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Sample records for second-hand tobacco smoke

  1. Ambient Air Pollution by Second Hand Tobacco Smoke in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2.5) pollution has been studied and established. People who are often exposed to pollutants by inhaling second-hand tobacco smoke are at risk of adverse health consequences such as heart disease and stroke, increased risk of sudden infant ...

  2. Portuguese children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in the family car

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    Paulo D. Vitória

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the family car is frequent, especially if one or both parents smoke. This highlights the need for effective tobacco control measures to prevent this severe health hazard.

  3. Smoking at workplace – Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke

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    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers’ awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers’ health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers’ awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. Med Pr 2015;66(6:827–836

  4. [Smoking at workplace - Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Polańska, Kinga; Wiszniewska, Marta; Kleniewska, Aneta; Dörre-Kolasa, Dominika; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers' awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers' health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers' awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  5. [Effects of tobacco habit, second-hand smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy on newborn's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Blanca; Isern, Rosanna; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria

    2014-07-22

    Tobacco during pregnancy affects the health of the newborn. The aim was to assess the effect of maternal exposure to active and passive tobacco and of smoking cessation on the risk of preterm deliveries and birth weight, taking into account other risk factors. Longitudinal study conducted in 282 healthy pregnant women. General, obstetrical and hematological data were collected as it was the smoking habit during pregnancy. Pregnant women were classified as "exposed to smoke" (active smoker and passive smoker) and "unexposed to smoke" (non-smokers and women who quitted smoking during pregnancy). A percentage of 59.2 were non-smokers, 18.4% active smokers, 8.5% second-hand smokers and 13.8% had stopped smoking. Unexposed pregnant women who stopped smoking had the same risk of premature deliveries and children with similar birth weight as non-smoker women. Active and second-hand smokers were at higher risk of preterm deliveries than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-30.8 and OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.0-38.9, respectively); however, higher levels of hemoglobin in the 1st and 3rd trimester exerted a protective effect (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Active and second-hand smokers had babies weighing less than non-smokers (around 129 and 178g less, respectively). Active or passive exposure to smoke during pregnancy and lower hemoglobin levels are associated with an increased risk of premature deliveries and lower birth weight. Stopping smoking during pregnancy prevents these detrimental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Portuguese children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in the family car.

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    Vitória, Paulo D; Machado, José Cunha; Ravara, Sofia B; Araújo, Ana Carolina; Samorinha, Catarina; Antunes, Henedina; Rosas, Manuel; Becoña, Elisardo; Precioso, José

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the family car; to compare exposure among children with smoking and non-smoking parents. In 2011, a self-administered questionnaire was applied to a 4th grade Portuguese children national sample (N=3187, mean age 9.5 ± 0.7, 51.1% boys). Prevalence rates and chi-square tests were computed. Of the participants, 52.0% reported having, at least, one smoking parent. Overall exposure in the car was 28.9% (95% CI 27.3-30.5). Children's exposure among those reporting smoking parents was 46.9% (95% CI 44.4-49.4); and 8.6% (95% CI 7.1-10.1) among those reporting non-smoking parents (psmoking parents were 5.44 times more likely to be exposed. Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the family car is frequent, especially if one or both parents smoke. This highlights the need for effective tobacco control measures to prevent this severe health hazard. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Second hand tobacco smoke adversely affects the bone of immature rats

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    Rodrigo César Rosa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure on longitudinal growth of the tibia of growing rats and some parameters of bone quality. METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly divided into four groups: control: rats were sham exposed; 30 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days; 45 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 45 days; and 60 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 60 days. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of cotinine and alkaline phosphatase. Both tibias were dissected and weighed; the lengths were measured, and the bones were then stored in a freezer for analysis of bone mineral content and mechanical resistance (maximal load and stiffness. RESULTS: Exposure of rats to tobacco smoke significantly compromised bone health, suggesting that the harmful effects may be time dependent. Harmful effects on bone growth were detected and were more pronounced at 60-day follow-ups with a 41.8% reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.01 and a decrease of 11.25% in tibia length (p<0.001. Furthermore, a 41.5% decrease in bone mineral density was observed (p<0.001, leading to a 42.8% reduction in maximum strength (p<0.001 and a 56.7% reduction in stiffness (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Second hand cigarette smoke exposure in rats affected bones that were weaker, deforming them and making them osteopenic. Additionally, the long bone was shorter, suggesting interference with growth. Such events seem to be related to time of exposure.

  8. Tobacco Use and Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke among Urban Residents: A Community-Based Investigation

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    Zhaorui Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In 2005, China acceded to the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC, the foundation for the global fight against tobacco. Certain cities in China have established local regulations to control tobacco use ahead of national policy; however, without the enforcement of statutory law, some of these regulations are merely lip service. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of city policy on smoking prevalence and on second-hand smoke (SHS exposure status among non-smokers in Changchun City. Methods: A cross-sectional survey covering a multiple-stage, representative sample of the urban population aged ≥15 years was conducted between 1 Dec 2013 and 31 Jan 2014. The WHO and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the questionnaires used, which included demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors and SHS exposure status. Results: Overall cigarette smoking prevalence was 23.5%; daily cigarette smoking prevalence was 21.2%. Smoking prevalence and cigarettes consumed per day was higher among men (p < 0.05 and those aged 45–64 years (p < 0.05. Among current smokers, 8.1% planned to quit within 12 months; 53.4% had no intention of quitting. Overall SHS exposure prevalence was 41.9% (workplace and 34.1% (at home over the previous 30 days. The weighted workplace SHS exposure prevalence increased with age. Conclusions: The high proportion of smokers with no intention of quitting and the high level of SHS exposure may constitute one of the most significant barriers to successful smoking cessation in the city. A continued drive to promote full implementation of the WHO FCTC is still needed.

  9. Tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure in young adolescents aged 12-15 years: data from 68 low-income and middle-income countries.

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    Xi, Bo; Liang, Yajun; Liu, Yunxia; Yan, Yinkun; Zhao, Min; Ma, Chuanwei; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco use is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases worldwide. However, the global extent and prevalence of tobacco use in adolescents is poorly described. Using previously collected survey data, we aimed to assess tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure in young adolescents aged 12-15 years in 68 low-income and middle-income countries. We used data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2006-13) and the China Global Tobacco Youth Survey (2013), which are school-based surveys of young adolescents aged 12-15 years that assess health behaviours using a standardised, anonymous, self-reported questionnaire. We calculated the prevalence of current tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke in young adolescents from 68 low-income and middle-income countries that collected these data in the surveys. We used a multilevel model to estimate the association between parental tobacco use, second-hand smoke, and adolescent tobacco use, adjusting for sex, age, school, school class, country's purchasing power parity, smoking initiation age, national prevalence of tobacco use among adults, year the WHO FCTC was ratified for each country, proxy of socioeconomic status, and survey year. The mean prevalence of current tobacco use was 13·6%, ranging from 2·8% in Tajikistan to 44·7% in Samoa. In most countries, the prevalence of tobacco use was higher for boys than girls, and higher for adolescents aged 14-15 years than for those aged 12-13 years. The overall prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure was 55·9%, ranging from 16·4% in Tajikistan to 85·4% in Indonesia. Parental tobacco use (as reported by the young adolescents), especially maternal use, was associated with tobacco use in young adolescents (odds ratio 2·06, 95% CI 1·93-2·19, for maternal and 1·29, 1·23-1·35 for paternal use). Second-hand smoke exposure was also a risk factor for young adolescents' tobacco use (2·56, 2·43-2·69). However, the prevalence of tobacco use was not

  10. Original Research Article Second-Hand Smoke in a University

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    staff and students concerning tobacco policies at a university campus in a ... to smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke on campus. A. 3-wave e-mailing was used to send the questionnaire. Results: ... smoke free policies on university campuses in North America. ... reported that cigarette smoking among fulltime.

  11. Do Clinicians Ask Pregnant Women about Exposures to Tobacco and Cannabis Smoking, Second-Hand-Smoke and E-Cigarettes? An Australian National Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Gould, Gillian S; Zeev, Yael Bar; Tywman, Laura; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Chiu, Simon; Clarke, Marilyn; Bonevski, Billie

    2017-12-16

    Clinicians often ask pregnant women about tobacco smoking, but their practices of asking about other smoking and nicotine exposures are unknown. This study analysed how often clinicians ask pregnant women about their use of e-cigarettes, cannabis, chewing tobacco, and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken. A random sample of 500 General Practitioner (GP) members were invited from the National Faculty of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (NFATSIH) to complete an on-line survey, and 5571 GP and Obstetrician (OBS) members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) were sent a paper survey by mail. Questions on frequency of asking about the exposures used Likert Scales, later dichotomized to "often-always" and "never-sometimes". Logistic regressions estimated associations between clinician type and asking about cannabis, e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and SHS. An adjusted model reduced potential confounders of location, guidelines, gender and population. n = 378 GPs and OBS participated (6.2% response). In total, 13-14% asked "often-always" about e-cigarettes; 58% cannabis; 38% cannabis with tobacco; 27% SHS, and 10% chewing tobacco-compared to 95% of the sample asking about cigarette smoking. After adjustment, the odds of RANZCOG GPs (OR 0.34) and OBS (OR 0.63) asking about cannabis were lower compared to NFATSIH GPs. Clinician type was non-significant for asking about e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco and SHS. Surveyed Australian GPs and obstetricians asked less frequently about e-cigarettes, chewing, SHS exposure, and cannabis, potentially missing important exposures for mother and child.

  12. Do Clinicians Ask Pregnant Women about Exposures to Tobacco and Cannabis Smoking, Second-Hand-Smoke and E-Cigarettes? An Australian National Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Gillian S. Gould

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians often ask pregnant women about tobacco smoking, but their practices of asking about other smoking and nicotine exposures are unknown. This study analysed how often clinicians ask pregnant women about their use of e-cigarettes, cannabis, chewing tobacco, and second-hand smoke (SHS exposure. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken. A random sample of 500 General Practitioner (GP members were invited from the National Faculty of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (NFATSIH to complete an on-line survey, and 5571 GP and Obstetrician (OBS members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG were sent a paper survey by mail. Questions on frequency of asking about the exposures used Likert Scales, later dichotomized to “often-always” and “never-sometimes”. Logistic regressions estimated associations between clinician type and asking about cannabis, e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and SHS. An adjusted model reduced potential confounders of location, guidelines, gender and population. n = 378 GPs and OBS participated (6.2% response. In total, 13–14% asked “often-always” about e-cigarettes; 58% cannabis; 38% cannabis with tobacco; 27% SHS, and 10% chewing tobacco—compared to 95% of the sample asking about cigarette smoking. After adjustment, the odds of RANZCOG GPs (OR 0.34 and OBS (OR 0.63 asking about cannabis were lower compared to NFATSIH GPs. Clinician type was non-significant for asking about e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco and SHS. Surveyed Australian GPs and obstetricians asked less frequently about e-cigarettes, chewing, SHS exposure, and cannabis, potentially missing important exposures for mother and child.

  13. Second-hand smoke in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, S

    2015-12-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) [IARC, 2004]. Of the 5.7 million deaths attributable each year to tobacco smoking, more than 600,000 (i.e., around 1% of all deaths worldwide) refer to subjects who never smoked and that prematurely die due to their lifetime exposure to SHS [WHO, 2012]. Italy has been one of the pioneering countries - and the first large country worldwide - to enact a comprehensive smoke-free legislation in 2005. The law, introduced in order to reduce SHS exposure, banned smoking in indoor public places, including restaurants and bars, and in all workplaces [Gallus et al., 2006]. This legislation has had an undisputed success from a public health perspective: it was widely supported and strongly observed, restaurant and bar owners did not experience any dreaded decline in their business, and tobacco smoking (and its detrimental health effects) substantially decreased [Gallus et al., 2006; Gorini et al., 2007]. More importantly, the regulation has been effective in dramatically reducing SHS exposure [Gorini et al., 2007; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. Most high- income countries followed Italy in the adoption of similar comprehensive smoking ban legislations over the last decade [IARC, 2009]. These regulations and the information campaigns conducted for their enforcement had also the effect to increase the social unacceptability of SHS and consequently the adoption of voluntary home smoking bans [Ferketich et al., 2014; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2014]. This notwithstanding, in 2010 specific Italian subpopulations were still frequently exposed to SHS, both in public and private places. In particular, 54% of the young (i.e., age 15-24 years) were still exposed to SHS in any settings, 27% in private houses, and 33% in private cars [Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. The relatively high SHS exposure in private cars is of

  14. Parents’ educational level and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure at home in a sample of Portuguese children

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    Paulo D. Vitória

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS exposure is a major and entirely avoidable health risk for children's health, well-being and development. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the association between parents’ educational level and children's SHS home exposure.A self-administered questionnaire was conducted within a sample of 949 students in 4th grade (mean age 9.56 ± 0.75, 53.4% male. The sample was randomly selected from all schools located at Lisbon District, Portugal.The current study confirmed that Portuguese children are exposed to unacceptable high levels of SHS at home, mainly by their parents’ smoke. Prevalence of smokers was higher amongst parents with low educational level. Children of parents with low educational level were more likely to suffer SHS exposure at home. These results confirmed the social inequalities associated with smoking, support the relevance of more research on this subject and stress the need for more interventions to control this problem. Some interventions should be specifically aimed at less educated parents, particularly at less educated mothers. Keywords: Air pollution, Health promotion, Parenting, Pediatrics, Poverty, Preventive medicine, Public health practice, Risk factors, Smoking, Tobacco

  15. Trends in Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke Exposure Levels at Home among Viet Nam School Children Aged 13-15 and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Van, Duong Khanh; Khue, Luong Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure at home, especially among children, is a serious issue in Viet Nam. During the past decade, much effort has been taken for tobacco control in the country, including various prgorammes aiming to reduce SHS exposure among adults and children. This article analysed trends and factors associated with SHS exposure at home among school children aged 13-15 in Viet Nam, using the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 2007 and 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods with logistic regression were applied. Overall, there was a significant reduction in the level of exposure, from 58.5% (95%CI: 57.6-59.3) in 2007 to 47.1% (95%CI: 45.4-48.8) in 2014. Of the associated factors, having one or both parents smoking was significantly associated with the highest odds of SHS exposure at home (OR=5.0; 95%CI: 4.2-6.1). Conversely, having a mother with a college or higher education level was found to be a protective factor (OR=0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.8).

  16. Determinants of Exposure to Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke (SHS among Current Non-Smoking In-School Adolescents (aged 11–18 years in South Africa: Results from the 2008 GYTS Study

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    Karl Peltzer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent’s exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents.

  17. Determinants of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among current non-smoking in-school adolescents (aged 11-18 years) in South Africa: results from the 2008 GYTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years) in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents.

  18. The impact of multiple interventions to reduce household exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke among women: a cluster randomized controlled trial in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka

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    A. M. A. A. P. Alagiyawanna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-hand smoke (SHS in households remains a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, partly due to a lack of voluntary prohibitions of tobacco smoking inside houses. Women are especially at risk of being exposed. Effective community based interventions to reduce the SHS in households targeting women is scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a multi-component intervention on household SHS exposure among Sri Lankan women. Methods Thirty clusters of 25 women (aged 18–65 from 750 households were randomized into the intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group were exposed to activities which focused on improving knowledge on the health effects of SHS, attitudes towards SHS exposure, right to a smoke-free living and women empowerment against smoking. The duration of the intervention was six months. The comparison group received no intervention. The primary outcome of interest was self-reported SHS exposure in the household within 7 days prior to data collection. The secondary outcomes were exposure in the past 30 days, knowledge of the health risks of exposure, attitudes towards exposure, right to smoke-free living, women empowerment against smoking, and smoking inside the homes. Results Final assessment was in 329 (89.6% in the intervention group and 309 (85.8% in the comparison group. Following the intervention, significantly lower proportion of women in the intervention group as compared to the control group reported SHS exposure in their households within 7-days (9.2% vs. 15.3%, p = 0.02 and 30-days (13.6% vs. 21.6%, p = 0.008 prior to the post survey. As compared to the control group, significantly higher median scores were observed in the intervention group on the knowledge of the health risks of exposure to SHS (p < 0.001, attitudes on exposure to SHS (p = 0.004, right to smoke free living (p = 0.001 and women empowerment (p < 0.001. Conclusion Multi

  19. Second-hand smoke in indoor hospitality venues in Pakistan.

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    Zaidi, S M A; Moin, O; Khan, J A

    2011-07-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) constitutes a significant public health threat in countries with a high smoking prevalence. However, data assessing the quality of indoor air at public venues in Pakistan are limited. To measure mean concentrations of PM(2.5) (particulate matter ≤2.5 microns in diameter), a sensitive indicator of SHS, in hospitality venues in Pakistan. Data were collected discreetly from 39 indoor venues such as cafes, restaurants and shisha (water-pipe) bars from three major cities in Pakistan. Data were recorded using a portable air quality monitoring device. The overall mean PM(2.5) value for the visited venues was 846 μg/m(3) (95%CI 484-1205). The mean PM(2.5) value was 101 μg/m(3) (95%CI 69-135 μg/m(3)) for non-smoking venues, 689 μg/m(3) (95%CI 241-1138) for cigarette smoking venues and 1745 μg/m(3) (95%CI 925-2565) for shisha smoking venues. The significant levels of SHS recorded in this study, in particular from shisha smoking venues, could represent a major public health burden in Pakistan. Appropriate legislation needs to be enforced to protect the health of those exposed to the hazards of second-hand tobacco smoke.

