higher mean BW at term. However, such a protective effect was not observed among secondary migrants born in industrialised countries. In a cross-classified multilevel model restricted to secondary migrants, 5.2% of the variation in birthweight was explained by migrants' countries of birth and 0.8% by migrants' countries of last permanent residence. These findings are consistent with the so-called healthy migrant effect, implying that selective migration from non-industrialised countries is associated with protective individual characteristics. PMID:20850920

  8. Hydrocarbon solubility and its migration processes: a look at the present status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, C.K.; Ohkuma, H.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1985-12-01

    In this study we review the present status of knowledge of solubility of hydrocarbons and its implications on primary migration processes. The intent is to examine the solubility and the transportation mechanisms relevant to geopressured-geothermal reservoirs, although the discussion included here accommodates a wide range of related aspects. Influences of parameters associated with hydrocarbon (especially methane) solubility have been studied. We have sought to evaluate several primary hydrocarbon migration processes and to point out their attractive features as well as their limitations. A brief discussion of hydrocarbon generation processes is also included.

  9. Steering proton migration in hydrocarbons using intense few-cycle laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kübel, M; Burger, C; Kling, Nora G; Li, H; Alnaser, A S; Bergues, B; Zherebtsov, S; Azzeer, A M; Ben-Itzhak, I; Moshammer, R; de Vivie-Riedle, R; Kling, M F

    2015-01-01

    Proton migration is a ubiquitous process in chemical reactions related to biology, combustion, and catalysis. Thus, the ability to control the movement of nuclei with tailored light, within a hydrocarbon molecule holds promise for far-reaching applications. Here, we demonstrate the steering of hydrogen migration in simple hydrocarbons, namely acetylene and allene, using waveform-controlled, few-cycle laser pulses. The rearrangement dynamics are monitored using coincident 3D momentum imaging spectroscopy, and described with a quantum-dynamical model. Our observations reveal that the underlying control mechanism is due to the manipulation of the phases in a vibrational wavepacket by the intense off-resonant laser field.

  10. Dating hydrocarbon genera-tion and migration based on bitumen reflectance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of thermal maturation theories of organic matter in sediments and an improved Karweil's method, a method for dating hydrocarbon generation and migration by means of bitumen reflectance has been suggested. A few representative boreholes in the Tazhong Area of the Tarim Basin was investigated by this method. The results indicate that the three phases of bitumen from the Tazhong Area formed during Middle and Late Ordovician, Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary, and Late Tertiary, respectively. This implicates that there were three phases of hydrocarbon generation and migration occurring in this area during geological history. This study provided a new idea for the geological application of geochemical data of bitumen.

  11. The performance of ammonium exchanged zeolite for the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons migrating in soil water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoff W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2016-08-01

    Nitrogen deficiency has been identified as the main inhibiting factor for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in low nutrient environments. This study examines the performance of ammonium exchanged zeolite to enhance biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons migrating in soil water within laboratory scale flow cells. Biofilm formation and biodegradation were accelerated by the exchange of cations in soil water with ammonium in the pores of the exchanged zeolite when compared with natural zeolite flow cells. These results have implications for sequenced permeable reactive barrier design and the longevity of media performance within such barriers at petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites deficient in essential soil nutrients. PMID:27132074

  12. Kinetic simulating experiment on the secondary hydrocarbon generation of kerogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of generation have been obtained for different hydrocarbon classes, including methane, C2-C5 gas hydrocarbons, C6-C13 light hydrocarbons and C13+ heavy hydrocarbons, and vitrinite reflectance (Ro) by the kinetic simulating experiment of kerogen cracking. Then, combined with the detailed geology of Sichuan Basin, the effective gas-generating intensity of the Lower Cambrian source rock is approximately estimated by applying these parameters.

  13. Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 3. Cheese coatings and temporary casings for skinless sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, L; Kelly, M; Gilbert, J

    1993-01-01

    Levels of mineral hydrocarbons which have migrated from wax coatings into cheese have been determined for 20 retail samples using a gas chromatographic procedure. Contamination was limited to the outermost 2 mm of cheese in direct contact with the wax where levels of hydrocarbons were found to range from 10 to 150 mg/kg. On a whole cheese weight basis these amounted to sausages. Of 33 retail products examined, including skinless sausages, hot-dog sausages and frankfurters, 25 (75%) contained levels of mineral hydrocarbons from 10 to 105 mg/kg. These hydrocarbons were shown to be present principally at the surface of the food and so could be attributed to migration. Nine other minced meat products were examined for comparison, including minced beef, pâté, sausage meat and sausages with skins. Levels of mineral oil in these products were insignificant by comparison, typically below the limit of detection of ca 4 mg/kg, indicating insignificant adventitious contamination from routes other than migration.

  14. Steering of hydrogen migration in hydrocarbons using intense few-cycle laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Kuebel, Matthias; Burger, Christian; Kling, Nora; Foerg, Benjamin; Zherebtsov, Sergey; Kling, Matthias; Kaziannis, Spyros; Siemering, Robert; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina; Stierle, Johannes; Kessel, Alexander; Betsch, Kelsie; Bergues, Boris; Trushin, Sergei; Alnaser, Ali; Azzeer, Abdallah; Ben-Itzhak, Itzik; Moshammer, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Structural rearrangements in hydrocarbons, namely acetylene, allene and toluene, are initiated by phase- and intensity-controlled few-cycle laser pulses. The momentum distributions of several ionic fragments are monitored using single-shot VMI and COLTRIMS. The results show that the hydrogen migration in these hydrocarbons can be steered by changing the CEP and the intensity of the few-cycle pulses. Quantum dynamical calculations performed on acetylene and allene show that a superposition of vibrational modes can be created by wave-form controlled few-cycle laser fields, which will result in a directionality of the hydrogen migration. This mechanism, which appears to be of general importance for such complex molecules, should also be able to explain the molecular dynamics observed in toluene.

  15. Importance des phénomènes de migration verticale des hydrocarbures Significance of Vertical Migration Phenomea of Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiarelle A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette publication a pour but de démonter les mécanismes de migration verticale des hydrocarbures et d'en analyser les conséquences, à partir d'exemples concrets choisis sur les domaines d'activité de la Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (Production [SNEA (PJ. Les hydrocarbures, huile et gaz, rassemblés en phase individualisée évoluent dans un milieu poreux, fin, généralement mouillé à l'eau. Dans un tel environnement la migration suppose des pressions capillaires élevées. On démontre que cette condition se realise plus particulièrement sur Ies zones hautes fermées où les élements d'hydrocarbures expulses de la roche mère peuvent se rassembler en amas de taille importante, développant une forte poussee d'Archimède. De même le gaz, du fait de sa masse volumique faible par rapport à celle de l'eau, manifestera une grande aptitude à la migration verticale, ce qui conduira souvent à une redistribution verticale des hydrocarbures non conforme au schéma diagénétique classique : présence d'un gisement de gaz en surface et huile en profondeur. Combinés à l'effet Gussow, phénomène de refoulement de l'huile par le gaz hors de la fermeture critique d'une structure, les processus envisagés ici, où tes accidents tectoniques tiennent une place importante, aboutiront généralement à sil: aerer spatialement l'huile et le gaz. Ces transferts semblent s'accompagner fréquemment de modifications dans la composition chimique des huiles : augmentation des teneurs en soufre, en métaux traces, en hydrocarbures aromatiques, et alourdissement des huiles The purpose of this article is ta described the vertical migration mechanisms of hydrocarbons and to analyze their conséquences, on the basis of concrete examples selected in the fields of activities carried on by Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (SNEA. When hydrocarbons (ai( and gas are gathered in a distinct phase, they evolve in a fine porous medium that is usually water wet. In

  16. Numerical modeling of compositional variation in petroleum secondary migration; Modelagem numerica da variacao composicional na migracao secundaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcia Santos de Almeida

    1999-07-01

    The secondary migration of petroleum is analyzed in this study from a compositional perspective, with phase separation, using a numerical simulator. The modeling is focused on two different geologic scenarios, where migration occurs along the formation rocks or through a fault. Each scenario is initialized with a single-phase hydrocarbon bank, with mixtures defined in the oil and gas zones and in the proximity of the critical point in their respective phase envelopes. These fluids are obtained using a PVT simulator based on four samples (Black-oil, volatile oil and two retrograde gases) which generate various hydrocarbon mixtures from which some are selected to meet the pressure and temperature conditions established for the models. The results obtained indicate that the phase separation process, the migration and the oil and gas differences are adequately represented, and that this type of modeling may be used to explain complex fluid distribution in a single accumulation or petroleum province. However, the analysis of post-filling processes indicate the need for the inclusion of a diffusive term in the flow equations used in the simulator and for a higher precision in the fluid properties outputs. (author)

  17. An endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand inhibits proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Li, Yan; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Dai, Cai-Feng; Patankar, Manish S; Song, Jia-Sheng; Zheng, Jing

    2013-10-28

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor mediates many biological processes. Herein, we investigated if 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE, an endogenous AhR ligand) regulated proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells via AhR. We found that AhR was widely present in many histotypes of ovarian cancer tissues. ITE suppressed OVCAR-3 cell proliferation and SKOV-3 cell migration in vitro, which were blocked by AhR knockdown. ITE also suppressed OVCAR-3 cell growth in mice. These data suggest that the ITE might potentially be used for therapeutic intervention for at least a subset of human ovarian cancer.

  18. Origin and migration of hydrocarbon gases and carbon dioxide, Bekes Basin, southeastern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, J.L.; Spencer, C.W.; Koncz, I.; Szalay, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Bekes Basin is a sub-basin within the Pannonian Basin, containing about 7000 m of post-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Natural gases are produced from reservoirs (Precambrian to Tertiary in age) located on structural highs around the margins of the basin. Gas composition and stable carbon isotopic data indicate that most of the flammable gases were derived from humic kerogen contained in source rocks located in the deep basin. The depth of gas generation and vertical migration distances were estimated using quantitative source rock maturity-carbon isotope relationships for methane compared to known Neogene source rock maturity-depth relationships in the basin. These calculations indicate that as much as 3500 m of vertical migration has occured in some cases. Isotopically heavy (> - 7 > 0) CO2 is the predominant species present in some shallow reservoirs located on basin-margin structural highs and has probably been derived via long-distance vertical and lateral migration from thermal decompositon of carbonate minerals in Mesozoic and older rocks in the deepest parts of the basin. A few shallow reservoirs (isotopically light (-50 to -60%0) methane with only minor amounts of C2+ homologs (< 3% v/v). This methane is probably mostly microbial in origin. Above-normal pressures, occuring at depths greater than 1800 m, are believed to be the principal driving force for lateral and vertical gas migration. These pressures are caused in part by active hydrocarbon generation, undercompaction, and thermal decomposition of carbonates. 

  19. Estimate Secondary Oil Migration Distance Using Pyrrolic Nitrogen Compounds in Petroleum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Maowen

    1997-01-01

    @@ Secondary oil migration represents one of the most important, yet least understood, geological processes responsible for the petroleum accumulation in a sedimentary basin. During secondary migration, petroleum moves updip as high-petroleum saturation rivers driven largely by buoyancy over migration distances ranging from millimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Mass balance calculations indicate that the oil-saturated portions of the carrier bed are in the order of 1%~10% of the carrier bed volume. In most cases, however, the actual dimensions of migration conduits cannot be defined by direct observation,thus preventing useful volumetric estimates of oil charges to structures, or prospect-scale deterministic modeling of secondary migration for predictive purpose.

  20. Fracturing controlled primary migration of hydrocarbon fluids during heating of organic-rich shales

    CERN Document Server

    Kobchenko, Maya; Renard, Francois; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Malthe-Sorenssen, Anders; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheibert, Julien; Jamtveit, Bjorn; Meakin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Time-resolved three-dimensional in situ high resolution synchrotron x-ray tomographic imaging was used to investigate the effects of slowly heating organic-rich Green River Shale from 60\\deg; to 400\\deg;C, in air without confinement, to better understand primary migration of hydrocarbon fluids in very low permeability source rock. Cracks nucleate in the interior of the sample at a temperature around 350\\deg;C. As the temperature increases, they grow and coalesce along lamination planes to form bigger cracks. This process is accompanied by a release of light hydrocarbons generated by decomposition of the initially immature organic matter, as determined by thermogravimetry and gas chromatography. These results provide the first 4D monitoring of an invasion percolation-like fracturing process in organic-rich shales. This process increases the permeability of the sample and provides pathways for fluid expulsion - an effect that might also be relevant for primary migration under natural conditions. We propose a 2D...

  1. Kinetic simulating experiment on the secondary hydrocarbon generation of kerogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG; Yongqiang

    2002-01-01

    [1]Magoon, L. B., Dow, W. G., The petroleum system, in The Petroleum System--from Source to Trap (eds., Magoon, L. B., Dow, W. G..), AAPG Memoir 60, 1994, 3-24.[2]Ungerer, P., Pelet, R., Extrapolation of oil and gas formation kinetics from laboratory experiments to sedimentary basins, Nature, 1987, 327: 52-54.[3]Behar, F., Kressmann, S., Vandenbroucke, M. et al., Experimental simulation in a confined system and kinetic modelling of kerogen and oil cracking, Org. Geochem., 1991, 19: 173-189.[4]Behar, F., Vandenbroucke, M., Tang, Y. et al., Thermal cracking of kerogen in open and closed systems: determination of kinetic parameters and stoichiometric coefficients for oil and gas generation, Org. Geochem, 1997, 26(5/6): 321-339.[5]Waples, D. W., Time and temperture in petroleum exploration: application of Lopatin's method to petroleum exploration, AAPG Bulletin, 1980, 64: 916-926.[6]Dai, H. M., Wang, S. Y., Wang, H. Q. et al., Formation characteristics of natural gas reservoirs and favorable exploration areas in Sinian-Cambrian, Petroleum Exploration and Development (in Chinese), 1999, 26(5): 16-20.[7]Editorial Committee of Petroleum Geology of China Petroleum, Petroleum Geology of China, Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press, 1989.[8]Liu, J. Z., Tang, Y. C., One example of predicting methane generation yield by hydrocarbon generating kinetics, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1998, 43(11): 1187-1191.[9]Wang, J., Huang, S. Y., Huang, G. S. et al., Basic Characteristics of the Earth's Temperature Distribution in China (in Chinese), Beijing: Seismological Press, 1990.[10]Wang, Y. G., Yu X. F., Yang Y. et al., Applications of fluid inclusions in the study of paleogeotemperature in Sichuan Basin, Earth Science--Journal of China University of Geosciences (in Chinese), 1998, 23(3): 285-288.[11]Wu, D. M., Wu, N. L., Gao, J. J., The study of paleogeotemperature in Shichuan Basin and their geological significance, Acta Petroleum Sinica (in

  2. Novel Approach for Evaluating Secondary Organic Aerosol from Aromatic Hydrocarbons: SOA Yield and Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Tang, Ping; Nakao, Shunsuke; Qi, Li; Kacarab, Mary; Cocker, David

    2016-04-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons account for 20%-30% of urban atmospheric VOCs and are major contributors to anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, prediction of SOA from aromatic hydrocarbons as a function of structure, NOx concentration, and OH radical levels remains elusive. Innovative SOA yield and chemical composition evaluation approaches are developed here to investigate SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons. SOA yield is redefined in this work by adjusting the molecular weight of all aromatic precursors to the molecular weight of benzene (Yield'= Yieldi×(MWi/MWBenzene); i: aromatic hydrocarbon precursor). Further, SOA elemental ratio is calculated on an aromatic ring basis rather than the classic mole basis. Unified and unique characteristics in SOA formed from aromatic hydrocarbons with different alkyl groups (varying in carbon number and location on aromatic ring) are explored by revisiting fifteen years of UC Riverside/CE-CERT environmental chamber data on 129 experiments from 17 aromatic precursors at urban region relevant low NOx conditions (HC:NO 11.1-171 ppbC:ppb). Traditionally, SOA mass yield of benzene is much greater than that of other aromatic species. However, when adjusting for molecular weight, a similar yield is found across the 17 different aromatic precursors. More importantly, four oxygens per aromatic ring are observed in the resulting SOA regardless of the alkyl substitutes attached to the ring, which majorly affect H/C ratio in SOA. Therefore, resulting SOA bulk composition from aromatic hydrocarbons can be predicted as C6+nH6+2nO4 (n: alkyl substitute carbon number). Further, the dominating role of the aromatic ring carbons is confirmed by studying the chemical composition of SOA formed from the photooxidation of an aromatic hydrocarbon with a 13C isotopically labeled alkyl carbon. Overall, this study unveils the similarity in SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons enhancing the understanding of SOA formation from

  3. Analysis of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons migrating from a polyolefin-based hot-melt adhesive into food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommatzsch, Martin; Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni; Simat, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Hot-melt adhesives are widely utilised to glue cardboard boxes used as food packaging material. They have to comply with the requirements of Article 3 of the European Framework Regulation for food contact materials (1935/2004). The hot melt raw materials analysed mainly consisted of paraffinic waxes, hydrocarbon resins and polyolefins. The hydrocarbon resins, functioning as tackifiers, were the predominant source of hydrocarbons of sufficient volatility to migrate into dry foods: the 18 hydrocarbon resins analysed contained 8.2-118 g kg(-1) saturated and up to 59 g kg(-1) aromatic hydrocarbons eluted from GC between n-C16 and n-C24, substantially more than the paraffinic waxes and the polyolefins. These tackfier resins, especially the oligomers ≤ C24, have been characterised structurally by GC×GC-MS and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Migration into food was estimated using a simulating system with polenta as food simulant, which was verified by the analysis of a commercial risotto rice sample packed in a virgin fibre folding box sealed with a hot melt. About 0.5-1.5% of the potentially migrating substances (between n-C16 and n-C24) of a hot melt were found to be transferred into food under storage conditions, which can result in a food contamination in the order of 1 mg kg(-1) food (depending on the amount of potentially migrating substances from the hot melt, the hot melt surface, amount of food, contact time etc.). Migrates from hot melts are easily mistaken for mineral oil hydrocarbons from recycled cardboard.

  4. Nitrogen isotope geochemistry of organic matter and minerals during diagenesis and hydrocarbon migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynda B.; Ferrell, Ray E., Jr.; Hutcheon, Ian; Bakel, Allen J.; Walsh, Maud M.; Krouse, H. Roy

    1995-02-01

    The magnitude of isotopic variations between organic and inorganic nitrogen was examined in samples from three stacked hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Fordoche Field (Louisiana Gulf Coast Basin, USA). Measurements were made of δ 15N in kerogen, bitumen, oil, formation water, and fixed-NH 4 extracted from mudstones, nonproductive sandstones, and productive sandstones. Nitrogen isotope fractionation occurs because 14N is released preferentially to 15N from organic molecules during thermal maturation. Released 14N goes into solution, or may be adsorbed by minerals, leaving crude oil enriched in 15N. Diagenetic clay minerals (e.g., illite) commonly form in the temperature range of hydrocarbon generation, and NH 4+ may be fixed in clay interlayers with an isotopic ratio similar to that of the migrating fluids. Results indicate that the influence of organic matter on mineral δ 15N depends on the timing of authigenic mineral formation relative to fluid migration. The average δ 15N of kerogen (3.2 ± 0.3‰) and fixed-NH 4 from mudstones (3.0 ± 1.4) is similar, while bitumen increases from +3.5 to +5.1‰ with depth. In deep reservoir sandstones (>100°C), the δ 15N of crude oil averages +5.2 ± 0.4‰, similar to the δ 15N of bitumen in the proposed source rocks. Formation waters are 14N-enriched with an average δ 15N of -2.2 ± 2.6‰. Fixed-NH 4 δ 15N values lie between that of the oil and water. The average δ 15N of fixed-NH 4 is 3.0 ± 1.2‰ in productive sandstones, and 0.2 ± 2.4‰ innonproductive sandstones. In the shallower reservoir sandstones (presently associated fluids. Productive and nonproductive sandstones have distinctly low average δ 15N values (-1.2 ± 0.8‰), yet crude oil (+11.1 ± 0.3‰) and water (+3.8 ± 0.1‰) have been 15N-enriched by ˜6‰ relative to the deeper reservoirs. This suggests that the present fluids migrated into the reservoir after authigenic illite had formed. Fluids become enriched in 15N during migration and the

  5. Mobile and immobile migrated hydrocarbons in the Embla Field, North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharati, Sunil

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with the geology of the Embla Field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. This field has proven to be an excellent example to apply some of the recent ideas in reservoir geochemistry and has provided a sample set. Although the Embla field is in one of the most prolific regions of the Norwegian Continental Shelf, the Central Graben, its petroleum population is significantly different from neighbouring fields in more than one way. It is hoped that this work will provide a useful database for the planning of Embla`s further development. Migrated hydrocarbons are evaluated with respect to composition, maturity, intra-reservoir communication, compartmentalization and filling history of the field. The presence of immobile solid reservoir bitumen phase (paleo-oil) is mapped and explained and its origin and implications on overall reservoir quality are discussed. 206 refs., 118 figs., 34 tabs.

  6. Use of Invasion Percolation Models To Study the Secondary Migration of Oil and Related Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.

    1997-12-31

    This thesis studies simulations of the slow displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting fluid in porous media and in a single fracture. The simulations are based on the invasion percolation model. New modified versions of the model are presented that simulate migration, fragmentation and coalescence processes of the clusters of non-wetting fluid. The resulting displacement patterns are characterized by scaling laws. In particular, simulations of the secondary migration of oil through porous homogeneous rock are discussed. Fractured rocks are extreme cases of inhomogeneous porous media. Simulations of the slow displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting fluid in a single fracture using the standard invasion model are presented. There is a discussion of a scenario in which a cluster of non-wetting fluid migrates through a porous medium that was saturated with a wetting fluid. The migration is driven by continuously driven buoyancy forces. Both experiments and simulations are described. The same scenario is also studied theoretically and by simulations using a simplified percolation model of fluid migration in one dimension. The migration model in two dimensions, with constant buoyancy forces, is also discussed. Simulations of fluid migration, such as the secondary migration of oil, in two- and three-dimensional media are examined, the media having multi-affine properties rather than being homogeneous. Slow immiscible displacement processes in single fractures are studied using fractal geometries to model single fractures. 167 refs., 123 figs.

  7. A 4D synchrotron X-ray tomography study of the formation of hydrocarbon migration pathways in heated organic-rich shale

    OpenAIRE

    Panahi, Hamed; Kobchenko, Maya; RENARD, Francois; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheibert, Julien; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjorn; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Meakin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes that have received renewed interests in recent years because of the ever tightening supply of conventional hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models for conversion of kerogen into oil and gas and the timing of hydrocarbon generation have been well documented. However, lack of consensus about the kinetics of hydroca...

  8. A 4D synchrotron X-ray tomography study of the formation of hydrocarbon migration pathways in heated organic-rich shale

    CERN Document Server

    Panahi, Hamed; Renard, Francois; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheibert, Julien; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjorn; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Meakin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes that have received renewed interests in recent years because of the ever tightening supply of conventional hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models for conversion of kerogen into oil and gas and the timing of hydrocarbon generation have been well documented. However, lack of consensus about the kinetics of hydrocarbon formation in source rocks, expulsion timing and how the resulting hydrocarbons escape from or are retained in the source rocks motivates further investigation. In particular, many mechanisms for the transport of hydrocarbons from the source rocks in which they are generated into adjacent rocks with higher permeabilities and smaller capillary entry pressures have been proposed, and a better understanding of this complex process (primary migration) is needed. To characterize these processes it is imperative to use the ...

  9. Use of Invasion Percolation Models To Study the Secondary Migration of Oil and Related Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.

    1997-09-01

    In oil reservoir engineering, multi-phase displacement processes are important. This doctoral thesis describes simulations of the slow displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting fluid in a complex, random porous medium and in a single fracture. The study is restricted to two-phase flow in the quasi-static limit in which viscous forces can be neglected. The secondary migration of oil takes place in this regime, however, the discussion is broader in scope. The thesis connects the problem of slow two-phase flow to percolation theory and discusses the mechanisms that control immiscible displacements. A new, modified version of the invasion percolation model is used to simulate an imbibition process in a porous medium and the migration of a cluster of non-wetting fluid through a porous medium saturated with a wetting fluid. The simulations include the secondary migration of oil through porous homogeneous rock. Fluid migration through heterogeneous porous media is simulated qualitatively. Slow displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting fluid in a single rock fracture is simulated by using the standard invasion percolation model. Experiments and simulations are performed to study the fragmentation of invasion percolation-like structures of non-wetting fluid in a porous medium saturated with a wetting fluid. A scenario is studied in which a cluster of non-wettable fluid migrates through a porous medium that is saturated with a wetting fluid, the migration being driven by continuously increasing buoyancy forces. There is a simulation of the secondary migration of oil in both two- and three-dimensional media. 361 refs., 115 figs.

  10. An Assessment of Risk of Migration of Hydrocarbons or Fracturing Fluids to Fresh Water Aquifers: Wattenberg Field, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustes, A. W.; Fleckenstein, W. W.; Stone, C.; Howell, P.

    2015-12-01

    The United States National Science Foundation, engaging 29 researchers at nine institutions, has funded a Sustainability Research Network (SRN) focused on natural gas development. The mission of this Sustainability Research Network is to provide a logical, science-based framework for evaluating the environmental, economic, and social trade-offs between development of natural gas resources and protection of water and air resources and to convey the results of these evaluations to the public in a way that improves the development of policies and regulations governing natural gas and oil development. Currently, there are a wide range of estimates of the probability of shallow aquifer contamination. There are a series of independent events that must occur to allow hydrocarbon migration and estimates were made of these probabilities. An analysis of data from drilling in the Wattenberg field, CO was made to quantify the probability of contamination. It has been determined that there are five events that must each independently happen to allow the migration of fracturing fluids, and there are three events that must occur independently for the migration of hydrocarbons. The lower number of independent events, which must arise for hydrocarbon migration to occur, explains the infrequent, but well publicized natural gas migrations in poorly constructed wellbores, and the lack of such publicized events of hydraulic fracturing fluid contamination, which was confirmed by our analysis. The significance of these results is to help quantify the risks associated with natural gas development, as related to the contamination of surface aquifers. These results will help shape the discussion of the risks of natural gas development and will assist in identifying areas of improved well construction and hydraulic fracturing practices to minimize risk.

  11. Contribution of First- versus Second-Generation Products to Secondary Organic Aerosols Formed in the Oxidation of Biogenic Hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Nga L.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Keywood, Melita D.; Bahreini, Roya; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Lee, Anita; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic hydrocarbons emitted by vegetation are important contributors to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but the aerosol formation mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, the formation of aerosols and gas-phase products from the ozonolysis and photooxidation of a series of biogenic hydrocarbons (isoprene, 8 monoterpenes, 4 sesquiterpenes, and 3 oxygenated terpenes) are examined. By comparing aerosol growth (measured by Differential Mobility Analyzers, DMAs) and gas-phase conc...

  12. Tectonic stress field and its effect on hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in Mesozoic and Cenozoic in Kuqa depression, Tarim basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG; Lianbo; TAN; Chengxuan; ZHANG; Mingli

    2004-01-01

    Through rock acoustic emission experiments and structural deformation analysis, the tectonic stages in Meso-Cenozoic in the Kuqa depression of the Tarim basin are firstly divided. Then, combining with rock magnetic fabric analysis and memory information, the distribution characteristics of tectonic stress field of every tectonic stage are quantificationally resumed. At the same time, according to the distribution relation of tectonic stress field of hydrocarbon formation stage by the finite element numerical simulation method and the known hydrocarbon reservoirs, the effects of tectonic stress field on hydrocarbon migration and accumulation are further analyzed. The Kuqa depression has mainly experienced six tectonic movements since Mesozoic. Except that the tectonic stress field of the Early Yanshan stage (208-135 Ma) showed northeast-southwest extensional stress field where the orientation of the maximum principal compressive stress (σ1) was northwest-southeast, the others were compressive stress field where the orientations of the maximum principal compressive stress (σ1) were near north-south. Along with the closure of the paleo-Tethys ocean, the Kuqa depression in the Indosinian stage (250-208 Ma) was in strong compressive circumstance with apparently big maximum principal stress (σ1) magnitude. Due to the equilibrium adjustment of interior Eurasia, the Kuqa depression in the Early Yanshan stage (208-135 Ma) was in weak extensional circumstance with apparently small maximum principal stress (σ1) magnitude. From the Late Yanshan stage (135-65 Ma) on, with a series of collision events occurring at the south edge of Eurasia, the Kuqa depression was in compressive circumstance again in which the maximum principal stress (σ1) magnitude was from small to big in turn. The Late Himalayan stage (2.6-0.7 Ma) was the main tectonic deformation stage with the biggest principal compressive stress (σ1) magnitude. Tectonic stress field plays a dominant role in

  13. Secondary Vesical Calculus Resulting from Migration of an Intrauterine Contraceptive Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarna Vagholkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD is the commonest form of contraception used in view of less systemic side effects. However, there are a multitude of local complications caused by it. Of all the local complications described, migration of the device into adjacent organs is the most morbid of all complications. A patient presenting with history of loss or disappearance of the intrauterine contraceptive device accompanied by urinary symptoms should raise the doubt of a migrated device with the formation of a secondary calculus. This prompts further radiological investigations and merits surgical intervention either endourologically or by open surgery depending upon the merits of the case. A case report elucidating this fact is presented.

  14. Seismic imaging and analysis of source and migration within an integrated hydrocarbon system study: Northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Oliver P.; Hood, Kenneth C.; Harrison, Stanley C. [Exxon Exploration Co., Houston, TX (United States); Wenger, Lloyd M. [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The sources for hydrocarbons in young Tertiary reservoirs of the offshore Gulf of Mexico have been enigmatic in the past due to the lack of source rock penetration in offshore drilling. Exxon formed a multidisciplinary team to address source, maturation, and migration in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The study was initiated in a pilot area east of the Mississippi River Delta where the complete hydrocarbon system can be seismically imaged, then expanded to the west across much of the shelf and slope. Hydrocarbons from seeps and reservoirs were geochemically characterized across the entire northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, and direct oil to source rock correlations were made both offshore (in pilot area) and onshore. Modern 2-D and 3-D seismic was used to develop a geologic framework and to map potential offshore source intervals. The major sources identified offshore are centered on the Eocene, Turonian, Tithonian, and Oxfordian, and correspond to second-order sequence stratigraphic transgressions. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. A Study of the Migration and Accumulation Efficiency and the Genesis of Hydrocarbon Natural Gas in the Xujiaweizi Fault Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jijun; LU Shuangfang; XUE Haitao; HUO Qiuli; XU Qingxia

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the migration and accumulation efficiency of hydrocarbon natural gas in the Xujiaweizi fault depression, and to provide new evidence for the classification of its genesis, a source rock pyrolysis experiment in a closed system was designed and carried out. Based on this, kinetic models for describing gas generation from organic matter and carbon isotope fractionation during this process were established, calibrated and then extrapolated to geologic conditions by combining the thermal history data of the Xushen-1 Well. The results indicate that the coal measures in the Xujiaweizi fault depression are typical "high-efficiency gas sources", the natural gas generated from them has a high migration and accumulation efficiency, and consequently a large-scale natural gas accumulation occurred in the area. The highly/over matured coal measures in the Xujiaweizi fault depression generate coaliferons gas with a high δ13C1 value (> -20‰) at the late stage, making the carbon isotope composition of organic alkane gases abnormally heavy. In addition, the mixing and dissipation through the caprock of natural gas can result in the negative carbon isotope sequence (δ13C1 >δ13C2 >δ13C3 >δ13C4) of organic alkane gases, and the dissipation can also lead to the abnormally heavy carbon isotope composition of organic alkane gases. As for the discovery of inorganic nonhydrocarbon gas reservoirs, it can only serve as an accessorial evidence rather than a direct evidence that the hydrocarbon gas is inorganic. As a result, it needs stronger evidence to classify the hydrocarbon natural gas in the Xujiaweizi fault depression as inorganic gas.

  16. Modelling the hydrocarbon generation and migration in the West Netherlands Basin, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, R.T. van; Bergen, F. van; Leeuw, C. de; Pagnier, H.; Simmelink, H.; Wees, J.D. van; Verweij, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The hydrocarbon systems of the Mesozoic, inverted West Netherlands Basin have been analyzed using 2-D forward modelling. Three source rocks are considered in the modelling: Lower Jurassic oil-prone shales, Westphalian gas-prone coal deposits, and Lower Namurian oil-prone shales. The Lower Namurian h

  17. Impact of molecular structure on secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbon photooxidation under low-NOx conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Tang, Ping; Nakao, Shunsuke; Cocker, David R., III

    2016-08-01

    The molecular structure of volatile organic compounds determines their oxidation pathway, directly impacting secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. This study comprehensively investigates the impact of molecular structure on SOA formation from the photooxidation of 12 different eight- to nine-carbon aromatic hydrocarbons under low-NOx conditions. The effects of the alkyl substitute number, location, carbon chain length and branching structure on the photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons are demonstrated by analyzing SOA yield, chemical composition and physical properties. Aromatic hydrocarbons, categorized into five groups, show a yield order of ortho (o-xylene and o-ethyltoluene) > one substitute (ethylbenzene, propylbenzene and isopropylbenzene) > meta (m-xylene and m-ethyltoluene) > three substitute (trimethylbenzenes) > para (p-xylene and p-ethyltoluene). SOA yields of aromatic hydrocarbon photooxidation do not monotonically decrease when increasing alkyl substitute number. The ortho position promotes SOA formation while the para position suppresses aromatic oxidation and SOA formation. Observed SOA chemical composition and volatility confirm that higher yield is associated with further oxidation. SOA chemical composition also suggests that aromatic oxidation increases with increasing alkyl substitute chain length and branching structure. Further, carbon dilution conjecture developed by Li et al. (2016) is extended in this study to serve as a standard method to determine the extent of oxidation of an alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbon.

  18. Vertical migration through faults and hydrocarbon accumulation patterns in deepwater areas of the Qiongdongnan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhenfeng; LIU Zhen; CAO Shang; SUN Zhipeng; ZUO Qianmei; WANG Yahui; HE Weijun

    2014-01-01

    In the Qiongdongnan Basin, faults are well developed.Based on the drilling results, the traps controlled two or more faults are oil-rich. However, when only one fault cut through the sand body, there is no sign for hy-drocarbon accumulation in the sandstone. In terms of this phenomenon, the principle of reservoir-forming controlled by fault terrace is proposed, i.e., when the single fault activates, because of the incompressibility of pore water, the resistance of pore and the direction of buoyancy, it is impossible for hydrocarbon to ac-cumulate in sandstone. But when there are two or more faults, one of the faults acts as the spillway so the hydrocarbon could fill in the pore of sandstone through other faults. In total five gas bearing structures and four failure traps are considered, as examples to demonstrate our findings. According to this theory, it is well-advised that south steep slope zone of Baodao-Changchang Depression, south gentle slope zone of Lingshui Depression, north steep slope zone of Lingshui Depression, and north steep slope zone of Baodao Depression are the most favorable step-fault zones, which are the main exploration direction in next stage.

  19. Migration of hydrocarbons in the subsoil of an industrial installation; Migration d'hydrocarbures dans le sous-sol d'une installation industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dorpe, F. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets (DCC/DESD/SEP), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues (CNRSSP), 59 - Douai (France)

    2000-07-01

    The fate of old industrial sites is a major problem at the beginning of the new millennium for government organization, agencies owning polluted sites... These brown-field sites often generate considerable pollution of soils and groundwater, the main source of drinking water. The National Center for Research on Polluted Soils and Sites (CNRSSP), in which the CEA is an active partner, is developing a strategy to study and, using several scientific tools, characterize industrial sites polluted by various contaminants: metals, metalloids, hydrocarbons, nitrates. The present study offers an example of the investigation of an old industrial site (coke plant), built in 1919 (in operation for 50 years), located in northern France. The storage of tars and wastewaters on these sites causes soil and groundwater contamination with organic compounds such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene BTEX), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phenolic and other hydrocarbons, and inorganic compounds including metalloids (free and complexed cyanides) and metals (As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Hg). The more soluble constituents tend to migrate to adjacent areas with the groundwater flow and thereby reach receptors such as drinking water resources. Among the above pollutants, the 16 PAHs from the priority list of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are of great environmental concern due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The remediation of PAH-polluted sites poses a crucial challenge given the large number of sites contaminated by these pollutants and the difficulty in eliminating the pollution. A better evaluation of the PAH transfer and transport in soils and aquifers will also help draw up remediation strategies. In this study, a numerical model, called SIMUSCOPP and developed by the French Petroleum Institute (IFP), BURGEAP and ENI group for organic pollutants, was used to simulate 3D transfer and

  20. Research on the direction of secondary migration of oil by making use of nitrogen compounds as tracers in the No. 6 area of the Melut Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Youjun; WEN Zhigang; DOU Lirong; XU Youde

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed the direction of secondary migration of oil in the No. 6 area of the Melut Basin by making use of nitrogen compounds as secondary oil migration tracers. From the results, we have found that the occurrence and compositional characteristics of isomeric-nitrogen compounds in crude oil precisely manifest the fractionation effect of oil migration: with increasing secondary migration distance, the absolute concentrations tend to decrease, and the ratio of nitrogen-shielded isomers to nitrogenexposed isomers tends to increase. It is considered that the main direction of oil migration in the No. 6 area of the Melut Basin is from north to south.

  1. CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON PRIMARY MIGRATION AND TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN CLASTIC ROCKS%碎屑岩中油气初次运移输导体系分类及特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康德江

    2009-01-01

    Studies of hydrocarbon primary migration and transport system play an important role in secondary migration, even influencing final reservoir scale. According to researches of transport system during secondary migration, from microcosmic angle, based on generation and combination of different transport channels, the primary transport system in clastic rocks has been divided into 3 types: normal, secondary and terminative. The normal transport system is composed of pore throat and kerogen network. Hydrocarbon (most miscible phase and little immiscible phase) is expelled from source rock by capillary driving force formed from hydrocarbon bulging. The secondary transport system is formed by a large quantity of secondary microcracks. High excess pressure in source rocks is the main force for immiscible hydrocarbon expelling. In the secondary transport system, hydrocarbon expelling quantity is the largest and efficiency is the highest. The terminative system is composed of intergranular cracks and residual microcracks. The low excess pressure acts as the main force. The efficiency is low and the translocation is very weak, even down to vanish. Along with changes of burial history of source rocks in basins, the normal and the secondary transport system can transform reciprocally to certain extent, whereas the terminative system means the end of perpetual close of the primary transport canals and the complete finish of transport period.%油气初次输导体系对于油气二次运移有着直接影响,甚至关系到最终油气藏规模.参照、类比烃类二次运移输导体系,从微观角度分析入手,基于不同油气微观输导通道的产生和组合形式,将碎屑岩中油气初次运移输导体系分为3类,即:正常型、次生型和终结型.正常型输导体系由烃源岩颗粒孔隙喉道和干酪根网络组成,以生烃膨胀而增大的毛细管力为主要动力,油气多以混溶相排出,少量为非混溶相;次生型输导体系由大量

  2. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    location varies. Fracturing started in the southwest deep in the stratigraphic section during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, moving northeastward and upsection as the Colville basin filled from the west. Active fracturing is occurring today in the northeastern parts of the Colville basin, north of the northeastern Brooks thrust front. Across northern Alaska, the early deep basin fractures were probably synchronous with hydrocarbon generation. Initially, these early fractures would have been good migration pathways, but would have been destroyed where subsequently overridden by the advancing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. However, at these locations younger fracture sets related to folding and thrusting could have enhanced reservoir permeability and/or served as vertical migration pathways to overlying structural traps.

  3. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of methane gas migration from decommissioned hydrocarbon production wells into shallow aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, N.; Molson, J.; Lemieux, J.-M.; Van Stempvoort, D.; Nowamooz, A.

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations are used to provide insight into the behavior of methane as it migrates from a leaky decommissioned hydrocarbon well into a shallow aquifer. The conceptual model includes gas-phase migration from a leaky well, dissolution into groundwater, advective-dispersive transport and biodegradation of the dissolved methane plume. Gas-phase migration is simulated using the DuMux multiphase simulator, while transport and fate of the dissolved phase is simulated using the BIONAPL/3D reactive transport model. Methane behavior is simulated for two conceptual models: first in a shallow confined aquifer containing a decommissioned leaky well based on a monitored field site near Lindbergh, Alberta, Canada, and secondly on a representative unconfined aquifer based loosely on the Borden, Ontario, field site. The simulations show that the Lindbergh site confined aquifer data are generally consistent with a 2 year methane leak of 2-20 m3/d, assuming anaerobic (sulfate-reducing) methane oxidation and with maximum oxidation rates of 1 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-3 kg/m3/d. Under the highest oxidation rate, dissolved methane decreased from solubility (110 mg/L) to the threshold concentration of 10 mg/L within 5 years. In the unconfined case with the same leakage rate, including both aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation, the methane plume was less extensive compared to the confined aquifer scenarios. Unconfined aquifers may therefore be less vulnerable to impacts from methane leaks along decommissioned wells. At other potential leakage sites, site-specific data on the natural background geochemistry would be necessary to make reliable predictions on the fate of methane in groundwater.

  4. Synergy between shear-induced migration and secondary flows on red blood cells transport in arteries: considerations on oxygen transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Spazzini, Pier Giorgio; Hedin, Ulf; Gasser, T Christian

    2014-08-01

    Shear-induced migration of red blood cells (RBCs) is a well-known phenomenon characterizing blood flow in the small vessels (micrometre to millimetre size) of the cardiovascular system. In large vessels, like the abdominal aorta and the carotid artery (millimetre to centimetre size), the extent of this migration and its interaction with secondary flows has not been fully elucidated. RBC migration exerts its influence primarily on platelet concentration, oxygen transport and oxygen availability at the luminal surface, which could influence vessel wall disease processes in and adjacent to the intima. Phillips' shear-induced particle migration model, coupled to the Quemada viscosity model, was employed to simulate the macroscopic behaviour of RBCs in four patient-specific geometries: a normal abdominal aorta, an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), a normal carotid bifurcation and a stenotic carotid bifurcation. Simulations show a migration of RBCs from the near-wall region with a lowering of wall haematocrit (volume fraction of RBCs) on the posterior side of the normal aorta and on the lateral-external side of the iliac arteries. A marked migration is observed on the outer wall of the carotid sinus, along the common carotid artery and in the carotid stenosis. No significant migration is observed in the AAA. The spatial and temporal patterns of wall haematocrit are correlated with the near-wall shear layer and with the secondary flows induced by the vessel curvature. In particular, secondary flows accentuate the initial lowering in RBC near-wall concentration by convecting RBCs from the inner curvature side to the outer curvature side. The results reinforce data in literature showing a decrease in oxygen partial pressure on the inner curvature wall of the carotid sinus induced by the presence of secondary flows. The lowering of wall haematocrit is postulated to induce a decrease in oxygen availability at the luminal surface through a diminished concentration of

  5. Fungal pericarditis and endocarditis secondary to porcupine quill migration in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana; Lahmers, Sunshine; Barry, Sabrina L; Stanton, James; Stern, Joshua A

    2014-12-01

    A dog evaluated for acute onset of neurologic clinical signs was discovered to have a porcupine quill traversing the left atrium with fungal endocarditis. The dog had been quilled by a porcupine one month prior to presentation and had had several quills removed from the thoracic inlet and left dorsal shoulder areas. A new murmur was identified during the initial examination. Echocardiographic changes consistent with mitral valve endocarditis were identified, in addition to a linear, hyperechoic structure in the left atrium. A thoracic CT identified a possible mediastinal migrating foreign body tract. The foreign body was surgically removed and confirmed as a porcupine quill. Routine aerobic cultures of blood and pericardial samples resulted in growth of presumptive candidal organisms. PCR amplification and sequencing of samples from pericardial cultures identified the presence of a fungal organism, Lodderomyces elongisporus. The neurologic signs were attributed to a left-sided central vestibular lesion presumed secondary to an embolic event from infective endocarditis. After 3 months of antimicrobial and antifungal therapy the valvular changes had markedly improved and the clinical signs resolved. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of fungal endocarditis secondary to an intracardiac foreign body in a dog.

  6. Viscoelastic Fracturing As a Migration and Expulsion Mechanism for Hydrocarbons in Shales: Analog Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, H.

