WorldWideScience

Sample records for secondary beam monitors

  1. Beam-ripple monitor with secondary electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shinji; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Noda, Koji; Takada, Eiichi; Komiyama, Akihito; Ichinohe, Ken-ichi; Sano, Yoshinobu

    1997-01-01

    To replace the scintillation-ripple monitor, we have developed a new monitor with a smaller destructive effect on the beam. In this monitor, we use secondary electrons emitted from an aluminum foil with a thickness of 2 μm. The signals of secondary electrons are amplified by an electron multiplier having a maximum gain of 10 6 . By using the new monitor, we could clearly observe the beam ripple with a beam intensity of 3.6x10 8 pps (particle per second). This monitor can also be used as an intensity monitor in the range of 10 4 - 10 9 pps. (author)

  2. A beam radiation monitoring and protection system for AGS secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    A commercially available radiation monitor using a scintillation detector was modified for charged particle beam monitoring. The device controls access to secondary beams of the AGS and limits beam intensity

  3. A beam intensity profile monitor based on secondary electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdoz, A.R.; Birchall, J.; Campbell, J.R.; Davis, C.A.; Davison, N.E.; Mosscrop, D.R.; Page, S.A.; Ramsay, W.D.; Sekulovich, A.M.; Van Oers, W.T.H.; MIschke, R.E.

    1991-03-01

    Two dual function intensity profile monitors have been designed for a measurement of parity violation in antiproton-proton scattering at about 230 MeV using longitudinally polarized protons. Each device contains a set of split secondary electron emission (SEM) foils to determine the median of the beam current distribution (in x and y). The split foils, coupled through servoamplifiers and operational amplifiers to upstream air core steering magnets, have demonstrated the ability to hold the beam position stable to within ± 3 μm after one hour of data taking with a 100 nA, 15 mm FWHM Gaussian beam. (Author) 16 refs., 10 figs., tab

  4. A multiwire secondary emission profile monitor for small emittance beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.; Bonnard, J.; Humbert, G.; Leblond, B.; Saury, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    A secondary emission monitor using two multiwire grids separated by a positively biased collector has been constructed and tested with a 1 GeV electron beam at the Orsay Linac. The monitor installed just before the electron-positron converter has 8 gold-plated-tungsten wires of 0.1 mm diameter equally spaced 0.2 mm apart in each plane. Each wire is connected with an integrator using a low-bias current operational amplifier. The wire planes and the collector are moved into the beam by a stepping motor : that allows beam-position verification. We measured narrow profiles for 1 Amp peak current pulses of 30 nanoseconds width. Profiles are displayed on a scope and allow emittance determination by the three gradient method. Such a monitor is very useful to control the electron beam position and dimensions on the converter, because the positron source dimensions are rather bigger than those of the incident beam and the geometrical acceptance of the positron Linac is limited

  5. Secondary Electron Emission Beam Loss Monitor for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Holzer, E B; Kramer, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is a vital part of the active protection of the LHC accelerators' elements. It should provide the number of particles lost from the primary hadron beam by measuring the radiation field induced by their interaction with matter surrounding the beam pipe. The LHC BLM system will use ionization chambers as standard detectors but in the areas where very high dose rates are expected, the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) chambers will be employed because of their high linearity, low sensitivity and fast response. The SEM needs a high vacuum for proper operation and has to be functional for up to 20 years, therefore all the components were designed according to the UHV requirements and a getter pump was included. The SEM electrodes are made of Ti because of its Secondary Emission Yield (SEY) stability. The sensitivity of the SEM was modeled in Geant4 via the Photo-Absorption Ionization module together with custom parameterization of the very low energy secondary electron production. ...

  6. Simulations and Measurements of Secondary Electron Emission Beam Loss Monitors for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Daniel; Holzer, E B; Ferioli, G; Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) is a part of the LHC Beam Loss Monitoring system, which is providing the number of particles lost from the primary hadron beam by measuring the radiation field induced by their interaction with matter surrounding the beam pipe. SEM detectors will be used in the high dose rate environments of LHC because of their low sensitivity and excellent linearity. The design of SEM consists of two bias electrodes separating the produced secondary electrons from the Ti signal electrode placed in a vacuum steel cylinder. The response of the chamber was tested with bunched and continuous proton beams and compared with a reference detector and GEANT4 simulations.

  7. High-stable secondary-emission monitor for accelerated electron beam current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudnikov, I.A.; Saksaganskij, G.L.; Bazhanov, E.B.; Zabrodin, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    A secondary-emission monitor for a 10 to 30 MeV electron beam (beam current is 10 -4 to 10 -2 A) is described. The monitor comprises a measuring electrode unit, titanium discharge-type pump, getter made of porous titanium, all enclosed in a metal casing. The measuring unit comprises three electrodes made of 20 μm aluminium foil. The secondary emission coefficient (5.19%+-0.06% for the electron energy of 20 MeV) is maintained stable for a long time. The monitor detects pulses of up to some nanoseconds duration. It is reliable in operation, and is recommended for a wide practical application

  8. Secondary Beam Monitors for the NuMI Facility at FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indurthy, Dharmaraj [Texas U.

    2006-01-01

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam principally supplies high energy neutrinos to the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment, which is investigating neutrino oscillations. The NuMI beamline accepts 120 GeV protons from the Fermilab Main Injector and steers them toward a graphite target to produce a secondary meson beam that decays to neutrinos and muons. Due to the constraints placed on beam quality, ionization chamber arrays are developed to measure the primary beam and tertiary charged particles to monitor beam quality, beam direction, and the operational integrity of the upstream beamline components. This thesis describes the research and development of these beam monitors and their demonstrated utility for MINOS and NuMI.

  9. Multiwire secondary-emission monitor and the emittance measurement of the AGS beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.; Chiang, I.H.; Smith, G.A.; Soukas, A.

    1983-01-01

    For CBA injection the transverse emittances and the Twiss parameters of the AGS beam have to be well defined to minimize the phase space dilution in CBA. Althoug there exists a profile monitor device at U165, there are three reasons why construction of multiwire profile monitor system at three locations from U500 to U168 is required: (1) the dispersion function is not zero at U165 which makes it harder to interpret the measurement; (2) the original single wire device takes five minutes to traverse the whole beam; (3) a three station multiwire system can provide the profile information at all locations in one pulse which makes on-line analysis possible. In summary, a set of three stations of Multiwire Secondary Emission Monitor (MSEM) has been built and installed in the fast external beam line for the measurement of beam profiles. Each unit consists of two planes each with 30 nickel wires having a diameter of 5 mils. The signal is linear within the range of 10 10 to 10 13 incident protons on the wire and the resolution of the signal is well within a few percent. A least-square fitting routine has been used to extract the emittance and phase space parameters of the beam. The emittances obtained at various intensities will help us to understand the AGS acceleration process and to choose the optimal injection scheme for CBA

  10. Beam profile measurement of ES-200 using secondary electron emission monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ebrahimi Basabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, different designs have been introduced for measurement beam profile accelerators. Secondary electron emission monitors (SEM are one of these devices which have been used for this purpose. In this work, a SEM has been constructed to measure beam profile of ES-200 accelerator, a proton electrostatic accelerator which is installed at SBU. Profile grid for both planes designed with 16 wires which are insulated relative to each other. The particles with maximum energy of 200 keV and maximum current of 400 μA are stopped in copper wires. Each of the wires has an individual current-to-voltage amplifier. With a multiplexer, the analogue values are transported to an ADC. The ADCs are read out by a microcontroller and finally profile of beam shows by a user interface program

  11. Non-invasive monitoring of therapeutic carbon ion beams in a homogeneous phantom by tracking of secondary ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwosch, K.; Hartmann, B.; Jakubek, J.; Granja, C.; Soukup, P.; Jäkel, O.; Martišíková, M.

    2013-06-01

    Radiotherapy with narrow scanned carbon ion beams enables a highly accurate treatment of tumours while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. Changes in the patient’s geometry can alter the actual ion range in tissue and result in unfavourable changes in the dose distribution. Consequently, it is desired to verify the actual beam delivery within the patient. Real-time and non-invasive measurement methods are preferable. Currently, the only technically feasible method to monitor the delivered dose distribution within the patient is based on tissue activation measurements by means of positron emission tomography (PET). An alternative monitoring method based on tracking of prompt secondary ions leaving a patient irradiated with carbon ion beams has been previously suggested. It is expected to help in overcoming the limitations of the PET-based technique like physiological washout of the beam induced activity, low signal and to allow for real-time measurements. In this paper, measurements of secondary charged particle tracks around a head-sized homogeneous PMMA phantom irradiated with pencil-like carbon ion beams are presented. The investigated energies and beam widths are within the therapeutically used range. The aim of the study is to deduce properties of the primary beam from the distribution of the secondary charged particles. Experiments were performed at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, Germany. The directions of secondary charged particles emerging from the PMMA phantom were measured using an arrangement of two parallel pixelated silicon detectors (Timepix). The distribution of the registered particle tracks was analysed to deduce its dependence on clinically important beam parameters: beam range, width and position. Distinct dependencies of the secondary particle tracks on the properties of the primary carbon ion beam were observed. In the particular experimental set-up used, beam range differences of 1.3 mm were detectable. In addition, variations

  12. SLIM (secondary emission monitor for low interception monitoring) an innovative non-destructive beam monitor for the extraction lines of a hadrontherapy centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, P.N.; Holzwarth, U.; Abbas, K.

    2005-01-01

    Real time monitoring of hadron therapy beam intensity and profile is a critical issue for the optimisation of dose delivery to carcinogenic tissue, patient safety and operation of the accelerator complex. For this purpose an innovative beam monitor, SLIM (Secondary electron emission for Low Interception Monitoring) is being developed in the framework of the EC-funded SUCIMA (Silicon Ultra-fast Cameras for electrons and gamma sources In Medical Application) project. The detector system is based on the secondary emission of electrons by a non-perturbative, sub-micron thick Al foil placed directly in the extracted beam path. The secondary electrons, accelerated by an electrostatic focusing system, are detected by a monolithic silicon position-sensitive sensor, which provides the beam intensity and its position with a precision of 1 mm at 10 kHz frame rate. The results of the laboratory tests of the first system prototype with thermoionic electrons emitted from a hot Tungsten wire are presented together with the measurements performed on a low intensity hadron beam at the Cyclotron of the Joint Research Centre in Ispra. (author)

  13. Secondary emission monitor for keV ion and antiproton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sosa, Alejandro; Bravin, Enrico; Harasimowciz, Janusz; Welsch, C P

    2013-01-01

    Beam profile monitoring of low intensity keV ion and antiproton beams remains a challenging task. A Sec- ondary electron Emission Monitor (SEM) has been de- signed to measure profiles of beams with intensities below 107 and energies as low as 20 keV. The monitor is based on a two stage microchannel plate (MCP) and a phosphor screen facing a CCD camera. Its modular design allows two different operational setups. In this contribution we present the design of a prototype and discuss results from measurements with antiprotons at the AEgIS experiment at CERN. This is then used for a characterization of the monitor with regard to its possible future use at different facilities.

  14. Beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausse, G.J.; Gram, P.A.M.

    1978-05-01

    A system used to monitor secondary beam profiles at the LAMPF Linac for channel tune-up and diagnostics is described. The multiwire proportional chamber design is discussed, and descriptions and drawings of the gate card, the amplifier/multiplexer card, the output amplifier card, and the overall system are given

  15. Secondary beams at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubre, H.

    1992-01-01

    GANIL, a user's facility since 1983, can deliver a broad spectrum of heavy-ion beams, from He to U, to well-equipped experimental areas. Their very large intensities are to be exploited to produce secondary beams, either using the fragmentation method (beams at energy per nucleon larger than 30 MeV/u), or the ISOL method. With the latter one, these ions have to be re-accelerated. The project of a cyclotron as a post-accelerator is described. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. SU-F-J-202: Secondary Radiation Measurements for Charged Particle Therapy Monitoring: Fragmentation of Therapeutic He, C and O Ion Beams Impinging On a PMMA Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, A; Mancini-Terracciano, C; Paramatti, R; Pinci, D; Russomando, A; Voena, C [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Roma, Rome, Rome (Italy); Battistoni, G; Muraro, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Milano, Milano, Milano (Italy); Collamati, F; Faccini, R; Camillocci, E Solfaroli [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Roma, Italy, Dipartiment, Rome, Rome (Italy); Collini, F [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Pisa, Pisa, Pisa (Italy); De Lucia, E; Piersanti, L; Toppi, M [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (rome), Rome (Italy); Frallicciardi, P [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Rome, Rome (Italy); Marafini, M [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Roma, Museo Storico dell, Rome, Rome (Italy); Patera, V; Sciubba, A; Traini, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Sc, Rome, Rome (Italy); and others

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In Charged Particle Therapy (CPT), besides protons, there has been recently a growing interest in 4He, 12C and 16O beams. The secondary radiation produced in the interaction of those beams with a patient could be potentially used for on-line monitoring of range uncertainties in order to fully exploit the advantages of those light ions resulting from increased Radio Biological Effectiveness, reduced multiple scattering and Oxygen Enhancement Ratio. The study and precise characterization of secondary radiation (beta+, prompt gamma, charged fragments) is the cornerstone of any R&D activity aiming for online monitoring development and purpose of the analysis presented here. Methods: We present the measurements of the secondary radiation generated by He, C and O beams impinging on a beam stopping PMMA target. The data has been collected at the Heidelberg Ionbeam Therapy center (HIT), where several millions of collisions were recorded at different energies, relevant for therapeutical applications. Results: The experimental setup, as well as the analysis strategies will be reviewed. The detected particle fluxes as a function of the primary beam energy and the emission angle with respect to the beam direction will be presented and compared to the results of other available measurements. In addition, the energy spectra and emission shapes of charged secondary particles will be shown and discussed in the context of the primary beam range monitoring technique that is being developed by the ARPG collaboration, within the INSIDE project funded by the Italian research ministry. The implications for dose monitoring applications will be discussed, in the context of the current (or planned) state-of- the-art detector solutions. Conclusion: The characterization of the radiation produced by 12C, 4He and 16O beams fully supports the feasibility of on-line range monitoring in the clinical practice of CPT by means of secondary particles detection.

  17. Secondary emission monitor (SEM) grids.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    A great variety of Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM) are used all over the PS Complex. At other accelerators they are also called wire-grids, harps, etc. They are used to measure beam density profiles (from which beam size and emittance can be derived) in single-pass locations (not on circulating beams). Top left: two individual wire-planes. Top right: a combination of a horizontal and a vertical wire plane. Bottom left: a ribbon grid in its frame, with connecting wires. Bottom right: a SEM-grid with its insertion/retraction mechanism.

  18. Photon beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  19. High bandwidth beam current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltrusaitis, R.M.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Cooper, R.G.; Peterson, E.; Warn, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    A stripline directional coupler beam current monitor capable of measuring the time structure of a 30-ps electron beam bunch has been developed. The time response performance of the monitor compares very well with Cherenkov light produced in quartz by the electron beam. The four-pickup monitor is now used on a routine basis for measuring the beam duration, tuning for optimized beam bunching, and centering the bunch in the beam pipe

  20. Beam Position Monitor Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stephen R.

    1996-07-01

    The design of beam position monitors often involves challenging system design choices. Position transducers must be robust, accurate, and generate adequate position signal without unduly disturbing the beam. Electronics must be reliable and affordable, usually while meeting tough requirements on precision. accuracy, and dynamic range. These requirements may be difficult to achieve simultaneously, leading the designer into interesting opportunities for optimization or compromise. Some useful techniques and tools are shown. Both finite element analysis and analytic techniques will be used to investigate quasi-static aspects of electromagnetic fields such as the impedance of and the coupling of beam to striplines or buttons. Finite-element tools will be used to understand dynamic aspects of the electromagnetic fields of beams, such as wake-fields and transmission-line and cavity effects in vacuum-to-air feed through. Mathematical modeling of electrical signals through a processing chain will be demonstrated, in particular to illuminate areas where neither a pure time-domain nor a pure frequency-domain analysis is obviously advantageous. Emphasis will be on calculational techniques, in particular on using both time-domain and frequency domain approaches to the applicable parts of interesting problems

  1. DELTA beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinker, S.; Heisterhagen, R.; Wille, K.

    1991-01-01

    For the electron storage ring DELTA (Dortmund ELectron Test Accelerator) a beam-position-monitor system based on button pickups has been designed. Two different concepts for the monitor electronics have been developed obtaining a long-term stability better than ± 150 μm and a short-term resolution below ± 10 μm. There are no hybrids integrated in the electronic circuits as all four button signals should be amplified and digitized to provide redundancy. First, a concept using four separated electronic branches, one for each button, was tested. Then a concept with a multiplexer in front followed by only one amplifier was designed. This concept, the electronic circuits and the measurements are presented

  2. Electrostatic beam-position monitor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    Electrostatic beam-position monitor installed in its final location (bake-out cover removed). The ISR will contain about 110 of these monitors. Their accuracy is better than 1 mm, their band width about 1 MHz.

  3. Monitor of SC beam profiles

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution secondary emission grid for the measurement of SC beam profiles. Modern techniques of metal-ceramic bonding, developed for micro-electronics, have been used in its construction. (See Annual Report 1977 p. 105 Fig. 12.)

  4. Ion beam monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    An ion beam analyzer is specified, having an ion source for generating ions of a sample to be analyzed, means for extracting the sample ions, means for focusing the sample ions into a beam, separation means positioned along the ion beam for selectively deflecting species of ions, and means for detecting the selected species of ions. According to the specification, the analyzer further comprises (a) means for disabling at least a portion of the separation means, such that the ion beam from the source remains undeflected; (b) means located along the path of the undeflected ion beam for sensing the sample ions; and (c) enabling means responsive to the sensing means for automatically re-enabling the separation means when the sample ions reach a predetermined intensity level. (author)

  5. Mass spectrometer beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Improved apparatus and system were developed for determining the field desorption characteristics of a sample prior to field desorption mass spectrometry. A portion of the ion beam from the ion source is disabled so that it is undeflected in the beam analyzer. When sample ions are detected by a sensor in this portion of the beam it is then allowed to be deflected and the mass analysis occurs. Thus the source position, temperature and electric field strength can be varied until ions are produced from the sample and the field desorption characteristics can be determined. The source characteristics can be varied either automatically or manually. (DN)

  6. Tutorial on beam current monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a tutorial level review covering a wide range of aspects related to charged particle beam current measurement. The tutorial begins with a look at the characteristics of the beam as a signal source, the associated electromagnetic fields, the influence of the typical accelerator environment on those fields, and the usual means of modifying and controlling that environment to facilitate beam current measurement. Short descriptions of three quite different types of current monitors are presented and a quantitative review of the classical transformer circuit is given. Recognizing that environmental noise pick-up may present a large source of error in quantitative measurements, signal handling considerations are given considerable attention using real-life examples. An example of a successful transport line beam current monitor implementation is presented and the tutorial concludes with a few comments about signal processing and current monitor calibration issues

  7. Versatile secondary beam for the meson area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, T.

    1982-03-01

    A new secondary beam design is outlined for the Meson M6 Beamline that combines versatility with economy. The beamline described will transport charged particles of either sign to 800 GeV/c and bring the beam to a focus in one of three potential experimental areas. The plan makes maximal use of existing civil construction

  8. The ATLAS beam conditions monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Mikuz, M; Dolenc, I; Kagan, H; Kramberger, G; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gorisek, A; Griesmayer, E; Mandic, I; Pernegger, H; Trischuk, W; Weilhammer, P; Zavrtanik, M

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS beam conditions monitor is being developed as a stand-alone device allowing to separate LHC collisions from background events induced either on beam gas or by beam accidents, for example scraping at the collimators upstream the spectrometer. This separation can be achieved by timing coincidences between two stations placed symmetric around the interaction point. The 25 ns repetition of collisions poses very stringent requirements on the timing resolution. The optimum separation between collision and background events is just 12.5 ns implying a distance of 3.8 m between the two stations. 3 ns wide pulses are required with 1 ns rise time and baseline restoration in 10 ns. Combined with the radiation field of 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ in 10 years of LHC operation only diamond detectors are considered suitable for this task. pCVD diamond pad detectors of 1 cm/sup 2/ and around 500 mum thickness were assembled with a two-stage RF current amplifier and tested in proton beam at MGH, Boston and SPS pion beam at...

  9. Proton beam monitor chamber calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomà, C; Meer, D; Safai, S; Lorentini, S

    2014-01-01

    The first goal of this paper is to clarify the reference conditions for the reference dosimetry of clinical proton beams. A clear distinction is made between proton beam delivery systems which should be calibrated with a spread-out Bragg peak field and those that should be calibrated with a (pseudo-)monoenergetic proton beam. For the latter, this paper also compares two independent dosimetry techniques to calibrate the beam monitor chambers: absolute dosimetry (of the number of protons exiting the nozzle) with a Faraday cup and reference dosimetry (i.e. determination of the absorbed dose to water under IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions) with an ionization chamber. To compare the two techniques, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to convert dose-to-water to proton fluence. A good agreement was found between the Faraday cup technique and the reference dosimetry with a plane-parallel ionization chamber. The differences—of the order of 3%—were found to be within the uncertainty of the comparison. For cylindrical ionization chambers, however, the agreement was only possible when positioning the effective point of measurement of the chamber at the reference measurement depth—i.e. not complying with IAEA TRS-398 recommendations. In conclusion, for cylindrical ionization chambers, IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams led to a systematic error in the determination of the absorbed dose to water, especially relevant for low-energy proton beams. To overcome this problem, the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers should be taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber. Within the current IAEA TRS-398 recommendations, it seems advisable to use plane-parallel ionization chambers—rather than cylindrical chambers—for the reference dosimetry of pseudo-monoenergetic proton beams. (paper)

  10. Beam Loss Monitors at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main functions of the LHC beam loss measurement system is the protection of equipment against damage caused by impacting particles creating secondary showers and their energy dissipation in the matter. Reliability requirements are scaled according to the acceptable consequences and the frequency of particle impact events on equipment. Increasing reliability often leads to more complex systems. The downside of complexity is a reduction of availability; therefore, an optimum has to be found for these conflicting requirements. A detailed review of selected concepts and solutions for the LHC system will be given to show approaches used in various parts of the system from the sensors, signal processing, and software implementations to the requirements for operation and documentation.

  11. A beam position monitor for low current dc beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adderley, P.; Barry, W.; Heefner, J.; Kloeppel, P.; Rossmanith, R.; Wise, M.; Jachim, S.

    1989-01-01

    The 4 GeV recirculating linac, CEBAF, if presently under construction and will produce a CW beam with average current between.1 and 200 μA. In order to measure beam position, the beam current will be amplitude modulated at a frequency of 10 MHz. The modulation is detected by an inductive loop type monitor with electronics sensitive only to the modulation frequency. The first test with beam from the CEBAF injector indicate that beam position can be measured with an accuracy of .1 mm at a modulated beam current of 1 μA. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. High intensity beam profile monitors for the LAMPF primary beam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.W.; Macek, R.J.; van Dyck, O.; Lee, D.; Harvey, A.; Bridge, J.; Cainet, J.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of beam profile monitors are in use at LAMPF to measure the properties of the 800 MeV, 500 μA proton beam external to the linac. Both types use secondary electron emission from a wire to produce a current signal proportional to the amount of proton beam that intercepts the wire. The wire scanner system uses a pair of orthogonal wires which are passed through the beam and the harp system uses two fixed planes of parallel wires. Most of the harps are not retractable and are exposed continuously to the primary beam. The high beam intensities available lead to a number of technical problems for instruments that intercept the beam or are close to primary beam targets. The thermal, electrical, radiation-damage, and material selection problems encountered, and some solutions which have been implemented are discussed

  13. Tevatron Beam Position Monitor Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Wolbers, Stephen; Barker, B; Bledsoe, S; Boes, T; Bowden, Mark; Cancelo, Gugstavo I; Dürling, G; Forster, B; Haynes, B; Hendricks, B; Kasza, T; Kutschke, Robert K; Mahlum, R; Martens, Michael A; Mengel, M; Olsen, M; Pavlicek, V; Pham, T; Piccoli, Luciano; Steimel, Jim; Treptow, K; Votava, Margaret; Webber, Robert C; West, B; Zhang, D

    2005-01-01

    The Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) readout electronics and software have been upgraded to improve measurement precision, functionality and reliability. The original system, designed and built in the early 1980s, became inadequate for current and future operations of the Tevatron. The upgraded system consists of 960 channels of new electronics to process analog signals from 240 BPMs, new front-end software, new online and controls software, and modified applications to take advantage of the improved measurements and support the new functionality. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton position measurements. Measurements using the new system are presented that demonstrate its improved resolution and overall performance.

  14. Beam monitoring system for intense neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tron, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring system realizing novel principle of operation and allowing to register a two-dimensional beam current distribution within entire aperture (100...200 mm) of ion pipe for a time in nanosecond range has been designed and accomplished for beam control of the INR intense neutron source, for preventing thermo-mechanical damage of its first wall. Key unit of the system is monitor of two-dimensional beam current distribution, elements of which are high resistant to heating by the beam and to radiation off the source. The description of the system and monitor are presented. Implementation of the system for the future sources with more high intensities are discussed. (author)

  15. Self-tracking optical beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, T.; Mitsuhashi, T.

    1992-01-01

    A new optical beam monitor with a self-tracking system was constructed and tested at an undulator beam line of the Photon Factory. The monitor has a feedback system to receive a constant part of the radiation and gives a large range of linearity. The beam position is read out through a linear encoder to detect the self-tracking movement of a pair of photocathodes. The monitor except the feedback system is totally bakeable and UHV compatible and can be installed at a VUV or a soft x-ray beam line

  16. Absolute beam current monitoring in endstation c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochna, C.

    1995-01-01

    The first few experiments at CEBAF require approximately 1% absolute measurements of beam currents expected to range from 10-25μA. This represents errors of 100-250 nA. The initial complement of beam current monitors are of the non intercepting type. CEBAF accelerator division has provided a stripline monitor and a cavity monitor, and the authors have installed an Unser monitor (parametric current transformer or PCT). After calibrating the Unser monitor with a precision current reference, the authors plan to transfer this calibration using CW beam to the stripline monitors and cavity monitors. It is important that this be done fairly rapidly because while the gain of the Unser monitor is quite stable, the offset may drift on the order of .5μA per hour. A summary of what the authors have learned about the linearity, zero drift, and gain drift of each type of current monitor will be presented

  17. Beam position monitor for energy recovered linac beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Thomas; Evtushenko, Pavel

    2017-06-06

    A method of determining the beam position in an energy recovered linac (ERL). The method makes use of in phase and quadrature (I/Q) demodulation techniques to separate the pickup signal generated by the electromagnetic fields generated by the first and second pass beam in the energy recovered linac. The method includes using analog or digital based I/Q demodulation techniques in order to measure the relative amplitude of the signals from a position sensitive beam pickup such as a button, strip line or microstripline beam position monitor.

  18. The optics of secondary polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Polarized protons can be produced by the parity-violating decay of either lambda or sigma hyperons. A secondary bema of polarized protons can then be produced without the difficult procedure of accelerating polarized protons. The preservation of the polarization while the protons are being transmitted to a final focus places stringent limitations on the optics of the beam line. The equations of motion of a polarized particle in a magnetic field have been solved to first order for quadrupole and dipole magnets. The lowest order terms indicate that the polarization vector will be restored to its original direction upon passage through a magnetic system if the momentum vector is unaltered. Higher-order terms may be derived by an expansion in commutators of the rotation matrix and its longitudinal derivative. The higher-order polarization rotation terms then arise from the non-commutivity of the rotation matrices by large angles in three-dimensional space. 5 refs., 3 figs

  19. Application of diamond based beam loss monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Maria [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany); DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Baer, Tobias [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Castro Carballo, Elena Maria [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Lohmann, Wolfgang [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany); DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Schmidt, Ruediger [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    The LHC has an operational stored energy of 130MJ per beam. Only a small percentage of beam losses in the LHC equipment can damage material or lead to magnet quenches. Therefore, it is important to monitor different types of beam losses, e.g. scattering on residual gas particles, UFOs, collisions and injection losses. A detailed understanding of beam loss mechanisms is necessary to reduce them and ensure save operation. Two different beam loss monitors are installed in the LHC tunnel: ionization chambers and diamond sensors. Ionization chambers trigger a beam dump if beam losses exceed a certain threshold. They have a time resolution of 40um (half LHC turn) which is not sufficient to resolve bunch-by-bunch beam losses. Diamond sensors have a nanosecond time resolution and can therefore detect bunch-by-bunch beam losses. This time resolution allows an analysis of various types of beam losses and an understanding of the mechanisms. For the first time beam loss intensities were measured bunch-by-bunch caused by different origins of losses. Beam loss measurements using diamond sensors will be presented. The results are compared to simulations and good qualitative agreement was found. The potential of diamond sensors for LHC and experiment applications are discussed.

  20. Counterstreaming electron beam profile and position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.; Hohban, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    Individual profiles and positions of two counterstreaming 10 MeV electron beams were measured using the strongly forward directed bremsstrahlung radiation produced when a small fraction of the beam impinges on a tantalum foil. The 0.02 mm wide foil is driven through the electron beams by an external motor connected to the foil by a linear vacuum feedthrough. Bremsstrahlung radiation is detected by a series of ordinary semiconductor diodes spaced around the circumference of the beam vacuum pipe in two planes. The planes are on opposite sides of the foil and are equidistant and parallel to the plane of motion of the foil. The diodes produce output currents proportional to the bremsstrahlung radiation intensity and require no biasing voltages. Design and operational features of the beam monitor for electron beams up to 100 MeV are described. Measurements on counterstreaming 10 MeV pulsed electron beams are presented. Spatial resolutions of 0.3 mm are easily discernable

  1. Beam based measurement of beam position monitor electrode gains

    OpenAIRE

    D. L. Rubin; M. Billing; R. Meller; M. Palmer; M. Rendina; N. Rider; D. Sagan; J. Shanks; C. Strohman

    2010-01-01

    Low emittance tuning at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) test accelerator depends on precision measurement of vertical dispersion and transverse coupling. The CESR beam position monitors (BPMs) consist of four button electrodes, instrumented with electronics that allow acquisition of turn-by-turn data. The response to the beam will vary among the four electrodes due to differences in electronic gain and/or misalignment. This variation in the response of the BPM electrodes will couple ...

  2. Carbon buildup monitoring using RBS: Correlation with secondary electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, E.F.; Rosales, P.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Murillo, G.; Fernandez, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    The RBS technique is applied to solve the problem of on-line monitoring of the carbon deposited on a thin backed foil under ion bombardment. An iterative method is used to reliably extract quantities such as number of projectiles and target thickness in spite of beam energy changes and detector unstabilities. Experimental values for secondary electron yields are also deduced. Results are reported for the thickness variation of thin carbon foils bombarded with carbon ions of energies between 8.95 and 13 MeV. A linear correlation of this variation is found with both, the ion fluence at target and the number of secondary electrons emitted. The correlation exists even though a wide range of beam currents, beam energies and bombarding times was used during the experiment. The measured electron yields show evidence for a change in the emission process between the original foils and the deposited layer, possibly due to a texture change

  3. Advanced Light Source beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkson, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron radiation facility nearing completion at LBL. As a third-generation machine, the ALS is designed to produce intense light from bend magnets, wigglers, and undulators (insertion devices). The facility will include a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator, a 1.5 GeV booster synchrotron, beam transport lines, a 1--2 GeV storage ring, insertion devices, and photon beam lines. Currently, the beam injection systems are being commissioned, and the storage ring is being installed. Electron beam position monitors (BPM) are installed throughout the accelerator and constitute the major part of accelerator beam diagnostics. The design of the BPM instruments is complete, and 50 units have been constructed for use in the injector systems. We are currently fabricating 100 additional instruments for the storage ring. In this paper I discuss engineering fabrication, testing and performance of the beam pickup electrodes and the BPM electronics

  4. A machine protection beam position monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedko, E.; Smith, S.; Fisher, A.

    1998-01-01

    Loss of the stored beam in an uncontrolled manner can cause damage to the PEP-II B Factory. We describe here a device which detects large beam position excursions or unexpected beam loss and triggers the beam abort system to extract the stored beam safely. The bad-orbit abort trigger beam position monitor (BOAT BPM) generates a trigger when the beam orbit is far off the center (>20 mm), or rapid beam current loss (dI/dT) is detected. The BOAT BPM averages the input signal over one turn (136 kHz). AM demodulation is used to convert input signals at 476 MHz to baseband voltages. The detected signal goes to a filter section for suppression of the revolution frequency, then on to amplifiers, dividers, and comparators for position and current measurements and triggering. The derived current signal goes to a special filter, designed to perform dI/dT monitoring at fast, medium, and slow current loss rates. The BOAT BPM prototype test results confirm the design concepts

  5. Cryogenic Beam Loss Monitoring for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kurfuerst, C; Sapinski, M

    A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system was installed on the outside surface of the LHC magnet cryostats to protect the accelerator equipment from beam losses. The protection is achieved by extracting the beam from the ring in case thresholds imposed on measured radiation levels are exceeded. Close to the interaction regions of the LHC, the present BLM system is sensitive to particle showers generated in the interaction region of the two beams. In the future, with beams of higher energy and brightness resulting in higher luminosity, distinguishing between these interaction products and possible quench-provoking beam losses from the primary proton beams will be challenging. The particle showers measured by the present BLM configuration are partly shielded by the cryostat and the iron yoke of the magnets. The system can hence be optimised by locating beam loss monitors as close as possible to the protected element, i. e. the superconducting coils, inside the cold mass of the magnets in superfluid helium at 1.9 K. T...

  6. Beam monitoring in the transport channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, A.S.; Levichev, E.B.; Samorukov, M.M.; Yupinov, Yu.L.

    1983-01-01

    Monitoring system for a single beam of charged particles, measuring peak current, centre of gravity displacement from equilibrium trajectory and cross section quadrupolar moment is described. Magnetoinduction sensors are used in the system. Beam parameter determination is made using a computer. The measurement accuracy is expected to be not worse than +-1mm in the current range (0.01-1)A at the beam duration more than 50 ns. The system is designed for the operation under conditions of background radiation and electromagnetic noise. The system described is developed for beam monitoring in electron-optical channel, connecting the ''Fakel'' LEA injector and small storage ring ''Plamja 1'', which is a part of storage ring complex-sources of synchrotron radiation

  7. Energy Deposition Simulations and Measurements in an LHC Collimator and Beam Loss Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Böhlen, Till; Bracco, C; Dehning, B; Redaelli, S; Weiler, T; Zamantzas, C

    2010-01-01

    The LHC collimators are protected against beam-caused damages by measuring the secondary particle showers with beam loss monitors. Downstream of every collimator an ionisation chamber and a secondary emission monitor are installed to determine the energy deposition in the collimator. The relation between the energy deposition in the beam loss monitor and the collimator jaw is based on secondary shower simulations. To verify the FLUKA simulations, the prototype LHC collimator installed in the SPS was equipped with beam loss monitors. The results of the measurements of the direct impact of a 26 GeV proton beam injected in the SPS onto the collimator are compared with the predictions by FLUKA simulations. In addition, simulation results from parameter scans for mean and peak energy deposition with its dependencies are shown.

  8. FMIT direct-current beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brousseau, A.T.; Chamberlin, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The prototype injector section for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that beam parameters be noninterceptively monitored. This report describes the application of a single toroidal core, coupled with very simple circuitry, that results in the production of a simple instrument, and eliminates the problems inherent in the Faraday cup technique for the current measurements of the FMIT injector beam

  9. Multigigahertz beam-current and position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.L.; Stout, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    A self-integrating magnetic-loop device having a risetime of less than 175 ps has been developed to monitor the temporal behavior of the electron beam current and position within each 3.3-ns micropulse generated by the PHERMEX rf linear accelerator. Beam current is measured with a 2-GHz bandwidth by combining these loops in a four-port hybrid summer. Another application of these loops uses two 180 0 hybrids to give 2-GHz time-resolved beam position to an accuracy of 1 mm. These sensors are nonintrusive to the propagating beam and allow ultrafast beam measurements previously restricted to the technique of recording the Cerenkov-light emission from an intercepting Kapton foil using a streak camera

  10. Periscope pop-in beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E. D.; Graves, W. S.; Robinson, K. E.

    1998-01-01

    We have built monitors for use as beam diagnostics in the narrow gap of an undulator for an FEL experiment. They utilize an intercepting screen of doped YAG scintillating crystal to make light that is imaged through a periscope by conventional video equipment. The absolute position can be ascertained by comparing the electron beam position with the position of a He:Ne laser that is observed by this pop-in monitor. The optical properties of the periscope and the mechanical arrangement of the system mean that beam can be spatially determined to the resolution of the camera, in this case approximately 10 micrometers. Our experience with these monitors suggests improvements for successor designs, which we also describe

  11. Measuring emittance using beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, S.; Carlsten, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Los Alamos Advanced Free Electron Laser uses a high charge (greater than InC), low emittance (normalized rams emittance less than 5π mm mrad) photoinjector driven accelerator. The high brightness achieved is due, in large part, to the rapid acceleration of the electrons to relativistic velocities. As a result, the beam does not have time to thermalize its distribution and its universe profile is, in general, non-Gaussian. This, coupled with the very high brightness, makes it difficult to measure the transverse emittance. Techniques used must be able to withstand the rigors of very intense electron beams, and not be reliant on Gaussian assumptions. Beam position monitors are ideal for this. They are not susceptible to beam damage, and it has been shown previously that they can be used to measure the transverse emittance of a beam with a Gaussian profile. However, this Gaussian restriction is not necessary and, in fact, a transverse emittance measurement using beam position monitors is independent of the beam's distribution

  12. Noise reduction in the beam current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Shigeaki.

    1982-02-01

    A simple noise reduction system using a pulse transformer and a pair of L C low pass filters has been introduced to the beam current monitor of a current transformer type at the INS electron linac. With this system, the pick-up noise has been reduced to be 1% of the noise without noise reduction. Signal deformation caused by this system is relatively small and the beam current pulse down to 20 mA is successfully monitored in the actual accelerator operation. (author)

  13. The AGS Booster Beam Position Monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardullo, D.J.; Abola, A.; Beadle, E.R.; Smith, G.A.; Thomas, R.; Van Zwienen, W.; Warkentien, R.; Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    To accelerate both protons and heavy ions, the AGS Booster requires a broadband (multi-octave) beam position monitoring system with a dynamic range spanning several orders of magnitude (2 x 10 10 to 1.5 x 10 13 particles per pulse). System requirements include the ability to acquire single turn trajectory and average orbit information with ± 0.1 mm resolution. The design goal of ± 0.5 mm corrected accuracy requires that the detectors have repeatable linear performance after periodic bakeout at 300 degree C. The system design and capabilities of the Booster Beam Position Monitor will be described, and initial results presented. 7 refs., 5 figs

  14. Beam based measurement of beam position monitor electrode gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Rubin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Low emittance tuning at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR test accelerator depends on precision measurement of vertical dispersion and transverse coupling. The CESR beam position monitors (BPMs consist of four button electrodes, instrumented with electronics that allow acquisition of turn-by-turn data. The response to the beam will vary among the four electrodes due to differences in electronic gain and/or misalignment. This variation in the response of the BPM electrodes will couple real horizontal offset to apparent vertical position, and introduce spurious measurements of coupling and vertical dispersion. To alleviate this systematic effect, a beam based technique to measure the relative response of the four electrodes has been developed. With typical CESR parameters, simulations show that turn-by-turn BPM data can be used to determine electrode gains to within ∼0.1%.

  15. Beam Monitor Development for Fermilab E1039

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towell, Cecily; SeaQuest Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Experiment 1039 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is the approved follow-up experiment to SeaQuest/E906 that had the goal of determining the quark and antiquark distribution within nucleons. The SeaQuest detector was optimized to detect Drell-Yan muon pairs produced by quark-antiquark annihilations that occur when the 120 GeV proton beam impacts a series of targets. E1039 will utilize the same beamline and hardware as SeaQuest, but replaces the unpolarized targets with polarized deuterium and hydrogen targets in order to study the spin contribution of the sea quarks to the collective spin of a nucleon. This measurement is extremely sensitive to asymmetries in the beam profile. Therefore, a new beam luminosity detector is desired to reduce error in the experiment's primary measurements by providing details of the beam distribution. To test prototypes of this detector, a cosmic test stand was designed and is being built at Abilene Christian University. This stand uses the coincidence of double ended hodoscopes to trigger on the prototype detector. Such a test stand allows us to determine the rates and measure the efficiency of the beam monitor prototype. The development and testing of the beam monitor will be presented. Supported by U.S. D.O.E. Medium Energy Nuclear Physics under Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  16. RHIC beam position monitor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, P.R.; Grau, M.C.; Ryan, W.A.; Shea, T.J.; Sikora, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Design calculations, design details, and fabrication techniques for the RHIC BPM Assemblies are discussed. The 69 mm aperture single plane detectors are 23 cm long short-circuited 50 ohm strip transmission lines subtending 80 degrees. They are mounted on the sextupole end of the Corrector-Quadrupole-Sextupole package and operate at liquid helium temperature. The 69 cm aperture was selected to be the same as that of the beampipe in the CQS package, the 23 cm length is a compromise between mechanical stability and electrical sensitivity to the long low-intensity proton and heavy ion bunches to be found in RHIC during commissioning, and the 80 degree subtended angle maximizes linear aperture. The striplines are aligned after brazing to maintain electrical-to-mechanical centers within 0.1 mm radius, eliminating the need for individual calibration. Because the cryogenic feedthrus isolate the UHV beam vacuum only from the HV insulating vacuum, and do not see liquid helium, a replaceable mini-ConFlat design was chosen to simplify fabrication, calibration, and maintenance

  17. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, N.; Fabbri, F.; Montanari, A.; Torromeo, G.; Dabrowski, A.E.; Orfanelli, S.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Rusack, R.; Stifter, K.; Stickland, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few nanosecond resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is read out via IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providing online feedback on the beam quality. A dedicated calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate short triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the system. The electronics has been in operation since the first LHC beams of Run II and has served as the first demonstration of the new QIE10, Microsemi Igloo2 FPGA and high-speed 5 Gbps link with LHC data

  18. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, N.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D. P.; Stifter, K.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few nanosecond resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is read out via IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providing online feedback on the beam quality. A dedicated calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate short triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the system. The electronics has been in operation since the first LHC beams of Run II and has served as the first demonstration of the new QIE10, Microsemi Igloo2 FPGA and high-speed 5 Gbps link with LHC data.

  19. Development of picosecond pulsed electron beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Y.; Nakazawa, M.; Ueda, T.; Kobayasi, T.; Yosida, Y.; Ohkuma, J.; Okuda, S.; Suemine, S.

    1993-01-01

    For the picosecond pulsed electron beam of a linear accelerator a simple monitor using an electric connector has been developed which is constructed with SMA, BNC, N type electric connector through pipe (inner diameter = 50 mm or 100 mm). Under the measurement conditions of peak current (26A-900A) and narrow pulse width (Pw = 10 ps(FWHM), Pw = 30 ps(FWHM)), the following characteristics of this monitor were obtained, (A) rise time is less than 25 ps (B) the amplitude of the monitor output pulse is proportional directly to the area of cross section of the electrode. (author)

  20. P-West High Intensity Secondary Beam Area Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.; Currier, R.; Eartly, D.; Guthke, A.; Johnson, G.; Lee, D.; Dram, R.; Villegas, E.; Rest, J.; Tilles, E.; Vander Arend, P.

    1977-03-01

    This report gives the initial design parameters of a 1000 GeV High Intensity Superconducting Secondary Beam Laboratory to be situated in the Proton Area downstream of the existing Proton West experimental station. The area will provide Fermilab with a major capability for experimentation with pion and antiproton beams of intensities and of energies available at no other laboratory and with an electron beam with excellent spot size, intensity, and purity at energies far above that available at electron machines. Detailed beam design, area layouts, and cost estimates are presented, along with the design considerations.

  1. Unified monitors for extracted proton beam diagnostics in the IHEP channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvakhariya, T.V.; Gres', V.N.; Davydenko, Yu.P.

    1985-01-01

    Equipment complex, used for extracted beam monitoring at the U-70 synchrotron is described. The main parameters of detectors, used for the beam profile and position, its intensity and loss measurement, as well as of data acquisition and processing system are considered. For the beam profile and position measuring secondary emission multichannel chambers are used. To determine the beam intensity during fast extraction a beam current transformer is used, and as for the slow extractionasecondary emission sealed chamber is used. Beam losses are measured with the use of ionization chambers with geometry close to2π

  2. Beam Loss Monitoring for LHC Machine Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Eva Barbara; Dehning, Bernd; Effnger, Ewald; Emery, Jonathan; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Hajdu, Csaba; Jackson, Stephen; Kurfuerst, Christoph; Marsili, Aurelien; Misiowiec, Marek; Nagel, Markus; Busto, Eduardo Nebot Del; Nordt, Annika; Roderick, Chris; Sapinski, Mariusz; Zamantzas, Christos

    The energy stored in the nominal LHC beams is two times 362 MJ, 100 times the energy of the Tevatron. As little as 1 mJ/cm3 deposited energy quenches a magnet at 7 TeV and 1 J/cm3 causes magnet damage. The beam dumps are the only places to safely dispose of this beam. One of the key systems for machine protection is the beam loss monitoring (BLM) system. About 3600 ionization chambers are installed at likely or critical loss locations around the LHC ring. The losses are integrated in 12 time intervals ranging from 40 μs to 84 s and compared to threshold values defined in 32 energy ranges. A beam abort is requested when potentially dangerous losses are detected or when any of the numerous internal system validation tests fails. In addition, loss data are used for machine set-up and operational verifications. The collimation system for example uses the loss data for set-up and regular performance verification. Commissioning and operational experience of the BLM are presented: The machine protection functionality of the BLM system has been fully reliable; the LHC availability has not been compromised by false beam aborts.

  3. Detection of coherent beam-beam modes with digitized beam position monitor signals

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, G.; White, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    A system for bunch-by-bunch detection of transverse proton and antiproton coherent oscillations in the Fermilab Tevatron collider is described. It is based on the signal from a single beam-position monitor located in a region of the ring with large amplitude functions. The signal is digitized over a large number of turns and Fourier-analyzed offline with a dedicated algorithm. To enhance the signal, band-limited noise is applied to the beam for about 1 s. This excitation does not adversely affect the circulating beams even at high luminosities. The device has a response time of a few seconds, a frequency resolution of $1.6\\times 10^{-5}$ in fractional tune, and it is sensitive to oscillation amplitudes of 60 nm. It complements Schottky detectors as a diagnostic tool for tunes, tune spreads, and beam-beam effects. Measurements of coherent mode spectra are presented and compared with models of beam-beam oscillations.

  4. Precision intercomparison of beam current monitors at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimi, R.; Dunham, B.; Krafft, G.A.; Legg, R.; Liang, C.; Sinclair, C.; Mamosser, J.

    1995-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator delivers a CW electron beam at fundamental 1497 MHz, with average beam current up to 200 μA. Accurate, stable nonintercepting beam current monitors are required for: setup/control, monitoring of beam current and beam losses for machine protection and personnel safety, and providing beam current information to experimental users. Fundamental frequency stainless steel RF cavities have been chosen for these beam current monitors. This paper reports on precision intercomparison between two such RF cavities, an Unser monitor, and two Faraday cups, all located in the injector area. At the low beam energy in the injector, it is straightforward to verify the high efficiency of the Faraday cups, and the Unser monitor included a wire through it to permit an absolute calibration. The cavity intensity monitors have proven capable of stable, high precision monitoring of the beam current

  5. A bipolar integrator for secondary emission profile monitors at the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datte, P.; Beechy, D.; Webber, R.

    1994-01-01

    Many invasive techniques for monitoring beam profile and intensity require secondary emission signals in order to make the measurement. Signal acquisition and processing can take many forms. This paper describes a bipolar integration technique which uses the Burr-Brown ACF2101 Dual Switched Integrator chip and applications for accelerator beam instrumentation

  6. APCAL1: Beam Position Monitor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, R.A.

    1979-12-01

    APCAL1 is an applications program operational on the PEP MODCOMP IV computer for the purpose of converting beam position monitor (BPM) button voltage readings to x,y coordinates. Calibration information and the BPM readings are read from the MODCOMP IV data base. Corresponding x,y coordinates are written in the data base for use by other programs. APCAL1 is normally activated by another program but can be activated by a touch panel for checkout purposes.

  7. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to suppress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will describ...

  8. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Stifter, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to supress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will descri...

  9. Monitoring the beam position in the SLC interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denard, J.C.; Bowden, G.B.; Oxoby, G.J.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Ross, M.C.

    1987-03-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider requires special Beam Position Monitors near the Interaction Point (IP) to bring the two beams (e + and e - ) into collision. These beams pass through two monitors on each side of the IP with a short time separation (about 20 and 50 ns). The mechanics of the monitors as well as the electronics will be described. In order to bring beams of several microns diameter into collision at the IP, these monitors measure beam deflection induced by the presence of the opposite beam

  10. Monitoring the beam position in the SLC interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denard, J.C.; Bowden, G.B.; Oxoby, G.J.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Ross, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider requires special Beam Position Monitors near the Interaction Point (IP) to bring the two beams (e/sup +/ and /sup e-/) into collision. These beams pass through two monitors on each side of the IP with a short time separation (about 20 and 50ns). The mechanics of the monitors as well as the electronics will be described. In order to bring beams of several microns diameter into collision at the IP, these monitors measure beam deflection induced by the presence of the opposite beam

  11. A high resolution wire scanner beam profile monitor with a microprocessor data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, R.I.; Mohr, D.L.; Whittaker, J.K.; Yoder, N.R.

    1983-01-01

    A beam profile monitor has been constructed for the NBS-LANL Racetrack Microtron. The monitor consists of two perpendicular 30 μm diameter carbon wires that are driven through an electron beam by a pneumatic actuator. A long-lifetime, electroformed nickel bellows is used for the linear-motion vacuum feedthrough. Secondary emission current from the wires and a signal from a transducer measuring the position of the wires are simultaneously digitized by a microprocessor to yield beam current density profiles in two dimensions. The wire scanner is designed for use with both pulsed and cw beams

  12. Method and apparatus for real time imaging and monitoring of radiotherapy beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA; Macey, Daniel J [Birmingham, AL; Weisenberger, Andrew G [Yorktown, VA

    2011-11-01

    A method and apparatus for real time imaging and monitoring of radiation therapy beams is designed to preferentially distinguish and image low energy radiation from high energy secondary radiation emitted from a target as the result of therapeutic beam deposition. A detector having low sensitivity to high energy photons combined with a collimator designed to dynamically image in the region of the therapeutic beam target is used.

  13. Performance and perspectives of the diamond based Beam Condition Monitor for beam loss monitoring at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080862

    2015-01-01

    At CMS, a beam loss monitoring system is operated to protect the silicon detectors from high particle rates, arising from intense beam loss events. As detectors, poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors are placed around the beam pipe at several locations inside CMS. In case of extremely high detector currents, the LHC beams are automatically extracted from the LHC rings.Diamond is the detector material of choice due to its radiation hardness. Predictions of the detector lifetime were made based on FLUKA monte-carlo simulations and irradiation test results from the RD42 collaboration, which attested no significant radiation damage over several years.During the LHC operational Run1 (2010 â?? 2013), the detector efficiencies were monitored. A signal decrease of about 50 times stronger than expectations was observed in the in-situ radiation environment. Electric field deformations due to charge carriers, trapped in radiation induced lattice defects, are responsible for this signal decrease. This so-called polarizat...

  14. Beam Position Monitor System for PEP II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stephen R.; Aiello, G.Roberto; Hendrickson, Linda J.; Johnson, Ronald G.; Mills, Mark R.; Olsen, Jeff J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-12

    We describe the beam position monitor system built for PEP-II, the B-factory at SLAC. The system reports beam position for bunches of between 5 x 10{sup 8} and 8 x 10{sup 10} electron charges, either singly or as continuous streams of bunches every 4.2 ns. Resolution at full charge is to be better than 10 microns in a single turn. Higher resolution is available via on-board multi-turn averaging. The position signal is processed in a 20 MHz bandwidth around 952 MHz. This bandwidth, rather broader than that typical of RF position monitors, allows good resolution for low charge single bunches. Additional novel features include stringent control of return losses in order to minimize cross-talk between nearby bunches which may contain very different charges. The digitizing electronics is multiplexed between the two PEP-II storage rings. Design, construction, and installation experience, as well as first results with beam are presented.

  15. RHIC beam loss monitor system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R.; Zitvogel, E.; Michnoff, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) System is designed to prevent the quenching of RHIC magnets due to beam loss, provide quantitative loss data, and the loss history in the event of a beam abort. The system uses 400 ion chambers of a modified Tevatron design. To satisfy fast (single turn) and slow (100 msec) loss beam criteria and provide sensitivity for studies measurements, a range of over 8 decades is needed. An RC pre-integrator reduces the dynamic range for a low current amplifier. This is digitized for data logging. The output is also applied to an analog multiplier which compensates the energy dependence, extending the range of the abort comparators. High and low pass filters separate the signal to dual comparators with independent programmable trip levels. Up to 64 channels, on 8 VME boards, are controlled by a micro-controller based VME module, decoupling it from the front-end computer (FEC) for real-time operation. Results with the detectors in the RHIC Sextant Test and the electronics in the AGS-to-RHIC (AtR) transfer line will be presented

  16. Monitoring the beam profile in HLS with synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhigao; Wang Guicheng; Yan Xiufen; Wang Jihong; Zhang Danhong; Zhou Yuehua; Zhao Feng; Xie Rongsheng; Sun Baogen; Wu Jinqi

    1996-01-01

    The beam profile monitor built for HLS (Hefei Light Source) is presented. The monitor is composed of an imaging optical system, a commercial CCD TV camera as a detector, an electronic circuit, and a computer to calculate the beam dimensions. This technique has the ability to get the emittance of HLS with the superior resolution, to monitor the beam orbit and beam instability as well. (orig.)

  17. The AGS Booster beam loss monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beadle, E.R.; Bennett, G.W.; Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    A beam loss monitor system has been developed for the Brookhaven National Laboratory Booster accelerator, and is designed for use with intensities of up to 1.5 x 10 13 protons and carbon to gold ions at 50-3 x 10 9 ions per pulse. This system is a significant advance over the present AGS system by improving the sensitivity, dynamic range, and data acquisition. In addition to the large dynamic range achievable, it is adaptively shifted when high losses are detected. The system uses up to 80 argon filled ion chambers as detectors, as well as newly designed electronics for processing and digitizing detector outputs. The hardware simultaneously integrates each detector output, interfaces to the beam interrupt systems, and digitizes all 80 channels to 21 bits at 170 KHz. This paper discuses the design, construction, and operation of the system. 4 refs., 2 figs

  18. Signal Processing for Beam Position Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Vismara, Giuseppe

    2000-01-01

    At the first sight the problem to determine the beam position from the ratio of the induced charges of the opposite electrodes of a beam monitor seems trivial, but up to now no unique solution has been found that fits the various demands of all particle accelerators. The purpose of this paper is to help "instrumentalists" to choose the best processing system for their particular application, depending on the machine size, the input dynamic range, the required resolution and the acquisition speed. After a general introduction and an analysis of the electrical signals to be treated (frequency and time domain), the definition of the electronic specifications will be reviewed. The tutorial will present the different families in which the processing systems can be grouped. A general description of the operating principles with relative advantages and disadvantages for the most employed processing systems is presented. Special emphasis will be put on recent technological developments based on telecommunication circ...