  20. The impact of second-hand tobacco smoke exposure on pregnancy outcomes, infant health, and the threat of third-hand smoke exposure to our environment and to our children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, T Allen; Mazela, Jan; Adamczak, Aleksandra; Merritt, Travis

    2012-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with various adverse effects on pregnancy and fetal development, carries a lot of serious complications such as spontaneous abortion, placental abruption, and reduced birth weight of the newborn. Children of smoking mothers have an increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory diseases during infancy. Smoking also causes long-term risk of maternal health problems such as: heart disease, cancer, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and higher mortality rate. Because women are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy than at any other time, there are attempts to increase motivation and help them to stop smoking at the procreative phase of their life. The article describes interventions that are carried out in Loma Linda, where the educational program "When You Smoke Your Baby Smokes" reminds parents about the health effects of smoking during pregnancy and harmful impact on child's health caused by second-hand smoke. Another threat to health and environment of our children, is the nicotine coming from indirect exposure to tobacco smoke. Residual nicotine that persists in high concentrations on the interior surfaces, including clothing, is forming in the reaction of nitric acid carcinogenic compounds of specific nitrosamines. In addition, ozone and related atmospheric oxidants react with nicotine smoke or smoke coming from the second-hand smoke, giving the smallest particles with high risk of asthma. Efforts towards reducing exposure to tobacco smoke coming from the passive and indirect smoking should be placed at a high priority throughout the European Union.

  1. Should we bother with second-hand smoke exposure if smoking is on track?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adám, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the serious health-damaging effects of tobacco smoke exposure has initiated several preventive programmes on the national and international levels worldwide. In the last decade, a considerable decrease in the prevalence of active smoking was observed in Denmark, changing...... the country from a poor to a favourable position in comparison to other EU countries. However, second-hand tobacco smoke exposure, especially in homes, still ranks Denmark among the problematic countries in Europe. This poorly recognised and studied discrepancy calls for further research and effective...

  2. Second-hand smoke exposure in outdoor hospitality venues: Smoking visibility and assessment of airborne markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Bilal, Usama; Fernández, Esteve; Valiente, Roberto; Escobar, Francisco J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Franco, Manuel

    2018-08-01

    After the implementation of smoke-free policies in indoor hospitality venues (including bars, cafeterias, restaurants, and pubs), smokers may have been displaced to their outdoor areas. We aimed to study smoking visibility and second-hand smoke exposure in outdoor hospitality venues. We collected information on signs of tobacco consumption on entrances and terraces of hospitality venues in 2016 in the city of Madrid, Spain. We further measured airborne nicotine concentrations and particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) in terraces with monitors by active sampling during 30 min. We calculated the medians and the interquartile ranges (IQR) of nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations, and fitted multivariate models to characterize their determinants. We found 202 hospitality venues between May and September (summer), and 83 between October and December 2016 (fall) that were opened at the time of observation. We found signs of tobacco consumption on 78.2% of the outdoor main entrances and on 95.1% of outdoor terraces. We measured nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations in 92 outdoor terraces (out of the 123 terraces observed). Overall median nicotine concentration was 0.42 (IQR: 0.14-1.59) μg/m 3 , and overall PM2.5 concentration was 10.40 (IQR: 6.76-15.47) μg/m 3 (statistically significantly higher than the background levels). Multivariable analyses showed that nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations increased when the terraces were completely closed, and when tobacco smell was noticed. Nicotine concentrations increased with the presence of cigarette butts, and when there were more than eight lit cigarettes at a time. Outdoor hospitality venues are areas where non-smokers, both employees and patrons, continue to be exposed to second-hand smoke. These spaces should be further studied and considered in future tobacco control interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Children's exposure to second hand smoke at home: A cross-sectional study in Portugal

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    Paulo D. Vitória

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS is a major indoor pollutant that causes serious health problems for all exposed, especially children. Children are often exposed to SHS at home, due to parental or other households’ or guests’ smoking. This study describes Portuguese children's exposure to SHS at home (total and by Portuguese main regions.In 2010/2011, a questionnaire was applied to a sample of Portuguese children in the 4th grade (N = 3187, mean age 9.05 ± 0.7 years, 51.1% male. Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests and crude odds ratios were performed.Of the participants, 62.9% of those with smoking parents and 19.2% of those with non-smoking parents were exposed to SHS at their home. Parental smoking varied significantly among regions and was significantly associated with children's exposure to SHS at home.Children's exposure to SHS at home was high, especially if their parents smoke. Children living in Lisbon Region presented the highest SHS exposure rate. The association of SHS exposure with geographic regions suggests the influence of social and contextual factors on smoking behaviour and on tobacco control effectiveness. Our findings highlight the need to effectively prevent children's SHS exposure at their home and to develop tailored tobacco control measures by region. Keywords: Tobacco smoke pollution, Child welfare, Smoking, Tobacco, Parent–child relations

  4. Second-hand smoke: a neglected public health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rana J; Lal, Pranay G

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) causes an estimated 5% of the global burden of disease, slightly higher than the burden from direct use of tobacco. This review highlights the urgent need to address this ignored public health issue by presenting the evidence and impact of SHS on those exposed using global studies including those from the South-East Asia Region. The burden of morbidity from SHS exposure is higher in low-income countries in Southeast Asia region compared to the rest of the world. SHS exposure affects those most vulnerable, especially women and children. While several countries in the region have enacted legislation which offer protection to those exposed to SHS, most measures are partial and inadequate. As a result, implementation and compliance at national and sub-national level within the countries of the Southeast Asia region is variable. Governments must ensure that legislation mandates comprehensive smoke-free environments in order to provide public health benefit which offers universal protection to everyone and everywhere. Where comprehensive legislation exists, stringent implementation and enforcement, along with awareness building, education and monitoring through regular compliance studies must be done to sustain smokefree status of public places within jurisdictions.

  5. Second-hand smoke exposure among workers of restaurants, bars, and nightclubs in Lagos State

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    Oluwakemi Ololade Odukoya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Lagos State Regulation of Smoking Law was passed in February 2014 and stipulates the total restriction of tobacco smoking in listed public places. Workers in hospitality venues are at a high risk of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS. Therefore, their awareness of the health risks, attitudes toward SHS and their reported levels of exposure may play a crucial role in developing an effective monitoring, implementation, and enforcement mechanism. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study among workers in restaurants, bars, and nightclubs registered with the Lagos State Ministry of Tourism in the second quarter of the year 2014. We used a multistage sampling technique to select one respondent each from the 300 centers randomly selected to participate in the survey. Data were collected using a modified version of the World Health Organization Global tobacco surveillance system tools. Univariate and bivariate analysis were carried out. Exposure to SHS in the workplace and in other public places was treated as the outcome variable in the bivariate analysis. Results: Majority (75.3% of the respondents were aged between 21 and 40 years with a mean age of 27.7 + 8.6 years. Many (66% were waiters/waitresses and spent more than 8 h a day. Most (60.6% of the venues were indoor only establishments, and 26.8% had no form of smoking restrictions. Majority of the respondents were exposed to SHS at work, and this was higher in bars and nightclubs. A bivariate analysis of results showed that workers were exposed to SHS at work irrespective of workplace smoking restrictions or respondents smoking status. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that second-hand smoke exposure is very high (65% in smokers; 65.6% in nonsmokers among workers in restaurants, bars, and nightclubs in Lagos State. We are therefore of the opinion that strict enforcement of law would ensure the protection of these workers.

  6. Second-Hand Smoke Increases Bronchial Hyperreactivity and Eosinophilia in a Murine Model of Allergic Aspergillosis

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    Brian W. P. Seymour

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary inhalation of tobacco smoke has been shown to aggravate the allergic response. Antibodies to fungal antigens such as Aspergillus fumigatus (Af cause an allergic lung disease in humans. This study was carried out to determine the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS on a murine model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA. BALB/c mice were exposed to aged and diluted sidestream cigarette smoke to simulate 'second-hand smoke'. The concentration was consistent with that achieved in enclosed public areas or households where multiple people smoke. During exposure, mice were sensitized to Af antigen intranasally. Mice that were sensitized to Af antigen and exposed to ETS developed significantly greater airway hyperreactivity than did mice similarly sensitized to Af but housed in ambient air. The effective concentration of aerosolized acetylcholine needed to double pulmonary flow resistance was significantly lower in Af + ETS mice compared to the Af + AIR mice. Immunological data that supports this exacerbation of airway hyperresponsiveness being mediated by an enhanced type 1 hypersensitivity response include: eosinophilia in peripheral blood and lung sections. All Af sensitized mice produced elevated levels of IL4, IL5 and IL10 but no IFN-γ indicating a polarized Th2 response. Thus, ETS can cause exacerbation of asthma in ABPA as demonstrated by functional airway hyperresponsiveness and elevated levels of blood eosinophilia.

  7. Adult non-smokers' exposure to second-hand smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study was commissioned by the DHSSPS as part of their smoke-free monitoring and evaluation strategy after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in Northern Ireland in April 2007.The research was undertaken to determine the impact of smoke-free legislation on non-smoking adults who live with a smoker.Using research carried out both before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation, this study details for the first time the attitudes and knowledge of non-smoking...

  8. The efficacy of different models of smoke-free laws in reducing exposure to second-hand smoke: a multi-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mark; Currie, Laura M; Kabir, Zubair; Clancy, Luke

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke is a serious public health concern and while all EU Member States have enacted some form of regulation aimed at limiting exposure, the scope of these regulations vary widely and many countries have failed to enact comprehensive legislation creating smoke-free workplaces and indoor public places. To gauge the effectiveness of different smoke-free models we compared fine particles from second-hand smoke in hospitality venues before and after the implementation of smoking bans in France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Turkey, and Scotland. Data on PM2.5 fine particle concentration levels were recorded in 338 hospitality venues across these countries before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation. Changes in mean PM2.5 concentrations during the period from pre- to post-legislation were then compared across countries. While a reduction in PM2.5 was observed in all countries, those who had enacted and enforced more fully comprehensive smoke-free legislation experienced the greatest reduction in second-hand tobacco smoke. Comprehensive smoke-free laws are more effective than partial laws in reducing exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke. Also, any law, regardless of scope must be actively enforced in order to have the desired impact. There is continued need for surveillance of smoke-free efforts in all countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality venues in Barcelona: measurement of respirable particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Nazmy; López, María José; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Fernández, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the concentration of respirable particles equal to or smaller than 2.5μm (PM(2.5)) as a marker of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in a sample of hospitality venues in Barcelona 2 years after the Spanish smoking law came into effect. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study from October to December 2007. The study population consisted of 40 hospitality venues in Barcelona selected by a random route sampling, with representation of the different types of smoking regulation included in the law (smoking allowed, smoking ban and venues with smoking areas). SHS levels were quantified by measuring PM(2.5) concentrations, which were measured using a laser photometer (Side Pack AM 510 Personal Aerosol Monitor). The measurements were carried out for 5 minutes outside the venue and for 30 minutes inside the venue. In addition, observational variables related to the characteristics of the venue and signs of tobacco consumption were recorded. The concentration of PM(2.5) in venues where smoking was still allowed was five times higher than that in venues where smoking was banned (182μg/m(3) and 34μg/m(3), respectively) and exceeded the concentration established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as harmful (35μg/m(3)). However, in venues where smoking was banned, the concentration was lower than the EPA standard and there were no significant differences with the outdoor PM(2.5) concentration. Two years after the introduction of the Spanish smoking law, SHS exposure in venues where smoking was allowed was q still very high, representing a significant health risk for hospitality workers. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Knowledge and attitude toward smoke-free legislation and second-hand smoking exposure among workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques in Osun State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onigbogi, Olanrewaju Olusola; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Onigbogi, Modupe; Sekoni, Oluwakemi

    2015-04-01

    One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the second-hand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0%) and 79 females (52.0%). On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2%) with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0%) was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5%) had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of the smoke-free law.

  11. Knowledge and Attitude toward Smoke-Free Legislation and Second-Hand Smoking Exposure among Workers in Indoor Bars, Beer Parlors and Discotheques in Osun State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Olusola Onigbogi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. Methods A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the secondhand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0% and 79 females (52.0%. On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2% with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0% was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5% had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Conclusion Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of

  12. Pet owners' attitudes and behaviours related to smoking and second-hand smoke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milberger, S M; Davis, R M; Holm, A L

    2009-04-01

    Although research indicates that second-hand smoke (SHS) harms both human and animal health, data on the percentage of pet owners who smoke or allow smoking in their homes are not readily available. To investigate pet owners' smoking behaviour and policies on smoking in their homes, and the potential for educational interventions to motivate change in pet owners' smoking behaviour. A web-based survey was used with 3293 adult pet owners. The main outcome measures were smoking behaviour of pet owners and their cohabitants; policies on smoking in pet owners' homes; and impact of information about the dangers of pet exposure to SHS on pet owners' smoking intentions. Of respondents, 21% were current smokers and 27% of participants lived with at least one smoker. Pet owners who smoke reported that information on the dangers of pet exposure to SHS would motivate them to try to quit smoking (28.4%) and ask the people with whom they live to quit smoking (8.7%) or not to smoke indoors (14.2%). Moreover, non-smoking pet owners who live with smokers said that they would ask the people with whom they live to quit (16.4%) or not smoke indoors (24.2%) if given this information. About 40% of current smokers and 24% of non-smokers living with smokers indicated that they would be interested in receiving information on smoking, quitting, or SHS. Educational campaigns informing pet owners of the risks of SHS exposure for pets could motivate some owners to quit smoking. It could also motivate these owners and non-smoking owners who cohabit with smokers make their homes smoke-free.

  13. Effect of smoke-free patio policy of restaurants and bars on exposure to second-hand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday

    2015-07-01

    While there is increasing support for restricting smoking in restaurant and bar patios, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of this policy. This study examined the effect of smoke-free patio policy of restaurants and bars on adult second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Data were drawn from the 2005-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (n=89,743), a repeated cross-sectional survey of youth and adult. Regression analysis, a quasi-experimental design was used to examine the effect of provincial smoke-free patio policy on self-reported exposure to SHS. Analyses suggest that exposure to SHS on patios of bars and restaurants declined following the adoption of provincial smoke-free patio policy. Relative to pre-policy SHS exposure, regression results showed a reduction in the probability of SHS exposure of up to 25% in Alberta. Similarly, in Nova Scotia, the probability of SHS exposure declined by up to 21%. Analyses stratified by smoking status found similar significant effect on both smokers and non-smokers. Findings suggest that provincial patio smoking ban on bars and restaurants had the intended effect of protecting non-smokers from SHS exposure. This study is consistent with a large body of evidence showing that a strong smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Social disparities in children's exposure to second hand smoke at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is an important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. We hypothesised that there has been a growth in social inequality in children's exposure to SHS at home over time. The purpose of this study was to investigate temporal change in smoking...

  15. The association between second-hand smoke exposure and depressive symptoms among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingya; Wen, Guoming; Yang, Weikang; Yao, Zhenjiang; Wu, Chuan'an; Ye, Xiaohua

    2017-10-01

    Tobacco smoking and depression are strongly associated, but the possible association between second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and depression is unclear. This study aimed to examine the possible relation between SHS exposure and depressive symptoms among pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenzhen, China, using a multistage sampling method. The univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore the associations between SHS exposure and depressive symptoms. Among 2176 pregnant women, 10.5% and 2.0% were classified as having probable and severe depressive symptoms. Both binary and multinomial logistic regression revealed that there were significantly increased risks of severe depressive symptoms corresponding to SHS exposure in homes or regular SHS exposure in workplaces using no exposure as reference. In addition, greater frequency of SHS exposure was significantly associated with the increased risk of severe depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that SHS exposure is positively associated with depressive symptoms in a dose-response manner among the pregnant women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Knowledge, attitude and perception of second-hand smoke and factors promoting smoking in Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, N Zainol; Zulkifli, A; Abidin, E Zainal; Rasdi, I; Ismail, S N Syed; Rahman, A Abd; Hashim, Z; Semple, S

    2014-07-01

    To identify the relationship between knowledge, attitude and perception regarding environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and smoking among Malaysian adolescents living in states with complete or partial smoke-free legislation (SFL). A total of 898 respondents aged 13-14 years were randomly selected from 21 secondary schools. The Malay version of the modified Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire was used. Hierarchical logistic regression was performed in examining predictors of smoking attempt among adolescents. Participants exposed to ETS >5 h/day were more likely to have smoked compared to those exposed to ETS smoking attempts (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.10-3.43) compared to living in a state with complete SFL. Negative attitudes and perceptions towards smoking and ETS exposure were linked to lower smoking attempts in states with complete SFL. Adolescents with limited ETS exposure who lived in a state with complete SFL were less likely to attempt smoking compared to those exposed more regularly to ETS and living in a state with partial SFL. Preventing adolescents from becoming smokers is the key to reducing national prevalence rates in smoking. There is a need to implement comprehensive smoke-free legislation nationally across Malaysia.

  17. Second-hand smoking and carboxyhemoglobin levels in children: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Branden E; Ahmed, Mohammed I; Brugge, Doug; Farrell, Maureen; Lozada, Gustavo; Idupaganthi, Raghu; Schumann, Roman

    2010-01-01

    To establish baseline noninvasive carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in children and determine the influence of exposure to environmental sources of carbon monoxide (CO), especially environmental tobacco smoke, on such levels. Second-hand smoking may be a risk factor for adverse outcomes following anesthesia and surgery in children (1) and may potentially be preventable. Parents and their children between the ages of 1-12 were enrolled on the day of elective surgery. The preoperative COHb levels of the children were assessed noninvasively using a CO-Oximeter (Radical-7 Rainbow SET Pulse CO-Oximeter; Masimo, Irvine, CA, USA). The parents were asked to complete an environmental air-quality questionnaire. The COHb levels were tabulated and correlated with responses to the survey in aggregate analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. P < 0.05 was statistically significant. Two hundred children with their parents were enrolled. Children exposed to parental smoking had higher COHb levels than the children of nonsmoking controls. Higher COHb values were seen in the youngest children, ages 1-2, exposed to parental cigarette smoke. However, these trends did not reach statistical significance, and confidence intervals were wide. This study revealed interesting trends of COHb levels in children presenting for anesthesia and surgery. However, the COHb levels measured in our patients were close to the error margin of the device used in our study. An expected improvement in measurement technology may allow screening children for potential pulmonary perioperative risk factors in the future.