    2014-12-01

    We report the results of simple laboratory experiments aimed at mimicking the generation, migration, and expulsion process of oil or gas from soft clayey sediments, triggered by thermal decomposition of organic matter. In previously published work, we showed that the injection of fluids into a soft sediment layer confined within a quasi-2D Hele-Shaw cell led to the transition from a viscous fingering invasion regime to a viscoelastic fracturing regime. The transition is controlled by the ratio of the characteristic times for the invasion process and for the structural relaxation in the sediment, respectively (Deborah number). Here we show that expulsion is a discontinuous quasi-periodic process, driven by the elastic energy stored in the embedding layers. We report also about two sets of experiments aimed at understanding the conditions in which fluid generation from multiple sources can generate a highly connected network of fractures for expulsion. In a first set of experiments, a Hele-Shaw cell with multiple injection points and multiple outlets was used. It is shown that, due to attractive elastic interactions between cracks, a network spontaneously forms as soon as invasion proceeds in the viscoelastic regime. On the contrary, no network of migration paths is forming in the viscous fingering regime, due to the effective repulsion of the fluid channels. In the second set of analog experiments, we used a thermostated mini-Hele-Shaw cell, the gap of which was filled with a strong clay mud in which microcrystals of reactive organic matter (azoisobutyronitrile, AIBN) are dispersed, or with a mud prepared with clay particles on which the organic matter was pre-impregnated. AIBN decomposes around 70°C, releasing nitrogen gas. It was again observed that, depending on the viscoelastic properties of the clay matrix, gas evolution occurs either by formation and coalescence of bubbles, or by formation of a percolating network of fractures. The length of the fracture

  7. Features and dynamic mechanisms of Cenozoic tectonic migration and its impact on the hydrocarbon accumulation in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Zhengxin; CAI Zhourong; WAN Zhifeng; LYU Baofeng

    2015-01-01

    The northern continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS) is located within the tectonic system of Southeast Asia, an area with a great deal of tectonic migration due to the regional tectonic movements. The available geological and geophysical data of the area are comprehensively analyzed in order to demonstrate the typical migration patterns of the Cenozoic tectonics in the northern SCS caused by the episodes of the Cenozoic tectonic movement. Furthermore, the lateral variation characteristics of the strata and the differ-ent evolution patterns of the main basins' features are assessed. It primarily focus on: (1) the Cenozoic epi-sodic rifting from north to south in the continental margin of the northern SCS; (2) the rifting and depression time of the main basins progressively become younger as one goes from north to south, signifying that the migration of both the tectonics and the sediments within the northern SCS travelled from north to south during the Cenozoic; and (3) the lateral tectonic migration on the direction of EW is not regular in total, but in some local areas the trending of the tectonic migration is from west to east. The analysis of the tectonic migration features of the northern SCS, in combination with the regional tectonic evolution background, indicates that the observed remote lagging effect, resulted from the India-Eurasia plate collision, is the main dynamic mechanism involved in the tectonic migration within the northern SCS. The tectonic migration has significant influence on both the organization of petroleum deposits and on the hydrocarbon accumulation within the basins in the northern SCS; comprehensive understanding of this dynamic system is of great reference value in predicting the hydrocarbon accumulation and has the potential to have an enormous impact in discovering new deep reservoirs for the future oil-gas exploration.

  8. Novel Approach for Evaluating Secondary Organic Aerosol from Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Unified Method for Predicting Aerosol Composition and Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Tang, Ping; Nakao, Shunsuke; Kacarab, Mary; Cocker, David R

    2016-06-21

    Innovative secondary organic aerosol (SOA) composition analysis methods normalizing aerosol yield and chemical composition on an aromatic ring basis are developed and utilized to explore aerosol formation from oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. SOA yield and chemical composition are revisited using 15 years of University of California, Riverside/CE-CERT environmental chamber data on 17 aromatic hydrocarbons with HC:NO ranging from 11.1 to 171 ppbC:ppb. SOA yield is redefined in this work by normalizing the molecular weight of all aromatic precursors to the molecular weight of the aromatic ring [Formula: see text], where i is the aromatic hydrocarbon precursor. The yield normalization process demonstrates that the amount of aromatic rings present is a more significant driver of aerosol formation than the vapor pressure of the precursor aromatic. Yield normalization also provided a basis to evaluate isomer impacts on SOA formation. Further, SOA elemental composition is explored relative to the aromatic ring rather than on a classical mole basis. Generally, four oxygens per aromatic ring are observed in SOA, regardless of the alkyl substitutes attached to the ring. Besides the observed SOA oxygen to ring ratio (O/R ∼ 4), a hydrogen to ring ratio (H/R) of 6 + 2n is observed, where n is the number of nonaromatic carbons. Normalization of yield and composition to the aromatic ring clearly demonstrates the greater significance of aromatic ring carbons compared with alkyl carbon substituents in determining SOA formation and composition. PMID:27177154

  9. Migrated hydrocarbons in exposure of Maastrichtian nonmarine strata near Saddle Mountain, lower Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePain, D.L.; Lillis, P.G.; Helmold, K.P.; Stanley, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    Magoon and others (1980) described an 83-meter- (272-foot-) thick succession of Maastrichtian (Upper Cretaceous) conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, and coal exposed on the south side of an unnamed drainage, approximately 3 kilometers (1.8 miles) east of Saddle Mountain in lower Cook Inlet (figs. 1 and 2). The initial significance of this exposure was that it was the first reported occurrence of nonmarine rocks of this age in outcrop in lower Cook Inlet, which helped constrain the Late Cretaceous paleogeography of the area and provided important information on the composition of latest Mesozoic sandstones in the basin. The Saddle Mountain section is thought to be an outcrop analog for Upper Cretaceous nonmarine strata penetrated in the OCS Y-0097 #1 (Raven) well, located approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) to the south–southeast in Federal waters (fig. 1). Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) drilled the Raven well in 1980 and encountered oil-stained rocks and moveable liquid hydrocarbons between the depths of 1,760 and 3,700 feet. Completion reports on file with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, and prior to 2010, U.S. Minerals Management Service) either show flow rates of zero or do not mention flow rates. A fluid analysis report on file with BOEM suggests that a wireline tool sampled some oil beneath a 2,010-foot diesel cushion during the fl ow test of the 3,145–3,175 foot interval, but the recorded fl ow rate was still zero (Kirk Sherwood, written commun., January 9, 2012). Further delineation and evaluation of the apparent accumulation was never performed and the well was plugged and abandoned. As part of a 5-year comprehensive evaluation of the geology and petroleum systems of the Cook Inlet forearc basin, the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys obtained a research permit from the National Park Service to access the relatively poorly understood

  10. New insights into late Neogene glacial dynamics, tectonics, and hydrocarbon migrations in the Atlantic-Arctic gateway region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, J.; Baranwal, S.; Fabian, K.; Grøsfjeld, K.; Andreassen, K.; Husum, K.; Mattingsdal, R.; Gaina, C.; De Schepper, S.; Vogt, C.; Andersen, N.

    2012-04-01

    Notwithstanding the recent IODP drilling on the Lomonosov Ridge, the Late Cenozoic history of the Arctic Ocean still remains elusive. The tectonic processes leading to the development of the only deep-water connection to the Arctic Ocean via the Fram Strait are still poorly understood. Also, the influence of the gateway region on changes in Arctic-Atlantic ocean circulation, uplift/erosion on the adjacent hinterland, as well as glacial initiation and its consequences for the petroleum systems in the regions, remain unclear. By revisiting Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 151, holes 911A and 910C and interpreting new multi-channel seismic data, we have now established a new comprehensive chronological framework for the Yermak Plateau and revealed important paleoenvironmental changes for the Atlantic-Arctic gateway during the late Neogene. The improved chronostratigraphic framework is established through continuous paleomagnetic and biostratigraphic data as well as selected intervals with stable ?18O and ?13C data derived from benthic foraminifera Cassidulina teretis. Supported by acoustic profiling, the new data indicate a continuous late Miocene/early Pliocene age (~5-6 Ma) for the base of both holes. The depositional regime north (Yermak Plateau) and south of the Fram Strait (Hovgaard Ridge) was rather shallow during the late Miocene and water mass exchange between the Arctic and Atlantic was restricted. Ice sheets on the Svalbard Platform evolved during the late Miocene, however did not reach the coastline before 3.3 Ma. Migration of gaseous hydrocarbons occurred prior to the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciations (~2.7 Ma) as indicated by high-amplitude reflections, corroborating the occurrence of greigite mineralization and stable carbon isotope excursions in planktic/benthic foraminifera. The data indicate that Pleistocene erosion and uplift in the Barents Sea region had probably only minor effects on reservoir leakages than previously thought.

  11. A novel approach for apportionment between primary and secondary sources of airborne nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Qiu, Xinghua; Ma, Yiqiu; Wang, Junxia; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-08-01

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) are strong environmental mutagens and carcinogens originating from both primary emissions and secondary reactions in the atmosphere. The sources and the toxicity of different NPAH species could vary greatly; therefore a specie-specific source apportionment is essential to evaluate their health risks and to formulate controlling regulations. However, few studies have reported source apportionment of NPAHs species to date. In this study, we developed an easy-to-perform method for the apportionment of primary versus secondary sources of airborne NPAHs based on the relationship between NPAHs and NO2. After log-transformation of both NPAHs and NO2 concentrations, a slope of β between these two variables was obtained by the linear regression. When β is significantly smaller than 1, it indicates primary emissions while β significantly greater than 1 suggests secondary formation. We have validated this method with data previously collected in Beijing. A good correlation, with R value of 0.57, was observed between results produced by this new method and by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The correlation could be further improved (R = 0.71) if the gas/particle partition of NPAHs is taken into consideration. This developed method enables the source apportionment for individual NPAHs species and could be used to validate the results of other receptor models.

  12. Evidence of subsurface anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons and potential secondary methanogenesis in terrestrial mud volcanoes

    OpenAIRE

    Etiope, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Feyzullayev, A.; Geology Institute of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan; Milkov, A. V.; BP, Russia Offshore SPU, Moscow, Russia; Waseda, A.; Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., JAPEX Research Center, Chiba, Japan; Mizobe, K.; Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., JAPEX Research Center, Chiba, Japan; Sun, C. H.; Exploration and Development Research Institute, CPC Taiwan, Taiwan, ROC

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of gas origin in mud volcanoes and related petroleum systems must consider postgenetic processes which may alter the original molecular and isotopic composition of reservoir gas. Beyond eventual molecular and isotopic fractionation due to gas migration and microbial oxidation, investigated in previous studies, we now demonstrate that mud volcanoes can show signals of anaerobic biodegradation of natural gas and oil in the subsurface. A large set of gas geochemical data fro...

  13. Secondary Glaucoma Associated with Encircling Scleral Buckle Migration into the Cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şengül Özdek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmuscular migration of the encircling band through rectus muscles and straddling of the cornea has only been reported in a few cases previously in the literature. This rare condition has never been associated with glaucoma. In this report, we aimed to describe a unique case with transmuscular migration of encircling buckle as a probable cause of glaucoma. A 17-year-old female presented with transmuscular migration of buckle and high intraocular pressure (IOP. Limbal/corneal migration of the silicone band was thought to be the main reason for the IOP rise; therefore, scleral band removal was performed. One month after removal, the patient was free of glaucoma medications and IOP was within normal limits. The retina remained attached during all postoperative visits. Transmuscular migration of the encircling band through rectus muscles and straddling of the cornea may act as a trigger for glaucoma.

  14. Long-Distance Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation Models and Key Controls in Petroliferous Basin%含油气盆地远距离成藏模式与主控因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫民; 陶柯宇; 高秀伟; 王明; 阿不都外里·热西提; 曹剑

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance (>100km) hydrocarbon migration and accumulation is an important type of petroleum geological phenomenon,which has changed the traditional thought that hydrocarbon accumulation is often source-controlled and thus can only be sited near the source areas.It expands the petroleum exploration areas,but such cases are rare,implying the complexity of this phenomenon.To better understand this phenomenon,here we conduct a review on the basic features of this special petroleum geological phenomenon,with the focus on the accumulation model and main controls,and suggest the scientific issues which need to be further studied.The results show that the long-distance hydrocarbon migration and accumulation model can be classified to two main types in terms of conduits,including carrier bed—unconformity and carrier bed—fault—unconformity.The long-distance hydrocarbon migration and accumulation needs several necessary fundamental conditions and is controlled by many factors,e.g.,a steady development of paleo-uplift or slope being the background,a sufficient petroleum source being the foundation,a high-quality migration pathway network being the condition,and a good preservation being the key.If a petroliferous basin has these necessary conditions,long-distance hydrocarbon migration and accumulation can take place,and favorable traps even with relatively long distance from the source kitchens can not be neglected with the possibility of forming commercial accumulations.The scientific issues to be solved include the application of oil-source correlation in verifying the migration distance and the identification of long-distance,the impacts of fault,the primary and secondary hydrocarbon migration and accumulation,and the migration driving force.The long-distance hydrocarbon migration and accumulation deserves enough exploration and research attention.%含油气盆地油气远距离(>100 km)运移成藏是一种重要的石油地质现象,改变了关于油

  15. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an

  16. Generation of secondary waves arising from nonlinear interaction between the quasi 2 day wave and the migrating diurnal tide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu A.; Palo, Scott E.; Lieberman, Ruth S.; Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Ortland, David A.; Siskind, David E.

    2016-07-01

    Theory and past observations have provided evidence that atmospheric tides and other global-scale waves interact nonlinearly to produce additional secondary waves throughout the space-atmosphere interaction region. However, few studies have investigated the generation region of nonlinearly generated secondary waves, and as a result, the manifestation and impacts of these waves are still poorly understood. This study focuses on the nonlinear interaction between the quasi 2 day wave (2dayW3) and the migrating diurnal tide (DW1), two of the largest global-scale waves in the atmosphere. The fundamental goals of this effort are to characterize the forcing region of the secondary waves and to understand how it relates to their manifestation on a global scale. First, the Fast Fourier Synoptic Mapping method is applied to Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics-Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry satellite observations to provide new evidence of secondary waves. These results show that secondary waves are only significant above 80 km. The nonlinear forcing for each secondary wave is then computed by extracting short-term primary wave information from a reanalysis model. The estimated nonlinear forcing quantities are used to force a linearized tidal model in order to calculate numerical secondary wave responses. Model results show that the secondary waves are significant from the upper mesosphere to the middle thermosphere, highlighting the implications for the atmosphere-space weather coupling. The study also concludes that the secondary wave response is most sensitive to the nonlinear forcing occurring in the lower and middle mesosphere and not coincident with the regions of strongest nonlinear forcing.

  17. Evaluation des bassins par modélisation intégrée en deux dimensions des transferts techniques, de l'écoulement des fluides, de la genèse et de la migration des hydrocarbures Basin Evaluation by Integrated Two-Dimensional Modeling of Heat Transfer, Fluid Flow, Hydrocarbon Generation, and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenet P. Y.

    2006-11-01

    transfer, compaction and water flow, hydrocarbon generation, and two-phase migration of fluids. The model reproduces the influence of conductivity variations and of transient heat transfer on paleotemperatures. Quantitative verification of the paleotemperature reconstruction and of the kinetic model of hydrocarbon generation may be obtained from present temperatures and geochemical data. Compaction-driven flows and overpressures are described by coupling a compaction law with Darcy's law for water flow and a criterion for natural hydraulic fracturing. This formulation allows modeling of overpressures in young deltalic sequences (e. g. , the Mahakam delta, Indonesia as well as in old rift basins (e. g. , the North Sea. An adapted two-phase Darcy's law reproduces primary and secondary migration. In particular, the model helps investigate the role of overpressures and fault behavior on hydrocarbon migration and entrapment. Our results confirm that basin models contribute to the synthesis of geological, geophysical, and geochemical data consistently. By defining parameters for petroleum evaluations, these models increase exploration efficiency.

  18. A 4D Synchrotron X-Ray-Tomography Study of the Formation of Hydrocarbon- Migration Pathways in Heated Organic-Rich Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamed Panahi; Paul Meakin; Francois Renard; Maya Kobchenko; Julien Scheibert; Adriano Mazzini; Bjorn Jamtveit; Anders Malthe-Sorenssen; Dag Kristian Dysthe

    2013-04-01

    Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes that have received renewed interest in recent years because of the ever tightening supply of conventional hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low-permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models for conversion of kerogen into oil and gas and the timing of hydrocarbon generation have been well documented. However, lack of consensus about the kinetics of hydrocarbon formation in source rocks, expulsion timing, and how the resulting hydrocarbons escape from or are retained in the source rocks motivates further investigation. In particular, many mechanisms have been proposed for the transport of hydrocarbons from the rocks in which they are generated into adjacent rocks with higher permeabilities and smaller capillary entry pressures, and a better understanding of this complex process (primary migration) is needed. To characterize these processes, it is imperative to use the latest technological advances. In this study, it is shown how insights into hydrocarbon migration in source rocks can be obtained by using sequential high-resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography. Three-dimensional images of several immature "shale" samples were constructed at resolutions close to 5 um. This is sufficient to resolve the source-rock structure down to the grain level, but very-fine-grained silt particles, clay particles, and colloids cannot be resolved. Samples used in this investigation came from the R-8 unit in the upper part of the Green River shale, which is organic rich, varved, lacustrine marl formed in Eocene Lake Uinta, USA. One Green River shale sample was heated in situ up to 400 degrees C as X-ray-tomography images were recorded. The other samples were scanned before and after heating at 400 degrees C. During the heating phase, the organic matter was decomposed, and gas was released. Gas expulsion from the low-permeability shales was coupled

  19. Fluids in the Palaeogene Formation of Gaoyou Sag in the Southern Part of North Jiangsu Basin, China: Evidence for Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, M.; Lou, Z.; Zhu, R.; Jin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gaoyou Sag, lying in the middle of the Dongtai Depression in the North Jiangsu basin, China, has a well developed fault system and is characterised by structurally complicated oil and gas fields. Its oil-water relationship is very complicated. In the present study, we present the distribution of formation water chemistry, crude oil density, formation pressures and fluid potential in the Palaeogene formation of the Gaoyou Sag . The purpose of this article is to: (1) analyse the cause of hydrochemical diversity; (2) identify the flow pattern and evolution; and (3) understand the interplay between the flow of formation water and hydrocarbon migration and accumulation. The results showed that large variances in formation water chemistry occur in different oilfields of the Gaoyou Sag (Figure 1) due to dilution by meteoric water recharge, concentration by membrane filtration and complexity of geological structure. The low salinity (mean values from 8.53 g/L to 9.67 g/L) of the formation water and heavy crude oil density (up to 0.94g/cm3) in the Xuchuang oilfield indicate influence from meteoric water infiltration; the deep depression areas are mainly of connate origin. Geofluids in the Xuchuang, Zhenwu and Yang'an oilfields mainly flow vertically through the Zhenwu and Hanliu faults, while geofluids in the Shanian oilfield mainly migrate laterally through the reservoirs and are adjusted vertically along some cutting faults. Palaeo-hydrodynamic evolution had an affinity with the generation, migration, accumulation and preservation of hydrocarbons. In the depositional stages of the Dainan and Sanduo formations, formation water was expelled outward and upward from lacustrine mudstones of the deep depression into shallow sands of nearby oilfields, driven by compaction and overpressure. Hydrocarbon migrated with formation water and gathered in appropriate traps, forming primary reservoirs. During the Zhenwu and Sanduo movements, there were tectonic uplifts and the strata

  20. Oxidative potential of secondary organic aerosols produced from photooxidation of different hydrocarbons using outdoor chamber under ambient sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huanhuan; Jang, Myoseon; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Robinson, Sarah E.

    2016-04-01

    The oxidative potential of various secondary organic aerosols (SOA) was measured using dithiothreitol (DTT) assay to understand how organic aerosols react with cellular materials. SOA was produced via the photooxidation of four different hydrocarbons (toluene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene and α-pinene) in the presence of NOx using a large outdoor photochemical smog chamber. The DTT consumption rate was normalized by the aerosol mass, which is expressed as DTTmass. Toluene SOA and isoprene SOA yielded higher DTTmass than 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene SOA or α-pinene SOA. In order to discover the correlation between the molecular structure and oxidative potential, the DTT responses of selected model compounds were also measured. Among them, conjugated aldehydes, quinones, and H2O2 showed considerable DTT response. To investigate the correlation between DTT response and cell responses in vitro, the expression of biological markers, i.e. IL-6, IL-8, and HMOX-1 were studied using small airway epithelial cells. Higher cellular expression of IL-8 was observed with toluene SOA exposure compared to 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene SOA exposure, which aligned with the results from DTT assay. Our study also suggests that within the urban atmosphere, the contribution of toluene SOA and isoprene SOA to the oxidative potential of ambient SOA will be more significant than that of α-pinene SOA.

  1. Hepatic abscess secondary to a rosemary twig migrating from the stomach into the liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The ingestion of a foreign body that penetrates the gastric wall and migrates to the liver, where it causes an abscess is uncommon. A case of an ingested rosemary twig perforating the gastric antrum, then migrating to the liver, complicated by hepatic abscess and Staphylococcus aureus sepsis is reported. A 59-year-old man without a history of foreign body ingestion was admitted to our hospital because of sepsis and epigastralgia, which had progressively worsened. No foreign body was identified at preoperative imaging, but a rosemary twig was discovered during laparotomy. The liver abscess and sepsis were controlled successfully with surgery and antibiotics. This unusual condition should be kept in mind when dealing with cases of hepatic abscess, or even sepsis of unknown origin. Despite the improvement of non-surgical techniques such as percutaneous drainage and interventional endoscopy, surgery still remains important in the treatment of hepatic abscess caused by an ingested foreign body.

  2. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high- vs low-yield pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Henze

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitrogen oxide (NO or hydroperoxy radical (HO2 to yield semi- or non-volatile products, respectively. Aromatic species yield more SOA when they react with OH in regions where the [NO]/[HO2] ratios are lower. The SOA yield thus depends upon the distribution of aromatic emissions, with biomass burning emissions being in areas with lower [NO]/[HO2] ratios, and the reactivity of the aromatic with respect to OH, as a lower initial reactivity allows transport away from industrial source regions, where [NO]/[HO2] ratios are higher, to more remote regions, where this ratio is lower and, hence, the ultimate yield of SOA is higher. As a result, benzene is estimated to be the most important aromatic species with regards to formation of SOA, with a total production nearly equal that of toluene and xylene combined. In total, while only 39% percent of the aromatic species react via the low-NOx pathway, 72% of the aromatic SOA is formed via this mechanism. Predicted SOA concentrations from aromatics in the Eastern United States and Eastern Europe are actually largest during the summer, when the [NO]/[HO2] ratio is lower. Global production of SOA from aromatic sources is estimated at 3.5 Tg/yr, resulting in a global burden of 0.08 Tg, twice as large as previous estimates. The contribution of these largely anthropogenic sources to global SOA is still small relative to biogenic sources, which are estimated to comprise 90% of the global SOA burden, about half of which comes from isoprene. Compared to recent observations, it would appear there are additional pathways beyond those

  3. Primary migration and secondary alteration of the Upper Paleozoic gas reservoir in Ordos Basin,China―Application of fluid inclusion gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The composition of fluid inclusions(FI)often represents the initial geochemical characteristics of palaeo-fluid in reservoir rock.Influence on composition and carbon isotopic composition of gas during primary migration,reservoir-forming and subsequent secondary alterations are discussed through comparing fluid inclusion gas with coal-formed gas and natural gas in present gas reservoirs in the Ordos Basin.The results show that primary migration of gas has significant effect on the molecular but not on the carbon isotopic composition of methane.Migration and diffusion fractionation took place during the secondary migration of gas in Upper Paleozoic gas reservoir according to carbon isotopic composition of methane in FIs.Composition and carbon isotopic composition of natural gas were nearly unchanged after the gas reservoir forming through comparing the FI gases with the natural gas in present gas reservoir.

  4. Modeling of corrosion product migration in the secondary circuit of nuclear power plants with WWER-1200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritskii, V. G.; Berezina, I. G.; Gavrilov, A. V.; Motkova, E. A.; Zelenina, E. V.; Prokhorov, N. A.; Gorbatenko, S. P.; Tsitser, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Models of corrosion and mass transfer of corrosion products in the pipes of the condensate-feeding and steam paths of the secondary circuit of NPPs with WWER-1200 are presented. The mass transfer and distribution of corrosion products over the currents of the working medium of the secondary circuit were calculated using the physicochemical model of mass transfer of corrosion products in which the secondary circuit is regarded as a cyclic system consisting of a number of interrelated elements. The circuit was divided into calculated regions in which the change in the parameters (flow rate, temperature, and pressure) was traced and the rates of corrosion and corrosion products entrainment, high-temperature pH, and iron concentration were calculated. The models were verified according to the results of chemical analyses at Kalinin NPP and iron corrosion product concentrations in the feed water at different NPPs depending on pH at 25°C (pH25) for service times τ ≥ 5000 h. The calculated pH values at a coolant temperature t (pH t ) in the secondary circuit of NPPs with WWER-1200 were presented. The calculation of the distribution of pH t and ethanolamine and ammonia concentrations over the condensate feed (CFC) and steam circuits is given. The models are designed for developing the calculation codes. The project solutions of ATOMPROEKT satisfy the safety and reliability requirements for power plants with WWER-1200. The calculated corrosion and corrosion product mass transfer parameters showed that the model allows the designer to choose between the increase of the correcting reagent concentration, the use of steel with higher chromium contents, and intermittent washing of the steam generator from sediments as the best solution for definite regions of the circuit.

  5. Radiocesium distribution along the slope in the Iput river basin as a tracer of the contaminant secondary migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey; Beriozkin, Victor; Dogadkin, Nikolay

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of the study performed in 2014-2015 at the test site located in the abandoned zone of the Iput river basin was to study detailed patterns of Cs-137 redistribution along the terrace slope and the adjacent floodplain depression almost 30 years after the Chernobyl accident. Cs-137 surface activity was measured with the help of modified field gamma-spectrometer Violinist III (USA) in a grid 2 m x 2 m within the test plot sized 10 m x 24 m. Gamma-spectrometry was accompanied by topographical survey. Cs-137 depth distribution was studied by soil core sampling in increments of 2 cm and 5 cm down to 40 cm depth. Cs-137 activity in soil samples was measured in laboratory conditions by Nokia gamma-spectrometer. The results showed distinct natural dissimilarity of Cs-137 surface activity within the undisturbed soil of slope. Cs-137 depth migration in successive soil cores marked different patterns correlated with the position in relief. In particular cores Cs-137 depth variation correlated with water regime that shows that the processes of secondary distribution of Cs-137 along the slope obviously depend upon water migration. The finding is important for understanding of regularities in patterns of radiocesium spatial distribution.

  6. Paraparesis secondary to erratic migration of Dioctophyma renale in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Swiech Bach

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A 4 years old mongrel stray bitch, weighing 16kg was submitted to physical examination to demonstrated inability of locomotion with the pelvic limbs. Extradural spinal cord compression was observed in myelotomography of the thoracolumbar segment. The patient was submitted to exploratory hemilaminectomy of T13-L1 and L1-L2, in an attempt to decompress the medullar segments. During the surgery was observed one adult parasite, identified as Dioctophyma renale , located in the extradural space and causing spinal cord compression. The patient was submitted to postoperative physical therapy, presenting clinical improvement 15 days after surgery, remaining on prone position and able to move the pelvic limbs, but not yet able to walk unassisted. It started walking naturally 60 days after the surgery. With the present clinical report, the erratic migration of the parasite Dioctophyma renale should be added to the list of differential diagnoses for patients with paraparesis and extramedullary lesion pattern, especially in endemic areas.

  7. Geological and hydrogeological features affecting migration, multi-phase partitioning and degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons through unconsolidated porous media.

    OpenAIRE

    Filippini, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Chlorinated solvents are the most ubiquitous organic contaminants found in groundwater since the last five decades. They generally reach groundwater as Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL). This phase can migrate through aquifers, and also through aquitards, in ways that aqueous contaminants cannot. The complex phase partitioning to which chlorinated solvent DNAPLs can undergo (i.e. to the dissolved, vapor or sorbed phase), as well as their transformations (e.g. degradation), depend on the...

  8. Hydrologic and microbiological factors affecting persistence and migration of petroleum hydrocarbons spilled in a continuous-permafrost region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, J.F.; McCarthy, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Fuel spills, totaling about 1300 m3, occurred between 1976 and 1978 adjacent to Imikpuk Lake, a drinking water source near Barrow, AK. Substantial contamination of soils and groundwater near the lake persists. We examined the magnitude and direction of groundwater flux and the microbial activity at this site to understand the persistence of contamination and its effect on the lake. We found that groundwater flux is small due to shallow permafrost, which restricts the cross-sectional area available for flow, and to the short annual thaw season (ca. 90 days). The small flux and limited depth also constrain contaminant transport and dispersion, resulting in persistent, shallow contamination. The numbers of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms and their laboratory mineralization potentials for benzene (at 10 ??C) were higher in samples from contaminated areas than in reference samples. Benzene mineralization potentials in groundwater samples were comparable to more temperate systems (0.1-0.5 mg of benzene mineralized L-1 day-1) and were stimulated by nutrient additions. Field measurements of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, ferrous iron, and sulfide in groundwater provided evidence that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is occurring in situ. Despite evidence of an active microbial population, microbial processes, like contaminant transport, are likely limited at this site by the short annual thaw season.

  9. Secondary migration routes in the Brent sandstones of the Viking graben and east Shetland basin: Evidence from oil residues and subsurface pressure data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, J.A. (Univ. of Reading (England))

    1990-11-01

    The Viking Graben of the North Sea contains a major deltaic reservoir - the Brent Group. Within the Brent Group, the Etive Formation, a coastal barrier sand, is both areally continuous and has excellent porosity and permeability. It is sandwiched between the fine-grained micaceous sandstones of the Rannoch Formation below and the impermeable mudstones of the Ness Formation above. Consequently, the Etive Formation has acted as the most important regional conduit for secondary migration of Upper Jurassic sourced oils. Oil migration through time has left a heavy residue in the uppermost part of the formation. These residues are aromatic-asphaltic, but otherwise resemble locally reservoired oils. Migration-sensitive biological marker ratios obtained from the residues change with distance from source. Secondary migration route mapping, based on the movement of oil by buoyancy in well-defined, isolated pressure compartments, integrated with timing of oil generation, indicates that the Ninian field could be sourced from two areas - Late Cretaceous migration from the southeast in the Viking Graben and Tertiary migration from the west and southwest - explaining some of the contrasting reservoir and oil characteristics of the Ninian and Lyell fields. 15 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Secondary uranium mineralization in Southern Fennoscandia - Migration and retention in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geochemical cycling of natural radioactive elements in the Fennoscandian Shield is of great relevance to the Finnish nuclear waste disposal programme. It indicates the likely fate of nuclides released from a repository and provides essential information on the palaeohydrogeological evolution of the region in response to climate change. For these and other reasons, comparison of predicted releases with natural radioactive fluxes is enshrined in the legislation. Glacial advance and retreat are thought to constitute the greatest natural threats to the integrity of a repository situated in the Finnish bedrock. Several major glaciations have affected northern Europe in the last million years; post-glacial uplift following the most recent ice retreat is still significant. Studies of fracture mineralogy furnish important data regarding the timing of climatic events and, among these, secondary uranium minerals play a key role. New results obtained from the natural uranium deposits at Palmottu and Hyrkkoelae are described in this report and used to supplement existing data on the geochemical and hydrogeological evolution of the region. In parallel with the above, the Finnish regulator, STUK, is assessing the feasibility of applying a coupled chemical transport model in simulations of radionuclide transport from the proposed repository. Sufficient evidence has now been gained to allow a credible test of such a model at either Olkiluoto or a surrogate study site. (orig.)

  11. Optimization and pharmacological validation of a leukocyte migration assay in zebrafish larvae for the rapid in vivo bioactivity analysis of anti-inflammatory secondary metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lorena Cordero-Maldonado

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, zebrafish (Danio rerio have emerged as an attractive model for in vivo drug discovery. In this study, we explore the suitability of zebrafish larvae to rapidly evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of natural products (NPs and medicinal plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. First, we optimized a zebrafish assay for leukocyte migration. Inflammation was induced in four days post-fertilization (dpf zebrafish larvae by tail transection and co-incubation with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS, resulting in a robust recruitment of leukocytes to the zone of injury. Migrating zebrafish leukocytes were detected in situ by myeloperoxidase (MPO staining, and anti-inflammatory activity was semi-quantitatively scored using a standardized scale of relative leukocyte migration (RLM. Pharmacological validation of this optimized assay was performed with a panel of anti-inflammatory drugs, demonstrating a concentration-responsive inhibition of leukocyte migration for both steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs and NSAIDs. Subsequently, we evaluated the bioactivity of structurally diverse NPs with well-documented anti-inflammatory properties. Finally, we further used this zebrafish-based assay to quantify the anti-inflammatory activity in the aqueous and methanolic extracts of several medicinal plants. Our results indicate the suitability of this LPS-enhanced leukocyte migration assay in zebrafish larvae as a front-line screening platform in NP discovery, including for the bioassay-guided isolation of anti-inflammatory secondary metabolites from complex NP extracts.

  12. Investigation of the utility of laser-secondary neutral mass spectrometry for the detection of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in individual atmospheric aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Bonnie J; Dambach, Steffen; Galla, Sebastian; Peterson, Richard E; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient aerosol particles is of importance to both human health and climate forcing. Although time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has proven useful for studying the distribution of organic compounds in individual aerosol particles, it is difficult to detect PAHs at relevant concentrations in individual aerosol particles because of their low ion yield. In this study, we explore the potential of using laser secondary neutral mass spectrometry (Laser-SNMS) to study three PAHs: pyrene, anthracene, and naphthalene. Because of the high volatility of PAHs, a cryostage was required for the analysis to prevent sublimation of the molecules into the vacuum chamber. We studied two laser systems, a 157 nm excimer laser, which is capable of single-photon ionization of the PAHs, and a 193 nm laser, which requires multiphoton ionization. Under optimized conditions for laser power density and primary ion pulse length, 193 nm postionization resulted in a 2-50-fold increase in ion yield over ToF-SIMS. Using the 157 nm laser, the yield was increased by more than 3 orders of magnitude for all 3 PAHs studied. The single-photon postionization process proved superior in terms of both yield enhancement and reduced fragmentation. By using the optimized 157 nm laser system and a cryostage, we were able to detect PAHs on the surface of 2 μm diameter ambient aerosol particles. PMID:21823569

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-mediated upregulation of hepatic microRNA-181 family promotes cancer cell migration by targeting MAPK phosphatase-5, regulating the activation of p38 MAPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi-Kyung [Center for Integrated Risk Research, Cellular and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) (Korea, Republic of); School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong-Keun [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jae-Chun, E-mail: ryujc@kist.re.kr [Center for Integrated Risk Research, Cellular and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Growing evidence indicates that changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression in cancer induced by chemical carcinogens play an important role in cancer development and progression by regulating related genes. However, the mechanisms underlying miRNA involvement in hepatocarcinogenesis induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) remain unclear. Thus, the identification of aberrant miRNA expression during PAH-induced cancer cell migration will lead to a better understanding of the substantial role of miRNAs in cancer progression. In the present study, miRNA expression profiling showed significant upregulation of miR-181a, -181b, and -181d in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 line) exposed to benzo[a]anthracene (BA) and benzo[k]fluoranthene (BF). MAPK phosphatase-5 (MKP-5), a validated miR-181 target that deactivates MAPKs, was markedly suppressed while phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was increased after BA and BF exposure. The migration of HepG2 cells, observed using the scratch wound-healing assay, also increased in a dose-dependent manner. Depletion of miR-181 family members by miRNA inhibitors enhanced the expression of MKP-5 and suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Furthermore, the depletion of the miR-181 family inhibited cancer cell migration. Based on these results, we conclude that the miR-181 family plays a critical role in PAH-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by targeting MKP-5, resulting in the regulation of p38 MAPK activation. - Highlights: • We found significant upregulation of miR-181 family in HCC exposed to BA and BF. • We identified the MKP-5 as a putative target of miR-181 family. • MKP-5 was suppressed while p-P38 was increased after BA and BF exposure. • The migration of HepG2 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner.

  14. Unconformity structure types and hydrocarbon migration characteristics in Hangjinqi area of Ordos Basin%鄂尔多斯盆地杭锦旗地区不整合结构类型及运移特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓; 李良; 丁超

    2016-01-01

    Hangjinqi Block is located in northern Ordos Basin and has three unconformities including the Upper Paleozo -ic-Lower Paleozoic,Upper Paleozoic-Paleozoic and Upper Paleozoic-Archean.Logging data,core data and cutting logging data were integrated to study the characteristics of unconformity space structure in detail .In addition,hydrocarbon migra-tion characteristics of various types of unconformity structure were also analyzed in combination with the carriers above and below the conformities and distribution of gas reservoir .It also figured out the distribution area of advantageous migra-tion pathways .The research shows that there are nine unconformity configuration types in Hangjinqi Block ,namely sand-mud-sand,sand-mud-limestone, sand-mud-metamorphic rock, sand-metamorphic rock, sand-limestone, mud-mud-sand, mud-mud-limestone,mud-mud-metamorphic rock and sand-mud-mud.And there are three kinds of migration pathways , namely double migration pathway I-type,single migration pathway Ⅱ1-type and single migration pathway Ⅱ2-type,among which the double migration pathway Ⅰ-type is the primary pathway and is mainly distributed in three areas .The largest ar-ea is in the central-eastern part of the block ,and its target traps are Shilijiahan in the south of fault and ShiguhaoYin the north of fault .And the second area lies in the western block and its target trap is Xinzhao .The smallest area lies in the eastern block and its target trap is Azhen .Double migration pathway is poorly developed in Shilijiahan trap and is favora-ble for the in-situ enrichement and accumulation of gas .%杭锦旗地区地处鄂尔多斯盆地北部边缘,存在上古生界-下古生界、上古生界-元古生界、上古生界-太古界3个不整合面.根据已钻井测井响应特征以及岩心观察和岩屑录井资料,对研究区不整合空间结构特征进行了详细研究,同时结合不整合面上下岩性结构的输导作用以及气藏分布等因素,分析了不整

  15. 均匀电场下多环芳烃在土壤中的迁移%Migration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils under uniform electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠苹; 许伟; 孙红文

    2013-01-01

    When the experiments were carried out at electrolyte circulation velocity of 800 mL/h and electrolyte using sterile water, the amount of electroosmotic flow and migration mass of phenanthrene and pyrene at the voltage gradient of 1 V/cm was greater than those at the voltage gradient of 0. 5 V/cm, respectively. Surfactants such as Tween80 and HPCD, can improve the total migration mass of phenanthrene and pyrene. And, the migration of the phenanthrene was elevated by 5. 8 and 11.7 by electrokinetic injection of Tween 80 and HPCD at the concentrations of 500 and 1 000 mg/kg, respectively, while pyrene was 2 and 3.4 times. However, the total migration of benzo[ a] pyrene was very small due to its solubility, even under the conditions of electric field and electrokinetic injection of surfactants. This study provides technological basis for the set-up of electrokinetic remediation for sites contaminated by organic pollutants.%当循环电解液流速为800 mL/h,电解液为无菌水时,电渗流流量、菲和芘在土壤中迁移量在电压梯度为1 V/cm作用下比电压梯度为0.5 V/cm时要多;电动注入表面活性剂Tween80和HPCD均可以提高菲和芘在土壤中的迁移,注入Tween80和HPCD浓度分别为500和1 000 mg/L时,相应地Phe提高5.8倍和11.7倍、芘提高2倍和3.4倍;而BaP在水中的溶解度太小,电场作用和电动注入表面活性剂对BaP在土壤中的迁移量影响很小.为建立电动修复有机污染物污染提供了技术基础.

  16. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Junge, Martin; Poutvaara, Panu

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it in the context of international migration. Our model predicts that the probability that a couple emigrates increases with the income of the primary earner, whereas the income of the secondary earner may affect...

  17. Discussion on Petroleum Migration in Bamianhe Oilfield of Dongying Depression, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Petroleum migration process of Bamianhe oilfield of Dongying depression, East China is evaluated on the basis of our detailed work on geochemistry of the crude oil and the source. Molecular tracers, especially nitrogen compounds, are employed in assessing style of oil migration and accumulation. Additionally, absolute quantitative results of heteroaromatics including dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene and fluorene with similar basic frames to pyrrolic nitrogenic compounds are also used to evaluate the quantity of petroleum migration. According to apparent migration effects of the pyrrolic nitrogen compounds, it is indicated that most of Bamianhe oil was derived from potential source kitchen-Niu-zhuang sag, migrated and accumulated at Bamianhe fault belt through selective paths according to a main filling point displayed. Generally, upward migration trend from the main point along the south slope is noted. There are observable migration effects from Guangli subsag to the north Bamianhe and Yangjiaogou oilfields showing Guangli subsag was a secondary kitchen accounting for the oils in the north portion. Significant vertical migration effects shown in several cross sections demonstrate that faults well developed in the area play an important role in oil migration and accumulation. Unformality, sandstone reservoirs distributed locally also suggest important fairways in connecting sources with traps. The tectonic and a combination of tectonic and lithological mechanism are identified as the critical mechanisms in entrapping hydrocarbons. Migration trend suggested by nitrogenic compounds agrees well with analysis of lateral compositional variety and thermal maturity gradient. This study also confirms well with our previous studies. It is the location of source rocks, tectonic and stratigraphic characteristics that have a comprehensive control on the model of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in Bamianhe oilfield. Results also show that the oils are mostly derived from

  18. Control and assessment of the hydrocarbon contamination of Ukrainian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, N. N.

    2008-05-01

    Regularities governing the self-purification of soils from oil hydrocarbons, as well as migration of hydrocarbons, and the effect on the water-physical properties and fertility of soils were revealed in a series of experiments. A system of ecological, economic, and reclamation standards was proposed for regulating economic activities in the case of soil contamination with hydrocarbons.

  19. Mechanism of Silurian Hydrocarbon Pool Formation in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Luofu; Guo Yongqiang; Zhao Yande; Li Yan; Chen Yuanzhuang; Chen Lixin; Pang Xiongqi; Xie Qilai; Huo Hong; Zhao Suping; Li Chao; Li Shuangwen

    2007-01-01

    There are three formation stages of Silurian hydrocarbon pools in the Tarim Basin. The widely distributed asphaltic sandstones in the Tazhong (central Tarim) and Tabei (northern Tarim) areas are the results of destruction of hydrocarbon pools formed in the first-stage, and the asphaltic sandstones around the Awati Sag were formed in the second-stage. The hydrocarbon migration characteristics reflected by the residual dry asphalts could represent the migration characteristics of hydrocarbons in the Silurian paleo-pools, while the present movable oil in the Silurian reservoirs is related to the later-stage (the third-stage) hydrocarbon accumulation.

  20. Benzo[b]naphthothiophenes and alkyl dibenzothiophenes: molecular tracers for oil migration distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijun; Wang, T.-G.; Shi, Shengbao; Liu, Keyu; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The secondary migration of petroleum is one of the most critical geological processes responsible for the accumulation of hydrocarbons in a sedimentary basin. Pyrrolic nitrogen compounds such as carbazoles and benzocarbazoles are thought to be practical molecular indicators for estimating relative migration distances of oil. In light oils or condensates, however, considerable analytical errors are usually caused by low concentrations of NSO-compounds. Here we show that polycyclic sulfur aromatic hydrocarbons such as dibenzothiophene, C1∼C3 alkylated dibenzothiophenes and benzo[b]naphthothiophenes, which are present in relatively higher concentrations than the pyrrolic nitrogen compounds, exhibit changes in both absolute and relative concentrations that correlate with migration distances. The polycyclic sulfur aromatic hydrocarbons related parameters — benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]thiophene/{benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]thiophene + benzo[b]naphtho[1,2-d]thiophene} (abbreviated as [2,1]BNT/([2,1]BNT+[1,2]BNT) and the concentration of total dibenzothiophenes plus benzo[b]naphthothiophenes — are proposed by this paper to trace the oil migration distances.

  1. UNDERGROUND CONGESTIONS OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN RIVER BELAYA BOTTOMLAND OF REPUBLIC BASHKORTOSTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Galinurov, I.; Safarov, A.; Shajdulina, G.; Magasumova, A.; Khatmullina, R.; Smirnova, T.

    2011-01-01

    In article the results of oil hydrocarbons underground congestions negative influence researches are considered. The oil hydrocarbons which have accumulated in alluvial soils migrate in river waters, polluting bottom sediments and influence on water biocenose. There is a decrease of volatile hydrocarbons content during stream migration from the laminar water environment (underwaters) to the turbulent river environment.

  2. 高邮凹陷北斜坡戴南组原油运移特征分析%Hydrocarbon migration characteristics of Dainan Formation in Northern Slope of Gaoyou Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴丽; 张秀文; 王骏; 刘平兰; 宋宁

    2011-01-01

    In Dainan Formation of the research area, the display of oil and gas is very active and the accumulation condition is good. Two oil families ,that is oil from E2f4 and E1f2 respectively, have been recognized according to the oil geochemical characteristics of Hua 24, Hua3, Hual3, Hua6 and Sha49. Migration directions of hydrocarbon are discussed by geochemical parameters such as physical and chemical properties, biomarker compound, and nitrogen compounds. Research results show that oil of E1f4 mainly came from the dark mudstone of E1f4;the oil sources of E1f2 is mainly came from the nearby mature source rock of E1f2, and accumulated through long distance vertical migration.%研究区戴南组油气显示活跃,成藏条件有利。通过对花24块、花3块、花13块、花6块以及沙49块戴南组原油地球化学特征分析,确定了研究区戴南组原油的来源问题,并据不同油源将研究区内戴南组原油分为两种类型,即阜四段原油和阜二段原油。综合研究了原油的物理、化学性质以及生物标志物、含氮化合物等特征,详细分析了原油的运移方向。研究结果表明戴南组原油中阜四段油源主要来自深凹带刘五舍次凹成熟的阜四段烃源岩,阜二段油源主要来自附近成熟的阜二段烃源岩生油.经长距离垂向运移成藏。

  3. Hydrocarbons in soils: Origin, composition, and behavior (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Tsibart, A. S.; Smirnova, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    It has been shown that a large body of evidence on the sources, transformation, and migration of hydrocarbons in soils has been acquired by different researchers. Available data about the origin and behavior of hydrocarbon gases, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, and other compounds have been considered successively. A wide range of natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the transformation and migration of hydrocarbons in soils have been analyzed. The indicative value of these compounds has been explained. At the same time, many problems related to hydrocarbons in soils are still insufficiently understood. Sparse and fragmentary data are available in the literature on the interaction of different hydrocarbon groups in the soil. Few data refer to the features of hydrocarbons in background zonal soils; there are almost no interzonal comparisons. The behavior of hydrocarbons in soils of different landscape-geographical positions is characterized in isolated publications. The hydrocarbon status of soils as an integral complex of interrelated hydrocarbons is almost not analyzed. Hydrocarbons of a single class (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon gases, n-alkanes, etc.) are usually characterized in each publication.