  19. Secondary electrons detectors for beam tracking: micromegas and wire chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancin, J; Chaminade, T; Drouart, A; Kebbiri, M; Riallot, M; Fernandez, B; Naqvi, F

    2009-01-01

    SPIRAL2 or FAIR will be able to deliver beams of radioactive isotopes of low energy (less than 10 MeV/n). The emittance of these new beams will impose the use of beam tracking detectors to reconstruct the exact impact position of the nuclei on the experimental target. However, due to their thickness, the classical detectors will generate a lot of energy and angular straggling. A possible alternative is the SED principle (Secondary Electron Detector). It consists of an emissive foil placed in beam and a detector for the secondary electrons ejected by the passing of the nuclei through the foil. An R and D program has been initiated at CEA Saclay to study the possibility to use low pressure gaseous detectors as SED for beam tracking. Some SED have been already used on the VAMOS spectrometer at GANIL since 2004. We have constructed new detectors on this model to measure their performances in time and spatial resolution, and counting rate. Other detector types are also under study. For the first time, a test with different micromegas detectors at 4 Torr has been realized. A comparison on the time resolution has been performed between wire chamber and micromegas at very low pressure. The use of micromegas could be promising to improve the counting rate capability and the robustness of beam tracking detectors.

  20. Beam current monitors at the UNILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, N.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most basic linac operation tools is a beam current transformer. Using outstanding materials, the latest low-noise amplifiers, and some good ideas, a universal current monitoring system has been developed and installed at the UNILAC at GSI. With a dynamic range of 112 dB, covering the low-current range down to 100 nA peak to peak at S/N=1, as well as 25 mA pulses, provided for high-current injection to the SIS synchrotron, a well-accepted diagnostic instrument could be placed at the disposal of the operaters

  1. Characterization of the Li beam probe with a beam profile monitor on JET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedzelskiy, I S; Korotkov, A; Brix, M; Morgan, P; Vince, J

    2010-10-01

    The lithium beam probe (LBP) is widely used for measurements of the electron density in the edge plasma of magnetically confined fusion experiments. The quality of LBP data strongly depends on the stability and profile shape of the beam. The main beam parameters are as follows: beam energy, beam intensity, beam profile, beam divergence, and the neutralization efficiency. For improved monitoring of the beam parameters, a beam profile monitor (BPM) from the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) has been installed in the Li beam line at JET. In the NEC BPM, a single grounded wire formed into a 45° segment of a helix is rotated by a motor about the axis of the helix. During each full revolution, the wire sweeps twice across the beam to give X and Y profiles. In this paper, we will describe the properties of the JET Li beam as measured with the BPM and demonstrate that it facilitates rapid optimization of the gun performance.

  2. Design of CMS Beam Halo Monitor system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078842

    2015-01-01

    A fast and directional monitoring system for the CMS experiment is designed to provide an online, bunch-by-bunch measurement of beam background induced by beam halo interactions, separately for each beam. The background detection is based on Cherenkov radiation produced in synthetic fused silica read out by a fast, UV sensitive photomultiplier tube. Twenty detector units per end will be azimuthally distributed around the rotating shielding of CMS, covering ~408 cm2 at 20.6m from the interaction point, at a radius of ~180 cm. The directional and fast response of the system allows the discrimination of the background particles from the dominant flux in the cavern induced by pp collision debris, produced within the 25 ns bunch spacing. A robust multi-layered shielding will enclose each detector unit to protect the photomultiplier tube from the magnetic field and to eliminate the occupancy from low energy particles. The design of the front-end units is validated by experimental results. An overview of the new sy...

  3. Beam position monitoring system at CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billing, M.G.; Bergan, W.F.; Forster, M.J.; Meller, R.E.; Rendina, M.C.; Rider, N.T.; Sagan, D.C.; Shanks, J.; Sikora, J.P.; Stedinger, M.G.; Strohman, C.R.; Palmer, M.A.; Holtzapple, R.L.

    2017-01-01

    The Cornell Electron-positron Storage Ring (CESR) has been converted from a High Energy Physics electron-positron collider to operate as a dedicated synchrotron light source for the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) and to conduct accelerator physics research as a test accelerator, capable of studying topics relevant to future damping rings, colliders and light sources. Some of the specific topics that were targeted for the initial phase of operation of the storage ring in this mode, labeled CESRTA (CESR as a Test Accelerator), included 1) tuning techniques to produce low emittance beams, 2) the study of electron cloud development in a storage ring and 3) intra-beam scattering effects. The complete conversion of CESR to CESRTA occurred over a several year period and is described elsewhere. As a part of this conversion the CESR beam position monitoring (CBPM) system was completely upgraded to provide the needed instrumental capabilities for these studies. This paper describes the new CBPM system hardware, its function and representative measurements performed by the upgraded system.

  4. rf beam-current, -phase, and -position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.

    1984-01-01

    A prototype rf beam monitor has been tested on the Racetrack Microtron's (RTM) 100 kV injector beam line at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). This beam monitor is capable of measuring the current, the relative phase, and the position of the beam. The beam is bunched at 2380 MHz for acceleration by the linac in the injector beam line. This train of beam bunches passing through the beam monitor cavities excites the cavities at this resonance frequency of 2380 MHz. Probes in the cavities couple some of the beam-excited rf power out of the cavities. This rf power can be amplified if necessary and then analyzed by a double balanced mixer (DBM). The DBM can also be used as a phase detector. The effective shunt impedance of the cavities was measured with the CW beam. For the position monitor cavity, the shunt impedance is proportional to the displacement from the axis. The measured response of the prototype rf beam current monitor setup is a linear function of beam current. Response of the rf beam-position monitor is also shown

  5. The CMS Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bell, A. J.; Dabrowski, A.; Guthoff, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Hempel, M.; Henschel, H.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Müller, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Pfeiffer, D.; Ryjov, V.; Stickland, D.; Schimdt, R.; Walsh, R.

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the two large, general purpose experiments situated at the LHC at CERN. As with all high energy physics experiments, knowledge of the beam conditions and luminosity is of vital importance. The Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System (BRM) is installed in CMS to protect the detector and to provide feedback to LHC on beam conditions. It is composed of several sub-systems that measure the radiation level close to or inside all sub-detectors, monitor the beam halo conditions with different time resolution, support beam tuning and protect CMS in case of adverse beam conditions by firing a beam abort signal. This paper presents three of the BRM subsystems: the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F), which is designed for fast flux monitoring, measuring with nanosecond time resolution, both the beam halo and collision products; the Beam Scintillator Counters (BSC), that provide hit rates and time information of beam halo and collision products; and the Beam Conditions Monitors (BCM) used as a protection system that can trigger a beam dump when beam losses occur in order to prevent damage to the pixel and tracker detectors. A description of the systems and a characterization on the basis of data collected during LHC operation is presented.

  6. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080684; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D.P.; Stifter, K.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes. The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few ns resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is readout by IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providi...

  7. Performance of the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of radiation hard synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes for a direction sensitive measurement. The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few ns resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and received data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is readout by IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed i...

  8. Emittance of secondary beams and the project SISSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittig, W.

    1990-01-01

    The study of exotic nuclei has become a very active domain at GANIL. These nuclei are produced by a fragmentation-like process, which gives products focused to forward angles and having a rather well determined velocity. With the spectrometers actually used for studying these nuclei, LISE [1] and SPEG [2], only about typically 1% of the reaction products are accepted by these devices. In order to increase the collection efficiency, the author considers these products as a secondary beam. The Liouville theorem states that the emittance is conserved during beam transport, and the cost and difficulty of construction of this beam line increase with the emittance. Decision on the construction will be taken in beginning of 1990, and if accepted will increase the collection efficiency at GANIL by one order of magnitude. It will produce low emittance secondary beams, and increase the experimental flexibility due to the fact that this device will be placed up stream the experimental area, thus this beam may be sent to all existing equipment

  9. Development of beam monitoring system for proton pencil beam scanning using fiber-optic radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jaeman; Koo, Jihye; Moon, Sunyoung; Yoon, Myonggeun; Jeong, Jonghwi; Kim, Sun-Young; Lim, Youngkyung; Lee, Se Byeong; Shin, Dongho; Kim, Meyoung; Kim, Dongwook

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to develop a beam monitoring system based on a fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS), which can be used in real time in a beam control room, to monitor a beam in proton therapy, where patients are treated using a pencil beam scanning (PBS) mode, by measuring the beam spot width (BSW) and beam spot position (BSP) of the PBS. We developed two-dimensional detector arrays to monitor the PBS beam in the beam control room. We measured the BSW for five energies of the PBS beam and compared the measurements with those of Lynx and EBT3 film. In order to confirm the BSP, we compared the BSP values of the PBS calculated from radiation treatment planning (RTP), to five BSP values measured using FORS at 224.2 MeV. When comparing BSW values obtained using developed monitoring system to the measurements obtained using commercial EBT3 film, the average difference in BSW value of the PBS beam was 0.1 ± 0.1 mm. In the comparison of BSW values with the measurements obtained using Lynx, the average difference was 0.2 ± 0.1 mm. When comparing BSP measurements to the values calculated from RTP, the average difference was 0.4 ± 0.2 mm. The study results confirmed that the developed FORS-based beam monitoring system can monitor a PBS beam in real time in a beam control room, where proton beam is controlled for the patient.

  10. A windowless gas target for secondary beam production

    CERN Document Server

    Kishida, T; Shibata, M; Watanabe, H; Tsutsumi, T; Motomura, S; Ideguchi, E; Zhou, X H; Morikawa, T; Kubo, T; Ishihara, M

    1999-01-01

    A windowless gas target was developed for the production of secondary high-spin isomer beams (HSIB). An sup 1 sup 6 O target in the compound form of CO sub 2 gas was used to produce a sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 sup m Sm beam by using an sup 1 sup 6 O( sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe, 7n) sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 sup m Sm reaction. The target gas pressure was kept constant at 50 Torr. A target thickness of about 1 mg/cm sup 2 was achieved with a 10 cm target length. Gas was recirculated and the consumption was very little.

  11. Comparison of beam-position-transfer functions using circular beam-position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    A cylindrical beam-position monitor (BPM) used in many accelerator facilities has four electrodes on which beam-image currents induce bunched-beam signals. These probe-electrode signals are geometrically configured to provide beam-position information about two orthogonal axes. An electronic processor performs a mathematical transfer function (TF) on these BPM-electrode signals to produce output signals whose time-varying amplitude is proportional to the beam's vertical and horizontal position. This paper will compare various beam-position TFs using both pencil beams and will further discuss how diffuse beams interact with some of these TFs

  12. Elastic scattering and (p,n) reactions with secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    To study nuclear mass distribution in 6 He we carried out elastic scattering measurements on the p( 6 He, 6 He)p reaction and on the exchange reaction p( 6 He, 6 Li)n. This experiment was one of the first measurements of a direct reaction induced by a secondary beam produced by fragmentation. At the same time the elastic reaction of 10 Be was measured. The results o these reactions show that the utilized method SISSI for producing secondary beam and SPEG as energy-loss-spectrometer is a very powerful technology, namely, providing a very high energy and angular resolution for reaction products. Data from this experiment were analyzed while their interpretation resulting from the comparison with calculations is underway

  13. Experimental verification of secondary effects of prestressed beam at ULS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pažma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with secondary effects of prestressing at ultimate limit state when statically indeterminate structure has changed its structural form due to development of plastic hinges in critical cross-sections. The article presents results of an experimental program which was carried out at Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava on two span continuous beams post-tensioned by two single-strand tendons subjected to experimental load which has changed structural system into kinematic mechanism.

  14. Uranium concentration monitor manual, secondary intermediate evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Slice, R.W.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    This manual describes the design, operation, and measurement control procedures for the automated uranium concentration monitor on the secondary intermediate evaporator at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The nonintrusive monitor provides a near-real time readout of uranium concentration in the return loop of time recirculating evaporator for purposes of process monitoring and control. A detector installed near the bottom of the return loop is used to acquire spectra of gamma rays from the evaporator solutions during operation. Pulse height analysis of each spectrum gives the information required to deduce the concentration of uranium in the evaporator solution in near-real time. The visual readout of concentration is updated at the end of every assay cycle. The readout includes an alphanumeric display of uranium concentration and an illuminated, colored LED (in an array of colored LEDs) indicating whether the measured concentration is within (or above or below) the desired range. An alphanumeric display of evaporator solution acid molarity is also available to the operator. 9 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Beam-energy and laser beam-profile monitor at the BNL LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R.; Briscoe, B.; Degen, C.; DeSanto, L.; Meng, W.; Minty, M.; Nayak, S.; Raparia, D.; Russo, T.

    2010-05-02

    We are developing a non-interceptive beam profile and energy monitor for H{sup -} beams in the high energy beam transport (HEBT) line at the Brookhaven National Lab linac. Electrons that are removed from the beam ions either by laser photodetachment or stripping by background gas are deflected into a Faraday cup. The beam profile is measured by stepping a narrow laser beam across the ion beam and measuring the electron charge vs. transverse laser position. There is a grid in front of the collector that can be biased up to 125kV. The beam energy spectrum is determined by measuring the electron charge vs. grid voltage. Beam electrons have the same velocity as the beam and so have an energy of 1/1836 of the beam protons. A 200MeV H{sup -} beam yields 109keV electrons. Energy measurements can be made with either laser-stripped or gas-stripped electrons.

  16. Analytical N beam position monitor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegscheider, A.; Langner, A.; Tomás, R.; Franchi, A.

    2017-11-01

    Measurement and correction of focusing errors is of great importance for performance and machine protection of circular accelerators. Furthermore LHC needs to provide equal luminosities to the experiments ATLAS and CMS. High demands are also set on the speed of the optics commissioning, as the foreseen operation with β*-leveling on luminosity will require many operational optics. A fast measurement of the β -function around a storage ring is usually done by using the measured phase advance between three consecutive beam position monitors (BPMs). A recent extension of this established technique, called the N-BPM method, was successfully applied for optics measurements at CERN, ALBA, and ESRF. We present here an improved algorithm that uses analytical calculations for both random and systematic errors and takes into account the presence of quadrupole, sextupole, and BPM misalignments, in addition to quadrupolar field errors. This new scheme, called the analytical N-BPM method, is much faster, further improves the measurement accuracy, and is applicable to very pushed beam optics where the existing numerical N-BPM method tends to fail.

  17. A fluorescent screen beam profile monitor for INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhane, S.K.; Banerji, Anil; Puntambekar, T.A.; Kotaiah, S.

    2003-01-01

    Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring under construction at CAT Indore. One important diagnostic the element of such a ring is the destructive type fluorescent screen beam profile monitor (BPM). It will help to visualize the position and profile (size and shape) of electron beam circulating in the ring, in a qualitative manner. In this monitor the electron beam is intercepted by chromium activated ceramic scintillator screen placed at 45 degrees to the beam path. The ceramic fluorescent screen can be brought in the beam path at the time of observation and then taken out. The fluorescent spot is observed through a CCD camera. A prototype of this monitor has been developed in CAT. This paper describes mechanical aspects of design and development of beam profile monitor. Remote operation of monitor from Indus-2 control room is also discussed

  18. Development of picosecond pulsed electron beam monitor. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Y.; Nakazawa, M.; Ueda, T.

    1994-01-01

    A picosecond pulsed electron beam monitor for a 35 MeV linear accelerator has been developed. The monitor consists of an electric SMA connector and aluminium pipe(inner diameter of 50mm). The following characteristics of this monitor were obtained, (a) the rise time is less than 17.5 ps (b) linearity of the monitor output voltage is proportional to the peak current of beam. It is shown that this monitor can be successfully used for bunch measurements of picosecond pulsed electron beam of 35 MeV linac. (author)

  19. The first experience with LHC beam gas ionization monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Dehning, B; Guerrero, A; Patecki, M; Versteegen, R

    2012-01-01

    The Beam Gas Ionization Monitors (BGI) are used to measure beam emittance on LHC. This paper describes the detectors and their operation and discusses the issues met during the commissioning. It also discusses the various calibration procedures used to correct for non-uniformity of Multi-Channel plates and to correct the beam size for effects affecting the electron trajectory after ionization.

  20. Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour curtain at 45 degrees to the ISR beam in Ring I (sodium generator is in white cylinder just left of centre). Electrons produced by ionization of the sodium vapour give an image of the beam on a fluorescent screen that is observed by a TV camera (at upper right).

  1. Charged particle beam monitoring by means of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasyuk, V.S.; Anevskij, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    Optical methods for monitoring the number of accelerated electrons and electron energy by means of beam synchrotron radiation (SR) as well as peculiarities of SR characteristics of beams with a small radius of the orbit are considered. Optical methods for charged particle beam monitoring are shown to ensure operative and precise monitoring the number of particles and particle energy. SR sources with large axial dimensions of an electron beam have specific spectral angular and polarization characteristics. If electron angular distribution at deflection from the median plane is noticeably wider than angular distribution of SR of a certain electron, relative SR characteristics of these soUrces are calculated with high accuracy

  2. A beam position monitor using an amorphous magnetic core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshiaki; Ueda, Toru; Yoshida, Yoichi; Kozawa, Takahiro; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Miya, Kenzo; Tagawa, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Hitoshi.

    1994-01-01

    A beam position monitor for an electron accelerator has been developed by using an amorphous magnetic core. The position is detected by the difference of leakage inductances of four pickup coils wound on the amorphous magnetic core. The accuracy of the beam position monitor is less than 1 mm for the various electron pulses from nanosecond to microsecond. (author)

  3. Real-Time Online Monitoring of the Ion Range by Means of Prompt Secondary Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimmer, J.; Balleyguier, L.; Caponetto, L.; Chen, X.; Dahoumane, M.; Dauvergne, D.; De Rydt, M.; Dedes, G.; Della Negra, R.; Deng, S.M.; Ley, J.L.; Mathez, H.; Pinto, M.; Ray, C.; Richard, M.H.; Reithinger, V.; Roellinghoff, F.; Testa, E.; Zoccarato, Y.; Baudot, J.; Winter, M.; Brons, S.; Chabot, M.; Force, P.; Joly, B.; Insa, C.; Lambert, D.; Lestand, L.; Magne, M.; Montarou, G.; Freud, N.; Letang, J.M.; Lojacono, X.; Maxim, V.; Prostk, R.; Herault, J.; La Tessa, C.; Pleskac, R.; Vanstalle, M.; Parodi, K.; Prieels, D.; Smeets, J.; Rinaldi, I.

    2013-06-01

    Prompt secondary radiations such as gamma rays and protons can be used for ion-range monitoring during ion therapy either on an energy-slice basis or on a pencil-beam basis. We present a review of the ongoing activities in terms of detector developments, imaging, experimental and theoretical physics issues concerning the correlation between the physical dose and hadronic processes. (authors)

  4. Diffraction measurements using the LHC Beam Loss Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Matti

    2017-03-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of the Large Hadron Collider protects the machine from beam induced damage by measuring the absorbed dose rates of beam losses, and by triggering beam dump if the rates increase above the allowed threshold limits. Although the detection time scales are optimized for multi-turn losses, information on fast losses can be recovered from the loss data. In this paper, methods in using the BLM system in diffraction studies are discussed.

  5. AIP Diffraction measurements using the LHC Beam Loss Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliokoski, Matti

    2017-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of the Large Hadron Collider protects the machine from beam induced damage by measuring the absorbed dose rates of beam losses, and by triggering beam dump if the rates increase above the allowed threshold limits. Although the detection time scales are optimized for multi-turn losses, information on fast losses can be recovered from the loss data. In this paper, methods in using the BLM system in di ff raction studies are discussed.

  6. A beam profile monitor for small electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurement of beam properties at the foci of high energy linacs is difficult due to the small size of the waists in proposed and existing accelerators (1 nm - 2 μ). This paper considers the use of bremsstrahlung radiation from thin foils to measure the size and phase space density these beams using nonimaging optics. The components of the system are described, and the ultimate resolution, evaluated theoretically for the case of the Final Focus Test Beam at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a few nm. 13 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab

  7. High current precision long pulse electron beam position monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T J; Holmes, C

    2000-01-01

    Precision high current long pulse electron beam position monitoring has typically experienced problems with high Q sensors, sensors damped to the point of lack of precision, or sensors that interact substantially with any beam halo thus obscuring the desired signal. As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using transverse electromagnetic stripline kicker technology, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams for accurate beam position control (6 - 40 MeV, 1 - 4 kA, 2 μs beam pulse, sub millimeter beam position accuracy.) The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (< 20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt position measurements.

  8. R & D of a Gas-Filled RF Beam Profile Monitor for Intense Neutrino Beam Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonehara, K. [Fermilab; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Moretti, A. [Fermilab; Tollestrup, A. V. [Fermilab; Watts, A. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Abrams, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Cummings, M. A.; Dudas, A. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. P. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Kazakevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neubauer, M. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Liu, Q. [Case Western Reserve U.

    2017-05-01

    We report the R&D of a novel radiation-robust hadron beam profile monitor based on a gas-filled RF cavity for intense neutrino beam experiments. An equivalent RF circuit model was made and simulated to optimize the RF parameter in a wide beam intensity range. As a result, the maximum acceptable beam intensity in the monitor is significantly increased by using a low-quality factor RF cavity. The plan for the demonstration test is set up to prepare for future neutrino beam experiments.

  9. Measurement of secondary radiation during ion beam therapy with the pixel detector Timepix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martišíková, Mária; Jakubek, Jan; Granja, Carlos; Hartmann, Bernadette; Opálka, Lukáš; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Jäkel, Oliver

    2011-11-01

    In ion beam therapy the finite range of the ion beams in tissue and the presence of the Bragg-peak are exploited. Unpredictable changes in the patient`s condition can alter the range of the ion beam in the body. Therefore it is desired to verify the actual ion range during the treatment, preferably in a non-invasive way. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used successfully to monitor the applied dose distributions. This method however suffers from limited applicability and low detection efficiency. In order to increase the detection efficiency and to decrease the uncertainties, in this study we investigate the possibility to measure secondary charged particles emerging from the patient during irradiation. An initial experimental study to register the particle radiation coming out of a patient phantom during the therapy was performed at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) in Germany. A static narrowly-focused beam of carbon ions was directed into a head phantom. The emerging secondary radiation was measured with the position-sensitive Timepix detector outside of the phantom. The detector, developed by the Medipix Collaboration, consists of a silicon sensor bump bonded to a pixelated readout chip (256 × 256 pixels with 55 μm pitch). Together with the USB-based readout interface, Timepix can operate as an active nuclear emulsion registering single particles online with 2D-track visualization. In this contribution we measured the signal behind the head phantom and investigated its dependence on the beam energy (corresponding to beam range in water 2-30 cm). Furthermore, the response was measured at four angles between 0 and 90 degrees. At all investigated energies some signal was registered. Its pattern corresponds to ions. Differences in the total amount of signal for different beam energies were observed. The time-structure of the signal is correlated with that of the incoming beam, showing that we register products of prompt processes. Such

  10. Measurement of secondary radiation during ion beam therapy with the pixel detector Timepix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martišíková, Mária; Hartmann, Bernadette; Jäkel, Oliver; Jakubek, Jan; Granja, Carlos; Opálka, Lukáš; Pospíšil, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    In ion beam therapy the finite range of the ion beams in tissue and the presence of the Bragg-peak are exploited. Unpredictable changes in the patient's condition can alter the range of the ion beam in the body. Therefore it is desired to verify the actual ion range during the treatment, preferably in a non-invasive way. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used successfully to monitor the applied dose distributions. This method however suffers from limited applicability and low detection efficiency. In order to increase the detection efficiency and to decrease the uncertainties, in this study we investigate the possibility to measure secondary charged particles emerging from the patient during irradiation. An initial experimental study to register the particle radiation coming out of a patient phantom during the therapy was performed at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) in Germany. A static narrowly-focused beam of carbon ions was directed into a head phantom. The emerging secondary radiation was measured with the position-sensitive Timepix detector outside of the phantom. The detector, developed by the Medipix Collaboration, consists of a silicon sensor bump bonded to a pixelated readout chip (256 × 256 pixels with 55 μm pitch). Together with the USB-based readout interface, Timepix can operate as an active nuclear emulsion registering single particles online with 2D-track visualization. In this contribution we measured the signal behind the head phantom and investigated its dependence on the beam energy (corresponding to beam range in water 2–30 cm). Furthermore, the response was measured at four angles between 0 and 90 degrees. At all investigated energies some signal was registered. Its pattern corresponds to ions. Differences in the total amount of signal for different beam energies were observed. The time-structure of the signal is correlated with that of the incoming beam, showing that we register products of prompt processes. Such

  11. LAMPF experimental-area beam current monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper summarizes the design and operational performance of a wide- range current monitor system used to measure charged-particle currents in the experimental areas of the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), a proton accelerator. The major features of the system are high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and the ability to withstand high levels of radiation. The current pulses detected are from 50 μs to 1 ms in duration at repetition rates of from 1 to 120 Hz. The pulse amplitude varies from 1 μA to 17 mA of protons or H - ions. Both real-time and integrated outputs are available, and the minimum detectable currents are 1 μA at the video output and 50 nA at the integrated output. The basic system is comprised of toroids, preamplifiers, signal conditioners, voltage-to-frequency converters, and digital accumulators. The entire system is spread out over 1 km of beam pipe. Provision is made for calibration and for sending the outputs to remote users. The system is normally controlled by a small digital computer, which allows the system to be quite flexible in operation. The design features of the toroids and the associated electronics are discussed in detail, with emphasis on the steps taken to reduce noise and make the toroids temperature and radiation resistant

  12. B-dot monitor for intense electron beam measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Li Hong; Chen Nan; Gao Feng; Wang Yongwei; Wang Liping

    2009-01-01

    Azimuthal arrays of B-dot loops are often used to measure the time-resolved beam centroid position of a pulsed, intense electron beam propagating in a metallic tube. This paper describes the designing principle, parameters and calibration of the B-dot monitors. According to the beam current pulse rise time, fall time and the pulse width, the B-dot is designed to work as a differential loop, the loop inductance is about 60 nH. The B-dot monitor's sensitivity and the displacement curve are calibrated in the test stand. The sensitivity of the B-dots and the passive RC integrator is averagely 4 147 A/V, integrate constant is about 1 μs. The B-dot monitors are used to measure the Dragon-I electron beam and the experimental results show that the B-dot monitors can measure the beam current and centroid position accurately. (authors)

  13. An Electron-Beam Profile Monitor Using Fresnel Zone Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Norio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Iida, Kensuke; Shinoe, Kenji; Takaki, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masami; Hayano, Hitoshi; Muto, Toshiya; Nomura, Masaharu; Kamiya, Yukihide; Koseki, Tadashi; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Nobutada; Nakayama, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a beam profile monitor using two Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) at the KEK-ATF (Accelerator Test Facility) damping ring to measure small electron-beam sizes for low-emittance synchrotron radiation sources. The monitor has a structure of an X-ray microscope, where two FZPs constitute an X-ray imaging optics. In the monitor system, the synchrotron radiation from the electron beam at the bending magnet is monochromatized to 3.235-keV X-rays by a crystal monochromator and the transverse electron-beam image is twenty-times magnified by the two FZPs and detected on an X-ray CCD camera. This monitor has the following advantages: (1) high spatial resolution, (2) non-destructive measurement, (3) real-time monitoring, and (4) direct electron-beam imaging. With the beam profile monitor, we have succeeded in obtaining a clear electron-beam image and measuring the extremely small beam size less than 10 μm. The measured magnification of the imaging optics was in good agreement with the design value

  14. Non-destructive beam profile monitor at HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.; Araki, N.; Hosaka, M.

    1995-01-01

    Non-destructive profile monitors (NDPM), based on micro-channel plate (MCP), have been developed and installed in both the synchrotron ring and high-energy beam transport (HEBT) line at HIMAC. Beam test using these monitors have been carried out since April of 1995 to investigate a change of vertical beam size in synchrotron and a possibility of observing beam with high energy by one pass. In this paper the measurement system is mainly reported, and the preliminary results are also briefly presented. (author)

  15. Segmented ionization chambers for beam monitoring in hadrontherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braccini, Saverio; Cirio, Roberto; Donetti, Marco; Marchetto, Flavio; Pittà, Giuseppe; Lavagno, Marco; La Rosa, Vanessa

    2015-06-01

    Segmented ionization chambers represent a good solution to monitor the position, the intensity and the shape of ion beams in hadrontherapy. Pixel and strip chambers have been developed for both passive scattering and active scanning dose delivery systems. In particular, strip chambers are optimal for pencil beam scanning, allowing for spatial and time resolutions below 0.1 mm and 1 ms, respectively. The MATRIX pixel and the Strip Accurate Monitor for Beam Applications (SAMBA) detectors are described in this paper together with the results of several beam tests and industrial developments based on these prototypes.

  16. Charge-exchange reactions with a secondary triton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Sherrill, B M; Austin, S M; Bazin, D; Berg, A; Berg, G P A; Caggiano, J; Daito, I; Fujimura, H; Fujita, Y; Fujiwara, M; Hara, K; Harakeh, M N; Jänecke, J; Kawabata, T; Navin, A; Roberts, D A; Steiner, M

    1999-01-01

    A secondary triton beam from fragmentation of 560-MeV alpha-particles has been used in a high-resolution (t, sup 3 He) charge-exchange experiment at intermediate bombarding energies. The experiment was carried out at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory using a sup 4 He beam from the K1200 cyclotron. The radioactive triton beam of (0.5-1.0)x10 sup 6 particles/s with a mean energy of 350 MeV was produced in a production target of the A1200 fragment separator and transported to the target position of the S800 magnetic spectrometer. Ray-tracing and dispersion-matching techniques were employed to detect sup 3 He particles from the sup 1 sup 2 C(t, sup 3 He) sup 1 sup 2 B reaction near 0 deg. . An energy resolution of DELTA E approx 160 keV or DELTA E/E approx 4.6x10 sup - sup 4 (FWHM) was achieved. This is an improvement over our previous results and opens the possibility for studying high-resolution (n,p)-type reactions at intermediate bombarding energies. (author)

  17. Beam position monitor data acquisition for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Kahana, E.; Votaw, A.J.; Decker, G.A.; Chung, Y.; Ciarlette, D.J.; Laird, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data acquisition scheme for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The storage ring contains 360 beam position monitors distributed around its 1104-meter circumference. The beam position monitor data acquisition system is capable of making turn-by-turn measurements of all BPMs simultaneously. It is VXI-based with each VXI crate containing the electronics for 9 BPMS. The VXI Local Bus is used to provide sustained data transfer rates of up to 13 mega-transfers per second to a scanner module. The system provides single-bunch tracking, bunch-to-bunch measurements, fast digital-averaged positions, beam position history buffering, and synchronized multi-turn measurements. Data is accessible to the control system VME crates via an MXI bus. Dedicated high-speed ports are provided to supply position data to beam orbit feedback systems.

  18. Beam position monitor data acquisition for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Kahana, E.; Votaw, A.J.; Decker, G.A.; Chung, Y.; Ciarlette, D.J.; Laird, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data acquisition scheme for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The storage ring contains 360 beam position monitors distributed around its 1104-meter circumference. The beam position monitor data acquisition system is capable of making turn-by-turn measurements of all BPMs simultaneously. It is VXI-based with each VXI crate containing the electronics for 9 BPMS. The VXI Local Bus is used to provide sustained data transfer rates of up to 13 mega-transfers per second to a scanner module. The system provides single-bunch tracking, bunch-to-bunch measurements, fast digital-averaged positions, beam position history buffering, and synchronized multi-turn measurements. Data is accessible to the control system VME crates via an MXI bus. Dedicated high-speed ports are provided to supply position data to beam orbit feedback systems.

  19. Simulations of LEIR Injection Line Beam Position Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Maltseva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    In this paper sensitivity characteristics of a beam position monitor are described. Characteristics are obtained during the simulations in CST Studio, the results are compared with the calculated values. The results for a low-beta beam and with a wire are compared.

  20. Secondary beam line phase space measurement and modeling at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, R.; Harrison, J.; Macek, R.; Sanders, G.

    1979-01-01

    Hardware and software have been developed for precision on-line measurement and fitting of secondary beam line phase space parameters. A system consisting of three MWPC planes for measuring particle trajectories, in coincidence with a time-of-flight telescope and a range telescope for particle identification, has been interfaced to a computer. Software has been developed for on-line track reconstruction, application of experimental cuts, and fitting of two-dimensional phase space ellipses for each particle species. The measured distributions have been found to agree well with the predictions of the Monte Carlo program DECAY TURTLE. The fitted phase space ellipses are a useful input to optimization routines, such as TRANSPORT, used to search for superior tunes. Application of this system to the LAMPF Stopped Muon Channel is described

  1. Spill control and intensity monitoring for the Bevatron--Bevalac external particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barale, J.J.; Crebbin, K.C.

    1975-03-01

    Time-intensity modulation in beam spill can be of primary concern in some experiments. The major source of this beam structure is from main-guide field-magnet power supply ripple. If the time constants are appropriate, then final control of beam structure can be accomplished by closed loop control of the intensity of beam spill. The response characteristics of the feedback system will determine the final structure. At high beam fluxes signal to noise ratio of beam detectors, in the feedback loop, can be improved by at least four orders of magnitude by using photomultiplier tubes and a water Cherenkov counter in place of the normal secondary emission monitor. At beam fluxes below 10 10 particles per second (PPS), a plastic scintillator and photomultiplier tube are used in the feedback system. A plastic scintillator and photomultiplier are also used in the beam as intensity monitors. At intensities below about 10 7 PPS standard counting techniques are used. For intensities between 10 6 to 110 9 PPS, the photomultiplier is used as a current source driving an integrating circuit which is then calibrated to read the number of particles per pulse. (U.S.)

  2. Magnet power supply and beam line control for a secondary beam line K6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Takasaki, M.; Minakawa, M.; Ishii, H.; Kato, Y.; Ieiri, M.; Tanaka, K.H.; Noumi, H.; Yamanoi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    K6 is a secondary separated-beam line with momentum range up to 2.0 GeV/c in the north experimental hall at the KEK 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (KEK-PS). On the construction, newly developed magnet power supplies (MPSs), in each of them a microprocessor is embedded, are introduced. The features of the MPS are as follows: 1, The MPS is connected to an upper-level beam line controller (BLC) by GPIB highway for exchanging simple messages. 2, All the operations of the MPS are supervised by the microprocessor, which has its individual parameters and fault messages. It reduces the load of the upper-level controller. 3, The MPS has functions to inspect itself and to report the result. It saves much time and labor of maintenance. (author)

  3. The SPS Beam quality monitor, from design to operation

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, G; Follin, F; Shaposhnikova, E

    2011-01-01

    The SPS Beam Quality Monitor is a system that monitors longitudinal beam parameters on a cycle-by-cycle basis and prevents extraction to the LHC in case the specifications are not met. This avoids losses, unnecessary stress of machine protection components and luminosity degradation, additionally helping efficiency during the filling process. The system has been operational since the 2009 LHC run, checking the beam pattern, its correct position with respect to the LHC references, individual bunch lengths and stability. In this paper the algorithms used, the hardware implementation and the operational aspects are presented.

  4. Beam position monitor using a reentrant coaxial cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, R.

    1991-01-01

    A special beam position monitor is used in the enlarged straight sections of the SPS accelerator at CERN, in order to measure the position of the proton beam bunched at 200 MHz. A reentrant coaxial cavity connected to the circular vacuum chamber acts as shunt impedance for measuring the wall currents induced by the beam on the vacuum chamber. The coaxial cavity works at 200 MHz much below it's resonance frequency. Both the horizontal and vertical beam position can be measured by four orthogonal signal ports. A good response of the beam position monitor has been obtained as for signal power, precision of centre position, linearity of the position measurement and decoupling between horizontal and vertical position measurement. The total position error ε amounts to ε≤±0.6 mm±0.01 x, where x is the distance of the beam centre from the monitor centre, measured along the x-axis, for horizontal and vertical beam positions up to 60 mm. This paper describes the analysis of the reentrant coaxial cavity and it's application as a position monitor at very high frequencies. (author)

  5. Single-electrode monitors for relativistic intense electron beam parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratienko, V.A.; Khorenko, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    A single-electrode monitor operating in atmosphere on delta-electrons for precision measurement of high-intensity electron beams is developed. As an emitter is used a 0.2 mm aluminium foil with a hole which is a replica of the sample subjected to radiation. The electric charge from the emitter is recorded by a current integrator. The single-electrode monitor enabled to form a 225 MeV electron beam with a flux density of 5x10 15 electrons/ (cm 2 and confine the latter for 140 hours with an accuracy of +- 0.2 mm. Controlling the beam shifting by means of the single-electrode monitor described, it is possible to measure the real dimensions and density distributions of high-intensity electron beams

  6. The development of beam current monitors in the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Lenkszus, F.; Rotela, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation 7-GeV synchrotron radiation source. The precision measurement of beam current is a challenging task in high energy accelerators, such as the APS, with a wide range of beam parameters and complicated noise, radiation, and thermal environments. The beam pulses in the APS injector and storage ring have charge ranging from 50pC to 25nC with pulse durations varying from 30ps to 30ns. A total of nine non- intercepting beam current monitors have been installed in the APS facility (excluding those in the linac) for general current measurement. In addition, several independent current monitors with specially designed redundant interlock electronics are installed for personnel safety and machine protection. This paper documents the design and development of current monitors in the APS,. discusses the commissioning experience in the past year, and presents the results of recent operations

  7. Ultraviolet laser beam monitor using radiation responsive crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Michael P.; Chen, Chung H.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for monitoring an ultraviolet laser beam includes disposing in the path of an ultraviolet laser beam a substantially transparent crystal that will produce a color pattern in response to ultraviolet radiation. The crystal is exposed to the ultraviolet laser beam and a color pattern is produced within the crystal corresponding to the laser beam intensity distribution therein. The crystal is then exposed to visible light, and the color pattern is observed by means of the visible light to determine the characteristics of the laser beam that passed through crystal. In this manner, a perpendicular cross sectional intensity profile and a longitudinal intensity profile of the ultraviolet laser beam may be determined. The observation of the color pattern may be made with forward or back scattered light and may be made with the naked eye or with optical systems such as microscopes and television cameras.

  8. A phase-space beam position monitor for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadi, Nazanin; Bassey, Bassey; Martinson, Mercedes; Belev, George; Dallin, Les; Jong, Mark de; Chapman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    A system has been developed to measure the vertical position and angle of the electron beam at a single location from a synchrotron source. The system uses a monochromator tuned to the absorption edge of a contrast material and has a sensitivity comparable with other beam position monitors. The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam’s position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam’s position in phase space. X-ray diffraction is commonly used to prepare monochromatic beams on X-ray beamlines usually in the form of a double-crystal monochromator. Diffraction couples the photon wavelength or energy to the incident angle on the lattice planes within the crystal. The beam from such a monochromator will contain a spread of energies due to the vertical divergence of the photon beam from the source. This range of energies can easily cover the absorption edge of a filter element such as iodine at 33.17 keV. A vertical profile measurement of the photon beam footprint with and without the filter can be used to determine the vertical centroid position and angle of the photon beam. In the measurements described here an imaging detector is used to measure these vertical profiles with an iodine filter that horizontally covers part of the monochromatic beam. The goal was to investigate the use of a combined monochromator, filter and detector as a phase-space beam position monitor. The system was tested for sensitivity to position and angle under a number of synchrotron operating conditions, such as normal operations and special operating modes where the photon beam is intentionally altered

  9. Fast beam condition monitor for CMS. Performance and upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Jessica L.; Bell, Alan; Burtowy, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The CMS beam and radiation monitoring subsystem BCM1F (Fast Beam Condition Monitor) consists of 8 individual diamond sensors situated around the beam pipe within the pixel detector volume, for the purpose of fast bunch-by-bunch monitoring of beam background and collision products. In addition, effort is ongoing to use BCM1F as an online luminosity monitor. BCM1F will be running whenever there is beam in LHC, and its data acquisition is independent from the data acquisition of the CMS detector, hence it delivers luminosity even when CMS is not taking data. A report is given on the performance of BCM1F during LHC run I, including results of the van der Meer scan and on-line luminosity monitoring done in 2012. In order to match the requirements due to higher luminosity and 25 ns bunch spacing, several changes to the system must be implemented during the upcoming shutdown, including upgraded electronics and precise gain monitoring. First results from Run II preparation are shown.

  10. Fast Beam Condition Monitor for CMS: performance and upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00009152; Bell, Alan; Burtowy, Piotr; Dabrowski, Anne; Hempel, Maria; Henschel, Hans; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Odell, Nathaniel; Penno, Marek; Pollack, Brian; Przyborowski, Dominik; Ryjov, Vladimir; Stickland, David; Walsh, Roberval; Warzycha, Weronika; Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka

    2014-11-21

    The CMS beam and radiation monitoring subsystem BCM1F (Fast Beam Condition Monitor) consists of 8 individual diamond sensors situated around the beam pipe within the pixel detector volume, for the purpose of fast bunch-by-bunch monitoring of beam background and collision products. In addition, effort is ongoing to use BCM1F as an online luminosity monitor. BCM1F will be running whenever there is beam in LHC, and its data acquisition is independent from the data acquisition of the CMS detector, hence it delivers luminosity even when CMS is not taking data. A report is given on the performance of BCM1F during LHC run I, including results of the van der Meer scan and on-line luminosity monitoring done in 2012. In order to match the requirements due to higher luminosity and 25 ns bunch spacing, several changes to the system must be implemented during the upcoming shutdown, including upgraded electronics and precise gain monitoring. First results from Run II preparation are shown.

  11. Beam-current monitor for FMIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, D.D.; Brousseau, A.T.

    1981-03-01

    The application of a single toroidal core, coupled with very simple circuitry, that results in the production of a simple instrument, and eliminates the problems inherent in the Faraday cup technique for the current measurements of the FMIT injector beam is described

  12. Accurate Profile Measurement of the low Intensity Secondary Beams in the CERN Experimental Areas

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084531; Tranquille, Gerard

    2018-02-23

    The CERN accelerators deliver a wide spectrum of secondary beams to the Experimental Areas. These beams are composed of hadrons, leptons, and heavy ions that can vary greatly in momentum (1 GeV/c to 400 GeV/c) and intensity (10^2 to 10^8 particles per second). The profile, position, and intensity of these beams are measured utilising particle detectors. However, the current systems show several problems that limit the quality of this kind of monitoring. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to investigate the best detector technology that could replace the existing monitors and build a first prototype of it. A review of the existing detection techniques has led to the choice of Scintillating Fibres (SciFi) read-out with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). This detection technology has the potential to perform better in terms of material budget, range of intensities measured, and active area size. In addition, it has particle counting capabilities, which could extend its application to momentum spectrometry or Time...

  13. Design and characterization of a prototype stripline beam position monitor for the Clic Drive Beam*

    CERN Document Server

    Benot-Morell, A; Wendt, M; Nappa, J M; Tassan-Viol, J; Vilalte, S; Smith, S

    2012-01-01

    The prototype of a stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM) with its associated readout electronics is under development at CERN, in collaboration with SLAC, LAPP and IFIC. The anticipated position resolution and accuracy are expected to be below 2μm and 20μm respectively for operation of the BPM in the CLIC drive beam (DB) linac. This paper describes the particular CLIC DB conditions with respect to the beam position monitoring, presents the measurement concept, and summarizes electromagnetic simulations and RF measurements performed on the prototype.

  14. Beam Loss Monitors for NSLS-II Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Cameron, P.

    2011-01-01

    The shielding for the NSLS-II storage ring will provide adequate protection for the full injected beam losses in two cells of the ring around the injection point, but the remainder of the ring is shielded for lower losses of <10% top-off injection beam current. This will require a system to insure that beam losses do not exceed levels for a period of time that could cause excessive radiation exposure outside the shield walls. This beam Loss Control and Monitoring system will have beam loss monitors that will measure where the beam charge is lost around the ring, to warn operators if losses approach the design limits. To measure the charge loss quantitatively, we propose measuring the electron component of the shower as beam electrons hit the vacuum chamber (VC) wall. This will be done using the Cerenkov light as electrons transit ultra-pure fused silica rods placed close to the inner edge of the VC. The entire length of the rod will collect light from the electrons of the spread out shower resulting from the small glancing angle of the lost beam particles to the VC wall. The design and measurements results of the prototype Cerenkov BLM will be presented.

  15. Analytical & Experimental Study of Radio Frequency Cavity Beam Profile Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, Mario D. [Fermilab; Yonehara, Katsuya [Fermilab

    2017-10-22

    The purpose of this analytical and experimental study is multifold: 1) To explore a new, radiation-robust, hadron beam profile monitor for intense neutrino beam applications; 2) To test, demonstrate, and develop a novel gas-filled Radio-Frequency (RF) cavity to use in this monitoring system. Within this context, the first section of the study analyzes the beam distribution across the hadron monitor as well as the ion-production rate inside the RF cavity. Furthermore a more effecient pixel configuration across the hadron monitor is proposed to provide higher sensitivity to changes in beam displacement. Finally, the results of a benchtop test of the tunable quality factor RF cavity will be presented. The proposed hadron monitor configuration consists of a circular array of RF cavities located at a radial distance of 7cm { corresponding to the standard deviation of the beam due to scatering { and a gas-filled RF cavity with a quality factor in the range 400 - 800.

  16. The LANSCE Low Momentum Beam Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Merl, R

    2004-01-01

    A diagnostic has been developed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for the purpose of identifying low momentum beam tails in the linear accelerator. These tails must be eliminated in order to maintain the transverse and longitudinal beam size. Instead of the currently used phosphor camera system, this instrument consists of a Multi Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) front end coupled to an EPICS compliant VME-based electronics package. Low momentum tails are detected with a resolution of 5 mm in the MWPC at a high dispersion point near a bending magnet. While phosphor is typically not sensitive in the nano amp range, the MWPC is sensitive down to about a pico amp. The electronics package processes the signals from each of the MWPC wires to generate an array of beam currents at each of the lower energies. The electronics has an analog front end with a high-speed analog to digital converter for each wire. Data from multiple wires are processed with an embedded digital signal processor and results p...

  17. Carbon filament beam profile monitor for high energy proton-antiproton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.R.; Shafer, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The measurement of the evolution of the transverse profile of the stored beams in high energy proton storage rings such as the p-anti p colliders at CERN and at FNAL is of considerable importance. In the present note, a simple monitor is discussed which will allow almost non-destructive measurement of the profile of each individual proton and antiproton bunch separately. It is based on the flying wire technique first used at CEA and more recently at the CPS. A fine carbon filament is passed quickly through the beam, acting as a target for secondary particle production. The flux of secondary particles is measured by two scintillator telescopes, one for protons and one for antiprotons, having an angular acceptance between 30 and 100 mrad. Measurements of secondary particle production performed at FNAL in this angular range show that a very respectable flux can be expected

  18. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  19. Proposal for secondary ion beams and update of data taking schedule for 2009-2013

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N; Andrieu, B; Anticic, T; Antoniou, N; Argyriades, J; Asryan, A G; Baatar, B; Blondel, A; Blumer, J; Boldizsar, L; Bravar, A; Brzychczyk, J; Bunyatov, S A; Choi, K U; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Cleymans, J; Derkach, D A; Diakonos, F; Dominik, W; Dumarchez, J; Engel, R; Ereditato, A; Feofilov, G A; Ferrero, A; Fodor, Z; Gazdzicki, M; Golubeva, M; Grebieszkow, K; Guber, F; Hasegawa, T; Haungs, A; Hess, M; Igolkin, S; Ivanov, A S; Ivashkin, A; Kadija, K; Katrynska, N; Kielczewska, D; Kikola, D; Kim, J H; Kobayashi, T; Kolesnikov, V I; Kolev, D; Kolevatov, R S; Kondratiev, V P; Kurepin, A; Lacey, R; Laszlo, A; Lehmann, S; Lungwitz, B; Lyubushkin, V V; Maevskaya, A; Majka, Z; Malakhov, A I; Marchionni, A; Marcinek, A; Maris, I; Matveev, V; Melkumov, G L; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Meurer, C; Mijakowski, P; Mitrovski, M; Montaruli, T; Mrówczynski, St; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Naumenko, P A; Nikolic, V; Nishikawa, K; Palczewski, T; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Peryt, W; Petridis, A; Planeta, R; Pluta, J; Popov, B A; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Rauch, W; Ravonel, M; Renfordt, R; Röhrich, D; Rondio, E; Rossi, B; Roth, M; Rubbia, A; Rybczynski, M; Sadovskii, A; Sakashita, K; Schuster, T; Sekiguchi, T; Seyboth, P; Shileev, K; Sissakian, A N; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Sorin, A S; Staszel, P; Stefanek, G; Stepaniak, J; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Szuba, M; Taranenko, A; Tsenov, R; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V V; Vesztergombi, G; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek, A; Yi, J G; Yoo, I K; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the proposal for secondary ion beams and the updated data taking schedule of the NA61 Collaboration. The modification of the original NA61 plans is necessary in order to reach compatibility between the current I-LHC and NA61 schedules. It assumes delivery of primary proton beam in 2009-2012 and of primary lead beam in 2011-2013. The primary lead beam will be fragmented into a secondary beam of lighter ions. The modified H2 beam line will serve as a fragment separator to produce the light ion species for NA61 data taking. The expected physics performance of the NA61 experiment with secondary ion beams will be sufficient to reach the primary NA61 physics goals.

  20. Thickness optimization and activity induction in beam slit monitor for Indus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petwal, V.C.; Pramod, R.; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Senecha, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    A large number of beam slit monitors are planned to be installed in the TL-2 and TL-3 of Indus for probing the 450 MeV and 700 MeV electron beams. The beam slit monitor consists of 2 pairs of metallic blades, mounted in orthogonal direction and shall be installed inside the beam chamber. These shutters provide current signals, on interception with electron beam, which can be used to determine precisely beam position, shape and size. The physical dimensions of the shutter blades are of crucial importance due to the requirement of high resolution, accuracy and space constraints. As part of design study of beam slit monitors, Monte Carlo simulation using MCNP code has been performed to investigate the radiological characteristics of the suitable blade materials e.g. Cu, Ta, W, and Inermet. The thickness has been optimised to absorb 90% of electron beam. The power density profiles along thickness and radial direction have been simulated to carry out thermal design. The high energy electron beam on interception with shutter blade develops cascading shower, containing secondary particles such as photons, photoneutrons, pions, and muons etc, which induce radioactivity in shutter material as well in the surrounding components. The state of the art Monte Carlo Code FLUKA has been used to estimate the amount of the activity induced in the shutter blade. In the first step, the FLUKA calculations are compared with data reported in IAEA TRS 188 for Cu, W target in the energy range 15 - 35 MeV, which shows good agreement. In second step, these calculations are extended to estimate induced activity in the shutter blade at actual electron energy 450 MeV and 700 MeV. (author)

  1. Ionization beam profile monitor for operation under hard environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterev, Yu.G.; Kaminski, G.; Phi Thanh Huong; Kaminski, G.; Kozik, E.

    2010-01-01

    The design and the performance of the Ionization Beam Profile Monitor (IBPM) operating on the residual gas ionization principle are described. The main advantage of the constructed device is the non-contact measuring method. Operating under hard environmental conditions it delivers the information about the primary beam position, profile and intensity in 'on-line' regime. It was found out that the device is capable to operate in vacuum in the range of 10 -6 /10 -3 mbar without the loss of the resolution power at the beam current as low as a few nA. The IBPM is prospective for beam profile monitoring due to long time. Emergency situations do not lead to decrease of its operability.

  2. Impedance simulations and measurements on the LHC collimators with embedded beam position monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Biancacci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The LHC collimation system is a critical element for the safe operation of the LHC machine. The necessity of fast accurate positioning of the collimator’s jaws, recently introduced the need to have button beam position monitors directly embedded in the jaws extremities of the LHC tertiary collimators and some secondary collimators. This addition led to a new design of these collimators including ferrites to damp higher order modes instead of rf fingers. In this work we will present the impedance bench measurements and simulations on a TCT (Transverse Tertiary Collimator prototype including estimations for beam stability for the LHC.

  3. Development of Beam Conditions Monitor for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dolenc Kittelmann, Irena; Mikuž, M

    2008-01-01

    If there is a failure in an element of the accelerator the resulting beam losses could cause damage to the inner tracking devices of the experiments. This thesis presents the work performed during the development phase of a protection system for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM) system is a stand-alone system designed to detect early signs of beam instabilities and trigger a beam abort in case of beam failures. It consists of two detector stations positioned at z=±1.84m from the interaction point. Each station comprises four BCM detector modules installed symmetrically around the beam pipe with sensors located at r=55 mm. This structure will allow distinguishing between anomalous events (beam gas and beam halo interactions, beam instabilities) and normal events due to proton-proton interaction by measuring the time-of-flight as well as the signal pulse amplitude from detector modules on the timescale of nanoseconds. Additionally, the BCM system aims to provide a coarse instan...

  4. Performance of an rf beam monitor on the NBS-Los Alamos racetrack microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.M.; Cutler, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    A prototype rf beam-position, current, and phase monitor has been used on the 100-keV injector beamline of the racetrack microtron (RTM) where performance was measured with the chopped and bunched beam. This monitor works with both a pulsed beam and a cw beam. The pulsed beam consists of beam pulses with a FWHM of 40 ns. The rf beam monitor was tested with beam currents from approx. 50 to 600 μA. The rf beam monitor will be described and its performance will be reported. 6 refs., 5 figs

  5. Design of the AGS Booster beam position monitor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Ciardullo, D.J.; Savino, J.; Stanziani, V.; Thomas, R.; Van Zwienen, W.; Witkover, R.L.; Schulte, E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1989-01-01

    The AGS Booster beam position monitor system must cover a wide range of beam intensity and bunch length for proton and heavy ion acceleration. The detector is designed to maintain 0.1 mm local tolerance following 300{degree}C bakeout. The electronics will be located in the tunnel, communicating via fiber optic links to avoid ground loops. The design will be described and test results for prototype units presented. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Cherenkov Fibers for Beam Loss Monitoring at the CLIC Two Beam Module

    CERN Document Server

    van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Holzer, E B

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study is a feasibility study aiming at a nominal center of mass energy of 3TeV and is based on normal conducting travelling-wave accelerating structures, operating at very high field gradients of 100 MV/m. Such high fields require high peak power and hence a novel power source, the CLIC two beam system, has been developed, in which a high intensity, low energy drive beam (DB) supplies energy to a high energy, low intensity main beam (MB). At the Two Beam Modules (TBM), which compose the 2x21km long CLIC main linac, a protection against beam losses resulting from badly controlled beams is necessary and particularly challenging, since the beam power of both main beam (14 MW) and drive beam (70 MW) is impressive. To avoid operational downtimes and severe damages to machine components, a general Machine Protection System (MPS) scheme has been developed. The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is a key element of the CLIC machine protection system. Its main role will be to detect p...