  18. Towards estimating the burden of disease attributable to second-hand smoke exposure in Polish children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Jarosińska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the burden of disease attributable to second-hand smoke (SHS exposure in Polish children in terms of the number of deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs due to lower respiratory infections (LRI, otitis media (OM, asthma, low birth weight (LBW and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. Materials and Methods: Estimates of SHS exposure in children and in pregnant women as well as information concerning maternal smoking were derived from a national survey, the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, and the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland. Mortality data (LRI, OM, asthma, and SIDS, the number of cases (LBW, and population data were obtained from national statistics (year 2010, and DALYs came from the WHO (year 2004. The burden of disease due to SHS was calculated by multiplying the total burden of a specific health outcome (deaths or DALYs by a population attributable fraction. Results: Using two estimates of SHS exposure in children: 48% and 60%, at least 12 and 14 deaths from LRI in children aged up to 2 years were attributed to SHS, for the two exposure scenarios, respectively. The highest burden of DALYs was for asthma in children aged up to 15 years: 2412, and 2970 DALYs, for the two exposure scenarios, respectively. For LRI, 419 and 500 DALYs, and for OM, 61 and 77 DALYs were attributed to SHS, for the two exposure scenarios, respectively. Between 13% and 27% of SIDS cases and between 3% and 16% of the cases of LBW at term were attributed to SHS exposure. Conclusions: This study provides a conservative estimate of the public health impact of SHS exposure on Polish children. Lack of comprehensive, up to date health data concerning children, as well as lack of measures that would best reflect actual SHS exposure are major limitations of the study, likely to underestimate the burden of disease.

  19. The effects of second-hand smoke on biological processes important in atherogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in western societies and cigarette smoke is among the factors that strongly contribute to the development of this disease. The early events in atherogenesis are stimulated on the one hand by cytokines that chemoattract leukocytes and on the other hand by decrease in circulating molecules that protect endothelial cells (ECs from injury. Here we focus our studies on the effects of "second-hand" smoke on atherogenesis. Methods To perform these studies, a smoking system that closely simulates exposure of humans to second-hand smoke was developed and a mouse model system transgenic for human apoB100 was used. These mice have moderate lipid levels that closely mimic human conditions that lead to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Results "Second-hand" cigarette smoke decreases plasma high density lipoprotein levels in the blood and also decreases the ratios between high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein and triglyceride, and high density lipoprotein and total cholesterol. This change in lipid profiles causes not only more lipid accumulation in the aorta but also lipid deposition in many of the smaller vessels of the heart and in hepatocytes. In addition, mice exposed to smoke have increased levels of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein–1 in circulation and in the heart/aorta tissue, have increased macrophages in the arterial walls, and have decreased levels of adiponectin, an EC-protective protein. Also, cytokine arrays revealed that mice exposed to smoke do not undergo the switch from the pro-inflammatory cytokine profile (that develops when the mice are initially exposed to second-hand smoke to the adaptive response. Furthermore, triglyceride levels increase significantly in the liver of smoke-exposed mice. Conclusion Long-term exposure to "second-hand" smoke creates a state of permanent inflammation and an imbalance in the lipid profile that

  20. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  1. Correlations of indoor second-hand smoking, household smoking rules, regional deprivation and children mental health: Scottish Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-07-01

    It has been known that second-hand smoking and deprivation could cluster together affecting child health. However, little is known on the role of household smoking rules. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships among indoor second-hand smoking, household smoking rules, deprivation level and children mental health in a country-wide and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from and analysed in Scottish Health Survey, 2013. Information on demographics, indoor second-hand smoking status, household smoking rules, deprivation level and child mental health by Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was obtained by household interview through parents. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic regression modelling. Of 1019 children aged 4-12, 17.9% (n = 182) lived in the 15% most deprivation areas. Deprived areas tended to be where indoor smoking occurred (p Scottish children are greater Glasgow, Ayrshire & Arran and Forth Valley while the top three sub-regions of exposure to the indoor second-hand smoking are Fife, Forth Valley and Ayrshire & Arran. The top three sub-regions with indoor smoking allowed are greater Glasgow, Western Isles and Borders. Children emotional and behavioural problems were reduced when the strict household smoking rules (not allowed or outdoor areas) applied. One in six Scottish children lived in the 15% most deprivation areas and exposed to indoor second-hand smoking that could have led to emotional and behavioural problems. Public health programs promoting strict household smoking rules should be encouraged in order to optimise children mental health.

  2. Italy and Austria before and after study: second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality premises before and after 2 years from the introduction of the Italian smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, G; Moshammer, H; Sbrogiò, L; Gasparrini, A; Nebot, M; Neuberger, M; Tamang, E; Lopez, M J; Galeone, D; Serrahima, E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare nicotine concentration in 28 hospitality premises (HPs) in Florence and Belluno, Italy, where a smoking ban was introduced in 2005, and in 19 HPs in Vienna, Austria, where no anti-smoking law entered into force up to now. Airborne nicotine concentrations were measured in the same HPs in winter 2002 or 2004 (pre-ban measurements) and winter 2007 (post-ban measurements). In Florence and Belluno, medians decreased significantly (P hospitality workers of 11.81 and 14.67 per 10,000, respectively. Lifetime excess lung cancer mortality risks for bar and disco-pub workers were 10-20 times higher than that calculated for restaurant workers, both in Italy and Austria. In winter 2007, it dropped to 0.01 per 10,000 in Italy, whereas in Austria it remained at the same levels. The drop of second-hand smoke exposure indicates a substantial improvement in air quality in Italian HPs even after 2 years from the ban. The nation-wide smoking ban introduced in Italy on January 10, 2005, resulted in a drop in second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality premises, whereas in Austria, where there is no similar nation-wide smoking ban, the exposure to second-hand smoke in hospitality premises remains high. Given that second-hand smoke is considered a group 1 carcinogen according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification, the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control strongly recommends the implementation of nation-wide smoke-free policies in order to improve the indoor air quality of hospitality premises and workplaces. Results from our study strongly supports this recommendation.

  3. Exposure to second-hand smoke and direct healthcare costs in children – results from two German birth cohorts, GINIplus and LISAplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batscheider Ariane

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the negative health consequences of the exposure to second hand tobacco smoke during childhood are already known, evidence on the economic consequences is still rare. The aim of this study was to estimate excess healthcare costs of exposure to tobacco smoke in German children. Methods The study is based on data from two birth cohort studies of 3,518 children aged 9-11 years with information on healthcare utilisation and tobacco smoke exposure: the GINIplus study (German Infant Study On The Influence Of Nutrition Intervention Plus Environmental And Genetic Influences On Allergy Development and the LISAplus study (Influence of Life-Style Factors On The Development Of The Immune System And Allergies In East And West Germany Plus The Influence Of Traffic Emissions And Genetics. Direct medical costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach (base year 2007. We investigated the impact of tobacco smoke exposure in different environments on the main components of direct healthcare costs using descriptive analysis and a multivariate two-step regression analysis. Results Descriptive analysis showed that average annual medical costs (physician visits, physical therapy and hospital treatment were considerably higher for children exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke at home (indoors or on patio/balcony compared with those who were not exposed. Regression analysis confirmed these descriptive trends: the odds of positive costs and the amount of total costs are significantly elevated for children exposed to tobacco smoke at home after adjusting for confounding variables. Combining the two steps of the regression model shows smoking attributable total costs per child exposed at home of €87 [10–165] (patio/balcony and €144 [6–305] (indoors compared to those with no exposure. Children not exposed at home but in other places showed only a small, but not significant, difference in total costs compared to those with no exposure

  4. Validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke in hospitality venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Iñaki; Mayo, Elga; López, María J; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Schiaffino, Anna; Moncada, Albert; Montes, Agustín; Nebot, Manel; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to assess the validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in 50 hospitality venues of Madrid (Spain) in 2010, taking as a reference vapour-phase nicotine measured by active sampling. The questions posed in the questionnaire permitted distinguishing between the different levels of SHS. However, the moderate relationship found (Spearman׳s correlation=0.387, phospitality venues, based solely on self-reported information, should be used with caution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Attitudes towards second hand smoke amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, P A; Gray, S; Gilmore, A B; Daykin, N

    2006-06-01

    To examine knowledge, attitudes and experiences of London casino workers regarding exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) in the workplace. Postal survey of 1568 London casino workers in 25 casinos who were members of the TGWU or GMB Trade Unions. Of the workers, 559 responded to the survey (36% response), 22% of whom were current smokers. Of the respondents, 71% report being nearly always exposed to heavy levels of SHS at work, and most (65%) want all working areas in their casino to be smoke-free. The majority (78%) are bothered by SHS at work, while 91% have wanted to move away from where they are working because of it. Fifty-seven per cent believe their health has suffered as a result of SHS. Of the workers who smoke at work, 59% believe that they would try to quit smoking if no one was allowed to smoke in the casino. The majority of responders are bothered by SHS, and many are concerned about the health impacts. Most want all working areas in their casino to be smoke-free. Despite difficulties in generalizing from this limited sample, these findings add weight to the argument that the legislation on smoking in public places in England should encompass all workplaces, without exemption.

  6. Recent trends in children's exposure to second-hand smoke in England: cotinine evidence from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Martin J; Feyerabend, Colin

    2015-09-01

    To examine changes in children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in England since 1998. Repeated cross-sectional surveys of the general population in England. The Health Survey for England. A total of 37 038 children participating in surveys from 1998 to 2012, 13 327 of whom were aged 4-15 years, had available cotinine and were confirmed non-smokers. The proportion of children with smoking parents; the proportion of children living in homes reported to be smoke-free; the proportion of children with undetectable concentrations of cotinine; linear and quadratic trend estimates of geometric mean cotinine across years. By 2012, 87.3% of children lived in a home that was smoke-free {97.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 95.9-98.1] when parents were non-smokers, 61.3% (95% CI = 55.5-66.8) when one or both parents smoked}. A total of 68.6% (95% CI = 64.3-72.6%) of children had undetectable cotinine in 2012, up from 14.3% (95% CI = 12.7-16.0%) in 1998. There was a highly significant linear trend across years (with a small but significant quadratic term) to declining geometric mean cotinine in all children from 0.52 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.48-0.57) in 1998 to 0.11 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.10-0.12) in 2012. Children from routine/manual backgrounds were more exposed, but experienced similar gains across years to those from non-manual backgrounds. In England, children's exposure to second-hand smoke has declined by 79% since 1998, with continuing progress since smoke-free legislation in 2007. An emerging social norm in England has led to the adoption of smoke-free homes not only when parents are non-smokers, but also when they smoke. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. [Knowledge and attitudes towards second hand smoking among hospitality patronage in five cities in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Ling; Yang, Yan; Liu, Xiu-Rong; Chang, Ai-Ling; Gong, Jie; Zhao, Bai-Fan; Liu, Tao; Jiang, Yuan; Hyland, Andrew; Li, Qiang

    2008-05-01

    To understand the knowledge and attitudes towards second hand smoking (SHS) among restaurant or bar patronage in five cities in China. 405 restaurants and bars were conveniently selected in 5 cities as Beijing, Wuhan, Xi'an, Kunming and Guiyang. From each of these hospitality venues, at least 3 patrons, including one smoker, one female non-smoker and one male nonsmoker were asked to answer a questionnaire on their knowledge and attitudes towards SHS and smoking policies in public places. 43.1% of the respondents had good knowledge on SHS hazards. 65% reported that those who smoked around them had never asked for their permission, and about 60% admitted that they had never asked others to stop smoking in front of them. There were almost two thirds of patrons reporting that they once felt discomfort of SHS in restaurants or bars, nearly half of whom chose to leave the venue to avoid exposure to SHS. Though majority of patrons supported '100% smoke-free hospitals, schools and public vehicles' initiations, the proportions of patrons that supporting '100% smoke-free restaurants and bars' initiations were only 30.0% and 19.8%, respectively. In Beijing, logistic regression model analyses showed that those who supporting 100% smoke-free restaurants and bars tended to be non-smokers, aged 25 years or older and to have had at least college education. Also in Beijing, those being female, having at least college education or non-smokers were more likely to choose restaurants and bars with smoking restrictions. Though knowledge on SHS hospitality patronage was still not high or popular for the public to refuse SHS exposure, banning smoking in hospitality venues was public's inclination and would become a trend in public health endeavor.

  8. Perception of parents about second hand smoke on the health of their children: an ethnographic study

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    Fabiane Alves de Carvalho Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the perception of parents about secondhand smoking in their children's health. Methods: Ethnographic qualitative and quantitative study. We sought the point of view and understanding of the parents who were active smokers in relation to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS and secondhand smoking. Mothers and fathers who are active smokers and that live with their children from seven different public schools in the city of Anápolis, Midwest Brazil, were interviewed in the first semester of in a reserved room in the schools. A descriptive and qualitative analysis was carried out through the ethnography. Results: 58 parents with an average time of smoking of 15.3 years and an average quantity of cigarettes smoked per day of 2 were interviewed. Among them, 59% did not know what ETS was, and 60% stated knowing what a secondhand smoker was. However, when questioned about their children as secondhand smokers, 52% did not consider them to be. Some parents knew some of the effects of secondhand smoking in the health of their children. However, the majority (52% of them did not believe that their children would suffer any respiratory impairment or did not know about these impairments. Conclusions: Children were exposed to environmental tobacco pollution in their residence if one considers parental duration of smoking and average of cigarettes smoked per day. There was a lack of knowledge of the parents about ETS, secondhand smoking and the evils that cigarettes could cause in the health of their children.

  9. Adoption and compliance in second-hand smoking bans: a global econometric analysis.

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    Perkins, Richard; Neumayer, Eric

    2014-10-01

    We examine the determinants governing both countries' enactment of smoking bans in public places and their ability to successfully put these bans into effect. Using a large sample (N = 99-184) of low-, middle- and high-income countries, econometric techniques are used to estimate the influence of several variables on cross-national variations in the adoption and compliance of second-hand smoke laws (2010). We find similarities in the determinants of adoption and compliance. Yet more notable are the differences, with several political economy factors which have a statistically significant influence on countries' level of compliance with existing smoke-free laws in public places found not to consistently influence their propensity to adopt bans in the first place. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are that governments are motivated to adopt smoking bans for reasons other than protecting the health of their citizens and that the real costs of smoking bans are predominantly borne at the compliance stage. More effort needs to be made to ensure that governments realize their existing policy commitments through effective enforcement of bans.

  10. Smoke-Free Workplaces Are Associated with Protection from Second-Hand Smoke at Homes in Nigeria: Evidence for Population-Level Decisions

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    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence suggests that smoke-free workplace policies may change social norms towards exposing others to second-hand smoke at home. The aim of the study was to assess whether being employed in a smoke-free workplace (SFWP is associated with living in a smoke-free home (SFH. We used the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey conducted in Nigeria in 2012, in which 9,765 individuals were interviewed including 1,856 persons who worked indoors. The percentage of Nigerians employed in SFWP that reported living in a SFH was higher compared to those employed in a workplace where smoking occurred (95% versus 73%. Working in a SFWP was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of living in a SFH (OR = 5.3; p<0.001. Urban inhabitants indicated more frequently that they lived in SFH compared to rural residents (OR = 2.0; p=0.006. The odds of living in a SFH were significantly higher among nonsmokers and nonsmokeless tobacco users compared to smokers and smokeless tobacco users (OR = 28.8; p<0.001; OR = 7.0; p<0.001. These findings support the need for implementation of comprehensive smoke-free policies in Nigeria that result in substantial health benefits.

  11. Maternal Exposure to Second-hand Smoke and Super Ovulation Outcome for Assisted Reproduction

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    Jila Ganji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of smoking cigarettes is followed by diverse effects on ovaries anddeveloping follicles but the effect of passive smoking on ovarian function is unknown. On the otherhand, the ovarian response to induction is a very important step in assisted reproduction. The aimof this study is to compare ovarian response in passive smokers and non-passive smokers in anassisted reproductive program.Materials and Methods: In a cohort study at the Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center, there were 72women in the passive smoker group and 72 women in the non-passive smoker group who underwentan assisted reproductive technology (ART program. The follicle number at administration of humanchorionic gonadotropin (HCG, number of gonadotropin ampoules and duration of super ovulationinduction were compared.Results: Statistical analyses indicated that the number of mature follicles in the passive smoker groupwas not different from the control group; but the number of unresponsive cycles to super ovulation inthe passive smoker group (33.3% was significantly higher than the control group (12.5%. Durationof induction and number of gonadotropin ampoules were not different between the two groups.Conclusion: The results of this study show that exposure to second-hand smoke increases the chanceof unresponsiveness to ovulation induction. This condition may be due to the result of decline inovarian reserve in second-hand smokers. The duration of induction and number of gonadotropinampules is similar in the two groups. Furthermore, the results show that exposure to cigarette smokedoes not clinically impact women with good ovarian reserve.