  4. Return migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmelch, G

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews the findings of the growing literature on return migration. Topics covered include typologies of return migrants, reasons for return, adaptation and readjustment of returnees, and the impact of return migration on the migrants' home societies. The focus of the study is on international return migration, migration to Northern Europe and northeastern North America, and return migration to the southern and eastern fringes of Europe and the Caribbean

  5. High-quality hydrocarbon source rock in the Paleogene sequence of the Ping Chau Formation, Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Suping; HU Wenxuan; CHEN Longsheng; ZHU Dongya; XUE Chunyan

    2005-01-01

    Although petroleum exploration is being conducted in the Hong Kong region, high-quality hydrocarbon source rocks have never been found in this area. The Ping Chau Formation is only Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary rock exposed in Hong Kong and its surrounding areas. The hydrocarbon source rock of the Ping Chau Formation is very rich in organic matters, which has an average total organic carbon (TOC) of 1.9% and chloroform bitumen "A" range from 0.14% to 0.24%. The total hydrocarbon content varies from 880 to 1800 ppm and the transformation ratio is spe- cific from 5 to 9. The index of pyrolytic hydrogen is up to about 600 mgHC/gTOC. These data demonstrate the char- acteristics of the high-quality hydrocarbon source rock. The lamalginite is the major maceral of the source rock of the Ping Chau Formation, and geochemical characteristics also suggest that the organic materials of the source rock are of type I and type II1, with abundant gammacerane, γ, β-carotane and C24 tetracyclic terpane, which indicate that it was formed in the salt water and brackish water sedimentary environment, and the source rock has evolved into a mature phase. The organic inclusions are found within calcite veins in cracks of the source rock, indicating that hydrocarbon has been generated and a secondary migration has happened. The source rock in the Ping Chau Formation is about 200-300 m thick, thus having considerable hydrocarbon potential. The discovery of the high quality hydrocarbon source rock in the Ping Chau Formation will certainly provide insight on hydrocarbon resource exploration in the South China Sea area.

  6. 多手段综合分析在塔河油田石炭系薄储集层预测中的应用%Modes of Es2/Es3 unconformity and feature of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in Bonan Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂珍; 杜伟维; 范琪

    2013-01-01

    Taking Es2/Es3 class II unconformity in Paleogene of the south slope zone of Bonan Sag in Jiyang Depression as an example, the modes of class II unconformity and the feature of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation are analyzed based on mineralogy, drilling and logging data and seismic information. The results show that Es2/Es3 class II unconformity structure is a no-clay structure. There are four types of unconformity combination modes according to the occurrence and the lithology superposition relation of the strata above and below the unconformity surface. The plane distribution of the unconformity combination modes controls the hydrocarbon migration and accumulation feature of linear migration and local enrichment.%针对塔河油田石炭系卡拉沙依组砂岩储集层埋藏深、砂层薄、横向变化快、非均质性严重、地震识别困难等问题,通过对地震资料提频,利用地震切片、曲线重构下的测井约束反演和相控储层预测等多手段技术综合分析,将地震属性和反演波阻抗有机结合,指导储集层砂体相控解释,确定了含油砂体的空间展布与描述.实践表明,该方法能有效地利用地震数据体进行薄层储集体预测.

  7. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Junge, Martin; Poutvaara, Panu

    2016-01-01

    Migrant self-selection is important to both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it in the context of international migration, using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts...... that the probability that a couple emigrates increases with the primary earner’s income, whereas the secondary earner’s income may drive the decision in either direction. The results are consistent with our model. We find that primary earners in couples are more strongly self-selected with respect to income than...... singles. This novel result counters the intuition that family ties weaken self-selection....

  8. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper;

    , indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time...

  9. 非洲中小学教师流动:主要特征与影响因素%On Migration of Primary and Secondary School Teachers in Africa:MainFeatures and Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨茂庆; 严文宜

    2015-01-01

    随着非洲经济社会的发展,非洲教育也逐步完善。非洲基础教育发展不均衡严重影响中小学教师的职业选择,导致大量教师频繁流动。非洲中小学教师流动表现出教师选择流动地域为邻国、教师身份为男性多于女性、年龄层活跃于30至50岁等特征。自我实现的物质与精神需求、全球化浪潮、政治局面不稳定或国家教师流动政策出台等是非洲中小学教师流动的影响因素。%With the development of economic and social conditions in Africa, African education is constantly improving.However,the imbalance of education development in Africa has seriously affected primary and secondary teachers ’ career choice, resulting in the large number of teachers ’ frequent migration.This migrating trend reveals some characteristics,such as teachers’choice of a neighboring country,more males than females,and most of them at the age of thirty to fifty.And there are also some factors that influence this trend among which are material and spiritual needs of self-realization, globalization,and unstable political situation,national policies for teacher mobility and so on.

  10. On Migration of Primary and Secondary School Teachers in Africa:MainFeatures and Influencing Factors%非洲中小学教师流动:主要特征与影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨茂庆; 严文宜

    2015-01-01

    随着非洲经济社会的发展,非洲教育也逐步完善。非洲基础教育发展不均衡严重影响中小学教师的职业选择,导致大量教师频繁流动。非洲中小学教师流动表现出教师选择流动地域为邻国、教师身份为男性多于女性、年龄层活跃于30至50岁等特征。自我实现的物质与精神需求、全球化浪潮、政治局面不稳定或国家教师流动政策出台等是非洲中小学教师流动的影响因素。%With the development of economic and social conditions in Africa, African education is constantly improving.However,the imbalance of education development in Africa has seriously affected primary and secondary teachers ’ career choice, resulting in the large number of teachers ’ frequent migration.This migrating trend reveals some characteristics,such as teachers’choice of a neighboring country,more males than females,and most of them at the age of thirty to fifty.And there are also some factors that influence this trend among which are material and spiritual needs of self-realization, globalization,and unstable political situation,national policies for teacher mobility and so on.

  11. The hydrocarbon sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandev, P.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrocarbon sphere is understood to be the area in which hydrocarbon compounds are available. It is believed that the lower boundary on the hydrocarbon sphere is most probably located at a depth where the predominant temperatures aid in the destruction of hydrocarbons (300 to 400 degrees centigrade). The upper limit on the hydrocarbon sphere obviously occurs at the earth's surface, where hydrocarbons oxidize to H20 and CO2. Within these ranges, the occurrence of the hydrocarbon sphere may vary from the first few hundred meters to 15 kilometers or more. The hydrocarbon sphere is divided into the external (mantle) sphere in which the primary gas, oil and solid hydrocarbon fields are located, and the internal (metamorphic) sphere containing primarily noncommercial accumulations of hydrocarbon gases and solid carbon containing compounds (anthraxilite, shungite, graphite, etc.) based on the nature and scale of hydrocarbon compound concentrations (natural gas, oil, maltha, asphalt, asphaltite, etc.).

  12. Hydrocarbon accumulation in network and its application in the continental rift basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The concept of hydrocarbon accumulation in network was presented on basis of the overall analysis of the formation and evolution characteristics of the continental faulted basin and of the systemic re-search on the major controlling factors on the hydrocarbon accumulation. The hydrocarbon accumu-lation in network can be defined as hydrocarbon accumulation in a three-dimensional network system which is constituted by the hydrocarbon migration passages under multiple dynamics,following the hydrocarbon generation from source rocks. The research shows that the hydrocarbon accumulation in network is composed of four elements,i.e.,hydrocarbon source (source rock kitchen),hydrocarbon accumulation terminal (trap),network pathway connecting source and terminal (transporting system),and network potential driving hydrocarbon migration in the network pathway (migration dynamics). Compared with other networks,hydrocarbon accumulation in network has three basic characteristics: the irreversible geological process of material and information flow in the network; the loss of material and information in the flow process in the network; the multiple dynamics in the flow process. Interac-tion of all the elements in the geological process can be called hydrocarbon accumulation in network. There are three basic models for hydrocarbon accumulation in network,that is,hydrocarbon accumu-lation in the network source area,hydrocarbon accumulation in the network pathway,and hydrocarbon accumulation in the network terminal. The key in the application of the hydrocarbon accumulation models in network in practice is to confirm the major accumulation stage and the function range of the four elements controlling the hydrocarbon firstly,to predict the profitable accumulation region by su-perposition of the favorable areas confirmed by four elements consequently,and to evaluate the oil-bearing property of the trap as well as confirm drilling targets. This paper takes the Dongying De-pression in the

  13. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nai; TIAN ZuoJi; LENG YingYing; WANG HuiTong; SONG FuQing; MENG JianHua

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2)branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4)phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hydrocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclusions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram.And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion,saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  14. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2) branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4) phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hy-drocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclu-sions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydro-carbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram. And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  15. Medical migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loefler, I J

    2001-10-01

    The issue of professional migration, however emotional it may have become, ought not to be regarded in moralizing terms. The history of western medicine is the history of migrating physicians. A doctor who moves from a locality to another to take up a new assignment there cannot be said to have "abandoned his patients". This emotional bond has become the victim of specialization and of depersonalization of medical services and not of medical migration, brain drain or otherwise. The primary reason for medical migration is not financial; the desire to migrate usually begins with the desire to learn. Professionals crave in the first line for professional satisfaction. The migration of medical manpower cannot be stopped with administrative measures and will not be stopped by exhortations and appeals, moralization and condemnations. Brain drain is a global phenomenon and has always been so. A country which loses its professionals, its doctors, should examine the social relationships within the profession and should investigate whether the opportunities for deriving professional satisfaction from everyday work exist or whether these have been thwarted by the hierarchy, conservatism, cronyism and the general lack of comprehension of what good medical care is about. PMID:11593497

  16. Migration chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional KD concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  17. [Internal migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisovna, L

    1991-06-01

    Very few studies have been conducted that truly permit explanation of internal migration and it repercussions on social and economic structure. It is clear however that a profound knowledge of the determinants and consequences of internal migration will be required as a basis for economic policy decisions that advance the goal of improving the level of living of the population. the basic supposition of most studies of the relationship of population and development is that socioeconomic development conditions demographic dynamics. The process of development in Mexico, which can be characterized by great heterogeneity, consequently produces great regional disparities. At the national level various studies have estimated the volume of internal migration in Mexico, but they have usually been limited to interstate migration because the main source of data, the census, is classified by states. But given the great heterogeneity within states in all the elements related to internal migration, it is clear that studies of internal migration within states are also needed. Such studies are almost nonexistent because of their technical difficulty. National level studies show that interstate migration increased significantly between 1940-80. The proportion of Mexicans living outside their states of birth increased by 558% in those years, compared to the 342% increase in the total Mexican population. Although Puebla has a high rate of increase, migration has kept it below Mexico's national growth rate. Migration between Puebla and other states and within Puebla has led to an increasing unevenness of spatial distribution. Between 1970-80, 57 of Puebla's municipios had growth rates above the state average of 2.8%/year, 6 had growth rates equal to the average, and 129 had growth rates that were below the average but not negative. 25 states with negative growth rates that were considered strongly expulsive. In 1980, 51.7% of the population was concentrated in the 57 municipios

  18. Co-delivery of ccl19 gene enhances anti-caries DNA vaccine pCIA-P immunogenicity in mice by increasing dendritic cell migration to secondary lymphoid tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-hong YAN; Sheng-cai QI; Ling-kai SU; Qing-an XU; Ming-wen FAN

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To investigate how co-delivery of the gene encoding C-C chemokine ligand-19 (CCL-19) affected the systemic immune responses to an anti-caries DNA vaccine pClA-P in mice.Methods:Plasmid encoding CCL19-GFP fusion protein (pCCL19/GFP) was constructed by inserting murine ccl19 gene into GFPexpressing vector pAcGFP1-N1.Chemotactic effect of the fusion protein on murine dendritic cells (DCs) was assessed in vitro and in vivo using transwell and flow cytometric analysis,respectively.BALB/c mice were administered anti-caries DNA vaccine pClA-P plus pCCL19/GFP (each 100 μg,im) or pClA-P alone.Serum level of anti-PAc IgG was assessed with ELISA.Splenocytes from the mice were stimulated with PAc protein for 48 h,and IFN-y and IL-4 production was measured with ELISA.The presence of pCCL19/GFP in spleen and draining lymph nodes was assessed using PCR.The expression of pCCL19/GFP protein in these tissues was analyzed under microscope and with flow cytometry.Results:The expression level of CCL19-GFP fusion protein was considerably increased 48 h after transfection of C0S-7 cells with pCCL19/GFP plasmids.The fusion protein showed potent chemotactic activity on DCs in vitro.The level of serum PAc-specific IgG was significantly increased from 4 to 14 weeks in the mice vaccinated with pCIA-P plus pCCL19/GFP.Compared to mice vaccinated with pCIA-P alone,the splenocytes from mice vaccinated with pClA-P plus pCCL19/GFP produced significantly higher level of IFN-Y,but IL-4 production had no significant change.Following intromuscular co-delivery,pCCL19/GFP plasmid and fusion protein were detected in the spleen and draining lymph nodes.Administration of CCL19 gene in mice markedly increased the number of mature DCs in secondary lymphoid tissues.Conclusion:CCL19 serves as an effective adjuvant for anti-caries DNA vaccine by inducing chemotactic migration of DCs to secondary lymphoid tissues.

  19. Monarch Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Brad; Taylor, Orley

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Monarch Watch program that tracks the migration of the monarch butterfly. Presents activities that introduce students to research and international collaboration between students and researchers. Familiarizes students with monarchs, stimulates their interest, and helps them generate questions that can lead to good research projects.…

  20. Exact solutions in a model of vertical gas migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, Dmitriy B.; Patzek, Tad W.; Benson, Sally M.

    2006-06-27

    This work is motivated by the growing interest in injectingcarbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoidingatmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide and consequent global warming.One of the key questions regarding the feasibility of this technology isthe potential rate of leakage out of the primary storage formation. Weseek exact solutions in a model of gas flow driven by a combination ofbuoyancy, viscous and capillary forces. Different combinations of theseforces and characteristic length scales of the processes lead todifferent time scaling and different types of solutions. In the case of athin, tight seal, where the impact of gravity is negligible relative tocapillary and viscous forces, a Ryzhik-type solution implies square-rootof time scaling of plume propagation velocity. In the general case, a gasplume has two stable zones, which can be described by travelling-wavesolutions. The theoretical maximum of the velocity of plume migrationprovides a conservative estimate for the time of vertical migration.Although the top of the plume has low gas saturation, it propagates witha velocity close to the theoretical maximum. The bottom of the plumeflows significantly more slowly at a higher gas saturation. Due to localheterogeneities, the plume can break into parts. Individual plumes alsocan coalesce and from larger plumes. The analytical results are appliedto studying carbon dioxide flow caused by leaks from deep geologicalformations used for CO2 storage. The results are also applicable formodeling flow of natural gas leaking from seasonal gas storage, or formodeling of secondary hydrocarbon migration.

  1. Process for producing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, K.; Komatsu, A.; Moroe, M.; Moroe, T.

    1980-07-22

    A process is described for producing a hydrocarbon product consisting essentially of hydrocarbons having about 10 to 50 carbon atoms with 60% or more of said product consisting of hydrocarbons containing 25 to 32 carbon atoms which comprises subjecting a synthetic polyisoprene rubber having 92 to 97% cis-type double bods to a thermally destructive distillation at about 300 to 400/sup 0/ C for about 30 minutes under a reduced pressure of about 0.1 to 5 mm. Hg to obtain said hydrocarbon product consisting essentially of hydrocarbons having about 10 to 50 carbon atoms with 60% or more of said product consisting of hydrocarbons containing 25 to 35 carbon atoms, said hydrocarbon product not having a bad odor and containing scarcely any resinous material.

  2. The Culture of Mexican Migration: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, William; Massey, Douglas S.

    2002-01-01

    Examines a Mexican "culture of migration," in which U.S. migration becomes an expectation for young people. Among approximately 7,000 secondary students surveyed in Zacatecas (Mexico), adolescents from families involved in U.S. migration were more likely to aspire to live and work in the United States, increasing the likelihood they would drop out…

  3. Gideon's Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Eagly, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    For the past fifty years, immigration law has resisted integration of Gideon v.Wainwright’s legacy of appointed counsel for the poor. Today, however, this resistance has given way to Gideon’s migration. At the level of everyday practice, criminal defense attorneys appointed pursuant to Gideon now advise clients on the immigration consequences of convictions, negotiate “immigration safe” plea bargains, defend clients charged with immigration crimes, and, in some model programs, even represent ...

  4. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  5. 欠压实泥岩顶底板形成机理及其对油气运移的影响%Formation Mechanism of the Undercompacting Mudstone's Roof and Floor and Their Influence on Hydrocarbon Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冲; 邹华耀; 汪斌

    2012-01-01

    of the oil and gas is controlled by the permeability of UMRF; In the fracture type, a large number of oil and gas migrated upward along the cracks. In addition, the expulsion direction of the source rock is also controlled by the fault. The research of UMRPs formation mechanism can help to evaluate the sealing ability of the mudstone cap rock and to understand the muddy source rock's expulsion direction in the primary migration.

  6. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of reserves and resources (H. Le Leuch); Additional reserves: the role of new technologies - A global perspective on EORIOR (G. Fries); - Updating reservoir models with dynamic data and uncertainty quantification: an integrated approach (F. Roggero); Seismic technology for the OAPEC countries (P. Canal); Exploration knowledge and technologies: impact of progress - Statistical results (N. Alazard); Stratigraphic modelling as a key to find new potentialities in exploration (D. Granjeon); Modelling hydrocarbon migration as a tool for reserve estimation (J-L. Rudkiewicz); The contribution of surface and near surface geology to hydrocarbon discoveries (S.M. Kumati); Contribution of the exploration activity in renewing reserves - The case of Algeria (R. Lounissi); Egypt's petroleum hydrocarbon potential (H. Hataba); Future of hydrocarbon reserves in Syria (T. Hemsh); Natural gas, the fuel of choice for decades to com (M.F. Chabrelie); The role and importance of Arab natural gas in world market (M. Al-Lababidi); LNG and GTL: two pathways for natural gas utilization (C. Cameron); Yet to find hydrocarbon potential (S. Al Menhali); Libyan context of hydrocarbon reserves: abundance or scarcity? (M. Elazi)

  7. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    impact on the growth of reserves and resources (H. Le Leuch); Additional reserves: the role of new technologies - A global perspective on EORIOR (G. Fries); - Updating reservoir models with dynamic data and uncertainty quantification: an integrated approach (F. Roggero); Seismic technology for the OAPEC countries (P. Canal); Exploration knowledge and technologies: impact of progress - Statistical results (N. Alazard); Stratigraphic modelling as a key to find new potentialities in exploration (D. Granjeon); Modelling hydrocarbon migration as a tool for reserve estimation (J-L. Rudkiewicz); The contribution of surface and near surface geology to hydrocarbon discoveries (S.M. Kumati); Contribution of the exploration activity in renewing reserves - The case of Algeria (R. Lounissi); Egypt's petroleum hydrocarbon potential (H. Hataba); Future of hydrocarbon reserves in Syria (T. Hemsh); Natural gas, the fuel of choice for decades to com (M.F. Chabrelie); The role and importance of Arab natural gas in world market (M. Al-Lababidi); LNG and GTL: two pathways for natural gas utilization (C. Cameron); Yet to find hydrocarbon potential (S. Al Menhali); Libyan context of hydrocarbon reserves: abundance or scarcity? (M. Elazi)

  8. Identification and numerical modelling of hydrocarbon leakage in the Lower Congo Basin: Implications on the genesis of km-wide seafloor mounded structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Zahie; Ondrak, Robert; Kowitz, Astrid; Schødt, Niels

    2013-09-01

    We present a combined approach of interpretation of 2D seismic-reflection data and numerical modelling of hydrocarbon generation and migration across the southern slope of the Lower Congo Basin, in order to investigate the factors controlling timing and distribution of hydrocarbon leakage in this area. We identified three main families of past and present-day leakage features: (1) Mid-Upper Miocene seismic chimneys concentrated basinwards and ending up on buried pockmarks, (2) Plio-Pleistocene chimneys, rather clustered to the east of the study area and ending up in seafloor pockmarks, and (3) fewer scattered chimneys identified within the Miocene sequences ending up in shallow enhanced reflectors ("Flat spots"). Stratigraphic and structural elements seem to control the distribution of these features. At least two major events of leakage occurred during the Middle-Late Miocene and intermittently during the Pliocene-Present. External factors as sediment supply are associated to the Miocene leakage event, whilst internal structural elements probably triggered the Pliocene to present-day leakage. A major seabed morphological feature, represented by a margin-paralleled belt of more than 1-km-wide mounds, was identified above growth faults to the east of the study area. Data-constrained 2D HC generation and migration modelling suggests a genetic link between these structures and vertical migration/leakage of thermogenic methane sourced from either currently mature Oligo-Miocene source rocks or secondary cracking and further expulsion from over-mature Upper-Cretaceous source rocks. Hence, the mounds are likely to represent a lineation of methane-derived carbonate build-ups. Despite the natural limitations of a 2D migration model, when combined and calibrated with observations from seismic data, it can be used as a valid tool to assess petroleum migration routes in sedimentary basins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first integrated approach combining both

  9. EU Migration Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinschmidt, Harald

    2004-01-01

    I shall confine myself in this paper to international migration as migration across international borders.I do so despite the fact that,still today,international migration accounts only for a small share of migration at large.Likewise,I shall deal widh voluntary migration and shall thus exclude,deportation ...

  10. Neuronal Migration Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neuronal Migration Disorders Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Neuronal Migration Disorders? Neuronal migration disorders (NMDs) are a group ...

  11. Research on Protocol Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪芸; 顾冠群; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper elaborates the concept and model of protocol migration in network interconnection.Migration strategies and principles are discussed and several cases are studied in detail which show the basic procedure and techniques used in protocol migration.

  12. Migration of birds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migration of birds. Topics covered include why birds migrate, when birds migrate, speed, altitude, courses, distance, major flyways and...

  13. Internationalization and migration pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultalahti, O

    1994-01-01

    The author first develops the concept of migration pressure, which is defined as the growth in the number of people wishing to migrate and the barriers preventing them from so doing. Both macro- and micro-level factors affecting migration pressure are identified. Historical trends in migration pressure in Finland are then discussed. The author then applies this concept to the analysis of current Finnish migration trends. The primary focus is on international migration.

  14. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missallati, A.A. (Agip (N.A.M.E.)Ltd., Tripoli (Libya))

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  15. Chemical contamination and transformation of soils in hydrocarbon production regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamotaev, I. V.; Ivanov, I. V.; Mikheev, P. V.; Nikonova, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    The current concepts of soil pollution and transformation in the regions of hydrocarbon production have been reviewed. The development of an oil field creates extreme conditions for pedogenesis. Tendencies in the radial migration, spatial distribution, metabolism, and accumulation of pollutants (oil, oil products, and attendant heavy metals) in soils of different bioclimatic zones have been analyzed. The radial and lateral mobility of pollution halos is a universal tendency in the technogenic transformation of soils and soil cover in the regions of hydrocarbon production. The biodegradation time of different hydrocarbon compounds strongly varies under different landscape conditions, from several months to several tens of years. The transformation of original (mineral and organic) soils to their technogenic modifications (mechanically disturbed, chemically contaminated, and chemo soils and chemozems) occurs in the impact zone of technogenic hydrocarbon fluxes under any physiographical conditions. The integrated use of the existing methods for the determination of the total content and qualitative composition of bituminous substances and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in combination with the chromatographic determination of normal alkanes and hydrocarbon gases, as well as innovative methods of studies, allows revealing new processes and genetic relationships in soils and studying the functioning of soils and soil cover. The study of the hydrocarbon contamination of soils is important for development of restoration measures and lays the groundwork for the ecological and hygienic regulation based on the zonation of soil and landscape resistance to different pollutants.

  16. Chemical characteristics of Jurassic formation water and its relationship with hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in middle part of Western Sichuan Depression%川西坳陷中段侏罗系次生气藏地层水化学特征及与油气运聚关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶素娟; 李嵘; 张世华

    2014-01-01

    is mainly controlled by elevation and faults. In regions of high elevation and fault zones, formation water dilution can occur by meteoric invasion and diagenetic dehydration reactions of lacustrine facies clay minerals in the 5th section of the Xujiahe Formation within the main hydrocarbon source rocks. The Jurassic secondary gas pools in the Western Sichuan Depression correspond generally to the regions with TDS lower than 30 g/L and bicarbonate concentration higher than 300 mg/L, which is different from most oil and gas fields in China. The low-salinity water released from the transformation of smectite to illite and the hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide generated by kerogen-cracking reac-tion and sulfate-reducing reaction can flow upward through permeable fault zones and therefore cause the coincidence between the distributions of hydrocarbon and formation water with low TDS and high bicarbonate concentration. In re-gions without faults, it is unlikely to form hydrocarbon accumulation and the formation waters are often characterized by high TDS and low bicarbonate concentration due to poor vertical connectivity.

  17. Migration and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Peter H. Egger; Ehrlich, Maximilian von; Nelson, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research in economics suggests that bilateral migration triggers bilateral trade through a number of channels. This paper assesses the functional form of the impact of migration on trade flows in a quasi-experimental setting. We provide evidence that the relationship is not log-linear. In particular, at small levels of migration (stocks) the elasticity of trade to migration is quite high, and it declines to zero at about 4,000 immigrants. If migration stocks exceed s...

  18. Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project--Migration Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Dept. of Intergroup Education.

    The student booklet presents short chapters illustrating the migration unit of the Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project for secondary schools. Sixteen brief chapters describe migration, immigration, and emigration in the United States. The first six chapters offer first person accounts of immigrants from Norway, Korea, Egypt, Hitler's…

  19. [Secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice. PMID:26619670

  20. Structure and Hydrocarbons in Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆春; 田在艺

    2002-01-01

    Having undergone four basin-forming tectonic cycles--Hercynian, Indosinian, Yanshanian, and Himalayan, the Junggar basin becomes a multi-cyclic superposed basin of old and hard mediun block pattern. Its multi-cyclic tectonic and sedimentary evolution results in five series of hydrocarbon source rock formations--Carboniferous, Permian, Upper Triassic, Middle-lower Jurassic, and Lower Tertiary, correspondingly forming five petroleum generation systems, of which the Permian and Middle-lower Jurassic petroleum generation systems are the most important with the highest exploration degree. Hydrocarbons are controlled by basin structure as follows: 1) Hydrocarbon accumulations are controlled by the structural styles of paleo-uplifts, paleo-overthrust belts and contorted anticline belts formed in multi-cyclic tectonic movements; 2) Important pathways for long distance lateral and vertical migration are provided respectively by unconformities and faults; 3) The pool-forming characteristics of the Permian petroleum system are controlled by paleo-structure; 4) The pool-forming characteristics of Jurassic and Tertiary petroleum system are controlled by recent structures.

  1. Using Geochemical Method to Distinguish Lateral Migration and Vertical Migration in Rifted Basin: A Case Study from Eastern Lujiapu Depression in the Kailu Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shuqing; HUANG Haiping; LIU Yuming

    2008-01-01

    Migration fractionation diagnosis is complicated in rifted basins where migration distance is generally short and lateral migration in sandy beds and vertical migration along faults are co-existed. Quantitative data from GC-MS analysis makes it possible to distinguish lateral and vertical migration effects. Oils discovered from the Jiaolige oilfield, eastern Lujiapu Depression are derived from single source rock with similar maturity, which is an ideal case to study the migration fractionation effects. Compositional differences among oils are largely caused by the migration fractionation either laterally in sand beds or vertically along the faults. Subtle maturity differences are assessed by the classic saturated hydrocarbon parameters which have certain influence on nitrogen compounds. In a certain maturity range, the ratios of shield and semi-shield isomers to the exposed isomers of alkylcarbazoles change with maturity in an opposite direction with migration fractionation, which may conceal the migration influence. However, migration and maturation have the same effects on absolute concentrations of aikylated carbazoles and benzocarhazole [a]/([a]+[c]) ratios, which provides an ideal tool for migration direction assessment. Continuous variations among different samples reflect increased migration distance in sandy beds, while abrupt changes may indicate the change of migration conduit systems. Integrated both geochemical interpretation and geological constrains, not only migration direction can be determined, but also the conduit systems through the sandy beds or the. faults can be recognized.

  2. Heuristical Strategies on the Study Theme "The Unsaturated Hydrocarbons -- Alkenes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumescu, Adrienne Kozan; Pasca, Roxana-Diana

    2011-01-01

    The influence of heuristical strategies upon the level of two experimental classes is studied in this paper. The didactic experiment took place at secondary school in Cluj-Napoca, in 2008-2009 school year. The study theme "The Unsaturated Hydrocarbons--Alkenes" has been efficiently learned by using the most active methods: laboratory…

  3. Dominant geological element of migration and accumulation about Silurian oil reservoirs in central Tarim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the migration track of the Silurian oil pools along the faults in central Tarim by the nitrogen compounds and the maturity parameters of saturated hydrocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon, the formation of the Silurian oil pools was totally concerned with vertical migration that faults were the dominant migration channels. The comprehensive analysis shows that the dominant geological element, which contributed to the migration and accumulation of the Silurian oil pools in central Tarim,was the strike-slip fault, which developed from Ordovician to Permian. The future work will focus on conducting a more intensive study of the formation, evolution and distribution of the strike-slip faults for making sure of favorable hydrocarbon accumulation and favorable exploration targets.

  4. Return migration to Italy and labour migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaruso, C

    1983-01-01

    The problems caused by large-scale return migration to Italy in recent years are considered. The importance of the additional skills and capital acquired by these migrants while abroad is stressed. Extensive data on the volume of return migration in the 1970s are included.

  5. HYDROCARBONS DIAGNOSTIC OF POLLUTED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Arad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons are known as carcinogenic and may contaminate the environment (water, air and soil. In this study, a diagnostic of polluted soils by petroleum hydrocarbons is carried out in order to know the effect of their accumulation as well as their behavior in time. The aging factor, a source of significant changing in hydrocarbon behavior, is integrated on two sites of an industrial refinery as experimental samples. The first site is recently polluted by hydrocarbons while the second is a previously polluted site.The results indicate that the concentration of hydrocarbons on the surface of the first site is greater and remains stable in time, as for the second site, hydrocarbons concentration on the surface is also important and undergoes a weak reduction. At a depth of one meter hydrocarbons exist at a greater concentration. This shows that obstinate hydrocarbons are an environmental danger for fauna and flora.

  6. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near-surface soils of Kutch–Saurashtra: Implication for hydrocarbon prospects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Lakshmi Srinivasa Rao; T Madhavi; D Srinu; M S Kalpana; D J Patil; A M Dayal

    2013-02-01

    Light hydrocarbons in soil have been used as direct indicators in geochemical hydrocarbon exploration, which remains an unconventional path in the petroleum industry. The occurrence of adsorbed soil gases, methane and heavier homologues were recorded in the near-surface soil samples collected from Kutch–Saurashtra, India. Soil gas alkanes were interpreted to be derived from deep-seated hydrocarbon sources and have migrated to the surface through structural discontinuities. The source of hydrocarbons is assessed to be thermogenic and could have been primarily derived from humic organic matter with partial contribution from sapropelic matter. Gas chromatographic analyses of hydrocarbons desorbed from soil samples through acid extraction technique showed the presence of methane through -butane and the observed concentrations (in ppb) vary from: methane (C1) from 4–291, ethane (C2) from 0–84, propane (C3) from 0–37, i-butane (iC4) from 0–5 and -butane (nC4) from 0–4. Carbon isotopes measured for methane and ethane by GC-C-IRMS, range between −42.9‰ to −13.3‰ (Pee Dee Belemnite – PDB) and −21.2‰ to −12.4‰ (PDB), respectively. The increased occurrence of hydrocarbons in the areas near Anjar of Kutch and the area south to Rajkot of Saurashtra signifies the area potential for oil and gas.

  7. HYDROCARBONS DIAGNOSTIC OF POLLUTED SOILS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Arad; Abdelkader Anouzla; Mohamed Safi; Salah Souabi; Hicham Rhbal

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are known as carcinogenic and may contaminate the environment (water, air and soil). In this study, a diagnostic of polluted soils by petroleum hydrocarbons is carried out in order to know the effect of their accumulation as well as their behavior in time. The aging factor, a source of significant changing in hydrocarbon behavior, is integrated on two sites of an industrial refinery as experimental samples. The first site is recently polluted by hydrocarbons while the s...

  8. Selecting hydrocarbon rocket propulsion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Past studies have shown that the dry weight of future earth-to-orbit vehicles can be reduced by the combined use of hydrogen and hydrocarbon propulsion compared to all-hydrogen propulsion. This paper shows that the use of certain hydrocarbon engines with hydrogen engines produces the lowest vehicle dry mass. These hydrocarbon engines use propane or RP-1 fuel, hydrogen cooling, and hydrogen-rich gas generators. Integration of the hydrogen and hydrocarbon nozzles is also beneficial.

  9. Population, migration and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities

  10. Migration, Remittances and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Nurgul Ukueva

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of migration and remittances on a small, open, migrant-sending country in the context of an endogenous growth model with technology transfers. The paper demonstrates that, due to a dynamic feedback effect from economic conditions to migration and from migration to economic development in an economy exposed to migration, initial conditions can determine its long-run steady state, leading to the rise of vicious or virtues circles of development. Countries with a l...

  11. Migration and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  12. On Marriage and Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    1988-01-01

    Marriage, migration and related phenomena such as marital stability, fertility and investment in human capital may be better explained by studying marriage and migration jointly. We thus proceed in this paper to explore the role of migration in obtaining joint labour-market and marriage-market equilibrium. This facilitates identification of several novel and testable hypotheses.

  13. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  14. Patterns of migration in Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, H

    1981-01-01

    ILO pub-wep pub. Working paper identifying internal migration patterns and employment implications in Tanzania - discusses reasons for migration, types (seasonal workers, permanent, etc.), Migration within rural areas or urban areas, rural migration, land settlement trends, etc. References.)

  15. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  16. Lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments are major factors for the formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wenzhi; WANG Zecheng; LI Xiaoqing; WANG Hongjun; WANG Zhaoyun

    2005-01-01

    The formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs is controlled by three major factors: lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments. Among the three major factors, lithological architecture provides the storing medium for hydrocarbon; geological processes include hydrocarbon generation, migration, accumulation, preservation and modification; and energy-field environments refer to the various geothermal and geodynamic forces that affect the lithological architecture and drive the geological processes.In this study, we take Kela-2 and Sulige gas reservoirs as two examples to study relationships among the three major factors, and explain how these factors influence the scale and quality of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  17. An evaluation method of hydrocarbon generating potential of highly mature and over-mature marine carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程克明; 王兆云

    1997-01-01

    How to restore the residual organic carbon and residual hydrocarbon-generating potential is discussed based on the hydrocarbon degradability of source rock. The results indicate there is linear function relationship between the restoring coefficient of residual organic carbon (Kc) and the vitrinite reflectance (Ro% ) of various kinds of source rock, but the relationship is secondary functional between the restoring coefficient of residual hydrocarbon-generating potential (Ks) and the vitrinite reflectance (R0%). It is pointed out that Kc= (1 - Dresidual)/(1-Dprimary), Xs=Kc (Dprimary/Dresidual). The restoration of residual organic carbon and hydrocarbon-gen era ting potential of the Cambrian and Ordovician highly mature marine carbonate in the Tarim Basin and North China region shows that the lower limit value of hydrocarbon generating potential and the organic matter abundance of carbonate source rock are basically the same as that of clastic rock. The technical difficulty in hydrocarbon generating eva

  18. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  19. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  20. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator

    2004-08-17

    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  1. Role of methyl group number on SOA formation from monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons photooxidation under low-NOx conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, L.; Tang, P.; Nakao, S.; Chen, C.-L.; Cocker III, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Substitution of methyl groups onto the aromatic ring determines the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon precursor (SOA yield and chemical composition). This study links the number of methyl groups on the aromatic ring to SOA formation from monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons photooxidation under low-NOx conditions (HC/NO  >  10 ppbC : ppb). Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with increasing numbers of methyl groups are systemat...

  2. Generation and Migration of Natural Gas in Miocene Strata, Offshore Southeastern Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Byeong-Kook

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas and condensate are produced from Miocene strata of the Tertiary marine basin, called Ulleung Basin, which is located offshore southeastern Korea. Petroleum system in the basin has not been fully understood, because effective source rocks have not been identified in the area. However, 1-D petroleum system modelling and isotope data indicate that the source rock of the natural gas and condensate might be present at deeper strata than 5,000 m in the basin. In addition, the analysis of diamondoids in the condensate shows that the gas was transformed from type II kerogen. Based on this source rock information and other geological data, 2-D petroleum system modelling was conducted on two cross sections in the southwestern margin of the basin. The 2-D models show two phase generation and migration, which are caused by the geometry of source bed and the maturity level of each pod of the bed. In addition, the accumulation of hydrocarbon is constrained greatly by the timing of development of the regional seal. The first generation and migration of oil and gas begins with a high rate of sedimentation at a deeply and early buried pod of the source bed at 15 Ma. The hydrocarbon, however, migrates upward and diffuses toward the surface. The second generation and migration occurs at around 11 Ma from the other pod of the source bed. This hydrocarbon migrates updip toward anticlines and accumulates into the traps of anticlines. On the other hand, the model shows that the generation and migration is dominated by gas, rather than oil. This model indicates that the accumulation of hydrocarbon can be completed only by the proper and sophisticated combination of the geological elements and the timing of hydrocarbon migration in time and space. This 2-D feature of generation and migration is supported by additional 1-D models of two pseudo-wells drilled on the 2-D section.

  3. [Secondary dyslipidemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargová, V; Pytliak, M; Mechírová, V

    2012-03-01

    Dyslipidemias rank among the most important preventabile factors of atherogenesis and its progression. This topic is increasingly being discussed as e.g. more than 50% of Slovak population die on atherosclerotic complications. According to etiology we distinguish primary dyslipidemias with strictly genetic background and secondary ones with origin in other disease or pathological state. Secondary dyslipidemias accompany various diseases, from common (endocrinopathies, renal diseases etc) to rare ones (thesaurismosis etc.) and represents one of symptoms of these diseases. Apart from particular clinical follow up of diagnosed dysipidemias, basic screening and secondary causes as well as treatment due to updated guidelines is recuired. In this review we present the most frequent dyslipidemias of clinical practice.

  4. Unemployment, migration, and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Valerie R. Bencivenga; Bruce D. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Economic development is typically accompanied by a very pronounced migration of labor from rural to urban employment. This migration, in turn, is often associated with large scale urban underemployment. Both factors appear to play a very prominent role in the process of development. We consider a model in which rural-urban migration and urban underemployment are integrated into an otherwise conventional neoclassical growth model. Unemployment arises not from any exogenous rigidities, but from...

  5. Many Faces of Migrations

    OpenAIRE

    Milica Antić Gaber; Marko Krevs

    2013-01-01

    Temporary or permanent, local or international, voluntary or forced, legal or illegal, registered or unregistered migrations of individuals, whole communities or individual groups are an important factor in constructing and modifying (modern) societies. The extent of international migrations is truly immense. At the time of the preparation of this publication more than 200 million people have been involved in migrations in a single year according to the United Nations. Furthermore, three time...

  6. TYPES OF MODERN MIGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    KAITMAZOVA KARINA RUSLANOVNA; CABERTI ALINA NODAROVNA

    2016-01-01

    The detailed classification of migration is analyzed, also a conclusion is drawn according to the fact that migration contributes to the development of the population of countries and regions, appearing to be a driving force and an important factor of globalization in the XXI century. Russia, also as other countries, strongly depends on migration: future of the Russian Federation depends on the fact how socially-spiritual community of Russian people will change, and also culture and values of...

  7. Malaysia and forced migration

    OpenAIRE

    Arzura Idris

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysi...

  8. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  9. Samtidskunst og migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    "Samtidskunst og migration. En oversigt over faglitteraturen" er en forskningsoversigt der gør status over hvad der hidtil er skrevet inden for det kunsthistoriske område om vor tids billedkunst og migration som politisk, socialt og kulturelt fænomen, primært i forbindelse med immigration til...

  10. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Poutvaara, Panu

    2016-01-01

    Migrant self-selection is important to both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it in the context of international migration, using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts...

  11. Migration in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    Migration plays an important role in development and as a strategy for poverty reduction. A recent World Bank investigation finds a significant positive relationship between international migration and poverty reduction at the country level (Adams and Page 2003). Burkina Faso, whose conditions for a

  12. Migrating Art History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0.......Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0....

  13. Malaysia and forced migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzura Idris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysia due to “south-south forced migration movements.” These responses are, however, inadequate in terms of commitment to the international refugee regime. While Malaysia did respond to economic and migration challenges, the paper asserts that such efforts are futile if she ignores issues critical to forced migrants.

  14. Migration of health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area. PMID:18561695

  15. World Migration Degree Global migration flows in directed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Porat, Idan

    2015-01-01

    In this article we analyze the global flow of migrants from 206 source countries to 145 destination countries (2006-2010) and focus on the differences in the migration network pattern between destination and source counters as represented by its degree and weight distribution. Degree represents the connectivity of a country to the global migration network, and plays an important role in defining migration processes and characteristics. Global analysis of migration degree distribution offers a strong potential contribution to understanding of migration as a global phenomenon. In regard to immigration, we found that it is possible to classify destination countries into three classes: global migration hubs with high connectivity and high migration rate; local migration hubs with low connectivity and high migration rate; and local migration hubs with opposite strategy of high connectivity and low migration rate. The different migration strategies of destination countries are emerging from similar and homogenies p...

  16. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, Matthew A.; Baehr, Arthur L.

    1996-07-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 gyr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 gm-2yr-1 (1.45×10-3 and 1.51×10-3 gal.ft.-2yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  17. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, M.A.; Baehr, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 g yr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 g m-2 yr-1 (1.45 x 10-3 and 1.51 x 10-3 gal. ft.-2 yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  18. A dengue model incorporating saturation incidence and human migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakkhar, S.; Mishra, A.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a non-linear model has been proposed to investigate the effects of human migration on dengue dynamics. Human migration has been considered between two patches having different dengue strains. Due to migration secondary infection is possible. Further, the secondary infection is considered in patch-2 only as strain-2 in patch-2 is considered to be more severe than that of strain-1 in patch-1. The saturation incidence rate has been considered to incorporate the behavioral changes towards epidemic in human population. The basic reproduction number has been computed. Four Equilibrium states have been found and analyzed. Increasing saturation rate decreases the threshold thereby enhancing the stability of disease-free state in both the patches. Control on migration may lead to change in infection level of patches.

  19. On marriage and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, O

    1988-09-01

    Marriage, migration, and related phenomena such as marital stability, fertility, and investment in human capital may be better explained by studying marriage and migration jointly. This paper examines the role of migration in obtaining joint labor market and marriage market equilibrium. When broadly interpreted, marriage and migration share a number of common features. Both involve search and its resolution (pairing of mates in the former and matching of labor and firms in the latter). In both cases, success in finding a partner is sensitive to the availability of partners and to the distribution of their endowments and traits. Almost always, and along with separation and divorce, marriage mandates spatial relocation which may translate into migration. Both involve a movement that is associated with adjustment costs from 1 state into another. The decisions to enter marriage and undertake employment or the decisions to divorce and quit a job depend on exogenous parameters, some of which are determined by the marriage market and the labor market. Since both marriage and divorce take place in the context of broadly defined markets, they may and often are analyzed applying market concepts, theorems, and solutions. Yet the authors could not pinpoint 1 single, systematic attempt that checks through the interactions between marriage and migration, so this paper attempts to rectify this state of research. Essentially, this paper 1) discusses individual decision making pending possible migration prior to or following marriage, 2) examines whether it is easier for a married couple or a single person to migrate, and 3) considers whether marriage dissolution could cause migration when marriage is the only reason that has kept a spouse from moving. This integrated research agenda for both marriage and migration can delineate interesting new implications to examine.

  20. Formation Dynamics and Quantitative Prediction of Hydrocarbons of the Superpressure System in the Dongying Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Fenggui; HAO Xuefeng; LIU Qing; ZHUO Qingong; ZHANG Shouchun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the theory of formation dynamics of oil/gas pools, the Dongying sag can be divided into three dynamic systems regarding the accumulation of oil and gas: the superpressure closed system,the semi-closed system and the normal pressure open system. Based on the analysis of genesis of superpressure in the superpressure closed system and the rule of hydrocarbon expulsion,it is found that hydrocarbon generation is related to superpressure, which is the main driving factor of hydrocarbon migration. Micro fractures formed by superpressure are the main channels for hydrocarbon migration. There are three dynamic patterns for hydrocarbon expulsion: free water drainage, hydrocarbon accumulation and drainage through micro fissures. In the superpressure closed system, the oil-driving-water process and oil/gas accumulation were completed in lithologic traps by way of such two dynamic patterns as episodic evolution of superpressure systems and episodic pressure release of faults. The oil-bearing capacity of lithologic traps is intimately related to reservoir-forming dynamic force. Quantitative evaluation of dynamic conditions for pool formation can effectively predict the oil-bearing capability of traps.

  1. Diterpenoid tetracyclic hydrocarbons of petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorob' eva, N.S.; Zemskova, Z.K.; Pekh, T.I.; Petrov, A.A.