  7. Beam monitors and transverse feedback system of TRISTAN Main Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieiri, T.; Ishii, H.; Kishiro, J.; Mizumachi, Y.; Mori, K.; Nakajima, K.; Ogata, A.; Shintake, T.; Tejima, M.

    1987-01-01

    The construction of 30 GeV TRISTAN Main Ring (MR) started in 1983 soon after the commissioning of 8 GeV Accumulation Ring (AR). The authors prepared 392 position monitors, 6 synchrotron radiation monitors, 9 screen monitors, 2 DCCT's, 3 scrapers, 12 bunch monitors, transverse feedback systems for two beams and DC separators. Since the required monitoring devices of AR and MR are almost the same, the experiences in AR were very useful in the design of MR monitors. However, machine parameters of two rings are very different and the authors had to review the performance of each item. From the monitor point of view the most important is the difference of revolution frequency; 794.6 kHz for AR and 99.33 kHz for MR. This means that average beam current of MR is 1/8 as small as AR current with the same bunch number and intensity. Therefore, the sensitivity of each monitor must be better in MR. The second difference is that MR should be used as a collider from the beginning. Therefore they must prepare for multi-beam and multi-bunch operation

  8. Low and high intensity beam monitoring and tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Lietti, D.; Bolognini, D.; Colombo, J.; Hasan, S.; Mattera, A.; Mozzanica, A.; Prest, M.; Schmitt, B.; Vallazza, E.

    Several detector types have been designed and assembled in order to monitor charged particle beams in a wide range of intensities: silicon microstrip detectors for high precision tracking (spatial resolution better than 5 μm), a scintillating fiber tracker with multianode photomultiplier readout for coarse but fast monitoring, a microstrip silicon detector readout by a counting ASIC to monitor very high intensity beams. These detectors and their readout electronics have been characterized at the BTF (Beam Test Facility) of the INFN National Laboratories of Frascati and used on the H8 line at the CERN SPS as tracking media for the data taking of the H8RD22 collaboration. The paper describes the results obtained in terms of spatial resolution and maximum counting rates.

  9. Electronics and Calibration system for the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Nicolò; Fabbri, Franco L; Finkel, Alexey; Orfanelli, Stella; Loos, R; Montanari, Alessandro; Rusack, R; Stickland, David P

    2014-01-01

    In the context of increasing luminosity of LHC, it will be important to accurately measure the Machine Induced Background. A new monitoring system will be installed in the cavern of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment for measuring the beam background at high radius. This detector is composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators, coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The readout chain of this detector will make use of many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadron Calorimeter electronics, with a dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal will be digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics will record bunch-by-bunch histograms, which will be published to CMS and the LHC using the newly designed CMS beam instrumentation specific DAQ. A calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate triggered pulses of...

  10. Charged particle beam current monitoring tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, R.C.

    1994-10-01

    A tutorial presentation is made on topics related to the measurement of charged particle beam currents. The fundamental physics of electricity and magnetism pertinent to the problem is reviewed. The physics is presented with a stress on its interpretation from an electrical circuit theory point of view. The operation of devices including video pulse current transformers, direct current transformers, and gigahertz bandwidth wall current style transformers is described. Design examples are given for each of these types of devices. Sensitivity, frequency response, and physical environment are typical parameters which influence the design of these instruments in any particular application. Practical engineering considerations, potential pitfalls, and performance limitations are discussed

  11. Characterization of a nondestructive beam profile monitor using luminescent emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Variola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The LHC (large hadron collider [LHC study group: LHC. The large hadron collider conceptual design; CERN/AC/95-05] is the future p-p collider under construction at CERN, Geneva. Over a circumference of 26.7 km a set of cryogenic dipoles and rf cavities will store and accelerate proton and ion beams up to energies of the order of 7 TeV. Injection in LHC will be performed by the CERN complex of accelerators, starting from the source and passing through the linac, the four booster rings, the proton synchrotron (PS, and super proton synchrotron (SPS accelerators. One of the main constraints on LHC performance is emittance preservation along the whole chain of CERN accelerators. The accepted relative normalized emittance blowup after filamentation is ±7%. To monitor the beam and the emittance blowup process, a study of different prototypes of nonintercepting beam profile monitors has been performed. In this context a monitor using the luminescent emission of gases excited by ultrarelativistic protons (450 GeV was developed and tested in the SPS ring. The results of beam size measurements and their evolution as a function of the machine parameters are presented. The image quality and resolution attainable in the LHC case have been assessed. A first full characterization of the luminescence cross section, spectrum, decay time, and afterglow effect for an ultrarelativistic proton beam is provided. Some significant results are also provided for lead ion beams.

  12. A Versatile Beam Loss Monitoring System for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Kastriotou, Maria; Farabolini, Wilfrid; Holzer, Eva Barbara; Nebot Del Busto, Eduardo; Tecker, Frank; Welsch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The design of a potential CLIC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system presents multiple challenges. To successfully cover the 48 km of beamline, ionisation chambers and optical fibre BLMs are under investigation. The former fulfils all CLIC requirements but would need more than 40000 monitors to protect the whole facility. For the latter, the capability of reconstructing the original loss position with a multi-bunch beam pulse and multiple loss locations still needs to be quantified. Two main sources of background for beam loss measurements are identified for CLIC. The two-beam accelerator scheme introduces so-called crosstalk, i.e. detection of losses originating in one beam line by the monitors protecting the other. Moreover, electrons emitted from the inner surface of RF cavities and boosted by the high RF gradients may produce signals in neighbouring BLMs, limiting their ability to detect real beam losses. This contribution presents the results of dedicated experiments performed in the CLIC Test Facility to qu...

  13. Update on beam loss monitoring at CTF3 for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, L J; Effinger, E; Holzer, E B; del Busto, E N; Mallows, S; Branger, E

    2013-01-01

    The primary role of the beam loss monitoring (BLM) system for the compact linear collider (CLIC) study is to work within the machine protection system. Due to the size of the CLIC facility, a BLM that covers large distances along the beam line is highly desirable, in particular for the CLIC drive beam decelerators, which would alternatively require some ~40,000 localised monitors. Therefore, an optical fibre BLM system is currently under investigation which can cover large sections of beam line at a time. A multimode fibre has been installed along the Test Beam Line at the CLIC test facility (CTF3) where the detection principle is based on the production of Cherenkov photons within the fibre resulting from beam loss and their subsequent transport along the fibre where they are then detected at the fibre ends using silicon photomultipliers. Several additional monitors including ACEMs, PEP-II and diamond detectors have also been installed. In this contribution the first results from the BLMs are presented, comp...

  14. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Heath A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shurter, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-10

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  15. Nonlinearities in the Response of Beam Position Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W; Matheson, B; Prochnow, J

    2000-01-01

    At the LEP e+/e- collider at CERN, Geneva, a Spectrometer is used to determine the beam energy with a relative accuracy of 10-4. The Spectrometer measures the change in bending angle in a dipole magnet, the beam trajectory being obtained using beam position monitors (BPMs), which must have an accuracy close to 1 micron in order to achieve the desired precision. The BPMs used feature an aluminium block with an elliptical aperture and capacitive pickup electrodes. The response depends on the electrode geometry and also on the shape of the monitor aperture. In addition, the size of the beam itself contributes if the beam is off-centre. The beam size varies according to the beta and dispersion functions at the Spectrometer, so that each BPM may exhibit a systematic shift of the measured beam position. We have investigated the implications of such shifts on the performance of the Spectrometer. We present analytical results, a computer model of the BPM response, and comparison with measurements. The model suggest...

  16. SLIM (SEM for Low Interception Monitoring) An Innovative Non-Destructive Beam Monitor for the Extraction Lines of a Hadrontherapy Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Badano, L; Pezzetta, M; Molinari, G

    2003-01-01

    Real time monitoring of hadrontherapy beam intensity and profile is a critical issue for the optimisation of the dose delivery to the patient carcinogenic tissue, the patient safety and the operation of the accelerator complex. For this purpose an innovative beam monitor, based on the secondary emission of electrons by a nonperturbative, sub-micron thick Al target placed directly in the extracted beam path, is being proposed. The secondary electrons, accelerated by an electrostatics focusing system, are detected by a monolithic silicon position sensitive sensor, which provides the beam intensity and its position with a precision of 1 mm at 10 kHz frame rate. The conceptual design and the engineering study optimised for hadrontherapy, together with the results of the preliminary tests of the first system prototype, will be presented.

  17. Design of the AGS Booster Beam Position Monitor electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardullo, D.J.; Smith, G.A.; Beadle, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    The operational requirements of the AGS Booster Beam Position Monitor system necessitate the use of electronics with wide dynamic range and broad instantaneous bandwidth. Bunch synchronization is provided by a remote timing sequencer coupled to the local ring electronics via digital fiber-optic links. The Sequencer and local ring circuitry work together to provide single turn trajectory or average orbit and intensity information, integrated over 1 to 225 bunches. Test capabilities are built in for the purpose of enhancing BPM system accuracy. This paper describes the design of the Booster Beam Position Monitor electronics, and presents performance details of the front end processing, acquisition and timing circuitry

  18. Application of diamond based beam loss monitors at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was conceived in the 1980s and started the operation in 2008. It needed more than 20 years to plan and construct this accelerator and its experiments. Four main experiments are located around the ring, Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), A Toroidal LHC Apparatus(ATLAS), A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) and LHC beauty (LHCb). Two beams that traveling in opposite direction in the LHC tunnel, collide in each of the experiments to study the questions: ''What is mass?'', ''What is the universe made of?'' and ''Why is there no antimatter?''. The four experiments take data of the collision products and try to answer the fundamental questions of physics. The two larger detectors, CMS and ATLAS, are looking for the Higgs boson to study the electroweak symmetry breaking. Both detectors were built with contrasting concepts to exclude potential error sources and to rea rm the results. The smaller experiment LHCb studies the matter-antimatter asymmetry with a focus of the beauty quark. Another smaller experiment is ALICE that studies the conditions right after the Big Bang by colliding heavy ions. The navigation of the beams is done by over 10000 magnets and each beam has a stored energy of 362MJ which correspond to the kinetic energy of a train like the TGV travelling of 150 km/h. Only a small percentage of that energy can damage the material in the LHC ring or the magnets. This would mean a repair time of months or years, without taking any data. To avoid such a scenario, it is important to monitor the beam condition and measure the amount of losses of the beam. Such losses can for example happen due to dust particles in the vacuum chambers or due to deviations of the beam parameters. Several systems called beam loss monitors (BLMs) can measure beam losses. This thesis concentrates on two of them, ionization chambers and diamond detectors. Over 3600 ionization chambers are installed in the LHC, especially near each quadrupole and next to

  19. Application of diamond based beam loss monitors at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Maria

    2013-04-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was conceived in the 1980s and started the operation in 2008. It needed more than 20 years to plan and construct this accelerator and its experiments. Four main experiments are located around the ring, Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), A Toroidal LHC Apparatus(ATLAS), A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) and LHC beauty (LHCb). Two beams that traveling in opposite direction in the LHC tunnel, collide in each of the experiments to study the questions: ''What is mass?'', ''What is the universe made of?'' and ''Why is there no antimatter?''. The four experiments take data of the collision products and try to answer the fundamental questions of physics. The two larger detectors, CMS and ATLAS, are looking for the Higgs boson to study the electroweak symmetry breaking. Both detectors were built with contrasting concepts to exclude potential error sources and to rea rm the results. The smaller experiment LHCb studies the matter-antimatter asymmetry with a focus of the beauty quark. Another smaller experiment is ALICE that studies the conditions right after the Big Bang by colliding heavy ions. The navigation of the beams is done by over 10000 magnets and each beam has a stored energy of 362MJ which correspond to the kinetic energy of a train like the TGV travelling of 150 km/h. Only a small percentage of that energy can damage the material in the LHC ring or the magnets. This would mean a repair time of months or years, without taking any data. To avoid such a scenario, it is important to monitor the beam condition and measure the amount of losses of the beam. Such losses can for example happen due to dust particles in the vacuum chambers or due to deviations of the beam parameters. Several systems called beam loss monitors (BLMs) can measure beam losses. This thesis concentrates on two of them, ionization chambers and diamond detectors. Over 3600 ionization chambers are installed in

  20. Apparatus for monitoring X-ray beam alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1991-10-08

    A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for monitoring alignment of an X-ray beam in an instrument employing an X-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of X-ray beam intensities from the X-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low X-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high X-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of X-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to X-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the X-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the X-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency. 2 figures.

  1. A prototype cavity beam position monitor for the CLIC Main Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Cullinany , F; Joshi, N; Lyapin, A; Bastard, D; Calvo, E; Chritin, N; Guillot-Vignot, F; Lefevre, T; Søby, L; Wendt, M; Lunin, A; Yakovlev, V P; Smith, S

    2012-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) places unprecedented demands on its diagnostics systems. A large number of cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) throughout the main linac and beam delivery system (BDS) must routinely perform with 50 nm spatial resolution. Multiple position measurements within a single 156 ns bunch train are also required. A prototype low-Q cavity beam position monitor has been designed and built to be tested on the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) probe beam. This paper presents the latest measurements of the prototype cavity BPM and the design and simulation of the radio frequency (RF) signal processing electronics with regards to the final performance. Installation of the BPM in the CTF3 probe beamline is also discussed.

  2. A laser-wire beam-energy and beam-profile monitor at the BNL linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R.; Degen, C.; DeSanto, L.; Meng, W.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Nayak, S.

    2011-03-28

    In 2009 a beam-energy monitor was installed in the high energy beam transport (HEBT) line at the Brookhaven National Lab linac. This device measures the energies of electrons stripped from the 40mA H{sup -} beam by background gas. Electrons are stripped by the 2.0x10{sup -7}torr residual gas at a rate of {approx}1.5x10{sup -8}/cm. Since beam electrons have the same velocities as beam protons, the beam proton energy is deduced by multiplying the electron energy by m{sub p}/m{sub e}=1836. A 183.6MeV H{sup -} beam produces 100keV electrons. In 2010 we installed an optics plates containing a laser and scanning optics to add beam-profile measurement capability via photodetachment. Our 100mJ/pulse, Q-switched laser neutralizes 70% of the beam during its 10ns pulse. This paper describes the upgrades to the detector and gives profile and energy measurements.

  3. The new SLS beam size monitor, first results

    CERN Document Server

    Saa Hernandez, A; Rohrer, M; Schlott, V; Streun, A; Andersson, A; Breunlin, J

    2013-01-01

    An extremely small vertical beam size of 3.6 µm, corresponding to a vertical emittance of 0.9 pm, only about five times bigger than the quantum limit, has been achieved at the storage ring of the Swiss Light Source (SLS). The measurement was performed by means of a beam size monitor based on the imaging of the vertically polarized synchrotron radiation in the visible and UV spectral ranges. However, the resolution limit of the monitor was reached during the last measurement campaign and prevented further emittance minimization. In the context of the work package SLS Vertical Emittance Tuning of the TIARA collaboration, a new improved monitor was built. It provides larger magnification, an increase of resolution and enables two complementary methods of measurement: imaging and interferometry. In this paper we present the design, installation, commissioning, performance studies and first results obtained with the new monitor.

  4. Accuracy of the LEP Spectrometer Beam Orbit Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, E; Prochnow, J; Bergoz, J; Unser, K; Matheson, J; Torrence, E

    2001-01-01

    At the LEP e+/e- collider, a spectrometer is used to determine the beam energy with a target accuracy of 10-4. The spectrometer measures the lattice dipole bending angle of the beam using six beam position monitors (BPMs). The required calibration error imposes a BPM accuracy of a 10-6 m corresponding to a relative electrical signal variation of 2. 10-5. The operating parameters have been compared with beam simulator results and non-linearBPM response simulations. The relative beam current variations between 0.02 and 0.03 and position changes of 0.1 mm during the fills of last year lead to uncertainties in the orbit measurements of well below 10-6 m. For accuracy tests absolute beam currents were varied by a factor of three. The environment magnetical field is introduced to correct orbit readings. The BPM linearity and calibration was checked using moveable supports and wire position sensors. The BPM triplet quantity is used to determine the orbit position monitors accuracy. The BPM triplet changed during the...

  5. RESIDUAL-GAS-IONIZATION BEAM PROFILE MONITORS IN RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNOLLY, R.; MICHNOFF, R.; TEPIKIAN, S.

    2005-05-16

    Four ionization profile monitors (IPMs) in RHIC measure vertical and horizontal beam profiles in the two rings by measuring the distribution of electrons produced by beam ionization of residual gas. During the last three years both the collection accuracy and signal/noise ratio have been improved. An electron source is mounted across the beam pipe from the collector to monitor microchannel plate (MCP) aging and the signal electrons are gated to reduce MCP aging and to allow charge replenishment between single-turn measurements. Software changes permit simultaneous measurements of any number of individual bunches in the ring. This has been used to measure emittance growth rates on six bunches of varying intensities in a single store. Also the software supports FFT analysis of turn-by-turn profiles of a single bunch at injection to detect dipole and quadrupole oscillations.

  6. GEM-based beam profile monitors for the antiproton decelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, S.; Ropelewski, L.; Spanggaard, J.; Tranquille, G.

    2012-01-01

    The new beam profile measurement for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN is based on a single Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) with a 2D readout structure. This detector is very light, ~0.4% X0, as required by the low energy of the antiprotons, 5.3 MeV. This overcomes the problems previously encountered with multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) for the same purpose, where beam interactions with the detector severely affect the obtained profiles. A prototype was installed and successfully tested in late 2010, with another five detectors now installed in the ASACUSA and AEGIS beam lines. We will provide a detailed description of the detector and discuss the results obtained. The success of these detectors in the AD makes GEM-based detectors likely candidates for upgrade of the beam profile monitors in all experimental areas at CERN. The various types of MWPC currently in use are aging and becoming increasingly difficult to maintain.

  7. Noise estimation of beam position monitors at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, X. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Bai, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Lee, S. Y. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2014-02-10

    Beam position monitors (BPM) are used to record the average orbits and transverse turn-by-turn displacements of the beam centroid motion. The Relativistic Hadron Ion Collider (RHIC) has 160 BPMs for each plane in each of the Blue and Yellow rings: 72 dual-plane BPMs in the insertion regions (IR) and 176 single-plane modules in the arcs. Each BPM is able to acquire 1024 or 4096 consecutive turn-by-turn beam positions. Inevitably, there are broadband noisy signals in the turn-by-turn data due to BPM electronics as well as other sources. A detailed study of the BPM noise performance is critical for reliable optics measurement and beam dynamics analysis based on turn-by-turn data.

  8. First Beam Measurements with the LHC Synchrotron Light Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, E; Fisher, AS; Guerrero, A; Jeff, A; Lefevre, T; Goldblatt, A; Roncarolo, F

    2010-01-01

    The continuous monitoring of the transverse sizes of the beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) relies on the use of synchrotron radiation and intensified video cameras. Depending on the beam energy, different synchrotron light sources must be used. A dedicated superconducting undulator has been built for low beam energies (450 GeV to 1.5 TeV), while edge and centre radiation from a beam-separation dipole magnet are used respectively for intermediate and high energies (up to 7 TeV). The emitted visible photons are collected using a retractable mirror, which sends the light into an optical system adapted for acquisition using intensified CCD cameras. This paper presents the design of the imaging system, and compares the expected light intensity with measurements and the calculated spatial resolution with a cross calibration performed with the wire scanners. Upgrades and future plans are also discussed.

  9. Real-time beam monitoring in scanned proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpki, G.; Eichin, M.; Bula, C.; Rechsteiner, U.; Psoroulas, S.; Weber, D. C.; Lomax, A.; Meer, D.

    2018-05-01

    When treating cancerous tissues with protons beams, many centers make use of a step-and-shoot irradiation technique, in which the beam is steered to discrete grid points in the tumor volume. For safety reasons, the irradiation is supervised by an independent monitoring system validating cyclically that the correct amount of protons has been delivered to the correct position in the patient. Whenever unacceptable inaccuracies are detected, the irradiation can be interrupted to reinforce a high degree of radiation protection. At the Paul Scherrer Institute, we plan to irradiate tumors continuously. By giving up the idea of discrete grid points, we aim to be faster and more flexible in the irradiation. But the increase in speed and dynamics necessitates a highly responsive monitoring system to guarantee the same level of patient safety as for conventional step-and-shoot irradiations. Hence, we developed and implemented real-time monitoring of the proton beam current and position. As such, we read out diagnostic devices with 100 kHz and compare their signals against safety tolerances in an FPGA. In this paper, we report on necessary software and firmware enhancements of our control system and test their functionality based on three exemplary error scenarios. We demonstrate successful implementation of real-time beam monitoring and, consequently, compliance with international patient safety regulations.

  10. Linac BPM [Beam Position Monitor] modification program status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.; Williams, S.

    1990-01-01

    In the fall of 1988 the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) Task Force recommended that linac BPM processors be pulled out of the linac, modified, adjusted for offsets, recalibrated, and reinstalled. As of the end of 1989 this process had been completed on all linac type BPM processors. This paper discusses these modifications and tests

  11. Longitudinal Beam measurements at the LHC: The LHC Beam Quality Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, G; Follin, F; Wehrle, U

    2011-01-01

    The LHC Beam Quality Monitor is a system that measures individual bunch lengths and positions, similarly to the twin system SPS Beam Quality Monitor, from which it was derived. The pattern verification that the system provides is vital during the injection process to verify the correctness of the injected pattern, while the bunch length measurement is fed back to control the longitudinal emittance blow up performed during the energy ramp and provides a general indication of the health of the RF system. The algorithms used, the hardware implementation and the system integration in the LHC control infrastructure are presented in this paper, along with possible improvements.

  12. Material interface detection based on secondary electron images for focused ion beam machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Hang-Eun; Lee, Won-Sup; Jun, Martin B G; Park, No-Cheol; Min, Byung-Kwon

    2018-01-01

    A method for interface detection is proposed for focused ion beam (FIB) processes of multilayered targets. As multilayers have emerged as promising structures for nanodevices, the FIB machining of multilayers has become a challenging issue. We proposed material interface detection by monitoring secondary electron (SE) images captured during the FIB process. The average of the gray-levels and the skewness coefficient of gray-level histograms of the SE images were evaluated to recognize endpoints for the FIB processes. The FIB process control with the proposed method was demonstrated by fabricating the nanostructures on the multilayered target without thickness information. It was also demonstrated on a curved surface. Grooves with a desired depth into the target and an aperture as an opening window were precisely fabricated by the FIB process control. The proposed strategy of the FIB process can be used for complex substrates such as curved or flexible targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. LHC Beam Loss Monitoring System Verification Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Zamantzas, C; Jackson, S

    2011-01-01

    The LHC Beam Loss Mon­i­tor­ing (BLM) sys­tem is one of the most com­plex in­stru­men­ta­tion sys­tems de­ployed in the LHC. In ad­di­tion to protecting the col­lid­er, the sys­tem also needs to pro­vide a means of di­ag­nos­ing ma­chine faults and de­liv­er a feed­back of loss­es to the control room as well as to sev­er­al sys­tems for their setup and analysis. It has to trans­mit and pro­cess sig­nals from al­most 4’000 mon­i­tors, and has near­ly 3 mil­lion con­fig­urable pa­ram­e­ters. The system was de­signed with re­li­a­bil­i­ty and avail­abil­i­ty in mind. The spec­i­fied op­er­a­tion and the fail-safe­ty stan­dards must be guar­an­teed for the sys­tem to per­form its func­tion in pre­vent­ing su­per­con­duc­tive mag­net de­struc­tion caused by par­ti­cle flux. Main­tain­ing the ex­pect­ed re­li­a­bil­i­ty re­quires ex­ten­sive test­ing and ver­i­fi­ca­tion. In this paper we re­port our most re­cent ad­di­t...

  14. Beam-phase monitoring with non-destructive pickup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    An intensity and phase-sensitive capacitive pickup was installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device is based on an extension of the design of the Beam Current Monitor developed as part of the ATLAS radiation safety system. The purpose of the pickup is to allow the arrival phase of the beam from the ECR source at the entrance to the PII linac to be set to a standard which reproduces previous tune conditions and establishes a standard. The new pickups and associated electronics demonstrated sensitivity well below 1 electrical nanoamp but can handle beam currents of many electrical microamps as well. In addition to phase information, beam current is also measured by the units thus providing a continuous, non-intercepting current readout as well. From the very first use of PII, we established a few open-quotes reference tunesclose quotes for the linac and scaled those tunes for any other beam desired. For such scaling to work properly, the velocity and phase of the beam from the ion source must be fixed and reproducible. In last year's FWP the new ATLAS Master Oscillator System was described. The new system has the ability of easily adjusting the beam arrival phase at the entrance to each of the major sections of the facility - PII, Booster, ATLAS. Our present techniques for establishing the beam arrival phase at the entrance of each of the linac sections are cumbersome and, sometimes, intellectually challenging. The installation of these capacitative pickups at the entrance to each of the linac sections will make the determination and setting of the beam arrival phase direct, simple, and dynamic. This should dramatically shorten our setup time for open-quotes old-tuneclose quotes configurations and increase useful operating hours. Permanent electronics for the PII entrance pickup is under construction

  15. Optical fiber Cherenkov detector for beam current monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pishchulin, I.V.; Solov'ev, N.G.; Romashkin, O.B.

    1991-01-01

    The results obtained in calculation of an optical fiber Cherenkov detector for accelerated beam current monitoring are presented. The technique of beam parameters monitoring is based on Cherenkov radiation excitation by accelerated electrons in the optical fiber. The formulas for calculations of optical power and time dependence of Cherenkov radiation pulse are given. The detector sensitivity and time resolution dependence on the fiber material characteristics are investigated. Parameters of a 10μm one-mode quartz optical fiber detector for the free electron laser photoinjector are calculated. The structure of a monitoring system with the optical fiber Cherenkov detector is considered. Possible applications of this technique are discussed and some recommendations are given

  16. Beam Loss Monitoring for Run 2 of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliokoski, Matti; Dehning, Bernd; Domingues Sousa, Fernando; Effinger, Ewald; Emery, Jonathan; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Holzer, Eva Barbara; Jackson, Stephen; Kolad, Blazej; Nebot Del Busto, Eduardo; Picha, Ondrej; Roderick, Chris; Sapinski, Mariusz; Sobieszek, Marcin; Zamantzas, Christos

    2015-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of the LHC consists of over 3600 ionization chambers. The main task of the system is to prevent the superconducting magnets from quenching and protect the machine components from damage, as a result of critical beam losses. The BLM system therefore requests a beam abort when the measured dose in the chambers exceeds a threshold value. During Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) a series of modifications were made to the system. Based on the experience from Run 1 and from improved simulation models, all the threshold settings were revised, and modified where required. This was done to improve the machine safety at 7 TeV, and to reduce beam abort requests when neither a magnet quench or damage to machine components is expected. In addition to the updates of the threshold values, about 800 monitors were relocated. This improves the response to unforeseen beam losses in the millisecond time scale due to micron size dust particles present in the vacuum chamber. This contribution will discuss...

  17. A micropulse monitor for control of cyclotron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, D. A.; Peterson, R. J.; Da Silva, A. G.; Auler, L. T.; de Barros, S.

    1990-07-01

    A system using wall current monitors to observe the time structure of the individual beam current pulses of the Cyclotron Corp. CV28 cyclotron installed at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear of CNEN in Rio de Janeiro is described. The monitors are designed to give a faithful representation of the actual beam pulse, so the effects on the longitudinal phase space could be seen as the cyclotron parameters were changed. Beam pulses of width in the range of 1 to 4 ns and with a charge of 7 × 10-16 C or greater can be observed. With two units in the line transit times permit beam energy determination as well as charge distribution. For timing purposes a unit placed in front of a target is used to generate a start signal for time-of-flight measurements, and to monitor the effects of all parameters of the cyclotron tune. By measuring flight times in the beamlines of this machine, the energy for 28 MeV protons can be determined to about 50 keV and for the other available particles to about 30 keV.

  18. Implementation of Beam-Loss Monitor systems for the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.G.

    1994-07-01

    Beam-Loss Monitors (BLM) are used with each accelerator in the Superconducting Super Collider complex. The primary purpose of these detectors is to protect the accelerators from damage due to the loss of protons. Although the range of primary beam energies to be covered is very large, 20 MeV to 20 TeV, we plan to maintain commonality of detectors and electronics as much as possible. In this report the plans for developing and implementing BLM systems for each of the accelerators will be discussed. Possible solutions to problems that have been identified are presented.

  19. Beam position dependence of a wall-current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamiya, K.; Asami, A.; Suwada, T.; Urano, T.; Kobayashi, H.

    1995-01-01

    It was pointed out recently that there exists an appreciable beam position dependence in the wall-current monitor widely used in electron accelerators. Detailed study of this dependence is performed on a test bench varying the pulse width and the frequency of the input signal simulating the beam. The results of experiments show that when the pulse width becomes shorter more appreciable becomes the dependence, and it approaches to that of calculated from the method of images. A unified analysis is under way. (author)

  20. Design, test, and calibration of an electrostatic beam position monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Cohen-Solal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The low beta of proton or ion beams favors an electrostatic pickup to measure the transverse beam centroid position. Often papers on beam position monitors (BPM are focused on a particular aspect of the problem; however, it is important to consider all various issues of a position measurement system. Based on our experience at the IPHI (high intensity injector proton facility at CEA-Saclay, this paper will address all aspects to design, test, and calibrate a BPM for proton linear accelerators, while emphasizing the determination of the absolute beam position. We present details of the readout electronics, and describe the calibration of the BPM using a test station. For calculation and simulation of the electrical signals we developed a Mathematica script. The error analysis presented, on the basis of six BPMs installed in the high energy section of IPHI, demonstrates the expected accuracy of the position measurement. These studies also identify the parameters that could improve the performance of the beam position control. The experience from these developments is currently being used for the BPM design and test stand dedicated to the Spiral2 accelerator at Ganil-Caen which will deliver heavy ion beams.

  1. Silicon detectors for the n-TOF neutron beams monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Cosentino, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Colonna, N.; Damone, L.; Pappalardo, A.; Piscopo, M.; Finocchiaro, P.

    2015-01-01

    During 2014 the second experimental area EAR2 was completed at the n-TOF neutron beam facility at CERN. As the neutrons are produced via spallation, by means of a high-intensity 20 GeV pulsed proton beam impinging on a thick target, the resulting neutron beam covers an enormous energy range, from thermal to several GeV. In this paper we describe two beam diagnostic devices, designed and built at INFN-LNS, both exploiting silicon detectors coupled with neutron converter foils containing 6Li. The first one is based on four silicon pads and allows to monitor the neutron beam flux as a function of the neutron energy. The second one, based on position sensitive silicon detectors, is intended for the reconstruction of the beam profile, again as a function of the neutron energy. Several electronic setups have been explored in order to overcome the issues related to the gamma flash, namely a huge pulse present at the start of each neutron bunch which may blind the detectors for some time. The two devices have been ch...

  2. Small-sized monitor of beam current and profile for the proton pulse electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    Design and principle of operation of current monitor and beam profile of range-coordinate type are described. Monitor operation peculiarities are discussed using diagnostics of a beam of 330-420 keV electrostatic pulse proton accelerator with a beam current of up to 20 mA, at a current density of up to 23 mA x cm -2 and wth pulse duraton of about 20 μs. The monitor consists of a vacuum-dense foil of 3.0+-0.1 μm in thickness (or 0.81+-0.0x- mg x cm -2 ) two grid electrodes, each containing 12 wires, and as solid copper bottom. Foil serves for chopping off background particles with a path lesser 3.0 μm and stands thermal pulse load up to 0.5 J/cm -2 . Grid electrode wires are oriented perpendicularly to lach other and form a two-coordinate secondary-emisson roughness indicator. The bothhom is used for measuring an absolute value of beam current

  3. Electronics and Calibration system for the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Nicolo

    2014-01-01

    In the context of increasing luminosity of LHC, it will be important to accurately measure the Machine Induced Background. A new monitoring system will be installed in the CMS cavern for measuring the beam background at high radius. This detector is composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators, coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The readout chain of this detector will make use of many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadron Calorimeter electronics, with a dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal will be digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing.The backend electronics will record bunch-by-bunch histograms, which will be published to CMS and the LHC using the newly designed CMS beam instrumentation specific DAQ. A calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the sys...

  4. An MLC-based version for the ecliptic method for the determination of backscatter into the beam monitor chambers in photon beams of medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelli, Flavio Enrico

    2016-01-01

    A very simple method to measure the effect of the backscatter from secondary collimators into the beam monitor chambers in linear accelerators equipped with multi-leaf collimators (MLC) is presented here. The backscatter to the monitor chambers from the upper jaws of the secondary collimator was measured on three beam-matched linacs by means of three methods: this new methodology, the ecliptic method, and assessing the variation of the beam-on time per monitor unit with dose rate feedback disabled. This new methodology was used to assess the backscatter characteristics of asymmetric over-traveling jaws. Excellent agreement between the backscatter values measured using the new methodology introduced here and the ones obtained using the other two methods was established. The experimental values reported here differ by less than 1 % from published data. The sensitivity of this novel technique allowed differences in backscatter due to the same opening of the jaws, when placed at different positions on the beam path, to be resolved. The introduction of the ecliptic method has made the determination of the backscatter to the monitor chambers an easy procedure. The method presented here for machines equipped with MLCs makes the determination of backscatter to the beam monitor chambers even easier, and suitable to characterize linacs equipped with over-traveling asymmetric secondary collimators. This experimental procedure could be simply implemented to fully characterize the backscatter output factor constituent when detailed dosimetric modeling of the machine’s head is required. The methodology proved to be uncomplicated, accurate and suitable for clinical or experimental environments.

  5. Secondary magnetic field harmonics dependence on vacuum beam chamber geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Shim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The harmonic magnetic field properties due to eddy currents have been studied with respect to the geometry of the vacuum beam chamber. We derived a generalized formula enabling the precise prediction of any field harmonics generated by eddy currents in beam tubes with different cross-sectional geometries. Applying our model to study the properties of field harmonics in beam tubes with linear dipole magnetic field ramping clearly proved that the circular cross section tube generates only a dipole field from eddy currents. The elliptic tube showed noticeable magnitudes of sextupole and dipole fields. We demonstrate theoretically that it is feasible to suppress the generation of the sextupole field component by appropriately varying the tube wall thickness as a function of angle around the tube circumference. This result indicates that it is possible to design an elliptical-shaped beam tube that generates a dipole field component with zero magnitude of sextupole. In a rectangular-shaped beam tube, one of the selected harmonic fields can be prevented if an appropriate wall thickness ratio between the horizontal and vertical tube walls is properly chosen. Our generalized formalism can be used for optimization of arbitrarily complex-shaped beam tubes, with respect to suppression of detrimental field harmonics.

  6. A self-calibrating ionisation chamber for the precise intensity calibration of high-energy heavy-ion beam monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, A.

    1996-01-01

    The intensity of a 136 Xe(600 A MeV) beam has been determined by simultaneously measuring the particle rate and the corresponding ionisation current with an ionisation chamber. The ionisation current of this self-calibrating device was compared at higher intensities with the current of a secondary-electron monitor and a calibration of the secondary-electron current was achieved with a precision of 2%. This method can be applied to all high-energy heavy-ion beams. (orig.)

  7. Operational studies and expected performance of superconducting quadrupole magnets in the first stages of secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbincius, P.H.; Mazur, P.O.; Stanek, R.P.

    1983-08-01

    A low current, large bore, epoxy impregnated superconducting quadrupole magnet was constructed at Argonne National Laboratory as a possible prototype for secondary beam use. The quadrupole magnet was placed in the Fermilab P-West High Intensity Area beam for beam quenching tests. Tests were performed by targetting a primary proton beam directly onto the quadrupole coil and by using the quadrupole in its anticipated role as part of the first stage flux collection triplet for a zero degree anti-proton secondary beam formed from the decays of neutral Lambda particles. Comparing the results with similar tests performed using forced flow Energy Saver dipoles shows that the epoxy impregnated quadrupoles have a much greater sensitivity to beam induced quenching at a similar fraction of the conductor short sample limit. Using the CASIM program, calculations indicate that such eopxy impregnated coils would not be viable as first stage flux collection elements without appreciable collimation and subsequent loss of secondary beam acceptance. Quadrupoles based on Energy Saver technology appear capable of tolerating acceptable primary beam intensities. The momentum dispersing bends will require even larger aperture superconducting dipoles or neutral beam dump within the bend string

  8. Monte Carlo simulations of secondary electron emission due to ion beam milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahady, Kyle [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tan, Shida [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Greenzweig, Yuval [Intel Israel Ltd., Haifa (Israel); Livengood, Richard [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Raveh, Amir [Intel Israel Ltd., Haifa (Israel); Fowlkes, Jason D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rack, Philip [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We present a Monte Carlo simulation study of secondary electron emission resulting from focused ion beam milling of a copper target. The basis of this study is a simulation code which simulates ion induced excitation and emission of secondary electrons, in addition to simulating focused ion beam sputtering and milling. This combination of features permits the simulation of the interaction between secondary electron emission, and the evolving target geometry as the ion beam sputters material. Previous ion induced SE Monte Carlo simulation methods have been restricted to predefined target geometries, while the dynamic target in the presented simulations makes this study relevant to image formation in ion microscopy, and chemically assisted ion beam etching, where the relationship between sputtering, and its effects on secondary electron emission, is important. We focus on a copper target, and validate our simulation against experimental data for a range of: noble gas ions, ion energies, ion/substrate angles and the energy distribution of the secondary electrons. We then provide a detailed account of the emission of secondary electrons resulting from ion beam milling; we quantify both the evolution of the yield as high aspect ratio valleys are milled, as well as the emission of electrons within these valleys that do not escape the target, but which are important to the secondary electron contribution to chemically assisted ion induced etching.

  9. Performance of a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2007-01-01

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than 1nm. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1μrad over a dynamic range of approximately +/-20μm

  10. Intelligent mirror monitor and controller for synchrotron radiation beam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.L.; Yang, J.

    1983-01-01

    A microprocessor-based, stand-alone mirror monitor and control system has been developed for synchrotron radiation beam lines. The operational requirements for mirror position and tilt angle, including the parameters for controlling the number of steps, direction, speed and acceleration of the driving motors, may be programmed into EPROMS. The instruction sequence to carry out critical motions will be stored in a program buffer. A manual control knob is also provided to fine tune the mirror position if desired. A synchronization scheme for the height and tilt motions maintains a fixed mirror angle during insertion. Absolute height and tilt angle are displayed. Electronic (or programmable) tilt angle limits are provided to protect against damage from misalignment of high power beams such as focussed wiggler beams. A description of mirror drives with a schematic diagram is presented. Although the controller is made for mirror movers, it can be used in other applications where multiple stepping motors perform complex synchronized motions

  11. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walston, S; Boogert, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Frisch, J; Gronberg, J; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Kolomensky, Y; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Meller, R; Miller, D; Orimoto, T; Ross, M; Slater, M; Smith, S; Smith, T; Terunuma, N; Thomson, M; Urakawa, J; Vogel, V; Ward, D; White, G

    2006-12-18

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {micro}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {micro}m.

  12. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Joe; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David John; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; /Fermilab /UC,

    2007-06-08

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {mu}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {mu}m.

  13. Characterization of beam position monitors in two-dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J.; Gilpatrick, D.; Neri, F.; Shurter, B.

    1992-01-01

    We describe characterization of a beam position measuring system. We used an automatic test fixture to map the response in two dimensions of dual-axis beam position monitors (BPMs) and their associated ratio-signal processing electronics and applied signals to a thin wire whose position is controlled by stepper motor actuators on x-y stages. The wire may be moved within a circular area of up to 50 mm in diameter with 5-μm accuracy. The resulting signals picked up by a BPM are recorded for each point on a grid within the mapping area. We present a comparison of the theoretical with the actual response, as well as techniques employed to calculate suitable correction functions that accurately predict the beam position over at least 80% of the probe's inner aperture. (Author) 4 figs., 5 refs

  14. Beam feasibility study of a collimator with in-jaw beam position monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollmann, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.wollmann@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Nosych, Andriy A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (United Kingdom); The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Valentino, Gianluca; Aberle, Oliver; Aßmann, Ralph W.; Bertarelli, Alessandro; Boccard, Christian; Bruce, Roderik; Burkart, Florian; Calvo, Eva; Cauchi, Marija; Dallocchio, Alessandro; Deboy, Daniel; Gasior, Marek; Jones, Rhodri; Kain, Verena; Lari, Luisella; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-12-21

    At present, the beam-based alignment of the LHC collimators is performed by touching the beam halo with both jaws of each collimator. This method requires dedicated fills at low intensities that are done infrequently and makes this procedure time consuming. This limits the operational flexibility, in particular in the case of changes of optics and orbit configuration in the experimental regions. The performance of the LHC collimation system relies on the machine reproducibility and regular loss maps to validate the settings of the collimator jaws. To overcome these limitations and to allow a continuous monitoring of the beam position at the collimators, a design with jaw-integrated Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) was proposed and successfully tested with a prototype (mock-up) collimator in the CERN SPS. Extensive beam experiments allowed to determine the achievable accuracy of the jaw alignment for single and multi-turn operation. In this paper, the results of these experiments are discussed. The non-linear response of the BPMs is compared to the predictions from electromagnetic simulations. Finally, the measured alignment accuracy is compared to the one achieved with the present collimators in the LHC.

  15. Beam feasibility study of a collimator with in-jaw beam position monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollmann, Daniel; Nosych, Andriy A.; Valentino, Gianluca; Aberle, Oliver; Aßmann, Ralph W.; Bertarelli, Alessandro; Boccard, Christian; Bruce, Roderik; Burkart, Florian; Calvo, Eva; Cauchi, Marija; Dallocchio, Alessandro; Deboy, Daniel; Gasior, Marek; Jones, Rhodri; Kain, Verena; Lari, Luisella; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana

    2014-12-01

    At present, the beam-based alignment of the LHC collimators is performed by touching the beam halo with both jaws of each collimator. This method requires dedicated fills at low intensities that are done infrequently and makes this procedure time consuming. This limits the operational flexibility, in particular in the case of changes of optics and orbit configuration in the experimental regions. The performance of the LHC collimation system relies on the machine reproducibility and regular loss maps to validate the settings of the collimator jaws. To overcome these limitations and to allow a continuous monitoring of the beam position at the collimators, a design with jaw-integrated Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) was proposed and successfully tested with a prototype (mock-up) collimator in the CERN SPS. Extensive beam experiments allowed to determine the achievable accuracy of the jaw alignment for single and multi-turn operation. In this paper, the results of these experiments are discussed. The non-linear response of the BPMs is compared to the predictions from electromagnetic simulations. Finally, the measured alignment accuracy is compared to the one achieved with the present collimators in the LHC.

  16. FERMILAB SWITCHYARD RESONANT BEAM POSITION MONITOR ELECTRONICS UPGRADE RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, T. [Fermilab; Diamond, J. [Fermilab; Liu, N. [Fermilab; Prieto, P. S. [Fermilab; Slimmer, D. [Fermilab; Watts, A. [Fermilab

    2016-10-12

    The readout electronics for the resonant beam position monitors (BPMs) in the Fermilab Switchyard (SY) have been upgraded, utilizing a low noise amplifier transition board and Fermilab designed digitizer boards. The stripline BPMs are estimated to have an average signal output of between -110 dBm and -80 dBm, with an estimated peak output of -70 dBm. The external resonant circuit is tuned to the SY machine frequency of 53.10348 MHz. Both the digitizer and transition boards have variable gain in order to accommodate the large dynamic range and irregularity of the resonant extraction spill. These BPMs will aid in auto-tuning of the SY beamline as well as enabling operators to monitor beam position through the spill.

  17. Profile Monitors for Wide Multiplicity Range Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Buonomo, B; Quintieri, L

    2005-01-01

    The DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) provides electron and positron beams in a wide range of intensity, from single particle up to 1010 particles per pulse, and energy, from a few tens of MeV up to 800 MeV. The pulse time width can be adjusted between 1 and 10 ns and the maximum repetition rate is 50 Hz. The large range of operation of the facility requires the implementation of different beam profile and multiplicity monitors. In the single particle operation mode the beam spot profile and position are measured by a x-y scintillating fiber system with millimetric resolution and multi-anode PMT readout. From a few tens up to 106-107 particles per pulse, a silicon chamber made of two 9.5x9.5 cm2 wide 400μm thick silicon strip detectors organized in a x-y configuration with a pitch of 121μm has been developed. Once calibrated, the system can be used also as an intensity monitor. The description of the devices and the results obtained during the data taking periods of several experiments at the...

  18. Performance of a reentrant cavity beam position monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Simon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The beam-based alignment and feedback systems, essential operations for the future colliders, require high resolution beam position monitors (BPMs. In the framework of the European CARE/SRF program, a reentrant cavity BPM with its associated electronics was developed by the CEA/DSM/Irfu in collaboration with DESY. The design, the fabrication, and the beam test of this monitor are detailed within this paper. This BPM is designed to be inserted in a cryomodule, work at cryogenic temperature in a clean environment. It has achieved a resolution better than 10  μm and has the possibility to perform bunch to bunch measurements for the x-ray free electron laser (X-FEL and the International Linear Collider (ILC. Its other features are a small size of the rf cavity, a large aperture (78 mm, and an excellent linearity. A first prototype of a reentrant cavity BPM was installed in the free electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH, at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY and demonstrated its operation at cryogenic temperature inside a cryomodule. The second, installed, also, in the FLASH linac to be tested with beam, measured a resolution of approximately 4  μm over a dynamic range ±5  mm in single bunch.

  19. Scintillator materials for x-ray detectors and beam monitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martin, T.; Koch, A.; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2017), s. 451-456 ISSN 0883-7694 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-15569S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * X-ray detector * beam monitor * synchrotron * thin film Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 5.199, year: 2016

  20. Application of Diamond Based Beam Loss Monitors at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080642; Lohmann, W; Rüdiger, S

    2013-05-14

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was conceived in the 1980s and started the operation in 2008. It needed more than 20 years to plan and construct this accelerator and its experiments. Four main experiments are located around the ring, Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS), A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) and LHC beauty (LHCb). Two beams that traveling in opposite direction in the LHC tunnel, collide in each of the experiments. The navigation of the beams is done by over 10000 magnets and each beam has a stored energy of 362MJ which correspond to the kinetic energy of a train like the TGV travelling of 150km/h. Only a small percentage of that energy can damage the material in the LHC ring or the magnets. This would mean a repair time of months or years, without taking any data. To avoid such a scenario, it is important to monitor the beam condition and measure the amount of losses of the beam. Such losses can for example happen due to dust particles in the vacuum chambers or due...

  1. On- and off-line monitoring of ion beam treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Katia

    2016-02-01

    Ion beam therapy is an emerging modality for high precision radiation treatment of cancer. In comparison to conventional radiation sources (photons, electrons), ion beams feature major dosimetric advantages due to their finite range with a localized dose deposition maximum, the Bragg peak, which can be selectively adjusted in depth. However, due to several sources of treatment uncertainties, full exploitation of these dosimetric advantages in clinical practice would require the possibility to visualize the stopping position of the ions in vivo, ideally in real-time. To this aim, different imaging methods have been proposed and investigated, either pre-clinically or even clinically, based on the detection of prompt or delayed radiation following nuclear interaction of the beam with the irradiated tissue. However, the chosen or ad-hoc developed instrumentation has often relied on technologies originally conceived for different applications, thus compromising on the achievable performances for the sake of cost-effectiveness. This contribution will review major examples of used instrumentation and related performances, identifying the most promising detector developments for next generation devices especially dedicated to on-line monitoring of ion beam treatment. Moreover, it will propose an original combination of different techniques in a hybrid detection scheme, aiming to make the most of complementary imaging methods and open new perspectives of image guidance for improved precision of ion beam therapy.

  2. Superconducting quantum interference monitor of charged particle beam current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertsev, K.F.; Mikheev, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Description and test results of the monitor of charged particle beam current on the base of the high-frequency superconducting quantum interference detector with lead slotted shield are presented. The toroidal superconducting coil, which covers the measured beam has 16 turns wound by the lead belt of 7 mm width with 0.5 mm gaps between the turns. A superconducting low-coupling monitor having two holes and point oxidated niobium contact has been used in the mode of quanta counting of magnetic flux. The lead point shield was 2 mm thick and it had 30 mm aperture. The coefficient of background shielding within 0-200 Hz frequency range constituted more than 10 8 . The threshold current resolution of the monitor had the value less than 01 μA √Hz. The suggested monitor requires helium cooling. The proposed design of the monitor is applicable for mounting on the vacuum chamber when it is surrounded by helium conductor. In other cases mounting of low-powerful autonomic system or cryostat of helium storage up to several weeks is possible [ru

  3. Characterization of a nondestructive beam profile monitor using luminescent emission

    CERN Document Server

    Variola, A; Ferioli, G

    2007-01-01

    The LHC (large hadron collider) [LHC study group: LHC. The large hadron collider conceptual design; CERN/AC/95-05] is the future p-p collider under construction at CERN, Geneva. Over a circumference of 26.7 km a set of cryogenic dipoles and rf cavities will store and accelerate proton and ion beams up to energies of the order of 7 TeV. Injection in LHC will be performed by the CERN complex of accelerators, starting from the source and passing through the linac, the four booster rings, the proton synchrotron (PS), and super proton synchrotron (SPS) accelerators. One of the main constraints on LHC performance is emittance preservation along the whole chain of CERN accelerators. The accepted relative normalized emittance blowup after filamentation is ±7%. To monitor the beam and the emittance blowup process, a study of different prototypes of nonintercepting beam profile monitors has been performed. In this context a monitor using the luminescent emission of gases excited by ultrarelativistic protons (450 GeV) ...

  4. A beam monitor based on MPGD detectors for hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, P. R.; Di Benedetto, D.; Galetta, G.; Intonti, R. A.; Mercadante, A.; Nuzzo, S.; Verwilligen, P.

    2018-02-01

    Remarkable scientific and technological progress during the last years has led to the construction of accelerator based facilities dedicated to hadron therapy. This kind of technology requires precise and continuous control of position, intensity and shape of the ions or protons used to irradiate cancers. Patient safety, accelerator operation and dose delivery should be optimized by a real time monitoring of beam intensity and profile during the treatment, by using non-destructive, high spatial resolution detectors. In the framework of AMIDERHA (AMIDERHA - Enhanced Radiotherapy with HAdron) project funded by the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (Italian Ministry of Education and Research) the authors are studying and developing an innovative beam monitor based on Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPDGs) characterized by a high spatial resolution and rate capability. The Monte Carlo simulation of the beam monitor prototype was carried out to optimize the geometrical set up and to predict the behavior of the detector. A first prototype has been constructed and successfully tested using 55Fe, 90Sr and also an X-ray tube. Preliminary results on both simulations and tests will be presented.

  5. Production of secondary radioactive beams from 44 MeV/u Ar projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.; Della Negra, S.; Aguer, P.; Bastin, G.; Anne, R.; Delagrange, H.; Hubert, F.

    1985-01-01

    Secondary beams have been produced through interaction of a 1760 MeV Ar beam with a 99 mg/cm 2 Be target. An achromatic spectrometer is used to select the magnetic rigidity corresponding to a given beam, and to transport this beam over a distance of about 18 m. The beam purity is studied using a solid state ΔE-E telescope. Beams of 38 S and 39 Cl are produced with a purity of about 80% and production rates of 1.5 10 -6 Isub(o) and 5.10 -5 Isub(o) respectively. Here Isub(o) denotes the primary beam intensity. Beams of 38 Ar, 39 Ar and 41 Kr are produced with about the same abundances as 39 Cl but with lower purities. It is shown that, by setting properly the experimental parameters, the beam production can be improved by a factor 2 to 5. This could lead to intensities of about 2.10 6 pps for 38 S and of 10 7 to 10 8 pps for the four other beams. The possibility of purifying these beams by placing a degrader between the two dipoles of the spectrometer is shown experimentally

  6. Beam position monitor system of J-PARC RCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, N., E-mail: naoki.hayashi@j-parc.jp [Accelerator Division, J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kawase, M.; Hatakeyama, S.; Hiroki, S.; Saeki, R.; Takahashi, H.; Teruyama, Y.; Toyokawa, R. [Accelerator Division, J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Arakawa, D.; Hiramatsu, S.; Lee, S.; Satou, K.; Tejima, M.; Toyama, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2012-06-11

    The J-PARC RCS is a 25 Hz Rapid-Cycling proton Synchrotron and its designed beam power is 1 MW. The beam position monitor (BPM) system at J-PARC RCS is described in this paper. The pre-defined diameter of the BPM detectors is larger than 250 mm, however, the system has to measure the beam position very accurately. In addition, it is necessary to have a large dynamic range. The system should work not only for the high intensity but also for low intensity, such as during beam commissioning, when the intensity is below 1% of the design intensity. There are 54 BPM detectors around the ring and most of them are placed inside steering magnets because of quite limited space. The BPM detector is an electro-static type and it has four electrodes, and a pair of electrodes gives a good linear response with a diagonal cut shape to detect the charge center precisely. The signal processing units, which are equipped with 14-bit 40 MS/s ADC and 600 MHz DSP, have been developed. They are accessed via shared memory space and controlled by EPICS. Such a processing unit is capable of recording the full 25 Hz pulse data for the so-called 'COD mode' (averaged beam position calculation) and it can also store the whole waveform data for further analysis, like turn-by-turn position calculation. The resolution was estimated to be 20{mu}m for 'COD mode' and to be 0.3 mm for the turn-by-turn mode with relatively low intensity of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11}ppp. The position accuracy is estimated to be about 0.5 mm using a newly developed Beam Based Alignment (BBA) method.

  7. Beam position monitor R&D for keV ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Naveed, S; Nosych, A; Søby,L

    2013-01-01

    Beams of cooled antiprotons at keV energies shall be provided by the Ultra-low energy Storage Ring (USR) at the Facility for Low energy Antiproton and Ion Research (FLAIR) and the Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility. Both storage rings put challenging demands on the beam position monitoring (BPM) system as their capacitive pick-ups should be capable of determining the beam position of beams at low intensities and low velocities, close to the noise level of state-of-the-art electronics. In this contribution we describe the design and anticipated performance of BPMs for low-energy ion beams with a focus on the ELENA orbit measurement systems. We also present the particular challenges encountered in the numerical simulation of pickup response at very low beta values. Finally, we provide an outlook on how the implementation of faster algorithms for the simulation of BPM characteristics could potentially help speed up such studies considerably.

  8. First experiences of beam presence detection based on dedicated beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal, A.; Gabourin, S.; Gasior, M.; Todd, B.