  12. Correlates of exposure to second-hand smoke in an urban Mediterranean population

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    Borras Josep

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the socio-demographic factors associated with exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in different settings (home, leisure, and workplace. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data on self-reported SHS exposure in 1059 non-daily smokers interviewed in the Cornellà Health Interview Survey Follow-up Study in 2002. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence rates and prevalence rate ratios of SHS exposure at home, at the workplace, during leisure time, and in any of these settings. Results The age-standardized prevalence rate of SHS exposure in any setting was 69.5% in men and 62.9% in women. Among men, 25.9% reported passive smoking at home, 55.1% during leisure time, and 34.0% at the workplace. Among women, prevalence rates in these settings were 34.1%, 44.3% and 30.1%, respectively. Overall exposure to SHS decreased with age in both men and women. In men, SHS exposure was related to marital status, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. In women, SHS exposure was related to educational level, marital status, occupational status, self-perceived health, smoking-related illness, and alcohol intake. Conclusion The prevalence of SHS exposure in this population was high. The strongest association with exposure were found for age and occupational status in men, and age and educational level in women.

  13. [The prevalence of exposure of children under the age of 18 to second-hand smoke inside motor vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrol, M T; Tolosana, M; Soler, M T; Taló, M; Godoy, P

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the level of exposure of children under the age of 18 to second-hand smoke (SHS) inside motor vehicles. A prevalence study was conducted on the exposure of children under the age of 18 to SHS in motor vehicles in Lleida (Spain). The population was the users of private motor vehicles. The sample was random, and the data were collected by direct observation. The study variables were: the age and sex of the driver, whether the driver was smoking, and the presence of an exposed passenger under the age of 18. A total of 1600 vehicles were observed, 134 of which (8.4%) were carrying a child. In 8 of these 134 vehicles (6%; 95% CI: 2.5-11.0) a child was exposed to SHS. In all these cases, the driver was a male (P=0.02), and in 75% of cases he was over 40 years old. The rate of child exposure to SHS is very high. There is, therefore, a case for organising campaigns to prevent smoking tobacco inside motor vehicles in the presence of children in Spain. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Second-Hand Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy on the Newborn Weight in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsa'adah, Bachok; Salinah, Omar

    2014-03-01

    There was strong evidence from studies conducted in developed countries that second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure is detrimental to the birth weight of newborn. This study was conducted to determine the effect of exposure to SHS smoke during pregnancy on the weight of newborns. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The exposed group consists of 209 postnatal women who experienced SHS exposure at home because of a husband or other housemate who smoked inside the house throughout the pregnancy. The non-exposed group included 211 women who did not experience SHS exposure at home or at work during pregnancy. We excluded non-Malay ethnicity, multiple births, and congenital defects. There was a significant difference in the adjusted mean birth weight between exposed infants [2893.0 g (95% confidence interval (CI): 2781.3, 3004.7)] and not exposed infants to SHS [3046.1 g (95% CI 2929.5, 3162.6) (P cigarette (P < 0.001). The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was higher in exposed women, [10% (95% CI: 5.94, 14.06)] compared to non-exposed women [4.7% (95% CI: 1.85, 7.55)]. This study found a significant association between SHS exposure during pregnancy and decreased birth weight.

  15. [Perception of parents about second hand smoke on the health of their children: an ethnographic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Ribeiro, Fabiane Alves; de Moraes, Micaele Kedma Ribeiro; de Morais Caixeta, Joyce Cristina; da Silva, Jullieth Nadja; Lima, Amanda Sanches; Parreira, Samara Lamounier Santana; Fernandes, Viviane Lemos Silva

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the perception of parents about secondhand smoking in their children's health. Ethnographic qualitative and quantitative study. We sought the point of view and understanding of the parents that were active smokers in relation to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and secondhand smoking. Mothers and fathers who are active smokers and that live with their children from seven different public schools in the city of Anápolis, Midwest Brazil, were interviewed in the first semester of in a reserved room in the schools. A descriptive and qualitative analysis was carried out through the ethnography. 58 parents with an average time of smoking of 15.3 years and an average quantity of cigarettes smoked per day of 2 were interviewed. Among them, 59% didn't know what ETS was, and 60% stated knowing what a secondhand smoker was. However, when questioned about their children as secondhand smokers, 52% didn't consider them to be. Some parents knew some of the effects of secondhand smoking in the health of their children. However, the majority (52%) of them did not believe that their children would suffer any respiratory impairment or did not know about these impairments. Children were exposed to Environmental Tobacco Pollution in their residence if one considers parental duration of smoking and average of cigarettes smoked per day. There was a lack of knowledge of the parents about ETS, secondhand smoking and the evils that cigarettes could cause in the health of their children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Second-hand smoke in public spaces: how effective has partial smoke-free legislation been in Malaysia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Emilia Zainal; Hashim, Zailina; Semple, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to gather data on second-hand smoke (SHS) concentrations in a range of public venues following the implementation of partial Smoke-Free Legislation in Malaysia in 2004. PM2.5 was measured as a marker of SHS levels in a total of 61 restaurants, entertainment centres, internet cafes and pubs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Under the current smoke-free laws smoking was prohibited in 42 of the 61 premises. Active smoking was observed in nearly one-third (n=12) of these. For premises where smoking was prohibited and no active smoking observed, the mean (standard deviation) indoor PM2.5 concentration was 33.4 (23.8) μg/m3 compared to 187.1 (135.1) μg/m3 in premises where smoking was observed The highest mean PM2.5 was observed in pubs [361.5 (199.3) μg/m3]. This study provides evidence of high levels of SHS across a range of hospitality venues, including about one-third of those where smoking is prohibited, despite 8 years of smoke-free legislation. Compliance with the legislation appeared to be particularly poor in entertainment centres and internet cafes. Workers and non-smoking patrons continue to be exposed to high concentrations of SHS within the hospitality industry in Malaysia and there is an urgent need for increased enforcement of existing legislation and consideration of more comprehensive laws to protect health.

  17. Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: a retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Mattias; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Woodward, Alistair; Peruga, Armando; Prüss-Ustün, Annette

    2011-01-08

    Exposure to second-hand smoke is common in many countries but the magnitude of the problem worldwide is poorly described. We aimed to estimate the worldwide exposure to second-hand smoke and its burden of disease in children and adult non-smokers in 2004. The burden of disease from second-hand smoke was estimated as deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for children and adult non-smokers. The calculations were based on disease-specific relative risk estimates and area-specific estimates of the proportion of people exposed to second-hand smoke, by comparative risk assessment methods, with data from 192 countries during 2004. Worldwide, 40% of children, 33% of male non-smokers, and 35% of female non-smokers were exposed to second-hand smoke in 2004. This exposure was estimated to have caused 379,000 deaths from ischaemic heart disease, 165,000 from lower respiratory infections, 36,900 from asthma, and 21,400 from lung cancer. 603,000 deaths were attributable to second-hand smoke in 2004, which was about 1·0% of worldwide mortality. 47% of deaths from second-hand smoke occurred in women, 28% in children, and 26% in men. DALYs lost because of exposure to second-hand smoke amounted to 10·9 million, which was about 0·7% of total worldwide burden of diseases in DALYs in 2004. 61% of DALYs were in children. The largest disease burdens were from lower respiratory infections in children younger than 5 years (5,939,000), ischaemic heart disease in adults (2,836,000), and asthma in adults (1,246,000) and children (651,000). These estimates of worldwide burden of disease attributable to second-hand smoke suggest that substantial health gains could be made by extending effective public health and clinical interventions to reduce passive smoking worldwide. Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare and Bloomberg Philanthropies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Are Canadian youth still exposed to second-hand smoke in homes and in cars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisic, A; Leatherdale, S T; Burkhalter, R; Ahmed, R

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to examine the prevalence of youth exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) in homes and cars, changes in SHS exposure over time, and factors associated with beliefs youth hold regarding SHS exposure among a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth. Descriptive analysis of SHS exposure in homes and cars was conducted using data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (2004, 2006 and 2008). Logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with beliefs youth had about SHS exposure in 2008. In 2008, 21.5% of youth reported being exposed to SHS in their home on a daily or almost daily basis, while 27.3% reported being exposed to SHS while riding in a car at least once in the previous week. Between 2004 and 2008, the prevalence of daily SHS exposure in the home and cars decreased by 4.7% and 18.0% respectively. Despite reductions in SHS exposure over time, a substantial number of Canadian youth continue to be exposed to SHS in homes and cars. Further effort is required to implement and evaluate policies designed to protect youth from SHS.

  19. Second-hand smoke exposure and mitigation strategies among home visitation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keske, Robyn R; Rees, Vaughan W; Behm, Ilan; Wadler, Brianna M; Geller, Alan C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of workers from second-hand smoke (SHS) in occupational settings is an important policy priority, yet little attention has been given to SHS protection for home visitation health workers, who number almost 2 million in the USA. Self-reported SHS exposure, SHS mitigation strategies and suggestions for further SHS exposure reduction approaches were obtained from home visitation health workers in Massachusetts. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Massachusetts Early Intervention workers (N=316) at their state-wide conference in April 2010. Eighty-three per cent of respondents reported at least 1 hour per month of SHS exposure, and 16% reported at least 11 hours per month. Nevertheless, only 22% of workers counselled clients on maintaining a smoke-free home. Fewer than 30% of workers had ever voiced concerns to their employing agency, and just 12% had raised their concerns directly with clients. Only 14% stated that their agency had rules designed to protect workers from SHS. SHS exposure occurs frequently among home visitation health workers. The data point to a substantial population who are not protected from SHS exposure by formal policies.

  20. Prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure after introduction of the Italian smoking ban: the Florence and Belluno survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Gasparrini, Antonio; Tamang, Elizabeth; Nebot, Manel; Lopez, Maria José; Albertini, Marco; Marcolina, Daniela; Fernandez, Esteve

    2008-01-01

    A law banning smoking in enclosed public places was implemented in Italy on January 10, 2005. The aim of this paper is to present a cross-sectional survey on two representative samples of non-smokers of two Italian towns (Florence and Belluno), conducted one year after the introduction of the ban, in order to assess prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure, to record the attitudes towards the ban, and the perception about its compliance in a representative sample of non-smokers. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were carried out in March 2006, from a random sample of households from telephone registries. Respondents were 402 non-smokers from Belluno and 1,073 from Florence. About 12% of Florentines and 7% of Belluno respondents were exposed at home; 39% and 19%, respectively, at work; 10% and 5% in hospitality venues; 20% and 10% in cars. The smoke-free law was almost universally supported (about 98%) even if a smaller proportion of people (about 90%) had the perception that the ban was observed. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and in hospitality premises has dropped to hospitality venues.

  1. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces when people burn ... as smuggling, illicit manufacturing and counterfeiting. The tobacco industry and others often argue that high tobacco product ...

  2. Challenges in Creating Evidence in Environmental Health Risk Assessments: The Example of Second-Hand Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Fischer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health interventions are directed to influence the (state of a risk factor, either by behavioral or environmental changes. Therefore, environmental health risk assessments are highly relevant for public health decision making and policy development. The credibility of an environmental health risk assessment depends, to a large extent, on the strength of the scientific evidence on which it is based. In this article, the main challenges for assessing the impact of a potential adverse health effect from an environmental pollutant are described. Second-hand smoke (SHS was chosen to illustrate the current state of evidence. The assessment of the impact of potential adverse health effects from environmental risk factors is dependent on several issues, such as the hypothesized health outcome, the nature of the exposure, the dose-response-relationship and the variability and susceptibility of the exposed population. The example of SHS exposure highlights the need for evidence-based public health. Several challenges in terms of study design, assessment methods, as well as data analysis and synthesis with respect to the stratification of results, and consideration of bias and confounding exist. Future research needs to take into account which methods and techniques will be used to generate evidence for population-level decisions.

  3. Everyday Prospective Memory and Executive Function Deficits Associated with Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke

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    Thomas M. Heffernan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored whether exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS has a detrimental impact upon everyday memory in two groups of non-smokers; one which reported regular exposure to SHS and one that reported never having been exposed to SHS. Thirty-four non-smokers who reported having been regularly exposed to SHS (SHS group and 34 non-smokers who reported never having been exposed to SHS (non-SHS group were compared on self-reports of prospective memory (PM: remembering future intentions and/or activities and executive function (EF: those processes involved in attention, multitasking and decision-making. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ assessed everyday PM lapses; the Executive Function Questionnaire (EFQ assessed self-reported problems in EF; a drug-use questionnaire and a mood questionnaire were also administered. Two univariate ANCOVAs were applied to the PM and EF data, controlling for between-group differences in age, weekly alcohol use, anxiety and depression scores, and self-reported retrospective memory scores. The SHS group reported significantly more lapses on the PRMQ and more deficits on the EFQ than the non-SHS group. These findings provide new insights into PM and EF deficits associated with prolonged exposure to SHS in a group of non-smokers. Possible explanations and suggestions for future research are also considered.

  4. Association between second-hand smoke and psychological well-being amongst non-smoking wageworkers in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Jin; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Park, Shin-Goo; Lee, Bum-Joon; Moon, So-Hyun; Park, Sung-Min; Jang, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been responsible for more than 0.6 million deaths and 10.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYS) lost in never smokers in 2004. The world health organization (WHO) reported smoking-related death of 58,000 per year in South Korea. There is recent emerging evidence of the associations of SHS exposure with anxiety or depression and poor mental health. Although exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been associated with various physical health conditions and mental health, we are unaware of any studies examining its association with psychological well-being as mental factor. This study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported exposure to SHS and well-being among non-smoking wageworkers. The Third Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS, 2011) was conducted on a representative sample of economically active population aged 15 years or over, who were either employees or self-employed at the time of interview. In this study, after removing inconsistent data, 19,879 non-smoking wageworkers among 60,054 workers were participated. Psychological well-being was measured through the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (1998 version). Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of SHS exposure with psychological well-being. The unadjusted OR of poor psychological well-being (OR: 1.594, 95 % CI: 1.421-1.787) was significantly higher for SHS exposure group compared to non-exposure group. Multiple logistic regression analysis results indicated that these relationships were still significant after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted OR: 1.330, 95 % CI: 1.178-1.502). Exposure to SHS was associated with poor well-being measured by the WHO-5 well-being index, indicating the importance of reducing SHS exposure at the workplace for psychological well-being amongst non-smoking wageworkers.

  5. Women exposed to second-hand smoke more at home than at workplace: An analysis of GATS Report, India, 2009-10

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    Deepika Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoke has adverse health effects on women of the reproductive age group with serious health implications for the next generation. Objectives: This study assessed the prevalence of current active smoking, second-hand smoke (SHS exposure and the factors influencing smoke exposure in females of the reproductive age group. Materials and Methods: Data from the nationally representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey-India (GATS 2009 was analyzed for socio demographic variables, tobacco-related variables and knowledge variables. Results: 50.4% of the women in the reproductive age group had been exposed to SHS at home, though only 2.6% of the women were current active smokers. This was more than the SHS exposure at work (21.7% and elsewhere (32.6%. SHS exposure of the women at home did not vary significantly with knowledge of adverse effects of smoking but was affected by the place of dwelling as the smoke exposure was found to be more among rural women. Conclusion: SHS exposure is more prevalent than current active smoking in women of the reproductive age group and that too at home. Thus, policies need to be framed in order to curb this menace which is a vicious one as women don′t really have an alternative as far as this exposure is concerned.

  6. Impact of a smoking ban in hospitality venues on second hand smoke exposure: a comparison of exposure assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Bauer, Georg F; Hoffmann, Susanne; Röösli, Martin

    2013-06-04

    In May 2010, Switzerland introduced a heterogeneous smoking ban in the hospitality sector. While the law leaves room for exceptions in some cantons, it is comprehensive in others. This longitudinal study uses different measurement methods to examine airborne nicotine levels in hospitality venues and the level of personal exposure of non-smoking hospitality workers before and after implementation of the law. Personal exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was measured by three different methods. We compared a passive sampler called MoNIC (Monitor of NICotine) badge, to salivary cotinine and nicotine concentration as well as questionnaire data. Badges allowed the number of passively smoked cigarettes to be estimated. They were placed at the venues as well as distributed to the participants for personal measurements. To assess personal exposure at work, a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements was calculated. Prior to the ban, smoke-exposed hospitality venues yielded a mean badge value of 4.48 (95%-CI: 3.7 to 5.25; n = 214) cigarette equivalents/day. At follow-up, measurements in venues that had implemented a smoking ban significantly declined to an average of 0.31 (0.17 to 0.45; n = 37) (p = 0.001). Personal badge measurements also significantly decreased from an average of 2.18 (1.31-3.05 n = 53) to 0.25 (0.13-0.36; n = 41) (p = 0.001). Spearman rank correlations between badge exposure measures and salivary measures were small to moderate (0.3 at maximum). Nicotine levels significantly decreased in all types of hospitality venues after implementation of the smoking ban. In-depth analyses demonstrated that a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements represented typical personal SHS exposure at work more reliably than personal exposure measures such as salivary cotinine and nicotine.

  7. Impact of the Spanish smoking control law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Muñoz, Esteve; Fu Balboa, Marcela; Pascual, José A.; López, María José; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Martínez Sánchez, Jose M.; Ariza, Carles; Saltó i Cerezuela, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. METHO...