    1987-08-01

    Diterpenoid hydrocarbons are fairly widespread in various caustobioliths. However, if petroleums contain mainly acyclic diterpenoids (phytane, pristane and norpristane), cyclic diterpaenes such as fichtelite, pimarane, iosene (kaurane) and hibbane are often found in hydrocarbons isolated from coal and shale. Recent advances in the chemistry of diterpenoids isolated from caustobioliths, are described in a separate paper. Much less is known about petroleum polycyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons, particularly those with four saturated rings. A series of tetracyclic hydrocarbons C/sub 19/H/sub 32/ (molar mass 260), found in a number of light petroleums and gas condensates from the Jura deposits of Central Kara-Kum (Turkmen S.S.R.), are examined here. These hydrocarbons are present in petroleums and condensates from the Davaly, Erden, Ortakak, Southern Beuideshik deposits, they are always identical and occur in the same ratios. The composition of the tretracyclanes isolated from the Ortakak gas condensates (well 17) will be examined in detail.

  2. Production of alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonacci, J.C.; Billings, R.P.

    1975-01-30

    An improved method is claimed for producing aromatic hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon charge containing aromatic hydrocarbons including benzene and C/sub 8/ alkyl aromatics and aliphatic hydrocarbons which charge is rich in such aromatic hydrocarbons and lean in aliphatic hydrocarbons boiling above about 220/sup 0/F by reason of conversion under severe conditions which comprises subjecting said charge to distillation conditions of temperature and pressure such that at least a portion of the benzene content of said fraction is separated as vapor from an alkyl aromatic fraction containing aliphatic hydrocarbons and the major portion of C/sub 8/ aromatics in said charge, reacting said alkyl aromatic fraction in the presence of hydrogen in contact with a catalyst containing type ZSM-5 zeolite, zeolite ZSM-12, zeolite ZSM-21 or zeolite beta in combination with a hydrogenation/dehydrogenation component at conversion conditions to convert aliphatic hydrocarbons to lower boiling material of five carbon atoms and lighter separable from aromatics by distillation including a temperature of about 500/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/F, a pressure of about 100 to about 600 pounds, a hydrogen to hydrocarbon mol ratio of 0.2 to 8 and weight hourly space velocity of 0.5 to 15, concurrently contacting a mixture of hydrogen and toluene with a disproportionation catalyst under reaction conditions to disproportionate said toluene, combining the effluents of said contacting steps, separating hydrogen from the combined effluents of said contacting steps, separating hydrogen from the combined effluents, recycling at least a portion of said separated hydrogen to said contacting steps, distilling the hydrocarbon residue from said separation step to recover therefrom at least toluene and mixed xylenes, and recycling at least a portion of said recovered toluene as feed to the disproportionation step aforesaid.

  3. Migration, Skills and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Hierländer; Peter Huber; Anna Iara; Michael Landesmann; Klaus Nowotny; Mary O'Mahony; Fei Peng; Catherine Robinson; Robert Stehrer

    2010-01-01

    The literature on international migration has repeatedly emphasized that the extent and structure of migration has an important impact on the competitiveness of regions and countries. This report provides an overview of the extent and the potential effects of high-skill migration to the EU27. It shows how many high-skilled migrants live in the EU, where these migrants come from, and how the European Union is positioned in the international competition for talent. Second, we examine how high-s...

  4. Hydrocarbon potential of Middle Eocene carbonates, Sirt Basin, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swei, Giuma H.; Tucker, Maurice E.

    2015-11-01

    Deposition of Middle Eocene carbonates in the Sirt Basin in Libya has been the subject of considerable study in recent years because of the importance of sediments of this age as hydrocarbon reservoirs. The Gialo Formation is an important gas-producing reservoir in the Assumood, Sahl and other nearby fields. The gas which is generated from the gas-prone Sirt Shale source rock of the northern Ajdabiya Trough probably migrated in to the Assumood Ridge from the northeast through late Cretaceous, Paleocene and early Eocene carbonates, before being trapped beneath the Augila Shale (Upper Eocene) which is the principal regional seal in the area. This integrated study has enhanced our understanding of reservoir heterogeneity and hydrocarbon potential of the Gialo carbonates and should lead to improved exploration in the future. Reservoir quality in the Gialo Formation is a function of grain types, pore types, grain size, sorting, cementation and compaction, and predicting areas of high reservoir quality has proved difficult; exploration should be oriented to positioning wells into the main trend of the mid-ramp, nummulite accumulation. Different nummulite facies can be reservoirs depending on their diagenetic history. A diagenetic reduction in porosity must be distinguished from a lack of porosity resulting from an unfavourable depositional environment, so that exploration alternatives can be assessed. This integrated study has demonstrated the presence of suitable reservoir rocks, hydrocarbon traps and the close proximity of potential source rocks. These features should encourage further hydrocarbon exploration in the area.

  5. Migration og etnicitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    2004-01-01

    Migration og etnicitet er aktuelle og forbundne fænomener, idet migration øger berøringsfladerne mellem befolkningsgrupper. Etniciteter formes i takt med at grænser drages imellem disse grupper. Imod moderniserings-teoriernes forventning forsvandt etnicitet ikke som en traditionel eller oprindelig...... måde at skabe tilhørsforhold på; globalt set fremstår vor tid istedet som en "migrationens tidsalder", der tilsyneladende også er en tidsalder, hvor kulturelle særtræk, i form af etnicitet, udgør vigtige linjer, hvorefter grupper skilller sig ud fra hinanden. Både migration og etnicitet bringer fokus...... den finder sted i modtagerlandet, men nyere perspektiver på migration, som begreber om medborgerskab, transnationalisme og diaspora er eksponenter for, søger udover den nationalstatslige ramme og inddrager konsekvenserne af migrationen for afsenderlande....

  6. ENVIROMENTAL HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION IN RICOTTA AND MOZZARELLA DI BUFALA CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Cortesi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, mainly formed by anthropogenic activities, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Due to environmental contamination and their chemical properties they migrate through the human food chain. Aim of this study was the evaluation of PAHs in ricotta and mozzarella di bufala cheese, produced by milk of buffalo collected in three farms, located in a high contaminated area in Campania because of a waste treatment plant and illegal waste incineration. 11 PAHs were identified both in milk and dairy products. Carcinogenic hydrocarbon benzo(apyrene were found in a range including 0.42- 12.96 μg/kg and dibenzo(ahanthracene 0.21-10.08 μg/kg. Anthracene showed higher concentrations than the other PAHs (45.23-436.85 μg/kg.

  7. Main Controls on Hydrocarbon Accumulation in the Paleozoic in Central Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Guoping

    2007-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is renown for its rich oil and gas resources with the bulk of the reserves reservoired in the Mesozoic.However,the discovery of Paleozoic fields in the late 1980s has encouraged further exploration in the Paleozoic.This paper reviews the salient features of the Paleozoic petroleum geology in central Saudi Arabia and discusses the main factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Paleozoic.The Lower Silurian Qusaiba hot shale is the principal source rock for the hydrocarbons discovered in the Ordovician to Permian reservoirs.Of them,the Permo-Carboniferous Unayzah and Upper Ordovician Sarah Formations have the best exploration potential.The key factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Unayzah Formation are migration pathways and reservoir petrophysics.The key factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Sarah Formation are reservoir petrophysics and the development of structural traps.

  8. Hydrocarbon generation conditions and exploration potential of the Taoudeni Basin, Mauritania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wenzhe

    2009-01-01

    The Taoudeni Basin is a typical and steady intracratonic basin in Mauritania, northwest Africa. There are six sets of potential source rocks and five regional unconformable surfaces of the Infracambrian and Paleozoic developed in the basin. We used seismic stratigraphic correlation to recover the denudation thickness of formations at a particular well location. Studies of the hydrocarbon generation history of the basin illustrate that hydrocarbon migration and accumulation occurred in the end of the Carboniferous, and after that, the whole basin suffered denudation for a long period of time. Because there is no thick Mesozoic overburden in the basin, the Silurian source rocks could not generate hydrocarbon in the Mesozoic era for the second time. Consequently, the prospects for successful hydrocarbon exploration in the basin are not good.

  9. Indonesia's migration transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, G

    1995-01-01

    This article describes population movements in Indonesia in the context of rapid and marked social and economic change. Foreign investment in Indonesia is increasing, and global mass media is available to many households. Agriculture is being commercialized, and structural shifts are occurring in the economy. Educational levels are increasing, and women's role and status are shifting. Population migration has increased over the decades, both short and long distance, permanent and temporary, legal and illegal, and migration to and between urban areas. This article focuses specifically on rural-to-urban migration and international migration. Population settlements are dense in the agriculturally rich inner areas of Java, Bali, and Madura. Although the rate of growth of the gross domestic product was 6.8% annually during 1969-94, the World Bank ranked Indonesia as a low-income economy in 1992 because of the large population size. Income per capita is US $670. Indonesia is becoming a large exporter of labor to the Middle East, particularly women. The predominance of women as overseas contract workers is changing women's role and status in the family and is controversial due to the cases of mistreatment. Malaysia's high economic growth rate of over 8% per year means an additional 1.3 million foreign workers and technicians are needed. During the 1980s urban growth increased at a very rapid rate. Urban growth tended to occur along corridors and major transportation routes around urban areas. It is posited that most of the urban growth is due to rural-to-urban migration. Data limitations prevent an exact determination of the extent of rural-to-urban migration. More women are estimated to be involved in movements to cities during the 1980s compared to the 1970s. Recruiters and middlemen have played an important role in rural-to-urban migration and international migration. PMID:12347370

  10. Migration and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitthai, Nigoon

    2013-01-01

    Migration is an important global issue as poorly managed migration can result in a diversity of problems, including an increase in the transmission of diseases such as malaria. There is evidence to suggest that malaria is no longer a forest-dependent disease and may largely be affected by population movements, mostly to agricultural areas. While internal and transnational migration has different legal implications in most countries, both types of migration occur for the same reasons; economic and/ or safety. Although migration in itself is not a definitive risk for malaria, several factors can put, migrants and local communities alike, in vulnerable situations. In particular, infrastructure and rural development, deforestation for logging and economic farming, political movements, and natural disasters are some of the major factors that push and pull people in and out of malaria-endemic areas. Therefore, understanding the changing socio-environmental situation as well as population movements and their associated risks for malaria infection, is critical for malaria control, containment, and elimination. Efforts to address these issues should include advocacy, mapping exercises and expanded/ strengthened surveillance to also include migrant health information systems. Malaria related information, prevention measures, and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment should be made easily accessible for migrants regardless of their migration status; not only to ensure that they are equipped with appropriate knowledge and devices to protect themselves, but also to ensure that they are properly diagnosed and treated, to prevent further transmission, and to ensure that they are captured by the surveillance system. PMID:24159832

  11. Proceedings of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book reports on hydrogen contaminated soils and groundwater. Topics covered include: perspectives on hydrocarbon contamination; emerging hydrocarbon contamination issues; analytical methodologies and site assessment for hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater; environmental fate and modeling; remedial technologies for hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater; and risk assessment and risk management

  12. Managing Migration: The Brazilian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  13. Hydrocarbon Leak Detection Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT is proposing the development of a sensor to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in turbopump Inter-Propellant Seals (IPS). The purpose of the IPS is to prevent...

  14. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  15. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-09-30

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  16. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  17. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  18. TOWARD MIGRATION TRANSITION IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Incaltarau

    2012-01-01

    Most studies regarding the contribution of migration to development are limited to an isolated analysis of the economic effects of migration. But the migration process is in turn influenced by other processes. So a wider framework including migration and other processes of development would be more appropriate. The experience of South European and East Asian countries have shown us that, during development, countries can change their migration profile from emigration to immigration. The prese...

  19. Migration = cloning; aliasiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Kleist, Josva; Nestmann, Uwe;

    1999-01-01

    In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider the creat......In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider...... the creation of object surrogates as an abstraction of the abovementioned style of migration. We introduce Øjeblik, a distribution-free subset of Obliq, and provide three different configuration-style semantics, which only differ in the respective aliasing model. We show that two of the semantics, one of which...... matches Obliq’s implementation, render migration unsafe, while our new proposal for a third semantics is provably safe. Our work suggests a straightforward repair of Obliq’s aliasing model such that it allows programs to safely migrate objects....

  20. Application of quantitative grain fluorescence techniques to study subtle oil migration pathway of lithological reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dongxia; PANG Xiongqi; ZHANG Jun; LI Minggang

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the quantitative grain fluorescence (QGF) and quantitative grain fluorescence on extract (QGF-E) properties of 101 rock samples by using quantitative grain fluorescence techniques.The samples are collected from five wells in tight sandstone and thin siltstone in the third sector of the Shahejie Formation in the Niuzhuang sag of the Dongying depression.It was observed that both the tight sandstone and thin siltstone show relatively high fluorescence intensity of hydrocarbon,which suggests that they are possibly good subtle oil-migration pathways in the present or geological time.These thin subtle oil-migration pathways afford important clues for the researches on hydrocarbon accumulation in lithological reservoirs in the middle and lower of Es3 in deep sag zone,which has the hydrocarbon source from the upper of Es4 when there is no apparent fault playing oil migration conduits to connect lithologic traps and deep source rocks.This study shows good prospect of QGF techniques in discriminating oil migration pathways and paleo-oil zones.The results of this study may be of great significance to the researches on hydrocarbon accumulation mechanism of subtle reservoirs in the Dongying depression and other areas.

  1. Subsurface fate of spilled petroleum hydrocarbons in continuous permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K.; Walker, L.; Vigoren, L.

    2004-01-01

    Accidental releases of approximately 2000 m3 of fuel have resulted in subsurface contamination adjacent to Imikpuk Lake, a drinking-water source near Barrow, AK. This paper presents a conceptual model of the distribution and transport of subsurface free-phase hydrocarbons at this site. The mean annual temperature in Barrow is -13 ??C, and average monthly temperatures exceed 0 ??C only during the months of June, July, and August. As a result, the region is underlain by areally continuous permafrost that extends to depths of up to 300 m and constrains subsurface hydrologic processes to a shallow zone that temporarily thaws each summer. During the 1993 and 1994 thaw seasons, the measured depth of thaw varied across the site from approximately 0.5 to 2 m. However, exploratory borings in 1995 showed that free-phase hydrocarbons were present at depths greater than 3 m, indicating that permafrost at this site is not a barrier to the vertical migration of nonaqueous-phase liquids. In 1996, a subsurface containment barrier was installed to prevent lateral movement of contaminated water to Imikpuk Lake, and a recovery trench was excavated upgradient of the barrier to facilitate removal of free-phase hydrocarbons. Free-phase hydrocarbons were recovered from the trench during 1996, 1997, and 1998. Recovery rates diminished over this time, and in 1999, no further product was recovered and the recovery operation was halted. Subsequent exploratory borings in 2001 and 2002 have revealed that some product remains in the subsurface. Data indicate that this remaining product exists in small discrete pockets or very thin layers of hydrocarbon floating on brine. These small reservoirs appear to be isolated from one another by relatively impermeable permafrost. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. En fornemmelse for migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütze, Laura Maria

    Afhandlingen undersøger, hvordan sted, museets rolle som aktør og religion er relevante for produktionen af migration på Immigrantmuseet (2012) og i Københavns Museums udstilling At blive københavner (2010). Afhandlingen er baseret på udstillingsanalyse samt interview med relevant museumsfagligt......, anvendes som virkemidler til at nuancere migration og distancere udstillingen fra den offentlige debat om indvandring. Afhandlingen peger på, at produktionen af den nyere danske historie på museum er præget af et fravær af religion. Det skyldes, at de museumsfaglige praksisser og traditioner afspejler en...... identiteter, som vi tager for givet: nationer, byer, kvinder - såvel som migration og religion. Afhandlingen argumenterer følgelig for, at museernes produktion af (materiel) religion er et særdeles relevant, men kun ringe udforsket, genstandsfelt for religionssociologien....

  3. Reconstructing Teacher Identities: Shock, Turbulence, Resistance and Adaptation in Caribbean Teacher Migration to England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington-Miller, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The findings reported and discussed in this article extend existing research in the fields of education, migration and identity which focuses on the impact of overseas trained teachers (OTTs) in London's secondary schools. In recent years, researchers have examined the issue of international teacher migration from the perspective of a "brain…

  4. Is Migration Feminized?

    OpenAIRE

    Toksöz, Gülay

    2012-01-01

    In the context of Turkey’s accession to the EU, the issue of potential migration from Turkey and its impact upon European labor markets became one of the concerns of the EU, considering Turkey’s growing population and young labor force. In 2011, half a century after the bi-lateral agreement between Turkey and Germany on labor recruitment in 1961, migration plays a key role in relations of Turkey with the EU and will even increase its significance – not necessarily for the next fifty years bu...

  5. What's driving migration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, H

    1995-01-01

    During the 1990s investment in prevention of international or internal migration declined, and crisis intervention increased. The budgets of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the UN Development Program remained about the same. The operating assumption is that war, persecution, famine, and environmental and social disintegration are inevitable. Future efforts should be directed to stabilizing populations through investment in sanitation, public health, preventive medicine, land tenure, environmental protection, and literacy. Forces pushing migration are likely to increase in the future. Forces include depletion of natural resources, income disparities, population pressure, and political disruption. The causes of migration are not constant. In the past, migration occurred during conquests, settlement, intermarriage, or religious conversion and was a collective movement. Current migration involves mass movement of individuals and the struggle to survive. There is new pressure to leave poor squatter settlements and the scarcities in land, water, and food. The slave trade between the 1500s and the 1800s linked continents, and only 2-3 million voluntarily crossed national borders. Involuntary migration began in the early 1800s when European feudal systems were in a decline, and people sought freedom. Official refugees, who satisfy the strict 1951 UN definition, increased from 15 million in 1980 to 23 million in 1990 but remained a small proportion of international migrants. Much of the mass movement occurs between developing countries. Migration to developed countries is accompanied by growing intolerance, which is misinformed. China practices a form of "population transfer" in Tibet in order to dilute Tibetan nationalism. Colonization of countries is a new less expensive form of control over territory. Eviction of minorities is another popular strategy in Iraq. Public works projects supported by foreign aid displace millions annually. War and civil conflicts

  6. Migrating for a Profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2015-01-01

    Youths from the Global South migrating for further education often face various forms of discrimination. This Caribbean case study discusses how conditions in the home country can provide a foundation for educational migration that helps the migrants overcome such obstacles and even develop...... a strong sense of agency and self-empowerment. In the post-WWII period, numerous Caribbean women trained in nursing at British hospitals that have been described as marred by race and gender related inequality and associated forms of exploitation. Yet, the nurses interviewed about this training emphasised...

  7. Migration, klima og sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tellier, Siri; Carballo, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Many tentative connections have been postulated between migration and climate. This article points to rural-urban migration, particularly into low elevation urban slums prone to flooding as an issue needing urgent attention by health professionals. It also notes the no-man's land in which...... environmental refugees find themselves and the consequences this may have. Finally, it points to the urgent need to reform health systems in both developing and developed countries to adapt to rapidly changing disease patterns and to become more responsive to them. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Oct-26...

  8. Making Migration Meaningful

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger

    2013-01-01

    . The article focuses on changing patterns of mobility in the Mongolian ‘age of the market’ and its effects on population groups. Internal and international migration has continually risen as individuals and families have moved to places of opportunity. Connections are believed to be maintained during periods...... of absence by migrant family members, as both men and women are culturally permitted to be separate from their families. Migration is understood to contribute to prosperity, and separations contribute to generate growth and hishig (good fortune) for the good of the family. However, such mobility is also...

  9. Unix Application Migration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Microsoft. Redmond

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing

  10. [Migration, climate and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Siri; Carballo, Manuel; Calballo, Manuel

    2009-10-26

    Many tentative connections have been postulated between migration and climate. This article points to rural-urban migration, particularly into low elevation urban slums prone to flooding as an issue needing urgent attention by health professionals. It also notes the no-man's land in which environmental refugees find themselves and the consequences this may have. Finally, it points to the urgent need to reform health systems in both developing and developed countries to adapt to rapidly changing disease patterns and to become more responsive to them. PMID:19857400

  11. Migration strategies of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, H

    1972-03-24

    Physiological and ecological results from a variety of species are consistent with what seem to be valid general statements concerning insect migration. These are as follows: (i)During migration locomotory functions are enhanced and vegetative functions such as feeding and reproduction are suppressed. (ii) Migration usually occurs prereproductively in the life of the adult insect (the oogenesis-flight syndrome). (iii)Since migrant individuals are usually prereproductive, their reproductive values, and hence colonizing abilities, are at or near maximum. (iv) Migrants usually reside in temporary habitats. (v)Migrants have a high potential for population increase, r, which is also advantageous for colonizers. (vi)Both the physiological and ecological parameters of migration are modifiable by environmental factors (that is, phenotypically modifiable)to suit the prevailing conditions. Taken together, these criteria establish a comprehensive theory and adumbrate the basic strategy for migrant insects. This basic strategy is modified to suit the ecological requirements of individual species. Comparative studies of these modifications are of considerable theoretical and practical interest, the more so since most economically important insects are migrants. No satisfactory general statements can as yet be made with respect to the genotype and migration. Certainly we expect colonizing populiations to possess genotypes favoring a high r, but genotypic variation in r depends on the heritabilities of life table statistics, and such measurements are yet to be made (10, 53). The fact that flight duration can be increased by appropriate selection in Oncopeltus fasciatus, and the demonstration of additive genetic variance for this trait in Lygaeus kalmii, suggest that heritability studies of migratory behavior would also be worth pursuing. Most interesting of course, will be possible genetic correlations between migration and life history parameters. Also, migration often

  12. Experimental investigation of hydrocarbon formation and transformation under Earth´s upper mantle conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov, Anton

    2010-01-01

    The theory of the abyssal abiotic petroleum origin considers oil and natural gas to begenerated in the Earth’s upper mantle. Hydrocarbons migrate further through the deep faults into the Earth’s crust, where they can form oil and gas deposits in any kind of rock in any kind of structural position. Until recently one of the main obstacles for further development of this theory has been the lack of the data covering processes of generation and transformations of hydrocarbons. Experimental data,...

  13. Isolation and characterization of ancient hydrocarbon biomarkers from crystalline minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Carrasquillo, A.; Hallmann, C.; Sherman, L. S.; Waldbauer, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrocarbon biomarker analysis is conventionally conducted on bitumen (soluble fossilized organic matter) extracted from sedimentary rocks using organic solvents. Biomarkers can also be generated by pyrolysis of kerogen (insoluble organic matter) in the same rocks. These approaches have met with much success where the organic matter has not seen significant levels of thermal metamorphism but more limited success when applied to thermally mature Archean rocks. Biomarkers have also been isolated from fluid inclusions of crystalline minerals and this approach has found wide application in petroleum exploration because of the capability of minerals that form crystals in reservoir rocks to trap organics from different episodes of fluid migration. Lastly, biogenic crystalline minerals are well known to trap organics including amino acids, fatty acids or hydrocarbons from those organisms that laid down the minerals. In fact, recent observations suggest that hydrocarbon biomarkers can be abundantly preserved in crystalline minerals where they may be protected over long periods of time and also distinguished from more recent generations of organics from endolithic organisms (modern) or anthropogenic (fossil hydrocarbon) contaminants. Here we report analyses of biomarker lipids trapped in fluid inclusions or otherwise having a "tight association" with the minerals in sedimentary rocks from Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic successions in Australia and Southern Africa. In particular, cores recovered from the Agouron Griqualand Drilling Project contain over 2500m of well-preserved late Archean Transvaal Supergroup sediments, dating from ca. 2.67 to 2.46Ga. Bitumen extracts of samples from these strata were obtained using clean drilling, sampling and handling protocols and without overprinting with contaminant hydrocarbons. Dissolution of the mineral matrix of extracted sediments, followed by another solvent extraction, yielded a second bitumen that comprised hydrocarbons that

  14. Migration scenarii in extrasolar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crida A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review talk, I present the theory of type I migration of small mass planets, and its latest developments that open the possibility of outward migration in the inner part of a protoplanetary disk. I also review the type II migration of giant planets, and mention the runaway, type III. Then, we focus on the migration of pairs of planets in resonance. The eccentricity of the planets raise, and possibly their mutual inclination as well. Also, the migration rate can be changed, and directed outward if the outer planet is the lighter. Last, we present a synthetic scenario of migration for the giant planets of our Solar System.

  15. Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by hydrocarbon exposure: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravnskov Uffe

    2005-12-01

    models a causal role of glomerular immune complex formation was unlikely, but may rather have been a secondary phenomenon. As most glomerulonephritis subgroups were seen and as some of the hydrocarbons produced more than one subgroup, the microscopic findings in a patient cannot be used as a clue to the causation of his disease. By the same reason, the lack of a specific histological pattern in patients with glomerulonephritis assumed to have been caused by hydrocarbon exposure is not contradictive.

  16. Fall armyworm migration patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), infestations in most of North America arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. Cytochrome Oxidase I haplotype profiles within the fall armyworm corn-strain, the subgroup tha...

  17. Digitizing migration heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2011-01-01

    Museums are increasingly digitizing their collections and making them available to the public on-line. Creating such digital resources may become means for social inclusion. For museums that acknowledge migration history and cultures of ethnic minority groups as important subjects in multiethnic...

  18. Migration as Adventure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2016-01-01

    Narratives of adventure constitute a well-established convention of describing travel experiences, yet the significance of this narrative genre in individuals’ accounts of their migration and life abroad has been little investigated. Drawing on Simmel and Bakhtin, among others, this article...

  19. Migration and Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace...

  20. Migrating the Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    The migration of Blaga’s universalist, even centralist poems from Romanian of the first third of the 20th C. into American of the first fifth of the 21st C. illustrates the uses of Pierre Joris’s nomadic methods. My translations of Blaga read well for a teenage audience whose only exposure...

  1. Practical Data Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Johny

    2012-01-01

    This book is for executives and practitioners tasked with the movement of data from old systems to a new repository. It uses a series of steps guaranteed to get the reader from an empty new system to one that is working and backed by the user population. Using this proven methodology will vastly increase the chances of a successful migration.

  2. Dispersal and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, C.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Ringing of birds unveiled many aspects of avian migration and dispersal movements. However, there is even much more to be explored by the use of ringing and other marks. Dispersal is crucial in understanding the initial phase of migration in migrating birds as it is to understand patterns and processes of distribution and gene flow. So far, the analysis of migration was largely based on analysing spatial and temporal patters of recoveries of ringed birds. However, there are considerable biases and pitfalls in using recoveries due to spatial and temporal variation in reporting probabilities. Novel methods are required for future studies separating the confounding effects of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of recovery data and heterogeneity of the landscape as well. These novel approaches should aim a more intensive and novel use of the existing recovery data by taking advantage of, for instance, dynamic and multistate modeling, should elaborate schemes for future studies, and should also include other marks that allow a more rapid data collection, like telemetry, geolocation and global positioning systems, and chemical and molecular markers. The latter appear to be very useful in the delineating origin of birds and connectivity between breeding and non–breeding grounds. Many studies of migration are purely descriptive. However, King and Brooks (King & Brooks, 2004 examine if movement patterns of dolphins change after the introduction of a gillnet ban. Bayesian methods are an interesting approach to this problem as they provide a meaningful measure of the probability that such a change occurred rather than simple yes/no response that is often the result of classical statistical methods. However, the key difficulty of a general implementation of Bayesian methods is the complexity of the modelling —there is no general userfriendly package that is easily accessible to most scientists. Drake and Alisauskas (Drake & Alisauskas, 2004 examine the

  3. Diesel-related hydrocarbons can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Dunmore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are key precursors to two priority air pollutants, ozone and particulate matter. Those with two to seven carbons have historically been straightforward to observe and have been successfully reduced in many developed cities through air quality policy interventions. Longer chain hydrocarbons released from diesel vehicles are not considered explicitly as part of air quality strategies and there are few direct measurements of their gaseous abundance in the atmosphere. This study describes the chemically comprehensive and continuous measurements of organic compounds in a developed megacity (London, which demonstrate that on a seasonal median basis, diesel-related hydrocarbons represent only 20–30 % of the total hydrocarbon mixing ratio but comprise more than 50 % of the atmospheric hydrocarbon mass and are a dominant local source of secondary organic aerosols. This study shows for the first time that 60 % of the winter primary hydrocarbon hydroxyl radical reactivity is from diesel-related hydrocarbons and using the maximum incremental reactivity scale, we predict that they contribute up to 50 % of the ozone production potential in London. Comparing real-world urban composition with regulatory emissions inventories in the UK and US highlights a previously unaccounted for, but very significant, under-reporting of diesel-related hydrocarbons; an underestimation of a factor ~4 for C9 species rising to a factor of over 70 for C12 during winter. These observations show that hydrocarbons from diesel vehicles can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in cities with high diesel fleet fractions. Future control of urban particulate matter and ozone in such locations requires a shift in policy focus onto gas phase hydrocarbons released from diesels as this vehicle type continues to displace gasoline world-wide.

  4. Diesel-related hydrocarbons can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Dunmore

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are key precursors to two priority air pollutants, ozone and particulate matter. Those with two to seven carbons have historically been straightforward to observe and have been successfully reduced in many developed cities through air quality policy interventions. Longer chain hydrocarbons released from diesel vehicles are not considered explicitly as part of air quality strategies and there are few direct measurements of their gaseous abundance in the atmosphere. This study describes the chemically comprehensive and continuous measurements of organic compounds in a developed megacity (London, which demonstrate that on a seasonal median basis, diesel-related hydrocarbons represent only 20–30% of the total hydrocarbon mixing ratio but comprise more than 50% of the atmospheric hydrocarbon mass and are a dominant local source of secondary organic aerosols. This study shows for the first time that, 60% of the winter primary hydrocarbon hydroxyl radical reactivity is from diesel-related hydrocarbons and using the maximum incremental reactivity scale, we predict that they contribute up to 50% of the ozone production potential in London. Comparing real-world urban composition with regulatory emissions inventories in the UK and US highlights a previously unaccounted for but, very significant under-reporting of diesel related hydrocarbons; an underestimation of a factor ~ 4 for C9 species rising to a factor of over 70 for C12 during winter. These observations show that hydrocarbons from diesel vehicles can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in cities with high diesel fleet fractions. Future control of urban particulate matter and ozone in such locations requires a shift in policy focus onto gas phase hydrocarbons released from diesels as this vehicle type continues to displace gasoline world-wide.

  5. Migration and Narration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Boenisch-Brednich

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The following article aims to work out the main narrative techniques of “telling migration”. The conclusions drawn on the subject of migration and narration are based on a one-year field work study, combining participant observation with interviewing. This study took place in New Zealand concentrating on German immigrants between 1936 and 1996. The main source for my analysis given in this paper is provided by 102 people I interviewed. The texts of these biographically-focussed interviews allowed me to work not only on an ethnographical history of migration but also to gain insights into peoples’ experiences, and over and above that, to learn what kind of stories and techniques of storytelling emigration creates. The book focuses on a comparatively wide time frame of sixty years (Boenisch- Brednich 2001. This makes it possible to analyse very different periods of migration and groups of migrants, contrasting social categories as well as exploring differences in education, milieu, age and gender. Furthermore, it becomes obvious that although all migrants were leaving Germany and arriving in New Zealand, they experienced what were in effect very different countries through time – different Germanys, different New Zealands. To work out the changing reasons for migrating (work migration, refuge, global lifestyle, etc. inside western societies is a major theme the book is aiming for. A second approach is to investigate migration from the perspective of focussing on everyday life, an investigation on the basis of personal experiences, such as “work, housing, food, celebrations, social life”. A special focus is set on the analysing of “mental narratives” as key stories, examples, comparatives etc. The central questions of this project were: What kind of strategies do people use to cope with a major changes in their biography, as constituted by emigration? What does integration really mean and how does it work for different groups? What

  6. Migration Turnover Rates in Mountain States Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsen, William J.; Israelsen, L. Dwight; Israelsen, Ryan D.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of migration typically examine migration between countries, or, in the United States, migration between states. Recently, there have been several studies done on the determinants of migration at the county level. The current study introduces a new concept into the migration literature: the migration turnover rate (MTR). The migration turnover rate is similar to an employee turnover rate in that it measures the turnover through in-migration and out-migration of the population of an are...

  7. Migration Turnover Rates in United States Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsen, L. Dwight; Israelsen, Ryan D.; Israelsen, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of migration typically examine migration between countries, or, in the United States, migration between states. Recently, there have been several studies done on the determinants of migration at the county level. The current study introduces a new concept into the migration literature: the migration turnover rate (MTR). The migration turnover rate is similar to an employee turnover rate in that it measures the turnover through in-migration and out-migration of the population of an are...

  8. Globalization, Migration and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishMigration may become the most important branch of demography in the earlydecades of the new millennium in a rapidly globalizing world. This paper discusses the causes, costsand benefits of international migration to countries of the South and North, and key issues of commonconcern. International migration is as old as national boundaries, though its nature, volume,direction, causes and consequences have changed. The causes of migration are rooted in the rate ofpopulation growth and the proportion of youth in the population, their education and training,employment opportunities, income differentials in society, communication and transportationfacilities, political freedom and human rights and level of urbanization. Migration benefits the Souththrough remittances of migrants, improves the economic welfare of the population (particularly womenof South countries generally, increases investment, and leads to structural changes in the economy.However, emigration from the South has costs too, be they social or caused by factors such as braindrain. The North also benefits by migration through enhancement of economic growth, development ofnatural resources, improved employment prospects, social development and through exposure toimmigrants' new cultures and lifestyles. Migration also has costs to the North such as of immigrantintegration, a certain amount of destabilization of the economy, illegal immigration, and socialproblems of discrimination and exploitation. Issues common to both North and South include impact onprivate investment, trade, international cooperation, and sustainable development. Both North andSouth face a dilemma in seeking an appropriate balance between importing South's labour or itsproducts and exporting capital and technology from the North.FrenchLa migration est sans doute devenue la partie la plus importante de la démographie des premières décennies du nouveau millénaire dans un monde qui change rapidement. Ce

  9. Lithologic Hydrocarbon Deposits in Rift Lake Basins in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Herong; HE Zongquan

    2004-01-01

    The rift lake basins in the eastern China have abundant hydrocarbon resources of lithologic deposits, which resulted from excellent source rocks and multi-type sandbodies developed during strong rifting. Vertically, the lithologic deposits are mainly distributed in the lowstand, lacustrine invasion and early highstand systems of third-order sequence corresponding to a secondary tectonic episode of strong rifting, and laterally they are closely related to various fans and turbidite sandbodies controlled by syn-sedimentary faults. A variety of lithologic traps have been developed in the rift lake basins, and they generally have favorable conditions of source-reservoir-seal assemblage and hydrocarbon accumulation dynamics, indicating that there is a great exploration potential of lithologic deposits in the rift lake basins.In order to obtain satisfactory effects of lithologic deposit exploration, it is required to combine new theories with advanced technical methods.

  10. Environmental Behavior, Sources, and Effects of Chlorinated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ohura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental sources and behaviors of chlorinated 2- to 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs. ClPAHs are ubiquitous contaminants found in urban air, vehicle exhaust gas, snow, tap water, and sediments. The concentrations of ClPAHs in each of these environments are generally higher than those of dioxins but markedly lower than the concentrations of the parent compounds, PAHs. Environmental data and emission sources analysis for ClPAHs reveal that the dominant process of generation is by reaction of PAHs with chlorine in pyrosynthesis. This secondary reaction process also occurs in aquatic environments. Certain ClPAHs show greater toxicity, such as mutagenicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity, than their corresponding parent PAHs. Investigation of the sources and environmental behavior of ClPAHs is of great importance in the assessment of human health risks.

  11. The International Organization for Migration in Global Migration Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Sofie Havn; Andersen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    This project focuses on the IOM, the notion of global governance of migration and the interaction between these two. The point of departure has been an attempt to grasp the current global approach to migration and comprehend whether, or to what degree, there is governance of migration issues taking place at a global level.

  12. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  13. Hydrocarbon components in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissin, Y. V.

    2003-05-01

    Currently, the presence of free n-alkanes and isoprenoid alkanes in carbonaceous meteorites is usually explained either by microbial contamination during the period between the meteorite fall and collection or by contamination from the environment of analytical laboratories and museums. The goal of this research was to repeat analysis of hydrocarbon components in meteorites and to investigate possible meteorite contamination routes discussed in the literature. Experimental analysis of free organic constituents in five carbonaceous meteorites by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and gas chromatographic (GC) methods confirmed the presence of extractable aliphatic components, n-alkanes in the C 15H 32-C 27H 56 range and isoprenoid alkanes (phytane, pristane, and norpristane), in some of these meteorites. The contents of these compounds vary depending on the source. Insoluble organic components of two meteorites (meteorite kerogens) were isolated, and their composition was analyzed by IR and cracking/GC methods. Comparison with the data on several terrestrial contamination sources proposed in the literature shows that the presence of free saturated hydrocarbons in meteorites and the composition of the meteorite kerogen could not be explained either by microbial contamination or by contamination from the laboratory environment. The types of the hydrocarbons in meteorites resemble those typical of ancient terrestrial deposits of organic-rich sediments, except for the absence of lighter hydrocarbons, which apparently slowly evaporated in space, and multi-ring naphthenic compounds of the biologic origin, steranes, terpanes, etc. The prevailing current explanation for the presence of free linear saturated hydrocarbons in carbonaceous meteorites, apart from contamination, is the abiotic route from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. However, the data on the structure of meteorite kerogens require a search for different routes that initially produce complex polymeric structures containing

  14. The Analysis of International Migration towards Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdous Alam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study discusses the analysis of international migration towards economic growth in Bangladesh. International migration refers to the cross-border movement of people from a mother country to a location outside that mother country, with the purpose of taking up higher income employment, better living conditions, higher education get access to civic amenities and conducting a daily existence there for an extended period of time. The exports of labor, human capital, play a major role to minimize the poverty level in Bangladesh. In the last four decades, Bangladesh exports the huge number of labors abroad for economic growth through remittances. Remittances affect poverty eradication most directly by increasing the income of households which have a family member working abroad. Because income from remittances is usually larger than that which could have been earned by migrants they stayed at home. Approach: The aim of this study is to highlight the policy implications for the maximization of international migration and the analysis of economic growth in Bangladesh. The data for analysis is perceived from the secondary sources. The significant manipulations for acquired data are migration of employment and remittances for economic growth in Bangladesh. Results: Migration contributed for the development of macro and micro level in Bangladesh. Conclusion: There would be potential benefits to world's poor if more international attention were focused on integrating migration policy to within the larger global dialogue economic development and poverty reduction. Strong institutions and good policies will enhance the benefits of human capital migration for Bangladesh.

  15. Conceptual design of air sparge/soil vent systems for in situ remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design for a sparge and vent system is presented. A sparge and vent system consists of air sparging or in situ aeration in combination with soil vapor extraction. With air sparging, a compressed air source provides sparging of the ground water through aeration points, volatizes dissolved hydrocarbons, and elevates dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in the ground water. Volatile hydrocarbon vapors migrate more readily than liquid in soil, and are extracted to atmosphere with the vapor extraction system. Increased oxygen levels in the ground water and unsaturated soil promotes natural, aerobic biodegradation of the hydrocarbons without nutrient addition. Design considerations for sparge systems include spacing and depth of installation of the sparging points, air injection rates and pressures and the air source. The design techniques for the soil vapor extraction system have been discussed extensively in the literature but generally involve spacing of the extraction wells to capture all the hydrocarbons stripped from the ground water. The soil vapor extraction system can also be modified to enhance oxygen (air) delivery to the unsaturated zone and thus promote natural biodegradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil. Techniques for monitoring the progress of remediation include measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the soil, DO levels in the ground water, subsurface air pressures and petroleum hydrocarbon levels in the discharged air, soil and ground water

  16. Biological enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigmon, Robin L.; Berry, Christopher J.

    2009-01-06

    A method of microbial enhanced oil recovery for recovering oil from an oil-bearing rock formation is provided. The methodology uses a consortium of bacteria including a mixture of surfactant producing bacteria and non-surfactant enzyme producing bacteria which may release hydrocarbons from bitumen containing sands. The described bioprocess can work with existing petroleum recovery protocols. The consortium microorganisms are also useful for treatment of above oil sands, ground waste tailings, subsurface oil recovery, and similar materials to enhance remediation and/or recovery of additional hydrocarbons from the materials.

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF MIGRATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela DĂNĂCICĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the patterns of migration in Romania. Labor migration in Romania has seen major growth after 1989. Permanent migration rapidly increased in the early years after the revolution, decreasing rapidly thereafter, due to difficulties of obtaining long term residence and work permit in the host countries. However, temporary migration has been found to evolve very dynamically, requiring economic analysis of potential externalities, whether positive or the negative of this phenomenon.

  18. CHARACTERISTICS OF MIGRATION IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela DĂNĂCICĂ

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the patterns of migration in Romania. Labor migration in Romania has seen major growth after 1989. Permanent migration rapidly increased in the early years after the revolution, decreasing rapidly thereafter, due to difficulties of obtaining long term residence and work permit in the host countries. However, temporary migration has been found to evolve very dynamically, requiring economic analysis of potential externalities, whet...

  19. Trade, Aid, Remittances and Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoyunlu, Sule

    2009-01-01

    I investigated whether migration is interrelated with trade, aid and remittances so that any policies that consider trade, aid and remittances also affect the decision to migrate. We developed and estimated an empirical model of Turkish migration to Germany and tested the model for the 1969-2004, using the cointegration technique. A single cointegrating vector is found among the gross migration inflows and the following explanatory variables: the relative income ratio between Germany and Turk...

  20. Altruism and International Labour Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Damien Gaumont; Alice Mesnard

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of altruism on the pattern of labour migration in a two-country overlapping generations model. We show that differences in degrees of altruism across countries lead to bilateral migration flows. Starting from the autarkic steady-state equilibrium, restrictions on labour migration are relaxed. In temporary post-migration equilibrium factor prices are equal across countries. We then characterize the unique stable steady-state equilibrium: both countries are po...

  1. The definition of illegal migration

    OpenAIRE

    DZHANSARAYEVA RIMA YERENATOVNA; MALIKOVA SHOLPAN BALTABEKOVNA

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the definitions of illegal migration. In theory, there is no consensus on the concept of illegal immigration. In the scientific revolution applied the concept of “illegal migration”, “illegal immigration”, “migration of the crime” and “criminal migration”. Crime and illegal migration, although they have common features, are different concepts. For the concept of illegal immigration is characterized by violation of migration laws. For the concept of mandatory criminal migr...

  2. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  3. Religion, migration og integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    Sammenhængen mellem religion og integration har de sidste år været genstand for debat. Artiklen kommer ind på begreber og sammenhænge relateret til området (migration, diaspora, assimilation, etnicitet, kultur) og ser på religionens mulige rolle som negativ eller positiv ressource i integrationss......Sammenhængen mellem religion og integration har de sidste år været genstand for debat. Artiklen kommer ind på begreber og sammenhænge relateret til området (migration, diaspora, assimilation, etnicitet, kultur) og ser på religionens mulige rolle som negativ eller positiv ressource i...

  4. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  5. Enforcement and illegal migration

    OpenAIRE

    Orrenius, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Border enforcement of immigration laws attempts to raise the costs of illegal immigration, while interior enforcement also lowers the benefits. Border and interior enforcement therefore reduce the net benefits of illegal immigration and should lower the probability that an individual will decide to migrate. While some empirical studies find that border and interior enforcement serve as significant deterrents to illegal immigration, immigration enforcement is costly and carries significant uni...

  6. Managing the Mass Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Xinzhen

    2012-01-01

    Big crowds and foul air on the train,frighteningly long queues and fierce clashes at the station...these are common scenes during China's Spring Festival travel rush.The annual travel peak is known as the world's biggest human migration.This year's stampede is still ongoing.Lasting over 40 days,people began retuming to their hometowns on January 8 and the final stragglers will make their way back to the cities by February 16.

  7. MIGRATION AND POLITICAL ASYLUM

    OpenAIRE

    LUPSA FLORENTINA

    2014-01-01

    Migration is an important topic on the public agenda, as well as in the area of effervescent political debate and public policies, and has been so especially in this past decade, in the national and European plane. The recorded evolutions may easily exemplify the way in which liberal democracies function and the process of European construction, implicitly the process of change in the immigration policy, degree of adaptability and opening to change, the controversial character and the difficu...

  8. Halting Planetary Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Lecar, M.; Sasselov, D. D.

    1999-01-01

    When Jupiter's Roche Lobe radius exceeded the scale height of the protoplanetary disk, Jupiter opened a gap in the disk. When the gap was wide enough, tidal torques from the disk interior and exterior to Jupiter were suppressed and migration continued on the accretion time scale. In the 'minimum solar nebula' about two Jupiter masses of gas remained between Jupiter and Saturn and about five Jupiter masses between Jupiter and Uranus. Unless all but a Jupiter mass of the outer disk was removed,...

  9. Syrian Crisis and Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar Yazgan; Deniz Eroglu Utku; Ibrahim Sirkeci

    2015-01-01

    With the growing insurrections in Syria in 2011, an exodus in large numbers have emerged. The turmoil and violence have caused mass migration to destinations both within the region and beyond. The current "refugee crisis" has escalated sharply and its impact is widening from neighbouring countries toward Europe. Today, the Syrian crisis is the major cause for an increase in displacement and the resultant dire humanitarian situation in the region. Since the conflict shows no signs of abating i...

  10. Weathered Hydrocarbon Wastes: A Risk Management Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Brassington, Kirsty J.; Hough, Rupert L.; Paton, Graeme I.; Semple, Kirk T.; Risdon, Graeme C.; Crossley, Jane; Hay, I; Askari, K.; Pollard, Simon J. T.