    2012-01-01

    High intensity particle beam injection into the LHC is only permitted when a low intensity pilot beam is already circulating in the LHC. This requirement addresses some of the risks associated with high intensity injection, and is enforced by a so-called Beam Presence Flag (BPF) system which is part of the interlock chain between the LHC and its injector complex. For the 2010 LHC run, the detection of the presence of this pilot beam was implemented using the LHC Fast Beam Current Transformer (FBCT) system. However, the primary function of the FBCTs, that is reliable measurement of beam currents, did not allow the BPF system to satisfy all quality requirements of the LHC Machine Protection System (MPS). Safety requirements associated with high intensity injections triggered the development of a dedicated system, based on Beam Position Monitors (BPM). This system was meant to work first in parallel with the FBCT BPF system and eventually replace it. At the end of 2010 and in 2011, this new BPF implementation based on BPMs was designed, built, tested and deployed. This paper reviews both the FBCT and BPM implementation of the BPF system, outlining the changes during the transition period. The paper briefly describes the testing methods, focuses on the results obtained from the tests performed during the end of 2010 LHC run and shows the changes made for the BPM BPF system deployment in LHC in 2011. Whilst the system has been proved to work with a threshold of 6*10 8 charges, it has been implemented with a threshold of 2*10 9 charges to protect the LHC. (authors)

  9. A Fast CVD Diamond Beam Loss Monitor for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Griesmayer, E; Dobos, D; Effinger, E; Pernegger, H

    2011-01-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond detectors were installed in the collimation area of the CERN LHC to study their feasibility as Fast Beam Loss Monitors in a high-radiation environment. The detectors were configured with a fast, radiation-hard pre-amplifier with a bandwidth of 2 GHz. The readout was via an oscilloscope with a bandwidth of 1 GHz and a sampling rate of 5 GSPS. Despite the 250 m cable run from the detectors to the oscilloscope, single MIPs were resolved with a 2 ns rise time, a pulse width of 10 ns and a time resolution of less than 1 ns. Two modes of operation were applied. For the analysis of unexpected beam aborts, the loss profile was recorded in a 1 ms buffer and, for nominal operation, the histogram of the time structure of the losses was recorded in synchronism with the LHC period of 89.2 μs. Measurements during the LHC start-up (February to December 2010) are presented. The Diamond Monitors gave an unprecedented insight into the time structure of the beam losses resolving the 400...

  10. A Transparent Detector for n_TOF Neutron Beam Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Andriamonje, S; Vlachoudis, V; Guerrero, C; Schillebeeckx, P; Losito, R; Sarmento, R; Calviani, M; Giganon, A; Gunsing, F; Berthoumieux, E; Siegler, P; Kadi, Y

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain high precision cross-section measurements using the time-of-flight technique, it is important to know with good accuracy the neutron fluence at the measuring station. The detector dedicated to these measurements should be placed upstream of the detectors used for capture and fission cross-section measurements. The main requirement is to reduce the material of the detector as much as possible, in order to minimize the perturbation of the neutron beam and, especially, the background produced by the device itself. According to these considerations, a new neutron detector equipped with a small-mass device based on MicroMegas ``Micro-bulk{''} technology has been developed as a monitoring detector for the CERN n\\_TOF neutron beam. A description of the different characteristics of tins innovative concept of transparent detector for neutron beam monitoring is presented. The result obtained in the commissioning of the new spallation target of the n\\_TOF facility at CERN is shown, compared with simul...

  11. Geometric Beam Coupling Impedance of LHC Secondary Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Frasciello, O; Zobov, M; Grudiev, A; Mounet, N; Salvant, B

    2016-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC project is aimed at increasing the LHC luminosity by an order of magnitude. One of the key ingredients to achieve the luminosity goal is the beam intensity increase. In order to keep under control beam instabilities and to avoid excessive power losses a careful design of new vacuum chamber components and an improvement of the present LHC impedance model are required. Collimators are the main impedance contributors. Measurements with beam have revealed that the betatron coherent tune shifts were by about a factor of 2 higher with respect to the theoretical predictions based on the current model. Up to now the resistive wall impedance has been considered as the major impedance contribution for collimators. By carefully simulating their geometric impedance we show that for the graphite collimators with half-gaps higher than 10 mm the geometric impedance exceeds the resistive wall one. In turn, for the tungsten collimators the geometric impedance dominates for all used gap values. Hence, i...

  12. Development of KOMAC Beam Monitoring System Using EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young-Gi; Yun, Sang-Pil; Kim, Han-Sung; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2014-01-01

    The beam loss signals must be digitized and the sampling has to be synchronized to a reference signal which is an external trigger for beam operation. The digitized data must be accessible by the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS)-based control system, which manages the whole accelerator control. In order to satisfy the requirement, an Input /Output Controller (IOC), which runs Linux on a CPU module with PCI express based Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) modules, has been adopted. An associated linux driver and EPICS device support module also have been developed. The IOC meets the requirements and the development and maintenance of the software for the IOC is considerably efficient. The data acquisition system running EPICS will be used in increasing phase of KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) beam power. The beam monitoring system integrates BLM and BPM signals into control system and offers real-time data to operators. The IOC, which is implemented with Linux and PCI driver, has supported data acquisition as a very flexible solution

  13. Beam profile monitor system for the bevalac transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.

    1985-01-01

    Incorporated in the current Bevalac transfer line upgrade project is a proposal for a new electronic beam monitoring system. It will be designed to amplify, convert, and transmit the signals of twelve 16 by 16 multi-wire grids to a central computer located in the Bevatron control room. Each station will contain interface amplifiers and a local microprocessor to convert wire grid currents into digitized values which will then be transmitted via a serial data channel to the main computer. The system will have a large dynamic range (1 nano to 1 milli-ampere of beam current), be designed for distributed operation, and will be easily expandable. This paper describes the basic electronic hardware and software components of the proposed system

  14. Summary of the 2014 Beam-Halo Monitoring Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Alan

    2015-09-25

    Understanding and controlling beam halo is important for high-intensity hadron accelerators, for high-brightness electron linacs, and for low-emittance light sources. This can only be achieved by developing suitable diagnostics. The main challenge faced by such instrumentation is the high dynamic range needed to observe the halo in the presence of an intense core. In addition, measurements must often be made non-invasively. This talk summarizes the one-day workshop on Beam-Halo Monitoring that was held at SLAC on September 19 last year, immediately following IBIC 2014 in Monterey. Workshop presentations described invasive techniques using wires, screens, or crystal collimators, and non-invasive measurements with gas or scattered electrons. Talks on optical methods showed the close links between observing halo and astronomical problems like observing the solar corona or directly observing a planet orbiting another star.

  15. On-line chemistry monitoring for the secondary side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) has developed a computerized water chemistry data acquisition and management system for nuclear plant secondary coolant systems. The Integrated Water Chemistry Monitoring System (IWCMS) provides on-line monitoring of conditions and rapid trend analysis of sampled data. So far it has been installed at GPU Three Mile Island unit 1 and at Toledo Edison Davis-Besse. The IWCMS meets the following utility needs for monitoring power plant chemistry: control of chemistry conditions to minimize corrosion and extend component/system life; continuous analysis of data from on-line detectors and grab samples; expediting of transient recovery actions with trend, alarm and evaluation capability; provision for rapid sharing of useful operational chemistry information; concentration of attention on evaluation instead of data manipulation. The system is composed of three functional parts: data acquisition hardware; PC-based computer system and customised system software. (author)

  16. Longitudinal impedance of LHC version-1 stripline beam position monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, L

    1997-01-01

    The electrodes in the first version of the LHC beam position monitor are 50 \\W striplines. An enlarged aperture is required to keep the inner face of the electrodes in the shadow of the mechanical aperture of the machine. The longitudinal impedance of this device consists of two distinct components, one from the cavity and the other from the electrodes. The cavity part of the impedance can be reduced by inter-electrode shields as proposed by G. Lambertson. A complementary way of reducing this part of the impedance is to use tapered edges. The cavity wake potential of the beam position monitor is computed both with the 3D code MAFIA and analytically for a very short bunch (20 mm) and for a normal high energy LHC bunch (75 mm). The computation is done separately for the inter-electrode shields and for the tapered ends. The agreement between the two methods is very good, hence it can be concluded that the cavity impedance of the monitor cavity is well known up to the cut-off frequency of the LHC pipe (5.1 GHz). ...

  17. Long radiation detector system for beam loss monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsamo, J.; Fewell, N.M.; Klein, J.D.; Witkover, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Long Radiation Monitor (LRM) system installed at the 200 MeV linac at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. This system allows observation of both the spatial and temporal character of the losses in the linac and its transport lines. An array of large diameter gas filled coaxial cables are used as extended ion chambers to detect the losses. The output signals are available as a histogram, video waveforms, and numerical data via the computer. A fast beam interrupt is also provided. The detector characteristics and details of the processing electronics are presented. Results of studies of longitudinal, steering and focusing losses are described.

  18. Coherent Diffraction Radiation Longitudinal Beam Profile Monitor for CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Micheler, Maximilian; Boorman, Gary; Karataev, Pavel; Lekomtsev, Konstantin; Molloy, Stephen; Corsini, Roberto; Dabrowski, Anne; Lefevre, Thibaut

    2010-01-01

    A setup for the investigation of Coherent Diffraction Radiation (CDR) from a conducting screen as a tool for noninvasive longitudinal electron beam profile diagnostics has been designed and installed in the Combiner Ring Measurement (CRM) line of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3, CERN). In this report the status of the monitor development and results on the interferometric measurements of CDR spectra are presented. The CDR signal correlation with an RF pickup and a streak camera is reported. The future plans for the system improvements are also discussed

  19. Numerical simulation of the PEP-II beam position monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, N.; Martin, D.; Ng, C.-K.; Smith, S. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Weiland, T.

    1996-08-01

    We use MAFIA to analyze the PEP-II button-type beam position monitor (BPM). Employing proper termination of the BPM into a coaxial cable, the output signal at the BPM is determined. Thus the issues of signal sensitivity and power output can be addressed quantitatively, including all transient effects and wakefields. Besides this first quantitative analysis of a true BPM 3D structure, we find that internal resonant modes are a major source of high value narrow-band impedances. The effects of these resonances on coupled-bunch instabilities are discussed. An estimate of the power dissipation in the ceramic vacuum seal under high current operation is given. (author)

  20. Long radiation detector system for beam loss monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsamo, J.; Fewell, N.M.; Klein, J.D.; Witkover, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Long Radiation Monitor (LRM) system installed at the 200 MeV linac at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. This system allows observation of both the spatial and temporal character of the losses in the linac and its transport lines. An array of large diameter gas filled coaxial cables are used as extended ion chambers to detect the losses. The output signals are available as a histogram, video waveforms, and numerical data via the computer. A fast beam interrupt is also provided. The detector characteristics and details of the processing electronics are presented. Results of studies of longitudinal, steering and focusing losses are described

  1. SRAM single event upset calculation and test using protons in the secondary beam in the BEPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yuanming; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Fengqi; Zhang Keying; Chen Wei; Luo Yinhong; Guo Xiaoqiang, E-mail: wangym2007@gmail.com [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)

    2011-09-15

    The protons in the secondary beam in the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) are first analyzed and a large proportion at the energy of 50-100 MeV supply a source gap of high energy protons. In this study, the proton energy spectrum of the secondary beam was obtained and a model for calculating the proton single event upset (SEU) cross section of a static random access memory (SRAM) cell has been presented in the BEPC secondary beam proton radiation environment. The proton SEU cross section for different characteristic dimensions has been calculated. The test of SRAM SEU cross sections has been designed, and a good linear relation between SEUs in SRAM and the fluence was found, which is evidence that an SEU has taken place in the SRAM. The SEU cross sections were measured in SRAM with different dimensions. The test result shows that the SEU cross section per bit will decrease with the decrease of the characteristic dimensions of the device, while the total SEU cross section still increases upon the increase of device capacity. The test data accords with the calculation results, so the high-energy proton SEU test on the proton beam in the BEPC secondary beam could be conducted. (semiconductor physics)

  2. Innovative thin silicon detectors for monitoring of therapeutic proton beams: preliminary beam tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignati, A.; Monaco, V.; Attili, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Donetti, M.; Fadavi Mazinani, M.; Fausti, F.; Ferrero, M.; Giordanengo, S.; Hammad Ali, O.; Mandurrino, M.; Manganaro, L.; Mazza, G.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Staiano, A.; Cirio, R.; Boscardin, M.; Paternoster, G.; Ficorella, F.

    2017-12-01

    To fully exploit the physics potentials of particle therapy in delivering dose with high accuracy and selectivity, charged particle therapy needs further improvement. To this scope, a multidisciplinary project (MoVeIT) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) aims at translating research in charged particle therapy into clinical outcome. New models in the treatment planning system are being developed and validated, using dedicated devices for beam characterization and monitoring in radiobiological and clinical irradiations. Innovative silicon detectors with internal gain layer (LGAD) represent a promising option, overcoming the limits of currently used ionization chambers. Two devices are being developed: one to directly count individual protons at high rates, exploiting the large signal-to-noise ratio and fast collection time in small thicknesses (1 ns in 50 μm) of LGADs, the second to measure the beam energy with time-of-flight techniques, using LGADs optimized for excellent time resolutions (Ultra Fast Silicon Detectors, UFSDs). The preliminary results of first beam tests with therapeutic beam will be presented and discussed.

  3. Contributions of secondary fragmentation by carbon ion beams in water phantom: Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, C K; Bolst, David; Tran, Linh T.; Guatelli, Susanna; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Kamil, W A

    2017-01-01

    Heavy-particle therapy such as carbon ion therapy is currently very popular because of its superior conformality in terms of dose distribution and higher Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). However, carbon ion beams produce a complex mixed radiation field, which needs to be fully characterised. In this study, the fragmentation of a 290 MeV/u primary carbon ion beam was studied using the Geant4 Monte Carlo Toolkit. When the primary carbon ion beam interacts with water, secondary light charged particles (H, He, Li, Be, B) and fast neutrons are produced, contributing to the dose, especially after the distal edge of the Bragg peak. (paper)

  4. Development of a silicon micro-strip detector for tracking high intensity secondary beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, R.; Asano, H.; Hasegawa, S.; Honda, R.; Ichikawa, Y.; Imai, K.; Joo, C. W.; Nakazawa, K.; Sako, H.; Sato, S.; Shirotori, K.; Sugimura, H.; Tanida, K.; Watabe, T.

    2014-11-01

    A single-sided silicon micro-strip detector (SSD) has been developed as a tracking detector for hadron experiments at J-PARC where secondary meson beams with intensities of up to 108 Hz are available. The performance of the detector has been investigated and verified in a series of test beam experiments in the years 2009-2011. The hole mobility was deduced from the analysis of cluster events. The beam rate dependence was measured in terms of timing resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and hit efficiency. This paper describes the detector with its read-out system, details of the test experiments, and discusses the performance achieved.

  5. Development of a silicon micro-strip detector for tracking high intensity secondary beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, R. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Asano, H. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hasegawa, S. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Honda, R. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ichikawa, Y. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Imai, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Joo, C.W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Nakazawa, K. [Physics Department, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Sako, H.; Sato, S. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shirotori, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Sugimura, H. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tanida, K., E-mail: tanida@phya.snu.ac.kr [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Watabe, T. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    A single-sided silicon micro-strip detector (SSD) has been developed as a tracking detector for hadron experiments at J-PARC where secondary meson beams with intensities of up to 10{sup 8} Hz are available. The performance of the detector has been investigated and verified in a series of test beam experiments in the years 2009–2011. The hole mobility was deduced from the analysis of cluster events. The beam rate dependence was measured in terms of timing resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and hit efficiency. This paper describes the detector with its read-out system, details of the test experiments, and discusses the performance achieved.

  6. Reconstruction of lattice parameters and beam momentum distribution from turn-by-turn beam position monitor readings in circular accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Edmonds

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In high chromaticity circular accelerators, rapid decoherence of the betatron motion of a particle beam can make the measurement of lattice and bunch values, such as Courant-Snyder parameters and betatron amplitude, difficult. A method for reconstructing the momentum distribution of a beam from beam position measurements is presented. Further analysis of the same beam position monitor data allows estimates to be made of the Courant-Snyder parameters and the amplitude of coherent betatron oscillation of the beam. The methods are tested through application to data taken on the linear nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator, EMMA.

  7. Suppression secondary electrons from target surface under pulsed ion beams bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhen; Peng Yufei; Long Jidong; Lan Chaohui; Dong Pan; Shi Jinshui

    2012-01-01

    The producing mechanism of secondary electrons from target surface under ion beams bombardment is discussed. Several methods to suppress the secondary electrons in special vacuum devices and their advantages and disadvantages are introduced. The ways of using self-bias and curved surface target are proposed and verified in the experiment. The results show that the secondary electrons can be effectively suppressed when the self-bias is larger than 80 V. The secondary electron yield decreases by using curved surface target instead of flat target. The secondary electron yield calculated from the experimental data is about 0.67, which is slightly larger than the value (0.58) from the literature due to the impurities of the ion beam and target surface. The effect of suppressing the electron countercurrent by the self-bias method is analyzed. The result shows that the self-bias method can not only suppress the secondary electrons from target surface under ion beams bombardment, but also suppress the electron countercurrent resulting from the instability of the pulsed power source. (authors)

  8. Development of a high-resolution electron-beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Norio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Muto, Toshiya; Hayano, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    We present a high-resolution and real-time beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) developed in the KEK-ATF damping ring. The monitor system has an X-ray imaging optics with two FZPs. In this monitor, the synchrotron radiation from the electron beam at the bending magnet is monochromatized by a crystal monochromator and the transverse electron beam image is twenty-times magnified by the two FZPs and detected on an X-ray CCD camera. The expected spatial resolution for the selected photon energy of 3.235 keV is less than 1 μm. With the beam profile monitor, we succeeded in obtaining a clear electron-beam image and measuring the extremely small beam size less than 10 μm. It is greatly expected that the beam profile monitor will be used in high-brilliance light sources and low-emittance accelerators. (author)

  9. Monitoring beam position in the TRISTAN AR-to-MR transport lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieiri, Takao; Arinaga, Mitsuhiro

    1994-01-01

    A beam-position monitor (BPM) has been installed in the transport lines between the Accumulation Ring (AR) and the Main Ring (MR) of TRISTAN. This monitor can detect the beam position and its charge every passage of the beam. Variations of the beam position have been observed during the routine operation. An investigation into the AR extraction components has been carried out in order to clarify a source of the variations. (author)

  10. The design of the electronic system on neutron beam monitor based on GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Min; Zhuang Bao'an; Zhao Yubin; Chen Shaojia; Wang Na; Zhang Hongyu; Zhao Jingwei

    2012-01-01

    The Neutron Beam Monitor - a GEM based system used to monitor the neutron beams in real time - is introduced. The electronic parts are described in details, including the principles of the circuit, the system structure, the design of the Daughterboard and the logic and algorithm of the FPGA on the Monitor board. The test results are also given out in the final. (authors)

  11. First Beam Test of Nanometer Spot Size Monitor Using Laser Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Walz, D

    2003-01-01

    The nanometer spot size monitor based on the laser interferometry (Laser-Compton Spot Size Monitor) has been tested in FFTB beam line at SLAC. A low emittance beam of 46 GeV electrons, provided by the two-mile linear accelerator, was focused into nanometer spot in the FFTB line, and its transverse dimensions were precisely measured by the spot size monitor.

  12. LHCB: A LHCb-VELO module as beam quality monitor for proton therapy beam at the Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology

    CERN Multimedia

    Casse, G; Patel, G D; Smith, N A; Kacperek, A; Marsland, B

    2010-01-01

    The progress in detector technology, driven by the needs of particle tracking and vertexing in the present LHC and its upgrade (sLHC), has led to the design of silicon sensors with low mass, high granularity, high speed and unprecedented radiation hardness. The sensors designed for such a harsh environment can be profitably used for instrumenting the control systems of therapeutic hadron beams. The high granularity and readout clock speed are well suited for monitoring continuous beam currents. The low mass allows reduced interference with the beam whilst monitoring its profile with high precision. The high resolution and sensitivity to minimum ionising particles allows monitoring of the beam spot position by measurement of the halo in real time, without any interference with the beam spot used in therapy.

  13. Time-of-flight MeV-SIMS with beam induced secondary electron trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte-Borchers, Martina, E-mail: marschul@phys.ethz.ch; Döbeli, Max; Müller, Arnold Milenko; George, Matthias; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2016-08-01

    A new Time-of-flight MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (MeV-SIMS) setup was developed to be used with a capillary microprobe for molecular imaging with heavy primary ions at MeV energies. Due to the low output current of the ion collimating capillary a Time-of-flight (ToF) measurement method with high duty cycle is necessary. Secondary electrons from the sample surface and transmitted ions were studied as start signals. They enable measurements with a continuous primary beam and unpulsed ToF spectrometer. Tests with various primary ion beams and sample types have shown that a secondary electron signal is obtained from 30% to 40% of incident MeV particles. This provides a ToF start signal with considerably better time resolution than the one obtained from transmitted primary ions detected in a radiation hard gas ionization detector. Beam induced secondary electrons therefore allow for MeV-SIMS measurements with reasonable mass resolution at primary ion beam currents in the low fA range.

  14. Ion beam induced surface graphitization of CVD diamond for x-ray beam position monitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chian; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wen, L.; Melendres, C.A.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source at ANL is a third-generation synchrotron facility that generates powerful x-ray beams on its undulator beamlines. It is important to know the position and angle of the x- ray beam during experiments. Due to very high heat flux levels, several patented x-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) exploiting chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond have been developed. These XBPMs have a thin layer of low-atomic-mass metallic coating so that photoemission from the x rays generate a minute but measurable current for position determination. Graphitization of the CVD diamond surface creates a very thin, intrinsic and conducting layer that can stand much higher temperatures and minimal x-ray transmission losses compared to the coated metallic layers. In this paper, a laboratory sputter ion source was used to transform selected surfaces of a CVD diamond substrate into graphite. The effect of 1-5 keV argon ion bombardment on CVD diamond surfaces at various target temperatures from 200 to 500 C was studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and in-situ electrical resistivity measurements. Graphitization after the ion bombardment has been confirmed and optimum conditions for graphitization studied. Raman spectroscopy was used to identify the overall diamond structure in the bulk of CVD diamond substrate after the ion bombardments. It was found that target temperature plays an important role in stability and electrical conductivity of the irradiated CVD diamonds

  15. Analysis of charged particle induced reactions for beam monitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surendra Babu, K. [IOP, Academia Sinica, Taipe, Taiwan (China); Lee, Young-Ouk [Nuclear Data Evaluation Laboratory, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Mukherjee, S., E-mail: smukherjee_msuphy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 (India)

    2012-07-15

    The reaction cross sections for different residual nuclides produced in the charged particle (p, d, {sup 3}He and {alpha}) induced reactions were calculated and compared with the existing experimental data which are important for beam monitoring and medical diagnostic applications. A detailed literature compilation and comparison were made on the available data sets for the above reactions. These calculations were carried out using the statistical model code TALYS up to 100 MeV, which contains Kalbach's latest systematic for the emission of complex particles and complex particle-induced reactions. All optical model calculations were performed by ECIS-03, which is built into TALYS. The level density, optical model potential parameters were adjusted to get the better description of experimental data. Various pre-equilibrium models were used in the present calculations with default parameters.

  16. New Acquisition System for the PSR Beam Pulse Charge Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellyey, William C.; Lewis, Paul S.

    2004-01-01

    A Pearson 1010 current monitor toroid has been in use for many years to measure the charge per bunch being delivered from the LANSCE Proton Storage Ring (PSR) to the Lujan Center's spallation neutron source. Improved electronics have been developed to process the toroid's signal. The new system generates a calibrated measurement of charge per pulse and is network-enabled to provide remote access to charge, current and other data via EPICS. It is experimentally demonstrated that accurate charge measurements can be made on calibration pulses that contain frequency components well above what is contained in a typical beam pulse. The new electronics consists of a National Instruments (NI) PXI-1002 chassis that contains a PXI-8176 controller, a PXI-5112 100-MS/s digitizer, and a PXI-6602 scalar and digital I/O module. The 8176 runs under the NI Real Time operating system and was programmed to integrate proton pulse waveforms acquired by the 5112 digitizer. For each beam pulse a 50-kHz pulse stream proportional to the pulse charge is generated by the 6602 and this real time information is distributed to all experimental areas

  17. Comparison of the secondary electrons produced by proton and electron beams in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: m-r-kia@aut.ac.ir; Noshad, Houshyar [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The secondary electrons produced in water by electron and proton beams are compared with each other. The total ionization cross section (TICS) for an electron impact in water is obtained by using the binary-encounter-Bethe model. Hence, an empirical equation based on two adjustable fitting parameters is presented to determine the TICS for proton impact in media. In order to calculate the projectile trajectory, a set of stochastic differential equations based on the inelastic collision, elastic scattering, and bremsstrahlung emission are used. In accordance with the projectile trajectory, the depth dose deposition, electron energy loss distribution in a certain depth, and secondary electrons produced in water are calculated. The obtained results for the depth dose deposition and energy loss distribution in certain depth for electron and proton beams with various incident energies in media are in excellent agreement with the reported experimental data. The difference between the profiles for the depth dose deposition and production of secondary electrons for a proton beam can be ignored approximately. But, these profiles for an electron beam are completely different due to the effect of elastic scattering on electron trajectory.

  18. Development of a Beam Trajectory Monitoring System Using e+/e- Pair Production Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shota; Emoto, Yusaku; Fujihara, Kento; Ito, Hiroshi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Mizuno, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    In particle therapy, it is important to monitor the Bragg-peak position. It was simulated by GEANT4 Monte Carlo Simulation Code that the distribution of secondary generated gamma rays on the carbon beam therapy and the proton beam therapy. This simulation shows that gamma rays whose energy is 10 MeV or more are intensively generated at the Bragg-peak position. We are developing the system to monitor the Bragg-peak position which can measure pair production events occurred in the detector by gamma rays from irradiation points. The momentum direction of the gamma ray can be determined by measuring passing points and energy of e+ and e- generated by pair production. This system has 5 parts. The first is the conversion part. This part consists of several layers. Each layer is composed of a La-GPS ((Gd0.75La0.24Ce0.01)2Si2O7) scintillator plate and wavelength-shifting fibre (WLSF) sheets. The scintillator plate is sandwiched between sheets, where the directions of the sheets are in orthogonally x and y directions. In this part, gamma rays are converted to e+ e- pairs and the position where the conversion occured is determined. The second is the tracking part. This part consists of 2 layers of scintillating fibre tracker. Each layer has 6 scintillating fibre sheets for x, x', u, u', v, and v'. The third is the energy measurement part. It measures the energy of e+ and e- by scintillator array and Silicon Photomultipliers. The fourth is the veto counter for bremsstrahlung gamma rays from e+ and e-. The fifth is the beam monitor. By experiment, the number of photoelectrons of La-GPS with a WLSF (B-3(300)MJ, Kuraray) sheet and scintillating fibre (SCSF-78, Kuraray) when charged particle passed was measured as 9.7 and 7.6 respectively.

  19. Development of a Beam Trajectory Monitoring System Using e+/e− Pair Production Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIMURA Shota

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In particle therapy, it is important to monitor the Bragg-peak position. It was simulated by GEANT4 Monte Carlo Simulation Code that the distribution of secondary generated gamma rays on the carbon beam therapy and the proton beam therapy. This simulation shows that gamma rays whose energy is 10 MeV or more are intensively generated at the Bragg-peak position. We are developing the system to monitor the Bragg-peak position which can measure pair production events occurred in the detector by gamma rays from irradiation points. The momentum direction of the gamma ray can be determined by measuring passing points and energy of e+ and e− generated by pair production. This system has 5 parts. The first is the conversion part. This part consists of several layers. Each layer is composed of a La-GPS ((Gd0.75La0.24Ce0.012Si2O7 scintillator plate and wavelength-shifting fibre (WLSF sheets. The scintillator plate is sandwiched between sheets, where the directions of the sheets are in orthogonally x and y directions. In this part, gamma rays are converted to e+ e- pairs and the position where the conversion occured is determined. The second is the tracking part. This part consists of 2 layers of scintillating fibre tracker. Each layer has 6 scintillating fibre sheets for x, x’, u, u’, v, and v’. The third is the energy measurement part. It measures the energy of e+ and e− by scintillator array and Silicon Photomultipliers. The fourth is the veto counter for bremsstrahlung gamma rays from e+ and e-. The fifth is the beam monitor. By experiment, the number of photoelectrons of La-GPS with a WLSF (B-3(300MJ, Kuraray sheet and scintillating fibre (SCSF-78, Kuraray when charged particle passed was measured as 9.7 and 7.6 respectively.

  20. Visualization of air and metal inhomogeneities in phantoms irradiated by carbon ion beams using prompt secondary ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaa, T; Reinhart, M; Hartmann, B; Jakubek, J; Soukup, P; Jäkel, O; Martišíková, M

    2017-06-01

    Non-invasive methods for monitoring of the therapeutic ion beam extension in the patient are desired in order to handle deteriorations of the dose distribution related to changes of the patient geometry. In carbon ion radiotherapy, secondary light ions represent one of potential sources of information about the dose distribution in the irradiated target. The capability to detect range-changing inhomogeneities inside of an otherwise homogeneous phantom, based on single track measurements, is addressed in this paper. Air and stainless steel inhomogeneities, with PMMA equivalent thickness of 10mm and 4.8mm respectively, were inserted into a PMMA-phantom at different positions in depth. Irradiations of the phantom with therapeutic carbon ion pencil beams were performed at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center. Tracks of single secondary ions escaping the phantom under irradiation were detected with a pixelized semiconductor detector Timepix. The statistical relevance of the found differences between the track distributions with and without inhomogeneities was evaluated. Measured shifts of the distal edge and changes in the fragmentation probability make the presence of inhomogeneities inserted into the traversed medium detectable for both, 10mm air cavities and 1mm thick stainless steel. Moreover, the method was shown to be sensitive also on their position in the observed body, even when localized behind the Bragg-peak. The presented results demonstrate experimentally, that the method using distributions of single secondary ion tracks is sensitive to the changes of homogeneity of the traversed material for the studied geometries of the target. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. LISE 3: a magnetic spectrometer-Wien filter combination for secondary radioactive beam production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anne, R. (GANIL, 14 - Caen (France)); Mueller, A.C. (IPN, 91 - Orsay (France))

    1992-08-01

    The double achromatic spectrometer LISE installed at GANIL has been running since six years for the study of exotic nuclei and the production of secondary beams obtained by the interaction of high energy heavy ions (E/A < 100 MeV) with thick targets (up to 1 g/cm[sup 2]). Essentially it is composed of two dipole magnets selecting the nuclear reaction products according to A/Z at 0[sup 0]. Combined with an achromatic degrader located in the intermediate focal plane, it provides a selection in A[sup 3]/Z[sup 2]. Recently we have upgraded LISE by two major improvements. i) The angle of entry of the primary beam with respect to the axis of the spectrometer has been made variable (0[sup 0] to 3.5[sup 0]). This allows the suppression of remaining incomplete stripped beam-charge-states in experiments with heavy beams (Z > 30). ii) A velocity filter based on an electrostatic field crossed with a magnetic one has been installed. This filter provides a third selection which is powerful in suppressing contaminants. Furthermore, the flight path between the target and the final focus is now increased to 43 m, which allows easy time-of-flight measurements also for heavy species. LISE 3 provides separated secondary beams of increased intensity and isotopic purity. We shall review the essential properties and present some recent experiment results for illustration. (orig.).

  2. Reliability Tests of the LHC Beam Loss Monitoring FPGA Firmware

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdu, C F; Dehning, B; Jackson, S

    2010-01-01

    The LHC Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is one of the most complex instrumentation systems deployed in the LHC. In addition to protecting the collider, the system also needs to provide a means of diagnosing machine faults and deliver a feedback of losses to the control room as well as to several systems for their setup and analysis. It has to transmit and process signals from almost 4’000 monitors, and has nearly 3 million configurable parameters. In a system of such complexity, firmware reliability is a critical issue. The integrity of the signal chain of the LHC BLM system and its ability to correctly detect unwanted scenarios and thus provide the required protection level must be ensured. In order to analyze the reliability and functionality, an advanced verification environment has been developed to evaluate the performance and response of the FPGA-based data analysis firmware. This paper will report on the numerous tests that have been performed and on how the results are used to quantify the reliabi...

  3. Spatial and temporal beam profile monitor with nanosecond resolution for CERN's Linac4 and Superconducting Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, M

    2008-01-01

    The Linac4, now being developed at CERN, will provide 160-MeV H- beams of high intensity . Before this beam can be injected into the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster or future Superconducting Proton Linac for further acceleration, some sequences of 500-ps-long micro-bunches must be removed from it, using a beam chopper. These bunches, if left in the beam, would fall outside the longitudinal acceptance of the accelerators and make them radioactive. We developed a monitor to measure the time structure and spatial profile of this chopped beam, with respective resolutions and . Its large active area and dynamic range also allows investigations of beam halos. The ion beam first struck a carbon foil, and secondary electrons emerging from the foil were accelerated by a series of parallel grid electrodes. These electrons struck a phosphor screen, and the resulting image of the scintillation light was guided to a thermoelectrically cooled, charge-coupled device camera. The time resolution was attained by applying high-...

  4. Fast Beam Conditions Monitor BCM1F for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Alan James; Hall-Wilton, R.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Macpherson, A.; Ohlerich, M.; Rodriguez, N.; Ryjov, V.; Schmidt, R.S.; Stone, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System, BRM, will support beam tuning, protect the CMS detector from adverse beam conditions, and measure the accumulated dose close to or inside all sub-detectors. It is composed of different sub-systems measuring either the particle flux near the beam pipe with time resolution between nano- and microseconds or the integrated dose over longer time intervals. This paper presents the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor, BCM1F, which is designed for fast flux monitoring measuring both beam halo and collision products. BCM1F is located inside the CMS pixel detector volume close to the beam-pipe. It uses sCVD diamond sensors and radiation hard front-end electronics, along with an analog optical readout of the signals. The commissioning of the system and its successful operation during the first be ams of the LHC are described.

  5. Cryogenic Beam Loss Monitors for the Superconducting Magnets of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, MR; Sapinski, M; Kurfuerst, C; Griesmayer, E; Eremin, V; Verbitskaya, E

    2014-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitor detectors close to the interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider are currently located outside the cryostat, far from the superconducting coils of the magnets. In addition to their sensitivity to lost beam particles, they also detect particles coming from the experimental collisions, which do not contribute significantly to the heat deposition in the superconducting coils. In the future, with beams of higher energy and brightness resulting in higher luminosity, distinguishing between these interaction products and dangerous quench-provoking beam losses from the primary proton beams will be challenging. The system can be optimised by locating beam loss monitors as close as possible to the superconducting coils, inside the cold mass in a superfluid helium environment, at 1.9 K. The dose then measured by such Cryogenic Beam Loss Monitors would more precisely correspond to the real dose deposited in the coil. The candidates under investigation for such detectors are based on p+-n-n+ si...

  6. Development and Optimisation of the SPS and LHC beam diagnostics based on Synchrotron Radiation monitors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081364; Roncarolo, Federico

    Measuring the beam transverse emittance is fundamental in every accelerator, in particular for colliders, where its precise determination is essential to maximize the luminosity and thus the performance of the colliding beams.
 Synchrotron Radiation (SR) is a versatile tool for non-destructive beam diagnostics, since its characteristics are closely related to those of the source beam. At CERN, being the only available diagnostics at high beam intensity and energy, SR monitors are exploited as the proton beam size monitor of the two higher energy machines, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The thesis work documented in this report focused on the design, development, characterization and optimization of these beam size monitors. Such studies were based on a comprehensive set of theoretical calculations, numerical simulations and experiments. A powerful simulation tool has been developed combining conventional softwares for SR simulation and optics design, thus allowing t...

  7. Measurement of charged particle yields from therapeutic beams in view of the design of an innovative hadrontherapy dose monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Battistoni, G; Bini, F; Collamati, F; Collini, F; De Lucia, E; Durante, M; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Frallicciardi, P M; La Tessa, C; Marafini, M; Mattei, I; Miraglia, F; Morganti, S; Ortega, P G; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Pinci, D; Russomando, A; Sarti, A; Schuy, C; Sciubba, A; Senzacqua, M; Solfaroli Camillocci, E; Vanstalle, M; Voena, C

    2015-01-01

    Particle Therapy (PT) is an emerging technique, which makes use of charged particles to efficiently cure different kinds of solid tumors. The high precision in the hadrons dose deposition requires an accurate monitoring to prevent the risk of under-dosage of the cancer region or of over-dosage of healthy tissues. Monitoring techniques are currently being developed and are based on the detection of particles produced by the beam interaction into the target, in particular: charged particles, result of target and/or projectile fragmentation, prompt photons coming from nucleus de-excitation and back-to-back γ s, produced in the positron annihilation from β + emitters created in the beam interaction with the target. It has been showed that the hadron beam dose release peak can be spatially correlated with the emission pattern of these secondary particles. Here we report about secondary particles production (charged fragments and prompt γ s) performed at different beam and energies that have a particular relevan...

  8. The beam monitor system for heavy ion shallow in tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bin; Hu Zhengguo; Xu Zhiguo; Mao Ruishi; Zhang Xueheng; Tu Xiaolin; Guo Zhongyan; Sun Zhiyu; Wang Meng; Xiao Guoqing; Xu Hushan

    2008-01-01

    The program of heavy ion shallow tumor therapy has been started. The beam monitor system for the therapy is described in this paper. It is composed of plastic scintillator, which used to monitor the stability of beam intensity and control the irradiation dose, and PPAC which is to measure the beam homogeneity in the irradiation area. This system has shown good performance in the clinic experiments of the shallow tumor therapy. (authors)

  9. Operational Experience with Beam Alignment and Monitoring Using Non-Destructive Beam Position Monitors in the Cyclotron Beamlines at iThemba LABS

    CERN Document Server

    Conradie, J L; Delsink, J L G; Fourie, D T; Kormany, Z; Mansfield, P T; Rohwer, P F; Sakildien, M

    2005-01-01

    At iThemba LABS proton beams, accelerated in a K=200 separated-sector cyclotron with a K=8 solid-pole injector cyclotron, are utilized for the production of radioisotopes and particle radiotherapy. Beams of heavy ions and polarized protons, pre-accelerated in a second injector cyclotron, are available for nuclear physics research. Beam position monitors have been developed for non-destructive alignment and continuous display of the beam position in the beam lines for the more intense beams used for therapy and the production of radioisotopes in cooperation* with Forschungszentrum Jülich. The monitors consist of four-section strip lines. Narrow-band super-heterodyne RF electronic equipment with automatic frequency and gain control measures the signals at the selected harmonic. A control module sequentially processes the signals and delivers calculated horizontal and vertical beam position data via a serial network to the computer control system. Eleven monitors have been installed in the transfer beam line be...

  10. LISE 3: a magnetic spectrometer—Wien filter combination for secondary radioactive beam production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne, Remy; Mueller, Alex C.

    1992-08-01

    The doubly achromatic spectrometer LISE installed at GANIL has been running since six years for the study of exotic nuclei and the production of secondary beams obtained by the interaction of high energy heavy ions ( E/ A 30). ii) A velocity filter based on an electrostatic field crossed with a magnetic one has been installed. This filter provides a third selection which is powerful in suppressing contaminants. Furthermore, the flight path between the target and the final focus is now increased to 43 m, which allows easy time-of-flight measurements also for heavy species. LISE 3 provides separated secondary beams of increased intensity and isotopic purity. We shall review the essential properties and present some recent experimental results for illustration.

  11. Applying EVM principles to Tevatron Beam Position Monitor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Bakul

    2005-01-01

    At Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), the Tevatron high energy particle collider must meet the increasing scientific demand of higher beam luminosity. To achieve this higher luminosity goal, U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a major upgrade of capabilities of Fermilab's accelerator complex that spans five years and costs over fifty million dollars. Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system upgrade is a part of this project, generally called RunII upgrade project. Since the purpose of the Tevatron collider is to detect the smashing of proton and anti-protons orbiting the circular accelerator in opposite directions, capability to detect positions of both protons and antiprotons at a high resolution level is a desirable functionality of the monitoring system. The original system was installed during early 1980s, along with the original construction of the Tevatron. However, electronic technology available in 1980s did not allow for the detection of significantly smaller resolution of antiprotons. The objective of the upgrade project is to replace the existing BPM system with a new system utilizing capabilities of modern electronics enhanced by a front-end software driven by a real-time operating software. The new BPM system is designed to detect both protons and antiprotons with increased resolution of up to an order of magnitude. The new system is capable of maintaining a very high-level of data integrity and system reliability. The system consists of 27 VME crates installed at 27 service buildings around the Tevatron ring servicing 236 beam position monitors placed underground, inside the accelerator tunnel. Each crate consists of a single Timing Generator Fanout module, custom made by Fermilab staff, one MVME processor card running VxWorks 5.5, multiple Echotek Digital Receiver boards complimented by custom made Filter Board. The VxWorks based front-end software communicates with the Main Accelerator Control software via a special

  12. Development of capacitive beam position, beam current and Schottky-signal monitors for the Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laux, Felix

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis novel techniques based on capacitive pickups for the determination of the beam current, the beam position and the Schottky-signal in storage rings have been developed. Beam current measurements at the heavy ion storage ring TSR with a capacitive pickup have been found in very good agreement with the theory. Using this device the accurate measurement of beam currents at the TSR far below 1 μA is now possible. This method will also be used at the Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR) at which beam currents in the range of 1 nA-1 μA are expected. For the first time, position measurements with a resonant amplifier system for capacitive pickups have been examined at the TSR for later use of this technique in the CSR. With this method an increased signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved using a parallel inductance. A comparison with measurements using the rest gas beam profile monitor has shown very good agreement even at very low intensities. Experiments with the cryo-capable electronics for the CSR beam position monitors have shown an achievable quality factor of Q=500, resulting in the prospect of precise position measurements at the CSR even at very low beam currents. The CSR Schottky-Pickup will also be equipped with a resonant amplifier system with a comparable quality factor. An estimation of the signal-to-noise ratio suggests a detection limit of a few protons. (orig.)

  13. Selection of K+ mesons in a secondary beam of Saturne (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rossum, L.

    1961-01-01

    The electronic device is described which permitted the determination of the number of K + mesons produced in a secondary beam of the 'Saturne' proton synchrotron. The selective criteria and the tests which allowed the identification of the K + mesons, are analysed in detail. For the ratio π + / K + = 400, and with a momentum of 600 MeV/c, less than 5 p. 100 of the detected particles corresponded to spurious events. (authors) [fr

  14. Monitoring the extracted proton beam at the SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    Fluorescent screens in front of the target positions allow a precise adjustement in front of them. A similar photo was recorded at the beam dump at the beam injection into the SPS, see Weekly Bulletin of April 1976.

  15. A study on the secondary electrons in a clinical electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krithivas, G.; Rao, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    The central axis dose of a 12 MeV clinical electron beam is investigated in terms of an axial component due to primary electrons in the central ray and a lateral component due to secondary electrons originating from multiple scattering of electrons in the off-axis rays. To this effect secondary electron fluence measurements in a polystyrene medium irradiated with a collimated beam are made with a sensitive diode detector. This leads to a construction of secondary electron depth-dose profiles for beam sizes of diameters ranging from 1.7 to 17.4 cm. The results indicate that the lateral electrons account for 25% of the dose in the therapeutic region. For these electrons, the depth of dose maximum is correlated with diffusion depth and maximum lateral excursion in the medium. Dose component due to backscatter electrons at depths is also investigated using a thin-window parallel-plate ion chamber. The role of lateral and backscatter electrons in characterising central axis per cent depth-dose is discussed. (author)

  16. Reliability of the beam loss monitors system for the large hadron collider at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guaglio, G.

    2005-12-01

    The energy stored in the Large Hadron Collider is unprecedented. The impact of the beam particles can cause severe damage on the superconductive magnets, resulting in significant downtime for repairing. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) detects the secondary particles shower of the lost beam particles and initiates the extraction of the beam before any serious damage to the equipment can occur. This thesis defines the BLMS specifications in term of reliability. The main goal is the design of a system minimizing both the probability to not detect a dangerous loss and the number of false alarms generated. The reliability theory and techniques utilized are described. The prediction of the hazard rates, the testing procedures, the Failure Modes Effects and Criticalities Analysis and the Fault Tree Analysis have been used to provide an estimation of the probability to damage a magnet, of the number of false alarms and of the number of generated warnings. The weakest components in the BLMS have been pointed out. The reliability figures of the BLMS have been calculated using a commercial software package (Isograph.). The effect of the variation of the parameters on the obtained results has been evaluated with a sensitivity analysis. The reliability model has been extended by the results of radiation tests. Design improvements, like redundant optical transmission, have been implemented in an iterative process. The proposed system is compliant with the reliability requirements. The model uncertainties are given by the limited knowledge of the thresholds levels of the superconductive magnets and of the locations of the losses along the ring. The implemented model allows modifications of the system, following the measuring of the hazard rates during the LHC life. It can also provide reference numbers to other accelerators which will implement similar technologies. (author)

  17. Digital beam position monitor for the HAPPEX experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherlon Kauffman; John Musson; Hai Dong; Lisa Kaufman; Arne Freyberger

    2005-05-01

    The proposed HAPPEX experiment at CEBAF employs a three cavity monitor system for high precision (1um), high bandwidth (100 kHz) position measurements. This is performed using a cavity triplet consisting of two TM110-mode cavities (one each for X and Y planes) combined with a conventional TM010-mode cavity for a phase and magnitude reference. Traditional systems have used the TM010 cavity output to directly down convert the BPM cavity signals to base band. The multi-channel HAPPEX digital receiver simultaneously I/Q samples each cavity and extracts position using a CORDIC algorithm. The hardware design consists of a RF receiver daughter board and a digital processor motherboard that resides in a VXI crate. The daughter board down converts 1.497 GHz signals from the TM010 cavity and X and Y signals from the TM110 cavities to 3 MHz and extracts the quadrature digital signals. The motherboard processes this data and computes beam intensity and X-Y positions with resolution of 1um, 100 kHz output bandwidth, and overall latency of 1us. The results are available in both the analog and digital format.

  18. Digital Beam Position Monitor for the Happex Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.R. Kauffman; H. Dong; A. Freyberger; L. Kaufman; J. Musson

    2005-05-16

    The proposed HAPPEX experiment at CEBAF employs a three cavity monitor system for high-precision (1 mm), high-bandwidth (100 kHz) position measurements. This is performed using a cavity triplet consisting of two TM110-mode cavities (one each for X and Y planes) combined with a conventional TM-010-mode cavity for a phase and magnitude reference. Traditional systems have used the TM010 cavity output to directly down convert the BPM cavity signals to base band. The Multi-channel HAPPEX digital receiver simultaneously I/Q samples each cavity and extracts position using a CORDIC algorithm. The hardware design consists of a digital receiver daughter board and digital processor motherboard that resides in a VXI crate. The daughter board down converts 1.497 GHz signals from the TM010 cavity and X and Y signals from the TM110 cavities to 4 MHz, and extracts the quadrature digital signals. The motherboard processes this data and computes beam intensity and X-Y positions with a resolution of one mm, 100 kHz output bandwidth, and overall latency of ten microseconds. The results are available in both analog and digital format.

  19. Focused beam reflectance measurement to monitor nimodipine precipitation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Khan, Mansoor A

    2013-11-18

    Crystallization of nimodipine in liquid-filled soft gelatin capsule during storage was reported for some commercial products, resulting in product recalls due to product quality and more importantly safety concerns. In this study, a real time particle monitoring tool, focused beam reflectance measurement, was used to evaluate the precipitation conditions of nimodipine in co-solvents. Upon water addition, two particle populations were discovered, appearing at different percentage of water content. Two transitions (i.e. sudden increase in particle counts) were observed, possibility related to nucleation and crystal growth of nimodipine. Furthermore, lowering storage temperature increased the tendency of nimodipine precipitation. Most critically, it was determined that with certain excipient, the drug precipitation occurred at approximately 7% (w/w) water content. Considering that all the orally administered liquid filled soft gelatin capsule shells contain residue water content as plasticizer, moisture transfer from the shell to the formulation may occur during long term storage, resulting in drug precipitation, particularly under cold temperature conditions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. External beam monitoring of the Cyclone 30 cyclotron of IPEN-CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hylton

    2002-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand for cyclotron radioisotopes and the high cost of equipment and materials involved in the process, it becomes evident the importance of external beam monitoring of the cyclotron. In this way, the beam of the Cyclone 30 cyclotron of IPEN-CNEN/S P was characterized throughout the evaluation of its current intensity, profile (position, focus and geometry), alignment and homogeneity, by measuring currents, temperatures and pressures of irradiation systems. For this purpose, techniques and conventional devices, thermocouples and pressure sensors associated to electronic of instrumentation, and technology and flexibility of micro controllers allowed observing the beam behavior during irradiations in real time. The ion beam energy was also evaluated using activation analysis technique of monitor reactions in nat Cu. The beam monitoring systems have been contributing to prevent material damages and they have already been used in routine irradiations, bringing important advantages in the process of beam optimization of the Cyclone 30. (author)

  1. The new Beam Halo Monitor for the CMS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Nicolo

    In the context of increasing beam energy and luminosity of the LHC accelerator at CERN, it will be important to accurately measure the Machine Induced Background. A new monitoring system will be installed in the CMS cavern for measuring the beam background at high radius. This detector, called the Beam Halo Monitor, will provide an online, bunch-by-bunch measurement of background induced by beam halo interactions, separately for each beam. The detector is composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators, coupled to fast UV sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The directional and fast response of the system allows the discrimination of the background particles from the dominant flux in the cavern induced by pp collision debris, produced within the 25 ns bunch spacing. The readout electronics of this detector will make use of many components developed for the upgrade of the CMS Hadron Calorimeter electronics, with a dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal will be d...

  2. Electron beam halo monitor for a compact x-ray free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Aoyagi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An electron beam halo monitor using diamond-based detectors, which are operated in the ionization mode, has been developed for the SPring-8 Angstrom compact free-electron laser (SACLA to protect its undulator magnets from radiation damage. Diamond-based detectors are inserted in a beam duct to measure the intensity of the beam halo directly. To suppress the degradation of the electron beam due to the installation of the beam halo monitor, rf fingers with aluminum windows are newly employed. We evaluated the effect of radiation from the Al windows on the output signal both experimentally and by simulation. The operational results of the beam halo monitor employed in SACLA are presented.

  3. A laser-based beam profile monitor for the SLC/SLD interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alley, R.; Arnett, D.; Bong, E.; Colocho, W.; Frisch, J.; Horton-Smith, S.; Inman, W.; Jobe, K.; Kotseroglou, T.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Scheeff, M.; Wagner, S.; Ross, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Beam size estimates made using beam-beam deflections are used for optimization of the Stanford linear collider (SLC) electron-positron beam sizes. Typical beam sizes and intensities expected for 1996 operations are 2.1 x 0.6 μm (x, y) at 4.0.10 10 particles per pulse. Conventional profile monitors, such as scanning wires, fail at charge densities well below this. The laser-based profile monitor uses a finely-focused 350-nm wavelength tripled YLF laser pulse that traverses the particle beam path about 29 cm away from the e + /e - IP. Compton scattered photons and degraded e + /e - are detected as the beam is steered across the laser pulse. The laser pulse has a transverse size of 380 nm and a Rayleigh range of about 5 μm. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of secondary particle behavior in multiaperture, multigrid accelerator for the ITER neutral beam injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, T; Taniguchi, M; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Tobari, H; Watanabe, K; Dairaku, M; Sakamoto, K; Inoue, T

    2010-02-01

    Heat load on acceleration grids by secondary particles such as electrons, neutrals, and positive ions, is a key issue for long pulse acceleration of negative ion beams. Complicated behaviors of the secondary particles in multiaperture, multigrid (MAMuG) accelerator have been analyzed using electrostatic accelerator Monte Carlo code. The analytical result is compared to experimental one obtained in a long pulse operation of a MeV accelerator, of which second acceleration grid (A2G) was removed for simplification of structure. The analytical results show that relatively high heat load on the third acceleration grid (A3G) since stripped electrons were deposited mainly on A3G. This heat load on the A3G can be suppressed by installing the A2G. Thus, capability of MAMuG accelerator is demonstrated for suppression of heat load due to secondary particles by the intermediate grids.

  5. Fast-scan monitor examines neutral-beam ion-density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    All of the magnetic mirror confinement fusion experiments at LLL and at other laboratories depend on pulsed, energetic neutral-beam injection for fueling and imparting energy to the trapped plasma for density build-up and stability studies. It is vital to be able to monitor how well the injected ion beam is aimed and focused. To do this, we have designed an ion-beam current-density profile monitor that uses a commercial minimodular data acquisition system. Our prototype model monitors a single 20-kV, 50-A, 10-ms beam. However, the method is applicable to any number of beams with similar sampling target arrays. Also, the electronics can be switched to monitor any one of several target collectors

  6. Single- and multi-foils {sup 27}Al(p,3pn){sup 24}Na activation technique for monitoring the intensity of high-energy beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curioni, A. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, 20156 Milan (Italy); Froeschl, R.; Glaser, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Iliopoulou, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Medical Physics Laboratory, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); La Torre, F.P. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Pozzi, F., E-mail: fabio.pozzi@cern.ch [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ravotti, F.; Silari, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2017-06-21

    This paper discusses an experimental study of the spallation reaction {sup 27}Al(p,3pn){sup 24}Na in Al foils exposed to 24 GeV c{sup −1} protons, in the context of monitoring the intensity of multi-GeV proton beams through foil activation techniques. Since this reaction is sensitive to secondary neutrons and other energetic secondary hadrons, it is important to evaluate the impact of the foil thickness on the calculation of the beam intensity. This effect is determined experimentally using a stack of Al foils of varying thickness. The experimental results are then compared to Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Current control of the electron beam formed in the magnetron gun with a secondary-emission cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovbnya, A.N.; Reshetnyak, N.G.; Zakutin, V.V.; Chertishchev, I.A.; Romas'ko, V.P.; Dovbnyan, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Data are reported on electron beam generation and beam current control in two types of secondary-emission cathode magnetron guns. The influence of the magnetic field value and field distribution on the formation of the beam and its parameters has been investigated in the electron energy range between 20 and 150 keV. The influence of local magnetic field variations on the cathode and the electron beam characteristics has been studied. The possibility to control the electron beam current in various ways has been demonstrated

  8. Development of beam position monitor of the transport line from LINAC to AR in TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejima, M.; Satoh, M.; Mori, K.