  8. Bar workers' exposure to second-hand smoke: the effect of Scottish smoke-free legislation on occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Sean; Maccalman, Laura; Naji, Audrey Atherton; Dempsey, Scott; Hilton, Shona; Miller, Brian G; Ayres, Jon G

    2007-10-01

    To examine changes in bar workers' exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) over a 12-month period before and after the introduction of Scottish smoke-free legislation on the 26 March 2006. A total of 371 bar workers were recruited from 72 bars in three cities: Aberdeen, Glasgow, Edinburgh and small towns in two rural regions (Borders and Aberdeenshire). Prior to the introduction of the smoke-free legislation, we visited all participants in their place of work and collected saliva samples, for the measurement of cotinine, together with details on work patterns, self-reported exposure to SHS at work and non-work settings and smoking history. This was repeated 2 months post-legislation and again in the spring of 2007. In addition, we gathered full-shift personal exposure data from a small number of Aberdeen bar workers using a personal aerosol monitor for fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) at the baseline and 2 months post-legislation visits. Data were available for 371 participants at baseline, 266 (72%) at 2 months post-legislation and 191 (51%) at the 1-year follow-up. The salivary cotinine level recorded in non-smokers fell from a geometric mean of 2.94 ng ml(-1) prior to introduction of the legislation to 0.41 ng ml(-1) at 1-year follow-up. Paired data showed a reduction in non-smokers' cotinine levels of 89% [95% confidence interval (CI) 85-92%]. For the whole cohort, the duration of workplace exposure to SHS within the last 7 days fell from 28.5 to 0.83 h, though some bar workers continued to report substantial SHS exposures at work despite the legislation. Smokers also demonstrated reductions in their salivary cotinine levels of 12% (95% CI 3-20%). This may reflect both the reduction in SHS exposure at work and falls in active cigarette smoking in this group. In a small sub-sample of bar workers, full-shift personal exposure to PM(2.5), a marker of SHS concentrations, showed average reductions of 86% between baseline and 2 months after implementation of the

  9. Animal models of nicotine exposure: relevance to second-hand smoking, electronic cigarette use and compulsive smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami eCohen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence indicates that individuals use tobacco primarily to experience the psychopharmacological properties of nicotine and that a large proportion of smokers eventually become dependent on nicotine. In humans, nicotine acutely produces positive reinforcing effects, including mild euphoria, whereas a nicotine abstinence syndrome with both somatic and affective components is observed after chronic nicotine exposure. Animal models of nicotine self-administration and chronic exposure to nicotine have been critical in unveiling the neurobiological substrates that mediate the acute reinforcing effects of nicotine and emergence of a withdrawal syndrome during abstinence. However, important aspects of the transition from nicotine abuse to nicotine dependence, such as the emergence of increased motivation and compulsive nicotine intake following repeated exposure to the drug, have only recently begun to be modeled in animals. Thus, the neurobiological mechanisms that are involved in these important aspects of nicotine addiction remain largely unknown. In this review, we describe the different animal models available to date and discuss recent advances in animal models of nicotine exposure and nicotine dependence. This review demonstrates that novel animal models of nicotine vapor exposure and escalation of nicotine intake provide a unique opportunity to investigate the neurobiological effects of second-hand nicotine exposure, electronic cigarette use and the mechanisms that underlie the transition from nicotine use to compulsive nicotine intake.

  10. The UCB particle monitor: A tool for logging frequency of smoking and the intensity of second-hand smoke concentrations in the home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semple, Sean; Apsley, Andrew; Moir, Gill; Henderson, George; Ayres, Jon, E-mail: sean.semple@abdn.ac.u [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Liberty Safe Work Research Centre, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure generates a large public health burden. Recent legislation has moved to prohibit smoking in public places and there are concerns that this may lead to an increase in exposures in private homes. Measurement of SHS aerosol has tended to use active pumped samples or longer-term diffusive badges. Pumped methods are noisy and poorly tolerated in home settings while diffusive badges do not provide real-time data. The UCB particle monitor (UCB-PM) is a modified smoke-alarm device capable of logging changes in airborne particulate matter over extended periods and has been used successfully to measure biomass fuel smoke concentrations in developing world settings This study has examined the use of the UCB-PM to measure SHS aerosol in both controlled laboratory conditions and a pilot field trial over a 7 day period in a smoker's home. Comparisons with a pumped sampler (TSI Sidepak Personal Aerosol Monitor) indicate good agreement over a range of exposure concentrations but there is evidence of a threshold effect at approximately 0.5 mg/m{sup 3} of fine particulate measured as PM{sub 2.5}. While this threshold effect undermines the ability of the device to provide useful data on the time-weighted average SHS concentration, the field trial indicates that that the UCB-PM has a sensitivity of about 71% and a specificity of 98%. The device has many advantages including zero noise operation, low cost and long battery life and may be a useful tool in quitting and smoke-free home intervention studies.

  11. Smoking Behavior, Attitudes of Second-Hand Smoke, and No-Smoking Policies on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacek, Georgia N. L. Johnston; Atkins, Janet L.

    2008-01-01

    Smoking, when condoned as socially acceptable, overtly establishes such behavior as normal and risk-free. Scientific evidence verifies that cigarette smoking pervasively damages the body, causes early death, costs billions of dollars annually in medical care for smokers, and poses serious health risks to nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Yet…

  12. Cardiorespiratory response to exercise of nonsmokers occupationally exposed to second hand smoke (SHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Mantzoros

    2017-01-01

    Chronic occupational SHS exposure among non-smokers deteriorates CR exercise performance increasing risk of developing SHS associated diseases. Smoking ban legislation should be enforced but also inclusive of all workplaces eliminating the existing violation of labor and human rights.

  13. Knowledge and opinion about smoke-free laws and second-hand smoke among hospitality venue managers in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay K; Arora, Monika; Sharma, Indrani; Nazar, Gaurang P; Modi, Bhavesh; Singh, Deepti; Millett, Christopher; Reddy, K Srinath

    2013-01-01

    India's Smoke-Free Law (SFL) was implemented in 2004 and reinforced on 2nd October 2008. This research attempts to understand the knowledge and opinion of hospitality venue (HV) managers about second-hand smoke (SHS) and SFL as well as self-reported compliance with SFL in two Indian states. A survey was conducted among 804 randomly sampled HVs from project STEPS (Strengthening of tobacco control efforts through innovative partnerships and strategies) in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India. Four hundred and three HVs from two districts in Gujarat and 401 HVs from six districts in Andhra Pradesh were selected. The owner, manager or supervisor of each HV was interviewed using a pre-tested structured interview schedule. Association of opinion scales with respondents' background characteristics was assessed through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. Out of the 403 respondents in Gujarat and 401 in Andhra Pradesh, 56.1% and 84.3% had knowledge about SFL respectively. Compliance of HVs with SFL was 21.8% in Gujarat and 31.2% in Andhra Pradesh as reported by the managers. Knowledge about SHS was noted among 39.7% of respondents in Gujarat and 25.4% in Andhra Pradesh. Bivariate results indicated that more educated HV managers showed higher support for smoke-free public places (P < 0.001) and were more concerned about the health effects of SHS exposure (P = 0.002). Complete self-reported compliance with, and knowledge of SFL as well as SHS was not found in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. The education level of HV managers is an important determinant to ensure compliance with SFL in public places.

  14. Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the home: a household survey in the North of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Nisreen; Siddiqi, Kamran; Thomson, Heather; Cameron, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS) leads to increased risk of health and social problems and uptake of smoking in the future. We aimed to assess the prevalence of children's exposure to SHS in their homes, in a deprived area in the North of England and identify what people thought would help them achieve a smoke-free home (SFH). We performed a cross-sectional survey of 318 households with at least one child aged under 16 years in Beeston Hill, a deprived locality in Leeds, England in June 2008. One hundred and seventy-three households [54%, 95% confidence interval (C.I.) 49-60] had at least one smoker in the house. In 42% (95% C.I. 35-50) of these households (n = 73), smoking took place in the presence of children. The odds of allowing smoking in front of children were 2.2 (95% C.I. 1.1-4.5) times greater in households whose head had less than A-level (national exams at 18 years) or equivalent qualification than in homes with a more qualified head of household. 92% of respondents were aware that SHS has negative effects on children's health. However, 71% felt more information about health risks to children would help reduce exposure to SHS in the home. Smoking in the presence of children takes place in a relatively high proportion of households with smoker(s), despite media awareness campaigns regarding the dangers of passive smoking launched alongside the recently enforced smoke-free public and workplaces legislation. Specific promotion of SFHs is needed to protect the health of children.

  15. The Living Tomorrow Project: how Philip Morris has used a Belgian tourist attraction to promote ventilation approaches to the control of second hand smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, P; Gilmore, A

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To examine the involvement of Philip Morris in Living Tomorrow 2 and determine the rationale behind its involvement. Design: Research was conducted through a web based search of internal tobacco industry documents made publicly available through litigation. Main results: For approximately €1 000 000 Philip Morris (now Altria) became a co-initiator of Living Tomorrow 2, a tourist complex in Belgium that aims to demonstrate how we will be living in the future. In addition to promoting the company and its grocery products, Philip Morris is using the complex and its website to promote ventilation as a means of accommodating smokers and non-smokers in the indoor environment. Particular emphasis was placed on the bar and restaurant areas. Despite the rationale for its involvement, Philip Morris fails to acknowledge its role as a cigarette manufacturer. As a form of corporate sponsorship Philip Morris thought its involvement could evade any European tobacco advertising ban. Conclusions: Philip Morris is using a tourist attraction to promote its views on control of second hand smoke (SHS) and accommodation of smokers and non-smokers in the indoor environment. However, ventilation does not deal with the health effects of SHS. Policymakers must be cognisant of the devious tactics the industry employs to promote its own agenda, especially in relation to indoor air quality and smoking in public places. Tobacco control legislation should be continually modified and strengthened in response to the changing activities of the tobacco industry as it strives to evade existing legislation and deter the advent of new legislation. PMID:15564621

  16. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szponar, B.; Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) and 0.0007/m 3 (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: ► Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. ► Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. ► LPS from mainstream smoke contains 3-hydroxy 14:0 and 12:0 fatty acids in similar proportion as

  17. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  18. Second-hand smoke exposure in 4-year-old children in Spain: Sources, associated factors and urinary cotinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Guxens, Mònica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; López, María José; Lertxundi, Aitana; Castilla, Ane Miren; Espada, Mercedes; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran; Santa-Marina, Loreto

    2016-02-01

    Second-hand smoke exposure (SHS) in children remains as a major pollution problem, with important consequences for children's health. This study aimed to identify the sources of exposure to SHS among 4-year-old children, comparing self-reports to a urinary biomarker of exposure, and characterize the most important variables related to SHS exposure in this population. 4-year-old children's exposure to SHS was assessed by a parental-reported questionnaire and by urinary cotinine (UC) measurements in 1757 participants from 4 different areas of the Spanish INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente - Environment and Childhood) Project. The questionnaire about SHS included information about smoking habits at home by household members, and about exposure to SHS in other places including other homes, bars, restaurants or transportation. The association between quantified UC levels (>4ng/ml) and sociodemographic variables and the different sources of SHS exposure was examined using logistic regression. Based on parental reports, 21.6% of the children were exposed to SHS at home and 47.1% elsewhere; making a total 55.9% of the children exposed to SHS. In addition, 28.2% of the children whose parents reported being not regularly exposed to SHS had quantified UC values. Children from younger mothers (<34 vs. ≥39.4 y) had a higher odds of exposure to SHS [OR (95% CI): 2.28 (1.70-3.05) per year], as well as from families with a lower educational level [OR secondary: 2.12 (1.69-2.65); primary or less: 2.91 (2.19-3.88)]. The odds of quantifiable UC in children dropped after the smoking ban in public places [OR=0.59 (0.42-0.83)]. Regarding the sources of SHS exposure we observed that quantifiable UC odds was increased in children whose parents smoked at home in their presence [OR mother occasionally: 13.39 (7.03-25.50); mother often: 18.48 (8.40-40.66); father occasionally: 10.98 (6.52-18.49); father often: 11.50 (5.96-22.20)] or in children attending other confined places, mainly other

  19. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  20. Developmental exposure to second-hand smoke increases adult atherogenesis and alters mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletions in apoE(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Fetterman

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m(3 total suspended particulate of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i in utero from gestation days 1-19, or (ii from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal. Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12-14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis.

  1. Developmental exposure to second-hand smoke increases adult atherogenesis and alters mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletions in apoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Pompilius, Melissa; Westbrook, David G; Uyeminami, Dale; Brown, Jamelle; Pinkerton, Kent E; Ballinger, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m(3) total suspended particulate) of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i) in utero from gestation days 1-19, or (ii) from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12-14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis.

  2. Developmental Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke Increases Adult Atherogenesis and Alters Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Deletions in apoE−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L.; Pompilius, Melissa; Westbrook, David G.; Uyeminami, Dale; Brown, Jamelle; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m3 total suspended particulate) of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i) in utero from gestation days 1–19, or (ii) from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12–14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis. PMID:23825571

  3. Potential pathways by which maternal second-hand smoke exposure during pregnancy causes full-term low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhongzheng; Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong; Tian, Fuying; Yuan, Shixin; Jia, Deqin; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2016-04-29

    It is well documented that maternal exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) during pregnancy causes low birth weight (LBW), but its mechanism remains unknown. This study explored the potential pathways. We enrolled 195 pregnant women who delivered full-term LBW newborns, and 195 who delivered full-term normal birth weight newborns as the controls. After controlling for maternal age, education level, family income, pre-pregnant body mass index, newborn gender and gestational age, logistic regression analysis revealed that LBW was significantly and positively associated with maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy, lower placental weight, TNF-α and IL-1β, and that SHS exposure was significantly associated with lower placental weight, TNF-α and IL-1β. Structural equation modelling identified two plausible pathways by which maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy might cause LBW. First, SHS exposure induced the elevation of TNF-α, which might directly increase the risk of LBW by transmission across the placenta. Second, SHS exposure first increased maternal secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α, which then triggered the secretion of VCAM-1; both TNF-α and VCAM-1 were significantly associated with lower placental weight, thus increasing the risk of LBW. In conclusion, maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy may lead to LBW through the potential pathways of maternal inflammation and lower placental weight.

  4. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pascual, José A; López, María J; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ariza, Carles; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-01-01

    A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8%) were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, phospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS or its consequences for respiratory health.

  5. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Tissue Trace Element Concentration of Rats Exposed to Second-hand Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    K, Ergen; F, Yildiz; M, Ozcan; M, Cekmen; , Tanyeri P; , Utkan T; Y, Karakoc

    2012-01-01

    Trace elements have an important effect on and play a key role in a variety of the processes necessary for life. Studies have indicated a definite correlation between content of trace elements and many common diseases. It has been concluded that smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements, not only to the smoker, but to nonsmokers via passive smoke, as well. Even passive intake of such elements can change the metabolism of other trace elements and influence their...

  6. Youth exposure to in-vehicle second-hand smoke and their smoking behaviours: trends and associations in repeated national surveys (2006-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Benjamin; Hoek, Janet; Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George; Taylor, Steve; Edwards, Richard

    2015-03-01

    To extend the limited international evidence on youth in-vehicle second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure by examining trends in New Zealand, a country with a national smoke-free goal and indoors smoke-free environment legislation. We tracked exposure rates and explored the associations between in-vehicle SHS exposure and smoking behaviours. In-home exposure was also examined for comparative purposes. Data were collected in annual surveys of over 25 000 year 10 school students (14-15-year olds) for a 7-year period (2006-2012). Questions covered smoking behaviour, exposure to smoking and demographics. Youth SHS exposure rates in-vehicle and in-home trended down slightly over time (pvehicle in the previous week in 2012. However, marked inequalities in exposure between ethnic groups, and by school-based socioeconomic position, persisted. The strongest association with SHS exposure was parental smoking (eg, for both parents versus neither smoking in 2012: in-vehicle SHS exposure adjusted OR: 7.4; 95% CI: 6.5 to 8.4). After adjusting for seven other factors associated with initiation, logistic regression analyses revealed statistically significant associations of in-vehicle SHS exposure with susceptibility to initiation and smoking. The slow decline in SHS exposure in vehicles and the lack of progress in reducing relative inequalities is problematic. To accelerate progress, the New Zealand Government could follow the example of other jurisdictions and prohibit smoking in cars carrying children. Other major policy interventions, beside enhanced smoke-free environments, will also likely be required if New Zealand is to achieve its 2025 smoke-free nation goal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. [Impact of the new smoke-free legislation (law 42/2010) on levels of second-hand smoke in hospitality venues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Rodrigo; Nerín, Isabel; Galindo, Virginia; Alayeto, Carmen; Villaverde-Royo, M A Victoria; Sanz, Concepción

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate pollution by second-hand smoke in a sample of hospitality venues before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation. A cross sectional, before-after study was conducted in 2008 and 2011 after the total ban. A SidePack Aerosol monitor was used both inside and outside the hospitality venues to measure fine breathable particles (PM2.5). A total of 43 places with pre- and post-legislation measurements were included. The median indoor pollution in hospitality venues was 204.2μg/m(3) in 2008 and 18.82μg/m(3) in 2011; the average outdoor PM2.5 concentration was 47.04μg/m(3) in 2008 and 18.82μg/m(3) in 2011. Pollution was higher in bars and cafeterias, followed by pubs and discos. Before the law was implemented, pollution was 4.34 times higher indoors than outdoors; in 2011 the average indoor PM2.5 concentration decreased by 90.88%. Only a complete ban is able to protect workers and customers against the health risks of second-hand smoke exposure. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Five-year trends of second-hand smoke exposure in Greece: a comparison between complete, partial, and prelegislation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Anagnostopoulos, Nektarios; Patelarou, Evridiki; Minas, Markos; Nakou, Chrysanthi; Dramba, Vassiliki; Giourgouli, Gianna; Bagkeris, Emmanouil; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Pattaka, Paraskevi; Antoniadis, Antonis; Lionis, Christos; Bertic, Monique; Dockery, Douglas; Connolly, Gregory N; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2012-12-01

    Our aim was to assess second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in hospitality venues after the smoke-free legislation implemented in September 2010 in Greece and to compare with when a partial ban was in place and in 2006 when no ban was in place. Hospitality venues were prospectively assessed for their indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM(2.5)) during the partial ban phase (n=149) and the complete ban phase (n=120, 80% followed up), while overall and matched by venue comparisons were also performed (no ban vs. partial ban vs. complete ban). Comparisons with previously collected data in 2006 when no ban was in place also was performed. Indoor air levels of PM(2.5) attributable to SHS dropped following the transition from a partial to a complete ban by 34% (137 μg/m(3) vs. 90 μg/m(3), p=0.003). This drop was larger in bars (from 195 μg/m(3) to 121 μg/m(3)), than in cafes (124 μg/m(3) vs. 87 μg/m(3)) or restaurants (42 μg/m(3) vs. 39 μg/m(3)). PM(2.5) concentrations between 2006 (no ban) and the partial ban of 2010 were also found to decrease by 94 μg/m(3); however, among matched venues, the levels of indoor air pollution were not found to change significantly (218 μg/m(3) vs. 178 μg/m(3), p=0.58). Comparing the 2010 complete ban results (n=120) with previously collected data from 2006 when no ban was in place (n=43), overall PM(2.5) concentrations were found to fall from 268 μg/m(3) to 89 μg/m(3), while a matched analysis found a significant reduction in PM(2.5) concentrations (249 μg/m(3) vs. 46 μg/m(3), p=0.011). The complete ban of smoking in hospitality venues in Greece led to a reduction in SHS exposure, in comparison to when the partial ban or no ban was in place; however, exposure to SHS was not eliminated indicating the need for stronger enforcement.