    2007-01-01

    We provide a primer and critical review of the characterization, risk assessment, and bioremediation of weathered hydrocarbons. Historically the remediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons has been expressed in terms of reductions in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) load rather than reductions in risk. There are several techniques by which petroleum hydrocarbons in soils can be characterized. Method development is often driven by the objectives of published...

  11. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  12. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  13. Many Faces of Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Antić Gaber

    2013-12-01

    We believe that in the present thematic issue we have succeeded in capturing an important part of the modern European research dynamic in the field of migration. In addition to well-known scholars in this field several young authors at the beginning their research careers have been shortlisted for the publication. We are glad of their success as it bodes a vibrancy of this research area in the future. At the same time, we were pleased to receive responses to the invitation from representatives of so many disciplines, and that the number of papers received significantly exceeded the maximum volume of the journal. Recognising and understanding of the many faces of migration are important steps towards the comprehensive knowledge needed to successfully meet the challenges of migration issues today and even more so in the future. It is therefore of utmost importance that researchers find ways of transferring their academic knowledge into practice – to all levels of education, the media, the wider public and, of course, the decision makers in local, national and international institutions. The call also applies to all authors in this issue of the journal.

  14. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  15. Fire-safe hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, G.E.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Wright, B.R.

    1979-11-06

    A stabilized, fire-safe, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel emulsion prepared by mixing: a diesel fuel; an emulsifier (consisting of oleyl diethanolamide, diethanolamine, and diethanolamine soap of oleic acid) which has been treated with about 0 to 7 1/2 of oleic acid. A modified version of this fuel also contains 0 to 0.5% of an antimisting agent, and water.

  16. Migrations in Slovenian geography textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Senegačnik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia, the migrations are treated in almost all geographical textbooks for different levels of education. In the textbooks for the elementary school from the sixth to ninth grade, students acquire knowledge of the migrations by the inductive approach. Difficulty level of treatment and quantity of information are increasing by the age level. In the grammar school program a trail of gaining knowledge on migration is deductive. Most attention is dedicated to migrations in general geography textbooks. The textbooks for vocational and technical school programs deal with migrations to a lesser extent and with different approaches.

  17. Migration process in Russia in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Karachurina

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with a scope of issues related to migration process taking place in the Russian Federation. The author focuses on the issues of labor migration and domestic migration. New legislative initiatives in the area of migration were reviewed.

  18. Migration Processes in Russia in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Karachurina

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a scope of issues related to migration process taking place in the Russian Federation. The author focuses on the issues of labor migration and domestic migration. New legislative initiatives in the area of migration were reviewed.

  19. Control of facies/potential on hydrocarbon accumulation:a geological model for Iacustrine rift basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Dongxia; Pang Xiongqi; Zhang Shanwen; Wang Yongshi; Zhang Jun

    2008-01-01

    The formation and distribution of hydrocarbon accumulations are jointly controlled by"stratigraphic facies"and"fluid potential",which can be abbreviated in"control of facies/potential on hydrocarbon accumulation".Facies and potential control the time-space distribution of hydrocarbon accumulation macroscopically and the petroliferous characteristics of hydrocarbon accumulation microscopically.Tectonic facies and sedimentary facies control the time-space distribution.Lithofacies and petrophysical facies control the petroliferous characteristics.Favorable facies and high porosity and permeability control hydrocarbon accumulation in the lacustrine rift basins in China.Fluid potential is represented by the work required,which comprises the work against gravity,pressure,interfacial energy and kinetic energy.Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation are controlled by the joint action of multiple driving forces,and are characterized by accumulation in the area of low potential.At the structural high,low geopotential energy caused by buoyancy control anticlinal reservoir.The formation of lithological oil pool is controlled by low interfacial energy caused by capillary force.Low compressive energy caused by overpressure and faulting activity control the formation of the faulted block reservoir.Low geopotential energy of the basin margin caused by buoyancy control stratigraphic reservoir.The statistics of a large number of oil reservoirs show that favorable facies and low potential control hydrocarbon accumulation in the rift basin.where over 85% of the discovered hydrocarbon accumulations are distributed in the trap with favorable facies and lOW potentials.The case study showed that the prediction of favorable areas by application of the near source-favorable facies-low potential accumulation model correlated well with over 90% of the discovered oil pools' distribution of the middle section of the third member of the Shahejie Formation in the Dongying Depression,Bohai Bay

  20. Prediction of cold start hydrocarbon emissions of air cooled two wheeler spark ignition engines by simple fuzzy logic simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Raja Ayyanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cold start hydrocarbon emission from the increasing population of two wheelers in countries like India is one of the research issues to be addressed. This work describes the prediction of cold start hydrocarbon emissions from air cooled spark ignition engines through fuzzy logic technique. Hydrocarbon emissions were experimentally measured from test engines of different cubic capacity, at different lubricating oil temperature and at different idling speeds with and without secondary air supply in exhaust. The experimental data were used as input for modeling average hydrocarbon emissions for 180 seconds counted from cold start and warm start of gasoline bike engines. In fuzzy logic simulation, member functions were assigned for input variables (cubic capacity and idling rpm and output variables (average hydrocarbon emission for first 180 seconds at cold start and warm start. The knowledge based rules were adopted from the analyzed experimental data and separate simulations were carried out for predicting hydrocarbon emissions from engines equipped with and without secondary air supply. The simulation yielded the average hydrocarbon emissions of air cooled gasoline engine for a set of given input data with accuracy over 90%.

  1. The thioredoxin system in breast cancer cell invasion and migration

    OpenAIRE

    Maneet Bhatia; Kelly L. McGrath; Giovanna Di Trapani; Pornpimol Charoentong; Fenil Shah; Mallory M. King; Clarke, Frank M.; Tonissen, Kathryn F

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the most life threatening aspect of breast cancer. It is a multi-step process involving invasion and migration of primary tumor cells with a subsequent colonization of these cells at a secondary location. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of thioredoxin (Trx1) in the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells and to assess the strength of the association between high levels of Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) expression with breast cancer patient ...

  2. Geochemical ways of artificial radionuclide migration in biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collection presents abstracts of papers on the following subjects: organization and methodology of research and developments on creation of combined medium- and largescale landscape-geochemical and radioecological maps for territories contaminated by radionuclides; typological and space features of distribution of artificial radionuclides and regularities of their migration, the radionuclides being entered the biosphere during accidents at NPPs; forms of artificial radionuclides in biosphere after the NPP accidents; simulation of primary entering and secondary migration of radionuclides in biosphere; methodology of organization and conducting radiogeochemical monitoring of biosphere; new methods and means for radiation monitoring of the environment

  3. Numerical modelling of channel migration with application to laboratory rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian SUN; Bin-liang LIN; Hong-wei KUANG

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a morphological model and its application to experimental model rivers. The model takes into account the key processes of channel migration, including bed deformation, bank failure and wetting and drying. Secondary flows in bends play an important role in lateral sediment transport, which further affects channel migration. A new formula has been derived to predict the near-bed secondary flow speed, in which the magnitude of the speed is linked to the lateral water level gradient. Since only non-cohesive sediment is considered in the current study, the bank failure is modelled based on the concept of submerged angle of repose. The wetting and drying process is modelled using an existing method. Comparisons between the numerical model predictions and experimental observations for various discharges have been made. It is found that the model predicted channel planform and cross-sectional shapes agree generally well with the laboratory observations. A scenario analysis is also carried out to investigate the impact of secondary flow on the channel migration process. It shows that if the effect of secondary flow is ignored, the channel size in the lateral direction will be seriously underestimated.

  4. Towards an understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin Mei; Zhou, Chun Hui; Keeling, John; Tong, Dong Shen; Yu, Wei Hua

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews progress in the understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation. Clay minerals are involved in the formation of kerogen, catalytic cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon, the migration of crude oil, and the continued change to hydrocarbon composition in underground petroleum reservoirs. In kerogen formation, clay minerals act as catalysts and sorbents to immobilize organic matter through ligand exchange, hydrophobic interactions and cation bridges by the mechanisms of Maillard reactions, polyphenol theory, selective preservation and sorptive protection. Clay minerals also serve as catalysts in acid-catalyzed cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon through Lewis and Brønsted acid sites on the clay surface. The amount and type of clay mineral affect the composition of the petroleum. Brønsted acidity of clay minerals is affected by the presence and state of interlayer water, and displacement of this water is a probable driver in crude oil migration from source rocks. During crude oil migration and accumulation in reservoirs, the composition of petroleum is continually modified by interaction with clay minerals. The clays continue to function as sorbents and catalysts even while they are being transformed by diagenetic processes. The detail of chemical interactions and reaction mechanisms between clay minerals and crude oil formation remains to be fully explained but promises to provide insights with broader application, including catalytic conversion of biomass as a source of sustainable energy into the future.

  5. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  6. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  7. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration". PMID:22073693

  8. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  9. Population, desertification, and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westing, A H

    1994-01-01

    When an imbalance develops between population numbers and the carrying capacity of the land, the persons thereby displaced are referred to as environmental refugees. The utilization of the land beyond sustainability leads to land degradation and ultimately, desertification. The social and political impacts of long-term environmental migration can be distinguished: a) at the site of origin of the displaced persons by the residual population; b) at rural sites of destination within the nation between the new arrivals and preestablished populations; c) in the cities within the nation; d) in the nonindustrialized foreign countries; and e) in the industrialized foreign countries. In the event that an area which had previously been devoted to pastoralism is converted to agriculture, the displaced pastoralists might respond through armed rebellion. In some instances, the disenchanted urban squatters become a politically restive and even a destabilizing force, as occurred in Sudan in the 1980s, especially in Khartoum and Port Sudan. The foreign countries to which many of the displaced persons are migrating are subjected to increasing levels of migrant-induced economic, cultural, and political strains. The growing problems associated with south-to-north migration across the Mediterranean Sea have recently led France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain to enter into a consultative arrangement with Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia. All foreign aid to the nonindustrialized countries that attempts to ameliorate the problem of desertification must adopt integrated approaches that: a) address population issues; b) support environmental education; c) provide for the protection of biodiversity; d) encourage participatory forms of local and national government; e) provide opportunities for income generation outside the livestock sector; and f) foster political security and facilitate ecogeographical (subregional) cooperation.

  10. Turkish migration in Europe: EU accession and migration flows

    OpenAIRE

    Wadim Strielkowski; Ondřej Glazar

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of Turkey's potential EU membership on emigration from Turkey to the European Union. We apply panel data estimators using the data on emigration from EU15 countries into Germany and the Netherlands in order to construct possible future scenarios of Turkish migration to the EU. Three scenarios of migration, pessimistic, realistic and optimistic (depending on the fears related to the expected impact of Turkish migration on the EU labour markets), are drawn and fut...

  11. The migration flux: Understanding international immigration through internal migration

    OpenAIRE

    Rickard Sandell

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the idea that the network structure that emerges from a foreign-born population's internal migration process changes the conditions for international immigration. The idea is tested by using data from the period between 1998 and 2008 about virtually all internal and international migration events in Spain. The findings show that internal migration changes the intensity and the quality content of immigrant social capital transfers, with both positive and negative ramifica...

  12. Surface geochemical data evaluation and integration with geophysical observations for hydrocarbon prospecting, Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Satish Kumar; A.M. Dayal; V. Sudarshan

    2014-01-01

    The Deccan Syneclise is considered to have significant hydrocarbon potential. However, significant hydrocarbon discoveries, particularly for Mesozoic sequences, have not been established through conventional exploration due to the thick basalt cover over Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. In this study, near-surface geochemical data are used to understand the petroleum system and also investigate type of source for hydrocarbons generation of the study area. Soil samples were collected from favorable areas identified by integrated geophysical studies. The compositional and isotopic signatures of adsorbed gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) were used as surface indicators of pe-troleum micro-seepages. An analysis of 75 near-surface soil-gas samples was carried out for light hydrocarbons (C1-C4) and their carbon isotopes from the western part of Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India. The geochemical results reveal sites or clusters of sites containing anomalously high concentrations of light hydrocarbon gases. High concentrations of adsorbed thermogenic methane (C1 =518 ppb) and ethane plus higher hydrocarbons (∑C2+=977 ppb) were observed. Statistical analysis shows that samples from 13% of the samples contain anomalously high concentrations of light hydrocarbons in the soil-gas constituents. This seepage suggests largest magnitude of soil gas anomalies might be generated/source from Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, beneath Deccan Traps. The carbon isotopic composition of methane, ethane and propane ranges are from -22.5‰ to -30.2‰PDB, -18.0‰ to 27.1‰ PDB and 16.9‰e-32.1‰ PDB respectively, which are in thermogenic source. Surface soil sample represents the intersection of a migration conduit from the deep subsurface to the surface connected to sub-trappean Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. Prominent hydrocarbon concentra-tions were associated with dykes, lineaments and presented on thinner basaltic cover in the study area, which probably acts as channel for the

  13. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Yatish T. [Norfolk State University; Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  14. Hydrocarbon conversion with ZSM-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, E.J.; Rubin, M.K.

    1976-07-20

    The specification discloses conversion of hydrocarbons using, as catalyst, a crystalline zeolite designated ZSM-12. The zeolite has the following composition: 1,0 +- 0.4 M/sub 2/O . W/sub 2/O . 20-200 YO/sub 2/ . ZH/sub 2/O where M is at least one cation and n is the valence thereof, W is aluminum or gallium, Y is silicon or germanium, and Z is a value ranging from 0 to 60. In a preferred synthesized form, M is a mixture of alkali metal cations, especially sodium, and tetraalkylammonium cations. These zeolites are characterized by a specified x-ray powder diffraction pattern. Catalytically-active forms of said zeolites are used in a wide variety of hydrocarbon conversion reactions.

  15. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  16. Catalytic ignition of light hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. L. Hohn; C.-C. Huang; C. Cao

    2009-01-01

    Catalytic ignition refers to phenomenon where sufficient energy is released from a catalytic reaction to maintain further reaction without additional extemai heating. This phenomenon is important in the development of catalytic combustion and catalytic partial oxidation processes, both of which have received extensive attention in recent years. In addition, catalytic ignition studies provide experimental data which can be used to test theoretical hydrocarbon oxidation models. For these reasons, catalytic ignition has been frequently studied. This review summarizes the experimental methods used to study catalytic ignition of light hydrocarbons and describes the experimental and theoretical results obtained related to catalytic ignition. The role of catalyst metal, fuel and fuel concentration, and catalyst state in catalytic ignition are examined, and some conclusions are drawn on the mechanism of catalytic ignition.

  17. Proceedings of hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the 1980s witnessed a concentrated effort toward identifying the scientific concerns associated with hydrocarbon contaminated soils, the 1990s offer the hope that even more reliable solutions, both scientific and regulatory, will emerge. The hope for this transition from problem identification to problems solution is evident in these papers from the 5th Annual Conference on Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils (formerly called Petroleum Contaminated Soils), as the presentations more clearly reflect the maturation of a rapidly evolving field in the areas of chemical analysis, fate, remediation, public health, and regulatory evaluation. This book attempts to address the multidimensional facets of soil contamination by providing various current general perspectives as well as those from the regulatory and the international communities. Technical information is also provided in specific contamination areas such as diesel fuel, as well as analysis and site assessment, remediation, risk assessment, and management

  18. Network migration for printers

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Further to the recent General Purpose (office) Network reorganisation (as announced in the Bulletin - see here), please note that the majority of print devices will be automatically migrated to the new network IP address range on Tuesday 27 September.   This change should be transparent for these devices and therefore end-users, provided you have installed the printers from the Print Service website. A small number of devices will require manual intervention from the Printer Support team in order to migrate correctly. These devices will not change their IP address until the manual intervention, which will be carried out before Monday 3rd October. However, if you have mistakenly connected directly to the printer’s IP address, then your printing will be affected – please uninstall the printer (for help, see: KB3785), and re-install it from the Print Service website (or follow instructions for visitor machines). Please do this as soon as possible in order to avoid printing issues, t...

  19. Migration and fate of ethanol-enhanced gasoline in groundwater: a modelling analysis of a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana G; Mocanu, Marian T; Zoby, José Luiz G; Molson, John W; Barker, James F

    2011-01-25

    Ethanol use as a gasoline additive is increasing, as are the chances of groundwater contamination caused by gasoline releases involving ethanol. To evaluate the impact of ethanol on dissolved hydrocarbon plumes, a field test was performed in which three gasoline residual sources with different ethanol fractions (E0: no ethanol, E10: 10% ethanol and E95: 95% ethanol) were emplaced below the water table. Using the numerical model BIONAPL/3D, the mass discharge rates of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene were simulated and results compared to those obtained from sampling transects of multilevel samplers. It was shown that ethanol dissolved rapidly and migrated downgradient as a short slug. Mass discharge of the hydrocarbons from the E0 and E10 sources suggested similar first-order hydrocarbon decay rates, indicating that ethanol from E10 had no impact on hydrocarbon degradation. In contrast, the estimated hydrocarbon decay rates were significantly lower when the source was E95. For the E0 and E10 cases, the aquifer did not have enough oxygen to support complete mineralization of the hydrocarbon compounds to the extent suggested by the field-based mass discharge. Introducing a heterogeneous distribution of hydraulic conductivity did little to overcome this discrepancy. A better match between the numerical model and the field data was obtained assuming partial degradation of the hydrocarbons to intermediate compounds. Besides depending on the ethanol concentration, the impact of ethanol on hydrocarbon degradation appears to be highly dependent on the availability of electron acceptors.

  20. Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİR, İsmail; DEMİRBAĞ, Zihni

    1999-01-01

    Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as petroleum and petroleum derivatives, are widespread organic pollutants entering the environment, chiefly, through oil spills and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Since most PAHs are persist in the environment for a long period of time and bioaccumulate, they cause environmental pollution and effect biological equilibrium dramatically. Biodegradation of some PAHs by microorganisms has been biochemically and genetically investigated. Ge...

  1. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans......-Saharan migrants than autumn migration. Information about the behavior and interactions of migrants during the nonbreeding season in sub-Saharan Africa is also scarce for many species. Furthermore, very little is known about intra-African migration. This thesis summarizes my research on the autumn migration...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...

  2. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  3. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  4. $100 million for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollinsky, N.

    2009-12-01

    The hydrocarbon and base metal potential of the onshore and offshore segments of the Hudson Platform will be the focus of a $100 million, 5 year study undertaken by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) together with the Nunavut, Ontario, Quebec and Manitoba provincial surveys. This geological region encompasses 25 per cent of Canada's landmass. Seventy-five per cent of the budget will be spent in the Canadian Arctic, with the remainder committed to studying the Hudson Platform in Ontario, Quebec and Manitoba. The GSC has stated that although the geoscience information is limited, there are indications that world-class hydrocarbon source rocks are present. Very porous potential reservoir units have been identified. The project will define the basic elements of the hydrocarbon systems in the Hudson and Foxe Basins. According to the thermal conditions in the Hudson Platform, it is probably an oil domain. However, gas may exist in the thicker successions in the northern part of Hudson Bay. The young Devonian rock units in northern Ontario have the potential to eventually generate shallow natural gas called shale gas, a new target that is currently being developed in northern British Columbia. GSC researchers will also study gas escape structures known as pockmarks, discovered during a seafloor mapping program in the northern part of Hudson Bay. The geoscience data will also contribute to land use planning and provide a better understanding on the potential for gas hydrates. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Hydrocarbon prospectivity in Western Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maravelis, Angelos; Makrodimitras, George; Zelilidis, Avraam [Patras Univ. (Greece). Lab. of Sedimentology

    2012-06-15

    The geology of Western Greece is dominated by the most external zones of the Hellenide fold-and-thrust belt, namely the Pre-Apulian (or Paxoi) and Ionian zones. With Western Greece and Albania having undergone, in broad terms, similar geological histories, also the hydrocarbon potentials of both areas may be compared. Likewise, the hydrocarbon potential of Italy's Apulian Platform, adjoining in the westerly offshore, may serve as an analogue. Three basin types within Western Greece that deserve hydrocarbon exploration have been examined and are grouped, correlated to major tectonic features, namely foreland (Ionian thrusts' foreland basin), piggy-back (Ionian thrusts' back-arc basin) and strike-slip basins. Additionally, strike-slip basins are further subdivided into the basin north of the Borsh-Khardhiqit strike-slip fault and the Preveza basin, north of Cephalonia transfer fault. Their filling histories suggest the occurrence of Mesozoic carbonate plays and Oligocene/Miocene sandstone plays both for oil and gas.

  6. Modelling Turkish Migration to Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoyunlu, Sule; Siliverstovs, Boriss

    2006-01-01

    This study develops a time series model of Turkish migration to Germany for the period 1963-2004 using the cointegration technique. A single cointegrating relation between the migration flow variable and the relative income ratio between Germany and Turkey, the unemployment rates in Germany and Turkey, and the trade variable, that captures intensity of bilateral economic cooperation, is found. By including the trade variable in the empirical migration function we investigate whether trade and...

  7. Migration and the Demographic Shift

    OpenAIRE

    Zaiceva, Anzelika; Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter connects population aging with international migration. After documenting the trends for both, we review the supply-push and demand-pull determinants of migration, focusing particularly on the role of age and aging. We subsequently discuss the literature concerning the implications of migration in the context of aging for labor markets, health and public budgets including the political economy context. Although immigration is sometimes suggested as a solution for the aging proble...

  8. The challenges of managing migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacoli, Cecilia

    2005-10-15

    Migration and urbanisation are driven by economic growth and social change, but also by deepening inequalities. Managing migration should not be equated with curbing it, as this inevitably reduces migrants' rights. But managing population movement whilst respecting the rights of migrants and nonmigrants, supporting the contribution of migration to poverty reduction and economic growth in sending and receiving areas and reducing the human and material costs of movement means that fundamental challenges need to be addressed.

  9. Gender and Migration: Overview Report

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, Susie; Reeves, Hazel; Piper, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    Abstract. Over the past four decades total numbers of international migrants have more than doubled but the percentage of the world population migrating has remained fairly constant. There are now 175 million international migrants worldwide or approximately 3.5 per cent of the global population – about half of whom are women, despite the common misconception that men are the migrants. This Overview Report on Gender and Migration takes a broad approach to migration – it looks at the gender dy...

  10. Near-surface hydrocarbon anomalies in shelf sediments off Spitsbergen: Evidences for past seepages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Jochen; Damm, Ellen; Gutt, Julian; Mann, Ute; Pinturier, Laurence

    2004-06-01

    As global warming occurs, the dissociation of bound methane on Arctic shelves due to ocean current temperature changes may become a major contributor to the global methane budget, and thus contribute to strong positive climate feedback mechanisms. However, little is known about the magnitude and fate of methane emissions from shallow submarine sediments to the atmosphere in the peculiar area. In this paper, we present one of the first direct evidences for seepage on the northwestern Barents Sea shelf. By studying the molecular and isotopic signatures of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons in seawater, near-surface sediment pore space and the sediment matrix at 26 locations, we provide a detailed view on the partitioning of gaseous hydrocarbons in the sediment-water interface off Spitsbergen. In the free gas phase, low concentration of methane (˜28 ng/g wet Sediment) paired with constantly high isotopic values (˜-65‰) is consistent with high impact of methane oxidation on the isotopic composition. In contrast, high concentrations of adsorbed CH4 (up to 5292 ng/g wet free and adsorbed gas. The majority of gaseous hydrocarbons in the adsorbed pool may be the result of past seepages. Past upward flow of thermogenic gas and impregnation with mature hydrocarbons was particularly strong along tectonic lineaments. Active petroleum source rocks along the continental margin and migration of gaseous hydrocarbons at re-activated fault systems might explain the anomalies along these conduits.

  11. Effect of biochar on the fate of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in an aerobic sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnaf, Khaled M.; Puricelli, Sara; Saponaro, Sabrina; Werner, David

    2011-11-01

    Biochar addition to soil is currently being investigated as a novel technology to remediate polluted sites. A critical consideration is the impact of biochar on the intrinsic microbial pollutant degradation, in particular at sites polluted with a mixture of readily biodegradable and more persistent organic pollutants. We therefore studied the impact of biochar (2% on dry weight basis) on the fate of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in an aerobic sandy soil with batch and column studies. The soil-water partitioning coefficient, K d, was enhanced in the biochar-amended soil up to a factor 36, and petroleum hydrocarbon vapor migration was retarded accordingly. Despite increased sorption, in particular of monoaromatic hydrocarbons, the overall microbial respiration was comparable in the biochar-amended and unamended soil. This was due to more rapid biodegradation of linear, cyclic and branched alkanes in the biochar amended soil. We concluded that the total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation rate was controlled by a factor other than substrate availability and the reduced availability of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in the biochar amended soil led to greater biodegradation of the other petroleum compounds.

  12. The Migration of Highly Skilled Asian Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Horáková, Jana

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is focused on migration of highly skilled workforce. The aim of this work to show current migration flows of highly skilled workers and particularly flows of highly skilled Asian migrants. First chapter explains migration terms and examines highly skilled migration causes through migration theories. Second chapter studies international migration flows and their long-term development. Last chapter is focused on migration flows of highly skilled Asians to OECD countries and within A...

  13. Patterns of East to West migration in the context of European migration systems possibilities and limits of migration control

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Molodikova

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the main migration trends of the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) migration system in the context of the development of EU migration and migration control and seeks to explain the peculiarities of the CIS migration system’s development.

  14. Migration and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanu, Richard M K; Johnson, Timothy R B

    2009-08-01

    Women have been migrating at similar rates to men for the past 40 years, and comprised about half of all migrants in 2005. Women and children are most affected by displacement as a result of wars and human trafficking. In some cases, the health of female migrants is improved via integration into better health systems in the host country. More often, however, the health of female migrants is affected negatively. Women are doubly disadvantaged because they are discriminated against as women and as migrants. Female migrants are also highly vulnerable to acts of sexual abuse, rape, and violence. This is especially true for women in refugee camps, whose reproductive health needs are often overlooked. To improve the health of female migrants it is important to develop and implement policies that recognize and insist on the respect of the rights of migrants. PMID:19539929

  15. Kirchhoff migration without phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Patrick; Guevara Vasquez, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    We present a simple, frequency domain, preprocessing step to Kirchhoff migration that allows the method to image scatterers when the wave field phase information is lost at the receivers, and only intensities are measured. The resulting imaging method does not require knowing the phases of the probing field or manipulating the phase of the wave field at the receivers. In a regime where the scattered field is small compared to the probing field, the problem of recovering the full-waveform scattered field from intensity data can be formulated as an embarrassingly simple least-squares problem. Although this only recovers the projection (on a known subspace) of the full-waveform scattered field, we show that, for high frequencies, this projection gives Kirchhoff images asymptotically identical to the images obtained with full waveform data. Our method can also be used when the source is modulated by a Gaussian process and autocorrelations are measured at an array of receivers.

  16. Nightly Test system migration

    CERN Document Server

    Win-Lime, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The summer student program allows students to participate to the Cern adventure. They can follow several interesting lectures about particle science and participate to the experiment work. As a summer student, I had worked for LHCb experiment. LHCb uses a lot of software to analyze its data. All this software is organized in packages and projects. They are built and tested during the night using an automated system and the results are displayed on a web interface. Actually, LHCb is changing this system. It is looking for a replacement candidate. So I was charged to unify some internal interfaces to permit a swift migration. In this document, I will describe shortly the system used by LHCb, then I will explain what I have done in detail.

  17. Kirchhoff migration without phases

    CERN Document Server

    Bardsley, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple, frequency domain, preprocessing step to Kirchhoff migration that allows the method to image scatterers when the wave field phase information is lost at the receivers, and only intensities are measured. The resulting imaging method does not require knowing the phases of the probing field or manipulating the phase of the wave field at the receivers. In a regime where the scattered field is small compared to the probing field, the problem of recovering the full-waveform scattered field from intensity data can be formulated as an embarrassingly simple least-squares problem. Although this only recovers the projection (on a known subspace) of the full-waveform scattered field, we show that, for high frequencies, this projection gives Kirchhoff images asymptotically identical to the images obtained with full waveform data. Our method can also be used when the source is modulated by a Gaussian process and autocorrelations are measured at an array of receivers.

  18. High Molecular Weight Petrogenic and Pyrogenic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrajano, T. A., Jr.; Yan, B.; O'Malley, V.

    2003-12-01

    compounds were introduced to shallow environments through forest fires and natural coking of crude oil ( Ballentine et al., 1996; O'Malley et al., 1997). The full development of natural microbial enzymatic systems that can utilize HMW hydrocarbons as carbon or energy source attests to the antiquity of hydrocarbon dispersal processes in the environment. The environmental concern is, therefore, primarily due to the rate and spatial scale by which petroleum products are released in modern times, particularly with respect to the environmental sensitivity of some ecosystems to these releases ( Schwarzenbach et al., 1993; Eganhouse, 1997; NRC, 2002).Crude oil is produced by diagenetic and thermal maturation of terrestrial and marine plant and animal materials in source rocks and petroleum reservoirs. Most of the petroleum in use today is produced by thermal and bacterial decomposition of phytoplankton material that once lived near the surface of the world's ocean, lake, and river waters (Tissot and Welte, 1984). Terrestrially derived organic matter can be regionally significant, and is the second major contributor to the worldwide oil inventory ( Tissot and Welte, 1984; Peters and Moldowan, 1993; Engel and Macko, 1993). The existing theories hold that the organic matter present in crude oil consists of unconverted original biopolymers and new compounds polymerized by reactions promoted by time and increasing temperature in deep geologic formations. The resulting oil can migrate from source to reservoir rocks where the new geochemical conditions may again lead to further transformation of the petrogenic compounds. Any subsequent changes in reservoir conditions brought about by uplift, interaction with aqueous fluids, or even direct human intervention (e.g., drilling, water washing) likewise could alter the geochemical makeup of the petrogenic compounds. Much of our understanding of environmental sources and fate of hydrocarbon compounds in shallow environments indeed borrowed from

  19. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  20. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, ...

  1. Migration in birds and fishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, J.

    1949-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning the periodical movements in animals called migrations is chiefly based on observations on birds. By and by, however, a number of facts concerning migration in other animal groups have been assembled and it seems worth while to compare them with those known for birds. There i

  2. Migrating foreign body from hypopharynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowinckel, Marius Storm; Charabi, Birgitte Wittenborg

    2014-01-01

    In this case report we present a 20-month-old girl with a migrating foreign body, a "smiley" sticker, that migrated from hypopharynx to surrounding tissue and created an abscess with a fistula, one year after ingestion. The foreign body was removed without difficulty under general anaesthesia, and...

  3. Correlation between hydrocarbon distribution and water-hydrocarbon ratio in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Zhou; Qingling Chen; Yuewu Tao; Huixin Weng

    2011-01-01

    In order to shorten the evaluation cycle of cobalt catalyst before the optimized catalyst is fixed on,a mathematical method is proposed to calculate weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons.Based on the carbide polymerization mechanism and the main hydrocarbons being linear alkanes and α-olefins,the correlation between hydrocarbon distribution and the molecular mass ratio of water to hydrocarbons is discussed.The result shows the ratio was within the range of 1.125-1.286 and the lower the ratio,the more gaseous hydrocarbons were obtained.Moreover,a linear equation between the weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons and the weight ratio of C5+ hydrocarbons to the total water is established.These results are validated by corresponding experiments.The weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons could be immediately calculated by this linear equation without detailed gas chromatography (GC) analysis of them.

  4. Software Engineering Challenges of Migration Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Geetha, S.; Dr.Alagaramy

    2012-01-01

    Organisations often face the challenges of migration from legacy systems to new target systems. Such migration efforts represent a complex engineering problem. This paper describes migration planning, identifies influencing factors, outlines a set of migration planning activities and offers a set of guidelines for the migration planning

  5. Data Migration for Ontology Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彦; 张雷; 林晨曦; 张卓; 俞勇

    2004-01-01

    Ontology is the conceptual backbone that provides meaning to data on the semantic web. However, ontology is not a static resource and may evolve over time, which often leaves the meaning of data in an undefined or inconsistent state. It is thus very important to have a method to preserve the data and its meaning when ontology changes. This paper proposed a general method that solves the problem using data migration. It analyzed some of the issues in the method including separation of ontology and data, migration specification, migration result and migration algorithm. The paper also instantiates the general mothod in RDF(S) as an example. The RDF(S) example itself is a simple but complete method for migrating RDF data when RDFS ontology changes.

  6. Process for the conversion of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudriaan, F.; Klinken, J.V.

    1978-11-21

    Residual hydrocarbon stocks obtained after vacuum distillation are converted into light distillates by certain sequences of processing steps including vacuum distillation, deasphalting, hydrocracking, atmospheric distillation and catalytic hydrotreating.

  7. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  8. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  9. Survival of Trojan-Type Companions of Neptune During Primordial Planet Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Kortenkamp, Steve; Malhotra, Renu; Michtchenko, Tatiana

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the survivability of Trojan-type companions of Neptune during primordial radial migration of the giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Loss of Neptune Trojans during planetary migration is not a random diffusion process. Rather, losses occur almost exclusively during discrete episodes when Trojan particles are swept by secondary resonances associated with mean-motion commensurabilities of Uranus with Neptune. The single greatest episode of loss ejects nearly 75% o...

  10. Experimental Simulation of Hydrocarbon Expulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Stockhausen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Investigating generation, expulsion and primary migration usually suffers from inadequate methodologies, failing in the provision of natural conditions, prevailing during the genesis of oil and gas. Destructive sample preparation, inappropriate pressure regimes and pyrolysis in closed mode and/or in the absence of water caused results not representative for natural processes. To overcome these limitations, a newly designed apparatus was developed and built, capable to perform pyrolysis experi...

  11. The thioredoxin system in breast cancer cell invasion and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneet Bhatia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the most life threatening aspect of breast cancer. It is a multi-step process involving invasion and migration of primary tumor cells with a subsequent colonization of these cells at a secondary location. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of thioredoxin (Trx1 in the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells and to assess the strength of the association between high levels of Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1 expression with breast cancer patient survival. Our results indicate that the expression of both Trx1 and TrxR1 are statistically significantly increased in breast cancer patient cells compared with paired normal breast tissue from the same patient. Over-expression of Trx1 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines enhanced cell invasion in in vitro assays while expression of a redox inactive mutant form of Trx1 (designated 1SS or the antisense mRNA inhibited cell invasion. Addition of exogenous Trx1 also enhanced cell invasion, while addition of a specific monoclonal antibody that inhibits Trx1 redox function decreased cell invasion. Over-expression of intracellular Trx1 did not increase cell migration but expression of intracellular 1SS inhibited migration. Addition of exogenous Trx1 enhanced cell migration while 1SS had no effect. Treatment with auranofin inhibited TrxR activity, cell migration and clonogenic activity of MDA-MB-231 cells, while increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Analysis of 25 independent cohorts with 5910 patients showed that Trx1 and TrxR1 were both associated with a poor patient prognosis in terms of overall survival, distant metastasis free survival and disease free survival. Therefore, targeting the Trx system with auranofin or other specific inhibitors may provide improved breast cancer patient outcomes through inhibition of cancer invasion and migration.

  12. The thioredoxin system in breast cancer cell invasion and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Maneet; McGrath, Kelly L; Di Trapani, Giovanna; Charoentong, Pornpimol; Shah, Fenil; King, Mallory M; Clarke, Frank M; Tonissen, Kathryn F

    2016-08-01

    Metastasis is the most life threatening aspect of breast cancer. It is a multi-step process involving invasion and migration of primary tumor cells with a subsequent colonization of these cells at a secondary location. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of thioredoxin (Trx1) in the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells and to assess the strength of the association between high levels of Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) expression with breast cancer patient survival. Our results indicate that the expression of both Trx1 and TrxR1 are statistically significantly increased in breast cancer patient cells compared with paired normal breast tissue from the same patient. Over-expression of Trx1 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines enhanced cell invasion in in vitro assays while expression of a redox inactive mutant form of Trx1 (designated 1SS) or the antisense mRNA inhibited cell invasion. Addition of exogenous Trx1 also enhanced cell invasion, while addition of a specific monoclonal antibody that inhibits Trx1 redox function decreased cell invasion. Over-expression of intracellular Trx1 did not increase cell migration but expression of intracellular 1SS inhibited migration. Addition of exogenous Trx1 enhanced cell migration while 1SS had no effect. Treatment with auranofin inhibited TrxR activity, cell migration and clonogenic activity of MDA-MB-231 cells, while increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Analysis of 25 independent cohorts with 5910 patients showed that Trx1 and TrxR1 were both associated with a poor patient prognosis in terms of overall survival, distant metastasis free survival and disease free survival. Therefore, targeting the Trx system with auranofin or other specific inhibitors may provide improved breast cancer patient outcomes through inhibition of cancer invasion and migration.

  13. The thioredoxin system in breast cancer cell invasion and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Maneet; McGrath, Kelly L; Di Trapani, Giovanna; Charoentong, Pornpimol; Shah, Fenil; King, Mallory M; Clarke, Frank M; Tonissen, Kathryn F

    2016-08-01

    Metastasis is the most life threatening aspect of breast cancer. It is a multi-step process involving invasion and migration of primary tumor cells with a subsequent colonization of these cells at a secondary location. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of thioredoxin (Trx1) in the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells and to assess the strength of the association between high levels of Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) expression with breast cancer patient survival. Our results indicate that the expression of both Trx1 and TrxR1 are statistically significantly increased in breast cancer patient cells compared with paired normal breast tissue from the same patient. Over-expression of Trx1 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines enhanced cell invasion in in vitro assays while expression of a redox inactive mutant form of Trx1 (designated 1SS) or the antisense mRNA inhibited cell invasion. Addition of exogenous Trx1 also enhanced cell invasion, while addition of a specific monoclonal antibody that inhibits Trx1 redox function decreased cell invasion. Over-expression of intracellular Trx1 did not increase cell migration but expression of intracellular 1SS inhibited migration. Addition of exogenous Trx1 enhanced cell migration while 1SS had no effect. Treatment with auranofin inhibited TrxR activity, cell migration and clonogenic activity of MDA-MB-231 cells, while increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Analysis of 25 independent cohorts with 5910 patients showed that Trx1 and TrxR1 were both associated with a poor patient prognosis in terms of overall survival, distant metastasis free survival and disease free survival. Therefore, targeting the Trx system with auranofin or other specific inhibitors may provide improved breast cancer patient outcomes through inhibition of cancer invasion and migration. PMID:26760912

  14. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From Select Volatile Organic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chia-Li

    2015-01-01

    This thesis enhances our understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from select anthropogenic sources including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PAHs mixed with m-xylene and an atmospheric surrogate, and unburned whole gasoline vapors. Major SOA chemical characteristics and physical properties were explored along with SOA formation within the UCR CE-CERT environmental chamber. SOA formation was significant for all three PAHs precursors during photooxidation under high ...

  15. The World Economy and Contemporary Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Elsa M.

    1979-01-01

    This article discusses international migration as an economic and political concern, comments on recent literature dealing with social aspects of migration, and introduces the articles which follow in this special journal issue dedicated to Caribbean migration to New York. (MC)

  16. The Dynamics of Health and Return Migration

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In the final article in a six-part PLoS Medicine; series on Migration & Health, Anita Davies and colleagues from the International Organization for Migration (IOM) discuss the specific health risks and policy needs associated with return migration

  17. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  18. Cool Sooting Flames of Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.A. MANSUROV

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and paramagnetism of soot particles sampled from cool sooting flames of methane and propane in a separately-heated two-sectional reactor under atmospheric pressure at the reactor temperatures of 670-1170 K. The temperature profiles of the flames were studied. The sampling was carried out with a quartz sampler and the samples were frozen with liquid nitrogen. A number of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene, fluoranthene, coronene, anthanthrene, 1,12-benzperylene,were identified by spectroscopic methods in the extract of soot. The processes of soot formation at methaneoxygen mixture combustion in the electric field with applied potential changed from 0 to 2,2 kV at different polarity of electrodes have been investigated. It has been stated that at the electrical field application, an increase in soot particle sizes and soot yield occurs; besides, at the application of the field, speeding up the positively charged particles, the interplanar distance decreases. On the basis of investigation of soot particles paramagnetism, it was shown that initially soot particles have high carcinogetic activity and pollute the environment owing to a rapid decrease of the number of these radical centers. The reduction of the radical concentration is connected with radical recombination on soot.

  19. Psychosocial Aspects of Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Tuzcu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The incident of migration that occurs as a result of the mobility of individuals between various regions and is considered a social change process brings along various factors. Among these factors, the most important one is the culture of the new society where the immigrant begins to live and the process of adaptation with this culture. Individuals from different cultures are required to live together, cope with differences and overcome the difficulties. The process of adaptation to the new lifestyle might cause the individual to have some feelings such as loneliness, socially isolation, being alienated, being regretful and self-depreciation, and consequently experience a greater stress. Being unable to cope with stress efficiently creates risks in individuals in terms of health problems such as anxiety and depression. Healthcare professionals are required to evaluate life styles, difficulties and coping levels of immigrants in order to protect and develop their mental health. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 56-66

  20. Basic neutronics. Neutrons migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the basic neutronics necessary for the understanding of the operation of the different types of nuclear reactors: 1 - introduction to neutronics: principle of fission chain reactions, fast neutron reactors and thermal neutron reactors, capture, neutron status, variations with the reactor lattices; 2 - Boltzmann equation: neutrons population, neutrons migration, characterization of neutrons population and reactions, integral form of the Boltzmann equation, integral-differential form, equivalence between the two forms; 3 - reactor kinetics: fast neutrons and delayed neutrons, kinetic equations in punctual model, Nordheim equation, reactivity jumps, reactivity ramp; 4 - diffusion equation: local neutron status, Fick's law, diffusion equation, initial, boundary and interface conditions, nuclei in infinite and homogenous medium, some examples of solutions, developments in Eigenmodes; 5 - one-group theory: equation of the 'one-group - diffusion' theory, critical condition of the naked and homogenous reactor, critical condition of a reactor with reflectors, generalizations; 6 - neutrons moderation: different moderation mechanisms, elastic shock laws, moderation equation, some examples of solutions; 7 - resonance absorption of neutrons: advantage of the discontinuous moderation character, advantage of an heterogenous disposition, classical formula of the anti-trap factor in homogenous and heterogenous situation; 8 - neutrons thermalization: notions of thermalization mechanisms, thermalization equation, Maxwell spectrum, real spectrum, classical formula of the thermal utilisation factor, classical formula of the reproduction factor, moderation optimum. (J.S.)

  1. Musei del migration heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Dragoni

    2015-01-01

    Since the second half of the 1960s of the 20th century, a profound cultural innovation was accompanied to the radical change in the social, political and economic climate. The anthropological notion of culture as opposed to idealistic vision, the unusual and strong interest in material culture, the enunciation of the concept of cultural property by the Franceschini Commission, the luck of the Public History bring a change of the disciplinary statutes of historical sciences, which begin to attend to social history, focusing on the spontaneous sources of information and initiating experiences of oral history. To all this a remarkable transformation of the themes and of the social function of museums is added. This paper illustrates, in relation to this more general context, the foundation and the dissemination of museums dedicated to the history of migration in Italy and in the world, enunciates their possible social utility for the integration of present migrants in Italy and illustrates, by way of example, the museum recently opened in Recanati.

  2. The effect of hydrocarbons on the microstructural evolution in rock salt: a case study on hydrocarbon bearing Ara salt from the South Oman Salt Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmatz, Joyce; Urai, Janos L.; Wübbeler, Franziska M. M.; Sadler, Marc

    2014-05-01

    It has been shown that dilatant deformation promotes the incorporation of hydrocarbons into typically low permeable rock salt (Schoenherr et al., 2007). However, there is not much knowledge on subsequent mechanisms related to recrystallization processes, which cause morphological and chemical changes of the carbonic inclusions. This work aims to contribute to an increased understanding of fluid inclusion dynamics related to grain boundary migration recrystallization and hence to facilitate the interpretation of complex microstructures in recrystallized, multiphase salt rocks. In this case study we investigate hydrocarbon-impregnated salt from the Cambrian Ara Group in the South Oman Salt Basin. The samples were cored from cm-m thick anhydrite-salt sequences overlying hydrocarbon bearing carbonate stringers in 3300 m depth. The anhydrite layers consist mainly of fine-grained anhydrite, which contains calcite, dolomite, and olivine inclusions. Solid bitumen and lighter hydrocarbon phases are observed in between the anhydrite grains and along cracks. Anhydrite layers host salt veins, which contain fragments of anhydrite. These fragments do not differ in composition or structure from the host material and the related vein microstructures indicate crack-seal mechanisms. Halite in the salt layers is almost entirely recrystallized with solid inclusions consisting of anhydrite, calcite, dolomite and olivine with hydrocarbon-coatings present inside grains and along grain boundaries. Solid inclusions cause pinning indicated by a decreased recrystallized grain size and by the presence of grains with preserved substructures representing earlier deformation phases. We observe two types of carbonic inclusions: I) solid bitumen coatings along grain boundaries and microcracks, interpreted to be incorporated into the salt in an overpressure state that allowed dilatancy of the salt, and II) less degraded, liquid hydrocarbons along grain boundaries in the vicinity of the anhydrite

  3. Neuritin 1 promotes neuronal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Arianna; Cartelli, Daniele; Cappelletti, Graziella; Cariboni, Anna; Andrews, William; Parnavelas, John; Poletti, Angelo; Galbiati, Mariarita

    2014-01-01

    Neuritin 1 (Nrn1 or cpg15-1) is an activity-dependent protein involved in synaptic plasticity during brain development, a process that relies upon neuronal migration. By analyzing Nrn1 expression, we found that it is highly expressed in a mouse model of migrating immortalized neurons (GN11 cells), but not in a mouse model of non-migrating neurons (GT1-7 cells). We thus hypothesized that Nrn1 might control neuronal migration. By using complementary assays, as Boyden's microchemotaxis, scratch-wounding and live cell imaging, we found that GN11 cell migration is enhanced when Nrn1 is overexpressed and decreased when Nrn1 is silenced. The effects of Nrn1 in promoting neuronal migration have been then confirmed ex vivo, on rat cortical interneurons, by Boyden chamber assays and focal electroporation of acute embryonic brain slices. Furthermore, we found that Nrn1 level modulation affects GN11 cell morphology. The process is also paralleled by Nrn1-induced α-tubulin post-translational modifications, a well-recognized marker of microtubule stability. Altogether, the data demonstrate a novel function of Nrn1 in promoting migration of neuronal cells and indicate that Nrn1 levels impact on microtubule stability. PMID:23212301

  4. Constraints on the origins of hydrocarbon gas from compositions of gases at their site of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, L C; Schoell, M

    1995-11-23

    It is widely accepted that natural gas is formed from thermal decomposition of both oil in reservoirs and, to a lesser extent, the organic matter in shales from which the oil was derived. But laboratory pyrolysis experiments on shales do not reproduce the methane-rich composition typical of most gas reservoirs, leading to suggestions that other mechanisms, such as transition-metal catalysis, may be important. The discrepancy might, however, instead arise because gas (and oil) deposits have migrated from their source rocks, so that the reservoir composition might not be representative of the composition in the source rocks where the hydrocarbons were generated. To address this question, we have analysed gas samples coproduced with oils directly from a source rock (the Bakken shales, North Dakota, USA) where the local geology has prevented significant hydrocarbon migration. The methane contents of these Bakken-shale gases are much lower than that of conventional gas reservoirs, but are consistent with that from pyrolysis experiments on these shales. Thus, because these Bakken gases form with (rather than from) oils, we argue that compositional differences between gases from source rocks and conventional gas deposits result from fractionation processes occurring after hydrocarbon expulsion from the source rock. PMID:11536709

  5. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

      Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously in...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers...