    1994-01-01

    We constructed and installed 9 Beam Position Monitors (BPM) having four strip-lines along the beam transport line from the linac to the accumulating ring (AR) last summer. Every signal was gathered in the local control room, the beam signal is measured by using the digitizing oscilloscope and sent to the micro-computer(μ-com) through the GPIB. The picture of beam positions on the μ-com terminal is converted to the video signal and transmitted to a TV monitor at the central control room. (author)

  9. Design of a Standing-Wave Multi-Cavity Beam-Monitor for Simultaneous Beam Position and Emittance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Miller, Roger; Nantista, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    A high precision emittance measurement requires precise beam position at the measurement location. At present there is no existing technique, commercial or otherwise, for non-destructive pulse-to-pulse simultaneous beam position and emittance measurement. FAR-TECH, Inc. is currently developing a high precision cavity-based beam monitor for simultaneous beam position and emittance measurements pulse-to-pulse, without beam interception and without moving parts. The design and anlysis of a multi-cavity standing wave structure for a pulse-to-pulse emittance measurement system in which the quadrupole and the dipole standing wave modes resonate at harmonics of the beam operating frequency is presented. Considering the Next Linear Collider beams, an optimized 9-cavity standing wave system is designed for simultaneous high precision beam position and emittance measurements. It operates with the π - quadrupole mode resonating at 16th harmonic of the NLC bunch frequency, and the 3 π /4 dipole mode at 12th harmonic (8.568 GHz). The 9-cavity system design indicates that the two dipoles resonate almost at the same frequency 8.583 GHz and the quadrupole at 11.427 GHz according to the scattering parameter calculations. The design can be trivially scaled so that the dipole frequency is at 8.568 GHz, and the quadrupole frequency can then be tuned during fabrication to achieve the desired 11.424 GHz. The output powers from these modes are estimated for the NLC beams. An estimated rms-beam size resolution is sub micro-meters and beam positions in sub nano-meters.

  10. Summary Of Session 4: How Do We Monitor Beam Quality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karantzoulis, E.

    2001-01-01

    Up to the end of the 80's beam quality was mainly believed to be connected only to the intensity i.e. beam quantity. However, with the new colliders already functioning or programmed, new and more (also in safety) demanding production machines (e.g. isotope) and the many new 3rd generation synchrotron radiation sources that accommodate many experimental lines, the beam quality (BQ) issue has to be re-examined, re-evaluated and re-defined. (author)

  11. Summary Of Session 4: How Do We Monitor Beam Quality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karantzoulis, E

    2001-07-01

    Up to the end of the 80's beam quality was mainly believed to be connected only to the intensity i.e. beam quantity. However, with the new colliders already functioning or programmed, new and more (also in safety) demanding production machines (e.g. isotope) and the many new 3rd generation synchrotron radiation sources that accommodate many experimental lines, the beam quality (BQ) issue has to be re-examined, re-evaluated and re-defined. (author)

  12. Micro-strip Metal Foil Detectors for the Beam Profile Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Pugatch, V M; Fedorovitch, O A; Mikhailenko, A V; Prystupa, S V; Pylypchenko, Y

    2005-01-01

    The Micro-strip Metal Foil Detectors (MMFD) designed and used for the Beam Profile Monitoring (BPM) are discussed. Fast particles hitting a metal strip initiate Secondary Electron Emission (SEE) which occurs at 10 - 50 nm surface layers of a strip. The SEE yield is measured by a sensitive Charge Integrator with built-in current-to-frequency converter (1 Hz per 1 fA). The MMFD (deposited onto the 20 μm thick Si-wafer) with 32 Al strips (10 μm wide, 32 μm pitch) has been used for the BPM of the 32 MeV alpha-particle beam at the MPIfK (Heidelberg) Tandem generator for Single-Event-Upset studies of the BEETLE micro-chip. Similar MMFD (0.5 μm thick Ni-strips) with totally removed Si-wafer (by plasma-chemistry, at the working area of 8 x 10 mm2) has been applied for the on-line X-ray BPM at the HASYLAB (DESY). The number of photons (11.3 GeV, mean X-ray energy 18 keV) producing out of a strip a single SEE was evaluated as (1.5 ±0.5)* 104. MMFD has demonstrated stable...

  13. X-ray beam monitor made by thin-film CVD single-crystal diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E; Prestopino, G; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Angelone, M; Pillon, M; Kachkanov, V; Tartoni, N; Benetti, M; Cannatà, D; Di Pietrantonio, F

    2012-11-01

    A novel beam position monitor, operated at zero bias voltage, based on high-quality chemical-vapor-deposition single-crystal Schottky diamond for use under intense synchrotron X-ray beams was fabricated and tested. The total thickness of the diamond thin-film beam monitor is about 60 µm. The diamond beam monitor was inserted in the B16 beamline of the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell (UK). The device was characterized under monochromatic high-flux X-ray beams from 6 to 20 keV and a micro-focused 10 keV beam with a spot size of approximately 2 µm × 3 µm square. Time response, linearity and position sensitivity were investigated. Device response uniformity was measured by a raster scan of the diamond surface with the micro-focused beam. Transmissivity and spectral responsivity versus beam energy were also measured, showing excellent performance of the new thin-film single-crystal diamond beam monitor.

  14. An LHCb general-purpose acquisition board for beam and background monitoring at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, F.; Guzik, Z.; Jacobsson, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we will present an LHCb custom-made acquisition board which was developed for a continuous beam and background monitoring during LHC operations at CERN. The paper describes both the conceptual design and its performance, and concludes with results from the first period of beam operations at the LHC. The main purpose of the acquisition board is to process signals from a pair of beam pickups to continuously monitor the intensity of each bunch, and to monitor the phase of the arrival time of each proton bunch with respect to the LHC bunch clock. The extreme versatility of the board also allowed the LHCb experiment to build a high-speed and high-sensitivity readout system for a fast background monitor based on a pair of plastic scintillators. The board has demonstrated very good performance and proved to be conceptually valid during the first months of operations at the LHC. Connected to the beam pickups, it provides the LHCb experiment with a real-time measurement of the total intensity of each beam and of the arrival time of each beam at the LHCb Interaction Point. It also monitors the LHC filling scheme and the beam current per bunch at a continuous rate of 40 MHz, and assures a proper global timing of LHCb. The continuous readout of the scintillators at bunch clock speed provides the LHCb experiment with high-resolution information about the beam halo and fast losses during both injection and circulating beam. It has also provided valuable information to the LHC during machine commissioning with beam. Recent results also shows that it could contribute as a luminosity monitor independent from the LHCb experiment readout system. Beam, background and luminosity measurements are continuously fed back to the LHC in the data exchange framework between the experiments and the LHC machine aimed at improving efficiently the experimental conditions real-time.

  15. The rapid secondary electron imaging system of the proton beam writer at CIBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udalagama, C.N.B.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kan, J.A. van; Teo, E.J.; Watt, F.

    2007-01-01

    The recent years have witnessed a proliferation of research involving proton beam (p-beam) writing. This has prompted investigations into means of optimizing the process of p-beam writing so as to make it less time consuming and more efficient. One such avenue is the improvement of the pre-writing preparatory procedures that involves beam focusing and sample alignment which is centred on acquiring images of a resolution standard or sample. The conventional mode of imaging used up to now has utilized conventional nuclear microprobe signals that are of a pulsed nature and are inherently slow. In this work, we report the new imaging system that has been introduced, which uses proton induced secondary electrons. This in conjunction with software developed in-house that uses a National Instruments DAQ card with hardware triggering, facilitates large data transfer rates enabling rapid imaging. Frame rates as much as 10 frames/s have been achieved at an imaging resolution of 512 x 512 pixels

  16. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  17. Stability study of the higher order mode beam position monitors at the Accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, L; Jones., R M

    2014-01-01

    erating cavities at FLASH linac, DESY, are equipped with electronics for beam position monitoring, which are based on HOM signals from special couplers. These monitors provide the beam position without additional vacuum components and at low cost. Moreover, they can be used to align the beam in the cavities to reduce the HOM effects on the beam. However, the HOMBPM (Higher Order Mode based Beam Position Monitor) shows an instability problem over time. In this paper, we will present the status of studies on this issue. Several methods are utilized to calibrate the HOMBPMs. These methods include DLR (Direct Linear Regression), and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition). We found that SVD generally is more suitable for HOMBPM calibration. We focus on the HOMBPMs at 1.3 GHz cavities. Techniques developed here are applicable to 3.9 ...

  18. Bunch-length and beam-timing monitors in the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.; Yocky, G.; Whittum, D.H.; Seidel, M.; Ng, C.K.; McCormick, D.; Bane, K.L.F.

    1998-07-01

    During the 1997/98 luminosity run of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), two novel RF-based detectors were brought into operation, in order to monitor the interaction-point (IP) bunch lengths and fluctuations in the relative arrival time of the two colliding beams. Both bunch length and timing can strongly affect the SLC luminosity and had not been monitored in previous years. The two new detectors utilize a broad-band microwave signal, which is excited by the beam through a ceramic gap in the final-focus beam pipe and transported outside of the beam line vault by a 160-ft long X-Band waveguide. The authors describe the estimated luminosity reduction due to bunch-length drift and IP timing fluctuation, the monitor layout, the expected responses and signal levels, calibration measurements, and beam observations

  19. Fibre Monitoring System for the Beam Permit Loops at the LHC and Future Evolution of the Beam Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    García-Argos, Carlos; Gabourin, Stéphane; Martin, Christophe; Puccio, Bruno; Siemko, Andrzej P.

    The optical fibres that transmit the beam permit loop signals at the CERN accelerator complex are deployed along radiation areas. This may result in increased attenuation of the fibres, which reduces the power margin of the links. In addition, other events may cause the links to not function properly and result in false dumps, reducing the availability of the accelerator chain and affecting physics data taking. In order to evaluate the state of the fibres, an out-of-band fibre monitoring system is proposed, working in parallel to the actual beam permit loops. The future beam interlock system to be deployed during LHC long shutdown 2 will implement online, real-time monitoring of the fibres, a feature the current system lacks. Commercial off-the-shelf components to implement the optical transceivers are proposed whenever possible instead of ad-hoc designs.

  20. Development of nanometer resolution C-Band radio frequency beam position monitors in the Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaton, T.; Mazaheri, G. [Stanford Univ., CA (US). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Shintake, T. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    Using a 47 GeV electron beam, the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) produces vertical spot sizes around 70 nm. These small beam sizes introduce an excellent opportunity to develop and test high resolution Radio Frequency Beam Position Monitors (RF-BPMs). These BPMs are designed to measure pulse to pulse beam motion (jitter) at a theoretical resolution of approximately 1 nm. The beam induces a TM{sub 110} mode with an amplitude linearly proportional to its charge and displacement from the BPM's (cylindrical cavity) axis. The C-band (5,712 MHz) TM{sub 110} signal is processed and converted into beam position for use by the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system. Presented are the experimental procedures, acquisition, and analysis of data demonstrating resolution of jitter near 25 nm. With the design of future e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders requiring spot sizes close to 3 nm, understanding and developing RF-BPMs will be essential in resolving and controlling jitter.

  1. Current density monitor for intense relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorito, R.B.; Raleigh, M.; Seltzer, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a new type of electric probe which is capable of measuring the time-resolved current density profile of a stable, reproducible, high-energy (>4-MeV) high-current (>1-kA) electron beam. The sensing element of this probe is an open-ended but capped-off 50-Ω coaxial line constructed of graphite. The graphite sensor is 4.3 mm in diameter, 6 cm long, and is range thin to the primary beam electrons. The probe produces a signal proportional to the intercepted beam current. When the sensor is scanned radially through the beam during repeated pulses, a curve of signal versus depth of insertion is produced from which the radial current density profile can be determined. Measurements are presented of the profile of the electron beam from the Experimental Test Accelerator (4.5 MeV, 10 kA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Good agreement is shown between measurements made with this probe and the beam radius as predicted by transport codes. The advantage of the electric probe lies in its ruggedness, simplicity, inherent fast rise time, and low cost. In contrast to other systems it requires no radiation shielding, water cooling, or auxiliary support equipment to operate in an intense beam environment

  2. The APS X-ray undulator photon beam position monitor and tests at CHESS and NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Rodricks, B.; Barraza, J.; Sanchez, T.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The advent of thirs generation synchrotron sources, like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), will provide significant increases in brilliance over existing synchrotron sources. The APS X-ray undulators will increase the brilliance in the 3-40 keV range by several orders of magnitude. Thus, the design of the photon beam position monitor is a challenging engineering task. The beam position monitors must withstand the high thermal load, be able to achieve submicron spatial resolution while maintaining their stability, and be compatible with both undulators and wigglers. A preliminary APS prototype photon beam position monitor consisting of a CVD-diamond-based, tungsten-coated blade was tested on the APS/CHESS undulator at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Radiation Source (CHESS) and on the NSLS X-13 undulator beamline. Results from these tests, as well as the design of this prototype APS photon beam position monitor, will be discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  3. Test beam results of a low-pressure micro-strip gas chamber with a secondary-electron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, S.; Anderson, D.F.; Zimmerman, J.; Sbarra, C.; Salomon, M.

    1994-10-01

    We present recent results, from a beam test, on the angular dependence of the efficiency and the distribution of the signals on the anode strips of a low-pressure microstrip gas chamber with a thick CsI layer as a secondary-electron emitter. New results of CVD diamond films as secondary-electron emitters are discussed

  4. Renewal of beam position monitor electronics of the SPring-8 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shigeki; Fujita, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    Signal processing electronics for the beam position monitors (BPM) of the SPring-8 Storage Ring were renewed during the summer shutdown period of 2006. The configurations of the electronics of before and after the alteration are described. The evaluation of the performance of the electronics is shown with the data taken by using the actual beams. (author)

  5. Summer student report - Upgrade work for the Fast Beam Condition Monitor at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tsrunchev, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Report on summer student internship at CERN. Describes work done towards the replacement of the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F) - activities related to the test beam conducted by the BRIL (Background Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity) experiment in July 2016, analog opto-hybrids testing and XDAQ development for the uTCA readout system currently under development.

  6. Monitoring steel corrosion in reinforced concrete beams with variable crack widths under sustained load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blagojevic, A.; Koleva, D.A.; Walraven, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    This work reports on the investigation of steel corrosion behavior in 1000 mm in length reinforced concrete beams under sustained load, aiming to define a feasible experimental protocol for corrosion monitoring. The beams were subjected to wetting (5% NaCl for corroding cases and tap water for

  7. High-Precision Resonant Cavity Beam Position, Emittance and Third-Moment Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Barov, Nikolai; Miller, Roger H; Nantista, Christopher D; Weidemann, A W

    2005-01-01

    Linear colliders and FEL facilities need fast, nondestructive beam position and profile monitors to facilitate machine tune-up, and for use with feedback control. FAR-TECH, Inc. is developing a resonant cavity diagnostic to simultaneously measure the dipole, quadrupole and sextupole moments of the beam distribution. Measurements of dipole and quadrupole moments at multiple locations yield information about beam orbit and emittance. The sextupole moment can reveal information about beam asymmetry which is useful in diagnosing beam tail deflections caused by short range dipole wakefields. In addition to the resonance enhancement of a single-cell cavity, use of a multi-cell standign-wave structure further enhances signal strength and improves the resolution of the device. An estimated rms beam size resolution is sub micro-meters and beam position is sub nano-meter.

  8. Development of a Laser-based Emittance Monitor for Negative Hydrogen Beams

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078368; Schmauss, Bernhard; Gibson, Stephen; Boorman, Gary; Bosco, Alessio

    High energy particle accelerators are designed to collide charged particle beams and thus study the collision products. Maximising the collision rate, to generate sufficient statistics for precise measurements of rare processes, is one of the key parameters for optimising the overall collider performance. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Injectors Upgrade (LIU) includes the construction of LINAC4, a completely new machine working as a first linear acceleration stage for the LHC beam. By accelerating a negative hydrogen beam (H-) instead of protons, it aims to double the beam brightness via a more efficient transfer to the first circular accelerator and subsequently boost the LHC collision rate. To achieve this, a precise knowledge of the transverse beam characteristics in terms of beam emittance is essential. This thesis work covers the development of a laser-based monitor meant to measure non-destructively the LINAC4 beam transverse profile and emittance. This included the implementation of dif...

  9. Beam Diagnostics for the J-PARC Main Ring Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Toyama, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Naoki; Kishiro, Junichi; Lee, Seishu; Miura, Takako; Muto, Suguru; Toyokawa, Ryoji

    2005-01-01

    Beam diagnostics: beam intensity monitors (DCCT, SCT, FCT, WCM), beam position monitors (ESM), beam loss monitors (proportional chamber, air ion chamber), beam profile monitors (secondary electron emission, gas-sheet) have been designed, tested, and will be installed for the Main Ring synchrotron of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). This paper describes the basic design principle and specification of each monitor, with a stress on how to cope with high power beam (average circulation current of ~12 A) and low beam loss operation (less than 1 W/m except a collimator region). Some results of preliminary performance test using present beams and a radiation source will be reported.

  10. The beam intensity and positron monitoring system of the Daresbury Electron Synchrotron (NINA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, D.E.; Ring, T.; Peters, D.G.; Allen, J.

    1976-01-01

    The beam sensing system of NINA has been redesigned and rebuilt to provide comprehensive monitoring of beam intensity and position. The reasons for the change are stated, and the requirements and performance specification for the new system are listed. The report falls under the following heads: the sensing head; the head electronics unit; the line receiver unit; performance of installed monitors; display system and computer interface. The performance of the new system is summarized. (U.K.)

  11. Development of a Compton Camera for Online Range Monitoring of Laser-Accelerated Proton Beams via Prompt-Gamma Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirolf P.G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently large efforts are conducted in Munich towards the development of proton beams for bio-medical applications, generated via the technique of particle acceleration from high-power, short-pulse lasers. While so far mostly offline diagnostics tools are used in this context, we aim at developing a reliable and accurate online range monitoring technique, based on the position-sensitive detection of prompt γ rays emitted from nuclear reactions between the proton beam and the biological sample. For this purpose, we develop a Compton camera, designed to be able to track not only the Compton scattering of the primary photon, but also to detect the secondary Compton electron, thus reducing the Compton cone to an arc segment and by this increasing the source reconstruction efficiency. Design specifications and the status of the protype system are discussed.

  12. Production of Inorganic Thin Scintillating Films for Ion Beam Monitoring Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Re, Maurizio; Cosentino, Luigi; Cuttone, Giacomo; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Hermanne, Alex; Lojacono, Pietro A; Ma, YingJun; Thienpont, Hugo; Van Erps, Jurgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Volckaerts, Bart; Vynck, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    In this work we present the development of beam monitoring devices consisting of thin CsI(Tl) films deposited on Aluminium support layers. The light emitted by the scintillating layer during the beam irradiation is measured by a CCD-camera. In a first prototype a thin Aluminium support layer of 6 micron allows the ion beam to easily pass through without significant energy loss and scattering effects. Therefore it turns out to be a non-destructive monitoring device to characterize on-line beam shape and beam position without interfering with the rest of the irradiation process. A second device consists of an Aluminium support layer which is thick enough to completely stop the impinging ions allowing to monitor at the same time the beam profile and the beam current intensity. Some samples have been coated by a 100 Å protective layer to prevent the film damage by atmosphere exposition. In this contribution we present our experimental results obtained by irradiating the samples with proton beams at 8.3 and 62 Me...

  13. High current CW beam profile monitors using transisiton radiation at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piot, P.; Denard, J.C.; Adderley, P.; Capek, K.; Feldl, E.

    1996-01-01

    One way of measuring the profile of CEBAF's low emittance and high power beam is to use the Optical Transition Radiation (OTR) emitted from a thin foil surface when the electron beam passes through it. We present the design of a monitor using the forward OTR emitted from a 0.25 μm carbon foil. We believe that the monitor will resolve three main issues: (i) whether the max temperature of the foil stays below the melting point, (ii) whether the beam loss remains below 0. 5%, in order not to trigger the machine protection system, and (iii) whether the monitor resolution (unlike that of synchrotron radiation monitors) is better than the product λγ. It seems that the most serious limitation for CEBAF is the beam loss due to beam scattering. We present results from Keil's theory and simulations from the computer code GEANT as well as measurements with Al foils with a 45 MeV electron beam. We also present a measurement of a 3.2 GeV beam profile that is much smaller than λγ, supporting Rule ampersand Fiorito's calculations of the OTR resolution limit due to diffraction

  14. Improved design and in-situ measurements of new beam position monitors for Indus-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Babbar, L. K.; Holikatti, A. C.; Yadav, S.; Tyagi, Y.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Senecha, V. K.

    2018-01-01

    Beam position monitors (BPM) are important diagnostic devices used in particle accelerators to monitor position of the beam for various applications. Improved version of button electrode BPM has been designed using CST Studio Suite for Indus-2 ring. The new BPMs are designed to replace old BPMs which were designed and installed more than 12 years back. The improved BPMs have higher transfer impedance, resonance free output signal, equal sensitivity in horizontal and vertical planes and fast decaying wakefield as compared to old BPMs. The new BPMs have been calibrated using coaxial wire method. Measurement of transfer impedance and time domain signals has also been performed in-situ with electron beam during Indus-2 operation. The calibration and beam based measurements results showed close agreement with the design parameters. This paper presents design, electromagnetic simulations, calibration result and in-situ beam based measurements of newly designed BPMs.

  15. A very sensitive nonintercepting beam average velocity monitoring system for the TRIUMF 300-keV injection line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Y.; Laxdal, R.E.; Zelenski, A.; Ostroumov, P.

    1997-01-01

    A nonintercepting beam velocity monitoring system has been installed in the 300-keV injection line of the TRIUMF cyclotron to reproduce the injection energy for beam from different ion sources and to monitor any beam energy fluctuations. By using a programmable beam signal leveling method the system can work with a beam current dynamic range of 50 dB. Using synchronous detection, the system can detect 0.5 eV peak-to-peak energy modulation of the beam, sensitivity is 1.7x10 -6 . The paper will describe the principle and beam measurement results. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Design and initial tests of beam current monitoring systems for the APS transport lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xucheng.

    1992-01-01

    The non-intercepting beam current monitoring systems suitable for a wide, range of beam parameters have been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines and high energy transport line. The positron or electron beam pulse in the transport lines wig have peak beam currents ranging from 8 mA to 29 A with pulse widths varying from 120 ps to 30 ns and pulse repetition rates from 2 Hz to 60 Hz. The peak beam current or total beam charge is measured with the fast or integrating current transformer, respectively, manufactured by Bergoz. In-house high speed beam signal processing electronics provide a DC level output proportional to the peak current or total charge for the digitizer input. The prototype systems were tested on the linacs which have beam pulse structures similar to that of the APS transport lines. This paper describes the design of beam signal processing electronics and grounding and shielding methods for current transformers. The results of the initial operations are presented. A short introduction on the preliminary design of current monitoring systems for the APS rings is also included

  17. Beam Extinction Monitoring in the Mu2e Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prebys, Eric [Fermilab; Bartoszek, Larry [Technicare; Gaponenko, Andrei [Fermilab; Kasper, Peter [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    The Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab will search for the conversion of a muon to an electron in the field of an atomic nucleus with unprecedented sensitivity. The experiment requires a beam consisting of proton bunches approximately 200ns FW long, separated by 1.7 microseconds, with no out-of-time protons at the 10⁻¹⁰ fractional level. The verification of this level of extinction is very challenging. The proposed technique uses a special purpose spectrometer which will observe particles scattered from the production target of the experiment. The acceptance will be limited such that there will be no saturation effects from the in-time beam. The precise level and profile of the out-of-time beam can then be built up statistically, by integrating over many bunches.

  18. Analytical linear energy transfer model including secondary particles: calculations along the central axis of the proton pencil beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Mazal, A; Pouzoulet, F

    2016-01-01

    In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens’ model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec , for Wilkens’ model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec . The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens’ model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm −1 . These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis. (paper)

  19. Method and apparatus to monitor a beam of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brandon W.; Chichester, David L.; Watson, Scott M.; Johnson, James T.; Kinlaw, Mathew T.

    2015-06-02

    Methods and apparatus to capture images of fluorescence generated by ionizing radiation and determine a position of a beam of ionizing radiation generating the fluorescence from the captured images. In one embodiment, the fluorescence is the result of ionization and recombination of nitrogen in air.

  20. Detection and monitoring of flexural cracks in reinforced concrete beams using mounted smart aggregate transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavipour, S.; Kharkovsky, S.; Kang, W.-H.; Samali, B.; Mirza, O.

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have successfully demonstrated the capability and reliability of the use of Smart Aggregate (SA) transducers to monitor reinforced concrete (RC) structures. However, they mainly focused on the applications of embedded SAs to new structural members, while no major attention was paid to the monitoring of existing RC members using externally mounted SAs. In this paper, a mounted SA-based approach is proposed for a real-time health monitoring of existing RC beams. The proposed approach is verified through monitoring of RC beams under flexural loading, on each of which SA transducers are mounted as an actuator and sensors. The experimental results show that the proposed SA-based approach effectively evaluates the cracking status of RC beams in terms of the peak of power spectral density and damage indexes obtained at multiple sensor locations. It is also shown that the proposed sensor system can also capture a precautionary signal for major cracking.

  1. An Innovative Beam Halo Monitor system for the CMS experiment at the LHC: Design, Commissioning and First Beam Results

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00344917; Dabrowski, Anne

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a multi-purpose experiment situated at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The CMS has the mandate of searching new physics and making precise measurements of the already known mechanisms by using data produced by collisions of high-energy particles. To ensure high quality physics data taking, it is important to monitor and ensure the quality of the colliding particle beams. This thesis presents the research and design, the integration and the first commissioning results of a novel Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) that was designed and built for the CMS experiment. The BHM provides an online, bunch-by-bunch measurement of background particles created by interactions of the proton beam with residual gas molecules in the vacuum chamber or with collimator material upstream of the CMS, separately for each beam. The system consists of two arrays of twenty direction-sensitive detectors that are distributed azimuthally around the outer forward shielding of the CMS experiment. Each detector is ...

  2. Development and optimization of the LHC and the SPS beam diagnostics based on synchrotron radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trad, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the beam transverse emittance is fundamental in every accelerator, in particular for colliders, where its precise determination is essential to maximize the luminosity and thus the performance of the colliding beams. Synchrotron Radiation (SR) is a versatile tool for non-destructive beam diagnostics, since its characteristics are closely related to those of the source beam. At CERN, being the only available diagnostics at high beam intensity and energy, SR monitors are exploited as the proton beam size monitor of the two higher energy machines, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The thesis work documented in this report focused on the design, development, characterization and optimization of these beam size monitors. Such studies were based on a comprehensive set of theoretical calculations, numerical simulations and experiments. A powerful simulation tool has been developed combining conventional softwares for SR simulation and optics design, thus allowing the description of an SR monitor from its source up to the detector. The simulations were confirmed by direct observations, and a detailed performance studies of the operational SR imaging monitor in the LHC, where different techniques for experimentally validating the system were applied, such as cross-calibrations with the wire scanners at low intensity (that are considered as a reference) and direct comparison with beam sizes de-convoluted from the LHC luminosity measurements. In 2015, the beam sizes to be measured with the further increase of the LHC beam energy to 7 TeV will decrease down to ∼190 μm. In these conditions, the SR imaging technique was found at its limits of applicability since the error on the beam size determination is proportional to the ratio of the system resolution and the measured beam size. Therefore, various solutions were probed to improve the system's performance such as the choice of one light polarization, the reduction of

  3. Design, construction and characterization of special ionization chambers for X radiation beams monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizumi, Maira Tiemi

    2010-01-01

    X radiation equipment may show fluctuations in the radiation beam intensity, as they are connected to the power net. These intensity variations can, in turn, modify the air kerma rate produced by this radiation beam. In a calibration laboratory, where radiation detectors (from clinics and hospital services) are calibrated, variations in the radiation beam intensity may cause an error in the absorbed dose determination. The monitor ionization chambers are used to verify the radiation beam intensity constancy, and to provide a correction for possible fluctuations. In this work, monitor ionization chambers for X radiation beams were designed, assembled and characterized. The developed ionization chambers have an innovative design, ring-shaped, with aluminium or graphite electrodes. These ring-shaped ionization chambers have the advantage of not interfering in the direct radiation beams. A double-volume ionization chamber with graphite electrodes was also developed. This ionization chamber is similar to the commercial monitor ionization chamber used in the Calibration Laboratory of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. All developed ionization chambers were tested in several standardized radiation beams and their performances were compared with those of commercial ionization chambers. The results show that two of the four ionization chambers developed showed performance comparable to that of the commercial ionization chambers tested. Besides presenting good results, the ionization chambers were designed and manufactured using low cost materials, which are easily found on the Brazilian market. (author)

  4. Modeling PWR systems for monitoring primary-to-secondary leakage using tritium tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffer, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques available for monitoring primary to secondary leakage, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of each. A mathematical model of Millstone 2 describes the behavior of tritium activity in the secondary plant water when a leak exists. Real data from Millstone 2 illustrate the accuracy and reliability of the model and use of the model to measure the mass of water in the secondary system

  5. Secondary radiation doses of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and proton beam therapy in patients with lung and liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonkyu; Min, Byung Jun; Yoon, Myonggeun; Kim, Jinsung; Shin, Dong Ho; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Sung Yong; Cho, Sungkoo; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2011-03-01

    To compare the secondary radiation doses following intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and proton beam therapy (PBT) in patients with lung and liver cancer. IMRT and PBT were planned for three lung cancer and three liver cancer patients. The treatment beams were delivered to phantoms and the corresponding secondary doses during irradiation were measured at various points 20-50 cm from the beam isocenter using ion chamber and CR-39 detectors for IMRT and PBT, respectively. The secondary dose per Gy (i.e., a treatment dose of 1Gy) from PBT for lung and liver cancer, measured 20-50 cm from the isocenter, ranged from 0.17 to 0.086 mGy. The secondary dose per Gy from IMRT, however, ranged between 5.8 and 1.0 mGy, indicating that PBT is associated with a smaller dose of secondary radiation than IMRT. The internal neutron dose per Gy from PBT for lung and liver cancer, 20-50 cm from the isocenter, ranged from 0.03 to 0.008 mGy. The secondary dose from PBT is less than or compatible to the secondary dose from conventional IMRT. The internal neutron dose generated by the interaction between protons and body material is generally much less than the external neutron dose from the treatment head. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of signal processing algorithm for digital beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Longwei; Yi Xing; Leng Yongbin; Yan Yingbing; Chen Zhichu

    2013-01-01

    Based on turn-by-turn (TBT) signal processing, the paper emphasizes on the optimization of system timing and implementation of digital automatic gain control, slow application (SA) modules. Beam position including TBT, fast application (FA) and SA data can be acquired. On-line evaluation on Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) shows that the processor is able to get the multi-rate position data which contain true beam movements. When the storage ring is 174 mA and 500 bunches filled, the resolutions of TBT data, FA data and SA data achieve 0.84, 0.44 and 0.23 μm respectively. The above results prove that the design could meet the performance requirements. (authors)

  7. Long bunch trains measured using a prototype cavity beam position monitor for the Compact Linear Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Cullinan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC requires beam position monitors (BPMs with 50 nm spatial resolution for alignment of the beam line elements in the main linac and beam delivery system. Furthermore, the BPMs must be able to make multiple independent measurements within a single 156 ns long bunch train. A prototype cavity BPM for CLIC has been manufactured and tested on the probe beam line at the 3rd CLIC Test Facility (CTF3 at CERN. The transverse beam position is determined from the electromagnetic resonant modes excited by the beam in the two cavities of the pickup, the position cavity and the reference cavity. The mode that is measured in each cavity resonates at 15 GHz and has a loaded quality factor that is below 200. Analytical expressions for the amplitude, phase and total energy of signals from long trains of bunches have been derived and the main conclusions are discussed. The results of the beam tests are presented. The variable gain of the receiver electronics has been characterized using beam excited signals and the form of the signals for different beam pulse lengths with the 2/3  ns bunch spacing has been observed. The sensitivity of the reference cavity signal to charge and the horizontal position signal to beam offset have been measured and are compared with theoretical predictions based on laboratory measurements of the BPM pickup and the form of the resonant cavity modes as determined by numerical simulation. Finally, the BPM was calibrated so that the beam position jitter at the BPM location could be measured. It is expected that the beam jitter scales linearly with the beam size and so the results are compared to predicted values for the latter.

  8. Air Quality Monitoring with Routine Utilization of Ion Beam Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynek, D.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Information on source contributions to ambient air particulate concentrations is a vital tool for air quality management. Traditional gravimetric analysis of airborne particulate matter is unable to provide information on the sources contributing to air particulate concentrations. Ion beam analysis is used to identify the elemental composition of air particulates for source apportionment and determining the relative contribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources to air particulate pollution. The elemental composition is obtained by proton induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE), which is an ion beam analysis (IBA) technique. The element concentrations are deduced from the X ray spectra produced when the particulate collected on a filter is bombarded with a high-energy proton beam. As part of the UNDP/IAEA/RCA Project RAS/8/082 ‘Better Management of the Environment, Natural Resources and Industrial Growth through Isotope and Radiation Technology,’ a collaborative alliance was formed between the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited and the Wellington Regional Council, New Zeland [1]. The purpose of the project was to examine the elemental composition of air particulate matter and determine the origins through source apportionment techniques. In New Zealand PM 10 and PM 2.5 fractions have been collected at the industrial area of Seaview, Wellington over two years using a GENT stacked filter unit sampler. Concentrations of elements with atomic mass above neon were determined using ion beam analysis and elemental carbon concentrations were determined using a reflectometer. Specific ambient source elemental 'fingerprints' were then determined by factor analysis and the relative contributions of various local and regional sources were assessed. The significant factors (sources) were determined to be sea salt, soil, industry, and combustion sources. Local industry was found to contribute to ambient lead concentrations. (author)

  9. Electron beam induced etching of carbon nanotubes enhanced by secondary electrons in oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hideto; Tomita, Yuto; Soma, Kentaro; Takeda, Seiji

    2017-05-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are subjected to electron-beam-induced etching (EBIE) in oxygen. The EBIE process is observed in situ by environmental transmission electron microscopy. The partial pressure of oxygen (10 and 100 Pa), energy of the primary electrons (80 and 200 keV), and environment of the CNTs (suspended or supported on a silicon nitride membrane) are investigated as factors affecting the etching rate. The EBIE rate of CNTs was markedly promoted by the effects of secondary electrons that were emitted from a silicon nitride membrane under irradiation by primary electrons. Membrane supported CNTs can be cut by EBIE with a spatial accuracy better than 3 nm, and a nanogap of 2 nm can be successfully achieved between the ends of two suspended CNTs.

  10. High resolution beam monitoring with optical transition radiation at 3 MeV electron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specka, A.; Bernard, D.; Guirlet, R.; Jacquet, F.; Mine, P.; Montes, B.; Morano, R.; Poilleux, P.; Amiranoff, F.; Morillo, J.

    1993-01-01

    In the framework of the plasma beat wave accelerator experiment at Ecole Polytechnique, high precision position and focussing monitoring of a 3 MeV electron beam is needed. A device is proposed that uses backward optical transition radiation (OTR) from a tilted metal foil held into the beam. For an electron energy of 3 MeV, OTR is emitted within a large solid angle (typical apex angle about 40 degrees) around the direction of specular reflection. The design requirements are a high resolution of the imaging optics (∼ 10 μm), a high sensitivity (∼ 10 μA beam current, not focussed), robustness, and low cost. A prototype has been constructed and successfully tested. A similar device will be used for adjusting a laser focal spot on an electron focal spot, and for monitoring the beam on entry and exit of a gas vessel

  11. Analog front end circuit design of CSNS beam loss monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shuai; Guo Xian; Tian Jianmin; Zeng Lei; Xu Taoguang; Fu Shinian

    2013-01-01

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) beam loss monitor system uses gas ionization chamber to detect beam losses. The output signals from ionization chamber need to be processed in the analog front end circuit, which has been designed and developed independently. The way of transimpedance amplifier was used to achieve current-voltage (I-V) conversion measurement of signal with low repetition rate, low duty cycle and low amplitude. The analog front end circuit also realized rapid response to the larger beam loss in order to protect the safe operation of the accelerator equipment. The testing results show that the analog front end circuit meets the requirements of beam loss monitor system. (authors)

  12. Application of pixel-cell detector technology for Advanced Neutron Beam Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Daniel M. [ORDELA, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-01-11

    Application of Pixel-Cell Detector Technology for Advanced Neutron Beam Monitors Specifications of currently available neutron beam detectors limit their usefulness at intense neutron beams of large-scale national user facilities used for the advanced study of materials. A large number of neutron-scattering experiments require beam monitors to operate in an intense neutron beam flux of >10E+7 neutrons per second per square centimeter. For instance, a 4 cm x 4 cm intense beam flux of 6.25 x 10E+7 n/s/cm2 at the Spallation Neutron Source will put a flux of 1.00 x 10E+9 n/s at the beam monitor. Currently available beam monitors with a typical efficiency of 1 x 10E-4 will need to be replaced in less than two years of operation due to wire and gas degradation issues. There is also a need at some instruments for beam position information that are beyond the capabilities of currently available He-3 and BF3 neutron beam monitors. ORDELA, Inc.’s research under USDOE SBIR Grant (DE-FG02-07ER84844) studied the feasibility of using pixel-cell technology for developing a new generation of stable, long-life neutron beam monitors. The research effort has led to the development and commercialization of advanced neutron beam detectors that will directly benefit the Spallation Neutron Source and other intense neutron sources such as the High Flux Isotope Reactor. A prototypical Pixel-Cell Neutron Beam Monitor was designed and constructed during this research effort. This prototype beam monitor was exposed to an intense neutron beam at the HFIR SNS HB-2 test beam site. Initial measurements on efficiency, uniformity across the detector, and position resolution yielded excellent results. The development and test results have provided the required data to initiate the fabrication and commercialization of this next generation of neutron-detector systems. ORDELA, Inc. has (1) identified low-cost design and fabrication strategies, (2) developed and built pixel-cell detectors and

  13. Single-shot beam-position monitor for x-ray free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tono, Kensuke; Kudo, Togo; Yabashi, Makina; Tachibana, Takeshi; Feng, Yiping; Fritz, David; Hastings, Jerome; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2011-02-01

    We have developed an x-ray beam-position monitor for detecting the radiation properties of an x-ray free electron laser (FEL). It is composed of four PIN photodiodes that detect backscattered x-rays from a semitransparent diamond film placed in the beam path. The signal intensities from the photodiodes are used to compute the beam intensity and position. A proof-of-principle experiment at a synchrotron light source revealed that the error in the beam position is reduced to below 7 μm by using a nanocrystal diamond film prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Owing to high dose tolerance and transparency of the diamond film, the monitor is suitable for routine diagnostics of extremely intense x-ray pulses from the FEL.

  14. Development of a synchrotron radiation beam monitor for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, Andrea [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear integrable optics applied to beam dynamics may mitigate multi-particle instabilities, but proof of principle experiments have never been carried out. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron and proton storage ring currently being built at Fermilab, which addresses tests of nonlinear lattice elements in a real machine in addition to experiments on optical stochastic cooling and on the single-electron wave function. These experiments require an outstanding control over the lattice parameters, achievable with fast and precise beam monitoring systems. This work describes the steps for designing and building a beam monitor for IOTA based on synchrotron radiation, able to measure intensity, position and transverse cross-section beam.

  15. Coronary cineangiography and ionizing radiation exposure to patients: analysis of primary and secondary beam; Cineangiografia coronaria y radiacion ionizante a pacientes. Analisis en haz primario y secundario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Alfredo; Leyton, Fernando; Silva, Ana Maria; Farias, Eric [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Hospital Clinico; Gamarra, Jorge; Oyarzun, Carlos [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN), Santiago (Chile)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the level of exposure dose to patients during coronariographies in different areas of body. This study has presented the medical surveillance of 18 cases and the radiation monitoring of these patients by TLD in thyroid and pelvis (secondary beam) and, in the right and left scapular region (primary beam) for each one of these procedures. The ionizing radiation received was 215 {+-} 200 mGy in left scapular region (range 1-710) and 255{+-}213 mGy in the right scapular region (range 22-635) p=NS. In the pelvic region the ionizing radiation was 0,22{+-}0,06 mGy and in the thyroid region was 3,62{+-}2,44 mGy.

  16. Characteristics of The Narrow Spectrum Beams Used in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, N; El Balaa, H; Younes, G; Al Kattar, Z

    2017-06-15

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission has different calibration methods for various types of dosimeters used in industrial, military and medical fields. The calibration is performed using different beams of X-rays (low and medium energy) and Gamma radiation delivered by a Cesium 137 source. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry laboratory in charge of calibration services uses different protocols for the determination of high and low air kerma rate and for narrow and wide series. In order to perform this calibration work, it is very important to identify all the beam characteristics for the different types of sources and qualities of radiation. The following work describes the methods used for the determination of different beam characteristics and calibration coefficients with their uncertainties in order to enhance the radiation protection of workers and patient applications in the fields of medical diagnosis and industrial X-ray. All the characteristics of the X-ray beams are determined for the narrow spectrum series in the 40 and 200 keV range where the inherent filtration, the current intensity, the high voltage, the beam profile and the total uncertainty are the specific characteristics of these X-ray beams. An X-ray software was developed in order to visualize the reference values according to the characteristics of each beam. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Monitoring of energetic characteristics of electron beams during formation of high-power pulsed bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivaschenko, D.M.; Mordasov, N.G.; Chlenov, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A method and a device for monitoring the dynamic and integrated characteristics of high-power electron and bremsstrahlung beams of the pulse accelerators are proposed. The transfer functions for various types of a target in operating conditions of the pulse accelerator UIN-10 are presented. Possibilities if the integrated diagnostics of acceleration rate of the electron beams with simultaneous testing of the bremsstrahlung parameters as a local field point beyond the converting target are shown [ru

  18. Performance of the Lancelot Beam Position Monitor at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagani, H.; Garcia-Nathan, T. B.; Jiang, C.; Kachatkou, A.; Marchal, J.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.; van Silfhout, R. G.; Williams, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Lancelot beam position and profile monitor records the scattered radiation off a thin, low-density foil, which passes through a pinhole perpendicular to the path of the beam and is detected by a Medipix3RX sensor. This arrangement does not expose the detector to the direct beam at synchrotrons and results in a negligible drop in flux downstream of the module. It allows for magnified images of the beam to be acquired in real time with high signal-to-noise ratios, enabling measurements of tiny displacements in the position of the centroid of approximately 1 μm. It also provides a means for independently measuring the photon energy of the incident monoenergetic photon beam. A constant frame rate of up to 245 Hz is achieved. The results of measurements with two Lancelot detectors installed in different environments at the Diamond Light Source are presented and their performance is discussed.

  19. Using Higher Order Modes in Superconducting Accelerating Cavities for Beam Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, S.; Baboi, N.; Eddy, N.; Frisch, J.; Hendrickson, L.; Hensler, O.; McCormick, D.; May, J.; Nagaitsev, S.; Napoly, O.; Paparella, R.C.; Petrosyan, L.; Piccolli, L.; Rechenmacher, R.; Ross, M.; Simon, C.; Smith, T.; Watanabe, K.; Wendt, M.

    2008-01-01

    Dipole modes have been shown to be successful diagnostics for the beam position in superconducting accelerating cavities at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) facility at DESY. By help of downmixing electronics the signals from the two higher order mode (HOM) couplers mounted on each cavity are monitored. The calibration, based on singular value decomposition, is more complicated than in standard position monitors. Position like signals based on this calibration are currently being in the process of being included in the control system. A second setup based on digitizing the spectrum from the HOM couplers has been used for monitoring monopole modes. The beam phase with respect to the RF has been thus monitored. The position calibration measurements and phase monitoring made at the FLASH are presented

  20. Monitoring elastic strain and damage by neutron and synchrotron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale neutron and synchrotron X-ray facilities have been providing important information for physicists and chemists for many decades. Increasingly, materials engineers are finding that they can also provide them with important information non-destructively. Highly penetrating neutron and X-ray synchrotron beams provide the materials engineer with a means of obtaining information about the state of stress and damage deep within materials. In this paper the principles underlying the elastic strain measurement and damage characterization techniques are introduced. (orig.)

  1. Piezoelectric-based smart sensing system for I-beam structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Haifeng; Yu, Tzuyang; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, the I-beam has become one of the most important engineering structural components being applied in areas such as mechanical, civil, and constructional engineering. To ensure safety and proper maintenance, an effective and accurate structural health monitoring method/system for I-beams is urgently needed. This paper proposes a smart sensing system for I-beam crack detection that is based on the energy diffusivity (attenuation) between two individual piezoelectric transducers (PZTs). Sensor (one of the PZTs) responses are analyzed and applied to characterize the health status of the I-beam. Lab experiments are carried out for effective evaluation of this approach in structural health monitoring. The characteristics of crack distribution are studied by calculating and analyzing the energy diffusivity variation of the sensor responses to artificially cuttings to the I-beam. Moreover, instead of utilizing an actuator and a sensor, the system employs a couple of PZTs sensors, which offer the potential for in-field, in situ sensing with the sensor arrays. This smart sensing system can be applied in railway, metro, and iron-steel structures for I-beam health monitoring applications.

  2. The upgraded data acquisition system for beam loss monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbaugh, A.; Briegel, C.; Brown, B.C.; Capista, D.; Drennan, C.; Fellenz, B.; Knickerbocker, K.; Lewis, J.D.; Marchionni, A.; Needles, C.; Olson, M.

    2011-01-01

    A VME-based data acquisition system for beam-loss monitors has been developed and is in use in the Tevatron and Main Injector accelerators at the Fermilab complex. The need for enhanced beam-loss protection when the Tevatron is operating in collider-mode was the main driving force for the new design. Prior to the implementation of the present system, the beam-loss monitor system was disabled during collider operation and protection of the Tevatron magnets relied on the quench protection system. The new Beam-Loss Monitor system allows appropriate abort logic and thresholds to be set over the full set of collider operating conditions. The system also records a history of beam-loss data prior to a beam-abort event for post-abort analysis. Installation of the Main Injector system occurred in the fall of 2006 and the Tevatron system in the summer of 2007. Both systems were fully operation by the summer of 2008. In this paper we report on the overall system design, provide a description of its normal operation, and show a number of examples of its use in both the Main Injector and Tevatron.

  3. Real-time beam-profile monitor for a medical cyclotron

    OpenAIRE

    Hoehr, C.; Hendriks, C.; Uittenbosch, T.; Cameron, D.; Kellog, S.; Gray, D.; Buckley, K.; Verzilov, V.; Schaffer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Measuring the beam profile on a medical cyclo-tron in real time can aid in improved tuning of the cyclotron and give important information for a smooth operation. Typically the beam profile is measured by an autoradiography technique or even by a scintillator that can be viewed in real time [1, 2]. Another method is to use collimators in front of the target to assess the beam center-ing [3]. All these methods have potential draw-backs including; an inability to monitor the be...

  4. ACCELERATORS: Design and simulation of a beam position monitor for the high current proton linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yu-Fang; Xu, Tao-Guang; Fu, Shi-Nian

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, the 2-D electrostatic field software, POISSON, is used to calculate the characteristic impedance of a BPM (beam position monitor) for a high current proton linac. Furthermore, the time-domain 3-D module of MAFIA with a beam microbunch at a varying offset from the axis is used to compute the induced voltage on the electrodes as a function of time. Finally, the effect of low β beams on the induced voltage, the sensitivity and the signal dynamic range of the BPM are discussed.

  5. First Results of the Beam Gas Ionization Profile Monitor (BGIP) Tested in the SPS Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Arauzo-Garcia, A; Koopman, J; Variola, A

    2000-01-01

    The BGIP is a proposal for a new, non-destructive beam profile monitor for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This device provides the rms beam size value by means of the analysis of the velocity spectrum of the rest gas ions created and accelerated by the beam itself. After a thorough computer simulation study of the related physics, a first prototype of the BGIP has been conceived, built up and installed in the SPS main ring during 1999. This paper contains a short presentation of the simulation work and a description of the test set-up. The first experimental results are presented and compared with theoretical computations.

  6. System Architecture for measuring and monitoring Beam Losses in the Injector Complex at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Zamantzas, C; Dehning, B; Jackson, S; Kwiatkowski, M; Vigano, W

    2012-01-01

    The strategy for beam setup and machine protection of the accelerators at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is mainly based on its Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) systems. For their upgrade to higher beam energies and intensities, a new BLM system is under development with the aim of providing faster measurement updates with higher dynamic range and the ability to accept more types of detectors as input compared to its predecessors. In this paper, the architecture of the complete system is explored giving an insight to the design choices made to provide a highly reconfigurable system that is able to fulfil the different requirements of each accelerator using reprogrammable devices.

  7. Construction and measurement techniques for the APS LEUTL project RF beam position monitors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorski, A.

    1999-04-20

    The design, construction, and assembly procedure of 24 rf beam position monitors used in the Advanced Photon Source low-energy undulator test line and linear accelerator (linac) are described. Beam stability as well as beam positioning capabilities are essential to the LEUTL project. A design objective of the LEUTL facility is to achieve better than 1-{micro}m resolution. The highest care was used in the mechanical fabrication and assembly of the BPM units. The latest experimental results using these BPMs are presented.

  8. Design of the beam shut-off current monitor upgrade for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietryla, A.; Decker, G.

    2000-01-01

    Plans to eliminate the positron accumulator ring (PAR) from the Advanced Photon Source (APS) injector complex have created the need for a device to limit the allowable beam charge injected into the APS injector synchrotrons. The beam shut-off current monitor (BESOCM) was chosen to provide this function. This new application of the BESOCM provided the opportunity to explore new design philosophies. Two design goals were to de-emphasize reliance on external signals and to become insensitive to timing variations. Both of these goals were accomplished by deriving the trigger directly from the beam. This paper will discuss the features of the new BESOCM design and present data demonstrating its function

  9. Development of advanced secondary chemistry monitoring system for Korea nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hak; Kim, Chung Tae

    1997-01-01

    Water chemistry control is one of the most important tasks in order to maintain the reliability of plant equipments and extend the operating life of the plant. KEPCO and KOPEC developed a computerized tool for this purpose -ASCMS (advanced secondary chemistry monitoring system) which is able to monitor and diagnose the secondary water chemistry. A prototype system had been installed at KORI 3 nuclear power plant since April 1993 in order to evaluate the system performance. After the implementation of enhancements identified during the testing of the prototype, we have developed the advanced secondary monitoring system, ASCMS which is installed at 5 nuclear power plants and has been under operations since April 1997. The ASCMS comprises PC subsystem designed for data acquisition, data analysis, and data diagnosis. The ASCMS will provide overall information related to steam generator secondary side water chemistry problems and improve plant availability, reduce radiation exposure to workers, and reduce operating and maintenance costs. 6 figs

  10. Electron beam energy monitoring using thermoluminescent dosimeters and electron back scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Vinod; Gray, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Periodic checks of megavoltage electron beam quality are a fundamental requirement in ensuring accurate radiotherapy treatment delivery. In the present work, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) positioned on either side of a lead sheet at the surface of a water equivalent phantom were used to monitor electron beam quality using the electron backscattering method. TLD100 and TLD100H were evaluated as upstream detectors and TLD200, TLD400 and TLD500 were evaluated as downstream detectors. The evaluation assessed the test sensitivity and correlation, long and short term reproducibility, dose dependence and glow curve features. A prototype of an in-air jig suitable for use in postal TLD dose audits was also developed and an initial evaluation performed. The results indicate that the TLD100-TLD200 combination provides a sensitive and reproducible method to monitor electron beam quality. The light weight and easily fabricated in-air jig was found to produce acceptable results and has the potential to be used by radiation monitoring agencies to carry out TLD postal quality assurance audits, similar to audits presently being conducted for photon beams. -- Highlights: ► Monitoring electron beam quality via electron backscattering was investigated. ► Different thermoluminescent materials were evaluated as detectors. ► A TLD100-TLD200 combination produced the most sensitive and reproducible results. ► An in-air jig was evaluated to allow measurements via postal dose audits

  11. Real-time electron-beam dose monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, J.

    1995-01-01

    A new technique to monitor the integrated dose that a product receives in an irradiation facility is determined by collecting the charge that passes through the product. The technique allows the absorbed dose to be monitored as the irradiation is taking place, i.e. on-line and in real time. The procedure will also provide a means of directly measuring the electron energy, independent of the accelerator control system. The irradiation plant operator can immediately detect a problem of inadequate electron energy and take appropriate action. Examples taken on the IMPELA trademark accelerator at the Iotron Irradiation Facility in Vancouver are presented

  12. Microprocessor based beam loss monitor system for the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    An array of 120 long radiation monitors (LRM) have been installed around the AGS. Each monitor is an extended coaxial ion chamber, 5 meters long, made from hollow core coaxial transmission cable pressured with argon. The LRM's are each connected to a low current preamplifier and voltage-to-frequency converter (VFC). The digital output of each channel is fed to a 16 bit counter chip which bridges the bus of an 8085 microprocessor. This circuit is connected to the AGS PD-10 for data taking or may function as a stand-alone unit. Various operating modes can be selected for data readout. System design and operating performance are described

  13. Study on the computerization of PWR secondary side chemistry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kyung Rin; Koo, Je Hyoo; Lee, Eun Hee; Hong, Kwang Bum; Kang, Hee Suck

    1991-01-01

    Samples of the secondary system in the Yong Gwang 1 Plant were sampled and analysed once a month at 13 sampling points. The main components of materials in the secondary system and corrosion products consisted of iron. Therefore, iron component was used with the index of corrosion products. The weight of iron which was accumulated in the bottom of stea generator can be calculated from the iron concentration and flow rates. That is, the weight of iron which was flowed into the steam generator belonging to the feedwater and the weight of iron which was discharged out from the steam generator was calculated. From these data, the weight of iron which was accumulated in the steam generator was calculated. According to the calculation, it was found that the amount of accumulated iron was 2.01 kg / year for the steam generator A, 1.73 kg / year for the steam generator B and 1.84 kg / year for the steam generator C. (Author)

  14. Performance of a fast acquisition system for in-beam PET monitoring tested with clinical proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piliero, M.A., E-mail: piliero@pi.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Bisogni, M.G. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Cerello, P. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino (Italy); Del Guerra, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Fiorina, E. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino (Italy); Liu, B.; Morrocchi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Pennazio, F. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino (Italy); Pirrone, G. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Wheadon, R. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2015-12-21

    In this work we present the performance of a fast acquisition system for in-beam PET monitoring during the irradiation of a PMMA phantom with a clinical proton beam. The experimental set-up was based on 4 independent detection modules. Two detection modules were placed at one side of a PMMA phantom and the other two modules were placed at the opposite side of the phantom. One detection module was composed of a Silicon Photon Multiplier produced by AdvanSiD coupled to a single scintillating LYSO crystal. The read-out system was based on the TOFPET ASIC managed by a Xilinx ML605 FPGA Evaluation Board (Virtex 6). The irradiation of the PMMA phantom was performed at the CNAO hadrontherapy facility (Pavia, Italy) with a 95 MeV pulsed proton beam. The pulsed time structure of the proton beam was reconstructed by each detection module. The β{sup +} annihilation peak was successfully measured and the production of β{sup +} isotopes emitters was observed as increasing number of 511 keV events detected during irradiation. Finally, after the irradiation, the half lives of the {sup 11}C and {sup 15}O radioactive isotopes were estimated.