  9. 'Only Fathers Smoking' Contributes the Most to Socioeconomic Inequalities: Changes in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Infants' Exposure to Second Hand Smoke over Time in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Junko; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is one of the major causes of premature death and disease among children. While socioeconomic inequalities exist for adult smoking, such evidence is limited for SHS exposure in children. Thus, this study examined changes over time in socioeconomic inequalities in infants' SHS exposure in Japan. This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 41,833 infants born in 2001 and 32,120 infants born in 2010 in Japan from nationally representative surveys using questionnaires. The prevalence of infants' SHS exposure was determined and related to household income and parental education level. The magnitudes of income and educational inequalities in infants' SHS exposure were estimated in 2001 and 2010 using both absolute and relative inequality indices. The prevalence of SHS exposure in infants declined from 2001 to 2010. The relative index of inequality increased from 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.89) to 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.56) based on income and from 1.22 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.26) to 2.09 (95% CI, 2.00 to 2.17) based on education. In contrast, the slope index of inequality decreased from 30.9 (95% CI, 29.3 to 32.6) to 20.1 (95% CI, 18.7 to 21.5) based on income and from 44.6 (95% CI, 43.1 to 46.2) to 28.7 (95% CI, 27.3 to 30.0) based on education. Having only a father who smoked indoors was a major contributor to absolute income inequality in infants' SHS exposure in 2010, which increased in importance from 45.1% in 2001 to 67.0% in 2010. The socioeconomic inequalities in infants' second hand smoke exposure increased in relative terms but decreased in absolute terms from 2001 to 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage parents to quit smoking and protect infants from second hand smoke exposure, especially in low socioeconomic households that include non-smoking mothers.

  10. ‘Only Fathers Smoking’ Contributes the Most to Socioeconomic Inequalities: Changes in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Infants’ Exposure to Second Hand Smoke over Time in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Junko; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is one of the major causes of premature death and disease among children. While socioeconomic inequalities exist for adult smoking, such evidence is limited for SHS exposure in children. Thus, this study examined changes over time in socioeconomic inequalities in infants’ SHS exposure in Japan. Methods This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 41,833 infants born in 2001 and 32,120 infants born in 2010 in Japan from nationally representative su...

  11. Independent and joint effects of prenatal maternal smoking and maternal exposure to second-hand smoke on the development of adolescent obesity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Mamudu, Hadii M; Alamian, Arsham; Anderson, James L; Brooks, Billy

    2014-11-01

    To examine associations of prenatal maternal smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure with the development of adolescent obesity. Longitudinal data (1991-2007) from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development involving mothers that smoked and or exposed to SHS during the year before birth were analysed. Adolescent obesity in ages 12.0-15.9 years was defined as a BMI ≥ 95th percentile. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used for the analyses. Obesity was more prevalent among adolescents whose mothers smoked or had SHS exposure than those that did not smoke or exposed to SHS. After adjusting for maternal and child factors, GEE models showed that odds of adolescent obesity increased with prenatal maternal smoking (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.03-2.39) and SHS exposure (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.04-2.27). The odds for obesity increased more than two times among adolescents exposed to both maternal smoking and SHS (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24, 3.56) compared with those without exposure. Additionally, not breastfeeding, maternal obesity, and longer screen viewing hours per day were associated with increased odds of obesity. There is possibly a long-term joint effect of prenatal maternal smoke (smoking and SHS) exposure on obesity among adolescent offspring, and the effect is independent of birthweight. These findings suggest that adolescent obesity could possibly be curtailed with the development and promotion of smoking cessation programmes for families during the year before birth. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Second-hand Smoke Increases Nitric Oxide and Alters the IgE Response in a Murine Model of Allergic Aspergillosis

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    Brian W. P. Seymour

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS on nitric oxide (NO and immunoglobulin (Ig production in a murine model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA. Adult BALB/c mice were exposed to aged and diluted sidestream cigarette smoke from day 0 through day 43 to simulate “second-hand smoke”. During exposure, mice were sensitized to soluble Aspergillus fumigatus (Af antigen intranasally between day 14 and 24. All Af sensitized mice in ambient air (Af + AIR made elevated levels of IgE, IgG1, IgM, IgG2a and IgA. Af sensitized mice housed in ETS (Af + ETS made similar levels of immunoglobulins except for IgE that was significantly reduced in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. However, immunohistochemical evaluation of the lung revealed a marked accumulation of IgE positive cells in the lung parenchyma of these Af + ETS mice. LPS stimulation of BAL cells revealed elevated levels of NO in the Af + AIR group, which was further enhanced in the Af+ETS group. In vitro restimulation of the BAL cells on day 45 showed a TH0 response with elevated levels of IL3, 4, 5, 10 and IFN-γ. However, by day 28 the response shifted such that TH2 cytokines increased while IFN-γ decreased. The Af + ETS group showed markedly reduced levels in all cytokines tested, including the inflammatory cytokine IL6, when compared to the Af+AIR group. These results demonstrate that ETS affects ABPA by further enhancing the NO production and reduces the TH2 and the inflammatory cytokines while altering the pattern of IgE responses.

  13. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS, active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  14. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study.

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    Esteve Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. METHODS AND FINDING: We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8% were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, p<0.01. Cotinine concentration decreased by 27.6% (p = 0.068 among workers in venues with designated smoking areas, and by 10.7% (p = 0.475 among workers in venues where smoking was allowed. In Portugal and Andorra, no differences between cotinine concentration were found before (1.2 ng/ml and after the ban (1.2 ng/ml. In Spain, reported respiratory symptom declined significantly (by 71.9%; p<0.05 among workers in venues that became smoke-free. After adjustment for potential confounders, salivary cotinine and respiratory symptoms decreased significantly among workers in Spanish hospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. CONCLUSIONS: Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS

  15. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  16. Effects of "second-hand" smoke on structure and function of fibroblasts, cells that are critical for tissue repair and remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Madhav

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that "second-hand" cigarette smoke leads to abnormal tissue repair and remodelling but the cellular mechanisms involved in these adverse effects are not well understood. Fibroblasts play a major role in repair and remodelling. They orchestrate these processes by proliferating, migrating, and secreting proteins such as, cytokines, growth factors and extracellular matrix molecules. Therefore, we focus our studies on the effects of "second-hand" cigarette smoke on the structure and function of these cells. Results We used sidestream whole (SSW smoke, a major component of "second-hand" smoke, primary embryonic fibroblasts, cells that behave very much like wound fibroblasts, and a variety of cellular and molecular approaches. We show that doses of smoke similar to those found in tissues cause cytoskeletal changes in the fibroblasts that may lead to a decrease in cell migration. In addition, we also show that these levels of cigarette smoke stimulate an increase in cell survival that is reflected in an increase and/or activation of stress/survival proteins such as cIL-8, grp78, PKB/Akt, p53, and p21. We further show that SSW affects the endomembrane system and that this effect is also accomplished by nicotine alone. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that: (i SSW may delay wound repair because of the inability of the fibroblasts to migrate into the wounded area, leading to an accumulation of these cells at the edge of the wound, thus preventing the formation of the healing tissue; (ii the increase in cell survival coupled to the decrease in cell migration can lead to a build-up of connective tissue, thereby causing fibrosis and excess scarring.

  17. Using air quality monitoring to reduce second-hand smoke exposure in homes: the AFRESH feasibility study

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    Ruaraidh Dobson

    2017-06-01

    participants to create smoke-free homes, although it is not possible to generalise the results of this small study. However, the resources required for the delivery of AFRESH do not match with the resources available in third-sector organisations, despite smoke-free homes being a policy priority

  18. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge; Grønbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  19. ‘Only Fathers Smoking’ Contributes the Most to Socioeconomic Inequalities: Changes in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Infants’ Exposure to Second Hand Smoke over Time in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Junko; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is one of the major causes of premature death and disease among children. While socioeconomic inequalities exist for adult smoking, such evidence is limited for SHS exposure in children. Thus, this study examined changes over time in socioeconomic inequalities in infants’ SHS exposure in Japan. Methods This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 41,833 infants born in 2001 and 32,120 infants born in 2010 in Japan from nationally representative surveys using questionnaires. The prevalence of infants’ SHS exposure was determined and related to household income and parental education level. The magnitudes of income and educational inequalities in infants’ SHS exposure were estimated in 2001 and 2010 using both absolute and relative inequality indices. Results The prevalence of SHS exposure in infants declined from 2001 to 2010. The relative index of inequality increased from 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.89) to 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.56) based on income and from 1.22 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.26) to 2.09 (95% CI, 2.00 to 2.17) based on education. In contrast, the slope index of inequality decreased from 30.9 (95% CI, 29.3 to 32.6) to 20.1 (95% CI, 18.7 to 21.5) based on income and from 44.6 (95% CI, 43.1 to 46.2) to 28.7 (95% CI, 27.3 to 30.0) based on education. Having only a father who smoked indoors was a major contributor to absolute income inequality in infants’ SHS exposure in 2010, which increased in importance from 45.1% in 2001 to 67.0% in 2010. Conclusions The socioeconomic inequalities in infants’ second hand smoke exposure increased in relative terms but decreased in absolute terms from 2001 to 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage parents to quit smoking and protect infants from second hand smoke exposure, especially in low socioeconomic households that include non-smoking mothers. PMID:26431400

  20. Second-hand smoke exposure in homes and in cars among Canadian youth: current prevalence, beliefs about exposure, and changes between 2004 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Ahmed, Rashid

    2009-08-01

    The present study examines second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the beliefs youth have about being exposed to SHS in their home and in cars and explores changes in exposure and beliefs over time. Nationally representative data from the 2006 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) were used to examine youth exposure to smoking and beliefs about smoking in the home and car among 71,003 Canadian youth in grades 5-12. Gender-specific logistic regression models were conducted to examine if being exposed to smoking at home or in the car were associated with the beliefs youth have about either smoking around kids at home or smoking around kids in cars. In 2006, 22.1% of youth in grades 5-12 were exposed to smoking in their home on a daily or almost daily basis and 28.1% were exposed to smoking while riding in a car at least once in the previous week. The majority of youth reported that they do not think smoking should be allowed around kids at home (88.3%) or in cars (88.4%). Youth exposed to smoking in the home or in cars reported missing substantially more days of school in the previous month because of their health. Among both male and female youth, being an ever smoker, living in a house where someone smokes inside daily, and having ridden in a car with someone who was smoking cigarettes in the past seven days were all associated with being more likely to report that smoking should not be allowed around kids at home or in cars. Compared to their male counterparts, female youth with at least one parent who smokes were more likely to report that smoking should not be allowed around kids at home or in cars. As rates of SHS exposure in the home and car decreased between 2004 and 2006, the prevalence of youth who reported that they do not think smoking should be allowed around kids at home or in cars also decreased over the same period of time. These results highlight that Canadian youth are frequently exposed to SHS in their homes and in cars despite the fact that the vast majority of

  1. Parental tobacco smoke exposure: Epigenetics and the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic programming is an important mechanism underlying the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Much of the research in this area has focused on maternal nutrition. Parental smoking has emerged as a prime example of how exposure to environmental toxicants during the preconceptional and in utero periods can have long-term effects on offspring health, and the role of the epigenome in these effects. Maternal smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy result in lower birth weight of offspring, and there is now clear evidence that these offspring are at elevated risk for overweight/obesity, type-2 diabetes, respiratory effects during adolescence and adulthood, and may be programmed for increased risk of nicotine addiction. Epigenetic analyses of placenta, cord blood and offspring buccal cells have consistently revealed altered DNA methylation of genes involved in developmental processes and xenobiotic metabolism, and these epigenetic changes are persistent. Animal studies with cigarette smoke and nicotine support these findings. Paternal preconceptional smoking has been positively related to childhood cancers, potentially linked to changes in the sperm epigenome. Germ cell specification and preimplantation development are periods of widespread erasure and reprogramming of DNA methylation, and as such are likely to be sensitive periods for environmental effects on the epigenome. Exposure to tobacco smoke during gametogenesis and in

  2. Changes in and Factors Affecting Second-hand Smoke Exposure in Nonsmoking Korean Americans in California: A Panel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsu Kim, MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: We showed that SHS exposure increased among Korean American nonsmokers in California, and the most important variables explaining the change in SHS exposure involved smoking among others with whom the subject is associated. These findings could be used as objective evidence for developing public health policies to reduce SHS exposure.

  3. Second hand smoke exposure and the risk of invasive meningococcal disease in children: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Rachael L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive meningococcal disease remains an important cause of serious morbidity and mortality in children and young people. There is a growing body of literature to suggest that exposure to passive smoke may play a role in the development of the disease, therefore we have performed a systematic review to provide a comprehensive estimate of the magnitude of this effect for smoking by any household member, by individual family members, and of maternal smoking before and after birth. Methods Four databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and CAB Abstracts database were searched to identify studies (to June 2012 and reference lists scanned for further studies. Titles, abstracts and full texts were checked for eligibility independently by two authors. Quality of included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using random effect models, with heterogeneity quantified using I2. Results We identified 18 studies which assessed the effects of SHS on the risk of invasive meningococcal disease in children. SHS in the home doubled the risk of invasive meningococcal disease (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.92, I2 = 72%, with some evidence of an exposure-response gradient. The strongest effect was seen in children under 5 years (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.51 to 4.09, I2 = 47%. Maternal smoking significantly increased the risk of invasive meningococcal disease by 3 times during pregnancy (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.52-5.66 and by 2 times after birth (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.54-3.31. Conclusions SHS exposure, and particularly passive foetal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy, significantly increases the risk of childhood invasive meningococcal disease. It is likely that an extra 630 cases of invasive meningococcal disease annually in children under 16 are directly attributable to SHS exposure in UK homes.

  4. Occupational exposure to second hand smoke and respiratory and sensory symptoms: A cross-sectional survey of hospital workers in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Radwan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to Second Hand Smoke (SHS has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, upper and lower respiratory tract diseases and an increased risk of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The majority of cases of mortality and morbidity is attributable to exposure of adults to SHS and is related to cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. In Egypt, comprehensive smoke-free laws exist, however, in many workplaces they are poorly enforced consequently exposing workers to the detrimental health hazards of SHS. We aimed at determination of workplace exposure to Second Hand Smoke (SHS and its association with respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms in hospital workers in Port-said governorate in Egypt. Material and methods: A cross-sectional face to face survey was conducted by the use of a standardised questionnaire among 415 adult hospital workers; representing 50% of all employees (81% response rate; recruited from 4 randomly selected general hospitals in Port-said governorate in Egypt. Results: All hospitals employees reported exposure to SHS - on average 1.5 (SD = 2.5 hours of exposure per day. After controlling for potential confounders, exposure to SHS at work was significantly associated with an increased risk of wheezes (OR = 1.14, p < 0.01, shortness of breath (OR = 1.17, p < 0.01, phlegm (OR = 1.23, p < 0.01, running and irritated nose (OR = 1.14, p < 0.01 as well as a sore, scratchy throat (OR = 1.23. Conclusions: These findings point out that workplace exposure to SHS is evident in hospitals in Port-said governorate and that workers are adversely affected by exposure to it at work. This underlines the importance of rigorous enforcement of smoke-free policies to protect the workers' health in Egypt.