  6. Incised valley filling deposits: an important pathway system for long-distance hydrocarbon migration——a case study of the Fulaerji Oilfield in the Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Renchen; Liu Hao; Li Guifan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, incised valley filling deposits, which formed an important pathway system for long-distance hydrocarbon migration, are discussed in detail based on core and logging data. The sequence SQy23 of the Cretaceous Yaojia Formation is the main hydrocarbon-beating layer in the Fulaerji Oilfield. The hydrocarbon source of the oilfield is the Qijia-Gulong Sag which is about 80 km away from the Fulaerji Oilfield. The transport layer of long-distance hydrocarbon migration is the overlapped sandstone complex which fills the incised valley. The incised valley developed during the depositional period from the late Qingshankou Formation to the early Yaojia Formation of Cretaceous (SQqn4-SQy1)was about 70 km long and 20 km wide, and extended in the NW-SE direction. The overlapped filling of the incised valley mainly occurred in the expanding system tract of the third-order sequence SQy23 (ESTy23). Towards the basin, incised valley filling deposits overlapped on the delta developed in the early period, and towards the basin margin, incised valley filling deposits were covered by the shore-shallow lacustrine sandy beach bar developed in the maximum flooding period. All of the delta, the incised valley filling and the shore-shallow sandy beach bar are sandstone-rich, and have high porosity and permeability, and can form an effective hydrocarbon migration and accumulation system. Deltaic sand bodies collected and pumped hydrocarbon from the active source, incised valley filling depositional system completed the long-distance hydrocarbon migration, and lithological traps of shore-shallow lacustrine sandy beach bar accumulated hydrocarbon. The incised valley filling sequences are multi-cycle: an integrated short- term filling cycle was developed on the erosion surface, and the sequences upward were mud-gravel stone, medium-fine sandstone containing terrigenous gravels and muddy pebbles with cross bedding, silty mudstone with ripple bedding, and mudstone. The incised valley

  7. Hydrocarbon Accumulation Conditions of Ordovician Carbonate in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiming; WU Guanghui; PANG Xiongqi; PAN Wenqin; LUO Chunshu; WANG Chenglin; LI Xinsheng; ZHOU Bo

    2010-01-01

    Based on comprehensive analysis of reservoir-forming conditions,the diversity of reservoir and the difference of multistage hydrocarbon charge are the key factors for the carbonate hydrocarbon accumulation of the Ordovician in the Tarim Basin.Undergone four major deposition-tectonic cycles,the Ordovician carbonate formed a stable structural framework with huge uplifts,in which are developed reservoirs of the reef-bank type and unconformity type,and resulted in multistage hydrocarbon charge and accumulation during the Caledonian,Late Hercynian and Late Himalayan.With low matrix porosity and permeability of the Ordovician carbonate,the secondary solution pores and caverns serve as the main reservoir space.The polyphase tectonic movements formed unconformity reservoirs widely distributed around the paleo-uplifts; and the reef-bank reservoir is controlled by two kinds of sedimentary facies belts,namely the steep slope and gentle slope.The unconventional carbonate pool is characterized by extensive distribution,no obvious edge water or bottom water,complicated oil/gas/water relations and severe heterogeneity controlled by reservoirs.The low porosity and low permeability reservoir together with multi-period hydrocarbon accumulation resulted in the difference and complex of the distribution and production of oil/gas/water.The distribution of hydrocarbon is controlled by the temporal-spatial relation between revolution of source rocks and paleo-uplifts.The heterogenetic carbonate reservoir and late-stage gas charge are the main factors making the oil/gas phase complicated.The slope areas of the paleo-uplifts formed in the Paleozoic are the main carbonate exploration directions based on comprehensive evaluation.The Ordovician of the northern slope of the Tazhong uplift,Lunnan and its periphery areas are practical exploration fields.The Yengimahalla-Hanikatam and Markit slopes are the important replacement targets for carbonate exploration.Gucheng,Tadong,the deep layers of

  8. Migration aspirations in Ukraine: Human rights violations as migration drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Borshchevska, Yuliya

    2014-01-01

    Ukraine is ranked highly among emigration countries and in particular among countries supplying labor migrants to the EU and Russia. The slumping economy and deteriorating political situation with an increasing number of authoritarian traits logically evoke the question of how non-economic motivation factors impact migration aspirations in Ukraine. The worsening human rights situation in the country is, in a way, seen as a separate matter and is not always associated with migration. This arti...

  9. Exploring the factors influencing the cloud computing adoption: a systematic study on cloud migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rashmi; Sahoo, Gadadhar; Mehfuz, Shabana

    2015-01-01

    Today, most of the organizations trust on their age old legacy applications, to support their business-critical systems. However, there are several critical concerns, as maintainability and scalability issues, associated with the legacy system. In this background, cloud services offer a more agile and cost effective platform, to support business applications and IT infrastructure. As the adoption of cloud services has been increasing recently and so has been the academic research in cloud migration. However, there is a genuine need of secondary study to further strengthen this research. The primary objective of this paper is to scientifically and systematically identify, categorize and compare the existing research work in the area of legacy to cloud migration. The paper has also endeavored to consolidate the research on Security issues, which is prime factor hindering the adoption of cloud through classifying the studies on secure cloud migration. SLR (Systematic Literature Review) of thirty selected papers, published from 2009 to 2014 was conducted to properly understand the nuances of the security framework. To categorize the selected studies, authors have proposed a conceptual model for cloud migration which has resulted in a resource base of existing solutions for cloud migration. This study concludes that cloud migration research is in seminal stage but simultaneously it is also evolving and maturing, with increasing participation from academics and industry alike. The paper also identifies the need for a secure migration model, which can fortify organization's trust into cloud migration and facilitate necessary tool support to automate the migration process.

  10. HEURISTICAL STRATEGIES ON THE STUDY THEME “THE UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS – ALKENES”

    OpenAIRE

    Adrienne Kozan Naumescu; Roxana-Diana Paşca

    2011-01-01

    The influence of heuristical strategies upon the level of two experimental classes is studied in this paper. The didactic experiment took place at secondary school in Cluj-Napoca, in 2008-2009 school year. The study theme “The Unsaturated Hydrocarbons – Alkenes” has been efficiently learned by using the most active methods: laboratory experiment, brain storming, modeling, problematization. The results obtained in the research demonstrate the efficiency of interactive methods in teaching-learn...

  11. Interregional migration flows in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wajdi, N.; van Wissen, L.J.G.; Mulder, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    Population Census and Intercensal Population Survey data permit description of the origin–destination patterns that characterize interregional migration flows in Indonesia. Application of the framework of population redistribution proposed by Long (1985) results in indications of over-urbanization,

  12. Labour market frictions and migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The 4th contribution to the series INT-AR papers is dedicated to the methods of assessing labour market frictions. The paper provides a (brief) international comparison of the role of labour migration in solving these frictions.

  13. [International migration: backgrounds and developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, J

    1997-03-01

    "Net migration [in the Netherlands] has fluctuated strongly during the past decades. In 1983 net migration (including net administrative corrections) was almost zero. In the early 1990s net migration rose to almost 50 thousand per year. In 1994 net migration dropped sharply to a level of 20 thousand, followed by a further decrease in 1995. In 1996 there was a moderate increase. One cause of the strong decline in immigration in the mid-1990s may be the increasingly strict immigration policy. Another explanation of fluctuations in immigration is the business cycle. A regression analysis for the period 1973-1995 shows that there is a negative relationship between immigration of non-Dutch nationals and the unemployment rate in the Netherlands and a positive relationship between emigration and the unemployment rate." (EXCERPT) PMID:12321085

  14. The migration of university graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Nielsen, Kristian

    Several studies have documented that highly educated citizens contribute to regional economic performance (Moretti, 2013; Faggian and McCann,2009b; Sterlacchini 2008). Moreover, Åstebro et al. (2012) emphasize the importance of promoting start-up by recent university graduates. Thus, the retention...... in university as well as migration after graduation using the terminology of Faggian and McCann (2009a). Graduates’ migration is mainly studied in relation to first employment. The analysis also includes the migration of university graduates who become entrepreneurs. The different migration patterns...... are combined with measures of performance for wage-earners, expressed as level and growth rate of hourly wages, and for entrepreneurs, expressed as firm survival and growth in sales and employees....

  15. Homeward bound: Yemeni return migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, N A

    1993-01-01

    The author discusses the return migration of Yemenis from Saudi Arabia during the period 1970-1989. "Through the use of original, empirical data collected in Yemen, this article sheds light on who these returning migrants are, where they have come from, and what sort of future awaits them.... The survey conducted on return migration was administered in the winter and spring of 1989 in a region of North Yemen called al-Hujariyya."

  16. Tackling the European Migration Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    1995-01-01

    A fortress Europe immigration policy is currently observed throughout the European Union. The European migration problem seems to be that, in the face of high and persistent unemployment rates, additional immigration implies further unemployment. This might not be true if immigration helps to erode institutional constraints and enhances labor market flexibility, a point that is seen of particular virtue in the European setting. The paper also argues that past European migration, although limi...

  17. Migrations, public goods and taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Jaskold Gabszewicz, Jean; Gvetadze, Salome; Zanaj, Skerdilajda

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how and why people migrate between two re- gions with asymmetric size. The agglomeration force comes from the scale economies in the provision of local public goods, whereas the disper- sion force comes from congestion in consumption of public goods. Public goods considered resemble club goods (or public goods with congestion) and people are heterogeneous in their migration costs. We find that the large countries can be destination of migrants for sufficiently high provisi...

  18. Simple rules guide dragonfly migration

    OpenAIRE

    Wikelski, Martin; Moskowitz, David; Adelman, James S.; Cochran, Jim; Wilcove, David S; May, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    Every year billions of butterflies, dragonflies, moths and other insects migrate across continents, and considerable progress has been made in understanding population-level migratory phenomena. However, little is known about destinations and strategies of individual insects. We attached miniaturized radio transmitters (ca 300 mg) to the thoraxes of 14 individual dragonflies (common green darners, Anax junius) and followed them during their autumn migration for up to 12 days, using receiver-e...

  19. County Amenities and Net Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Rupasingha, Anil; Goetz, Stephan J.

    2004-01-01

    U.S. county-level net migration data and a general spatial model are used to examine the effects of various amenities on migration decisions. Results suggest that higher county cancer risks and the presence of superfund sites in a county, or a higher ranking on the Environmental Protection Agency's hazard ranking system, reduce the relative attractiveness of a county to prospective migrants, while natural amenities on balance attract migrants, ceteris paribus. The results also reveal spatial ...

  20. SSI, labor supply, and migration

    OpenAIRE

    Neumark, David; Powers, Elizabeth T.

    2005-01-01

    The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program in the United States creates incentives for potential aged recipients to reduce labor supply prior to becoming eligible, and our past research finds that older men likely to be eligible for SSI at age 65 reduce their labor supply in the years immediately before the age of eligibility. However, given the dramatic supplementation of SSI benefits in some states, a migration response to these benefits cannot be dismissed, and migration that is associ...

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with SPICA

    CERN Document Server

    Berne, O; Mulas, G; Tielens, A G G M; Goicoechea, J R

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to high sensitivity and angular resolution and broad spectral coverage, SPICA will offer a unique opportunity to better characterize the nature of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains (VSGs), to better use them as probes of astrophysical environments. The angular resolution will enable to probe the chemical frontiers in the evolution process from VSGs to neutral PAHs, to ionized PAHs and to "Grand-PAHs" in photodissotiation regions and HII regions, as a function of G$_0$/n (UV radiation field / density). High sensitivity will favor the detection of the far-IR skeletal emission bands of PAHs, which provide specific fingerprints and could lead to the identification of individual PAHs. This overall characterization will allow to use PAH and VSG populations as tracers of physical conditions in spatially resolved protoplanetary disks and nearby galaxies (using mid-IR instruments), and in high redshift galaxies (using the far-IR instrument), thanks to the broad spectral coverage SPIC...

  2. Remote Sensing Detecting for Hydrocarbon Microseepage and Relationship with the Uranium Mineralization in Dongsheng Area, Ordos Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M.; Liu, D.; Gao, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The Ordos Basin is located at the central area of northern China with an area of about 250,000 km2. It is well known "a basin of energy resources" of China for its large reserves of coal, oil and gas. A large-scale sandstone-type uranium metallogenic belt has been found recently in Zhiluo Formation of middle Jurassic in Dongsheng area in the northeastern part of the basin. The ore-forming mechanism remains unsolved so far. There is a hypothesis that the uranium precipitation was related to a hydrocarbon migration from the central basin. In order to explore the evidences of ever existed hydrocarbon microseepage and migration in this area, several indices such as the Iron Oxide Index, Ferrous Index, Clay Mineral Index, Mineral Composite Index, and Ferrous Transfer Percentage Index have been derived. Thorium Normalization of aeroradiometric data and fusion of aeroradiometric and TM data have been carried out as well. Therefore, the subaerial oxide and reduced area, uranium outmigrated and immigrated area, and ancient recharge and discharge of groundwater are thus delineated. As a result, two hydrocarbon microseepage belts in Dongsheng area have been extracted by combining the methods mentioned above. One is in the northern of Dongsheng along a nearly east-westward fault zone and the other one is in the southern of Dongsheng uranium mineralization belt along a nearly northwestward fault zone. The study suggests that the subaerial reduced area was related to hydrocarbon microseepage and the hydrocarbon migration along the fault and fracture zone or penetrable strata played an important role for uranium deposition in Zhiluo Formation near the northwestward fault zone.

  3. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-01-01

    Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial s...

  4. Origin of hydrocarbons in the Slovak part of the Danube Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milička Ján

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Danube Basin is one of our largest Neogene basins in Slovakia with the highest volume of potential source rocks in active hydrocarbon generation zones. The source rocks, however, are quite poor with low hydrocarbon potential. In Blatné- and Rišňovce depressions at the northern part of the Danube Basin only early oil and oil generation window were reached below 2900 m during the Upper Miocene to Pliocene, due the lower temperature. In the southern Central Gabčíkovo Depression (CGD that is explored by drilling only to 2700 m, all generation zones up to dry gas zone have been reached according to modelling. While the oil generation zone was reached at approximately 2800 m, dry gas is expected below 4000 m. The natural gas molecular composition and methane carbon isotopes indicate small local natural hydrocarbon gas accumulations associated mostly with oil generation that migrated to present reservoirs and mixed with biogenic methane. The carbon dioxide and partly also nitrogen here are most likely related to volcanic activity. The gasoline hydrocarbon range indicates that non biodegraded gasoline oil from the FGČ1 Čilistov well in the CGD is thermally very mature, with its origin most likely in the deeper parts of the CGD below 3500 m. In contrast, the oil trace from Sereď5 (Se5 well is strongly biodegraded and according to the sterane correlations it could have originated in any examined Neogene source reaching the oil window.

  5. Migration and degradation of fuel vapours in the vadose zone. Field experiment at airbase Værløse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mette; Broholm, Mette Martina; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Fuel has been spilled in the vadose zone at many sites. An artificial jet fuel source has been installed in a vadose zone (3.5 m sand) at Airbase Værløse. The field experiment is conducted to investigate the natural attenuation potential in order to obtain better evaluations of the risk for ground...... water contamination. The migration of the hydrocarbon vapours has been monitored intensively together with the hydrocarbon concentrations in the pore water and the groundwater. The results so far indicate that for most of the compounds degradation is significantly decreasing the concentrations...

  6. Towards a new understanding of migration timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Muskens, Gerard; Kruckenberg, Helmut; Glazov, Peter; Weinzierl, Rolf; Nolet, Bart A.; Wikelski, Martin

    2016-01-01

    According to migration theory and several empirical studies, long-distance migrants are more time-limited during spring migration and should therefore migrate faster in spring than in autumn. Competition for the best breeding sites is supposed to be the main driver, but timing of migration is oft

  7. Distance and Intrastate College Student Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, James; Winters, John V.

    2009-01-01

    Most studies of student migration focus on "interstate" migration of college students, largely because the aggregate data typically used are limited in geographic specificity to states. However, interstate migration is only a small part of the total student migration. Public institutions generally get most of their students from within their…

  8. The Fate of Hydrocarbon Pollution in Kebnekaise, Arctic Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosqvist, G. N.; Jarjso, J.; Clason, C.; Jansson, P.; Karlin, T.

    2013-12-01

    A C-130J-30 Super Hercules plane crashed into the west-facing wall of the Kebnekaise mountain (2103 m), Arctic Sweden, on March 15th 2012. When starting from Evenes, Narvik, Norway, the aircraft had 14100 l fuel, 50 l hydraulic oil and 170 l motor oil onboard. Best estimates are that at least 12 000 l of fuel was sprayed over the mountain most of which was buried together with the wreck in a huge snow avalanche that was triggered by the impact in a NW facing cirque on Rabots glacier between ca 1600 and 2000 m. Fuel decontamination was not possible because of the extreme impact site conditions. The Hercules airplane was fueled with JET A-1 which is a hydrocarbon product in the Kerosene/Jet Fuel category consisting of sweetened kerosene and hydrotreated light distillates. The major components of all 'kerosene's' are branched- and straight-chain paraffins and naphthenes (cycloparaffins or cycloalkanes), which normally account for 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons, such as alkyl benzenes (single ring) and alkylnaphthalenes (double ring) do not exceed 25 % by volume of kerosene. The fuel also contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), but in very small volumes compared to the major components. The physical and chemical properties of each component (or block) of the hydrocarbon mixture influence its migration rate and fate. Some components of the fuel will volatilize, some are soluble in water but the vast majority are non-soluble. Although the solubility of these so called Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL) in water is small they are highly toxic. We need to consider transport of the soluble components of the LNAPL in the melt-water, and transport of the non-soluble components with the melt-water system. Transport and storage can occur through and in snow (or firn), crevasses, and cavities on, in or under the glacier. Storage in, and contamination of, basal sediments, located below the glacier, or pro-glacial sediments, in front of the glacier are also

  9. International migration: a global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Widgren, J

    1996-04-01

    Trends in international migration are presented in this multiregional analysis. Seven of the world's wealthiest countries have about 33% of the world's migrant population, but under 16% of the total world population. Population growth in these countries is substantially affected by the migrant population. The migration challenge is external and internal. The external challenge is to balance the need for foreign labor and the commitment to human rights for those migrants seeking economic opportunity and political freedom. The internal challenge is to assure the social adjustment of immigrants and their children and to integrate them into society as citizens and future leaders. Why people cross national borders and how migration flows are likely to evolve over the next decades are explained. This report also presents some ways that countries can manage migration or reduce the pressures which force people to migrate. It is recommended that receiving nations control immigration by accelerating global economic growth and reducing wars and human rights violations. This report examines the impact of immigration on international trade, aid, and direct intervention policies. Although migration is one of the most important international economic issues, it is not coordinated by an international group. The European experience indicates that it is not easy to secure international cooperation on issues that affect national sovereignty. It is suggested that countries desiring control of their borders should remember that most people never cross national borders to live or work in another country, that 50% of the world's migrants move among developing countries, and that countries can shift from being emigration to immigration countries. The author suggests that sustained reductions in migration pressure are a better alternative than the "quick fixes" that may invite the very much feared mass and unpredictable movements.

  10. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  11. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  12. Depositional Characteristics of Deltas and Their Relationship with Hydrocarbon Accumulation in the North Slope, Biyang Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Jun-yi; ZHENG Jun-mao; WANG Guo-peng; LI Gui-lin; YU Gong-ming

    2006-01-01

    Tectonic movements in the North Slope of Biyang Depression are comparatively mild and stable, thus generating two categories of deltas. Elementary reasons for the coexistence of deltas are the existence of the palaeodrainage pattern and the effect of palaeotopography. The sedimentary facies is the most elementary factor controlling the physical property of reservoirs. The layout and spatial combination model of the sand body and faults are the major influential factors on the occurrence of hydrocarbons. Comparative study on Houzhang and Yanglou Braided Deltas as well as Zhangchang and Gucheng Meandering Deltas suggests that the hydrocarbons distribute primarily in the mouth bar subfacies and secondarily in the distal bar subfacies of the braided delta, while the oil-water and aqueous layers are mainly found in the subaquatic distributary channel. Although the sand body of the meandering delta has excellent stratification and high porosity, the thickness is far less than that of the braided delta. Therefore, the yield of hydrocarbon is relatively low. The mudstone of the delta front subfacies is a kind of source rock with a high content of organic matter. The conducting system for oil/gas migration in the North Slope is a composite one comprising faults and sandstone reservoirs. A large amount of oil/gas from the deep depression first migrated towards the slope along the sand body which stretches and connects with the source rocks, and then redistributed along the faults in the slope. After the movement reached a standstill, the faults formed the occlusion in the up-dip direction of the sand body, generating a great quantity of fault block hydrocarbon reservoirs in the North Slope.

  13. Seasonal survival probabilities suggest low migration mortality in migrating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Giavi

    Full Text Available Migration is adaptive if survival benefits are larger than costs of residency. Many aspects of bat migration ecology such as migratory costs, stopover site use and fidelity are largely unknown. Since many migrating bats are endangered, such information is urgently needed to promote conservation. We selected the migrating Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri as model species and collected capture-recapture data in southern Switzerland year round during 6 years. We estimated seasonal survival and site fidelity with Cormack-Jolly-Seber models that accounted for the presence of transients fitted with Bayesian methods and assessed differences between sexes and seasons. Activity peaked in autumn and spring, whereas very few individuals were caught during summer. We hypothesize that the study site is a migratory stopover site used during fall and spring migration for most individuals, but there is also evidence for wintering. Additionally, we found strong clues for mating during fall. Summer survival that included two major migratory journeys was identical to winter survival in males and slightly higher in females, suggesting that the migratory journeys did not bear significant costs in terms of survival. Transience probability was in both seasons higher in males than in females. Our results suggest that, similarly to birds, Leisler's bat also use stopover sites during migration with high site fidelity. In contrast to most birds, the stopover site was also used for mating and migratory costs in terms of survival seemed to be low. Transients' analyses highlighted strong individual variation in site use which makes particularly challenging the study and modelling of their populations as well as their conservation.

  14. MIGRATION IN SIKKIM: FACTS OR FRICTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Gyaltsen Tsh. Bhutia; Srivastava, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Today's migrations become one of the important issues in the globe. The increasing influx of migration and the illegal migration has become a great challenge to the policy maker for both the sending and destination economy. The impact of migration on both the economy has genuine issue to be discusses, analysis and closely study. Therefore, this study reveal to quantify the migration population in Sikkim, to assess the impact on the socio-economy fabrics and to suggest the reme...

  15. LABOR MIGRATION IN RUSSIA - PROBLEM OR PROSPECT?

    OpenAIRE

    POMOZGOV ANATOLY IVANOVICH; KISIEV ZAUR EDUARDOVICH

    2016-01-01

    The article shows that international labor migration is an important part of the internationalization process of international economic life. So, the migration processes of the population should be carefully monitored and analyzed in order to develop effective state migration policy. Population mass migration became one of the characteristic phenomena of the second part of XX century world society life. Labor power international migration from this time appears to be the important part of int...

  16. Migration and the Option Value of Waiting

    OpenAIRE

    Burda, Michael C.

    1995-01-01

    Migration is an investment: it involves fixed, unrecoverable costs and uncertain future returns. If migration can be postponed, the option value of doing so may have positive value. Migration may not occur for a range of individuals who would otherwise migrate on a net present valur basis. This paper models the migration decision using ideas developed by Pindyck (1991) and Dixit (1992). Th option value of waiting is related to the interest rate, fixed costs, and especially uncertainty governi...

  17. Migration and sustainability - compatible or contradictory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2006-01-01

    When the migration issue is discussed in a sustainability perspective, two questions are vital: 1) What is the relationship between migration and the global population growth? 2) What is the relationship between migration and consumption growth, and how does migration influence the distribution...... of consumption possibilities both between and within industrialized and developing countries? Based on responses to these questions, it is argued that reasonably managed migration will be compatible with sustainable development....

  18. Preferential Petroleum Migration Pathways in Eastern Pearl River Mouth Basin,Offshore South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jianning; Zou Huayao; Gong Zaisheng

    2009-01-01

    Secondary petroleum migration in the eastern Pearl River Mouth basin was modeled using the three-dimensional PATHWAYSTM model,which assumes that the positions of petroleum migration pathways are controlled by the morphology of the sealing surfaces.The modeling results have accurately predicted the petroleum occurrences.Most commercial petroleum accumulations are along the predicted preferential petroleum migration pathways (PPMP),and most large fields (petroleum reserves greater than 1×108 t) have more than one preferential petroleum migration pathways to convey petroleum to the traps.The lateral migration distance for oil in the LH11-1 field,the largest oilfield so far discovered in the Pearl River Mouth basin,was more than 80 km.The case study suggests that in lacustrine fault basins,petroleum can migrate over a long distance to form large oilfields without driving force from groundwater flow.The focusing of petroleum originating from a large area of the generative kitchens into restricted channels seems to be essential not only for long-range petroleum migration in hydrostatic conditions,but also for the formation of large oil or gas fields.The strong porosity and permeability heterogeneities of the carrier beds and the relatively high prediction accuracy by a model that does not take into consideration of the effect of heterogeneity suggest that the positions of petroleum migration pathways in heterogeneous carrier beds with relatively large dipping angles are determined primarily by the morphology of the sealing surfaces at regional scales.

  19. The financial losses from the migration of nurses from Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The migration of health professionals trained in Africa to developed nations has compromised health systems in the African region. The financial losses from the investment in training due to the migration from the developing nations are hardly known. Methods The cost of training a health professional was estimated by including fees for primary, secondary and tertiary education. Accepted derivation of formula as used in economic analysis was used to estimate the lost investment. Results The total cost of training an enrolled nurse-midwife from primary school through nurse-midwifery training in Malawi was estimated as US$ 9,329.53. For a degree nurse-midwife, the total cost was US$ 31,726.26. For each enrolled nurse-midwife that migrates out of Malawi, the country loses between US$ 71,081.76 and US$ 7.5 million at bank interest rates of 7% and 25% per annum for 30 years respectively. For a degree nurse-midwife, the lost investment ranges from US$ 241,508 to US$ 25.6 million at 7% and 25% interest rate per annum for 30 years respectively. Conclusion Developing countries are losing significant amounts of money through lost investment of health care professionals who emigrate. There is need to quantify the amount of remittances that developing nations get in return from those who migrate.

  20. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic... hydrocarbons, synthetic. Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic, may be safely used in the production... isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, produced by synthesis from petroleum gases consist of a mixture of...

  1. Controlling factors and accumulation model of hydrocarbon accumulation in western Taibei Sag, Turpan-Hami Basin%吐哈盆地台北凹陷西缘油气成藏过程主控因素及成藏模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖冬生; 杨占龙

    2013-01-01

    从多元地质条件及其配置关系出发,分析吐哈盆地台北凹陷两缘油气成藏过程主控因素.研究结果表明:区域盖层与断裂共同控制着油气垂向运移的距离及层位:古构造背景、不整合面、输导断裂与储层砂体的配置关系控制着油气侧向运移的方向、通道和距离;基准面旋回、沉积微相类型与现今构造配置关系控制着油气的垂向聚集层位及平面分布规律.在此基础上,结合构造发育史、油源条件及沉积微相研究成果,总结出研究区4种主要成藏模式:源内为自生自储式和下生上储式;近源为短距离垂向—侧向运移—断层或局部构造成藏模式;远源为长距离侧向运移—不整合面上下成藏模式;油气再次分配运聚成藏模式.%In order to further clarify the role of different geological conditions in hydrocarbon accumulation process, the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon accumulation in western Taibei Sag, Turpan-Hami Basin were researched based on the angle of diverse geological conditions and their relationship in space-time. The results show that the distance and layer of hydrocarbon migrated upward are controlled by regional caprocks and faults. The direction, pathway and distance of the migrated oil-gas are controlled by palaeostructure and the relationship between unconformity, transport faults and reservoir. Vertical and lateral distributions of oil and gas are controlled by the factors of base level, sedimentary microfacies and recent tectonic. Based on the analysis of factors mentioned above coupled with structural history, oil sources conditions, sedimentary microfacies, four kinds of hydrocarbon accumulation models are summarized, i.e. inside source-lower source upper reservoir model and self-generating and self-preserving model, near source-short distance vertical and lateral migration-faults or local structures screened model, far source-long distance lateral migration-up, and down of

  2. Collision data involving hydro-carbon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydro-carbon molecules are abundantly produced when graphites are used as internal wall materials of hydrogen plasmas and strongly influence properties of low temperature plasmas near the edges as well as those of high temperature plasmas at the center. In this report, following simple description of the production mechanisms of hydro-carbon molecules under the interactions between graphite and hydrogen plasma, the present status of collision data for hydro-carbon molecules by electron impact is discussed and the relevant data are summarized in a series of figures and tables. It should also be noted that, in addition to fusion plasmas, these hydrocarbon data compiled here are quite useful in other applications such as plasma chemistry and material processing. (author)

  3. Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen H

    1992-01-01

    This "Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste" forms part of a series of "Informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behal

  4. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  5. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Energies from the PMO Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Charles F.

    1979-01-01

    Details a procedure for accurately calculating the quantum mechanical energies of hydrocarbons using the perturbational molecular orbital (PMO) method, which does not require the use of a computer. (BT)

  6. Rural migration and health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Jensen, Marit Vatn

    This literature study focuses on possible links between access to health services and migration in rural areas. Why do people move to or from rural areas or why do they stay? What determines where people settle? And, in this context, do local health care services play an important or minor role......, or no role at all? First, the paper reports on key findings from rural migration studies, in order to shed light on two migration trends: urbanization and counter-urbanization. Then we take a closer look on settlement preferences in rural areas, including the impact of health care facilities. Finally, we end...... up with a more deepgoing review of the relatively small number of studies, which explicitly deal with settlement preferences related to access to health care....

  7. Neurobiology of Monarch Butterfly Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Steven M; Guerra, Patrick A; Merlin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the migration of the eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) have revealed mechanisms behind its navigation. The main orientation mechanism uses a time-compensated sun compass during both the migration south and the remigration north. Daylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and integrated through intricate circuitry in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Monarch circadian clocks have a distinct molecular mechanism, and those that reside in the antennae provide time compensation. Recent evidence shows that migrants can also use a light-dependent inclination magnetic compass for orientation in the absence of directional daylight cues. The monarch genome has been sequenced, and genetic strategies using nuclease-based technologies have been developed to edit specific genes. The monarch butterfly has emerged as a model system to study the neural, molecular, and genetic basis of long-distance animal migration. PMID:26473314

  8. Brownian Motion in Planetary Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Murray-Clay, R A; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Chiang, Eugene I.

    2006-01-01

    A residual planetesimal disk of mass 10-100 Earth masses remained in the outer solar system following the birth of the giant planets, as implied by the existence of the Oort cloud, coagulation requirements for Pluto, and inefficiencies in planet formation. Upon gravitationally scattering planetesimal debris, planets migrate. Orbital migration can lead to resonance capture, as evidenced here in the Kuiper and asteroid belts, and abroad in extra-solar systems. Finite sizes of planetesimals render migration stochastic ("noisy"). At fixed disk mass, larger (fewer) planetesimals generate more noise. Extreme noise defeats resonance capture. We employ order-of-magnitude physics to construct an analytic theory for how a planet's orbital semi-major axis fluctuates in response to random planetesimal scatterings. To retain a body in resonance, the planet's semi-major axis must not random walk a distance greater than the resonant libration width. We translate this criterion into an analytic formula for the retention effi...

  9. The International-Migration Network

    CERN Document Server

    Fagiolo, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies international migration from a complex-network perspective. We define the international-migration network (IMN) as the weighted-directed graph where nodes are world countries and links account for the stock of migrants originated in a given country and living in another country at a given point in time. We characterize the binary and weighted architecture of the network and its evolution over time in the period 1960-2000. We find that the IMN is organized around a modular structure characterized by a small-world pattern displaying disassortativity and high clustering, with power-law distributed weighted-network statistics. We also show that a parsimonious gravity model of migration can account for most of observed IMN topological structure. Overall, our results suggest that socio-economic, geographical and political factors are more important than local-network properties in shaping the structure of the IMN.

  10. "False" migration of rigid fixation appliances in pediatric craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papay, F A; Hardy, S; Morales, L; Walker, M; Enlow, D

    1995-07-01

    Osseous fixation techniques have been widely used to provide rigid stabilization in the craniofacial skeleton. Reported sequelae of its usage has been limited to palpation of the screw-plate system and radiological imaging artifacts. Over the past 3 years we have identified miniplates, microplates, and wire sutures on the inner cranial table of the growing child. The observation of "false" migration of these appliances has provided the impetus to review these patients in more detail. Twenty patients underwent secondary cranial remodeling within a two-year period; 7 of these patients were seen to have "false" migration. There were no untoward sequelae in removal of these appliances, and no adverse neurological symptoms were seen.

  11. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  12. Deuterated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Doney, Kirstin D; Mori, Tamami; Onaka, Takashi; Tielens, A G G M

    2016-01-01

    The amount of deuterium locked up in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has to date been an uncertain value. We present a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic survey of HII regions in the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) obtained with AKARI, which aims to search for features indicative of deuterated PAHs (PAD or Dn-PAH) to better constrain the D/H ratio of PAHs. Fifty-three HII regions were observed in the NIR (2.5-5 {\\mu}m), using the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the AKARI satellite. Through comparison of the observed spectra with a theoretical model of deuterated PAH vibrational modes, the aromatic and (a)symmetric aliphatic C-D stretch modes were identified. We see emission features between 4.4-4.8 {\\mu}m, which could be unambiguously attributed to deuterated PAHs in only six of the observed sources, all of which are located in the Milky Way. In all cases, the aromatic C-D stretching feature is weaker than the aliphatic C-D stretching feature, and, in the case o...

  13. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  14. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  15. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Fernando Martins; Raquel Silva Peixoto

    2012-01-01

    Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occu...

  16. Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    MR Mehrasbi; B Haghighi; M.Shariat; S Naseri; Naddafi, K

    2003-01-01

    Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (20 g/kg dw soil) was investigated in 3 media, differing in the kind of petroleum fractions. In the laboratory experiments, during 5 months, the activities of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and dehydrogenase activity of soil was determined. Gas chromatographic analysis showed the biological decontaminations for gas oil, kerosene and synthetic mixture (gas oil, kerosene and furnace oil) are 60 %, 36 % and 55 %, respectively. Dehydrogenas...

  17. Retirement migration and military retirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses questions relevant to a socioeconomic assessment system for southern Nevada. They point to an understanding of the magnitude of impacts which may occur if the Yucca Mountain Project were to affect the decision-making process which leads these groups to migrate to southern Nevada. This is an important but somewhat elusive topic lacking in standard data sources. However, the topic may be addressed and analyzed systematically. This report presents the results of efforts to develop a data base and begin development of a model to address the migration, income and expenditure dimensions of these groups. 1 fig., 62 tabs

  18. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on, in and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account, by decision makers, when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository

  19. Women’s football migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    What is intriguing about women’s football as a cultural phenomenon is that unlike men’s football the finances and media interest for the game are sparse. Nevertheless we have found that migration of female football players is growing steadily and women’s football is becoming global in nature....... The question is then what drives this globalization process? According to our study of women’s football migration into Scandinavia, one of the centers of women’s football, transnational networks play a crucial role in mobilizing global migratory moves. Using the concept of friends-of-friends networks from Bale...

  20. [International migration in the Americas: intraregional migration grows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, H

    1992-01-01

    The principal destinations for intraregional migrants in South America in recent decades have been Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela, while in North America the U.S. has exerted a growing attraction since 1965. Intraregional migration in Latin America has been irregular and difficult to quantify, and reliable statistics on migratory flows are nonexistent. Census data indicate that most migration to Argentina and Brazil occurred before 1960, while most migration to Venezuela occurred during the 1970s. Between 1960 and 1980, the proportion of migrants from other Latin American countries showed a tendency to increase, despite decreases in the overall level of immigration. The effect of the economic crisis of the 1980s on immigration from Latin American countries will become more apparent as census data for the 1990s become available. Selectivity according to country of origin is an important characteristic of intraregional migration in South America. The U.S. has, however, been the principal destination of Latin American migrants for the past three decades. Between 1965 and 1991 the U.S. granted resident status to more than 7.4 million persons of Latin American and Caribbean origin, and they constituted 47% of immigrants during those years. The great majority of the Latin American immigrants in the U.S. are Mexican. The 3.5 million Mexicans admitted to the U.S. as immigrants between 1965 and 1991 accounted for 22% of all immigrants during this period. PMID:12158068

  1. Migrations et relations internationales Migration and international relations. The pitfalls of managing international migration multilaterally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thiollet

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Les migrations internationales sont aujourd’hui un des enjeux majeurs de la gouvernance globale. Elles restent pourtant l’objet de politiques régaliennes où dominent les accords bilatéraux sans que s’impose un régime de gestion multilatéral. Les migrations sont une des pierres d’achoppement du multilatéralisme et leur gestion est revendiquée par les États comme une dimension inaliénable de leur souveraineté (économique, territoriale…. Les institutions multilatérales tentent de proposer des modalités de gouvernance multilatérale des migrations comme phénomène social global. À l’Onu, le Haut commissariat aux réfugiés (Hcr s’occupe des réfugiés et l’Organisation internationale du travail (Oit des migrants en leur qualité de travailleurs. La Banque mondiale et le Fmi sont particulièrement actifs sur la question des migrations et des transferts financiers qui les accompagnent alors que l’Unicef s’intéresse aux conséquences sociales de la mobilité sur les familles dans les pays d’origine ou d’accueil. L’Organisation internationale des migrations travaille quant à elle en marge de l’Onu. L’Onu n’est pas parvenu à imposer la Convention sur les droits des migrants de 1990 et ne parvient pas à faire émerger une ligne d’action collective dans l’arène multilatérale sur la question migratoire. Pourtant, dans la sphère onusienne et au-delà, les organisations internationales négocient l’émergence d’une agence spécialisée dans les migrations. À partir de la stratégie historique du Hcr dans le champ multilatéral et d’une innovation juridique récente – le concept de « migrations mixtes » –, on décrit une des tentatives de gestion juridique de la mobilité forcée et volontaire. En 2006, le concept émerge avec l’expérience des migrations sub-sahariennes à travers la Méditerranée. On s’intéresse ici à son utilisation dans le cas de migrations depuis la corne de

  2. Teaching secondary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Rock, David

    2013-01-01

    Solidly grounded in up-to-date research, theory and technology,?Teaching Secondary Mathematics?is a practical, student-friendly, and popular text for secondary mathematics methods courses. It provides clear and useful approaches for mathematics teachers, and shows how concepts typically found in a secondary mathematics curriculum can be taught in a positive and encouraging way. The thoroughly revised fourth edition combines this pragmatic approach with truly innovative and integrated technology content throughout. Synthesized content between the book and comprehensive companion websi

  3. Laser spectroscopy of hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The author reports the application of supersonic jet flash pyrolysis to the specific preparation of a range of organic radicals, biradicals, and carbenes in a skimmed molecular beam. Each species was produced cleanly and specifically, with little or no secondary reactions by the thermal dissociation of appropriately designed and synthesized organic precursors. Photoelectron spectra of the three isomeric C{sub 3}H{sub 2} carbenes, ortho-benzyne, and the {alpha},3-dehydrotoluene biradical, were used to establish adiabatic ionization potentials for use in thermochemical determinations.

  4. The Role of Remittances in Migration Decision: Evidence from Turkish Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoyunlu, Sule; Siliverstovs, Boriss

    2007-01-01

    In this study we analyse the impact of workers' remittances on the decision to migrate by means of cointegration analysis. In traditional migration theories, especially in human capital models, the decision to migrate is based upon comparison of expected future incomes in the sending and the receiving countries adjusted for the cost of migration. By contrast, the new economics of labour migration suggests that the migration decision is made jointly by the migrant and his family. One important...

  5. [Family reunification, family-formation migration, and return migration of Turks and Moroccans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, J; Kuijper, H; Noordam, R

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyze migration patterns to the Netherlands from Turkey and Morocco for the period 1977-1989. Three distinct phases emerge: labor migration, family-reunification migration, and family-formation migration. The rise in migration from Turkey and Morocco during the second half of the 1980s is attributed to family-formation migration, which is defined as a member of the second generation marrying a partner from the country of origin. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. Occurrence, thermal evolution and primary migration processes derived from studies of organic matter in the Lucaogou source rock at the southern margin of the Junggar Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Lucaogou Formation carbonate-rich oil shale source rock is exposed at the southern margin of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, NW China. We have sampled it in detail and conducted microstructural, mineralogical and geochemical studies, including thin section petrography, UV fluorescence petrography, X-ray diffraction, vitrinite reflectance, bitumen reflectance, fluid inclusion analysis and Raman spectroscopy. Organic matter is disseminated through the carbonate-bearing siltstone source rocks and concentrated in numerous bedding parallel stylolites and in two sets of carbonate veins, one along bedding parallel fractures and the other cross-cutting stylolites and bedding. The research about maturity of organic matter finds vitrinite reflectance values increase from the dispersed kerogen (0.64%) to the stylolites (the one of oriented vitrinite is 0.72% and the one of migrated bitumen is 2.38%); Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in veins containing hydrocarbon fluid inclusions show an increase from 178.5℃ in the bedding parallel veins to 222℃ in the cross-cutting veins, confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. These results support a model of progressive heating accompanied by fluid loss during later stages of thermal maturation of source rock and the onset of primary migration. Obviously, the occurrence of organic matter is the trace of hydrocarbon primary migration, and the bedding lamination surfaces and cross-cutting fissures are the principal pathways of hydrocarbon-bearing fluids migration. Bedding lamination surfaces evolved into stylolites along the earliest primary migration pathways, followed by bedding parallel and cross-cutting fissures.

  7. Secondary extinctions of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah F; Aslan, Clare E; Rogers, Haldre S; Redford, Kent H; Maron, John L; Bronstein, Judith L; Groves, Craig R

    2014-12-01

    Extinctions beget further extinctions when species lose obligate mutualists, predators, prey, or hosts. Here, we develop a conceptual model of species and community attributes affecting secondary extinction likelihood, incorporating mechanisms that buffer organisms against partner loss. Specialized interactors, including 'cryptic specialists' with diverse but nonredundant partner assemblages, incur elevated risk. Risk is also higher for species that cannot either evolve new traits following partner loss or obtain novel partners in communities reorganizing under changing environmental conditions. Partner loss occurs alongside other anthropogenic impacts; multiple stressors can circumvent ecological buffers, enhancing secondary extinction risk. Stressors can also offset each other, reducing secondary extinction risk, a hitherto unappreciated phenomenon. This synthesis suggests improved conservation planning tactics and critical directions for research on secondary extinctions. PMID:25445878

  8. Migration cost externality and interregional equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, C

    1994-01-01

    "This paper will investigate the characteristics of population allocation between two regions in the presence of migration cost. It will also examine both populations and the non-migration range of the initial population in which migration does not occur, in social optimum and market equilibrium with central government intervention, to reveal migration cost externality, and to propose a remedy for it." The author finds that "migration cost gives the social planner an additional burden of population reallocation, and it has an important effect upon an individual's decisions on migration in a decentralized market mechanism."