  15. Monitoring the electron beam position at the TESLA test facility free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamps, T.

    2000-01-01

    The operation of a free electron laser working in the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission mode (SASE FEL) requires the electron trajectory to be aligned with very high precision in overlap with the photon beam. In order to ensure this overlap, one module of the SASE FEL undulator at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) is equipped with a new type of waveguide beam position monitor (BPM). Four waveguides are arranged symmetrically around the beam pipe, each channel couples through a small slot to the electromagnetic beam field. The induced signal depends on the beam intensity and on the transverse beam position in terms of beam-to-slot distance. With four slot--waveguide combinations a linear position sensitive signal can be achieved, which is independent of the beam intensity. The signals transduced by the slots are transferred by ridged waveguides through an impedance matching stage into a narrowband receiver tuned to 12 GHz. The present thesis describes design, tests, and implementation of this new type of BPM. (orig.)

  16. Dose distribution of secondary radiation in a water phantom for a proton pencil beam-EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stolarczyk, L.; Trinkl, S.; Romero-Exposito, M.; Mojzeszek, N.; Ambrožová, Iva; Domingo, C.; Davídková, Marie; Farah, J.; Klodowska, M.; Kneževic, Z.; Liszka, M.; Majer, M.; Miljanic, S.; Ploc, Ondřej; Schwarz, M.; Harrison, R. M.; Olko, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 8 (2018), č. článku 085017. ISSN 0031-9155 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : passive detectors * neutron dosimetry * gamma radiation dosimetry * water phantom measurements * secondary radiation measurements * pencil beam scanning proton radiotherapy Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Radiology, nuclear medicine and medical imaging Impact factor: 2.742, year: 2016

  17. The Performance of the Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System of CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System (BRM), is installed in CMS to protect the CMS detector from high beam losses and to provide feedback to the LHC and CMS on the beam conditions. The primary detector sub-systems are based on either single crystal diamond sensors (BCM1F) for particle counting with nanosecond resolution or on polycrystalline diamonds (BCM2; BCM1L) for integrated signal current measurements. Beam scintillation counters (BSC) are also used during low luminosity running. The detectors have radiation hard front-end electronics and are read out independently of the CMS central data acquisition and are online whenever there is beam in the LHC machine. The various sub-systems exploit different time resolutions and position locations to be able to monitor the beam induced backgrounds and the flux of particles produced during collisions. This paper describes the CMS BRM system and the complementary aspects of the installed BRM sub-detectors to measure both single particle count rates a...

  18. Monitoring roof beam lateral displacement at the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrill, L.J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Lateral displacement in the immediate roof beam at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a significant factor in assessment of excavation performance for the design of ground control systems. Information on roof beam lateral displacement, expansion, fracture formation, as well as excavation convergence, is gathered using a variety of manually and remotely read instruments. Visual observations are also used when possible. This paper describes the methods used to measure lateral displacement, or offset, at the WIPP. Offset magnitudes are determined by the degree of occlusion in drillholes that intersect the offset plane. The Borehole Lateral Displacement Sensor (BLDS) was developed for installation at WIPP to monitor offset at a high degree of accuracy at a short reading frequency. Offset measurements have historically been obtained by visual estimation of borehole occlusion. Use of the BLDS will enable relationships between time dependent roof beam lateral displacement and expansion to be established in much shorter periods than is possible using visual observations. The instrument will also allow remote monitoring of roof beam displacement in areas where visual estimations are not possible. Continued monitoring of roof beam displacement, convergence, and expansion, is integral to timely and pertinent assessments of WIPP excavation performance

  19. Design alternatives for beam halo monitors in high intensity accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, H; Corsini, R; Lefèvre, T; Schulte, Daniel; Tecker, F A; Welsch, C P

    2005-01-01

    In future high intensity, high energy accelerators it must be ensured that particle losses are minimized as activation of the vacuum chambers or other components makes maintenance and upgrade work time consuming and costly. It is imperative to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms that can lead to halo formation and to have the possibility to test available theoretical models with an adequate experimental setup. Optical transition radiation (OTR) provides an interesting opportunity for linear real-time measurements of the transverse beam profile with a resolution which has been so far at best in the some μm range. However, the dynamic range of standard OTR systems is typically limited and needs to be improved for its application for halo measurements. In this contribution, the existing OTR system as it is installed in the CLIC test facility (CTF3) is analyzed and the contribution of each component to the final image quality discussed. Finally, possible halo measurement techniques based on OTR are pres...

  20. Operational amplifier based stretcher for stripline beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellyey, W.C.; Kruse, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The stretcher amp was designed to accommodate existing instrumentation at the Boeing Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility. The beam format for this system consists of two macropulses per second. Each macropulse contains several hundred micropulses separated by 462ns. Thus, 462ns is the upper limit to which the pulse can be stretched. The corresponding filter bandwidth would be about 3 Mhz. In the stripline data acquisition system, one of six striplines is switched to a single transient digitizer channel. Tektronix TSS46 microwave relay switches are used. The output of the TSS46 goes into stretcher amps described here. The resulting signals are digitized by Analytek 2004S or 2008S transient digitizers. The transient digitizer timing is such that it samples the negative peak of the stripline signal from each micropulse. Its analogue bandwidth is 300 Mhz. For good temperature stability and linearity, the stretcher bandwidth should be much less than 300MHz, for example 30Mhz. This defines a lower limit to the pulse width. 30Mhz was chosen for the filter bandwidth. Making the bandwidth smaller would have required more gain in the output amplifier. This would have resulted in too much noise at the output. Additionally, temperature drift and nonlinearity would also increase

  1. Diamond pixel detector for beam profile monitoring in COMET experiment at J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    Cerv, M; Pernegger, H; Vageesvaran, P; Griesmayer, E

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and initial prototype results of a pixellized proton beam profile monitor for the COMET experiment at J-PARC. The goal of COMET is to look for charged lepton flavor violation by direct muon to electron conversion at a sensitivity of $0^{-19}$. An 8 GeV proton beam pulsed at 100 ns with $10^{10}$ protons/s will be used to create muons through pion production and decay. In the final experiment, the proton flux will be raised to $10^{14}$ protons/sec to increase the sensitivity. These requirements of harsh radiation tolerance and fast readout make diamond a good choice for constructing a beam profile monitor in COMET. We present first results of the characterization of single crystal diamond (scCVD) sourced from a new company, 2a systems Singapore. Our measurements indicate excellent charge collection efficiency and high carrier mobility down to cryogenic temperatures.

  2. Design and commissioning of the APS beam charge and current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Lenkszus, F.; Rotela, E.

    1994-01-01

    The non-intercepting charge and current monitors suitable for a wide range of beam parameters have been developed and installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines, positron accumulator ring (PAR), and injector synchrotron. The positron or electron beam pulse in the APS has charge ranging from 100pC to l0nC with pulse width varying from 30ps to 30ns. The beam charge and current are measured with a current transformer and subsequent current monitoring electronics based on an ultrafast, high precision gated integrator. The signal processing electronics, data acquisition, and communication with the control system are managed by a VME-based system. This paper summarizes the hardware and software features of the systems. The results of recent operations are presented

  3. Beam position monitoring in the AGS Linac to Booster transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.J.; Brodowski, J.; Witkover, R.

    1991-01-01

    A beam position monitor system has been developed and used in the commissioning of Brookhaven's Linac to Booster transfer line. This line transports a chopped, RF modulated H- beam from the 200 MeV Linac to the AGS Booster. Over a 15dB dynamic range in beam current, the position monitor system provides a real-time, normalized position signal with an analog bandwidth of about 20 MHz. Seven directional coupler style pickups are installed in the line with each pickup sensing both horizontal and vertical position. Analog processing electronics are located in the tunnel and incorporate the amplitude modulation to phase modulation normalization technique. To avoid interference from the 200 MHz linac RF system, processing is performed at 400 MHz. This paper provides a system overview and report results from the commissioning experience

  4. A System for Monitoring and Tracking the LHC Beam Spot within the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoldus, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Cogan, J; Salnikov, A; Strauss, E; Winklmeier, F

    2012-01-01

    The parameters of the beam spot produced by the LHC in the ATLAS interaction region are computed online using the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) system. The high rate of triggered events is exploited to make precise measurements of the position, size and orientation of the luminous region in near real-time, as these parameters change significantly even during a single data-taking run. We present the challenges, solutions and results for the online determination, monitoring and beam spot feedback system in ATLAS. A specially designed algorithm, which uses tracks registered in the silicon detectors to reconstruct event vertices, is executed on the HLT processor farm of several thousand CPU cores. Monitoring histograms from all the cores are sampled and aggregated across the farm every 60 seconds. The reconstructed beam values are corrected for detector resolution effects, measured in situ from the separation of vertices whose tracks have been split into two collections. Furthermore, measurements for individual ...

  5. Monitoring and Tracking the LHC Beam Spot within the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Winklmeier, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The parameters of the beam spot produced by the LHC in the ATLAS interaction region are computed online using the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) system. The high rate of triggered events is exploited to make precise measurements of the position, size and orientation of the luminous region in near real-time, as these parameters change significantly even during a single data-taking run. We present the challenges, solutions and results for the online determination, monitoring and beam spot feedback system in ATLAS. A specially designed algorithm, which uses tracks registered in the silicon detectors to reconstruct event vertices, is executed on the HLT processor farm of several thousand CPU cores. Monitoring histograms from all the cores are sampled and aggregated across the farm every 60 seconds. The reconstructed beam values are corrected for detector resolution effects, measured in situ from the separation of vertices whose tracks have been split into two collections. Furthermore, measurements for individual ...

  6. Measurements of the relative sensitivities between some beam-loss monitors, PART II

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, Jacques; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1998-01-01

    We measured the relative sensitivity of various types of classical beam-loss monitors following on from and in the spirit of a previous work. The detectors were tested in one of the SPS extraction l ines. The particles passing through the line consist of 2/3 protons and 1/3 pions at 120 Gev/c. The low extracted (spill time 2.5 s) beam intensity can be adjusted. Upstream of the detectors a copp er target (diameter: 7 cm, length: 50 cm) can be placed on the beam axis. First we proceed with linearity and sensitivity measurements of various types of detectors used in counting or analog mode. Next, with a view to increasing the dynamic range we pursue out tests with a dedicated type of electronics. Finally, measurements have been made in order to determine, in the frame of our experiment , the minimum detection level of some monitors.

  7. Electron beam irradiation process applied to primary and secondary recycled high density polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Jéssica R.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Áurea B.C., E-mail: ageraldo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Plastic bags, packaging and furniture items are examples of plastic utilities always present in life. However, the end-of-life of plastics impacts the environment because of this ubiquity and also often their high degradation time. Recycling processes are important in this scenario because they offer many solutions to this problem. Basically, four ways are known for plastic recycling: primary recycling, which consists in re-extrusion of clean plastic scraps from a production plant; secondary recycling, that uses end-of-life products that generally are reduced in size by extrusion to obtain a more desirable shape for reprocessing (pellets and powder); tertiary recover which is related to thermo-chemical methods to produce fuels and petrochemical feedstock; and quaternary route, that is related to energy recovery and it is done in appropriate reactors. In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was recovered to simulate empirically the primary and secondary recycling ways using materials which ranged from pristine to 20-fold re-extrused materials. The final 20-fold recycled thermoplastic was irradiated in an electron beam accelerator under a dose rate of 22.4 kGy/s and absorbed doses of 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The characterization of HDPE in distinct levels of recovering was performed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric degradation. In the HDPE recycling, degradation and crosslinking are consecutive processes; degradation is very noticeable in the 20-fold recycled product. Despite this, the 20-fold recycled product presents crosslinking after irradiation process and the post-irradiation product presents similarities in spectroscopic and thermal degradation characteristics of pristine, irradiated HDPE. These results are discussed. (author)

  8. Electron beam irradiation process applied to primary and secondary recycled high density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Jéssica R.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Áurea B.C.

    2017-01-01

    Plastic bags, packaging and furniture items are examples of plastic utilities always present in life. However, the end-of-life of plastics impacts the environment because of this ubiquity and also often their high degradation time. Recycling processes are important in this scenario because they offer many solutions to this problem. Basically, four ways are known for plastic recycling: primary recycling, which consists in re-extrusion of clean plastic scraps from a production plant; secondary recycling, that uses end-of-life products that generally are reduced in size by extrusion to obtain a more desirable shape for reprocessing (pellets and powder); tertiary recover which is related to thermo-chemical methods to produce fuels and petrochemical feedstock; and quaternary route, that is related to energy recovery and it is done in appropriate reactors. In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was recovered to simulate empirically the primary and secondary recycling ways using materials which ranged from pristine to 20-fold re-extrused materials. The final 20-fold recycled thermoplastic was irradiated in an electron beam accelerator under a dose rate of 22.4 kGy/s and absorbed doses of 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The characterization of HDPE in distinct levels of recovering was performed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric degradation. In the HDPE recycling, degradation and crosslinking are consecutive processes; degradation is very noticeable in the 20-fold recycled product. Despite this, the 20-fold recycled product presents crosslinking after irradiation process and the post-irradiation product presents similarities in spectroscopic and thermal degradation characteristics of pristine, irradiated HDPE. These results are discussed. (author)

  9. An experimental evaluation of monochromatic x-ray beam position monitors at diamond light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomer, Chris, E-mail: chris.bloomer@diamond.ac.uk; Rehm, Guenther; Dolbnya, Igor P. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    Maintaining the stability of the X-ray beam relative to the sample point is of paramount importance for beamlines and users wanting to perform cutting-edge experiments. The ability to detect, and subsequently compensate for, variations in X-ray beam position with effective diagnostics has multiple benefits: a reduction in commissioning and start-up time, less ‘down-time’, and an improvement in the quality of acquired data. At Diamond Light Source a methodical evaluation of a selection of monochromatic X-ray Beam Position Monitors (XBPMs), using a range of position detection techniques, and from a range of suppliers, was carried out. The results of these experiments are presented, showing the measured RMS noise on the position measurement of each device for a given flux, energy, beam size, and bandwidth. A discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of each of the various devices and techniques is also included.

  10. An experimental evaluation of monochromatic x-ray beam position monitors at diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomer, Chris; Rehm, Guenther; Dolbnya, Igor P.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the stability of the X-ray beam relative to the sample point is of paramount importance for beamlines and users wanting to perform cutting-edge experiments. The ability to detect, and subsequently compensate for, variations in X-ray beam position with effective diagnostics has multiple benefits: a reduction in commissioning and start-up time, less ‘down-time’, and an improvement in the quality of acquired data. At Diamond Light Source a methodical evaluation of a selection of monochromatic X-ray Beam Position Monitors (XBPMs), using a range of position detection techniques, and from a range of suppliers, was carried out. The results of these experiments are presented, showing the measured RMS noise on the position measurement of each device for a given flux, energy, beam size, and bandwidth. A discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of each of the various devices and techniques is also included.

  11. Electromagnetic Coupling Between High Intensity LHC Beams and the Synchrotron Radiation Monitor Light Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, W; Bravin, E; Caspers, F; Garlasch`e, M; Gras, J; Goldblatt, A; Lefevre, T; Jones, R; Metral, E; Nosych, A; Roncarolo_, F; Salvant, B; Trad, G; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Wendt, M

    2013-01-01

    The CERN LHC is equipped with two Synchrotron Radiation Monitor (BSRT) systems used to characterise transverse and longitudinal beam distributions. Since the end of the 2011 LHC run the light extraction system, based on a retractable mirror, has suffered deformation and mechanical failure that is correlated to the increase in beam intensity. Temperature probes have associated these observations to a strong heating of the mirror support with a dependence on the longitudinal bunch length and shape, indicating the origin as electromagnetic coupling between the beam and the structure. This paper combines all this information with the aim of characterising and improving the system in view of its upgrade during the current LHC shutdown. Beam-based observations are presented along with electromagnetic and thermomechanical simulations and complemented by laboratory measurements, including the study of the RF properties of different mirror bulk and coating materials.

  12. Evaluation of a GEM and CAT-based detector for radiation therapy beam monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahme, A.; Danielsson, M.; Iacobaeus, C.; Ostling, J.; Peskov, V.; Wallmark, M.

    2000-01-01

    We are developing a radiation therapy beam monitor for the Karolinska Institute. This monitor will consist of two consecutive detectors confined in one gas chamber: a 'keV-photon detector', which will allow diagnostic quality visualization of the patient, and a 'MeV-photon detector', that will measure the absolute intensity of the therapy beam and its position with respect to the patient. Both detectors are based on highly radiation resistant gas and solid photon to electron converters, combined with GEMs and a CAT as amplification structures. We have performed systematic studies of the high-rate characteristics of the GEM and the CAT, as well as tested the electron transfer through these electron multipliers and various types of converters. The tests show that the GEM and the CAT satisfy all requirements for the beam monitoring system. As a result of these studies we successfully developed and tested a full section of the beam monitor equipped with a MeV-photon converter placed between the GEM and the CAT

  13. An LHCb general-purpose acquisition board for beam and background monitoring at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Guzik, Z

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we will present an LHCb custom-made acquisition board which was developed for a continuous beam and background monitoring during LHC operations at CERN. The paper describes both the conceptual design and its performance, and concludes with results from the first period of beam operations at the LHC. The main purpose of the acquisition board is to process signals from a pair of beam pickups to continuously monitor the intensity of each bunch, and to monitor the phase of the arrival time of each proton bunch with respect to the LHC bunch clock. The extreme versatility of the board also allowed the LHCb experiment to build a high-speed and high-sensitivity readout system for a fast background monitor based on a pair of plastic scintillators. The board has demonstrated very good performance and proved to be conceptually valid during the first months of operations at the LHC. Connected to the beam pickups, it provides the LHCb experiment with a real-time measurement of the total intensity of each bea...

  14. Two-dimensional beam-profile monitor using the Reticon MC510A array camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, B.

    1981-08-01

    A quantitative two-dimensional beam profile may be obtained from a scintillator viewed by a Reticon camera which uses a 32 x 32 array of photodiodes as its sensing element. In this note, CAMAC-oriented data acquisition electronics which allow one either to transmit the profile to a computer, or to use the monitor in a stand-alone mode are described

  15. Profile distortion by beam space-charge in Ionization Profile Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Vilsmeier, D; Wettig, T

    Measuring the transverse beam size in the Large Hadron Collider by using Ionization Profile Monitors is a difficult task for energies above injection during the energy ramp from 450 GeV to 6.5TeV. The beam size decreases from around 1mm to 200um and the brightness of the beam is high enough to destroy the structure of any form of interacting matter. While the electron trajectories are confined by an external electro-magnetic field which forces the electrons accordingly on helix paths with certain gyroradii, this gyration is heavily increased under the influence of the electric field of the beam. Smaller beam sizes, which go hand in hand with increased bunch electric fields, lead to larger gyroradii of the ionized electrons, which results in strongly distorted profiles. In addition, this distortion becomes more visible for smaller beam sizes as the extent of gyration grows compared to the actual beam size. Depending on the initial momentum distribution of the electrons, emerging from the ionization process wit...

  16. Development of Beam Diagnostic Tools for Monitoring Cyclotron Beams at Production Intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This final report for the IAEA-CRP on “Improved High Current Liquid and Gas Targets for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes” reports the progress made as part of the Danish participation in the above CRP. Some of the work is the result of international, multi-institutional collaboration and/or research student education, and credit is hereby given to my former students Helge Thisgaard and Jesper Jørgensen, Katie Gagnon, student of Tom Ruth at Triumf, Canada, and, last but not least, to Tom himself. The people at the Edmonton PET centre, for beam time. David Schlyer and Rick Carson of BNL for access to the Tandem accelerator calibration shots. (author)

  17. [High Resolution Remote Sensing Monitoring and Assessment of Secondary Geological Disasters Triggered by the Lushan Earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-tao; Wang, Shi-xin; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Li-tao; Yan, Fu-li; Li, Wen-jun; Liu, Xiong-fei

    2016-01-01

    The secondary geological disasters triggered by the Lushan earthquake on April 20, 2013, such as landslides, collapses, debris flows, etc., had caused great casualties and losses. We monitored the number and spatial distribution of the secondary geological disasters in the earthquake-hit area from airborne remote sensing images, which covered areas about 3 100 km2. The results showed that Lushan County, Baoxing County and Tianquan County were most severely affected; there were 164, 126 and 71 secondary geological disasters in these regions. Moreover, we analyzed the relationship between the distribution of the secondary geological disasters, geological structure and intensity. The results indicate that there were 4 high-hazard zones in the monitored area, one focused within six kilometers from the epicenter, and others are distributed along the two main fault zones of the Longmen Mountain. More than 97% secondary geological disasters occurred in zones with a seismic intensity of VII to IX degrees, a slope between 25 A degrees and 50 A degrees, and an altitude of between 800 and 2 000 m. At last, preliminary suggestions were proposed for the rehabilitation and reconstruction planning of Lushan earthquake. According to the analysis result, airborne and space borne remote sensing can be used accurately and effectively in almost real-time to monitor and assess secondary geological disasters, providing a scientific basis and decision making support for government emergency command and post-disaster reconstruction.

  18. The fiber-SiPMT beam monitor of the R484 experiment at the RIKEN-RAL muon facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, R.; Vacchi, A.; Vallazza, E.; Zampa, G.; Bonesini, M.; Bertoni, R.; Mazza, R.; Rossella, M.; Tortora, L.

    2015-01-01

    The scintillating fibers SiPM based beam monitor detector, designed to deliver position, shape and timing of the low energy muon beam at the RIKEN-RAL muon facility for the R484 experiment, has been successfully tested on the electron beam at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of the INFN LNF laboratories. We report here the lay out and the read out structure as well as the very promising results

  19. In Vivo and Real-time Monitoring of Secondary Metabolites of Living Organisms by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Secondary metabolites are compounds that are important for the survival and propagation of animals and plants. Our current understanding on the roles and secretion mechanism of secondary metabolites is limited by the existing techniques that typically cannot provide transient and dynamic information about the metabolic processes. In this manuscript, by detecting venoms secreted by living scorpion and toad upon attack and variation of alkaloids in living Catharanthus roseus upon stimulation, which represent three different sampling methods for living organisms, we demonstrated that in vivo and real-time monitoring of secondary metabolites released from living animals and plants could be readily achieved by using field-induced direct ionization mass spectrometry.

  20. A novel calorimetry technique for monitoring electron beam curing of polymer resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.H.; Johnston, A.; Petrescue, L.; Hojjati, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a calorimetry-based technique for monitoring of the curing of electron beam (EB) curable resins, including design of the calorimeter hardware and the development of an analytical model for calculating resin cure rates and radiation dose. Factors affecting the performance of the calorimeter were investigated. Experimental trials monitoring the curing of epoxy resin were conducted under single pass and multiple passes of EB irradiation. Results show that the developed calorimeter is a simple, inexpensive and reasonably accurate technique for monitoring the EB curing of cationic epoxies

  1. A Four Channel Beam Current Monitor Data Acquisition System Using Embedded Processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Jr., Robert Mitchell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-11

    Data acquisition from multiple beam current monitors is required for electron accelerator production of Mo-99. A two channel system capable of recording data from two beam current monitors has been developed, is currently in use, and is discussed below. The development of a cost-effective method of extending this system to more than two channels and integrating of these measurements into an accelerator control system is the main focus of this report. Data from these current monitors is digitized, processed, and stored by a digital data acquisition system. Limitations and drawbacks with the currently deployed digital data acquisition system have been identified as have been potential solutions, or at least improvements, to these problems. This report will discuss and document the efforts we've made in improving the flexibility and lowering the cost of the data acquisition system while maintaining the minimum requirements.

  2. Improvements in electron beam monitoring and heat flux flatness at the JUDITH 2-facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Thomas, E-mail: weber.th@gmx.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Jülich (Germany); Bürger, Andreas; Dominiczak, Karsten; Pintsuk, Gerald [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Jülich (Germany); Banetta, Stefano; Bellin, Boris [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla, 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Mitteau, Raphael; Eaton, Russell [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Monitoring of the much faster electron beam motion by IR camera through a synchronized frame triggering. • Estimation of the heat flux generated by electron beam guns based on calorimetry and FEM simulations. • Consideration of the inclined electron beam loading of rectangular-shaped objects. - Abstract: Three beryllium-armoured small-scale mock-ups and one semi-prototype for the ITER first wall were tested by the electron beam facility JUDITH 2 at Forschungszentrum Jülich. Both testing campaigns with cyclic loads up to 2.5 MW/m{sup 2} are carried out in compliance with the extensive quality and management specifications of ITER Organization (IO) and Fusion for Energy (F4E). Several dedicated calibration experiments were performed before the actual testing in order to fulfil the testing requirements and tolerances. These quality requests have been the motivation for several experimental setup improvements. The most relevant results of these activities, being the electron beam monitoring and the heat flux flatness verification, will be presented.

  3. Improvements in electron beam monitoring and heat flux flatness at the JUDITH 2-facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Thomas; Bürger, Andreas; Dominiczak, Karsten; Pintsuk, Gerald; Banetta, Stefano; Bellin, Boris; Mitteau, Raphael; Eaton, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Monitoring of the much faster electron beam motion by IR camera through a synchronized frame triggering. • Estimation of the heat flux generated by electron beam guns based on calorimetry and FEM simulations. • Consideration of the inclined electron beam loading of rectangular-shaped objects. - Abstract: Three beryllium-armoured small-scale mock-ups and one semi-prototype for the ITER first wall were tested by the electron beam facility JUDITH 2 at Forschungszentrum Jülich. Both testing campaigns with cyclic loads up to 2.5 MW/m 2 are carried out in compliance with the extensive quality and management specifications of ITER Organization (IO) and Fusion for Energy (F4E). Several dedicated calibration experiments were performed before the actual testing in order to fulfil the testing requirements and tolerances. These quality requests have been the motivation for several experimental setup improvements. The most relevant results of these activities, being the electron beam monitoring and the heat flux flatness verification, will be presented.

  4. The Beam Profile Monitoring System for the IRRAD Proton Facility at the CERN PS East Area

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Matli, Emanuele; Ravotti, Federico; Gan, Kock Kiam; Kagan, Harris; Smith, Shane; Warner, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, devices are frequently required to withstand a certain radiation level. As a result, detectors and electronics must be irradiated to determine their level of radiation tolerance. To perform these irradiations, CERN built a new irradiation facility in the East Area at the Proton Synchrotron (PS) accelerator. At this facility, named IRRAD, a high-intensity 24 GeV/c proton beam is used. During irradiation, it is necessary to monitor the intensity and the transverse profile of the proton beam. The Beam Profile Monitor (BPM) for IRRAD uses 39-channel pixel detectors to monitor the beam position. These pixel detectors are constructed using thin foil copper pads positioned on a flex circuit. When protons pass through the copper pads, they induce a measurable current. To measure this current and determine the total flux of protons passing through the thin foil copper detectors, a new data acquisition system was designed as well as a new database and on-line display system. In...

  5. Beam Position and Phase Monitors Characterized and Installed in the LANSCE CCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpatrick, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCrady, Rodney C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, James F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Olivas, Felix R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shurter, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watkins, Heath A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-11

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center - Risk Mitigation Project is in the process of replacing older Coupled-Cavity-Linac (CCL) Beam-Position Monitors (BPMs) with newer Beam Position and Phase Monitors (BPPMs) and their associated electronics and cable plants. In many locations, these older BPMs include a separate Delta-T loop for measuring the beam's central phase and energy. Thirty-one BPPMs have been installed and many have monitored the charged particle beam. The installation of these newer BPPMs is the first step to installing complete BPPM measurement systems. Prior to the installation, a characterization of each BPPM took place. The characterization procedure includes a mechanical inspection, a vacuum testing, and associated electrical tests. The BPPM electrical tests for all four electrodes include contact resistance measurements, Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) measurements, relative 201.25-MHz phase measurements, and finally a set of position-sensitive mapping measurements were performed which included associated fitting routines. This paper will show these data for a typical characterized BPPM.

  6. Beam position monitoring system for the proposed asymmetric B Factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, J.L.

    1992-10-01

    The beam position monitor system of the B Factory is drastically different from the actual PEP system. We present a description of the new configuration and list the features which have been adopted to make this system a highly reliable diagnostic tool. An electrode geometry is suggested, based on the maximum-acceptable power extracted from the beam, and the measurement resolution is estimated by assuming some practical bandwidth and the noise level. Finally, an estimate of the system precision is made by adding up what is expected to be the most significant systematic errors

  7. High resolution line for secondary radioactive beams at the U400M cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, A. M.; Sidorchuk, S. I.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Fomichev, A. S.; Wolski, R.; Galinskiy, V. B.; Ivanov, G. N.; Ivanova, I. B.; Gorshkov, V. A.; Lavrentyev, A. Yu.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.

    For implementation of an experimental program for studying nuclear reactions with radioactive ion beams in the energy domain of 20 through 80 MeV A the high resolution beam line ACCULINNA was put into commissioning on a primary beam line of the JINR U-400M cyclotron. By means of nuclear fragmentation of the 14N beam with the energy of 51 MeV A on the 170 mg/cm 2 carbon target radioactive beams of 6He, 8He and 8B were obtained. Possibilities of further development of the set-up are discussed.

  8. Optimization of four-button beam position monitor configuration for small-gap vacuum chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.H.

    1998-03-27

    Induced charges on a four-button beam position monitor (BPM) system attached on a beam chamber of narrow rectangular cross sections are calculated as a 2-D electrostatic problem of image charges. The calculation shows that for a narrow chamber of width/height (2w/2h) {much_gt} 1, over 90% of the induced charges are distributed within a distance of 2h from the charged beam position in the direction of the chamber width. Therefore, a four-button system with a button diameter of (2--2.5)h and no button offset from the beam position is the most efficient configuration. The four-button BPMs used for 8-mm and 5-mm chambers in the APS have relatively low sensitivities because the button locations are outside the range where the induced charge densities are low and the button diameters are less than 2h. Using derived formulae, button sensitivities and beam position coefficients are calculated for the buttons of the most efficient case and of the 8-mm and 5-mm chambers. The formulae may be used to validate the method of computer modeling for BPM buttons on a beam chamber of an arbitrary cross section.

  9. The application of unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing for monitoring secondary geological disasters after earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tianjie; Zhang, Yazhen; Wang, Xingyong; Fu, Jun'e.; Li, Lin; Pang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xiaolei; Kan, Guangyuan

    2017-07-01

    Remote sensing system fitted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can obtain clear images and high-resolution aerial photographs. It has advantages of strong real-time, flexibility and convenience, free from influence of external environment, low cost, low-flying under clouds and ability to work full-time. When an earthquake happened, it could go deep into the places safely and reliably which human staff can hardly approach, such as secondary geological disasters hit areas. The system can be timely precise in response to secondary geological disasters monitoring by a way of obtaining first-hand information as quickly as possible, producing a unique emergency response capacity to provide a scientific basis for overall decision-making processes. It can greatly enhance the capability of on-site disaster emergency working team in data collection and transmission. The great advantages of UAV remote sensing system played an irreplaceable role in monitoring secondary geological disaster dynamics and influences. Taking the landslides and barrier lakes for example, the paper explored the basic application and process of UAV remote sensing in the disaster emergency relief. UAV high-resolution remote sensing images had been exploited to estimate the situation of disaster-hit areas and monitor secondary geological disasters rapidly, systematically and continuously. Furthermore, a rapid quantitative assessment on the distribution and size of landslides and barrier lakes was carried out. Monitoring results could support relevant government departments and rescue teams, providing detailed and reliable scientific evidence for disaster relief and decision-making.

  10. Resolution and drift measurements on the Advanced Photon Source beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Kahana, E.

    1994-01-01

    The resolution and long-term drift of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beam position monitor (BPM) electronics were measured using the charged particle beams in the ESRF storage ring with various beam current and configurations (single bunch, 8 and 16 equally spaced bunches, and 1/3-fill). The energy of the stored electrons was 6 GeV. The integrated BPM electronics system as used for this work is capable of measuring the beam position on a turn-by-turn basis, which can be accumulated for N turns (N = 2 n , n = 1, 2, ... , 11). Estimation of the BPM resolution apart from the low-frequency beam motion was made by measuring the standard deviation in the measured beam position with different Ns. The analysis of the results indicates a BPM resolution of 18/√ N [μm] for the APS storage ring, which is equivalent to 0.07 μm/√Hz. For the miniature insertion device BPM with 2.8 times higher sensitivity, the resolution will be 0.02 μm/√Hz. The long-term drift of the BPM electronics independent of the actual beam motion was measured at 2 μm/hr, which settled after approximately 1.5 hours. This drift can be attributed mainly to the temperature effect. Comparison of the results with the laboratory measurements shows good agreement. Implication of the BPM resolution limit on the proposed global and local beam position feedback systems for the APS storage ring will also be discussed

  11. A fast non-intercepting linac beam position and current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.W.; Wille, M.

    1982-01-01

    A non-intercepting beam monitor consisting of four detecting loops is used to determine the spatial postion and current of a pulsed beam from an electron linear accelerator. The monitor detects the magnetic field radiated by the substructure of the electron bunches created by the accelerating microwave. The detecting loops are interconnected two by two, by means of two coaxial hybrid junctions, the two sets positioned perpendicular to each other. By means of the two signals from the diametrically positioned detecting loops, a good spatial displacement and current monitoring sensitivity are achieved by subtracting one signal from the other and adding the two signals, respectively. For displacements below 2 mm from the center axis an average sensitivity of 0.5 mV/mm x mA is measured, whereas displacements more than 2 mm yields 1.3 mV/mm x mA. A sensitivity of 0.2 mV/mA in current monitoring is measured, and the rise time of the monitored pulse signal is better than 5 ns measured from 10 to 90% of the pulse height. Design strategy and performance of the monitor are described. (orig.)

  12. More than 10 years experience of beam monitoring with the Gantry 1 spot scanning proton therapy facility at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shixiong; Boehringer, Terence; Coray, Adolf; Grossmann, Martin; Pedroni, Eros

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The beam monitoring equipments developed for the first PSI spot scanning proton therapy facility, Gantry 1, have been successfully used for more than 10 years. The purpose of this article is to summarize the author's experience in the beam monitoring technique for dynamic proton scanning. Methods: The spot dose delivery and verification use two independent beam monitoring and computer systems. In this article, the detector construction, electronic system, dosimetry, and quality assurance results are described in detail. The beam flux monitor is calibrated with a Faraday cup. The beam position monitoring is realized by measuring the magnetic fields of deflection magnets with Hall probes before applying the spot and by checking the beam position and width with an ionization strip chamber after the spot delivery. Results: The results of thimble ionization chamber dosimetry measurements are reproducible (with a mean deviation of less than 1% and a standard deviation of 1%). The resolution in the beam position measurement is of the order of a tenth of a millimeter. The tolerance of the beam position delivery and monitoring during scanning is less than 1.5 mm. Conclusions: The experiences gained with the successful operation of Gantry 1 represent a unique and solid background for the development of a new system, Gantry 2, in order to perform new advanced scanning techniques.

  13. More than 10 years experience of beam monitoring with the Gantry 1 spot scanning proton therapy facility at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Shixiong; Boehringer, Terence; Coray, Adolf; Grossmann, Martin; Pedroni, Eros [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The beam monitoring equipments developed for the first PSI spot scanning proton therapy facility, Gantry 1, have been successfully used for more than 10 years. The purpose of this article is to summarize the author's experience in the beam monitoring technique for dynamic proton scanning. Methods: The spot dose delivery and verification use two independent beam monitoring and computer systems. In this article, the detector construction, electronic system, dosimetry, and quality assurance results are described in detail. The beam flux monitor is calibrated with a Faraday cup. The beam position monitoring is realized by measuring the magnetic fields of deflection magnets with Hall probes before applying the spot and by checking the beam position and width with an ionization strip chamber after the spot delivery. Results: The results of thimble ionization chamber dosimetry measurements are reproducible (with a mean deviation of less than 1% and a standard deviation of 1%). The resolution in the beam position measurement is of the order of a tenth of a millimeter. The tolerance of the beam position delivery and monitoring during scanning is less than 1.5 mm. Conclusions: The experiences gained with the successful operation of Gantry 1 represent a unique and solid background for the development of a new system, Gantry 2, in order to perform new advanced scanning techniques.

  14. VME computer monitoring system of KEK-PS fast pulsed magnet currents and beam intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, T.; Akiyama, A.; Kadokura, E.; Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    For beam transfer from the KEK-PS Linac to the Booster synchrotron ring and from the Booster to the Main ring, many pulse magnets have been installed. It is very important for the machine operation to monitor the firing time, rising time and peak value of the pulsed magnet currents. It is also very important for magnet tuning to obtain good injection efficiency of the Booster and the Main ring, and to observe the last circulating bunched beam in the Booster as well as the first circulating in the Main. These magnet currents and beam intensity signals are digitized by a digital oscilloscope with signal multiplexers, and then shown on a graphic display screen of the console via a VME computer. (author)

  15. Beam Position Monitor and Energy Analysis at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David Juarez [Univ. of Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-08-01

    Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility has produced its first beam with an energy of 20 MeV. This energy is obtained by the acceleration at the Electron Gun and the Capture Cavity 2 (CC2). When fully completed, the accelerator will consist of a photoinjector, one International Liner Collider (ILC)-type cryomodule, multiple accelerator R&D beamlines, and a downstream beamline to inject 300 MeV electrons into the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). We calculated the total energy of the beam and the corresponding energy to the Electron Gun and CC2. Subsequently, a Beam Position Monitors (BPM) error analysis was done, to calculate the device actual resolution.

  16. Dosimetric accuracy at low monitor unit setting in electron beams at different dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar, M.; Ravichandran, R.; Supe, Sanjay S.; Sharma, Anil K.

    1999-01-01

    As electron beam with low monitor unit (LMU) settings are used in some dosimetric studies, better understanding of accuracy in dose delivery at LMU setting is necessary. The dose measurements were carried out with 0.6 cm 3 farmer type ion chamber at d max in a polystyrene phantom. Measurements at different MUs show that the dose linearity ratio (DLR) increases as the MU setting decreases below 20 MU and DLRs are found to increase when the incident electron beams have higher energies. The increase in DLR is minimum for low dose rate setting for all five electron beam energies (6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV). As the variation in dose delivery is machine-specific, a detailed study should be conducted before the low MU setting is implemented. Since errors in dose delivery are high at higher dose rates, low dose rate may be better at low MU unit setting. (author)

  17. Cavity beam position monitor system for the Accelerator Test Facility 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2 is a scaled demonstrator system for final focus beam lines of linear high energy colliders. This paper describes the high resolution cavity beam position monitor (BPM system, which is a part of the ATF2 diagnostics. Two types of cavity BPMs are used, C-band operating at 6.423 GHz, and S-band at 2.888 GHz with an increased beam aperture. The cavities, electronics, and digital processing are described. The resolution of the C-band system with attenuators was determined to be approximately 250 nm and 1  μm for the S-band system. Without attenuation the best recorded C-band cavity resolution was 27 nm.

  18. Development of a beam condition monitor for use in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider using synthetic diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Hernando, L; Ilgner, C; MacPherson, A; Oh, A; Pernegger, H; Pritchard, T; Stone, R; Worm, S

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will collide two counter rotating proton beams, each with a store energy about 350MJ; enough to melt 550kg of copper. If there is failure in an element of the accelerator, the resulting beam losses could cause damage not only to the machine but also to the experiments. A Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) is foreseen to monitor last increments of particle flux near the interaction point and if necessary, to generate an abort signal to the LHC accelerator control, to dump the beams. Due to its radiation hardness and minimal services requirements, synthetic CVD diamond is being considered as BCM sensor option. (12 refs).

  19. Effect of secondary ions on the electron beam optics in the Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A.; Prost, L.; Saewert, G.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Antiprotons in Fermilab's Recycler ring are cooled by a 4.3 MeV, 0.1-0.5 A DC electron beam (as well as by a stochastic cooling system). The unique combination of the relativistic energy ({gamma} = 9.49), an Ampere-range DC beam, and a relatively weak focusing makes the cooling efficiency particularly sensitive to ion neutralization. A capability to clear ions was recently implemented by way of interrupting the electron beam for 1-30 {micro}s with a repetition rate of up to 40 Hz. The cooling properties of the electron beam were analyzed with drag rate measurements and showed that accumulated ions significantly affect the beam optics. For a beam current of 0.3 A, the longitudinal cooling rate was increased by factor of {approx}2 when ions were removed.

  20. Measurements of the performance of a beam condition monitor prototype in a 5 GeV electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, M.; Afanaciev, K.; Burtowy, P.; Dabrowski, A.; Henschel, H.; Idzik, M.; Karacheban, O.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Levy, I.; Lohmann, W.; Pollak, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Ryjov, V.; Schuwalow, S.; Stickland, D.; Walsh, R.; Zagozdzinska, A.

    2016-08-01

    The Fast Beam Conditions Monitor, BCM1F, in the Compact Muon Solenoid, CMS, experiment was operated since 2008 and delivered invaluable information on the machine induced background in the inner part of the CMS detector supporting a safe operation of the inner tracker and high quality data. Due to the shortening of the time between two bunch crossings from 50 ns to 25 ns and higher expected luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, in 2015, BCM1F needed an upgrade to higher bandwidth. In addition, BCM1F is used as an on-line luminometer operated independently of CMS. To match these requirements, the number of single crystal diamond sensors was enhanced from 8 to 24. Each sensor is subdivided into two pads, leading to 48 readout channels. Dedicated fast front-end ASICs were developed in 130 nm technology, and the back-end electronics is completely upgraded. An assembled prototype BCM1F detector comprising sensors, a fast front-end ASIC and optical analog readout was studied in a 5 GeV electron beam at the DESY-II accelerator. Results on the performance are given.

  1. Monitoring and control system for the beam-transport field in an induction linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huacen; Lai Qinggui; Zou Yong

    1998-12-01

    The monitoring and control system for the beam-transport field in the induction linac is presented. The system consists of a supervisory PC and single chip units built in the current regulators for the magnets connected via RS-485. The profile of the transport field is manipulated accurately by presetting and monitoring the currents through 12 bits A/D and D/A. Any faults of the regulators can be found in advance by the warning system. The optimum field profile may be preset automatically according to the measured beam characterization given an algorithm to the supervisory PC. The system has been used to operate the injector (2 MeV, 3 kA, 10 regulators) for more than one year and proved to be reliable, use-friendly

  2. A LVDT conditioner for the beam profile monitors of the AmPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Es, J.T. van; Trigt, J.H. van.

    1991-01-01

    A LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) is a transducer for localization. Because of its applied materials, its construction and the absence of bearings etc. the instrument is suitable to be applied in locations where radioactive radiation is present. In order to obtain information about the position of the iron core in the transducer, a conditioner is needed. In 1977 by Digel a conditioner has been developed for the beam profile monitors (moving wire) of MEA because the 'market' could not meet the requirements then. Nowadays the 'market' offers i.c.'s which can take over the work of the Eurocard developed then. Digel has investigated them in order to see if they are applicable for the beam profile monitors of AmPS. (author). 5 refs.; 7 figs.; 13 tabs

  3. A squid-based beam current monitor for FAIR/CRYRING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geithner, Rene; Stöhlker, Thomas; Kurian, Febin; Reeg, Hansjörg; Schwickert, Marcus; Neubert, Ralf; Seidel, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A SQUID-based beam current monitor was developed for the upcoming FAIR-Project, providing a non-destructive online monitoring of the beam currents in the nA-range. The cryogenic current comparator (CCC) was optimized for lowest possible noise-limited current resolution together with a high system bandwidth. This CCC is foreseen to be installed in the CRYRING facility (CRYRING@ESR: A study group report www.gsi.de/fileadmin/SPARC/documents/Cryring/ReportCryring-40ESR.PDF), working as a test bench for FAIR. In this contribution we present results of the completed CCC for FAIR/CRYRING and also arrangements that have been done for the installation of the CCC at CRYRING, regarding the cryostat design. (paper)

  4. Operation of the CESR-TA vertical beam size monitor at $E_{\\rm b}$=4 GeV

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, J. P.; Conolly, C.; Edwards, E.; Flanagan, J. W.; Fontes, E.; Heltsley, B. K.; Lyndaker, A.; Peterson, D. P.; Rider, N. T.; Rubin, D. L.; Seeley, R.; Shanks, J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe operation of the CESR-TA vertical beam size monitor (xBSM) with $e^\\pm$ beams with $E_{\\rm b}$=4 GeV. The xBSM measures vertical beam size by imaging synchrotron radiation x-rays through an optical element onto a detector array of 32 InGaAs photodiodes with 50 $\\mu$m pitch. The device has previously been successfully used to measure vertical beam sizes of 10-100 $\\mu$m on a bunch-by-bunch, turn-by-turn basis at $e^\\pm$ beam energies of $\\sim$2 GeV and source magnetic fields below ...

  5. Beam test results of a drift velocity monitoring system for silicon drift detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nouais, D; Bonvicini, V; Cerello, P; Giubellino, P; Hernández-Montoya, R; Kolojvari, A; Mazza, G; Nissinen, J; Rashevsky, A; Rivetti, A; Tosello, F; Vacchi, A

    2002-01-01

    We report results on drift velocity monitoring using MOS charge injectors in silicon drift detectors obtained in beam test conditions. The correction of velocity variations as small as 0.03% caused by temperature variations of the order of 0.04 K allowed to get an average space resolution along all the drift path of 28 mu m. Preliminary result demonstrating the possibility to correct for temperature gradients along the anode axis are also presented.

  6. A beam monitoring and validation system for continuous line scanning in proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpki, G.; Psoroulas, S.; Bula, C.; Rechsteiner, U.; Eichin, M.; Weber, D. C.; Lomax, A.; Meer, D.

    2017-08-01

    Line scanning represents a faster and potentially more flexible form of pencil beam scanning than conventional step-and-shoot irradiations. It seeks to minimize dead times in beam delivery whilst preserving the possibility of modulating the dose at any point in the target volume. Our second generation proton gantry features irradiations in line scanning mode, but it still lacks a dedicated monitoring and validation system that guarantees patient safety throughout the irradiation. We report on its design and implementation in this paper. In line scanning, we steer the proton beam continuously along straight lines while adapting the speed and/or current frequently to modulate the delivered dose. We intend to prevent delivery errors that could be clinically relevant through a two-stage system: safety level 1 monitors the beam current and position every 10 μs. We demonstrate that direct readings from ionization chambers in the gantry nozzle and Hall probes in the scanner magnets provide required information on current and position, respectively. Interlocks will be raised when measured signals exceed their predefined tolerance bands. Even in case of an erroneous delivery, safety level 1 restricts hot and cold spots of the physically delivered fraction dose to  ±36~mGy (±2% of 2~Gy biologically). In safety level 2—an additional, partly redundant validation step—we compare the integral line profile measured with a strip monitor in the nozzle to a forward-calculated prediction. The comparison is performed between two line applications to detect amplifying inaccuracies in speed and current modulation. This level can be regarded as an online quality assurance of the machine. Both safety levels use devices and functionalities already installed along the beamline. Hence, the presented monitoring and validation system preserves full compatibility of discrete and continuous delivery mode on a single gantry, with the possibility of switching between modes during the

  7. Two-photon physics and online beam monitoring using the DELPHI detector at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarne, J.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis is based on work done during 1989-1993 using the DELPHI detector at LEP, which is summarized in five articles. It consists of three main parts. The first part describes the Very Small Angle Tagger (VSAT), which is a sub-detector of the DELPHI detector at LEP. It consists of four silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter modules having a silicon strip planes for position determination. The modules are placed adjacent to the beam pipe, at ±7.7 m from the interaction point and after superconducting quadrupole magnets, allowing the detection of electrons in a polar angle range of 4 to 13 mrad. The second part is devoted to two-photon physics at DELPHI, with strong emphasis on a VSAT single-tagged event analysis. Here is shown, for the first time, evidence of hard scattering processes in single-tagged two-photon collisions. A QCD Resolved Photon Contribution (QCD-RPC) model is introduced. Data is then seen to be well described by a full VDM+(QCD-RPC) model. Different parton density functions are compared with data. The third part first describes the system for online monitoring of LEP beam background and luminosity at the DELPHI interaction point. Details are given of contributing sub-detector signals and program structure. Then follows a description of the VSAT online monitoring program (VSAT-MONITOR). A good agreement is found between the VSAT-MONITOR estimates of luminosity and beam spot and those of other detectors. Finally, results are presented of VSAT measurements of a LEP beam separation scan. 75 refs, figs

  8. A large area diamond-based beam tagging hodoscope for ion therapy monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallin-Martel, M.-L.; Abbassi, L.; Bes, A.; Bosson, G.; Collot, J.; Crozes, T.; Curtoni, S.; Dauvergne, D.; De Nolf, W.; Fontana, M.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Krimmer, J.; Lacoste, A.; Marcatili, S.; Morse, J.; Motte, J.-F.; Muraz, J.-F.; Rarbi, F. E.; Rossetto, O.; Salomé, M.; Testa, É.; Vuiart, R.; Yamouni, M.

    2018-01-01

    The MoniDiam project is part of the French national collaboration CLaRyS (Contrôle en Ligne de l'hAdronthérapie par RaYonnements Secondaires) for on-line monitoring of hadron therapy. It relies on the imaging of nuclear reaction products that is related to the ion range. The goal here is to provide large area beam detectors with a high detection efficiency for carbon or proton beams giving time and position measurement at 100 MHz count rates (beam tagging hodoscope). High radiation hardness and intrinsic electronic properties make diamonds reliable and very fast detectors with a good signal to noise ratio. Commercial Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) poly-crystalline, heteroepitaxial and monocrystalline diamonds were studied. Their applicability as a particle detector was investigated using α and β radioactive sources, 95 MeV/u carbon ion beams at GANIL and 8.5 keV X-ray photon bunches from ESRF. This facility offers the unique capability of providing a focused ( 1 μm) beam in bunches of 100 ps duration, with an almost uniform energy deposition in the irradiated detector volume, therefore mimicking the interaction of single ions. A signal rise time resolution ranging from 20 to 90 ps rms and an energy resolution of 7 to 9% were measured using diamonds with aluminum disk shaped surface metallization. This enabled us to conclude that polycrystalline CVD diamond detectors are good candidates for our beam tagging hodoscope development. Recently, double-side stripped metallized diamonds were tested using the XBIC (X Rays Beam Induced Current) set-up of the ID21 beamline at ESRF which permits us to evaluate the capability of diamond to be used as position sensitive detector. The final detector will consist in a mosaic arrangement of double-side stripped diamond sensors read out by a dedicated fast-integrated electronics of several hundreds of channels.

  9. Diagnostic performance of cone-beam computed tomography on detection of mechanically-created artificial secondary caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuakkra, Arnon; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Pongsiriwet, Surawut; Verochana, Karune; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and bitewing images in detection of secondary caries. One hundred and twenty proximal slots of Class II cavities were randomly prepared on human premolar and molar teeth, and restored with amalgam (n=60) and composite resin (n=60). Then, artificial secondary caries lesions were randomly created using round steel No. 4 bur. The teeth were radiographed with a conventional bitewing technique and two CBCT systems; Pax-500ECT and Promax 3D. All images were evaluated by five observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (A(z)) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Significant difference was tested using the Friedman test (p valuedetection of secondary caries.

  10. Initial clinical evaluation of PET-based ion beam therapy monitoring under consideration of organ motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Christopher; Bauer, Julia; Unholtz, Daniel; Richter, Daniel; Herfarth, Klaus; Debus, Jürgen; Parodi, Katia

    2016-02-01

    Intrafractional organ motion imposes considerable challenges to scanned ion beam therapy and demands for a thorough verification of the applied treatment. At the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), the scanned ion beam delivery is verified by means of postirradiation positron-emission-tomography (PET) imaging. This work presents a first clinical evaluation of PET-based treatment monitoring in ion beam therapy under consideration of target motion. Three patients with mobile liver lesions underwent scanned carbon ion irradiation at HIT and postirradiation PET/CT (x-ray-computed-tomography) imaging with a commercial scanner. Respiratory motion was recorded during irradiation and subsequent image acquisition. This enabled a time-resolved (4D) calculation of the expected irradiation-induced activity pattern and, for one patient where an additional 4D CT was acquired at the PET/CT scanner after treatment, a motion-compensated PET image reconstruction. For the other patients, PET data were reconstructed statically. To verify the treatment, calculated prediction and reconstructed measurement were compared with a focus on the ion beam range. Results in the current three patients suggest that for motion amplitudes in the order of 2 mm there is no benefit from incorporating respiratory motion information into PET-based treatment monitoring. For a target motion in the order of 10 mm, motion-related effects become more severe and a time-resolved modeling of the expected activity distribution can lead to an improved data interpretation if a sufficient number of true coincidences is detected. Benefits from motion-compensated PET image reconstruction could not be shown conclusively at the current stage. The feasibility of clinical PET-based treatment verification under consideration of organ motion has been shown for the first time. Improvements in noise-robust 4D PET image reconstruction are deemed necessary to enhance the clinical potential.

  11. Performance of the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor BCM1F of CMS in the first running periods of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R S; Castro, E; Hall-Wilton, R; Hempel, M; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Muller, S; Ryjov, V; Stickland, D; Walsh, R

    2011-01-01

    The Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System, BRM, is implemented in CMS to protect the detector and provide an interface to the LHC. Seven sub-systems monitor beam conditions and the radiation level inside the detector on different time scales. They detect adverse beam conditions, facilitate beam tuning close to CMS, and measure the doses accumulated in different detector components. Data are taken and analysed independently of the CMS data acquisition, displayed in the control room, and provide inputs to the trigger system and the LHC operators. In case of beam conditions dangerous to the CMS detector, a beam abort is induced. The Fast Beam Conditions Monitor, BCM1F, is a flux counter close to the beam pipe inside the tracker volume. It uses single-crystal CVD diamond sensors, radiation-hard FE electronics, and optical signal transmission to measure the beam halo as well as collision products bunch by bunch. The system has been operational during the initiatory runs of LHC in September 2008. It works...

  12. Calibration of an advanced photon source linac beam position monitor used for positron position measurement of a beam containing both positrons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereno, Nicholas S.

    1998-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac beam position monitors can be used to monitor the position of a beam containing both positrons and electrons. To accomplish this task, both the signal at the bunching frequency of 2856 MHz and the signal at 2x2856 MHz are acquired and processed for each stripline. The positron beam position is obtained by forming a linear combination of both 2856 and 5712 MHz signals for each stripline and then performing the standard difference over sum computation. The required linear combination of the 2856 and 5712 MHz signals depends on the electrical calibration of each stripline/cable combination. In this paper, the calibration constants for both 2856 MHz and 5712 MHz signals for each stripline are determined using a pure beam of electrons. The calibration constants are obtained by measuring the 2856 and 5712 MHz stripline signals at various electron beam currents and positions. Finally, the calibration constants measured using electrons are used to determine positron beam position for the mixed beam case

  13. Experiments and FLUKA simulations of $^{12}C$ and $^{16}O$ beams for therapy monitoring by means of in-beam Positron Emission Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerer,; Ferrari, A

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997 at the experimental C-12 ion therapy facility at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, Germany, more than 350 patients have been treated. The therapy is monitored with a dedicated positron emission tomograph, fully integrated into the treatment site. The measured beta+-activity arises from inelastic nuclear interactions between the beam particles an the nuclei of the patients tissue. Because the monitoring is done during the irradiation the method is called in-beam PET. The underlying principle of this monitoring is a comparison between the measured activity and a simulated one. The simulations are presently done by the PETSIM code which is dedicated to C-12 beams. In future ion therapy centers like the Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (HIT), Heidelberg, Germany, besides C-12 also proton, $^3$He and O-16 beams will be used for treatment and the therapy will be monitored by means of in-beam PET. Because PETSIM is not extendable to other ions in an easy way, a code capable ...