  5. Validity of self-reported intensity of exposure to second-hand smoke at home against environmental and personal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, José M; González-Marrón, Adrián; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Sureda, Xisca; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Galán, Iñaki; Pascual, José Antonio; Fernández, Esteve

    2017-11-02

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity of two questions about the perception of intensity of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home using as a reference environmental markers (airborne nicotine and benzene) and biomarkers of exposure (cotinine in saliva and urine). This was a cross-sectional study in a convenience sample of 49 non-smoking volunteers. We found a high correlation between self-reported SHS exposure and airborne nicotine (r sp =0.806, p0.05). In conclusion, the significant correlation of the two questions proposed with environmental markers and personal markers indicates their potential validity to assess exposure to SHS at home. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Health impacts of exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Paul A; Gray, Selena; Gilmore, Anna B

    2007-09-21

    Casino workers are exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) at work, yet remain at risk of being excluded from smoke-free legislation around the world. If the prime motivation for smoke-free legislation is the protection of workers, then a workforce experiencing ill-health associated with SHS exposure should not be excluded from legislation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms among a sample of casino workers, to identify any association between the reporting of symptoms and exposure to SHS at work, and to compare the prevalence of symptoms with that in other workers exposed to SHS. A postal questionnaire survey of 1568 casino workers in London. Using multivariate analysis we identified predictors of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms. 559 workers responded to the questionnaire (response of 36%). 91% of casino workers reported the presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms in the previous four weeks, while the figure was 84% for respiratory symptoms. The presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms was most strongly associated with reporting the highest exposure to SHS at work (OR 3.26; 1.72, 6.16). This was also true for reporting the presence of one or more respiratory irritation symptoms (OR 2.24; 1.34, 3.74). Prevalence of irritation symptoms in the casino workers was in general appreciably higher than that reported in studies of bar workers. Our research supports the need for comprehensive smoke-free legislation around the world, covering all indoor workplaces including casinos.

  7. Health impacts of exposure to second hand smoke (SHS amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmore Anna B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Casino workers are exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS at work, yet remain at risk of being excluded from smoke-free legislation around the world. If the prime motivation for smoke-free legislation is the protection of workers, then a workforce experiencing ill-health associated with SHS exposure should not be excluded from legislation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms among a sample of casino workers, to identify any association between the reporting of symptoms and exposure to SHS at work, and to compare the prevalence of symptoms with that in other workers exposed to SHS. Methods A postal questionnaire survey of 1568 casino workers in London. Using multivariate analysis we identified predictors of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms. Results 559 workers responded to the questionnaire (response of 36%. 91% of casino workers reported the presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms in the previous four weeks, while the figure was 84% for respiratory symptoms. The presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms was most strongly associated with reporting the highest exposure to SHS at work (OR 3.26; 1.72, 6.16. This was also true for reporting the presence of one or more respiratory irritation symptoms (OR 2.24; 1.34, 3.74. Prevalence of irritation symptoms in the casino workers was in general appreciably higher than that reported in studies of bar workers. Conclusion Our research supports the need for comprehensive smoke-free legislation around the world, covering all indoor workplaces including casinos.

  8. Reducing tobacco smoking and smoke exposure to prevent preterm birth and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagijo, Mary-Ann; Sheikh, Aziz; Duijts, Liesbeth; Been, Jasper V

    2017-03-01

    Tobacco smoking and smoke exposure during pregnancy are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth. Also, children born preterm have a higher risk of complications including bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma when their mothers smoked during pregnancy. Smoking cessation in early pregnancy can help reduce the adverse impact on offspring health. Counselling interventions are effective in promoting smoking cessation and reducing the incidence of preterm birth. Peer support and incentive-based approaches are likely to be of additional benefit, whereas the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, has not definitely been established. Smoke-free legislation can help reduce smoke exposure as well as maternal smoking rates at a population level, and is associated with a reduction in preterm birth. Helping future mothers to stop smoking and protect their children from second hand smoke exposure must be a key priority for health care workers and policy makers alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for State Tobacco Control Programs Basic Information Health Effects Cancer Heart Disease and Stroke Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Smoking During Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco ...

  10. Technical solutions for reducing indoor residential exposures to ultrafine particles from second-hand cigarette smoke infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    was carried out in the field in a multi-storey building and cardboard and plastic foil of polyethylene were used for sealing the entire wooden floor in the receiving flat. Another technical solution examined was a novel air circulating ductwork. The efficiency of the novel air circulating ductwork...... in which smoke infiltrates from one flat to another and also to examine technical solutions for preventing or reducing infiltration of ultrafine particles from the source flat to the receiving flat. One of the technical solutions examined was sealing of the floor in the receiving flat. The study...

  11. Whole-genome sequencing of asian lung cancers: second-hand smoke unlikely to be responsible for higher incidence of lung cancer among Asian never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vidhya G; Ebert, Philip J; Ting, Jason C; Lim, Elaine; Wong, Swee-Seong; Teo, Audrey S M; Yue, Yong G; Chua, Hui-Hoon; Ma, Xiwen; Loh, Gary S L; Lin, Yuhao; Tan, Joanna H J; Yu, Kun; Zhang, Shenli; Reinhard, Christoph; Tan, Daniel S W; Peters, Brock A; Lincoln, Stephen E; Ballinger, Dennis G; Laramie, Jason M; Nilsen, Geoffrey B; Barber, Thomas D; Tan, Patrick; Hillmer, Axel M; Ng, Pauline C

    2014-11-01

    Asian nonsmoking populations have a higher incidence of lung cancer compared with their European counterparts. There is a long-standing hypothesis that the increase of lung cancer in Asian never-smokers is due to environmental factors such as second-hand smoke. We analyzed whole-genome sequencing of 30 Asian lung cancers. Unsupervised clustering of mutational signatures separated the patients into two categories of either all the never-smokers or all the smokers or ex-smokers. In addition, nearly one third of the ex-smokers and smokers classified with the never-smoker-like cluster. The somatic variant profiles of Asian lung cancers were similar to that of European origin with G.C>T.A being predominant in smokers. We found EGFR and TP53 to be the most frequently mutated genes with mutations in 50% and 27% of individuals, respectively. Among the 16 never-smokers, 69% had an EGFR mutation compared with 29% of 14 smokers/ex-smokers. Asian never-smokers had lung cancer signatures distinct from the smoker signature and their mutation profiles were similar to European never-smokers. The profiles of Asian and European smokers are also similar. Taken together, these results suggested that the same mutational mechanisms underlie the etiology for both ethnic groups. Thus, the high incidence of lung cancer in Asian never-smokers seems unlikely to be due to second-hand smoke or other carcinogens that cause oxidative DNA damage, implying that routine EGFR testing is warranted in the Asian population regardless of smoking status. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Particulate Matter in Second-Hand Smoke Emitted from Different Cigarette Sizes and Types of the Brand Vogue Mainly Smoked by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Kant

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air pollution with harmful particulate matter (PM is mainly caused by cigarette smoke. Super-Slim-Size-Cigarettes (SSL are considered a less harmful alternative to King-Size-Cigarettes (KSC due to longer filters and relatively low contents. We ask if “Combined Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke” (CMSS-associated PM levels of SSL are lower than of KSC and thus are potentially less harmful. PM concentrations in CMSS (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 are measured from four cigarette types of the brand Vogue, using an “automatic-environmental-tobacco-smoke-emitter” (AETSE and laser aerosol spectrometry: SSL-BLEUE, -MENTHE, -LILAS and KSC-La Cigarette and -3R4F reference. This analysis shows that SSL MENTHE emitted the highest amount of PM, and KSC-La Cigarette the lowest. 3R4F reference emitted PM in the middle range, exceeding SSL BLEUE and falling slightly below SSL LILAS. It emerged that PM1 constituted the biggest proportion of PM emission. The outcome shows significant type-specific differences for emitted PM concentrations. Our results indicate that SSL are potentially more harmful for passive smokers than the respective KSC. However, this study cannot give precise statements about the general influence of the size of a cigarette on PM. Alarming is that PM1 is responsible for the biggest proportion of PM pollution, since smaller particles cause more harmful effects.

  13. Exposure to second-hand smoke and the risk of tuberculosis in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 observational studies.

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    Jayadeep Patra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available According to WHO Global Health Estimates, tuberculosis (TB is among the top ten causes of global mortality and ranks second after cardiovascular disease in most high-burden regions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated the role of second-hand smoke (SHS exposure as a risk factor for TB among children and adults.We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar up to August 31, 2014. Our a priori inclusion criteria encompassed only original studies where latent TB infection (LTBI and active TB disease were diagnosed microbiologically, clinically, histologically, or radiologically. Effect estimates were pooled using fixed- and random-effects models. We identified 18 eligible studies, with 30,757 children and 44,432 adult non-smokers, containing SHS exposure and TB outcome data for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Twelve studies assessed children and eight studies assessed adult non-smokers; two studies assessed both populations. Summary relative risk (RR of LTBI associated with SHS exposure in children was similar to the overall effect size, with high heterogeneity (pooled RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.00-2.83. Children showed a more than 3-fold increased risk of SHS-associated active TB (pooled RR 3.41, 95% CI 1.81-6.45, which was higher than the risk in adults exposed to SHS (summary RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.68. Positive and significant exposure-response relationships were observed among children under 5 y (RR 5.88, 95% CI 2.09-16.54, children exposed to SHS through any parent (RR 4.20, 95% CI 1.92-9.20, and children living under the most crowded household conditions (RR 5.53, 95% CI 2.36-12.98. Associations for LTBI and active TB disease remained significant after adjustment for age, biomass fuel (BMF use, and presence of a TB patient in the household, although the meta-analysis was limited to a subset of studies that adjusted for these variables. There was a loss of association

  14. Meditative Movement as a treatment for pulmonary dysfunction in flight attendants exposed to second-hand cigarette smoke: Study protocol for a randomized trial.

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    Peter ePayne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A study protocol is presented for the investigation of Meditative Movement (MM as a treatment for pulmonary dysfunction in Flight Attendants (FA who were exposed to second-hand cigarette smoke (SHCS while flying before the smoking ban. The study will have three parts, some of which will run concurrently. The first is a data gathering and screening phase, which will gather data on pulmonary and other aspects of the health of FA, and will also serve to screen participants for the other phases. Second is an exercise selection phase, in which a variety of MM exercises will be taught, over a 16-week period, to a cohort of 20 FA. A subset of these exercises will be selected on the basis of participant feedback on effectiveness and compliance. Third is a 52-week randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of a digitally delivered form of the previously selected exercises on a group of 20 FA, as compared with an attention control group. Outcome measures to be used in all three parts of the study include the six-minute walk test as a primary measure, as well as a range of biomarkers, tests and questionnaires documenting hormonal, cardio-respiratory, autonomic and affective state. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT02612389.

  15. Second Hand Smoke Exposure and Excess Heart Disease and Lung Cancer Mortality among Hospital Staff in Crete, Greece: A Case Study

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    Anthony Kafatos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS is a serious threat to public health, and a significant cause of lung cancer and heart disease among non-smokers. Even though Greek hospitals have been declared smoke free since 2002, smoking is still evident. Keeping the above into account, the aim of this study was to quantify the levels of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and to estimate the attributed lifetime excess heart disease and lung cancer deaths per 1000 of the hospital staff, in a large Greek public hospital. Environmental airborne respirable suspended particles (RSP of PM2.5 were performed and the personnel’s excess mortality risk was estimated using risk prediction formulas. Excluding the intensive care unit and the operating theatres, all wards and clinics were polluted with environmental tobacco smoke. Mean SHS-RSP measurements ranged from 11 to 1461 μg/m3 depending on the area. Open wards averaged 84 μg/m3 and the managing wards averaged 164 μg/m3 thus giving an excess lung cancer and heart disease of 1.12 (range 0.23-1.88 and 11.2 (range 2.3–18.8 personnel in wards and 2.35 (range 0.55-12.2 and 23.5 (range 5.5–122 of the managing staff per 1000 over a 40-year lifespan, respectively. Conclusively, SHS exposure in hospitals in Greece is prevalent and taking into account the excess heart disease and lung cancer mortality risk as also the immediate adverse health effects of SHS exposure, it is clear that proper implementation and enforcement of the legislation that bans smoking in hospitals is imperative to protect the health of patients and staff alike.

  16. Effect of Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke on the Quality of Life: A Nationwide Population-Based Study from South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Wook Kim

    Full Text Available Although exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS has been associated with various medical conditions, only limited data are available on its association with health-related quality of life (HRQOL, particularly data obtained with the EQ-5D or EQ visual analogue scale (VAS.This cross-sectional study evaluated 10,532 adult never-smokers who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. By using linear regression models to adjust for possible confounders and incorporating survey weights in analyses, the association between exposure to SHS and HRQOL-measured with the EQ-5D index and the EQ-VAS score-was evaluated. Data were further stratified by the amount of exposure time.After weighted analysis and adjustment, exposure to SHS was significantly associated with lower measures on the EQ-5D index (β = -0.007, P = 0.005 and EQ-VAS score (β = -1.936, P < 0.001. When comparing the unexposed group with the groups exposed <2h/day and ≥2h/day, exposure to a longer duration of SHS was significantly associated with lower scores on the EQ-5D index and the EQ-VAS score.In conclusion, exposure to SHS was associated with reduced HRQOL measured by the EQ-5D index and EQ-VAS score, revealing a dose-response relationship.

  17. Health Impact Assessment for Second-Hand Smoke Exposure in Germany—Quantifying Estimates for Ischaemic Heart Diseases, COPD, and Stroke

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    Florian Fischer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of the adverse health effects attributable to second-hand smoke (SHS exposure is available. This study aims to quantify the impact of SHS exposure on ischaemic heart diseases (IHD, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD, and stroke in Germany. Therefore, this study estimated and forecasted the morbidity for the three outcomes in the German population. Furthermore, a health impact assessment was performed using DYNAMO-HIA, which is a generic software tool applying a Markov model. Overall 687,254 IHD cases, 231,973 COPD cases, and 288,015 stroke cases were estimated to be attributable to SHS exposure in Germany for 2014. Under the assumption that the population prevalence of these diseases and the prevalence of SHS exposure remain constant, the total number of cases will increase due to demographic aging. Assuming a total eradication of SHS exposure beginning in 2014 leads to an estimated reduction of 50% in cases, compared to the reference scenario in 2040 for all three diseases. The results highlight the relevance of SHS exposure because it affects several chronic disease conditions and has a major impact on the population’s health. Therefore, public health campaigns to protect non-smokers are urgently needed.

  18. Second-hand smoke exposure and the factors associated with avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children: a school-based cross-sectional study

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    Lin Wei-Ting

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-hand Smoke (SHS exposure is a significant public health problem that may be responsible for serious health hazards for child. This study aimed to examine the exposure status of SHS and the factors associated with SHS avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was used to obtain a sample of the mothers of pre-school children (n = 1,020 in 30 registered kindergartens in eastern Taiwan. Overall, 919 (a response rate of 90% completed the questionnaires. Regression models were used to identify factors with respect to the avoidance behavior of SHS. Results The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 70% and 50% for the mothers and their children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, mothers who were current smokers (β = -0.260, p Conclusions The high prevalence rate of exposure to SHS for mothers and their children suggests that a well-designed future intervention program should be implemented in regard to pre-school children's mothers in order to prevent these mothers and their children from SHS exposure hazards, more particularly, to strengthen the knowledge base, to enhance self-efficacy and to foster a more positive attitude toward the avoidance of SHS in the mothers.

  19. Changes in air quality and second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality sector businesses after introduction of the English Smoke-free legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotz, N K; van Tongeren, M; Wareing, H; Wallace, L M; Semple, S; Maccalman, L

    2008-12-01

    To monitor and disseminate the short-term effects of the English Smoke-free legislation on air quality and employee exposure in businesses of the hospitality industry. Indoor particle concentrations and salivary cotinine levels were measured in businesses in the hospitality sector and non-smoking employees one month before and after the implementation of the legislation. Results were immediately released to the media to announce the improvements in air quality and employee exposure to the wider public. Measurements were collected in 49 businesses and from 75 non-smoking individuals. Indoor PM(2.5) concentrations decreased by 95% from 217 microg/m(3) at baseline to 11 microg/m(3) at follow-up (P hospitality industry sector. We believe that quick and positive feedback to the public on the effects of smoking restrictions is essential when introducing public health legislation such as the Smoke-free legislation.

  20. The Influence of Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Childhood and Active Cigarette Smoking on Crohn's Disease Phenotype Defined by the Montreal Classification Scheme in a Western Cape Population, South Africa.

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    Tawanda Chivese

    Full Text Available Smoking may worsen the disease outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD, however the effect of exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is unclear. In South Africa, no such literature exists. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease phenotype, at time of diagnosis of CD, was associated with exposure to second-hand cigarette during childhood and active cigarette smoking habits.A cross sectional examination of all consecutive CD patients seen during the period September 2011-January 2013 at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease centers in the Western Cape, South Africa was performed. Data were collected via review of patient case notes, interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination by the attending gastroenterologist. Disease phenotype (behavior and location was evaluated at time of diagnosis, according to the Montreal Classification scheme. In addition, disease behavior was stratified as 'complicated' or 'uncomplicated', using predefined definitions. Passive cigarette smoke exposure was evaluated during 3 age intervals: 0-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years.One hundred and ninety four CD patients were identified. Cigarette smoking during the 6 months prior to, or at time of diagnosis was significantly associated with ileo-colonic (L3 disease (RRR = 3.63; 95% CI, 1.32-9.98, p = 0.012 and ileal (L1 disease (RRR = 3.54; 95% CI, 1.06-11.83, p = 0.040 compared with colonic disease. In smokers, childhood passive cigarette smoke exposure during the 0-5 years age interval was significantly associated with ileo-colonic CD location (RRR = 21.3; 95% CI, 1.16-391.55, p = 0.040. No significant association between smoking habits and disease behavior at diagnosis, whether defined by the Montreal scheme, or stratified as 'complicated' vs 'uncomplicated', was observed.Smoking habits were associated with ileo-colonic (L3 and ileal (L1 disease at time of diagnosis in a South African cohort.