  9. Bacteriophage secondary infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen; T; Abedon

    2015-01-01

    Phages are credited with having been first described in what we now, officially, are commemorating as the 100 th anniversary of their discovery. Those one-hundred years of phage history have not been lacking in excitement, controversy, and occasional convolution. One such complication is the concept of secondary infection, which can take on multiple forms with myriad consequences. The terms secondary infection and secondary adsorption, for example, can be used almost synonymously to describe virion interaction with already phage-infected bacteria, and which can result in what are described as superinfection exclusion or superinfection immunity. The phrase secondary infection also may be used equivalently to superinfection or coinfection, with each of these terms borrowed from medical microbiology, and can result in genetic exchange between phages, phage-on-phage parasitism, and various partial reductions in phage productivity that have been termed mutual exclusion, partial exclusion, or the depressor effect. Alternatively, and drawing from epidemiology, secondary infection has been used to describe phage population growth as that can occur during active phage therapy as well as upon phage contamination of industrial ferments. Here primary infections represent initial bacterial population exposure to phages while consequent phage replication can lead to additional, that is, secondary infections of what otherwise are not yet phage-infected bacteria. Here I explore the varying meanings and resultant ambiguity that has been associated with the term secondary infection. I suggest in particular that secondary infection, as distinctly different phenomena, can in multiple ways influence the success of phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria, also known as, phage therapy.

  10. Construction of Mass Migration Process

    OpenAIRE

    Fajfrová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    A general model of conservative particle systems on $/Zd$ is treated in this report. We call it the Mass Migration Process. We bring out a construction of an appropriate Markov process, we set conditions on existence, attractiveness and we present many particular examples.

  11. Externality, migration, and urban crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, Y

    1980-01-01

    The author analyzes a special aspect of the short-run dynamics of an urban area which arises when there is a contrast between different types of households. The possibility of cumulative or catastrophic processes because of migration by poor families and then by rich families in or out of an urban area is discussed

  12. Vortex migration in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Paardekooper, S -J; Papaloizou, J C B

    2010-01-01

    We consider the radial migration of vortices in two-dimensional isothermal gaseous disks. We find that a vortex core, orbiting at the local gas velocity, induces velocity perturbations that propagate away from the vortex as density waves. The resulting spiral wave pattern is reminiscent of an embedded planet. There are two main causes for asymmetries in these wakes: geometrical effects tend to favor the outer wave, while a radial vortensity gradient leads to an asymmetric vortex core, which favors the wave at the side that has the lowest density. In the case of asymmetric waves, which we always find except for a disk of constant pressure, there is a net exchange of angular momentum between the vortex and the surrounding disk, which leads to orbital migration of the vortex. Numerical hydrodynamical simulations show that this migration can be very rapid, on a time scale of a few thousand orbits, for vortices with a size comparable to the scale height of the disk. We discuss the possible effects of vortex migrat...

  13. Job Migration: A Collaborative Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers often change jobs several times during their careers. Reasons for job changes vary, but regardless, these changes bring a different set of challenges. Sharing knowledge and learning are part and parcel of collaboration. So what if, as education professionals, music teachers decided to collaborate during job migrations? For all music…

  14. Clocks, cryptochromes and Monarch migrations

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriacou, Charalambos P.

    2009-01-01

    The annual migration of the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) from eastern North America to central Mexico is one of nature's most inspiring spectacles. Recent studies including one in BMC Biology, have begun to dissect the molecular and neurogenetic basis for this most complex behavior.

  15. Clocks, cryptochromes and Monarch migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2009-01-01

    The annual migration of the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) from eastern North America to central Mexico is one of nature's most inspiring spectacles. Recent studies including one in BMC Biology, have begun to dissect the molecular and neurogenetic basis for this most complex behavior. PMID:19591650

  16. The concept of crisis migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane McAdam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Crisis migration needs to be understood in terms of ‘tipping points’, which are triggered not just by events but also by underlying structural processes. It is important for policymakers for there to be an adequate theory behind the concept of ‘crisis migration’ so that responses are appropriate, timely and thoughtful. "

  17. [The questions of international migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, M L

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument, and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic, and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in diffusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programs address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution in order that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in light of the complementary or competing actions of the media. (author's modified) PMID:12286405

  18. Les questions de migrations internationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  19. Floodplain heterogeneity and meander migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of horizontal heterogeneity of floodplain soils on rates and patterns of meander migration is analyzed with a Ikeda et al. (1981)-type model for hydrodynamics and bed morphodynamics, coupled with a physically-based bank erosion model according to the approach developed by Motta et al. (20...

  20. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial such as hipoxia, hypotensi, hyponatremia, hypertermia, hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. The cause of intracranial such as extradural, subdural, intraserebral, intraventrikular, dan subarachnoid hemorrhage. Beside that secondary injury can also be caused by edema and infection. Post-traumatic cerebral injured is characterized by direct tissue damage, impaired regulation of cerebral blood flow (cerebral blood flow / CBF, and disruption of metabolism. Manifestations of secondary brain injured include increased intracranial pressure, ischemic brain damage, cerebral hypoxia and hypercarbi, as well as disruption of cerebral autoregulation. The first priority is to stabilize the patient's cervical spine injury, relieve and maintain airway, ensure adequate ventilation (breathing, and making venous access for fluid resuscitation pathways (circulation and assessing the level of awareness and disability. This steps is crucial in patients with head injured to prevent hypoxia and hypotension, which is the main cause of secondary brain injury.

  1. Secondary pool boiling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, C.; Tsubaki, A.; Zuhlke, C.; Anderson, T.; Alexander, D.; Gogos, G.; Ndao, S.

    2016-02-01

    A pool boiling phenomenon referred to as secondary boiling effects is discussed. Based on the experimental trends, a mechanism is proposed that identifies the parameters that lead to this phenomenon. Secondary boiling effects refer to a distinct decrease in the wall superheat temperature near the critical heat flux due to a significant increase in the heat transfer coefficient. Recent pool boiling heat transfer experiments using femtosecond laser processed Inconel, stainless steel, and copper multiscale surfaces consistently displayed secondary boiling effects, which were found to be a result of both temperature drop along the microstructures and nucleation characteristic length scales. The temperature drop is a function of microstructure height and thermal conductivity. An increased microstructure height and a decreased thermal conductivity result in a significant temperature drop along the microstructures. This temperature drop becomes more pronounced at higher heat fluxes and along with the right nucleation characteristic length scales results in a change of the boiling dynamics. Nucleation spreads from the bottom of the microstructure valleys to the top of the microstructures, resulting in a decreased surface superheat with an increasing heat flux. This decrease in the wall superheat at higher heat fluxes is reflected by a "hook back" of the traditional boiling curve and is thus referred to as secondary boiling effects. In addition, a boiling hysteresis during increasing and decreasing heat flux develops due to the secondary boiling effects. This hysteresis further validates the existence of secondary boiling effects.

  2. [Haitian migration to Santo Domingo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latortue, P R

    1985-01-01

    This work examines the history of Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic, the central role of Haitian migration in Dominican society, working conditions of Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic, and the relationship of the migration to economic development on the island of Hispaniola. Lack of data, the difficulty of measuring illegal movement, and the problem of defining Haitians in Santo Domingo have impeded understanding of migration to the Dominican Republic. It is believed by many authorities that Haitian migration to Santo Domingo is considerable and perhaps exceeds that to the US. Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic began after 1915 with the fall of the Haitian president, a worsening of economic conditions partly caused by stagnation in the agricultural sector, and the newly dominant role of the US in Haitian economic affairs. The Great Depression of the 1930s was a direct antecedent of the massacre of Haitians by Dominican police in which some 30 thousand persons were killed; the economic recession of the early 1980s has also caused an outburst of antiHaitian feeling in the Dominican Republic although 80% of laborers in the sugar industry are Haitians. Sugar is extremely important to the Dominican economy: in 1974, sugar covered 12% of cultivated land, produced 40% of foreign exchange earnings, and was responsable for 21% of taxable income. Dominicans however refuse to work in sugar plantations under the current technological. conditions and wage system. Although the government periodically demands the Dominicanization of the sugar work force, no such changes have been made. Sugar will probably continue to play a decisive role in the generation of foreign exchange despite introduction of more technologically advanced sectors which benefit from better prices in the international market. Possibilities of mechanizing sugar production in the Dominican Republic appear remote, and failure to modernize an important sector of the economy has

  3. Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for the production of hydrocarbon fuels with high selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghong; Cheng, Kang; Kang, Jincan; Deng, Weiping; Wang, Ye

    2014-05-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a key reaction in the utilization of non-petroleum carbon resources, such as methane (natural gas, shale gas, and biogas), coal, and biomass, for the sustainable production of clean liquid fuels from synthesis gas. Selectivity control is one of the biggest challenges in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. This Minireview focuses on the development of new catalysts with controllable product selectivities. Recent attempts to increase the selectivity to C5+ hydrocarbons by preparing catalysts with well-defined active phases or with new supports or by optimizing the interaction between the promoter and the active phase are briefly highlighted. Advances in developing bifunctional catalysts capable of catalyzing both CO hydrogenation to heavier hydrocarbons and hydrocracking/isomerization of heavier hydrocarbons are critically reviewed. It is demonstrated that the control of the secondary hydrocracking reactions by using core-shell nanostructures or solid-acid materials, such as mesoporous zeolites and carbon nanotubes with acid functional groups, is an effective strategy to tune the product selectivity of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Very promising selectivities to gasoline- and diesel-range hydrocarbons have been attained over some bifunctional catalysts. PMID:24339240

  4. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  5. Vertical Migration of Petroleum via Faults in Zhu Ⅲ Subbasin, Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The problem that faults act as a conduit for hydrocarbon-bearing fluid flow has been under debate for a long time. The southern boundary fault (FS) and No.2 fault belt in the Zhu Ⅲ subbasin in the Pearl River Mouth basin (PRMB) of South China Sea (SCS) are considered as the conduit of hydrocarbons for the oil and gas fields in the hydrocarbon-generating half grabens. Based upon the basin modeling and seismic velocity inversion simulation, there are abnormal-pressure compartments in the central part of half grabens. Wenchang, Enping and Zhuhai FormationⅡare seated within the abnormal-pressure zone, while the Zhuhai Formation Ⅰ is within the pressure-transition zone. The abnormal pressure was mainly caused by undercompaction due to the high rate of sedimentation for layers with an abnormal pressure. The increase of temperature of inclusions as the increase of depth supports vertical migration via faults in the study area.

  6. Migration Theories and Mental Health in Toni Morrison's Jazz

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Tafreshi Motalgh; Wan Roselezam Wan Yahya

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to elaborate the relationship between migration and mental health problems that are evident in migrant women in Toni Morrison's Jazz (1992). To this end, pre-migration, migration and post-migration stress factors are identified in the novel based on Danish Bhugra's theory of migration. It seems that pre-migration stress factors and traumas are associated with the push theory of migration, while post-migration stresses are associated with the pull theory of migration. Despite...

  7. Petroleum Migration, Filling and Biological Degradation in Mesozoic Reservoirs in the Northern North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horstad, I.

    1995-12-31

    This thesis comprises five papers the first of which discusses the distribution of petroleum within the Gullfaks Field and applies conventional geochemical techniques to characterize the petroleum distribution within a single field. The paper also shows how understanding geochemical heterogeneities in the petroleum fluids helped to build a better geological model of the development of the Gullfaks Field. Based on this work an improved filling model was proposed for the Gullfaks Field. The second paper discusses the biological degradation of the hydrocarbons within the Gullfaks Field, and shows how several samples from neighbouring fields were analyzed to confirm the filling model of the field. It also demonstrates how the quantification of biological degradation of hydrocarbons in the reservoir places constraints on acceptable models of the geological development of the Tampen Spur Area. The third paper discusses the source vs. sink problems of petroleum migration in the North Sea. The fourth paper is a regional study of the petroleum migration within the Tampen Spur area and proposes a regional migration model. The fifth paper is a detailed reservoir geochemical study of the giant Troll Field on the Horda Platform and proposes a revised filling model for the field. 224 refs., 86 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. 北黄海东部次盆地油气成藏主控因素%Main controlling factors of hydrocarbon accumulation in the Eastern Sub-basin,North Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金萍; 王改云; 王嘹亮; 简晓玲; 杜民; 万晓明

    2015-01-01

    Eastern Sub-basin of the North Yellow Sea is still in the early stage of exploration ,its petroleum geologic condi-tions are complex ,and the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon accumulation are still not clear .Drilling data ,petroleum geochemistry ,organic phase classification , diagenesis and fluid inclusion thermometry were integrated to determine the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon accumulation .The distribution of source rocks with low to moderate abundance has controlled the area of oil and gas ,and the hydrocarbons occur typically adjacent to the source rocks in vertical .But it is difficult for oil and gas to accumulate in the structural zone far away from the "hydrocarbon kitchen" and the main source rock intervals .The sedimentary process of slowly and shallow burial in early stage-intense uplift in middle stage-rapidly and deep burial in late stage affected the distribution of hydrocarbons .This special sedimentary-burial process also controlled the generation-expulsion history and the reservoir evolution history in the Eastern Sub-basin,and resulted in that the events of generation and expulsion and accumulation of hydrocarbon all occurred during the Neogene .Due to the influences of diagenesis and other factors ,the major targets had been turned into the low-porosity and low-permeability reservoirs in the Neogene ,making it hard for hydrocarbons to migrate in long distance .Therefore,large-scale hydrocarbon migration and accumulation have not occurred in the Eastern Sub-basin.As a whole,the reservoirs in Eastern Sub-basin features in near-source accumulation ,so the targets adjacent to the main "hydrocarbon kitchen" have the lower risk of ex-ploration.Therefore,the structural traps and structural-lithologic composite traps of the secondary structures ,which are adjacent to "hydrocarbon kitchen" with good reservoirs ,can be the favorable targets in the further exploration .%北黄海东部次盆地尚处于勘探早期,石油地质条件

  9. Depth migration and de-migration for 3-D migration velocity analysis; Migration profondeur et demigration pour l'analyse de vitesse de migration 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assouline, F.

    2001-07-01

    3-D seismic imaging of complex geologic structures requires the use of pre-stack imaging techniques, the post-stack ones being unsuitable in that case. Indeed, pre-stack depth migration is a technique which allows to image accurately complex structures provided that we have at our disposal a subsurface velocity model accurate enough. The determination of this velocity model is thus a key element for seismic imaging, and to this end, migration velocity analysis methods have met considerable interest. The SMART method is a specific migration velocity analysis method: the singularity of this method is that it does not rely on any restrictive assumptions on the complexity of the velocity model to determine. The SMART method uses a detour through the pre-stack depth migrated domain for extracting multi-offset kinematic information hardly accessible in the time domain. Once achieved the interpretation of the pre-stack depth migrated seismic data, a kinematic de-migration technique of the interpreted events enables to obtain a consistent kinematic database (i.e. reflection travel-times). Then, the inversion of these travel-times, by means of reflection tomography, allows the determination of an accurate velocity model. To be able to really image geologic structures for which the 3-D feature is predominant, we have studied the implementation of migration velocity analysis in 3-D in the context of the SMART method, and more generally, we have developed techniques allowing to overcome the intrinsic difficulties in the 3-D aspects of seismic imaging. Indeed, although formally the SMART method can be directly applied to the case of 3-D complex structures, the feasibility of its implementation requires to choose well the imaging domain. Once this choice done, it is also necessary to conceive a method allowing, via the associated de-migration, to obtain the reflection travel-times. We first consider the offset domain which constitutes, still today, the strategy most usually used

  10. Studying of shale organic matter structure and pore space transformations during hydrocarbon generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giliazetdinova, Dina; Korost, Dmitry; Gerke, Kirill

    2016-04-01

    Due to the increased interest in the study of the structure, composition, and oil and gas potential of unconventional hydrocarbon resources, investigations of the transformation of the pore space of rocks and organic matter alterations during the generation of hydrocarbon fluids are getting attention again. Due to the conventional hydrocarbon resources decreasing, there will be a necessity to develop new unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Study of the conditions and processes of hydrocarbon generation, formation and transformation of the pore space in these rocks is pivotal to understand the mechanisms of oil formation and determine the optimal and cost effective ways for their industrial exploration. In this study, we focus on organic matter structure and its interaction with the pore space of shales during hydrocarbon generation and report some new results. Collected rock samples from Domanic horizon of South-Tatar arch were heated in the pyrolyzer to temperatures closely corresponding to different catagenesis stages. X-ray microtomography method and SEM were used to monitor changes in the morphology of the pore space and organic matter structure within studied shale rocks. By routine measurements we made sure that all samples (10 in total) had similar composition of organic and mineral phases. All samples in the collection were grouped according to initial structure and amount of organics and processed separately to: 1) study the influence of organic matter content on the changing morphology of the rock under thermal effects; 2) study the effect of initial structure on the primary migration processes for samples with similar organic matter content. An additional experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of changes in the structure of the pore space and prove the validity of our approach. At each stage of heating the morphology of altered rocks was characterized by formation of new pores and channels connecting primary voids. However, it was noted that

  11. Migration Helps Spread Bird Flu Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161473.html Migration Helps Spread Bird Flu Worldwide Scientists recommend keeping ... birds can spread bird flu worldwide and monitoring migration routes could provide early warning of outbreaks, researchers ...

  12. SEMS vs cSEMS in duodenal and small bowel obstruction: High risk of migration in the covered stent group

    OpenAIRE

    Waidmann, Oliver; Trojan, Jörg; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Sarrazin, Christoph; Bechstein, Wolf Otto; Ulrich, Frank; Zeuzem, Stefan; Albert, Jörg Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare clinical success and complications of uncovered self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) vs covered SEMS (cSEMS) in obstruction of the small bowel. Methods: Technical success, complications and outcome of endoscopic SEMS or cSEMS placement in tumor related obstruction of the duodenum or jejunum were retrospectively assessed. The primary end points were rates of stent migration and overgrowth. Secondary end points were the effect of concomitant biliary drainage on migration rate a...

  13. Migration policies and return migration with particular reference to Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepulis, R L

    1981-09-01

    "The essay analyses some of the most recent migratory trends in Europe in the light of labour turnover, integration and assimilation. The author states that [since] World War II the expansion of the European and international capitalistic system has encouraged or discouraged, according to the various circumstances, the transferral of workers to different countries. "Particular attention has been given to the case of Yugoslavia. The changing of its migration policies has often coincided with the different modalities of flows." (summary in FRE)

  14. Migration flows: Political Economy of Migration and the Empirical Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin H. O'Rourke,; Richard Sinnott

    2003-01-01

    Immigration barriers began being erected in the New World in the late 19th century. They were motivated by fears that the immigration of unskilled workers would increase inequality. Controlling for economic factors, there appears to have been little independent role for factorssuch as racism or xenophobia in driving the retreat from liberal migration policies. A statistical analysis of individual voter attitudes towards immigration in the late 20th century leads to somewhat different conclusi...

  15. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  16. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Hydrogenative decomposition device for hydrocarbon oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vessel for decomposition according to the present invention comprises a water decomposition vessel disposed around a storage portion of a radioactive material container to which water for decomposition is injected, a gas separation column for separating hydrogen gas generated by decomposition of water, and a reaction vessel having a gas mixture fluid of hydrocarbon oil and hydrogen gas disposed around the storage portion, and from which hydrocarbon product is taken out. Radiation rays from radioactive materials stored in both of the water decomposition vessel and the reaction vessel are absorbed by water and hydrocarbon oil at the periphery thereof. Water is partially decomposed into oxygen gas and hydrogen gas by irradiation of radiation rays, and hydrogen gas is separated and sent to the reaction vessel. A portion of molecular chains of the hydrocarbon oil is splitted by irradiation of radiation rays to reduce molecular weight, and hydrocarbon products in a stable state are obtained by hydrogenation. Hydrogen is formed using radioactive wastes as an energy source and the quality of heavy crude oils can be improved. (T.M.)

  18. Emissions of hydrocarbons from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluations and measurements of emissions of hydrocarbons from power plants with a capacity exceeding 1 MW using biofuels (wood fuels and peat) have been studied in order to identify and quantify the emissions of incompletely combusted hydrocarbons. The influence of the type of fuel and the combustion technology applied were also studied, using literature references. The report summarizes monitoring results from a number of plants using biofuels. The reported emissions from the different plants can not be compared as they are relatively few and the test results have been obtained under various conditions using different methods of testing and analysis. The methods used are often poorly documented in the studied reports. Few investigations of emissions of hydrocarbons from plants in the range of 1 to 10 MW have been carried out. The plant and the technology used are important factors determining the amount and type of emissions of hydrocarbons. Larger temporary emissions can occur during start up, operational disturbances or when using fuel of inhomogeneous quality. In order to minimize the emissions the combustion process must be efficiently controlled, and a fuel of a hohogeneous quality must be used. The report also summarizes sampling and analysis methods used for monitoring emissions of hydrocarbons. (29 refs., 17 figs.)

  19. Paleozoic Hydrocarbon-Seep Limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, J.

    2007-12-01

    To date, five Paleozoic hydrocarbon-seep limestones have been recognized based on carbonate fabrics, associated fauna, and stable carbon isotopes. These are the Middle Devonian Hollard Mound from the Antiatlas of Morocco [1], Late Devonian limestone lenses with the dimerelloid brachiopod Dzieduszyckia from the Western Meseta of Morocco [2], Middle Mississippian limestones with the dimerelloid brachiopod Ibergirhynchia from the Harz Mountains of Germany [3], Early Pennsylvanian limestones from the Tantes Mound in the High Pyrenees of France [4], and Late Pennsylvanian limestone lenses from the Ganigobis Shale Member of southern Namibia [5]. Among these examples, the composition of seepage fluids varied substantially as inferred from delta C-13 values of early diagenetic carbonate phases. Delta C-13 values as low as -50 per mil from the Tantes Mound and -51 per mil from the Ganigobis limestones reveal seepage of biogenic methane, whereas values of -12 per mil from limestones with Dzieduszyckia associated with abundant pyrobitumen agree with oil seepage. Intermediate delta C-13 values of carbonate cements from the Hollard Mound and Ibergirhynchia deposits probably reflect seepage of thermogenic methane. It is presently very difficult to assess the faunal evolution at seeps in the Paleozoic based on the limited number of examples. Two of the known seeps were typified by extremely abundant rhynchonellide brachiopods of the superfamily Dimerelloidea. Bivalve mollusks and tubeworms were abundant at two of the known Paleozoic seep sites; one was dominated by bivalve mollusks (Hollard Mound, Middle Devonian), another was dominated by tubeworms (Ganigobis Shale Member, Late Pennsylvanian). The tubeworms from these two deposits are interpreted to represent vestimentiferan worms, based on studies of the taphonomy of modern vestimentiferans. However, this interpretation is in conflict with the estimated evolutionary age of vestimentiferans based on molecular clock methods

  20. Determinants of U.S. Intercounty Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsen, L. Dwight; Israelsen, Ryan D.; Israelsen, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Population growth in the United States during the last two decades of the twentieth century was accompanied by major population shifts at the county level. It is clear that the dominant cause of relative change in county populations has been intercounty migration, rather than immigration from abroad or differences in natural population increase at the county level. Studies of migration typically examine migration between countries, or, in the United States, migration between states. The very ...

  1. EMPIRICAL-NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF HEADCUT MIGRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Headcut migration is studied by using empirical and numerical modeling approaches. Empirical formulas for the headcut migration are established using available measurement data, which consider not only the flow strength but also the properties of soil. Numerical model for the headcut migration is proposed. The influences of dynamic pressure gradient, downward flow, and bed slope on sediment entrainment are considered. The local erosion patterns and migration speeds of headcut calculated by the numerical model agree reasonably well with observed data.

  2. Theoretical aspects of studying the migration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilfuza Rasulova

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of continuous growth of population in Uzbekistan the issue of managing the labor migration processes is becoming more important. Effective coordination of migration processes requires comprehensive study of theory and methodology of labour migration, particularly considering cases of transition countries. The paper considers some theoretic concepts that seem important for understanding the mechanism of migration princesses, suggests practical recommendations for the associated decision-making.

  3. Metropolitan growth and migration in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg, Gunnar

    1988-01-01

    Abstract: The study deals with the interplay between migration and metropolitan growth in Peru during the last decades. The key question is to what extent Peru's rural-urban migration and rapid urban growth is triggered by opportunities within the formal and informal sectors in the growing metropolis of Lima. Aggregated data about migration have been related to information of socioeconomic and geographical conditions in rural and urban areas. Multivariate models of interregional migration are...

  4. Geochemical Variations in Hydrocarbon Components Distribution in a Prograding Deltaic Sequence: A Case Study of the Baram Delta, Offshore Sarawak Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ben-Awuah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on hydrocarbon distribution have evolved from basic reservoir characterization to complex studies today involving the interactions between oil components and clay minerals and sequential extraction studies on hydrocarbon extracts in reservoir rocks. Findings from such studies include the discovery of variations in oil fractions in reservoirs such as adsorbed oil and free oil. The theory that first oil charge preferentially interacts with clay minerals occurring in pores and as coatings in reservoirs was also proposed by some researchers. Despite, all these studies some aspects of variations in the composition of hydrocarbons in reservoir rocks still need to be investigated further. This study has been carried out particularly because the qualitative and quantitative composition of aromatic and aliphatic components of hydrocarbons in terms of the presence and quantities of hydrocarbon functional groups and how they relate to hydrocarbon migration have not been exhaustively discussed. This study uses Ultra-Violet visible light (UV-vis and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR to characterize variations in hydrocarbon distribution in reservoir quality sandstones from three fields namely BD01, BD02 and BD03 in the Baram Delta, offshore Sarawak and to deduce how these variations relate to differential migration patterns in hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon extraction was done in the ultra vilolet visible (UV-vis experiment using 0.1M sodium pyrophosphate as solvent whereas in the Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR, the experiment was done on very fine powdered samples of the sandstones. Results from both the UV-vis and FTIR experiments indicate a dominance of aromatic functional groups in the samples. Most of the samples have E4/E6 ratio of more than 1 which indicates a high degree of aromacity. The BD01 field sandstones with a maximum porosity of 32% has the highest average E4/E6 ratio of 1.21, followed by the BD02 field sandstones with a maximum

  5. Migration, population growth, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    In the 30 years between 1950 and 1980, the population of the developing world almost doubled--from 1.7 to 3.3 billion. Among the most conspicuous signs of this increase are the growth of cities and, in some areas, international labor migration. Since 1950 the cities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America have been growing more than twice as fast as those in North America and Europe. Some of the biggest cities are growing fastest--by as much as 8 percent each year. At this rate they will double in less than a decade. About 40 percent of this growth is due to migration and 60 percent to the children born in the cities to natives and the newly arrived migrants. Altogether, about one billion people (1,000 million) now live in developing-country cities, where fewer than 300 million lived in 1950. About 15 to 20 million workers, mostly from developing countries, are now international migrants. About half travel to Europe and the US, the rest to other developing countries. Many of the migrants, especially to the US, Europe, or the Middle East, want to bring their families eventually and settle permanently. Migration to African destinations is more likely to be temporary or seasonal, while Latin American and Asian patterns are mixed. Policy makers in developing countries are voicing concern about the highly visible social, economic, and political problems created by rapid urbanization and by large-scale international labor migration. While governments have tried a variety of policies to influence population distribution, most have been limited in scope and had little success. As long as birth rates remain high in some areas and large differences in wages exist between jobs in different places, most of these policies have little hope of stopping or reversing long-term trends. Family planning programs, although they do not create immediate jobs or higher wages in rural areas, can help to reduce the high birth rates that produce an ever-increasing supply of potential migrants

  6. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lower Amaranth M Pool, Waskada Field, southwest Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasinski, D.R.; Last, W.M. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Geological Science; Martiniuk, C.D. [Manitoba Industry, Economic Development and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Petroleum Branch

    2005-07-01

    The major hydrocarbon producer of Manitoba's Waskada Field is the Lower Amaranth Member of the Jurassic Amaranth, the oldest Mesozoic unit in the northeastern portion of the Williston Basin. Reservoir facies occur as sandy intervals on logs, and are complexly interbedded intertidal sandstones and siltstones. Thickness of the Lower Member is controlled by the paleotopography of the underlying Paleozoic erosional surface. Hydrocarbon production in the Waskada Amaranth began in 1980 with the recompletion of a former Mississippian producer. In the mid-1990s, the Waskada Field expanded eastward into the Goodlands area, with the development of the Lower Amaranth M pool. Developed original oil in place (OOIP) is calculated to be 9.8 million bbl, with 6.7 per cent primary recovery. However, net pay data from the M pool shows that the current pool boundaries do not accurately represent the absolute pool limits. Extent of the pool is defined by a diagenetically controlled permeability pinchout, where reduced permeability allows water migration, while simultaneously retarding oil migration. Total potential of the M pool has yet to be reached. Two development targets have been identified adjacent to the current M pool boundaries based on reservoir facies thickness, net pay, and production data. Development of these areas would expand the pool boundaries by 632 ha, increasing M pool total OOIP to 28.5 million bbl, leaving an undeveloped 18.7 million bbl.

  7. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotlear, D

    1984-06-01

    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.

  8. Partial migration in fishes: causes and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, B.B.; Hulthén, K.; Brodersen, J.;

    2012-01-01

    Partial migration, where only some individuals from a population migrate, has been widely reported in a diverse range of animals. In this paper, what is known about the causes and consequences of partial migration in fishes is reviewed. Firstly, the ultimate and proximate drivers of partial...

  9. Controlling irregular migration : the Malaysian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kanapathy, Vijayakumari

    2008-01-01

    Examines Malaysia's experience in curbing irregular migration. It traces the country's shifting policies on irregular migration as it moved from relatively "soft" policies to tougher sanctions and controls. It proceeds to evaluate the effectiveness of these policies in terms of controlling irregular migration and sustainability. It speculates and makes recommendations on future policy.

  10. Migration and Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Søren

    We live in an age of migration and more and more authors have migrant backgrounds. Migration and Literature offers a thorough and thought provoking examination of the thematic and formal role of migration in four contemporary and canonized novelists, Günter Grass, Milan Kundera, Salman Rushdie...

  11. Migration Flows: Measurement, Analysis and Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; White, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is an introduction to the study of migration flows. It starts with a review of major definition and measurement issues. Comparative studies of migration are particularly difficult because different countries define migration differently and measurement methods are not harmonized. Insigh

  12. Migration on Wings Aerodynamics and Energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Kantha, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    This book is an effort to explore the technical aspects associated with bird flight and migration on wings. After a short introduction on the birds migration, the book reviews the aerodynamics and Energetics of Flight and presents the calculation of the Migration Range. In addition, the authors explains aerodynamics of the formation flight and finally introduces great flight diagrams.

  13. File: non conventional hydrocarbons - Between concerns and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first article proposes an overview of gas and oil resources with respect to their geological context. The authors address the origins of hydrocarbons, their underground migration and possible trapping, thus scanning the whole spectrum of conventional and non conventional resources. A second article, signed by representatives of companies working on shale gas in Europe as well as in the USA, examines whether the development of shale gases, if it ever emerges in Europe, will be the same as it is in the USA. They notably outline differences regarding several legal aspects on land property and on the environment. Based on a study on shale supply chain which identified costs, needed skills, existing capabilities, and recommendations for closing identified gaps, the third article discusses the perspective and opportunity of a possible development of shale gas in the UK. The fourth article discusses the impacts of the exploitation of source rock oils and gases on the American and World economies, and the fifth one discusses the perspectives for the petrochemicals and refining industries in a context of development of shale gases and oils in the USA, of an over-capacity situation for the refining industry, of decline of the European oil product market, and of competition with new polymer production capacities (notably in the Middle East where ethane extracted from natural gas is available in large quantities and at very low prices)

  14. Profiling refined hydrocarbon fuels using polar components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, C.E.; Hostettler, F.D.

    2007-01-01

    Identification of a fuel released into the environment can be difficult due to biodegradation or weathering. Negative electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry was used to screen for unique polar components in a wide variety of commercial hydrocarbon products and mixtures. These fuels produced unique and relatively simple spectra. When applied to hydrocarbon samples from a large, long-term fuel spill in a relatively cool climate in which the alkane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane portions had begun to biodegrade or weather, the polar components in these samples had changed little over time. This technique provided rapid fuel identification on hydrocarbons released into the environment, without sample preparation, fractionation, or chromatography. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  15. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  16. Mechanisms of Hydrocarbon Based Polymer Etch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Barton; Ventzek, Peter; Matsukuma, Masaaki; Suzuki, Ayuta; Koshiishi, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Dry etch of hydrocarbon based polymers is important for semiconductor device manufacturing. The etch mechanisms for oxygen rich plasma etch of hydrocarbon based polymers has been studied but the mechanism for lean chemistries has received little attention. We report on an experimental and analytic study of the mechanism for etching of a hydrocarbon based polymer using an Ar/O2 chemistry in a single frequency 13.56 MHz test bed. The experimental study employs an analysis of transients from sequential oxidation and Ar sputtering steps using OES and surface analytics to constrain conceptual models for the etch mechanism. The conceptual model is consistent with observations from MD studies and surface analysis performed by Vegh et al. and Oehrlein et al. and other similar studies. Parameters of the model are fit using published data and the experimentally observed time scales.

  17. The cost of migration : Spoonbills suffer higher mortality during trans-Saharan spring migrations only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, Tamar; Overdijk, Otto; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    Explanations for the wide variety of seasonal migration patterns of animals all carry the assumption that migration is costly and that this cost increases with migration distance. Although in some studies, the relationships between migration distance and breeding success or annual survival are estab

  18. The cost of migration: spoonbills suffer higher mortality during trans-Saharan spring migrations only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, T.; Overdijk, O.; Piersma, T.

    2015-01-01

    Explanations for the wide variety of seasonal migration patterns of animals all carry the assumption that migration is costly and that this cost increases with migration distance. Although in some studies, the relationships between migration distance and breeding success or annual survival are estab

  19. Influences of environmental cues, migration history and habitat familiarity on partial migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    to their home lake population, and individuals translocated from the lake without migration opportunity migrated when given the opportunity, suggesting that partial migration is phenotypically plastic and triggered by lake-specific environmental cues. We found temperature to be a proximate cue for migration...

  20. Estrogenic Activity of Mineral Oil Aromatic Hydrocarbons Used in Printing Inks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Tarnow

    Full Text Available The majority of printing inks are based on mineral oils (MOs which contain complex mixtures of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Consumer exposure to these oils occurs either through direct skin contacts or, more frequently, as a result of MO migration into the contents of food packaging that was made from recycled newspaper. Despite this ubiquitous and frequent exposure little is known about the potential toxicological effects, particularly with regard to the aromatic MO fractions. From a toxicological point of view the huge amount of alkylated and unsubstituted compounds therein is reason for concern as they can harbor genotoxicants as well as potential endocrine disruptors. The aim of this study was to assess both the genotoxic and estrogenic potential of MOs used in printing inks. Mineral oils with various aromatic hydrocarbon contents were tested using a battery of in vitro assays selected to address various endpoints such as estrogen-dependent cell proliferation, activation of estrogen receptor α or transcriptional induction of estrogenic target genes. In addition, the comet assay has been applied to test for genotoxicity. Out of 15 MOs tested, 10 were found to potentially act as xenoestrogens. For most of the oils the effects were clearly triggered by constituents of the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction. From 5 oils tested in the comet assay, 2 showed slight genotoxicity. Altogether it appears that MOs used in printing inks are potential endocrine disruptors and should thus be assessed carefully to what extent they might contribute to the total estrogenic burden in humans.

  1. Secondary drowning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J H

    1980-10-25

    Secondary drowning (and near-drowning) is one of the post-immersion respiratory syndromes. It is defined as deterioration of pulmonary function that follows deficient gas exchange due to loss or inactivation of surfactant. A review of 94 consecutive cases of near-drowning in childhood showed that this syndrome occurred in five (5%) cases. Its onset was usually rapid and characterised by a latent period of one to 48 hours of relative respiratory well-being. It occurred more rapidly after immersion in fresh water. The two children immersed in salt water died of secondary drowning, while the three immersed in fresh water recovered completely. If it is anticipated, recognised, and treated vigorously prognosis of secondary drowning is good in fresh water cases but bad after salt water immersion.

  2. MIGRATION OF ORACLE HR DATABASE

    CERN Document Server

    ais.support@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    Restricted services from 3 to 7 November 2001 Due to the migration of the Oracle HR application to the Web, some services which rely on the application's availability may be disturbed from Friday 2 November at 17:30 until Thursday 8 November at 08:30. Amongst those services: HR Division: records office, recruitment, claims and benefits. FI Division: personnel accounting, advances and claims. ST Division: registration office (access cards). SPL Division: external firm staff records. EP Division: users' office. Experiments' secretariats: PIE, Greybook. Divisional secretariats: externals, internal addresses. All information concerning this migration is available at: http://ais.cern.ch We apologize for any inconvenience and thank you in advance for your understanding.

  3. Physicists' Forced Migrations under Hitler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerchen, Alan

    2011-03-01

    When the Nazis came to power in early 1933 they initiated formal and informal measures that forced Jews and political opponents from public institutions such as universities. Some physicists retired and others went into industry, but most emigrated. International communication and contact made emigration a viable option despite the desperate economic times in the Great Depression. Another wave of emigrations followed the annexation of Austria in 1938. Individual cases as well as general patterns of migration and adaptation to new environments will be examined in this presentation. One important result of the forced migrations was that many of the physicists expelled under Hitler played important roles in strengthening physics elsewhere, often on the Allied side in World War II.

  4. Monomer Migration and Annihilation Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Jian-Hong; LIN Zhen-Quan; ZHUANG You-Yi

    2005-01-01

    We propose a two-species monomer migration-annihilation model, in which monomer migration reactions occur between any two aggregates of the same species and monomer annihilation reactions occur between two different species. Based on the mean-field rate equations, we investigate the evolution behaviors of the processes. For the case with an annihilation rate kernel proportional to the sizes of the reactants, the aggregation size distribution of either species approaches the modified scaling form in the symmetrical initial case, while for the asymmetrical initial case the heavy species with a large initial data scales according to the conventional form and the light one does not scale. Moreover,at most one species can survive finally. For the case with aconstant annihilation rate kernel, both species may scale according to the conventional scaling law in the symmetrical case and survive together at the end.

  5. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  6. Bhangra: Mystics, music and migration

    OpenAIRE

    Sahota, Hardeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    Bhangra: Mystics, Music and Migration explores the origins of this folk song and dance from the Panjab in South Asia and its development into part of modern British culture in the hybrid soundscape of British Bhangra and beyond. This book originated in academic research and the Heritage-lottery funded Bhangra Renaissance project. Through ethnographic research, oral history interviews, performances, photography, story-telling and community activity it celebrates the past contribution ...

  7. Neural crest migration: trailblazing ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesa, Paul M.; McLennan, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic cell migration patterns are amazingly complex in the timing and spatial distribution of cells throughout the vertebrate landscape. However, advances in in vivo visualization, cell interrogation, and computational modeling are extracting critical features that underlie the mechanistic nature of these patterns. The focus of this review highlights recent advances in the study of the highly invasive neural crest cells and their migratory patterns during embryonic development. We discuss...

  8. Incentives and disincentives: international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwati, J N

    1984-01-01

    International migration is largely controlled by disincentives, or quotas, on immigration rather than checks on emigrations. Societies generally feel they have a right to exclude others from their boundaries, but they also usually feel that they do not have a right to control emigration. The single-planetary approach holds that people have the right to live wherever they like on the planet, and the cosmopolitan-utilitarian approach believes the same for reasons of world efficiency. The current feeling that societies have the right to exclude others may be explained best by territoriality in human animals. People also believe that their culture will be diluted if too many outsiders enter. In many cases, immigration systems cannot really control immigration, as in the cases of long landlocked borders between the US and Mexico and between Bangladesh and Assam. Immigration systems also contain legal loopholes. For example, in the US it is easier to get a student visa and convert to immigrant status than to gain immigrant status directly. Loopholes lead to plugs, which lead in turn to more loopholes. An upsurge in requests for political asylum followed increased restrictions on immigration in Western Europe. The US has investigated foreign aid and foreign investments to Mexico and Haiti to curb the flow of illegal migrants. The author suggests that foreign investments may lead to more migration because of the creation of a new proletariat used to the ways of developed countries. An estimate of what would happen if all immigration control were removed worldwide concludes that efficiency and income distribution would improve worldwide. Most migration from developing to developed countries currently consists of the migration of skilled professionals, the brain drain. The author proposes a tax on these professionals to be paid to the country of origin to compensate them for the loss in education and training. The author summarizes the differences between the West German

  9. Gender and Migration in Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    KHALIL, Asem

    2010-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) This paper is concerned with legal rules and institutions in Palestine directly or indirectly affecting migrant women. In particular, this paper sheds light on family reunification, personal status, and nationality laws. Despite the Palestinian Authority’s apparent commitment to rejecting sex discrimination and in combating violence directed against women, there are still social and legal obstacles that h...

  10. Immigrants' Income and Family Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Saman

    2004-01-01

    This thesis consists of three papers studying the economic situation of immigrants in Sweden in terms of wage earnings, labor participation and family internal migration. Paper [I] studies the determinants of the wage earnings for immigrants from different countries, and secondly whether their wage earnings converge to those of comparable native-born Swedes. The study is based on a longitudinal dataset, and the data refers to 1991 and 1995, respectively. The empirical results indicate that im...

  11. Incentives and disincentives: international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwati, J N

    1984-01-01

    International migration is largely controlled by disincentives, or quotas, on immigration rather than checks on emigrations. Societies generally feel they have a right to exclude others from their boundaries, but they also usually feel that they do not have a right to control emigration. The single-planetary approach holds that people have the right to live wherever they like on the planet, and the cosmopolitan-utilitarian approach believes the same for reasons of world efficiency. The current feeling that societies have the right to exclude others may be explained best by territoriality in human animals. People also believe that their culture will be diluted if too many outsiders enter. In many cases, immigration systems cannot really control immigration, as in the cases of long landlocked borders between the US and Mexico and between Bangladesh and Assam. Immigration systems also contain legal loopholes. For example, in the US it is easier to get a student visa and convert to immigrant status than to gain immigrant status directly. Loopholes lead to plugs, which lead in turn to more loopholes. An upsurge in requests for political asylum followed increased restrictions on immigration in Western Europe. The US has investigated foreign aid and foreign investments to Mexico and Haiti to curb the flow of illegal migrants. The author suggests that foreign investments may lead to more migration because of the creation of a new proletariat used to the ways of developed countries. An estimate of what would happen if all immigration control were removed worldwide concludes that efficiency and income distribution would improve worldwide. Most migration from developing to developed countries currently consists of the migration of skilled professionals, the brain drain. The author proposes a tax on these professionals to be paid to the country of origin to compensate them for the loss in education and training. The author summarizes the differences between the West German

  12. Population forecasting with endogenous migration: an application to trans-Tasman migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbey, S; James, D; Poot, J

    1999-04-01

    "This article focuses on forecasting migration between Australia and New Zealand (trans-Tasman migration), which is largely visa-free and therefore resembles internal migration. Net trans-Tasman migration is a major component of New Zealand population change and is embedded in this article in a Bayesian or unrestricted vector autoregression (VAR) model, which includes foreign and domestic economic variables. When time series of net migration are available, this approach provides a useful input into forecasting population growth in the short run in the absence of major policy changes. This conclusion applies equally to interregional migration and to unrestricted international migration between economically integrated nations."

  13. The nature of hydrocarbon synthesis by means of hydrogenation of carbon monoxide on iron-based catalysts: Part II. dynamic adsorption/desorption equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, R.

    1989-01-01

    Results from alkene co-feeding and benzene poisoning experiments indicate that readsorption and secondary reaction of initially produced alkenes is an important pathway leading to the formation of long-chain hydrocarbons during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Synthesis sites are differentiated in short-c

  14. ILLEGAL MIGRATION-CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA FLORINA POPESCU (PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Illegal migration is a mobile phenomenon, which ignores national borders, a threat that originates outside the community and extends to Western societies. This phenomenon is becoming larger and irregular migrants are often in a precarious situation and exposed to the criminals involved in various manifestations of organized crime. The future risk factors of the illegal migration are the demographic bomb, because the population is decreasing in European countries and increasing rapidly in poorer countries, droughts, floods, deforestation, that cause conflicts between climate refugees , extreme poverty, totalitarian regimes, epidemics, can trigger millions of people, the elderly and the working population imbalance which leads to the permanent import of immigrants To combat this phenomenon, states must engage and cooperate with each other. Measures taken by states must balance their integration policy for immigrants, legally residents and asylum policy to comply with international conventions. Also, states must adopt anti-immigrant policies, consisting of subordination visa policy to the interests of international security and exchange of information and, not least, to continue the Schengen process, as a value of humanitarian law applied in the field. The aim of the research is to characterize this dangerous phenomenon for the society and the goal is to identify strategies to combat illegal migration.