  14. High Accuracy Beam Current Monitor System for CEBAF'S Experimental Hall A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Denard; A. Saha; G. Lavessiere

    2001-01-01

    CEBAF accelerator delivers continuous wave (CW) electron beams to three experimental Halls. In Hall A, all experiments require continuous, non-invasive current measurements and a few experiments require an absolute accuracy of 0.2 % in the current range from 1 to 180 (micro)A. A Parametric Current Transformer (PCT), manufactured by Bergoz, has an accurate and stable sensitivity of 4 (micro)A/V but its offset drifts at the muA level over time preclude its direct use for continuous measurements. Two cavity monitors are calibrated against the PCT with at least 50 (micro)A of beam current. The calibration procedure suppresses the error due to PCT's offset drifts by turning the beam on and off, which is invasive to the experiment. One of the goals of the system is to minimize the calibration time without compromising the measurement's accuracy. The linearity of the cavity monitors is a critical parameter for transferring the accurate calibration done at high currents over the whole dynamic range. The method for measuring accurately the linearity is described

  15. CO2 Cluster Ion Beam, an Alternative Projectile for Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew; Garrison, Barbara J.; Winograd, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of argon-based gas cluster ion beams for SIMS experiments opens new possibilities for molecular depth profiling and 3D chemical imaging. These beams generally leave less surface chemical damage and yield mass spectra with reduced fragmentation compared with smaller cluster projectiles. For nanoscale bioimaging applications, however, limited sensitivity due to low ionization probability and technical challenges of beam focusing remain problematic. The use of gas cluster ion beams based upon systems other than argon offer an opportunity to resolve these difficulties. Here we report on the prospects of employing CO2 as a simple alternative to argon. Ionization efficiency, chemical damage, sputter rate, and beam focus are investigated on model compounds using a series of CO2 and Ar cluster projectiles (cluster size 1000-5000) with the same mass. The results show that the two projectiles are very similar in each of these aspects. Computer simulations comparing the impact of Ar2000 and (CO2)2000 on an organic target also confirm that the CO2 molecules in the cluster projectile remain intact, acting as a single particle of m/z 44. The imaging resolution employing CO2 cluster projectiles is improved by more than a factor of two. The advantage of CO2 versus Ar is also related to the increased stability which, in addition, facilitates the operation of the gas cluster ion beams (GCIB) system at lower backing pressure.

  16. Final implementation, commissioning, and performance of embedded collimator beam position monitors in the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Gianluca; Baud, Guillaume; Bruce, Roderik; Gasior, Marek; Mereghetti, Alessio; Mirarchi, Daniele; Olexa, Jakub; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua, Belen; Valloni, Alessandra; Wenninger, Jorg

    2017-08-01

    During Long Shutdown 1, 18 Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collimators were replaced with a new design, in which beam position monitor (BPM) pick-up buttons are embedded in the collimator jaws. The BPMs provide a direct measurement of the beam orbit at the collimators, and therefore can be used to align the collimators more quickly than using the standard technique which relies on feedback from beam losses. Online orbit measurements also allow for reducing operational margins in the collimation hierarchy placed specifically to cater for unknown orbit drifts, therefore decreasing the β* and increasing the luminosity reach of the LHC. In this paper, the results from the commissioning of the embedded BPMs in the LHC are presented. The data acquisition and control software architectures are reviewed. A comparison with the standard alignment technique is provided, together with a fill-to-fill analysis of the measured orbit in different machine modes, which will also be used to determine suitable beam interlocks for a tighter collimation hierarchy.

  17. Development of a high-resolution cavity-beam position monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Inoue

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a high-resolution cavity-beam position monitor (BPM to be used at the focal point of the ATF2, which is a test beam line that is now being built to demonstrate stable orbit control at ∼nanometer resolution. The design of the cavity structure was optimized for the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF beam in various ways. For example, the cavity has a rectangular shape in order to isolate two dipole modes in orthogonal directions, and a relatively thin gap that is less sensitive to trajectory inclination. A two stage homodyne mixer with highly sensitive electronics and phase-sensitive detection was also developed. Two BPM blocks, each containing two cavity BPMs, were installed in the existing ATF beam line using a rigid support frame. After testing the basic characteristics, we measured the resolution using three BPMs. The system demonstrated 8.7 nm position resolution over a dynamic range of 5  μm.

  18. Final implementation, commissioning, and performance of embedded collimator beam position monitors in the Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Valentino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During Long Shutdown 1, 18 Large Hadron Collider (LHC collimators were replaced with a new design, in which beam position monitor (BPM pick-up buttons are embedded in the collimator jaws. The BPMs provide a direct measurement of the beam orbit at the collimators, and therefore can be used to align the collimators more quickly than using the standard technique which relies on feedback from beam losses. Online orbit measurements also allow for reducing operational margins in the collimation hierarchy placed specifically to cater for unknown orbit drifts, therefore decreasing the β^{*} and increasing the luminosity reach of the LHC. In this paper, the results from the commissioning of the embedded BPMs in the LHC are presented. The data acquisition and control software architectures are reviewed. A comparison with the standard alignment technique is provided, together with a fill-to-fill analysis of the measured orbit in different machine modes, which will also be used to determine suitable beam interlocks for a tighter collimation hierarchy.

  19. Structural health monitoring MEMS sensors using elasticity-based beam vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankis, Alivia

    The worsening problem of aging and deficient infrastructure in this nation and across the world has demonstrated the need for an improved system to monitor and maintain these structures. The field of structural health monitoring has grown in recent years to address this issue. The goal of this field is to continually monitor the condition of a structure to detect and mitigate damage that may occur. Many structural health monitoring methods have been developed and most of these require sensor systems to collect the necessary information to assess the current strength and integrity of a structure. The motivation for this thesis is a proposed new microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensor with applications in civil infrastructure sensing. The work required was to determine accurate estimates of the resonant frequencies for a fixed-fixed silicon bridge within the device so that further testing and development could proceed. Additional knowledge and information were essential, though, before these requested calculations could be performed confidently. First, a thorough review of current structural health monitoring concepts and methods was performed to better understand the field in which this device would be applied and what incentive existed to develop a new sensor. Second, an in-depth investigation of vibrational beam mechanics theories was completed to ensure the accuracy of the frequency results for the new MEMS sensor. This study analyzed the influence of three assumptions employed in the Euler-Bernoulli, Rayleigh, and Timoshenko beam theories by comparing their results to a three-dimensional, elasticity-based approximation for vibrational frequencies and mode shapes. The results of this study showed that all three theories are insufficient when a fixed support is involved, so the elasticity-based approximation was utilized to calculate the frequencies for the bridge component in the MEMS device. These results have been passed on to the developers so that the

  20. IMAGE-BASED DEFORMATION MONITORING OF STATICALLY AND DYNAMICALLY LOADED BEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Detchev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure systems is an important procedure in terms of both safety and serviceability. Traditionally, large structures have been monitored using surveying techniques, while fine-scale monitoring of structural components has been done with instrumentation for civil engineering purposes. As a remote sensing technique, photogrammetry does not need any contact with the object being monitored, and this can be a great advantage when it comes to the deformation monitoring of inaccessible structures. The paper shows a low-cost setup of multiple off-the-shelf digital cameras and projectors used for three-dimensional photogrammetric reconstruction for the purpose of deformation monitoring of structural elements. This photogrammetric system setup was used in an experiment, where a concrete beam was being deformed by a hydraulic actuator. Both static and dynamic loading conditions were tested. The system did not require any physical targets other than to establish the relative orientation between the involved cameras. The experiment proved that it was possible to detect sub-millimetre level deflections given the used equipment and the geometry of the setup.

  1. Monitoring system of energy characteristics of electron beam during shaping process of power bremsstrahlung pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordasov, N.G.; Ulimov, V.N.; Bryksin, V.A.; Shiyan, V.D.

    2005-01-01

    One proposes a procedure and a device to monitor dynamic and integral characteristics of electron power beams of high-current pulsed accelerators (HCPA) operating under Bremsstrahlung radiation mode. One obtained static and dynamic transfer characteristics for various types of heterogenous targets-converters under operation of UIN-10 HCPA with up to 4 MeV energy electrons, up to 60 kA current and 6 x 10 -8 -2 x 10 -6 s pulse efficient duration. One demonstrated the capabilities of the complex diagnostics of acceleration of electron beams by HCPA with simultaneous determination of parameters of the Bremsstrahlung radiation at the local point of the field behind the target-converter [ru

  2. Model-independent analysis of the Fermilab Tevatron turn-by-turn beam position monitor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrenko, A.V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Valishev, A.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Coherent transverse beam oscillations in the Tevatron were analyzed with the model-independent analysis (MIA) technique. This allowed one to obtain the model-independent values of coupled betatron amplitudes, phase advances, and dispersion function around the ring from a single dipole kick measurement. In order to solve the MIA mode mixing problem which limits the accuracy of determination of the optical functions, we have developed a new technique of rotational MIA mode untangling. The basic idea is to treat each beam position monitor (BPM) as two BPMs separated in a ring by exactly one turn. This leads to a simple criterion of MIA mode separation: the betatron phase advance between any BPM and its counterpart shifted by one turn should be equal to the betatron tune and therefore should not depend on the BPM position in the ring. Furthermore, we describe a MIA-based technique to locate vibrating magnets in a storage ring.

  3. Low-emittance tuning of storage rings using normal mode beam position monitor calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wolski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new technique for low-emittance tuning of electron and positron storage rings. This technique is based on calibration of the beam position monitors (BPMs using excitation of the normal modes of the beam motion, and has benefits over conventional methods. It is relatively fast and straightforward to apply, it can be as easily applied to a large ring as to a small ring, and the tuning for low emittance becomes completely insensitive to BPM gain and alignment errors that can be difficult to determine accurately. We discuss the theory behind the technique, present some simulation results illustrating that it is highly effective and robust for low-emittance tuning, and describe the results of some initial experimental tests on the CesrTA storage ring.

  4. Numerical analysis of the beam position monitor pickup for the Iranian light source facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, M.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Rahighi, J.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the design of a button type Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the low emittance storage ring of the Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF). First, we calculate sensitivities, induced power and intrinsic resolution based on solving Laplace equation numerically by finite element method (FEM), in order to find the potential at each point of BPM's electrode surface. After the optimization of the designed BPM, trapped high order modes (HOM), wakefield and thermal loss effects are calculated. Finally, after fabrication of BPM, it is experimentally tested by using a test-stand. The results depict that the designed BPM has a linear response in the area of 2×4 mm2 inside the beam pipe and the sensitivity of 0.080 and 0.087 mm-1 in horizontal and vertical directions. Experimental results also depict that they are in a good agreement with numerical analysis.

  5. Functional and Linearity test system for the LHC Beam Loss Monitoring data acquisition card

    CERN Document Server

    Emery, Jonathan; Effinger, E; Leitner, R; Zamantzas, C

    2007-01-01

    In the frame of the design and development of the beam loss monitoring (BLM) system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) a flexible test system has been developed to qualify and verify during design and production the BLM LHC data acquisition card. It permits to test completely the functionalities of the board as well as realizing analog input signal generation to the acquisition card. The system utilize two optical receivers, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), eights flexible current sources and a Universal Serial Bus (USB) to link it to a PC where a software written in LabWindows/CVI© (National Instruments) runs. It includes an important part of the measurement processing developed for the BLM in the future LHC accelerator. It is called Beam Loss Electronic Current to Frequency Tester (BLECFT).

  6. The LHC beam loss monitoring system's real-time data analysis card

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Ferioli, G; Guaglio, G; Leitner, R; Zamantzas, C

    2005-01-01

    The BLM (Beam Loss Monitoring) system has to prevent the superconducting magnets from being quenched and protect the machine components against damages making it one of the most critical elements for the protection of the LHC. The complete system consists of 3600 detectors, placed at various locations around the ring, tunnel electronics, which are responsible for acquiring, digitizing, and transmitting the data, and surface electronics, which receive the data via 2km optical data links, process, analyze, store, and issue warning and abort triggers. At those surface units, named BLMTCs, the backbone on each of them is an FPGA (field programmable gate array) which treats the loss signals collected from 16 detectors. It takes into account the beam energy and keeps 192 running sums giving loss durations of up to the last 84 seconds before it compares them with thresholds uniquely programmable for each detector. In this paper, the BLMTC's design is explored giving emphasis to the strategies followed in combining t...

  7. Bunch-shape monitor for a picosecond single-bunch beam of a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Yoneichi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    1995-01-01

    A non-interactive-type bunch-shape and beam intensity monitor for a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator (linac) has been developed. The monitor consists of an electric SMA-type connector and an Al pipe of 50 mm inner diameter. Test measurements of the present monitor have been made under the conditions of the accelerated charges of lower than 27 nC/pulse and the pulse width ranging from 6 to 30 ps (Full Width at Half Maximum). The results show that the present monitor is applicable to bunch-shape measurement of the picosecond single-bunch beam. The monitor output is also found to be proportional to the beam intensity of more than 0.05 nC/pulse. (author)

  8. A Cherenkov-based Beam Loss Scintillator system for beam, background and online luminosity monitoring at the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Jacobsson, R

    2013-01-01

    The installation of a scintillator-based system in the LHCb cavern was initially proposed in order to observe injection problems around the LHCb interaction region. Thanks to the fact that LHCb had already developed a custom-made electronics board (BPIM) for the LHCb beam pickups and global LHCb timing monitoring, a complete, inexpensive but flexible and robust system was quickly developed and installed few cm from the beam pipe just in front of the LHCb VELO detector in time for the very first beams injected in the LHC. The current and final system – commonly referred to as Beam Loss Scintillator (BLS) system - ultimately played a central role in the fast beam, background and online luminosity monitoring at LHCb. In this paper, the features of the detector – based on quartz radiator and Cherenkov light - are described, including the functionalities that the system acquired during the proton-proton physics programmes in 2009- 2013 thanks to its flexibility, reliability and sensitivity to beam hal...

  9. New X-ray beam position monitors with submicron resolution utilizing imaging of scattered X-rays at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, Peter; Temnykh, Alexander B.; Pauling, Alan K.

    2011-01-01

    At CHESS' A, F and G wiggler beam lines three new video beam position monitors (VBPMs) have been commissioned. These new VBPMs utilize X-rays scattered from the graphite filter (A and F line) or from a beryllium window (G-line) as the white wiggler beam passes through them. As the X-rays scatter in all directions from the scattering medium, a slit camera creates an image of the beam's footprint on a fluorescent screen. This image is then viewed by a CCD camera and analyzed using a computer program to calculate the intensity centroid, the beam profile and integrated intensity. These data are delivered to the CHESS signal archiving system for storage and display. The new systems employ digital cameras. These cameras are free of the noise inherent to the analog systems with long video signal connections. As a result, the beam position data delivered by the new systems are more reliable and accurate as shown by beam position traces using different beam position monitors on the same beam line.

  10. Beam diagnostics for low energy beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Harasimowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-energetic ion and antimatter beams are very attractive for a number of fundamental studies. The diagnostics of such beams, however, is a challenge due to low currents down to only a few thousands of particles per second and significant fraction of energy loss in matter at keV beam energies. A modular set of particle detectors has been developed to suit the particular beam diagnostic needs of the ultralow-energy storage ring (USR at the future facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research, accommodating very low beam intensities at energies down to 20 keV. The detectors include beam-profile monitors based on scintillating screens and secondary electron emission, sensitive Faraday cups for absolute intensity measurements, and capacitive pickups for beam position monitoring. In this paper, the design of all detectors is presented in detail and results from beam measurements are shown. The resolution limits of all detectors are described and options for further improvement summarized. Whilst initially developed for the USR, the instrumentation described in this paper is also well suited for use in other low-intensity, low-energy accelerators, storage rings, and beam lines.

  11. Monitoring volatilization products using Residual Gas Analyzers during MeV ion beam irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetteland, C. J.; Kriewaldt, K.; Taylor, L. A.; McSween, H. Y.; Sickafus, K. E.

    2018-03-01

    The use of Residual Gas Analyzers (RGAs) during irradiation experiments can provide valuable information when incorporated into experimental end-stations. The instruments can track the volatilization products of beam-sensitive materials, which may ultimately aid researchers in selecting appropriate flux values for conducting experiments. Furthermore, the type of gaseous species released during an irradiation can be monitored directly, which may lead to new insights into the radiolysis and/or heating mechanisms responsible for gas evolution. A survey of several classes of materials exposed to extremes in particle flux is presented to show how RGA instrumentation can be incorporated to qualitatively assess ion-solid interactions in a variety of fields.

  12. Intelligent low-level RF system by non-destructive beam monitoring device for cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Asadi Malafeh, M. S.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Afarideh, H.; Chai, J. S.; Yoon, Sang Kim

    2016-04-01

    The project of a 10 MeV PET cyclotron accelerator for medical diagnosis and treatment was started at Amirkabir University of Technology in 2012. The low-level RF system of the cyclotron accelerator is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance frequency of the cavity. In this work an Intelligent Low Level Radio Frequency Circuit or ILLRF, suitable for most AVF cyclotron accelerators, is designed using a beam monitoring device and narrow band tunable band-pass filter. In this design, the RF phase detection does not need signal processing by a microcontroller.

  13. System for monitoring the position, intensity, uniformity, and directivity of a beam of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boux, R.

    1976-01-01

    A monitoring device transparent to ionizing radiation, designed to measure the orientation, intensity and uniformity of an incident beam, comprises a cylindrical housing forming at least one ionization chamber with one or more ion-collecting electrodes transverse to the housing axis, each electrode being subdivided into a plurality of mutually insulated conductive elements connected to respective amplifiers. The elements of at least one electrode include one or more outer elements surrounding or bracketing one or more inner elements to measure the radiation in a central zone and a peripheral zone. The outputs of the respective amplifiers are additively and subtractively combined in an evaluation circuit

  14. Proton therapy treatment monitoring with in-beam PET: Investigating space and time activity distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombal, L.; Barbosa, D.; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M. G.; Camarlinghi, N.; Cristoforetti, L.; Guerra, A. Del; Fracchiolla, F.; Morrocchi, M.; Sportelli, G.; Righetto, R.; Schwarz, M.; Topi, A.; Rosso, V.

    2017-07-01

    In this study the possibility of retrieving composition information in proton therapy with a planar in-beam PET scanner is investigated. The analysis focuses both on spatial activity distributions and time dependence of the recorded signal. The experimental data taking was performed at the Trento Proton Therapy Center (IT) by irradiating three different phantoms. We show that different phantom compositions reflect into different activity profile shapes. We demonstrate that the analysis of the event rate can provide significant information on the phantom elemental composition, suggesting that elemental analysis could be used along with activity profile analysis to achieve a more accurate treatment monitoring.

  15. Estimate of the shielding effect on secondary cancer risk due to cone-beam CT in image-guided radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jiwon; Baek, Taeseong; Yoon, Myonggeun [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Donghyun [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    This study evaluated the effect of a simple shielding method using a thin lead sheet on the imaging dose caused by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Reduction of secondary doses from CBCT was measured using a radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeter (RPLGD) placed inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The entire body, except for the region scanned by using CBCT, was shielded by wrapping it with a 2-mm lead sheet. Changes in secondary cancer risk due to shielding were calculated using BEIR VII models. Doses to out-of-field organs for head-and-neck, chest, and pelvis scans were decreased 15 ∼ 100%, 23 ∼ 90%, and 23 ∼ 98%, respectively, and the average reductions in lifetime secondary cancer risk due to the 2-mm lead shielding were 1.6, 11.5, and 12.7 persons per 100,000, respectively. These findings suggest that a simple, thin-lead-sheet-based shielding method can effectively decrease secondary doses to out-of-field regions for CBCT, which reduces the lifetime cancer risk on average by 9 per 100,000 patients.

  16. The construction of the Fiber-SiPM beam monitor system of the R484 and R582 experiments at the RIKEN-RAL muon facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonesini, M.; Bertoni, R.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Cervi, T.; De Bari, A.; Menegolli, A.; Prata, M.C.; Rossella, M.; Tortora, L.; Carbone, R.; Mocchiutti, E.; Vacchi, A.; Vallazza, E.; Zampa, G.

    2017-01-01

    The scintillating fiber-SiPM beam monitor detectors, designed to deliver beam informations for the R484 and R582 experiments at the high intensity, low energy pulsed muon beam at the RIKEN-RAL facility, have been successfully constructed and operated. Details on their construction and first performances in beam are reported.

  17. Diagnosis of secondary caries in esthetic restorations: influence of the incidence vertical angle of the X-ray beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Patrícia Lima; Messora, Michel Reis; Pereira, Stela Márcia; Almeida, Solange Maria de; Cruz, Adriana Dibo da

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy on the diagnosis of secondary caries-like lesions simulated on esthetic restorations of different materials, changing the incidence vertical angle (IVA) of the x-ray beam. Twenty human teeth received MOD inlay preparations. In the experimental group (n=10), a round cavity was made in the floor of the proximal box to simulate the caries-like lesion. All teeth were restored with 3 composite resins (Charisma, Filtek-Z250 and TPH-Spectrum) at 3 moments. Two radiographic images were acquired with 0º and 10º IVA. Ten observers evaluated the images using a 5-point confidence scale. Intra- and interobserver reliability was analyzed with the Interclass Correlation Coefficient and the diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (A(z)), Friedman test and Wilcoxon test (α=0.05). Higher accuracy values were obtained with 10º IVA (A(z)=0.66, Filtek-Z250>A(z)=0.56, TPH-Spectrum) compared to 0º (A(z)=0.55, Charisma>A(z)=0.37, TPH-Spectrum), though without statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The detection of secondary caries-like lesions simulated on esthetic restorations of different materials suffered no negative influence by changing the IVA of the x-ray beam.

  18. Electron-beam-induced-current and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast with aberration-corrected electron probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Myung-Geun, E-mail: mghan@bnl.gov [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Garlow, Joseph A. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Marshall, Matthew S.J.; Tiano, Amanda L. [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Wong, Stanislaus S. [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States); Cheong, Sang-Wook [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H. [Department of Applied Physics and Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) are demonstrated in STEM mode combined with in situ electrical biasing in a TEM. • Electrostatic potential maps in ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC data. • Simultaneous EBIC and active SE-VC performed with atomic resolution STEM are demonstrated. - Abstract: The ability to map out electrostatic potentials in materials is critical for the development and the design of nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices in modern industry. Electron holography has been an important tool for revealing electric and magnetic field distributions in microelectronics and magnetic-based memory devices, however, its utility is hindered by several practical constraints, such as charging artifacts and limitations in sensitivity and in field of view. In this article, we report electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) with an aberration-corrected electron probe in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), as complementary techniques to electron holography, to measure electric fields and surface potentials, respectively. These two techniques were applied to ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals. Electrostatic potential maps obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC to show that these techniques can be used as a complementary approach to validate quantitative results obtained from electron holography analysis.

  19. Precision Beam Parameter Monitoring in a Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moeller Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, M.S.

    2005-04-11

    A precision measurement of the parity nonconserving left-right asymmetry, A{sub LR}, in Moeller scattering (e{sup -}e{sup -} {yields} e{sup -}e{sup -}) is currently in progress at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This experiment, labeled SLAC-E158, scatters longitudinally polarized electrons off atomic electrons in an unpolarized hydrogen target at a Q{sup 2} of 0.03 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The asymmetry, which is the fractional difference in the scattering cross-sections, measures the effective pseudo-scalar weak neutral current coupling, g{sub ee}, governing Moeller scattering. This quantity is in turn proportional to (1/4 - sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w}), where {theta}{sub w} is the electroweak mixing angle. The goal is to measure the asymmetry to a precision of 1 x 10{sup -8} which corresponds to {delta}(sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w}) {approx} 0.0007. Since A{sub LR} is a function of the cross-sections, and the cross-sections depend on the beam parameters, the desired precision of A{sub LR} places stringent requirements on the beam parameters. This paper investigates the requirements on the beam parameters and discusses the means by which they are monitored and accounted for.

  20. Investigations of high mobility single crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond for radiotherapy photon beam monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromson, D.; Descamps, C.; Tranchant, N.; Bergonzo, P.; Nesladek, M.; Isambert, A.

    2008-03-01

    The intrinsic properties of diamond make this material theoretically very suitable for applications in medical physics. Until now ionization chambers have been fabricated from natural stones and are commercialized by PTW, but their fairly high costs and long delivery times have often limited their use in hospital. The properties of commercialized intrinsic polycrystalline diamond were investigated in the past by many groups. The results were not completely satisfactory due to the nature of the polycrystalline material itself. In contrast, the recent progresses in the growth of high mobility single crystal synthetic diamonds prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique offer new alternatives. In the framework of the MAESTRO project (Methods and Advanced Treatments and Simulations for Radio Oncology), the CEA-LIST is studying the potentialities of synthetic diamond for new techniques of irradiation such as intensity modulated radiation therapy. In this paper, we present the growth and characteristics of single crystal diamond prepared at CEA-LIST in the framework of the NoRHDia project (Novel Radiation Hard CVD Diamond Detector for Hadrons Physics), as well as the investigations of high mobility single crystal CVD diamond for radiotherapy photon beam monitoring: dosimetric analysis performed with the single crystal diamond detector in terms of stability and repeatability of the response signal, signal to noise ratio, response speed, linearity of the signal versus the absorbed dose, and dose rate. The measurements performed with photon beams using radiotherapy facilities demonstrate that single crystal CVD diamond is a good alternative for air ionization chambers for beam quality control.

  1. Monitoring Damage Using Acoustic Emission Source Location and Computational Geometry in Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Maximino C. Ongpeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive testing in reinforced concrete (RC for damage detection is still limited to date. In monitoring the damage in RC, 18 beam specimens with varying water cement ratios and reinforcements were casted and tested using a four-point bending test. Repeated step loads were designed and at each step load acoustic emission (AE signals were recorded and processed to obtain the acoustic emission source location (AESL. Computational geometry using a convex hull algorithm was used to determine the maximum volume formed by the AESL inside the concrete beam in relation to the load applied. The convex hull volume (CHV showed good relation to the damage encountered until 60% of the ultimate load at the midspan was reached, where compression in the concrete occurred. The changes in CHV from 20 to 40% and 20 to 60% load were five and 13 times from CHV of 20% load for all beams, respectively. This indicated that the analysis in three dimensions using CHV was sensitive to damage. In addition, a high water-cement ratio exhibited higher CHV formation compared to a lower water-cement ratio due to its ductility where the movement of AESL becomes wider.

  2. Performance Test of the Next Generation X-Ray Beam Position Monitor System for The APS Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Lee, S.; Westferro, F.; Jaski, Y.; Lenkszus, F.; Sereno, N.; Ramanathan, M.

    2017-03-25

    The Advanced Photon Source is developing its next major upgrade (APS-U) based on the multi-bend achromat lattice. Improved beam stability is critical for the upgrade and will require keeping short-time beam angle change below 0.25 µrad and long-term angle drift below 0.6 µrad. A reliable white x-ray beam diagnostic system in the front end will be a key part of the planned beam stabilization system. This system includes an x-ray beam position monitor (XBPM) based on x-ray fluorescence (XRF) from two specially designed GlidCop A-15 absorbers, a second XBPM using XRF photons from the Exit Mask, and two white beam intensity monitors using XRF from the photon shutter and Compton-scattered photons from the front end beryllium window or a retractable diamond film in windowless front ends. We present orbit stability data for the first XBPM used in the feedback control during user operations, as well as test data from the second XBPM and the intensity monitors. They demonstrate that the XBPM system meets APS-U beam stability requirements.

  3. Commissioning and first operational experience of the ATLAS beam conditions and loss monitors based on pCVD diamond sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorišek, A.; Atlas Bcm Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    Primary goal of ATLAS Beam Condition and Beam Loss Monitors based on polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (pCVD) diamonds is to protect the ATLAS inner silicon detectors from beam incidents. The sensor material was chosen due to its radiation hardness. The first one, ATLAS Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) utilizes fast front end amplifiers and processing electronics capable of handling events in real time and storing data in circular buffer thousand LHC turns deep for post-mortem analysis. There are eight detectors installed, four on each side of interaction point (IP) of ATLAS spectrometer. Due to fast timing and high efficiency for detecting single particles BCM will also provide valuable information on instantaneous luminosity. The second system, ATLAS Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) is adopted after similar system developed in the LHC beam instrumentation group with detectors replaced with the pCVD diamonds, with six of such detectors on each side of the IP. In this contribution the design and commissioning of the above two systems will be presented and results of the first operational experience will be shown as obtained in combined ATLAS framework both with the first LHC beam and commissioning cosmic ray runs.

  4. The CMS Fast Beams Condition Monitor Backend Electronics based on MicroTCA technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka Anna

    2016-01-01

    The Fast Beams Condition Monitor (BCM1F), upgraded for LHC Run II, is one sub-system of the Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity Project of the CMS experiment. It is based on 24 single crystal CVD diamond sensors. Each sensor is metallised with two pads, being read out by a dedicated fast frontend chip produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. Signals for real time monitoring are processed by custom-made back-end electronics to measure separately rates corresponding to LHC collision products, machine induced background and residual activation exploiting different arrival times. The system is built in MicroTCA technology and uses high speed analog-to-digital converters. The data processing module designed for the FPGA allows a distinguishing of collision and machine induced background, both synchronous to the LHC clock, from the residual activation products. In operational modes of high rates, consecutive events, spaced in time by less than 12.5 ns, may partially overlap. Hence, novel signal processing tec...

  5. A configurable electronics system for the ESS-Bilbao beam position monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguira, L., E-mail: lmuguira@essbilbao.org [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Belver, D. [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Etxebarria, V. [University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Department of Electricity and Electronics, Science and Technology Faculty, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Varnasseri, S.; Arredondo, I.; Campo, M. del; Echevarria, P.; Garmendia, N.; Feuchtwanger, J. [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Jugo, J.; Portilla, J. [University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Department of Electricity and Electronics, Science and Technology Faculty, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain)

    2013-09-01

    A versatile and configurable system has been developed in order to monitorize the beam position and to meet all the requirements of the future ESS-Bilbao Linac. At the same time the design has been conceived to be open and configurable so that it could eventually be used in different kinds of accelerators, independent of the charged particle, with minimal change. The design of the Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) system includes a test bench both for button-type pick-ups (PU) and striplines (SL), the electronic units and the control system. The electronic units consist of two main parts. The first part is an Analog Front-End (AFE) unit where the RF signals are filtered, conditioned and converted to base-band. The second part is a Digital Front-End (DFE) unit which is based on an FPGA board where the base-band signals are sampled in order to calculate the beam position, the amplitude and the phase. To manage the system a Multipurpose Controller (MC) developed at ESSB has been used. It includes the FPGA management, the EPICS integration and Archiver Instances. A description of the system and a comparison between the performance of both PU and SL BPM designs measured with this electronics system are fully described and discussed. -- Author-Highlights: • A versatile and configurable BPM system for the ESS-Bilbao Linac has been designed. • The design works for PU and SL detectors, both in continuous and pulsed wave modes. • Several tests at simulated beamlines at 352 MHz and 175 MHz have been performed. • The BPM system has been integrated in EPICS and Archiver.

  6. Energy monitoring device for 1.5-2.4 MeV electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuochi, P.G., E-mail: fuochi@isof.cnr.i [CNR-ISOF, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A. [CNR-ISOF, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Kovacs, A. [Institute of Isotopes, HAS, P.O.Box 77, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Mehta, K. [Arbeiterstrandbad Strasse 72, Vienna, A-1210 (Austria); Kuntz, F.; Plumeri, S. [Aerial, Parc d' Innovation Rue Laurent Fries F-67400 Illkirch (France)

    2010-03-11

    An easy-to-use and robust energy monitoring device has been developed for reliable detection of day-to-day small variations in the electron beam energy, a critical parameter for quality control and quality assurance in industrial radiation processing. It has potential for using on-line, thus providing real-time information. Its working principle is based on the measurement of currents, or charges, collected by two aluminium absorbers of specific thicknesses (dependent on the beam energy), insulated from each other and positioned within a faraday cup-style aluminium cage connected to the ground. The device has been extensively tested in the energy range of 4-12 MeV under standard laboratory conditions at Institute of Isotopes and CNR-ISOF using different types of electron accelerators; namely, a TESLA LPR-4 LINAC (3-6 MeV) and a L-band Vickers LINAC (7-12 MeV), respectively. This device has been also tested in high power electron beam radiation processing facilities, one equipped with a 7-MeV LUE-8 linear accelerator used for crosslinking of cables and medical device sterilization, and the other equipped with a 10 MeV Rhodotron TT100 recirculating accelerator used for in-house sterilization of medical devices. In the present work, we have extended the application of this method to still lower energy region, i.e. from 1.5 to 2.4 MeV. Also, we show that such a device is capable of detecting deviation in the beam energy as small as 40 keV.

  7. Energy monitoring device for 1.5-2.4 MeV electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A.; Kovács, A.; Mehta, K.; Kuntz, F.; Plumeri, S.

    2010-03-01

    An easy-to-use and robust energy monitoring device has been developed for reliable detection of day-to-day small variations in the electron beam energy, a critical parameter for quality control and quality assurance in industrial radiation processing. It has potential for using on-line, thus providing real-time information. Its working principle is based on the measurement of currents, or charges, collected by two aluminium absorbers of specific thicknesses (dependent on the beam energy), insulated from each other and positioned within a faraday cup-style aluminium cage connected to the ground. The device has been extensively tested in the energy range of 4-12 MeV under standard laboratory conditions at Institute of Isotopes and CNR-ISOF using different types of electron accelerators; namely, a TESLA LPR-4 LINAC (3-6 MeV) and a L-band Vickers LINAC (7-12 MeV), respectively. This device has been also tested in high power electron beam radiation processing facilities, one equipped with a 7-MeV LUE-8 linear accelerator used for crosslinking of cables and medical device sterilization, and the other equipped with a 10 MeV Rhodotron TT100 recirculating accelerator used for in-house sterilization of medical devices. In the present work, we have extended the application of this method to still lower energy region, i.e. from 1.5 to 2.4 MeV. Also, we show that such a device is capable of detecting deviation in the beam energy as small as 40 keV.

  8. Deflection monitoring for a box girder based on a modified conjugate beam method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Zhi; Wu, Gang; Xing, Tuo

    2017-08-01

    After several years of operation, a box girder bridge would commonly experience excessive deflection, which endangers the bridge’s life span as well as the safety of vehicles travelling on it. In order to avoid potential risks, it is essential to constantly monitor the defection of box girders. However, currently, the direct deflection monitoring methods are limited by the complicated environments beneath the bridges, such as rivers or other traffic lanes, which severely impede the layouts of the sensors. The other indirect deflection monitoring methods mostly do not thoroughly consider the inherent shear lag effect and shear deformation in the box girder, resulting in a rather large error. Under these circumstances, a deflection monitoring method suiting box girders is proposed in this article, based on the conjugate beam method and distributed long-gauge fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. A lab experiment was conducted to verify the reliability and feasibility of this method under practical application. Further, the serviceability under different span-depth ratios and web thicknesses was examined through a finite element model.

  9. Design and expected performance of the new SLS beam size monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Milas, N.; Saa Hernandez, A.; Schlott, V.; Streun, A.; Andersson, A.; Breunlin, J.

    2012-01-01

    The vertical emittance minimization campaign at SLS, realized in the context of the TIARA WP6, has already achieved the world's smallest vertical beam size of 3.6 μm, corresponding to a vertical emittance of 0.9 pm, in a synchrotron light source. The minimum value reached for the vertical emittance is only about five times larger than the quantum limit of 0.2 pm. However, the resolution limit of the present SLS emittance monitor has also been reached during this campaign, thus, to further continue the emittance minimization program the construction of an improved second monitor is necessary. In this paper we present the design and studies on the performance of this new monitor based on the image formation method using vertically polarized synchrotron radiation in the visible and UV spectral ranges. This new monitor includes an additional feature, providing the possibility of performing full interferometric measurement by the use of a set of vertical obstacles that can be driven on the light path. Simulations...

  10. Method and apparatus for secondary laser pumping by electron beam excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, E. Victor; Krupke, William F.; Murray, John R.; Powell, Howard T.; Swingle, James C.; Turner, Jr., Charles E.; Rhodes, Charles K.

    1978-01-01

    An electron beam of energy typically 100 keV excites a fluorescer gas which emits ultraviolet radiation. This radiation excites and drives an adjacent laser gas by optical pumping or photolytic dissociation to produce high efficiency pulses. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, United States Energy Research and Development Administration Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48 with the University of California.

  11. Education quality monitoring in a comprehensive secondary institution with the use of modern IT-based means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Николаевна Ромашкова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article one can find an example of the Balanced Score Card (BSC development for a comprehensive secondary organization. The idea of using the BSC for the education quality monitoring is justified. The interrelation between the modern IT-based means introduction and the educational process quality improvement in a comprehensive secondary organization has been set.

  12. Laser-driven electron beam generation for secondary photon sources with few terawatt laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohacek, K.; Chaulagain, U.; Horny, V.; Kozlova, M.; Krus, M.; Nejdl, J.

    2017-05-01

    Relativistic electron beams accelerated by laser wakefield have the ability to serve as sources of collimated, point-like and femtosecond X-ray radiation. Experimental conditions for generation of stable quasi-monoenergetic electron bunches using a femtosecond few-terawatt laser pulse (600 mJ, 50 fs) were investigated as they are crucial for generation of stable betatron radiation and X-ray pulses from inverse Compton scattering. A mixture of helium with argon, and helium with an admixture of synthetic air were tested for this purpose using different backing pressures and the obtained results are compared. The approach to use synthetic air was previously proven to stabilize the energy and energy spread of the generated electron beams at the given laser power. The accelerator was operated in nonlinear regime with forced self-injection and resulted in the generation of stable relativistic electron beams with an energy of tens of MeV and betatron X-ray radiation was generated in the keV range. A razor blade was tested to create a steep density gradient in order to improve the stability of electron injection and to increase the total electron bunch charge. It was proven that the stable electron and X-ray source can be built at small-scale facilities, which readily opens possibilities for various applications due to availability of such few-terawatt laser systems in many laboratories around the world.

  13. Diagnostic performance of cone-beam computed tomography on detection of mechanically-created artificial secondary caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charuakkra, Arnon; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Pongsirwet, Surawut; Verochana, Karune; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and bitewing images in detection of secondary caries. One hundred and twenty proximal slots of Class II cavities were randomly prepared on human premolar and molar teeth, and restored with amalgam (n=60) and composite resin (n=60). Then, artificial secondary caries lesions were randomly created using round steel No. 4 bur. The teeth were radiographed with a conventional bitewing technique and two CBCT systems; Pax-500ECT and Promax 3D. All images were evaluated by five observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Significant difference was tested using the Friedman test (p value<0.05). The mean Az values for bitewing, Pax-500ECT, and Promax 3D imaging systems were 0.882, 0.995, and 0.978, respectively. Significant differences were found between the two CBCT systems and film (p=0.007). For CBCT systems, the axial plane showed the greatest Az value. Based on the design of this study, CBCT images were better than bitewing radiographs in detection of secondary caries.

  14. Diagnostic performance of cone-beam computed tomography on detection of mechanically-created artificial secondary caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charuakkra, Arnon; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Pongsirwet, Surawut; Verochana, Karune; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and bitewing images in detection of secondary caries. One hundred and twenty proximal slots of Class II cavities were randomly prepared on human premolar and molar teeth, and restored with amalgam (n=60) and composite resin (n=60). Then, artificial secondary caries lesions were randomly created using round steel No. 4 bur. The teeth were radiographed with a conventional bitewing technique and two CBCT systems; Pax-500ECT and Promax 3D. All images were evaluated by five observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Significant difference was tested using the Friedman test (p value<0.05). The mean Az values for bitewing, Pax-500ECT, and Promax 3D imaging systems were 0.882, 0.995, and 0.978, respectively. Significant differences were found between the two CBCT systems and film (p=0.007). For CBCT systems, the axial plane showed the greatest Az value. Based on the design of this study, CBCT images were better than bitewing radiographs in detection of secondary caries.

  15. The low energy muon beam profile monitor for the muon g-2/EDM experiment at J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuvaev, G. P.; Bae, S.; Choi, H.; Choi, S.; Ko, H. S.; Kim, B.; Kitamura, R.; Mibe, T.; Otani, M.

    2017-09-01

    The muon g-2/EDM experiment at J-PARC aims to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment with high precision by utilising an ultracold muon beam. The current muon g-2 discrepancy between the Standard Model prediction and the experimental value is about 3.5 standard deviations. This experiment requires a development of the muon LINAC to accelerate thermal muons to the 300 MeV/c momentum. Detectors for beam diagnostics play a key role in such an experiment. The beam profile monitoring system has been designed to measure the profile of the low energy muon beam. It was tested during two beam tests in 2016 at the MLF D2 line at J-PARC. The detector was used with positive muons, Mu-(μ+ e- e-), p and H-, e- and UV light. The system overview and preliminary results are given. Special attention is paid to the spatial resolution of the beam profile monitor and online monitor software used during data taking.

  16. Dosimetry and monitoring of thin X-ray beam produced by linear particle accelerator, for application in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, J.C.F. de.

    1986-01-01

    The dosimetry and monitoring characteristics of thin X-ray beams, and the application of 4MeV linear particle accelerator to radiosurgery are studied. An addition collimation system, consisted of 3 lead collimators, which allows to obtain thin beams of 6,10 and 15 mm of diameter, was fabricated. The stereo taxic system, together with modifications in dispositives, provide the accuracy required in volum-targed location. The dosimetric informations were determined with silicon detector inserted into water simulator. The isodose curves for each beam, and total isodoses simulating the treatment were established using radiographic emulsions in conditions which reproduce real circunstances of pacient irradiation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Analysis of using protons in secondary beam on BEPC as a particle source in single event effects experiment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui; Li Guozheng; Liu Enke

    1999-01-01

    The energy range and yield of the protons in the secondary beam on BEPC are first analyzed, at the point of using the protons as a particle source in the single event effects (SEE) experiment of semiconductor devices. The energy ranges of the proton produced by high energy electrons bombarding on targets in three methods are calculated and the corresponding cross sections are estimated. The cross section of producing protons can be increased by using heavy nucleus target and the differential yield of protons can reach 1.66 x 10 -3 s -1 ·sr -1 ·eV -1 . The protons can be used in SEE experiment of the semiconductor devices with the high SEE cross sections

  18. Self-powered detector probes for electron and gamma-ray beam monitoring in high-power industrial accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lone, M.A.

    1992-08-01

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPDs are used in nuclear reactors for monitoring neutron and gamma ray fields. Responses of various SPDs to electron and gamma ray beams from industrial accelerators were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. By judicious choice of transmission filters, threshold SPD probes were investigated for on-line monitoring of the beam energy spectrum of the high-power IMPELA industrial electron accelerator. (Author) (14 figs, 16 refs.)

  19. SPIRAL2 at GANIL: Next Generation of ISOL Facility for Intense Secondary Radioactive Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, S.

    2010-03-01

    To pursue the investigation of a new territory of nuclei with extreme N/Z called terra incognita several projects, all aiming at the increase by several orders of magnitude of the Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) intensities are now under discussions worldwide. As selected by the ESFRI committee, the next generation of ISOL facility in Europe is represented by the SPIRAL2 Project to be built at GANIL (Caen, France). SPIRAL 2 is based on a high power, CW, superconducting driver LINAC, delivering 5 mA of deuteron beams at 40MeV (200kW) directed on a C converter+ Uranium target and producing therefore up to 5ṡ1013fissions/s. The expected radioactive beams intensities for exotic species in the mass range from A=60 to A=140, of the order of 106 to 1010pps, will surpass by two orders of magnitude any existing facilities in the world. These unstable atoms will be available at energies between few keV/n to 15 MeV/n. The same driver will accelerate high intensity (100μA to 1 mA), heavy ions up to Ar at 14 MeV/A producing also proton rich exotic nuclei. In applied areas SPIRAL2 is considered as a powerful variable energy neutron source, a must to study the impact of nuclear fission and fusion on materials. Construction of the SPIRAL2 facility is shared by ten French laboratories and a network of international partners. Under the FP7 framework program of European Union called “Preparatory Phase” for the construction of new facilities, the SPIRAL2 project has been granted a budget of about 4Meuros to build up an international consortium around this new venture. Regarding the future physics program a call for Letter of intents has been launched in Oct 2006 and 8 large International collaborations has been built up around new instruments for SPIRAL2. The status of the construction of SPIRAL2 accelerator and technical R&D programs for physics instrumentation (detectors, spectrometers) in collaboration with EU and International partners will be presented.

  20. Beam position monitor multiplexer controller upgrade at the LAMPF proton storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarborough, W.K.; Cohen, S.

    1992-01-01

    The beam position monitor (BPM) is one of the primary diagnostic tools used for the tuning of the proton storage ring (PSR) at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). A replacement for the existing, monolithic, wire-wrapped microprocessor-based BPM multiplexer controller has been built. The controller has been redesigned as a modular system retaining the same functionality of the original system built in 1981. Individual printed circuit cards are used for each controller function to insure greater maintainability and ease of keeping a spare parts inventory. Programmable logic device technology has substantially reduced the component count of the new controller. Diagnostic software was written to support the development of the upgraded controller. The new software actually uncovered some flaws in the original CAMAC interface. (author)

  1. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF THE BEAM POSITION MONITOR FOR THE PEFP LINAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HYEOK-JUNG KWON

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The beam position monitor (BPM is an essential component for the PEFP 100-MeV linac's commissioning. A prototype stripline-type linac BPM was designed for this purpose. The electrode aperture is 20 mm in diameter, and the electrode is 25 mm long, so it can be installed between Drift Tube Linac (DTL101 and DTL102, which is the shortest distance. One end of the electrode is connected to the Sub Miniature Type A (SMA feed through for signal measurement, and the other end is terminated as a short. The signal amplitude of the fundamental component was calculated and compared with that of the second harmonic component. The designed BPM was fabricated and a low-power RF test was conducted. In this paper, the design, fabrication and low power test of the BPM for the PEFP linac are presented.

  2. Performance of an analytical, dual infrared-beam, stored-product insect monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Dennis; Weaver, David K; Larson, Ronald G

    2005-10-01

    A system is described for automated monitoring of pest insects in stored grain. It provides quantitative data indicative of the species of detected insects and is self-calibrating to maintain reliable operation over time across adverse environmental and biological conditions. The system uses electronic grain probes, each with a dual infrared-beam sensor head providing orthogonal views of falling insects. Sensor analog signals are analyzed by an embedded microprocessor, and extracted waveform parameters are transmitted back to a central computer. Filtering algorithms recognize and eliminate false detections due to extraneous (nonfalling) insect activities and provide an indication of species based on body size. Laboratory test data provide species identification templates and an analysis of Montana field test data acquired in aerated and nonaerated bins demonstrates the effectiveness of the filtering algorithms. The described system technology has been licensed by OPIsystems, Inc., Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and is commercially available as Insector.

  3. A Compactrio-Based Beam Loss Monitor For The SNS RF Test Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokland, Willem; Armstrong, Gary A.

    2009-01-01

    An RF Test Cave has been built at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to be able to test RF cavities without interfering the SNS accelerator operations. In addition to using thick concrete wall to minimize radiation exposure, a Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) must abort the operation within 100 usec when the integrated radiation within the cave exceeds a threshold. We choose the CompactRIO platform to implement the BLM based on its performance, cost-effectiveness, and rapid development. Each in/output module is connected through an FPGA to provide point-by-point processing. Every 10 usec the data is acquired analyzed and compared to the threshold. Data from the FPGA is transferred using DMA to the real-time controller, which communicates to a gateway PC to talk to the SNS control system. The system includes diagnostics to test the hardware and integrates the losses in real-time. In this paper we describe our design, implementation, and results

  4. Development of the Readout Electronics for the Beam Loss Monitors of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Friesenbichler, W

    2002-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Laboratory for Particle Physics will be the largest particle accelerator in the world. It requires a large number of installations for its operation. One of these installations are the beam loss monitors which measure the particle losses. If these losses exceed a certain level, the beam must be extracted, otherwise the superconducting magnets could be damaged. For this reason, ionization chambers are installed outside the cryostat to transform the losses into an electric current. A wide dynamic range front end was developed to measure this current. The circuit consists of a current-to-frequency converter that works on the principle of balanced charge. Its output frequency is evaluated by counters and the data is serially transmitted from the tunnel to the surface, where the final data processing is performed. The data transmission suffers from the long cabling distance of up to 2 km. Using Manchester Code and line equalizers enables a data rate of 2 Mbit/s over ...

  5. An accurate low current measurement circuit for heavy iron beam current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chaoyang; Su Hong; Mao Ruishi; Dong Chengfu; Qian Yi; Kong Jie

    2012-01-01

    Heavy-ion beams at 10 6 particles per second have been applied to the treatment of deep-seated inoperable tumors in the therapy terminal of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) which is located at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP, CAS). An accurate low current measurement circuit following a Faraday cup was developed to monitor the beam current at pA range. The circuit consisted of a picoammeter with a bandwidth of 1 kHz and a gated integrator (GI). A low input bias current precision amplifier and new guarding and shielding techniques were used in the picoammeter circuit which allowed as to measure current less than 1 pA with a current gain of 0.22 V/pA and noise less than 10 fA. This paper will also describe a novel compensation approach which reduced the charge injection from switches in the GI to 10 −18 C, and a T-switch configuration which was used to eliminate leakage current in the reset switch.

  6. Charge collection mapping of a novel ultra-thin silicon strip detector for hadrontherapy beam monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouterfa, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.bouterfa@uclouvain.be [ICTEAM Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Alexandre, Geoffrey; Cortina Gil, Eduardo [IRPM Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Flandre, Denis [ICTEAM Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2013-12-21

    In precise hadrontherapy treatments, the particle beam must be monitored in real time without being degraded. Silicon strip detectors have been fabricated over an area as large as 4.5×4.5 cm{sup 2} with ultra low thickness of 20μm. These offer the following considerable advantages: significantly reduced beam scattering, higher radiation hardness which leads to improved detector lifetime, and much better collection efficiency. In a previous work, the novel sensor has been described and a global macroscopic dosimetry characterization has been proposed. This provides practical information for the detector daily use but not about the local microscopic knowledge of the sensor. This work therefore presents a micrometric-accuracy charge-collection characterization of this new generation of ultra-thin silicon strip detectors. This goal is reached thanks to a 1060 nm-wavelength micrometric-sized laser that can be positioned relatively to the sensor with a submicron precision for the three different axes. This study gives a much better knowledge of the inefficient areas of the sensor and allows therefore optimization for future designs.

  7. Secondary ion emission from cleaned surfaces bombarded by 100 MeV accelerator beams at the GSI Darmstadt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wien, K.; Becker, O.; Guthier, W.; Knippelberg, W.; Koczon, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1.4 MeV/n beam facility for the UNILAC/GSI has been used to study secondary ion emission from surfaces cleaned under UHV conditions by ion etching or cleaving of crystals. The desorption phenomena observed by means of TOF mass spectrometry can be classified as follows: (1) Clean metal surfaces emit metal ions being ejected by atomic collisions cascades. Electronic excitation of surface states seems to support ionization. (2) The desorption of contaminants adsorbed at the metal surface is strongly correlated with the electronic energy loss of the projectiles - even, if the content of impurities is very low. (3) Ion formation at the epitaxial surface of fluoride crystals as CaF 2 , MgF 2 and NaF is initiated by the electronic excitation of the crystal. At high beam energies the mass spectrum is dominated by a series of cluster ions. These cluster ions disappear below a certain energy deposit threshold, whereas small atomic ions are observed over the whole energy range

  8. New Concepts in FFAG Design for Secondary Beam Facilities and Other Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Fixed Field Alternating Gradient accelerators offer much higher acceptances and repetition rates - and therefore higher beam intensities - than synchrotrons, at the cost of more complicated magnet and rf cavity designs. Perhaps because of the difficulty and expense anticipated, early studies never progressed beyond the stage of successful electron models, but in recent years, with improvements in magnet and rf design technology, FFAGs have become the focus of renewed attention. Two proton machines have now been built, and three more, plus a muon phase rotator, are under construction. In addition, more than 20 designs are under study for the acceleration of protons, heavy ions, electrons and muons, with applications as diverse as treating cancer, irradiating materials, driving subcritical reactors, boosting high-energy proton intensity, and producing neutrinos. Moreover, it has become apparent that FFAG designs need not be restricted to the traditional 'scaling' approach, in which the orbit shape, optics and t...

  9. SU-E-T-175: A Study on Design and Fabrication of 25 * 25 cm2 Beam Monitor for Scanning Carbon Beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H; Yang, T; Kim, C; Jang, H; Hong, S; Kim, H; Kim, J; Park, D; Kim, C

    2012-06-01

    The KHIMA is developing a superconducting cyclotron of 430 MeV/u for carbon therapy. In order to verify the irradiated beam dose and position, detectors have been developed. The detector has a considered in the active area of 25*25cm 2 to cover the entire beam scanning area. To minimize the loss of data during beam irradiation, a fast data acquisition system was required. A PPIC type was adopted. To measure the beam position and profile, the electrode of PPIC was designed to have a strip pattern. The PCB technique was applied to large area with thin FR-4 plate of electrodes. The chamber has a strip interval of 1.7mm. He was used as the filling gas in order to reduce the ion collection time. Output signal from the detector connected to the two charge integrators was transferred every 10us. The signal can be stored temporarily in memory of FPGA through one of 2 integrators. The fabricated large electrode plates did not show any deformation on their shape. Depending on the beam position, the amount of dose from the ion chamber will be measured. For fast data acquisition, the DAQ board was fabricated by using 2 charge integrators and the FPGA. The obtained data from the ion chamber was displaced on the PC screen every 10us. The fluence map of a single layer will be shown on the PC screen at the end of beam irradiation on the layer. The output data from the profile monitor will be compared with Gafchromic Film results. PCB method for active area of thin electrodes was used in the strip pattern. To reduce the loss of data during irradiation, 2 charge integrators are used alternately. The response of the readout data was set 1 0us. The beam tests will be performed with the MC-50 Cyclotron. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. An assessment of the secondary neutron dose in the passive scattering proton beam facility of the national cancer center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Eun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Gyuseong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Byeong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the additional neutron effective dose during passive scattering proton therapy. Monte Carlo code (Monte Carlo N-Particle 6) simulation was conducted based on a precise modeling of the National Cancer Center's proton therapy facility. A three-dimensional neutron effective dose profile of the interior of the treatment room was acquired via a computer simulation of the 217.8-MeV proton beam. Measurements were taken with a 3He neutron detector to support the simulation results, which were lower than the simulation results by 16% on average. The secondary photon dose was about 0.8% of the neutron dose. The dominant neutron source was deduced based on flux calculation. The secondary neutron effective dose per proton absorbed dose ranged from 4.942 ± 0.031 mSv/Gy at the end of the field to 0.324 ± 0.006 mSv/Gy at 150 cm in axial distance.

  11. Measurements of secondary electron cross sections by the pulsed electron beam time-of-flight method. I. Molecular nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goruganthu, R.R.; Wilson, W.G.; Bonham, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The secondary electron cross sections for gaseous molecular nitrogen are reported at ejection angles of 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135 and 150 0 , for the energy range 1.5 eV to 20 eV and incident electron energy of 1 keV. The pulsed electron beam time-of-flight methd was employed. The results were placed on an absolute scale by normalization to the elastic scattering. They were compared, where possible, with those reported by Opal, Beaty, and Peterson (OBP). The agreement is somewhat better when the OBP data are divided by 0.53 + 0.47 sintheta as suggested by Rudd and DuBois. Fits of our data by Legendre-polynomial expansions are used to estimate the low-energy portion of the cross-section, dsigma/dE. This work suggests that existing experimental cross sections for secondary electron ejection as a function of angle and ejected energy may be no better known than +-40%, especially in the low energy region. 7 references, 14 figures, 2 tables

  12. A novel diamond-based beam position monitoring system for the High Radiation to Materials facility at CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2092886; Höglund, Carina

    The High Radiation to Materials facility employs a high intensity pulsed beam imposing several challenges on the beam position monitors. Diamond has been shown to be a resilient material with its radiation hardness and mechanical strength, while it is also simple due to its wide bandgap removing the need for doping. A new type of diamond based beam position monitor has been constructed, which includes a hole in the center of the diamond where the majority of the beam is intended to pass through. This increases the longevity of the detectors as well as allowing them to be used for high intensity beams. The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the performance of the detectors in the High Radiation to Materials facility for various beam parameters, involving differences in position, size, bunch intensity and bunch number. A prestudy consisting of calibration of the detectors using single incident particles is also presented. The detectors are shown to work as intended after a recalibration of the algorithm, alb...

  13. Application of GIS technologies to monitor secondary radioactive contamination in the Delegen mountain massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipbeki, O.; Kabzhanova, G.; Kurmanova, G.; Alipbekova, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    The territory of the Degelen mountain massif is located within territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and it is an area of ecological disaster. Currently there is a process of secondary radioactive contamination that is caused by geodynamic processes activated at the Degelen array, violation of underground hydrological cycles and as a consequence, water seepage into the tunnels. One of the methods of monitoring of geodynamic processes is the modern technology of geographic information systems (GIS), methods of satellite radar interferometry and high accuracy satellite navigation system in conjunction with radioecological methods. This paper discusses on the creation of a GIS-project for the Degelen array, facilitated by quality geospatial analysis of the situation and simulation of the phenomena, in order to maximize an objective assessment of the radiation situation in this protected area.

  14. Towards using a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for in vivo beam monitoring of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, R.F., E-mail: ryan.page@bristol.ac.uk [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Abbott, N.L.; Davies, J.; Dyke, E.L.; Randles, H.J. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Velthuis, J.J. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Bristol Haematology and Oncology Centre, University Hospitals Bristol, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Fletcher, S.; Gregory, S.D.; Hall, C.; John, A.; Lawrence, H.; Stevens, P.H. [Bristol Haematology and Oncology Centre, University Hospitals Bristol, NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Hugtenburg, R.P.; Tunbridge, V. [Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-11

    The use of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) for cancer treatments is entering wider use. These treatments involve using a complex configuration of field modifying components, known as Multileaf Collimators (MLC), to dynamically shape the beam. A treatment consists of a sequence of irregular shaped fields, which means real time monitoring and verification is essential. In the current framework the treatment plans are verified before the patient is treated, but not during. The aim of our collaboration is to monitor the treatment being given to the patient. This is achieved by placing a camera system using an ultra-thin Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) upstream of the patient. -- Highlights: •A Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor was used to measure the shape of an IMRT field. •The sensor was positioned upstream of the patient causing only a ∼ 0.1% attenuation. •Edges of Multileaf Collimators were determined using edge reconstruction techniques. •The reconstructed edge precision was measured to be 52±4μm for a single frame. •Edge positions from the sensor and film are compared and found to be within error.

  15. Control and monitoring systems for electron beam flue gas treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Licki, J.; Mazurekc, J.; Nelskic, L.; Sobolewskic, L.

    2011-01-01

    The reliable and accurate measurements of gas parameters in essential points of industrial plant are necessary for its proper operation and control. Natural flue gases there are only at the inlet. At other points of plant gas parameters are strongly modified by process control system. The principal role of process monitoring system is to provide the Computer System for Monitoring and Control with continuous recording of process parameters. The main goal of control system is to obtain the optimal SO 2 and NO x removal efficiencies by control of amount of spray water at the spray cooler, amount of NH 3 injection to flue gas and adjustment of electron beam current. The structure of the process control system is based on algorithms describing functional dependence of SO 2 and NO x removal efficiencies. The best available techniques should be applied for measurements of flue gases parameters at essential points of installation and for digital control system to assist plant operators in the analysis and optimization of plant operation, including integrated emission control. (author)

  16. Focused beam reflectance measurement as a tool for in situ monitoring of the lactose crystallization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandalaneni, K; Amamcharla, J K

    2016-07-01

    Lactose accounts for about 75 and 85% of the solids in whey and deproteinized whey, respectively. Production of lactose is usually carried out by a process called crystallization. Several factors including rate of cooling, presence of impurities, and mixing speed influence the crystal size characteristics. To optimize the lactose crystallization process parameters to maximize the lactose yield, it is important to monitor the crystallization process. However, efficient in situ tools to implement at concentrations relevant to the dairy industry are lacking. The objective of the present work was to use a focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) system for in situ monitoring of lactose crystallization at supersaturated concentrations (wt/wt) 50, 55, and 60% at 20 and 30°C. The FBRM data were compared with Brix readings collected using a refractometer during isothermal crystallization. Chord length distributions obtained from FBRM in the ranges of lactose crystallization at various concentrations and temperatures was successfully assessed in the study. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. E-beam column monitoring for improved CD SEM stability and tool matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Timothy S.; Henninger, Randall S.

    2000-06-01

    Tool matching is an important metric for in-line semiconductor metrology systems. The ability to obtain the same measurement results on two or more systems allows a semiconductor fabrication facility (fab) to deploy product in an efficient manner improving overall equipment efficiency (OEE). Many parameters on the critical dimension scanning electron microscopes (CDSEMs) can affect the long-term precision component to the tool-matching metric. One such class of parameters is related to the electron beam column stability. The alignment and condition of the gun and apertures, as well as astigmatism correction, have all been found to affect the overall measurements of the CDSEM. These effects are now becoming dominant factors in sub-3nm tool-matching criteria. This paper discusses the methodologies of column parameter monitoring and actions and controls for improving overall stability. Results have shown that column instabilities caused by contamination, gun fluctuations, component failures, detector efficiency, and external issues can be identified through parameter monitoring. The Applied Materials (AMAT) 7830 Series CDSEMs evaluated at IBM's Burlington, Vermont manufacturing facility have demonstrated 5 nm tool matching across 11 systems, which has resulted in non-dedicated product deployment and has significantly reduced cost of ownership.

  18. Preliminary design of the beam loss monitor system for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The preliminary design of the beam loss monitor for the ANL Advanced Photon Source is based on the use of an air dielectric coaxial cable as a long ionization chamber. Each coaxial cable section uses a high sensitivity DC current-to-voltage converter with both linear and integrating ranges. Pulse timing circuits determine the positions of individual losses by measuring the time at which the resulting voltage pulses arrive at the beginning of the coaxial ionization chamber. A possible timing ambiguity can be removed by correlating the particle bunch timing with the resulting voltage pulse timing. Measurements have shown that pulse rise times less than 15 nanoseconds can be obtained, so that determining loss locations to better than 7 feet may be possible. Best performance may be obtained when 500 VDC is applied to a 50-ohm, 7/8-inch air dielectric coaxial cable filled with approximately 8 psig of a 95% argon, 5% carbon dioxide gas mixture. Cable lengths will be between 100 and 300 feet long, depending on the part of the accelerator being monitored

  19. Dosimetry and monitoring of X-rays narrow beams produced by linear particle accelerator, for using in radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, J.C.F.; Vizeu, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The main characteristics of X-rays narrow beams dosimetry and monitoring are examined, aiming the introduction of this system in brain radiosurgery. The non-protocolize detectors are used, once that the detectors used in therapy by megavoltage were projected for dosimetry with an irradiation field above 40 mm diameter. (C.G.C.) [pt

  20. SU-F-T-67: Correction Factors for Monitor Unit Verification of Clinical Electron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Monitor units calculated by electron Monte Carlo treatment planning systems are often higher than TG-71 hand calculations for a majority of patients. Here I’ve calculated tables of geometry and heterogeneity correction factors for correcting electron hand calculations. Method: A flat water phantom with spherical volumes having radii ranging from 3 to 15 cm was created. The spheres were centered with respect to the flat water phantom, and all shapes shared a surface at 100 cm SSD. D max dose at 100 cm SSD was calculated for each cone and energy on the flat phantom and for the spherical volumes in the absence of the flat phantom. The ratio of dose in the sphere to dose in the flat phantom defined the geometrical correction factor. The heterogeneity factors were then calculated from the unrestricted collisional stopping power for tissues encountered in electron beam treatments. These factors were then used in patient second check calculations. Patient curvature was estimated by the largest sphere that aligns to the patient contour, and appropriate tissue density was read from the physical properties provided by the CT. The resulting MU were compared to those calculated by the treatment planning system and TG-71 hand calculations. Results: The geometry and heterogeneity correction factors range from ∼(0.8–1.0) and ∼(0.9–1.01) respectively for the energies and cones presented. Percent differences for TG-71 hand calculations drop from ∼(3–14)% to ∼(0–2)%. Conclusion: Monitor units calculated with the correction factors typically decrease the percent difference to under actionable levels, < 5%. While these correction factors work for a majority of patients, there are some patient anatomies that do not fit the assumptions made. Using these factors in hand calculations is a first step in bringing the verification monitor units into agreement with the treatment planning system MU.

  1. SU-F-T-67: Correction Factors for Monitor Unit Verification of Clinical Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haywood, J [Mercy Health Partners, Muskegon, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Monitor units calculated by electron Monte Carlo treatment planning systems are often higher than TG-71 hand calculations for a majority of patients. Here I’ve calculated tables of geometry and heterogeneity correction factors for correcting electron hand calculations. Method: A flat water phantom with spherical volumes having radii ranging from 3 to 15 cm was created. The spheres were centered with respect to the flat water phantom, and all shapes shared a surface at 100 cm SSD. D{sub max} dose at 100 cm SSD was calculated for each cone and energy on the flat phantom and for the spherical volumes in the absence of the flat phantom. The ratio of dose in the sphere to dose in the flat phantom defined the geometrical correction factor. The heterogeneity factors were then calculated from the unrestricted collisional stopping power for tissues encountered in electron beam treatments. These factors were then used in patient second check calculations. Patient curvature was estimated by the largest sphere that aligns to the patient contour, and appropriate tissue density was read from the physical properties provided by the CT. The resulting MU were compared to those calculated by the treatment planning system and TG-71 hand calculations. Results: The geometry and heterogeneity correction factors range from ∼(0.8–1.0) and ∼(0.9–1.01) respectively for the energies and cones presented. Percent differences for TG-71 hand calculations drop from ∼(3–14)% to ∼(0–2)%. Conclusion: Monitor units calculated with the correction factors typically decrease the percent difference to under actionable levels, < 5%. While these correction factors work for a majority of patients, there are some patient anatomies that do not fit the assumptions made. Using these factors in hand calculations is a first step in bringing the verification monitor units into agreement with the treatment planning system MU.

  2. Is low-energy-ion bombardment generated X-ray emission a secondary mutational source to ion-beam-induced genetic mutation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongkumkoon, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Thopan, P.; Yaopromsiri, C.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Detected X-ray emission from metal, plastic and biological samples. ► Characteristic X-ray emission was detected from metal but not from non-metals. ► Low-energy ion bombarded bacteria held in different sample holders. ► Bacteria held in metal holder had higher mutation rate than in plastic holder. ► Ion-beam-induced X-ray from biological sample is not a basic mutation source. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam biotechnology has achieved tremendous successes in inducing crop mutation and gene transfer. However, mechanisms involved in the related processes are not yet well understood. In ion-beam-induced mutation, ion-bombardment-produced X-ray has been proposed to be one of the secondary mutation sources, but the speculation has not yet been experimentally tested. We carried out this investigation to test whether the low-energy ion-beam-produced X-ray was a source of ion-beam-induced mutation. In the investigation, X-ray emission from 29-keV nitrogen- or argon- ion beam bombarded bacterial Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells held in a metal or plastic sample holder was in situ detected using a highly sensitive X-ray detector. The ion beam bombarded bacterial cells held in different material holders were observed for mutation induction. The results led to a conclusion that secondary X-ray emitted from ion-beam-bombarded biological living materials themselves was not a, or at least a negligible, mutational source, but the ion-beam-induced X-ray emission from the metal that made the sample holder could be a source of mutation

  3. Is low-energy-ion bombardment generated X-ray emission a secondary mutational source to ion-beam-induced genetic mutation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Thopan, P.; Yaopromsiri, C. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► Detected X-ray emission from metal, plastic and biological samples. ► Characteristic X-ray emission was detected from metal but not from non-metals. ► Low-energy ion bombarded bacteria held in different sample holders. ► Bacteria held in metal holder had higher mutation rate than in plastic holder. ► Ion-beam-induced X-ray from biological sample is not a basic mutation source. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam biotechnology has achieved tremendous successes in inducing crop mutation and gene transfer. However, mechanisms involved in the related processes are not yet well understood. In ion-beam-induced mutation, ion-bombardment-produced X-ray has been proposed to be one of the secondary mutation sources, but the speculation has not yet been experimentally tested. We carried out this investigation to test whether the low-energy ion-beam-produced X-ray was a source of ion-beam-induced mutation. In the investigation, X-ray emission from 29-keV nitrogen- or argon- ion beam bombarded bacterial Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells held in a metal or plastic sample holder was in situ detected using a highly sensitive X-ray detector. The ion beam bombarded bacterial cells held in different material holders were observed for mutation induction. The results led to a conclusion that secondary X-ray emitted from ion-beam-bombarded biological living materials themselves was not a, or at least a negligible, mutational source, but the ion-beam-induced X-ray emission from the metal that made the sample holder could be a source of mutation.

  4. Intra-operative parathyroid hormone monitoring through central laboratory is accurate in renal secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulpio, Carlo; Bossola, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Pepe, Gilda; Nure, Eda; Magalini, Sabina; Agnes, Salvatore

    2016-05-01

    The usefulness, the methods and the criteria of intra-operative monitoring of the parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) during parathyroidectomy (PTX) for renal secondary hyperparathyroidism (rSHPT) in patients on chronic hemodialysis remain still matter of debate. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of a low cost central-laboratory second generation PTH assay to predict an incomplete resection of parathyroid glands (PTG). The ioPTH decay was determined In 42 consecutive patients undergoing PTX (15 subtotal and 27 total without auto-transplant of PTG) for rSHPT. The ioPTH monitoring included five samples: pre-intubation, post-manipulation of PTG and at 10, 20 and 30min post-PTG excision. The patients with PTH exceeding the normal value (65pg/ml) at the first postoperative week, 6 and 12months were classified as persistent rSHPT. The concentrations of ioPTH declined significantly over time in patients who received total or subtotal PTX; however, no difference was found between the two types of PTX. Irrespective of the type of PTX and the number of PTG removed, combining the absolute and percentage of ioPTH decay at 30min after PTG excision, we found high sensitivity (100%), specificity (92%), negative predictive value (100%) and accuracy (93%) in predicting the persistence of rSHPT. The monitoring of the ioPTH decline by a low cost central-laboratory second generation assay is extremely accurate in predicting the persistence of disease in patients on maintenance hemodialysis undergoing surgery for rSHPT. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. New data acquisition system for beam loss monitor used in J-PARC main ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, K.; Toyama, T.; Kamikubota, N.; Yoshida, S.; Matsushita, J.; Wakita, T.; Sugiyama, M.; Morino, T.

    2018-04-01

    A new data acquisition system has been developed continually as a part of the development of a new beam loss monitor (BLM) system for the J-PARC main ring. This development includes a newly designed front-end isolation amp that uses photo-couplers and a VME-based new analog-to-digital converter (ADC) system. Compared to the old amp, the new amp has a 10 times higher conversion impedance for the input current to the output voltage; this value is 1 M Ω. Moreover, the bandwidth was improved to from DC to 50 kHz, which is about two orders of magnitude greater than the previously used bandwidth. The theoretical estimations made in this study roughly agree with the frequency response obtained for the new system. The new ADC system uses an on-board field-programmable gate array chip for signal processing. By replacing the firmware of this chip, changes pertaining to future accelerator upgrade plans may be introduced into the new ADC system; in addition, the ADC system can be used in other applications. The sampling speed of the system is 1 MS/s, and it exhibits a 95 dBc spurious-free dynamic range and 16.5 effective number of bits. The obtained waveform and integrated charge data are compared with two reference levels in the ADC system. If the data exceeds the reference level, the system generates an alarm to dump the beams. By using the new data acquisition system, it was proved that the new BLM system shows a wide dynamic range of 160 dB. In this study, the details of the new data acquisition system are described.

  6. Automated analysis of PET based in-vivo monitoring in ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuess, P.

    2014-01-01

    Particle Therapy (PT)-PET is currently the only clinically approved in-vivo method for monitoring PT. Due to fragmentation processes in the patients' tissue and the beam projectiles, a beta plus activity distribution (BAD) can be measured during or shortly after the irradiation. The recorded activity map can not be directly compared to the planned dose distribution. However, by means of a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation it is possible to predict the measured BAD from a treatment plan (TP). Thus to verify a patient's treatment fraction the actual PET measurement can be compared to the respective BAD prediction. This comparison is currently performed by visual inspection which requires experienced evaluators and is rather time consuming. In this PhD thesis an evaluation tool is presented to compare BADs in an automated and objective way. The evaluation method was based on the Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) – an established measure in medical image processing – which was coded into a software tool. The patient data used to develop, test and validate the software tool were acquired at the GSI research facility where over 400 patient treatments with 12C were monitored by means of an in-beam PET prototype. The number of data sets was increased by artificially altering BAD to simulate different beam ranges. The automated detection tool was tested in head and neck (H&N), prostate, lung, and brain. To generate carbon ion TPs the treatment planning system TRiP98 was used for all cases. From these TPs the respective BAD predictions were derived. Besides the detection of range deviations by means of PT-PET also the automated detection of patient setup uncertainties was investigated. Although all measured patient data were recorded during the irradiation (in-beam) also scenarios performing PET scans shortly after the irradiation (in-room) were considered. To analyze the achievable precision of PT-PET with the automated evaluation tool based on

  7. Development of a Millimeter-Wave Beam Position and Profile Monitor for Transmission Efficiency Improvement in an ECRH System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozuma T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a high power Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH system, a long-distance and low-loss transmission system is required to realize effective heating of nuclear fusion-relevant plasmas. A millimeter-wave beam position and profile monitor, which can be used in a high-power, evacuated, and cooled transmission line, is proposed, designed, manufactured, and tested. The beam monitor consists of a reflector, Peltier-device array and a heat-sink. It was tested using simulated electric heater power or gyrotron output power. The data obtained from the monitor were well agreed with the heat source position and profile. The methods of data analysis and mode-content analysis of a propagating millimeter-wave in the corrugated wave-guide are proposed.

  8. Framework for Structural Online Health Monitoring of Aging and Degradation of Secondary Systems due to some Aspects of Erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribok, Andrei; Patnaik, Sobhan; Williams, Christian; Pattanaik, Marut; Kanakala, Raghunath

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the current state of research related to critical aspects of erosion and selected aspects of degradation of secondary components in nuclear power plants. The report also proposes a framework for online health monitoring of aging and degradation of secondary components. The framework consists of an integrated multi-sensor modality system which can be used to monitor different piping configurations under different degradation conditions. The report analyses the currently known degradation mechanisms and available predictive models. Based on this analysis, the structural health monitoring framework is proposed. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program began to evaluate technologies that could be used to perform online monitoring of piping and other secondary system structural components in commercial NPPs. These online monitoring systems have the potential to identify when a more detailed inspection is needed using real-time measurements, rather than at a pre-determined inspection interval. This transition to condition-based, risk informed automated maintenance will contribute to a significant reduction of operations and maintenance costs that account for the majority of nuclear power generation costs. There is unanimous agreement between industry experts and academic researchers that identifying and prioritizing inspection locations in secondary piping systems (for example, in raw water piping or diesel piping) would eliminate many excessive in-service inspections. The proposed structural health monitoring framework takes aim at answering this challenge by combining long-range guided wave technologies with other monitoring techniques, which can significantly increase the inspection length and pinpoint the locations that degraded the most. More widely, the report suggests research efforts aimed at developing, validating, and deploying online corrosion monitoring techniques for complex geometries, which are pervasive in NPPs.

  9. Framework for Structural Online Health Monitoring of Aging and Degradation of Secondary Systems due to some Aspects of Erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribok, Andrei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Patnaik, Sobhan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williams, Christian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pattanaik, Marut [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kanakala, Raghunath [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report describes the current state of research related to critical aspects of erosion and selected aspects of degradation of secondary components in nuclear power plants. The report also proposes a framework for online health monitoring of aging and degradation of secondary components. The framework consists of an integrated multi-sensor modality system which can be used to monitor different piping configurations under different degradation conditions. The report analyses the currently known degradation mechanisms and available predictive models. Based on this analysis, the structural health monitoring framework is proposed. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program began to evaluate technologies that could be used to perform online monitoring of piping and other secondary system structural components in commercial NPPs. These online monitoring systems have the potential to identify when a more detailed inspection is needed using real-time measurements, rather than at a pre-determined inspection interval. This transition to condition-based, risk informed automated maintenance will contribute to a significant reduction of operations and maintenance costs that account for the majority of nuclear power generation costs. There is unanimous agreement between industry experts and academic researchers that identifying and prioritizing inspection locations in secondary piping systems (for example, in raw water piping or diesel piping) would eliminate many excessive in-service inspections. The proposed structural health monitoring framework takes aim at answering this challenge by combining long-range guided wave technologies with other monitoring techniques, which can significantly increase the inspection length and pinpoint the locations that degraded the most. More widely, the report suggests research efforts aimed at developing, validating, and deploying online corrosion monitoring techniques for complex geometries, which are pervasive in NPPs.

  10. Electromagnetic Design and Optimization of Directivity of Stripline Beam Position Monitors for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Draskovic, Drasko; Jones, Owain Rhodri; Lefèvre, Thibaut; Wendt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary electromagnetic design of a stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the High Luminosity program of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN. The design is fitted into a new octagonal shielded Beam Screen for the low-beta triplets and is optimized for high directivity. It also includes internal Tungsten absorbers, required to reduce the energy deposition in the superconducting magnets. The achieved broadband directivity in wakefield solver simulations presents significant improvement over the directivity of the current stripline BPMs installed in the LHC.

  11. Influence of the Integral Quality Monitor transmission detector on high energy photon beams. A multi-centre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casar, Bozidar [Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Pasler, Marlies [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center, Singen and Friedrichshafen (Germany); Wegener, Sonja [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; and others

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM) transmission detector on photon beam properties was evaluated in a preclinical phase, using data from nine participating centres: (i) the change of beam quality (beam hardening), (ii) the influence on surface dose, and (iii) the attenuation of the IQM detector. For 6 different nominal photon energies (4 standard, 2 FFF) and square field sizes from 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} to 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}, the effect of IQM on beam quality was assessed from the PDD{sub 20,10} values obtained from the percentage dose depth (PDD) curves, measured with and without IQM in the beam path. The change in surface dose with/without IQM was assessed for all available energies and field sizes from 4 x 4 cm{sup 2} to 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}. The transmission factor was calculated by means of measured absorbed dose at 10 cm depth for all available energies and field sizes. (i) A small (0.11-0.53%) yet statistically significant beam hardening effect was observed, depending on photon beam energy. (ii) The increase in surface dose correlated with field size (p < 0.01) for all photon energies except for 18 MV. The change in surface dose was smaller than 3.3% in all cases except for the 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} field and 10 MV FFF beam, where it reached 8.1%. (iii) For standard beams, transmission of the IQM showed a weak dependence on the field size, and a pronounced dependence on the beam energy (0.9412 for 6 MV to 0.9578 for 18 MV and 0.9440 for 6 MV FFF; 0.9533 for 10 MV FFF). The effects of the IQM detector on photon beam properties were found to be small yet statistically significant. The magnitudes of changes which were found justify treating IQM either as tray factors within the treatment planning system (TPS) for a particular energy or alternatively as modified outputs for specific beam energy of linear accelerators, which eases the introduction of the IQM into clinical practice.

  12. A 32-channel front-end ASIC for GEM detectors used in beam monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciriello, F.; Altieri, P. R.; Corsi, F.; De Robertis, G.; Felici, G.; Loddo, F.; Lorusso, L.; Marzocca, C.; Matarrese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Stamerra, A.

    2017-11-01

    A multichannel, mixed-signal, front-end ASIC for GEM detectors, intended for beam monitoring in hadron therapy applications, has been designed and prototyped in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The analog channels are based on the classic CSA + shaper processing chain, followed by a peak detector which can work as an analog memory, to simplifiy the analog-to-digital conversion of the peak voltage of the output pulse, proportional to the energy of the detected event. The available hardware resources include an 8-bit A/D converter and a standard-cell digital part, which manages the read-out procedure, in sparse or serial mode. The ASIC is self-triggered and transfers energy and address data to the external DAQ via a fast 100 MHz LVDS link. Preliminary characterization results show that the non-linearity error is limited to 5% for a maximum input charge of about 70 fC, the measured ENC is about 1400e- and the time jitter of the trigger signal generated in response to an injected charge of 60 fC is close to 200 ps.

  13. Simulations of far-field optical beam quality influenced by the thermal distortion of the secondary mirror for high-power laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruhai; Chen, Ning; Zhuang, Xinyu; Wang, Bing

    2015-02-01

    In order to research the influence on the beam quality due to thermal deformation of the secondary mirror in the high power laser system, the theoretical simulation study is performed. Firstly, three typical laser power 10kW, 50kW and 100kW with the wavelength 1.064μm are selected to analyze thermal deformation of mirror through the finite element analyze of thermodynamics instantaneous method. Then the wavefront aberration can be calculated by ray-tracing theory. Finally, focus spot radius,beam quality (BQ) of far-filed beam can be calculated and comparably analyzed by Fresnel diffraction integration. The simulation results show that with the increasing laser power, the optical aberration of beam director gets worse, the far-field optical beam quality decrease, which makes the laser focus spot broadening and the peak optical intensity of center decreasing dramatically. Comparing the clamping ring and the three-point clamping, the former is better than the latter because the former only induces the rotation symmetric deformation and the latter introduces additional astigmatism. The far-field optical beam quality can be improved partly by simply adjusting the distance between the main mirror and the secondary mirror. But the far-field power density is still the one tenth as that without the heat distortion of secondary mirror. These results can also provide the reference to the thermal aberration analyze for high power laser system and can be applied to the field of laser communication system and laser weapon etc.

  14. Simulations of axial B-dot monitors inside a groove in the beam pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiaozhong, E-mail: hexiaozhong@tsinghua.org.cn [Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Pang, Jian; Li, Qin [Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Du, Yingchao [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-21

    Beam tilt measurement is important for understanding the beam dynamics. Our previous theoretical studies and simulations have shown that the axial B-dot in smooth beam pipe can be used to measure the beam tilt directly. Practical azimuthal B-dot loops typically are placed inside a groove in the beam pipe to avoid direct beam interception. For the same purpose, practical axial B-dot loops should also be placed inside such a groove. In this paper, responses of axial magnetic field to the beam tilt and to the beam offset, in the presence of the groove, are investigated by simulations. The simulation results show that the axial magnetic field in the central plane of the groove is proportional to the beam tilt and independent on the centroid position. The ratio between the axial magnetic field and the beam tilt depends on the position of the axial B-dot loop and the dimensions of the groove. -- Highlights: •MAFIA simulations were carried out to analyze the influence of recessed groove to axial B dots. •It is found that axial B dots still works in the central plane of the recessed groove. •The dimensions of the groove greatly influence the signal strength of axial B dots. •Results can be used for future optimizations.

  15. Development of indicators for patient care and monitoring standards for secondary health care services of Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Seema S; D'Souza, Roshni Cynthia; Pashte, Pramod Mukund; Satoskar, Smita Manohar; D'Souza, Remilda Joyce

    2015-01-01

    The Qualitative aspect of health care delivery is one of the major factors in reducing morbidity and mortality in a health care setup. The expanding suburban secondary health care delivery facilities of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai are an important part of the healthcare backbone of Mumbai and therefore the quality of care delivered here needed standardization. The project was completed over a period of one year from Jan to Dec, 2013 and implemented in three phases. The framework with components and sub-components were developed and formats for data collection were standardized. The benchmarks were based on past performance in the same hospital and probability was used for development of normal range. An Excel spreadsheet was developed to facilitate data analysis. The indicators comprise of 3 components--Statutory Requirements, Patient care & Cure and Administrative efficiency. The measurements made, pointed to the broad areas needing attention. The Indicators for patient care and monitoring standards can be used as a self assessment tool for health care setups for standardization and improvement of delivery of health care services.

  16. Adolescents' Use of Medical Marijuana: A Secondary Analysis of Monitoring the Future Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J; Veliz, Philip T; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2015-08-01

    To examine adolescents' annual use of medical marijuana and determine if legal medical marijuana users are at lower risk for frequent marijuana use and other substance use when compared to adolescents who use diverted medical marijuana or from an illicit source. Public access Monitoring the Future data were used for this secondary analysis. The total weighted sample size was 4394 12th graders. Users of medical marijuana and diverted medical marijuana had notable odds of using daily, using prescription drugs, and using illicit drugs among other substance use behaviors. Medical marijuana users had much higher odds of using medical marijuana because of being "hooked" when compared to diverted medical users and illicit users. This study is the first to provide nationally representative data on three groups of adolescent marijuana users. Although most adolescents use illicit sources, more adolescents appear to be using diverted medical marijuana, than using medical marijuana legally. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of the Medipix2 technology to space radiation dosimetry and hadron therapy beam monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsky, Lawrence; Stoffle, Nicholas; Empl, Anton; Jakubek, Jan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Leroy, Claude; Kitamura, Hisashi; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Uchihori, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Cosmic Rays in addition to albedos from the atmosphere throughout its orbit. New versions of the basic chip design are ongoing. -- Highlights: ► We describe the characteristics of the Medipix2 detector technology. ► We present the design of LUCID, a planned satellite radiation monitoring experiment. ► We outline experiences with the Medipix2 detectors in hadron therapy beams.

  18. Hadron-therapy beam monitoring: Towards a new generation of ultra-thin p-type silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouterfa, M.; Aouadi, K. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bertrand, D. [Particle Therapy Dept., Ion Beam Application IBA, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Olbrechts, B.; Delamare, R. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Raskin, J. P.; Gil, E. C. [Institut de Recherche en Mathematique et Physique IRMP, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Flandre, D. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    Hadron-therapy has gained increasing interest for cancer treatment especially within the last decade. System commissioning and quality assurance procedures impose to monitor the particle beam using 2D dose measurements. Nowadays, several monitoring systems exist for hadron-therapy but all show a relatively high influence on the beam properties: indeed, most devices consist of several layers of materials that degrade the beam through scattering and energy losses. For precise treatment purposes, ultra-thin silicon strip detectors are investigated in order to reduce this beam scattering. We assess the beam size increase provoked by the Multiple Coulomb Scattering when passing through Si, to derive a target thickness. Monte-Carlo based simulations show a characteristic scattering opening angle lower than 1 mrad for thicknesses below 20 {mu}m. We then evaluated the fabrication process feasibility. We successfully thinned down silicon wafers to thicknesses lower than 10 {mu}m over areas of several cm{sup 2}. Strip detectors are presently being processed and they will tentatively be thinned down to 20 {mu}m. Moreover, two-dimensional TCAD simulations were carried out to investigate the beam detector performances on p-type Si substrates. Additionally, thick and thin substrates have been compared thanks to electrical simulations. Reducing the pitch between the strips increases breakdown voltage, whereas leakage current is quite insensitive to strips geometrical configuration. The samples are to be characterized as soon as possible in one of the IBA hadron-therapy facilities. For hadron-therapy, this would represent a considerable step forward in terms of treatment precision. (authors)

  19. Hadron-therapy beam monitoring: Towards a new generation of ultra-thin p-type silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouterfa, M.; Aouadi, K.; Bertrand, D.; Olbrechts, B.; Delamare, R.; Raskin, J. P.; Gil, E. C.; Flandre, D.

    2011-01-01

    Hadron-therapy has gained increasing interest for cancer treatment especially within the last decade. System commissioning and quality assurance procedures impose to monitor the particle beam using 2D dose measurements. Nowadays, several monitoring systems exist for hadron-therapy but all show a relatively high influence on the beam properties: indeed, most devices consist of several layers of materials that degrade the beam through scattering and energy losses. For precise treatment purposes, ultra-thin silicon strip detectors are investigated in order to reduce this beam scattering. We assess the beam size increase provoked by the Multiple Coulomb Scattering when passing through Si, to derive a target thickness. Monte-Carlo based simulations show a characteristic scattering opening angle lower than 1 mrad for thicknesses below 20 μm. We then evaluated the fabrication process feasibility. We successfully thinned down silicon wafers to thicknesses lower than 10 μm over areas of several cm 2 . Strip detectors are presently being processed and they will tentatively be thinned down to 20 μm. Moreover, two-dimensional TCAD simulations were carried out to investigate the beam detector performances on p-type Si substrates. Additionally, thick and thin substrates have been compared thanks to electrical simulations. Reducing the pitch between the strips increases breakdown voltage, whereas leakage current is quite insensitive to strips geometrical configuration. The samples are to be characterized as soon as possible in one of the IBA hadron-therapy facilities. For hadron-therapy, this would represent a considerable step forward in terms of treatment precision. (authors)

  20. Numeric estimation of the possibilities of ionizing detectors for monitoring SR beam space parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemiev, A.N.; Artemiev, N.A.; Ioudin, L.I.; Mikhailov, V.G.; Moryakov, V.P.; Odintsov, D.G.; Rezvov, V.A.; Cerenius, Y.; Svensson, A.

    2000-01-01

    An ionizing detector for on-line registration and representation of the geometric SR beam parameters was developed in RRC KI. The detector analyses the products of the residual gas ionization, which was done by the investigated beam. Special electrostatic optics and open image converter tube (ICT) form optical image of the real beam on the screen of ICT. The detector was checked on SR beams of the next storage rings: DCI (LURE, Orsey, France), KSRS (RRC KI, Moscow, Russia) and MAX-2 (MAX-lab, Lund, Sweden). The codes for TV image processing give a possibility for numeric estimation of the beam size, the width of its horizontal and vertical profiles and position of the beam gravity. Statistic processing of the beam gravity center using big amount of TV frames gives uncertainty in the beam position of about 2 μm while the width of the beam is about 2 mm. Summation of big amount of TV frames was used. This method significantly increases signal-to-noise ratio

  1. Secondary-electron-bremsstrahlung imaging for proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Mitsutaka; Nagao, Yuto [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Quantum Beam Science Research Directorate, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan); Ando, Koki; Yamamoto, Seiichi [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-Ku, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Toshito, Toshiyuki [Department of Proton Therapy Physics, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, 1-1-1 Hirate-cho, Kita-Ku, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Kataoka, Jun [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kawachi, Naoki [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Quantum Beam Science Research Directorate, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    2016-10-11

    A feasibility study on an imaging technique of a therapeutic proton-beam trajectory using a gamma camera by measuring secondary electron bremsstrahlung (SEB) was performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and a beam-irradiation experiment. From the simulation and experimental results, it was found that a significant amount of SEB yield exists between the beam-injection surface and the range position along the beam axis and the beam trajectory is clearly imaged by the SEB yield. It is concluded that the SEB imaging is a promising technique for monitoring of therapeutic proton-beam trajectories.

  2. New ICRU quantities for the environmental and individual monitoring. Standardization of individual dosemeters by using external beams of photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosed, A.; Delgado, A.; Granados, C. E.

    1987-01-01

    The quantities introduced by ICRU for the radiological monitoring are commented, specially those implied in individual protection against external photons. A procedure is proposed in order to standardize the individual dosemeters by using the kerma in air references of CIEMAT-JEN. The reference radiation beams are described in connection with ISO standards. Provisional values are selected for the appropriate conversion and correction factors. (Author) 23 refs

  3. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH FAST FIBER-OPTIC BEAM LOSS MONITORS FOR THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE STORAGE RING SUPERCONDUCTING UNDULATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooling, J.; Harkay, K.; Sajaev, V.; Shang, H.

    2017-06-25

    Fast fiber-optic (FFO) beam loss monitors (BLMs) installed with the first two superconducting undulators (SCUs) in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring have proven to be a useful diagnostic for measuring deposited charge (energy) during rapid beam loss events. The first set of FFOBLMs were installed outside the cryostat of the short SCU, a 0.33-m long device, above and below the beam centerline. The second set are mounted with the first 1.1-mlong SCU within the cryostat, on the outboard and inboard sides of the vacuum chamber. The next 1.1-m-long SCU is scheduled to replace the short SCU later in 2016 and will be fitted with FFOBLMs in a manner similar to original 1.1-m device. The FFOBLMs were employed to set timing and voltage for the abort kicker (AK) system. The AK helps to prevent quenching of the SCUs during beam dumps [1] by directing the beam away from the SC magnet windings. The AK is triggered by the Machine Protection System (MPS). In cases when the AK fails to prevent quenching, the FFOBLMs show that losses often begin before detection by the MPS.

  4. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John P; Antolak, John A; Followill, David S; Huq, M Saiful; Klein, Eric E; Lam, Kwok L; Palta, Jatinder R; Roback, Donald M; Reid, Mark; Khan, Faiz M

    2014-03-01

    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D'0, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D'0 = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D'0 ≤ 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of dm, with D'0 = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

  5. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, John P., E-mail: john.gibbons@marybird.com [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States); Antolak, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Klein, Eric E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Lam, Kwok L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Roback, Donald M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Centers of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States); Reid, Mark [Department of Medical Physics, Fletcher-Allen Health Care, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Khan, Faiz M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D{sub 0}{sup ′}, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D{sub 0}{sup ′} = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D{sub 0}{sup ′} ≤ 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of d{sub m}, with D{sub 0}{sup ′} = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

  6. Determination of average conversion coefficients between kerma in air and H⁎(10) using primary and secondary X-ray beams and transmitted in the diagnostic radiology energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josilene C.; Gonzalez, Alejandro H.L.; Costa, Paulo R.

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian regulation establishes 1.14 Sv/Gy as unique conversion coefficient to convert air-kerma into the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H⁎(10) disregarding its beam quality dependence. The present study computed mean conversion coefficients from primary, secondary and transmitted X-ray beams through barite mortar plates used in shielding of dedicated chest radiographic facilities in order to improve the current assessment of H⁎(10). To compute the mean conversion coefficients, the weighting of conversion coefficients corresponding to monoenergetic beams with the spectrum energy distribution in terms of air-kerma was considered. The maximum difference between the obtained conversion coefficients and the constant value recommended in national regulation is 53.4%. The conclusion based on these results is that a constant coefficient is not adequate for deriving the H⁎(10) from air-kerma measurements. (author)

  7. SU-F-T-217: A Comprehensive Monte-Carlo Study of Out-Of-Field Secondary Neutron Spectra in a Scanned-Beam Proton Therapy Treatment Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englbrecht, F; Parodi, K [LMU Munich, Department of Medical Physics, Garching / Munich, Bavaria (Germany); Trinkl, S; Mares, V; Ruehm, W; Wielunski, M [Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg, Bavaria (Germany); Wilkens, J [Technical University of Munich, Department of Physics, Munich, Germany, Garching, Bavaria (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Hillbrand, M [Rinecker Proton Therapy Center, Munich, Bavaria (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To simulate secondary neutron radiation-fields produced at different positions during phantom irradiation inside a scanning proton therapy gantry treatment room. Further, to identify origin, energy distribution and angular emission as function of proton beam energy. Methods: GEANT4 and FLUKA Monte-Carlo codes were used to model the relevant parts of the treatment room in a gantry-equipped pencil beam scanning proton therapy facility including walls, floor, metallic gantry-components, patient table and the homogeneous PMMA target. The proton beams were modeled based on experimental beam ranges in water and spot shapes in air. Neutron energy spectra were simulated at 0°, 45°, 90° and 135° relative to the beam axis at 2m distance from isocenter, as well as 11×11 cm2 fields for 75MeV, 140MeV, 200MeV and for 118MeV with 5cm PMMA range-shifter. The total neutron energy distribution was recorded for these four positions and proton energies. Additionally, the room-components generating secondary neutrons in the room and their contributions to the total spectrum were identified and quantified. Results: FLUKA and GEANT4 simulated neutron spectra showed good general agreement in the whole energy range of 10{sup −}9 to 10{sup 2} MeV. Comparison of measured spectra with the simulated contributions of the various room components helped to limit the complexity of the room model, by identifying the dominant contributions to the secondary neutron spectrum. The iron of the bending magnet and counterweight were identified as sources of secondary evaporation-neutrons, which were lacking in simplified room models. Conclusion: Thorough Monte-Carlo simulations have been performed to complement Bonner-sphere spectrometry measurements of secondary neutrons in a clinical proton therapy treatment room. Such calculations helped disentangling the origin of secondary neutrons and their dominant contributions to measured spectra, besides providing a useful validation of widely

  8. In-service performance evaluation and monitoring of a hybrid composite beam bridge system : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The hybrid composite beam (HCB) technology has been presented as a system for short and medium span beam bridges as an alternative to traditional materials such as concrete and steel. An HCB consists of a concrete tied arch encased in a fiber reinfor...

  9. Shaping and monitoring of the mini-beam structures for the spatially fractionated hadron radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Momot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Design of collimators and their effectiveness for the purposes of the fractionated mini-beam hadron radiation therapy were evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations. The calculations have been performed for proton, carbon and oxygen ion beams at the energies relevant for medical applications. Micropixel metal and hybrid detectors were tested for measuring charged particles intensity distribution in multi-beam structures shaped by slit or matrix collimators exploring low energy proton beam at the Tandem generator (INR NASU, Kyiv. The results obtained illustrate reliable performance of the designed collimators as well as hybrid and metal microdetectors for measuring and imaging in real time the proton intensity distribution over mini-beam structures.

  10. In-beam tests of the AMS RICH prototype with 20 A GeV/c secondary ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baret, B. E-mail: baret@1psc.in2p3.fr; Aguayo, P.; Aguilar Benitez, M.; Arruda, L.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Belmont, E.; Berdugo, J.; Boudoul, G.; Borges, J.; Buenerd, M.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Delgado, C.; Diaz, C.; Derome, L.; Eraud, L.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Giovacchini, F.; Goncalves, P.; Lanciotti, E.; Laurenti, G.; Malinine, A.; Mana, C.; Marin, J.; Martinez, G.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Palomares, C.; Pimenta, M.; Protasov, K.; Sanchez, E.; Seo, E-S.; Sevilla, I.; Torrento, A.; Vargas-Trevino, M

    2004-06-01

    A prototype of the AMS Cherenkov imager (RICH) has been tested by means of a low intensity 20 GeV/c per nucleon ion beam coming from the fragmentation of a primary beam of Pb ions. Data have been collected for charges 1beam conditions and using different radiators. The charge Z and velocity {beta} resolution have been of the prototype investigated.

  11. The submicron beam size monitor of Orsay installed at the FFTB; Le mesureur de taille de faisceau submicronique d`Orsay installe sur le FFTB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzo, P.

    1994-02-25

    As part of the FFTB (Final Focus Test Beam) collaboration, the LAL has been in charge of the construction of a beam size monitor, able to measure spot sizes still unmatched of 1 {mu}m x 60 nm, at 10{sup 10} electrons per bunch. The beam size monitor principle is to extract the beam size from the kick transmitted to ions through the space charge field of the electron bunch. The beam creates ions while crossing a gas target. Argon, a heavy ion, remains motionless during the electron bunch crossing. The transverse kick it receives from the beam only depends on the electric field integrated all over the electron bunch crossing period. The Ar{sup +} ion maximal speed value is the one of the ions seeing the maximal field, which is inversely proportional to the horizontal beam size. The measurement of the Ar{sup +} ion maximal value gives the horizontal size. Helium, a light ion, doesn`t remain motionless during an electron bunch crossing, but on the contrary, starts to oscillate in the electron bunch potential well. For a flat beam, ions are preferentially emitted in the direction of the biggest beam size. The anisotropy measurement of the He{sup +} ion azimutal distribution gives the beam aspect ratio. The first tests on the beam size monitor, done in August 1993, demonstrated it worked as predicted, for the two transverse size measurements, and the background was negligeable. These measurements for sizes greater than a micron agreed with the one performed by the wire scanners. Moreover, the monitor is also sensitive to a longitudinal disymetry of the electron distribution within the beam. (orig.).

  12. A low-cost non-intercepting beam current and phase monitor for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    A low cost ion beam measurement system has been developed for use at ATLAS. The system provides nondestructive phase and intensity measurement of passing ion beam bunches by sensing their electric fields. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum jacket where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by the master oscillator. The resulting difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop to stabilize phase readings during microsecond beam drop outs. The other channel uses a linear full-wave active rectifier circuit which converts sine wave signal amplitude to a DC voltage representing beam current. Plans are in progress to install this new diagnostic at several locations in ATLAS which should help shorten the tuning cycle of new ion species

  13. FRAMEWORK FOR STRUCTURAL ONLINE HEALTH MONITORING OF AGING AND DEGRADATION OF SECONDARY PIPING SYSTEMS DUE TO SOME ASPECTS OF EROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribok, Andrei V.; Agarwal, Vivek

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the current state of research related to critical aspects of erosion and selected aspects of degradation of secondary components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The paper also proposes a framework for online health monitoring of aging and degradation of secondary components. The framework consists of an integrated multi-sensor modality system, which can be used to monitor different piping configurations under different degradation conditions. The report analyses the currently known degradation mechanisms and available predictive models. Based on this analysis, the structural health monitoring framework is proposed. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program began to evaluate technologies that could be used to perform online monitoring of piping and other secondary system structural components in commercial NPPs. These online monitoring systems have the potential to identify when a more detailed inspection is needed using real time measurements, rather than at a pre-determined inspection interval. This transition to condition-based, risk-informed automated maintenance will contribute to a significant reduction of operations and maintenance costs that account for the majority of nuclear power generation costs. Furthermore, of the operations and maintenance costs in U.S. plants, approximately 80% are labor costs. To address the issue of rising operating costs and economic viability, in 2017, companies that operate the national nuclear energy fleet started the Delivering the Nuclear Promise Initiative, which is a 3 year program aimed at maintaining operational focus, increasing value, and improving efficiency. There is unanimous agreement between industry experts and academic researchers that identifying and prioritizing inspection locations in secondary piping systems (for example, in raw water piping or diesel piping) would eliminate many excessive in-service inspections. The proposed structural health monitoring framework takes aim at

  14. Thermal management and prototype testing of Compton scattering X-ray beam position monitor for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Yang, B. X.; Collins, J. T.; Ramanathan, M.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate and stable x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are key elements in obtaining the desired user beam stability in the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade. In the next-generation XBPMs for the canted-undulator front ends, where two undulator beams are separated by 1.0 mrad, the lower beam power (changes through the interface via thermal simulations, the thermal contact resistance (TCR) of TIMs at an interface between two solid materials under even contact pressure must be known. This paper addresses the TCR measurements of several TIMs, including gold, silver, pyrolytic graphite sheet, and 3D graphene foam. In addition, a prototype of a Compton-scattering XBPM with diamond blades was installed at APS Beamline 24-ID-A in May 2015 and has been tested. This paper presents the design of the Compton-scattering XBPM, and compares thermal simulation results obtained for the diamond blade of this XBPM by the finite element method with in situ empirical measurements obtained by using reliable infrared technology.

  15. Preliminary results of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) as real-time beam monitor in hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aza, E., E-mail: eleni.aza@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); AUTH, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ciocca, M. [Fondazione CNAO, Strada Campeggi 53, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Murtas, F. [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); LNF-INFN, Via Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Puddu, S. [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); AEC-LHEP, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pullia, M. [Fondazione CNAO, Strada Campeggi 53, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Silari, M. [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-01-01

    The use of proton and carbon ion beams in cancer therapy (also known as hadron therapy) is progressively growing worldwide due to their improved dose distributions, sparing of healthy tissues and (for carbon ions) increased radiobiological effectiveness especially for radio-resistant tumours. Strict Quality Assurance (QA) protocols need to be followed for guaranteeing the clinical beam specifications. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a gaseous detector based on the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology for measuring the beam spot dimensions and the homogeneity of the scanned irradiation field, which are daily QA tasks commonly performed using radiochromic films. Measurements performed at the National Centre for Oncological Hadron Therapy (CNAO) in Pavia (Italy) showed that the detector is able to monitor the 2D beam image on-line with a pad granularity of 2 mm and a response proportional to the number of delivered particles. The dose homogeneity was measured with low deviation from the results obtained with radiochromic films.

  16. Fast Data Acquisition in Heavy Ion CT Using Intensifying Screen—EMCCD Camera System With Beam Intensity Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraishi, Hiroshi; Abe, Shinji; Satoh, Hitoshi; Hara, Hidetake; Mogaki, Tatsuya; Hara, Satoshi; Miyake, Shoko; Watanabe, Yusuke; Koba, Yusuke

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the feasibility of fast data acquisition in heavy ion CT (IonCT) technique with an X-ray intensifying screen-charged coupled device (CCD) camera system. This technique is based on measuring the residual range distribution of heavy ions after passing through an object. We took a large number of images with a CCD camera for one projection by changing the range shifter (RS) thickness to obtain a characteristic curve similar to a Bragg curve and then to estimate the relative residual range. We used a high quality Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) camera, which drastically reduced data acquisition time. We also used a parallel-plate ionization chamber upstream of an object to monitor the time variation in heavy ion beam intensity from a synchrotron accelerator and to perform beam intensity correction for all EMCCD images. Experiments were conducted using a broad beam of 12C, which was generated by spreading out the pencil beam accelerated up to 400 MeV/u by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator, in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, with a scatterer. We demonstrated that a fast CT data acquisition, 14 min for 256 projections, is possible for an electron density phantom, consisting of six rods with a relative electron density resolution of 0.017, using the proposed technique with HIMAC.

  17. Characterization of a wide dynamic-range, radiation-tolerant charge-digitizer asic for monitoring of Beam losses

    CERN Document Server

    Guido Venturini, G G; Dehning, B; Kayal, M

    2012-01-01

    An Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) has been designed and fabricated to provide a compact solution to digitize current signals from ionization chambers and diamond detectors, employed as beam loss monitors at CERN and several other high energy physics facilities. The circuit topology has been devised to accept positive and negative currents, to have a wide dynamic range (above 120 dB), withstand radiation levels over 10 Mrad and offer different modes of operation, covering a broad range of applications. Furthermore, an internal conversion reference is employed in the digitization, to provide an accurate absolute measurement. This paper discusses the detailed characterization of the first prototype: linearity, radiation tolerance and temperature dependence of the conversion, as well as implications and system-level considerations regarding its use for beam instrumentation applications in a high energy physics facility.

  18. Calculation of abort thresholds for the Beam Loss Monitoring System of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Nemcic, Martin; Dehning, Bernd

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is one of the most critical machine protection systems for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Switzerland. Its main purpose is to protect the superconducting magnets from quenches and other equipment from damage by requesting a beam abort when the measured losses exceed any of the predefined threshold levels. The system consist of circa 4000 ionization chambers which are installed around the 27 kilometres ring (LHC). This study aims to choose a technical platform and produce a system that addresses all of the limitations with the current system that is used for the calculation of the LHC BLM abort threshold values. To achieve this, a comparison and benchmarking of the Java and .NET technical platforms is performed in order to establish the most suitable solution. To establish which technical platform is a successful replacement of the current abort threshold calculator, comparable prototype systems in Java and .NET we...

  19. LHCb: Beam and Background Monitoring and the Development of an Online Condition Analysis Tool for the LHCb Experiment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, F

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has been taking data since more than half a year at the LHC, recording events from collisions at the highest energy ever achieved. For its physics purposes in the sector of CP violation, the experiment will record data with the best precision achievable. An online and offline beam and background monitoring became therefore essential to understand the performance of the LHC accelerator at CERN, to monitor and study the behavior of the background around the LHCb experiment and to optimize the experimental conditions. During my second year as a Doctoral Student at CERN, I have been working on the timing and readout control as well as on the online Beam, Background, and Luminosity Monitoring of the LHCb experiment in the frame of the LHCb Online group. The group is responsible for the complete data acquisition of the LHCb experiment, from the Front-End Electronics (FEE) to the storage of the data for offline analysis, including the Timing and Fast Control (TFC) system. The latter controls and...

  20. A compact and portable X-ray beam position monitor using Medipix3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Alvarez, O.; Kachatkou, A.; Marchal, J.; Willis, B.; Sawhney, K.; Tartoni, N.; van Silfhout, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    The present work reports on the design and implementation of a novel portable X-ray beam diagnostics (XBPM) device. The device is transparent to the X-ray beam and provides real-time measurements of beam position, intensity, and size. The measurement principle is based on a pinhole camera which records scattered radiation from a Kapton foil which is placed in the beam path. The use of hybrid detectors (Medipix3) that feature a virtually noiseless readout system with capability of single photon detection and energy resolving power enables the diagnostics with a better resolution and higher sensitivity compared to the use of traditional indirect X-ray detection schemes. We describe the detailed system design, which consists of a vacuum compatible focal plane sensor array, a sensor conditioning and readout board and a heterogeneous data processing unit, which also acts as a network server that handles network communications with clients. The readout protocol for the Medipix3 sensor is implemented using field programmable gate array (FPGA) logic resulting in a versatile and scalable system that is capable of performing advanced functions such as data compression techniques and feature extraction. For the system performance measurements, we equipped the instrument with a single Medipix3 die, bump bonded to a Si sensor, rather than four for which it was designed. Without data compression, it is capable of acquiring magnified images and profiles of synchrotron X-ray beams at a transfer rate through Ethernet of 27 frames/s for one Medipix3 die.