  15. Super-Eccentric Migrating Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, Aristotle; Dong, Subo; Tremaine, Scott

    2011-01-01

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e=0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e>0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is \\dot a \\propto a^0.5 and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/dlog a\\propto a^0.5. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  16. SUPER-ECCENTRIC MIGRATING JUPITERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socrates, Aristotle; Katz, Boaz; Dong Subo; Tremaine, Scott [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2012-05-10

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e = 0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e > 0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is a-dot {proportional_to}a{sup 1/2} and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/d log a{proportional_to}a{sup 1/2}. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  17. International migration statistics in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Y Griego, M

    1987-01-01

    During the past decade, Mexico has experienced both large-scale emigration directly, mostly to the US, and the mass immigration of Central American refugees. The implementation of the US Immigration and Control Act of 1986 and the possible escalation of armed conflicts in Central America may result in expanded inflows either of returning citizens or of new refugee waves. To develop appropriate policy responses, Mexico needs reliable information on international migration flows. This research note reviews available sources of that information--arrival and departure statistics, population censuses, refugee censuses, and survey data--and concludes that most of them are relatively weak. Currently, the published data on entries and departures provide little information on the demographic impact of legal migration, although they suggest that the inflow of foreigners is small. The census corroborates such findings, but it yields inadequate demographic detail. The movement of Mexican nationals, on the other hand, is poorly reflected by both sources. The void they leave has been palliated somewhat by surveys, but the only nationally representative survey on emigration was carried out in the late 1970s and might be a less than ideal basis for current policy formulation. It is hoped that as the relevance of international migration becomes more evident, steps towards the improvement of existing statistical systems may be undertaken. In the absence of such measures, policy-makers and researchers will have to continue relying on ad hoc surveys to answer the most pressing questions on the subject. PMID:12280914

  18. Formation and Accumulation of Hydrocarbons in the Central Uplift, Dongying Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Sumei; Qiu Guiqiang; Gao Yongjin; Jiang Zhenxue

    2006-01-01

    A large number of crude oil and rock samples from various oil pools of the Central Uplift in Dongying Depression were investigated to reveal the origin and accumulation of hydrocarbons. The results showed that the composition and areal distribution of hydrocarbons vary with the location of the oil pools. An increasing trend of gammacerane/C30-hopane and steranes/hopanes but a decreasing trend of prystane/phytane (Pr/Ph) and 18(H)-/17(H)-trisnorhopane (Ts/Tm) ratios were observed from southwest to northeast. This indicates a variation of source rocks and hydrocarbon properties. An increasing trend of water salinity with much more input of algae-rich microorganisms in the deposition environment of the source rock was observed from southwest to northeast. However, the thermal maturity of the source rocks showed a decreasing trend in the same direction. Oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations showed that most oils were sourced from Es3 and Es4 members with a burial depth of more than 3,000-3,150 m and 2,700 m respectively. The oils in the Shinan and Ying 11 sand bodies, which were generally mixed with the Es4 sourced oils, came mostly from Es3 mudstones. It is quite significant that the Es4 derived oils migrated vertically for hundreds of meters and accumulated in an overlying lithologic pool of the Es3m, i.e., Ying 11 synclinal lithologic pool, which suggests that the mechanisms of migration and accumulation for subtle oil pools in the Dongying Depression are more complex than that of the previously expected.

  19. Lipopolysaccharide disrupts the directional persistence of alveolar myofibroblast migration through EGF receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiping; Yuan, Xiaobing; Tang, Jun; Zhang, Yongjun

    2012-03-15

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by alveolar simplification with decreased alveolar number and increased airspace size. Formation of alveoli involves a process known as secondary septation triggered by myofibroblasts. This study investigated the underlying mechanisms of altered lung morphogenesis in a rat model of BPD induced by intra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results showed that LPS disrupted alveolar morphology and led to abnormal localization of myofibroblasts in the lung of newborn rats, mostly in primary septa with few in secondary septa. To identify potential mechanisms, in vitro experiments were carried out to observe the migration behavior of myofibroblasts. The migration speed of lung myofibroblasts increased with LPS treatment, whereas the directional persistence decreased. We found that LPS induced activation of EGFR and overexpression of its ligand, TGF-α in myofibroblasts. AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, abrogated the enhanced locomotivity of myofibroblasts by LPS and also increased the directional persistence of myofibroblast migration. Myofibroblasts showed a high asymmetry of phospho-EGFR localization, which was absent after LPS treatment. Application of rhTGF-α to myofibroblasts decreased the directional persistence. Our findings indicated that asymmetry of phospho-EGFR localization in myofibroblasts was important for cell migration and its directional persistence. We speculate that LPS exposure disrupts the asymmetric localization of phospho-EGFR, leading to decreased stability of cell polarity and final abnormal location of myofibroblasts in vivo, which is critical to secondary septation and may contribute to the arrested alveolar development in BPD.

  20. Why Migrate: For Study or for Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S. Brezis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, globalization has led to a huge increase in the migration of workers, as well as students. This paper develops a simple two-step model that describes the decisions of an individual vis-à-vis education and migration, and presents a unified model, wherein the two migration decisions are combined into a single, unique model. This paper shows that under the plausible assumption that costs of migration differ over the human life cycle, the usual brain drain strategy is sub-optimal. With an increase in globalization, the brain drain strategy will be replaced by the strategy of migration of students.

  1. RETURN MIGRATION – REASONS, CONSEQUENCES AND BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA PÎRVU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Return migration is probably the aspect of the migration cycle, which was granted the lowest attention, perhaps because most research resources are located in highly developed countries, while most of the returning most returnees return to developing countries. This is especially unfortunate because perceptions about the process of returning to the country of origin and attitudes towards returning migrants have a significant impact on migrants and their host communities. Rollback, sometimes called remigration, is considered by some authors as the final stage of the migration process, which further comprises the step preparation / decision to migrate and actual migration phase or installation of migrant destination country selected.

  2. Extreme swimming: The oceanic migrations of anguillids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Righton, David; Aarestrup, Kim; Jellyman, Don;

    2013-01-01

    to their natal habitat to spawn. In temperate species, the migrations are extreme, requiring larvae and adults to swim thousands of km before reaching their destination, but the migrations of tropical species (hundreds of km) are still remarkable in comparison with many other fish species. To achieve......Anguillids evolved between 20 and 40 million years ago and, as catadromous fish, migrate between marine and freshwater environments. The migration occurs only twice in the lifetime of most eels: when they migrate as larvae to coastal and river habitats, and again as adult, when they return...

  3. ADVANCED WAVE-EQUATION MIGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. HUANG; M. C. FEHLER

    2000-12-01

    Wave-equation migration methods can more accurately account for complex wave phenomena than ray-tracing-based Kirchhoff methods that are based on the high-frequency asymptotic approximation of waves. With steadily increasing speed of massively parallel computers, wave-equation migration methods are becoming more and more feasible and attractive for imaging complex 3D structures. We present an overview of several efficient and accurate wave-equation-based migration methods that we have recently developed. The methods are implemented in the frequency-space and frequency-wavenumber domains and hence they are called dual-domain methods. In the methods, we make use of different approximate solutions of the scalar-wave equation in heterogeneous media to recursively downward continue wavefields. The approximations used within each extrapolation interval include the Born, quasi-Born, and Rytov approximations. In one of our dual-domain methods, we use an optimized expansion of the square-root operator in the one-way wave equation to minimize the phase error for a given model. This leads to a globally optimized Fourier finite-difference method that is a hybrid split-step Fourier and finite-difference scheme. Migration examples demonstrate that our dual-domain migration methods provide more accurate images than those obtained using the split-step Fourier scheme. The Born-based, quasi-Born-based, and Rytov-based methods are suitable for imaging complex structures whose lateral variations are moderate, such as the Marmousi model. For this model, the computational cost of the Born-based method is almost the same as the split-step Fourier scheme, while other methods takes approximately 15-50% more computational time. The globally optimized Fourier finite-difference method significantly improves the accuracy of the split-step Fourier method for imaging structures having strong lateral velocity variations, such as the SEG/EAGE salt model, at an approximately 30% greater

  4. Tracing The Largest Seasonal Migration on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianwen; Mao, Wenli; Hu, Zhigang; Gu, Li

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that over 3.6 billion passengers are travelling during the Chinese Spring Festival travel season. They leave their working cities and return their hometowns to enjoy annual family time, and back to cities after the holiday. In this study, with the massive location-based data collected from millions of smartphone users, we propose a novel method to trace the migration flow and explore the migration patterns of Chinese people. From the temporal perspective, we explore the migration trend over time during a 34-days period, about half a month before and after the Spring Festival. From the spatial perspective, the migration directions and routes are estimated and quantified, and the migration flow is visualized. The spatial range of influence of developed regions could be reflected with the destinations of migration, the migration destinations and originations have obvious characteristic of geographical proximity.

  5. European Perspectives Approach to Asylum and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a complex process, with a multinational character that can not be managed onlyunilaterally or bilaterally, but through effective management to take into account the benefit of all involvedand changing characteristics of the migration process. Regarding the European Union, framed in the generalcontext, it aims to promote a comprehensive migration policy, to provide a coherent and efficient manner tomeet the challenges and opportunities that migration presents. Multilateral approach under considerationcovers all phases of migration, aiming to seize them and present it at the same time, to implement effectivepolicies and measures concerning illegal migration and human trafficking. It is based on generally acceptedprinciples relating to subsidiary, proportionality, solidarity and respect for law and the economic and social.From this perspective, the present study examines the quantitative aspects of migration as well as qualitativeaspects, with emphasis on the challenges that they face Romania, from the status of EU member country.

  6. Trends in return migration to the South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, L H; Hansen, K A

    1975-11-01

    The rate of return migration to the South rose by nearly 19 percent between the late 1950's and the late 1960's and was an important factor in changing the South's overall migration pattern. But an increase in the rate of return migration was somewhat less important in changing Southern migration than (1) a decline in the rate of out-migration of native Southerners and (2) an increase in the rate at which non-Southern-born persons move to the South. The probability of former migrants returning to the South was over four times greater for whites than for blacks in the 1955-1960 period and three and one-fourth times greater in the 1965-1970 period. Since 1970 the rate of return migration has apparently continued to rise at a faster rate for blacks, but the black rate of return migration is still below the white rate.

  7. An economic analysis of migration in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Ladman, J R

    1978-07-01

    This paper analyzes internal migration in Mexico over the 1960-70 period. A model of the determinants of migration is specified and estimated for aggregated interstate migration flows. Results show that distance serves as a significant deterrent to migration, that higher destination earning levels are attractive to migrants, and that regions with high unemployment rates experience lower rates of inmigration. An unanticipated finding is that regions with higher earning levels have greater rates of outmigration. The data are disaggregated to examine separate migration relationships for each state. The results are that distance is a lesser deterrent for those migrants with more accessible alternatives, that higher earning levels reduce the deterring effects of distance, and that regions with higher earning levels have lower associated elasticities of migration. It is concluded that economic factors have played a crucial role in internal migration and thus in the changing occupational and geographic structure of the Mexican labor force.

  8. An economic analysis of migration in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Ladman, J R

    1978-07-01

    This paper analyzes internal migration in Mexico over the 1960-70 period. A model of the determinants of migration is specified and estimated for aggregated interstate migration flows. Results show that distance serves as a significant deterrent to migration, that higher destination earning levels are attractive to migrants, and that regions with high unemployment rates experience lower rates of inmigration. An unanticipated finding is that regions with higher earning levels have greater rates of outmigration. The data are disaggregated to examine separate migration relationships for each state. The results are that distance is a lesser deterrent for those migrants with more accessible alternatives, that higher earning levels reduce the deterring effects of distance, and that regions with higher earning levels have lower associated elasticities of migration. It is concluded that economic factors have played a crucial role in internal migration and thus in the changing occupational and geographic structure of the Mexican labor force. PMID:12265626

  9. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) out......-of sample forecasts and to the assumption of invariance of migration behavior across a space that previous studies had to hold. Results of the econometric analyses reveal the importance of controlling for pairs of countries unobserved heterogeneity. Preliminary results regarding the predictions of future...... gross and net migration flows show that the magnitude of the estimated gross and net migration flows is relatively high and lower, respectively, compared to forecasts from previous studies. Such a development in gross and net migration flows indicates that migration from the new EU member countries...

  10. Abiogenic origin of petroleum hydrocarbons: Need to rethink exploration strategies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.

    , all the worldwide strategies used organic content of sedimentary rocks as a proxy during hydrocarbon explora- tion. The logic behind this proposition is the compositional similarity between pe- troleum hydrocarbons and that of organic matter...

  11. Cosmetology. Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Michael D.; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to offer guidelines along with supporting resources and teaching ideas from which the local secondary instructor can extract a cosmetology curriculum that meets local needs. Following an outline of the philosophy and goals underlying state and local vocational education programs in Georgia, the purpose and…

  12. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  13. Secondary Dance Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Instructional Planning and Development.

    This manual provides guidelines for dance teachers in secondary schools. A brief statement is made on the purpose and philosophy of dance education, and activities and instructional suggestions are presented for various dance forms: (1) group dance--folk/ethnic, square dance, and social dance; (2) aerobic dance; (3) jazz dance; (4) modern dance;…

  14. Scheduling the Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Richard A.; Traverso, Henry P.

    This "how-to-do-it" manual on the intricacies of school scheduling offers both technical information and common sense advice about the process of secondary school scheduling. The first of six chapters provides an overview of scheduling; chapter 2 examines specific considerations for scheduling; chapter 3 surveys the scheduling models and their…

  15. Suicide among Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coder, Tamara L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated incidence of adolescent suicide in Kansas and assessed prevention guidelines and services dealing with adolescent suicide, and perceived needs of Kansas secondary school counselors in the area of teenage suicide. Findings from 484 school counselors indicated increase in suicide rates with age and need for suicide prevention programing…

  16. Secondary Education in Liechtenstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Franz

    This booklet provides a brief description of secondary education in Liechtenstein. The publication is part of a series that seeks to make the public aware of the education systems and traditions in all signatory states to the European Cultural Convention and to outline the essential problems these systems presently are facing. This short booklet…

  17. Dynamics of secondary forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugel, van M.

    2007-01-01

    The succession of tropical secondary forests on abandoned agricultural fields has been studied since long, most often by comparing stands of different age since abandonment. These so-called chronosequence studies have yielded much insight in general patterns of succession and the constraints and con

  18. Coupling Oxygen Consumption with Hydrocarbon Oxidation in Bacterial Multicomponent Monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixue; Liang, Alexandria D; Lippard, Stephen J

    2015-09-15

    A fundamental goal in catalysis is the coupling of multiple reactions to yield a desired product. Enzymes have evolved elegant approaches to address this grand challenge. A salient example is the biological conversion of methane to methanol catalyzed by soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO), a member of the bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase (BMM) superfamily. sMMO is a dynamic protein complex of three components: a hydroxylase, a reductase, and a regulatory protein. The active site, a carboxylate-rich non-heme diiron center, is buried inside the 251 kDa hydroxylase component. The enzyme processes four substrates: O2, protons, electrons, and methane. To couple O2 activation to methane oxidation, timely control of substrate access to the active site is critical. Recent studies of sMMO, as well as its homologues in the BMM superfamily, have begun to unravel the mechanism. The emerging and unifying picture reveals that each substrate gains access to the active site along a specific pathway through the hydroxylase. Electrons and protons are delivered via a three-amino-acid pore located adjacent to the diiron center; O2 migrates via a series of hydrophobic cavities; and hydrocarbon substrates reach the active site through a channel or linked set of cavities. The gating of these pathways mediates entry of each substrate to the diiron active site in a timed sequence and is coordinated by dynamic interactions with the other component proteins. The result is coupling of dioxygen consumption with hydrocarbon oxidation, avoiding unproductive oxidation of the reductant rather than the desired hydrocarbon. To initiate catalysis, the reductase delivers two electrons to the diiron(III) center by binding over the pore of the hydroxylase. The regulatory component then displaces the reductase, docking onto the same surface of the hydroxylase. Formation of the hydroxylase-regulatory component complex (i) induces conformational changes of pore residues that may bring protons to the

  19. Angiotensin II facilitates breast cancer cell migration and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Rodrigues-Ferreira

    Full Text Available Breast cancer metastasis is a leading cause of death by malignancy in women worldwide. Efforts are being made to further characterize the rate-limiting steps of cancer metastasis, i.e. extravasation of circulating tumor cells and colonization of secondary organs. In this study, we investigated whether angiotensin II, a major vasoactive peptide both produced locally and released in the bloodstream, may trigger activating signals that contribute to cancer cell extravasation and metastasis. We used an experimental in vivo model of cancer metastasis in which bioluminescent breast tumor cells (D3H2LN were injected intra-cardiacally into nude mice in order to recapitulate the late and essential steps of metastatic dissemination. Real-time intravital imaging studies revealed that angiotensin II accelerates the formation of metastatic foci at secondary sites. Pre-treatment of cancer cells with the peptide increases the number of mice with metastases, as well as the number and size of metastases per mouse. In vitro, angiotensin II contributes to each sequential step of cancer metastasis by promoting cancer cell adhesion to endothelial cells, trans-endothelial migration and tumor cell migration across extracellular matrix. At the molecular level, a total of 102 genes differentially expressed following angiotensin II pre-treatment were identified by comparative DNA microarray. Angiotensin II regulates two groups of connected genes related to its precursor angiotensinogen. Among those, up-regulated MMP2/MMP9 and ICAM1 stand at the crossroad of a network of genes involved in cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Our data suggest that targeting angiotensin II production or action may represent a valuable therapeutic option to prevent metastatic progression of invasive breast tumors.

  20. Fluid migration in ductile shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusseis, Florian; Menegon, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Fluid migration in metamorphic environments depends on a dynamically evolving permeable pore space, which was rarely characterised in detail. The data-base behind our understanding of the 4-dimensional transport properties of metamorphic rocks is therefore fragmentary at best, which leaves conceptual models poorly supported. Generally, it seems established that deformation is a major driver of permeability generation during regional metamorphism, and evidence for metamorphic fluids being channelled in large scale shear zones has been found in all depth segments of the continental crust. When strain localizes in ductile shear zones, the microfabric is modified until a steady state mylonite is formed that supports large deformations. A dynamic porosity that evolves during mylonitisation controls the distinct transport pathways along which fluid interacts with the rock. This dynamic porosity is controlled by a limited number of mechanisms, which are intrinsically linked to the metamorphic evolution of the rock during its deformational overprint. Many mid- and lower-crustal mylonites comprise polyphase mixtures of micron-sized grains that show evidence for deformation by dissolution/precipitation-assisted viscous grain boundary sliding. The establishment of these mineral mixtures is a critical process, where monomineralic layers are dispersed and grain growth is inhibited by the heterogeneous nucleation of secondary mineral phases at triple junctions. Here we show evidence from three different mid- and lower-crustal shear zones indicating that heterogeneous nucleation occurs in creep cavities. Micro- and nanotomographic observations show that creep cavities provide the dominant form of porosity in these ultramylonites. They control a "granular fluid pump" that directs fluid migration and hence mass transport. The granular fluid pump operates on the grain scale driven by viscous grain boundary sliding, and requires only small amounts of fluid. The spatial arrangement of

  1. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Protects Lungs from Cockroach Allergen-Induced Inflammation by Modulating Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhou, Yufeng; Qiu, Lipeng; Do, Danh C; Zhao, Yilin; Cui, Zhuang; Wang, Heng; Liu, Xiaopeng; Saradna, Arjun; Cao, Xu; Wan, Mei; Gao, Peisong

    2015-12-15

    Exposure to cockroach allergen leads to allergic sensitization and increased risk of developing asthma. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a receptor for many common environmental contaminants, can sense not only environmental pollutants but also microbial insults. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with the capacity to modulate immune responses. In this study, we investigated whether AhR can sense cockroach allergens and modulate allergen-induced lung inflammation through MSCs. We found that cockroach allergen-treated AhR-deficient (AhR(-/-)) mice showed exacerbation of lung inflammation when compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an AhR agonist, significantly suppressed allergen-induced mouse lung inflammation. MSCs were significantly reduced in cockroach allergen-challenged AhR(-/-) mice as compared with WT mice, but increased in cockroach allergen-challenged WT mice when treated with TCDD. Moreover, MSCs express AhR, and AhR signaling can be activated by cockroach allergen with increased expression of its downstream genes cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Furthermore, we tracked the migration of i.v.-injected GFP(+) MSCs and found that cockroach allergen-challenged AhR(-/-) mice displayed less migration of MSCs to the lungs compared with WT. The AhR-mediated MSC migration was further verified by an in vitro Transwell migration assay. Epithelial conditioned medium prepared from cockroach extract-challenged epithelial cells significantly induced MSC migration, which was further enhanced by TCDD. The administration of MSCs significantly attenuated cockroach allergen-induced inflammation, which was abolished by TGF-β1-neutralizing Ab. These results suggest that AhR plays an important role in protecting lungs from allergen-induced inflammation by modulating MSC recruitment and their immune-suppressive activity. PMID:26561548

  2. Geochemistry of oil in fluid inclusions in a middle Proterozoic igneous intrusion: implications for the source of hydrocarbons in crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutkiewicz, A. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences; Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Inst. of Marine Science; Volk, H.; George, S.C. [CSIRO Petroleum, North Ryde, NSW (Australia); Ridley, J. [Macquarie Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2004-08-01

    The ca. 1280 Ma dolerite sill within the Mesoproterozoic Roper Group in the Roper Superbasin, Australia, contains evidence for at least two episodes of hydrocarbon migration represented, respectively, by solid bitumen with a ketone-rich extract, and a mixture of a high maturity gas-condensate and a lower maturity oil within oil-bearing fluid inclusions. The ketone isomers are formed by flash pyrolysis of kerogen during the intrusion of the dolerite sill [Org.Geochem. 21(1994) 829] and represent the first and oldest phase of hydrocarbon migration. The gas condensate and oil were subsequently trapped as a mixture within fluid inclusions at diagenetic temperatures and pressures of around 110 {sup o}C and 250 bars, significantly after cooling of the sill and likely during the Neoproterozoic reactivation of the Roper Superbasin. Either (1) these fluids migrated together and mixed in the reservoir or (2) an earlier oil charge was flushed by a later condensate charge and the oil-condensate mixture was trapped within single fluid inclusions. Oil inclusions occur chiefly within albitised zones of labradorite laths within the dolerite matrix, and within transcrystalline microfractures cutting vein calcite and rarely vein quartz. Oil inclusions trapped in the vein calcite are accompanied by hypersaline Ca/Mg brines. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of oil extracted from inclusions within the dolerite matrix shows that the oil is non-biodegraded and was therefore trapped relatively quickly within the host minerals. Trace amounts of biomarkers indicate that the inclusion oil is of a biogenic origin and excludes any abiotic processes that are apparent sources of hydrocarbons in many crystalline rocks. Monomethylalkanes, pentacyclic terpanes chiefly comprising hopanes and diahopanes, and very low concentrations of steranes and diasteranes indicate input from cyanobacterial organic matter with a minor contribution from eukaryotes. The hydrocarbons are likely derived from

  3. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate.

  4. Antioxidant Functions of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. It is generally accepted that the toxic responses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and structurally related compounds are mediated by activation of the AhR. A multitude of studies indicate that the AhR operates beyond xenobiotic metabolism and exerts pleiotropic functions. Increasing evidence points to a protective role of the AhR against carcinogenesis and oxidative stress. Herein, I will highlight data demonstrating a causal role of the AhR in the antioxidant response and present novel findings on potential AhR-mediated antioxidative mechanisms.

  5. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere and str...

  6. Growth of fungi on volatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenafeta Boldú, F.X.

    2002-01-01

    The present study aimed the better understanding of the catabolism of monoaromatic hydrocarbons by fungi. This knowledge can be used to enhance the biodegradation of BTEX pollutants. Fungi with the capacity of using toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated by enriching environme

  7. Taxation on mining and hydrocarbon investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz De La Vega Rengifo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article comments the most important aspects of the tax treatment applicable to investments of mining and oil and gas industry. The document highlights the relevant tax topics of the general tax legislation(Income Tax Law and the special legislation of both industries (General Mining Law and Hydrocarbons Organic Law.

  8. Radiation Chemistry of Organic Liquids: Saturated Hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Shkrob, Ilya A; Trifunac, A D

    2004-01-01

    In this review (124 refs), several problems in radiolysis of saturated hydrocarbons are examined. Special attention is paid to the chemistry of radical cations, high-mobility holes, excited state and spur dynamics, magnetic field and spin effects, and optically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  9. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  10. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer (case b) the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant...... increases (abruptly) with increasing sliding velocity (from 6 to 7 layers), leading to a decrease of the friction. Before and after the layering transition, the frictional shear stresses are nearly proportional to the logarithm of sliding velocity. For the longest hydrocarbon (1400 C atoms) the friction...

  11. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The ad

  12. Methane conversion to hydrocarbons by double discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbanzadeh, A. M.; M. A. Khodagholi; N. S. Matin; S. Norouzi; M. T. Mohammadi

    2004-01-01

      Methane conversion to higher hydrocarbons by pulsed glow discharge at the atmospheric pressure was investigated. The energy efficiency up to 10 % was obtained which is higher than any value ever published for nonequilibrium plasma conversion of pure methame. This method has a potential for development and it is expected that the energy efficiency will be improved further if the plasma parameters are optimized.

  13. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  14. Volatile Fuel Hydrocarbons and MTBE in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, I. M.; Baehr, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    elements of sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen constitute less than 3% of most petroleum (Hunt, 1996). Releases to the environment occur during the production, transport, processing, storage, use and disposal of these hydrocarbons. The petroleum industry classifies oil naturally occurring in a liquid phase as either conventional oil or nonconventional oil. Conventional oils can be explored and produced by conventional primary and secondary recovery techniques, whereas nonconventional oils, such as heavy oils, tar sands, and synthetic oils, are more difficult to extract from the host rock ( Tissot and Welte, 1984). The history of liquid petroleum usage dates back centuries. Marco Polo described its use as a fuel for lamps in 1291 ( Testa and Winegardner, 2000). In the mid-nineteenth century, Native Americans used crude oil skimmed from creeks and rivers as a medicinal ointment ( Energy Information Administration, 1999). Commercial production in the United States began in 1859, with kerosene production for use in lamps. At the turn of the century, emphasis shifted to gasoline with the invention of the automobile, and in the 1930s and 1940s a substantial market for heating oil developed.In 2000, over 85% of the world's energy came from fossil fuels (Table 1), with oil production alone supplying 40% of that energy (Edwards, 2001). Oil, with its high British Thermal Unit (BTU) density and ease of transport, is the most valuable fuel in the world today, and the demand for world crude oil is ever increasing. Annual world crude-oil demand increased from 22 billion to 28 billion bbl of oil (BBO) ((3.5-4.5)×1012 L) from 1990 to 2000. Increasing population growth and industrialization in developing countries is expected to drive this annual oil demand up 1.5% annually to ˜38 BBO (6.0×1012 L) by 2030. As demand increases and known oil reserves are depleted, more emphasis will be placed on new discoveries and improved recovery technologies. Sources such as tar sands and oil shales are

  15. Method for recovering hydrocarbons from molten metal halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Melvyn B.

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy carbonaceous materials by contacting such carbonaceous materials with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst to produce hydrocarbons having lower molecular weights and thereafter recovering the hydrocarbons so produced from the molten metal halide, an improvement comprising injecting into the spent molten metal halide, a liquid low-boiling hydrocarbon stream is disclosed.

  16. 21 CFR 178.3650 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 178.3650... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3650 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used, as a component of nonfood articles intended for use...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  18. Cuticular hydrocarbons from the bed bug Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentane extracts of male and female bed bugs were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in an effort to identify cuticular hydrocarbons. Seventeen hydrocarbons accounting for nearly 99% of the compounds eluting in the cuticular hydrocarbon region were identified. The sample contained ...

  19. Reaction Mechanism of Oxygen Atoms with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons by the Crossed-Molecular-Beams Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, R. J.; Baseman, R. J.; Guozhong, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    1982-04-01

    From a series of studies of the reaction of oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons using the crossed molecular beam method, the dominant reaction mechanisms were found to be the simple substitution reactions with oxygen atoms replacing H, Cl, Br atom or alkyl groups. Complication due to secondary reaction was avoided by carrying out experiments under single collisions and observing primary products directly. Primary products were identified by measuring the angular and velocity distributions of products at all the mass numbers which could be detected by the mass spectrometer, and from comparison of these distributions, applying the requirement of energy and momentum conservation.

  20. Green Methodologies to Test Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Verga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The definition and the economic viability of the best development strategy of a hydrocarbon reservoir mainly depend on the quantity and type of fluids and on the well productivity. Well testing, consisting in producing hydrocarbon to the surface while measuring the pressure variations induced in the reservoir, has been used for decades to determine the fluid nature and well potential. In exploration and appraisal scenarios the hydrocarbons produced during a test are flared, contributing to the emissions of greenhouse gases. Approach: Due to more stringent environmental regulations and a general need for reduced operating expenses, the current industry drivers in today’s formation evaluation methodologies demand short, safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly test procedures, especially when conventional tests are prohibitively expensive, logistically not feasible or no surface emissions are allowed. Different methods have been proposed or resuscitated in the last years, such as wireline formation tests, closed chamber tests, production/reinjection tests and injection tests, as viable alternatives to conventional well testing. Results: While various short-term tests, test procedures and interpretation methods are apparently available for conducting successful tests without hydrocarbon production at the surface, clarity is lacking for specific applications of these techniques. An attempt to clarify advantages and limitations of each methodology, particularly with respect to the main testing target is pursued in this study. Specific insight is provided on injection testing, which is one of the most promising methodology to replace traditional well testing in reservoir characterization, except for the possibility to sample the formation fluids. Conclusion/Recommendations: Not a single one method but a combination of more methodologies, in particular injection testing and wireline formation testing, is the most promising

  1. Analysis of hydrocarbons generated in coalbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven John M.

    This dissertation describes kinetic calculations using literature data to predict formation rates and product yields of oil and gas at typical low-temperature conditions in coalbeds. These data indicate that gas formation rates from hydrocarbon thermolysis are too low to have generated commercial quantities of natural gas, assuming bulk first-order kinetics. Acid-mineral-catalyzed cracking, transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of liquid hydrocarbons, and catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation form gas at high rates. The gaseous product compositions for these reactions are nearly the same as those for typical natural coalbed gases, while those from thermal and catalytic cracking are more representative of atypical coalbed gases. Three Argonne Premium Coals (Upper-Freeport, Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton) were extracted with benzene in both Soxhlet and elevated pressure extraction (EPE) systems. The extracts were compared on the basis of dry mass yield and hydrocarbon profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dry mass yields for the Upper-Freeport coal gave consistent results by both methods, while the yields from the Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton coals were greater by the EPE method. EPE required ˜90 vol. % less solvent compared to Soxhlet extraction. Single-ion-chromatograms of the Soxhlet extracts all exhibited bimodal distributions, while those of the EPE extracts did not. Hydrocarbons analyzed from Greater Green River Basin samples indicate that the natural oils in the basin originated from the coal seams. Analysis of artificially produced oil indicates that hydrous pyrolysis mimics generation of C15+ n-alkanes, but significant variations were found in the branched alkane, low-molecular-weight n-alkanes, and high-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbon distributions.

  2. Wetting and superhydrophobic properties of PECVD grown hydrocarbon and fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, D.K., E-mail: dsarkar@uqac.ca [Canada Research Chair on Atmospheric Icing Engineering of Power Networks (INGIVRE) and Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi UQAC, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Farzaneh, M. [Canada Research Chair on Atmospheric Icing Engineering of Power Networks (INGIVRE) and Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi UQAC, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Paynter, R.W. [INRS-EMT, 1650 boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Wetting characteristics of micro-nanorough substrates of aluminum and smooth silicon substrates have been studied and compared by depositing hydrocarbon and fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique using a mixture of Ar, CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}F{sub 6} gases. The water contact angles on the hydrocarbon and fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings deposited on silicon substrates were found to be 72 deg. and 105 deg., respectively. However, the micro-nanorough aluminum substrates demonstrated superhydrophobic properties upon coatings with fluorinated-hydrocarbon providing a water contact angle of {approx}165 deg. and contact angle hysteresis below 2 deg. with water drops rolling off from those surfaces while the same substrates showed contact angle of 135 deg. with water drops sticking on those surfaces. The superhydrophobic properties is due to the high fluorine content in the fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings of {approx}36 at.%, as investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), by lowering the surface energy of the micro-nanorough aluminum substrates.

  3. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of the Puget Sound region. II. Sedimentary diterpenoid, steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrick, R.C.; Hedges, J.I.

    1981-03-01

    Cyclic components of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mixtures extracted from Puget Sound sediment cores include a suite of C/sub 19/ and C/sub 20/ diterpenoid hydrocarbons of which fichtelite, sandaracopimaradiene, and isopimaradiene have been identified. Although apparently also derived from vascular plants, these diterpenoid hydrocarbons have relative abundances distinctly different from the co-existing plant wax n-alkane suite. Five C/sub 27/, C/sub 28/ and C/sub 29/ diasteranes and four C/sub 29/, C/sub 30/ and C/sub 31/ 17..cap alpha..(H), 21..beta..(H) hopanes occur in relatively constant proportion as components of a highly weathered fossil hydrocarbon assemblage. These chromatographically resolved cycloalkanes, along with the strongly covarying unresolved complex mixture, have been introduced to Puget Sound sediments from adjacent urban centres at increasing levels over the last 100 yr in the absence of any major oil spill. Naturally-occurring triterpenoid hydrocarbons, including hop-22(29)-ene (diploptene), are also present. A new group of C/sub 30/ polyenes has been detected which contains compounds apparently structurally related to a co-existing bicyclic C/sub 25/ diene and to C/sub 20/ and C/sub 25/ acyclic multibranched hydrocarbons described in a previous paper (Barrick et al., 1980).

  4. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of the Puget Sound region - II. Sedimentary diterpenoid, steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Robert C.; Hedges, John I.

    1981-03-01

    Cyclic components of the 'aliphatic' hydrocarbon mixtures extracted from Puget Sound sediment cores include a suite of C 19 and C 20 diterpenoid hydrocarbons of which fichtelite. sandaracopimaradiene, and isopimaradiene have been identified. Although apparently also derived from vascular plants, these diterpenoid hydrocarbons have relative abundances distinctly different from the co-existing plant wax n-alkane suite. Five C 27, C 28 and C 29 diasteranes and four C 29, C 30 and C 31 17α(H), 21β(H) hopanes occur in relatively constant proportion as components of a highly weathered fossil hydrocarbon assemblage. These chromatographically resolved cycloalkanes. along with the strongly covarying unresolved complex mixture, have been introduced to Puget Sound sediments from adjacent urban centres at increasing levels over the last 100 yr in the absence of any major oil spill. Naturally-occurring triterpenoid hydrocarbons, including hop-22(29)-ene (diploptene), are also present. A new group of C 30 polyenes has been detected which contains compounds apparently structurally related to a co-existing bicyclic C 25 diene and to C 20 and C 25 acyclic multibranched hydrocarbons described in a previous paper ( BARRICK et al., 1980).

  5. Return migration as failure or success? : The determinants of return migration intentions among Moroccan migrants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, H.; Fokkema, T.; Fihri, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Different migration theories generate competing hypotheses with regard to determinants of return migration. While neoclassical migration theory associates migration to the failure to integrate at the destination, the new economics of labour migration sees return migration as the logical stage after

  6. Asian student migration to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12291796

  7. Savings, remittances, and return migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, L; Zimmermann, K F

    1992-01-01

    "We use a data set of immigrants to West Germany to simultaneously study both savings and remittances which we relate to individual characteristics, economic variables, migration experiences and remigration plans. Section 2 discusses the basic hypotheses and explains the data. Section 3 presents the empirical study and Section 4 summarizes." The results suggest that "savings and remittances of migrants can be well explained by remigration plans and economic as well as demographic variables. However, the planned future duration of residence in Germany has a negative and significant effect only on remittances."

  8. Portable Library of Migratable Sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Bubak

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient load balancing is essential for parallel distributed computing. Many parallel computing environments use TCP or UDP through the socket interface as a communication mechanism. This paper presents the design and development of a prototype implementation of a network interface that can preserve communication between processes during process migration. This new communication library is a substitution for the well-known socket interface. It is implemented in user — space; it is portable, and no modifications of user applications are required. TCP/IP is applied for internal communication, which guarantees relatively high performance and portability.

  9. Migrating Applications to IPv6

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan

    2011-01-01

    If IPv6 is to be adopted on a large scale, the applications running on desktop systems, laptops, and even mobile devices need to work just as well with this protocol as they do with IPv4. This concise book takes you beyond the network layer and helps you explore the issues you need to address if you are to successfully migrate your apps to IPv6. It's ideal for application developers, system/network architects, product managers, and others involved in moving your network to IPv6. Explore changes you need to make in your application's user interfaceMake sure your application is retrieving corre

  10. Formation and migration of Natural Gases: gas composition and isotopes as monitors between source, reservoir and seep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, M.; Etiope, G.

    2015-12-01

    Natural gases form in tight source rocks at temperatures between 120ºC up to 200ºC over a time of 40 to 50my depending on the heating rate of the gas kitchen. Inferring from pyrolysis experiments, gases after primary migration, a pressure driven process, are rich in C2+ hydrocarbons (C2 to C5). This is consistent with gas compositions of oil-associated gases such as in the Bakken Shale which occur in immediate vicinity of the source with little migration distances. However, migration of gases along porous rocks over long distances (up to 200km in the case of the Troll field offshore Norway) changes the gas composition drastically as C2+ hydrocarbons tend to be retained/sequestered during migration of gas as case histories from Virginia and the North Sea will demonstrate. Similar "molecular fractionation" is observed between reservoirs and surface seeps. In contrast to gas composition, stable isotopes in gases are, in general, not affected by the migration process suggesting that gas migration is a steady state process. Changes in isotopic composition, from source to reservoir to surface seeps, is often the result of mixing of gases of different origins. Examples from various gas provinces will support this notion. Natural gas basins provide little opportunity of tracking and identifying gas phase separation. Future research on experimental phase separation and monitoring of gas composition and gas ratio changes e.g. various C2+ compound ratios over C1 or isomer ratios such as iso/n ratios in butane and pentane may be an avenue to develop tracers for phase separation that could possibly be applied to natural systems of retrograde natural condensate fields.

  11. Migration timing and its determinants for nocturnal migratory birds during autumn migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Hochachka, Wesley M; Farnsworth, Andrew; Sheldon, Daniel; Fink, Daniel; Geevarghese, Jeffrey; Winner, Kevin; Van Doren, Benjamin M; Kelling, Steve

    2015-09-01

    1. Migration is a common strategy used by birds that breed in seasonal environments, and multiple environmental and biological factors determine the timing of migration. How these factors operate in combination during autumn migration, which is considered to be under weaker time constraints relative to spring migration, is not clear. 2. Here, we examine the patterns and determinants of migration timing for nocturnal migrants during autumn migration in the north-eastern USA using nocturnal reflectivity data from 12 weather surveillance radar stations and modelled diurnal probability of occurrence for 142 species of nocturnal migrants. We first model the capacity of seasonal atmospheric conditions (wind and precipitation) and ecological productivity (vegetation greenness) to predict autumn migration intensity. We then test predictions, formulated under optimal migration theory, on how migration timing should be related to assemblage-level estimates of body size and total migration distance within the context of dietary guild (insectivore and omnivore) and level of dietary plasticity during autumn migration. 3. Our results indicate seasonal declines in ecological productivity delineate the beginning and end of peak migration, whose intensity is best predicted by the velocity of winds at migration altitudes. Insectivorous migrants departed earlier in the season and, consistent with our predictions, large-bodied and long-distance insectivorous migrants departed the earliest. Contrary to our predictions, large-bodied and some long-distance omnivorous migrants departed later in the season, patterns that were replicated in part by insectivorous migrants that displayed dietary plasticity during autumn migration. 4. Our findings indicate migration timing in the region is dictated by optimality strategies, modified based on the breadth and flexibility of migrant's foraging diets, with declining ecological productivity defining possible resource thresholds during which

  12. Phase II Interim Report -- Assessment of Hydrocarbon Seepage Detection Methods on the Fort Peck Reservation, Northeast Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monson, Lawrence M.

    2002-04-24

    The following work was performed: (1) collected reconnaissance micro-magnetic data and background field data for Area 1, (2) identified and collected soil sample data in three anomalous regions of Area 1, (3) sampled soils in Northwest Poplar Oil Field, (4) graphed, mapped, and interpreted all data areas listed above, (5) registered for the AAPG Penrose Conference on Hydrocarbon Seepage Mechanisms and Migration (postponed from 9/16/01 until 4/7/02 in Vancouver, B.C.). Results include the identification and confirmation of an oil and gas prospect in the northwest part of Area 1 and the verification of a potential shallow gas prospect in the West Poplar Area. Correlation of hydrocarbon micro-seepage to TM tonal anomalies needs further data analysis.

  13. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels......Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... of traumatization, and it was estimated that approximately one quarter of the respondents suffered from posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). Degree of traumatization was associated with a more recent assault, higher efforts to support the PV, recurrent thoughts about having been able to prevent the assault, a lack...

  14. Formation of abnormal high pressure and its application in the study of oil-bearing property of lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Dongying Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ShanWen; ZHANG LinYe; ZHANG ShouChun; LIU Qing; ZHU RiFang; BAO YouShu

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms of abnormal high pressures are studied in this paper, and it is concluded that the undercompaction, hydrocarbon generation and stratum denudation are obviously effective to fluid pressure buildup. Because of the episodic difference, the hydrocarbon generation and stratum denu-dation are the main factors influencing oil-gas migration. On the basis of basin evolutionary analysis in the Dongying Sag, it is considered that the undercompaction mainly caused the abnormal pressure before the first denudation by the uplift in Late Paleogene, while hydrocarbon generation was the main factor of abnormal pressure after the denudation. The second denudation occurred in Late Neogene, which changed the pressure field and induced the fluid migration. The development of overpressures is the necessary condition to the formation of lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, which have positive correlations to overpressures. According to the fullness of the present reservoirs, the quantitative re-lations between oil-bearing property and driving forces of reservoir formation were determined, the latter were decided by dynamic source, reservoir capillary pressure, fluid pressure of surrounding rocks and the dynamic attenuation in different conducting systems.

  15. Secondary retroperitoneal teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, P; Danse, E; Thys, F; Cosyns, J P; Wese, F X

    2011-01-01

    Retroperitonal teratomas are rare. We report on a case of a retroperitoneal secondary localisation of a gonadal teratoma in a patient who had developed primary testicular teratoma 12 years previously. The retroperitoneal mass was detected with an abdominal CT requested for the management of a non-specific abdominal pain. CT and MRI examinations showed cystic retroperitoneal masses combined with calcifications and peripheral enhancement. Review of the literature is presented, including the common differential diagnoses to be considered. PMID:22338389

  16. Dynamics of secondary forests

    OpenAIRE

    Breugel, van, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The succession of tropical secondary forests on abandoned agricultural fields has been studied since long, most often by comparing stands of different age since abandonment. These so-called chronosequence studies have yielded much insight in general patterns of succession and the constraints and conditions that affect the course of succession (shortly reviewed in chapter 1). Successional dynamics, however, are inferred rather than directly monitored in such studies; i.e. direction and rates o...

  17. International migration with capital constraints: interpreting migration from the Netherlands to Canada in the 1920s

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Armstrong; Lewis, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    An inability to borrow affected migration from Europe to North America. This capital constraint is formalized with a life-cycle model, where agents jointly choose how much to save, the optimal period to finance migration, and whether to migrate. Using a life-cycle model we show that preference for the home country, the period of adjustment after arrival, and the direct cost of migration affect the savings of migrants, age at migration, and who migrates. These results are discussed in light of...

  18. Correlation of Secondary Organic Aerosol with Odd Oxygen in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herndon, Scott C.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Wood, Ezra C.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Jayne, John T.; Zavala, Miguel A.; Knighton, W. Berk; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Seila, Robert; de Gouw, Joost A.; de Foy, B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Molina, Luisa T.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2008-08-05

    Data collected from a mountain location within the Mexico City limits are used to demonstrate a correlation between secondary organic aerosol and odd-oxygen (O3 + NO2). Positive matrix factorization techniques are employed to separate organic aerosol components: hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol; oxidized-organic aerosol; and biomass burning organic aerosol. The measured hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol is correlated with urban CO (8±1) µg m-3 ppmv-1. The measured oxidized-organic aerosol is associated with photochemical oxidation products and correlates with odd-oxygen with an apparent slope of (70-120) µg m-3 ppmv-1. The dependence of the oxidized-organic aerosol to odd-oxygen correlation on the nature of the gas-phase hydrocarbon profile is discussed.

  19. MANDARIN SECONDARY PREDICATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Shibagaki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, I provide some data of secondary predicates in English and Mandarin on consequence-depictives (SUBJ-oriented and resultatives (OBJ-oriented, which adopt an intransitive verb/adjective for their secondary predicate. In the second half, I present an account of the linking issue on “resultative” compound predicates in Mandarin Chinese, building on the LFG/LMT work of Her (2007, who assumed that the argument structures of each predicate merge to give a composite structure, which determines whether a resultative sentence is semantically causative or not, and from which the arguments link to grammatical functions. I argue here that the facts require a more articulated semantics, for unlike Her’s analysis, the determination of causativity and the linking of the arguments of the two predicates is fully an issue of semantics; specifically, I argue that there are two types of secondary predicates in terms of their semantics, namely those with internally- and externally-caused changes of state (see Levin and Rappaport Hovav: 1995, McKoon and Macfarland: 2000, which are respectively “indirect-causative” and “direct-causative”; causativity should be categorised into three types, non-causative, indirect-causative, and direct causative. I further argue that the argument undergoing internally-caused change always links to Actor and that the one undergoing externally-caused change (a truly “affected” argument always links to Undergoer.

  20. Current Situation and Application in Coal- Generated Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guang; XU Hongdong

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics and research methods of terrigenous organic hydrocarbon - generated source rock in coal measures are studied in this thesis. After abundance of organic matters, pyrolysis parameter of rocks and hydrocarbon generated capacity of macerals are basically discussed in coal measures of the Cretaceous Muleng- Chengzihe formation in Suibin depression in Sanjang basin, the hydrocarbon generated grade in coal- generated source rock is ascertained in this depression. At last, we think that it is a main attack prospect in coal - generated hydrocarbons study in the future to research the macerals of coal measures organic source rock and to build a criterion to classify the coal- generated hydrocarbons in Northeast region.