  1. Tobacco Use, Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Cessation Training among Third-Year Medical Technology Students in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjuntra, Pisit; Suriyaprom, Kanjana

    2015-10-01

    Compare tobacco use, exposure to second-hand smoke, and smoking cessation training among third-year medical technology students in Thailand between 2006 and 2011. The medical technology student survey was carried out with Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) between October and November 2011. The population of the present study was all students in nine medical technology schools. There were 773 students enrolled in this study yielding a response rate of 95.1%. The prevalence of current cigarette smokers had decreased from 2006 to 2011 (4.8% to 1.4%, respectively). Rates of exposure to second-hand smoke at home were 36.3% in 2006 and 39.7% in 2011, while rates of exposure to second-hand smoke in other places did not change. Most students recognized that they should give patients counseling to quit smoking, but only 20.6% in 2006 and 28.4% in 2011 of them had received formal training in tobacco cessation counseling. There were low percentages of current cigarette smoking but high percentages of exposure to second-hand smoke among medical technology students. The percentage of cessation training was still low among students. Therefore, medical technology schools should provide formal training in tobacco cessation for all students to help improve their ability in providing advice to patients.

  2. "Accommodating" smoke-free policies: tobacco industry's Courtesy of Choice programme in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-10-01

    To understand the implementation and effects of the Courtesy of Choice programme designed to "accommodate" smokers as an alternative to smoke-free policies developed by Philip Morris International (PMI) and supported by RJ Reynolds (RJR) and British American Tobacco (BAT) since the mid-1990s in Latin America. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, BAT "social reports", news reports and tobacco control legislation. Since the mid-1990s, PMI, BAT and RJR promoted Accommodation Programs to maintain the social acceptability of smoking. As in other parts of the world, multinational tobacco companies partnered with third party allies from the hospitality industry in Latin America. The campaign was extended from the hospitality industry (bars, restaurants and hotels) to other venues such as workplaces and airport lounges. A local public relations agency, as well as a network of engineers and other experts in ventilation systems, was hired to promote the tobacco industry's programme. The most important outcome of these campaigns in several countries was the prevention of meaningful smoke-free policies, both in public places and in workplaces. Courtesy of Choice remains an effective public relations campaign to undermine smoke-free policies in Latin America. The tobacco companies' accommodation campaign undermines the implementation of measures to protect people from second-hand smoke called for by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, perpetuating the exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor enclosed environments.

  3. Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Choudhury, Sohel; Mustafa, Zaman; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2011-01-01

    To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh. Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples. The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9%) (male-58.2% and female-51.7%), in workplace (63%) (male-67.8% and female-30.4%), and in any public place (57.8%) (male-90.4% and female-25.1%) 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3%) and health care facilities (5.8%); however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%), and restaurants (27.6%). SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups. Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on protecting the people from hazardous effect of SHS as well as

  4. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoking, and passive smoking. Secondhand smoke contains at least 250 toxic ... in tea bag-like pouches or sachets. No matter what it's called, smokeless tobacco is addictive and ...

  5. Disparities in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution at Romanian worksites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Differences in the risk of being exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS in the workplace may occur not only between countries, but also within a country among socio-economic groups. [b]Objectives. [/b]The aim of the study was to examine the associations of exposure to SHS at worksites with selected factors in non-smoking Romanian employees. [b]Material and Methods[/b]. Data on exposure to SHS at worksites and other characteristics of respondents came from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a nationally representative household survey of adults 15 years of age or older, using a standard protocol. [b]Results[/b]. Among 4,517 respondents who completed the questionnaire there were 1,333 subjects, including 859 non-smokers who worked in an indoor area outside the home. The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 31.2% among non-smoking male and 23.9% among non-smoking female employees (p<0.05. Employees with primary education had odds of exposure to SHS at work nearly twice as high, compared to the respondents having high education attainment (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–2.9. Moreover, exposure to SHS at worksites was significantly associated with a low level of support for tobacco control policies among workers (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2–2.8. [b]Conclusions[/b]. In spite of the increasing presence of smoking bans in public and workplaces, enforcement still seems to be unsuccessful in the occupational space in Romania. In order to reduce SHS exposure in workplaces, strengthening support for tobacco control policies is essential.

  6. Smoking and Tobacco Use Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... respiratory infections, middle ear disease, more severe asthma, respiratory symptoms, and slowed lung growth. CANCER Tobacco use increases the risk for many types of cancer, such as lung cancer. More HEART DISEASE Studies show a direct link between cigarette smoking ...

  7. Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearlove, J; Bialous, S; Glantz, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments. Methods: We analysed tobacco industry documents publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA. Documents were accessed between January and November 2001. Results: The tobacco industry, led by Philip Morris, made financial contributions to existing hospitality associations or, when it did not find an association willing to work for tobacco interests, created its own "association" in order to prevent the growth of smoke-free environments. The industry also used hospitality associations as a vehicle for programmes promoting "accommodation" of smokers and non-smokers, which ignore the health risks of second hand smoke for employees and patrons of hospitality venues. Conclusion: Through the myth of lost profits, the tobacco industry has fooled the hospitality industry into embracing expensive ventilation equipment, while in reality 100% smoke-free laws have been shown to have no effect on business revenues, or even to improve them. The tobacco industry has effectively turned the hospitality industry into its de facto lobbying arm on clean indoor air. Public health advocates need to understand that, with rare exceptions, when they talk to organised restaurant associations they are effectively talking to the tobacco industry and must act accordingly. PMID:12034999

  8. Teens and tobacco: a dramatization: final report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    This project was developed as an educational tool to increase awareness of tobacco related issues such as lifestyle choices, health risks, advertising, saying no, cessation, second hand smoke and smokeless tobacco...

  9. Circumstances of tobacco smoking by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Chemperek, Ewa; Koza, Matylda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the frequency and intensity of tobacco smoking by pregnant women as well as to find out the relationship between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic variables (education, marital status, professional career, smoking partner, number of children) as well as health variables (severe ailments during pregnancy period, taking medicines, using medical care). The research was carried out at the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the Specialist Hospital in Jasło as well as at the Women's Outpatient Clinic of the Public Independent Health Service Institution in Skołyszyn (Podkarpackie Voivodship). The research was conducted by means of the questionnaire distributed from July to September 2002 among 100 pregnant women. The results of the analysis indicate that 18% of the women under survey smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, including 6% daily smokers and 12% occasional smokers. 18% of women quitted smoking when they found out that they were pregnant, and 18% of them limited smoking. Exposure to passive smoking at their family home was declared by more than a half of the pregnant women, while 14% of the surveyed women mentioned passive exposure to smoke at their workplace. The socioeconomic variables that most clearly showed positive correlation with active smoking by pregnant women were: smoking tobacco by a husband or steady partner, smoking tobacco in the presence of a pregnant woman in her workplace and at home, as well as taking advantage of a family doctor's advice. Smoking tobacco during pregnancy was also enhanced by: the lower level of education, extramarital pregnancy, permanent residence in a town or a city, poor living conditions, not working professionally during pregnancy, having two or more children, abnormal course of pregnancy, suffering from such ailments as: weepiness, problems with relaxation, lack of appetite and taking no medicines during pregnancy.

  10. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  11. Chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haesaenen, E.; Manninen, P.K.G.; Himberg, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, V.

    1990-01-01

    The chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke in both the particulate and gaseous phases were studied by neutron activation analysis. Eleven popular brands of western filter cigarettes were tested. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide concentrations were measured in the gaseous phase in two leading brands in Finland. The results suggest that the mainstream smoke from one cigarette conveys into the lungs about 150 μg chlorine and about 5 μg bromine. Probably most of the chlorine and bromine is in the form of organic compounds and the main components are methyl chloride and methyl bromide. (author) 14 refs.; 1 tab

  12. Prevalencia de tabaquismo y exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco en las mujeres embarazadas: diferencias entre españolas e inmigrantes Prevalence of smoking and second-hand smoke exposure: differences between Spanish and immigrant pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Jiménez-Muro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer las diferencias que hay entre las mujeres embarazadas españolas e inmigrantes en la prevalencia de tabaquismo y la exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco, así como los factores asociados a que las mujeres continúen fumando durante la gestación. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico transversal en mujeres atendidas en el momento del parto en la provincia de Zaragoza. Variables recogidas mediante cuestionario: características sociodemográficas y de consumo de tabaco de la mujer y la pareja, exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco y percepción de riesgo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 2.440 mujeres (35% inmigrantes. El 31,1% fumaba a diario antes de quedarse embarazada y el 18,2% (n=445 fumó durante toda la gestación, con diferencias entre españolas e inmigrantes (21,9% frente 8,7%; pObjectives: To identify differences in the prevalence of smoking and second-hand smoke exposure between Spanish and immigrant pregnant women, as well as the factors associated with continued smoking during pregnancy. Methods: An epidemiologic cross-sectional study was carried out in women attended at delivery in Zaragoza (Spain. A smoking questionnaire was used to collect the following variables: the women's and partners' sociodemographic factors and smoking behavior, second-hand smoke exposure and perception of the risks of this exposure. Results: We included 2440 women (35% immigrants. A total of 31.1% smoked before becoming pregnant and 18.2% during pregnancy, with significant differences between Spanish and immigrant women (21.9% versus 8.7%; p<0.001. Immigrant women lived with a greater number of smokers, smoked more inside the home, were exposed to second-hand smoke for a greater number of hours per day, avoided public places with second-hand smoke less, and more often worked in bars and restaurants. The following factors were associated with smoking during pregnancy: being Spanish, smoking a greater number of cigarettes before pregnancy

  13. Group Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Increases Smoke Toxicant Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramôa, Carolina P; Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a global health concern. Laboratory research has focused on individual waterpipe users while group use is common. This study examined user toxicant exposure and smoke toxicant yield associated with individual and group waterpipe smoking. Twenty-two pairs of waterpipe smokers used a waterpipe individually and as a dyad. Before and after smoking, blood was sampled and expired carbon monoxide (CO) measured; puff topography was recorded throughout. One participant from each pair was selected randomly and their plasma nicotine and expired air CO concentrations were compared when smoking alone to when smoking as part of a dyad. Recorded puff topography was used to machine-produce smoke that was analyzed for toxicant content. There was no difference in mean plasma nicotine concentration when an individual smoked as part of a dyad (mean = 14.9 ng/ml; standard error of the mean [SEM] = 3.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean = 10.0 ng/ml; SEM = 1.5). An individual smoking as part of as a dyad had, on average, lower CO (mean = 15.8 ppm; SEM = 2.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean= 21.3 ppm; SEM = 2.7). When two participants smoked as a dyad they took, on average, more puffs (mean = 109.8; SEM = 7.6) than a singleton smoker (mean = 77.7; SEM = 8.1) and a shorter interpuff interval (IPI; dyad mean = 23.8 seconds; SEM = 1.9; singleton mean = 40.8 seconds; SEM = 4.8). Higher concentrations of several toxicants were observed in dyad-produced smoke. Dyad smoking may increase smoke toxicant content, likely due to the dyad's shorter IPIs and greater puff number. More work is needed to understand if group waterpipe smoking alters the health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. This study is the first to measure toxicants in smoke generated from a waterpipe when used by a dyad. Relative to smoke generated by a singleton, dyad smoke had higher concentration of some toxicants. These differences may be attributed to differences in puffing behavior

  14. Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamede Robert

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

  15. Addressing tobacco smoking in South Africa: Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking contribute significantly to the global and local disease burden. This article surveys three behavioural science interventions that could reduce rates of tobacco smoking in South Africa.

  16. Assessing Smoking Behaviour and Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Definitions and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased availability of tobacco products other than conventional cigarettes, the use of puffing topography devices for smoking behaviour studies and the use of biomarkers to study smoke constituents exposure have generated the need for a more comprehensive set of definitions concerning smoking behaviour and exposure to smoke. The definitions offered in this paper are based on many years of practical experience and on consensus within a broad group of scientists working in these areas. It is intended that, with wider and more consistent usage, these definitions should reduce any misunderstandings and facilitate interpretation of future studies.

  17. Young adolescents, tobacco advertising, and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Yolanda; González, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and tobacco advertising. The subjects of the double-stratified cluster sample were 1910 students at the same grade level in 33 schools; 86.6% were 13 or 14 years old, and 51.2% were boys. We generated measures for attitudes to tobacco advertising from replies to seven questions with ordinal scales by an analysis of categorical principal components. To relate attitude to tobacco advertising and the profiles of these adolescents, we used multiple regression and logistic regression models. Attitudes to tobacco advertising are related to some home and school factors, but most significantly to tobacco and alcohol consumption, to amount of time at home without adults, and to peer influence. It is possible to draw up profiles of the students most vulnerable to tobacco advertising, and to cluster them in two groups, the "vitalists" and the "credulous." The effect of cigarette ads is different between these groups. This study can help to orientate smoking prevention.

  18. Levels of second hand smoke in pubs and bars by deprivation and food-serving status: a cross-sectional study from North West England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Judy

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK government proposed introducing partial smokefree legislation for England with exemptions for pubs and bars that do not prepare and serve food. We set out to test the hypothesis that pubs from more deprived areas and non food-serving pubs have higher levels of particulate air pollution. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in four mainly urban areas of the North West of England. We recruited a stratified random sample of 64 pubs divided into four groups based on whether their local population was affluent or deprived (using a UK area based deprivation measure, and whether or not they served food. The timing of air quality monitoring stratified to ensure similar distribution of monitoring by day of the week and time of evening between groups. We used a portable air quality monitor to collect fine particle (PM2.5 levels over a minimum of 30 minutes in areas where smoking was allowed,, and calculated mean time-time weighted average PM2.5 levels. Results Mean PM2.5 was 285.5 μg/m3 (95% CI 212.7 to 358.3. Mean levels in the four groups were: affluent food-serving pubs (n = 16 188.1 μg/m3 (95%CI 128.1 to 248.1; affluent non food-serving (n = 16 186.8 μg/m3 (95%CI 118.9 to 254.3; deprived food-serving (n = 17 399.4 μg/m3 (95%CI 177.7 to 621.2; and deprived non food-serving (n = 15 365.7 μg/m3 (195.6 to 535.7. Levels were higher in pubs in deprived communities: mean 383.6 μg/m3 (95% CI 249.2 to 518.0 vs 187.4 μg/m3 (144.8 to 229.9; geometric mean 245.2 μg/m3 vs 151.2 μg/m3 (p = 0.03. There was little difference in particulate levels between food and non food-serving pubs. Conclusion This study adds to the evidence that the UK government’s proposals for partial smokefree legislation in England would offer the least protection to the most heavily exposed group - bar workers and customers in non food-serving pubs in deprived areas. The results suggest these proposals would work against the UK government

  19. South African tobacco smoking cessation clinical practice guideline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smokers have an increased risk of cancer (i.e. lung, throat, bladder), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (i.e. stroke, heart attack). Smoking affects unborn babies, children and others exposed to second hand smoke. Stopping or 'quitting' is not easy. Nicotine is highly ...

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polanska, K.; Hanke, W.; Ronchetti, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Zuurbier, M.; Koppe, J.G.; Bartonova, A.

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear

  1. Tobacco advertising, environmental smoking bans, and smoking in Chinese urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Rockett, Ian R H; Li, Mu; Xu, Xiaochao; Gu, Yaming

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate whether cigarette smoking in Chinese urban areas was respectively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising and smoking bans in households, workplaces, and public places. Participants were 4735 urban residents aged 15 years and older, who were identified through multi-stage quota-sampling conducted in six Chinese cities. Data were collected on individual sociodemographics and smoking status, and regional tobacco control measures. The sample was characterized in terms of smoking prevalence, and multilevel logistic models were employed to analyze the association between smoking and tobacco advertising and environmental smoking restrictions, respectively. Smoking prevalence was 30%. Multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that smoking was positively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising, and negatively associated with workplace and household smoking bans. The association of smoking with both tobacco advertising and environmental smoking bans further justifies implementation of comprehensive smoking interventions and tobacco control programs in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Kassim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking.

  3. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Saba; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E

    2016-02-19

    Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking.

  4. Simulation supported field study of environmental tobacco smoke leakage from smoking rooms in 19 Dutch pubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Opperhuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is produced during smoking and smoldering of tobacco products. This field study has measured how much ETS is leaking from smoking rooms into smoke free areas in 19 Dutch cafes. Nicotine, 3-EP and PM2,5 have been used as tracer compounds for ETS. The use of smoking

  5. Comparisons of the Composition of Tobacco Smoke and the Smokes from Various Tobacco Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green CR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available By the late 1970s, eight technologies in the design of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette were classified as significant. The eight included: The tobacco blend, the filter tip, filter-tip additives, reconstituted tobacco sheet, paper additives, air dilution via paper porosity, expanded tobacco, and air dilution via filter-tip perforation. In addition to these eight cigarette-design technologies was another proposed technology which involved the incorporation of a substitute for some or all of the tobacco in the cigarette filler. Despite considerable research and development (R&D effort on various tobacco substitutes that indicated the replacements in most instances fulfilled the definition of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette with regard to the chemical and biological properties of their mainstream smoke, tobacco substitute-containing cigarettes failed to attain consumer acceptability. As a result, several marketed products containing tobacco substitutes had an extremely brief tenure in the marketplace. Outlined herein is a summary of some detailed research conducted on the composition of the mainstream smokes from cigarettes containing either all-substitute filler or fillers comprising various substitute and tobacco mixtures as well as an all-tobacco cigarette.

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among casino dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achutan, Chandran; West, Christine; Mueller, Charles; Bernert, John T; Bernard, Bruce

    2011-04-01

    This study quantified casino dealers' occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We measured casino dealers' exposure to ETS components by analyzing full-shift air and preshift and postshift urine samples. Casino dealers were exposed to nicotine, 4-vinyl pyridine, benzene, toluene, naphthalene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, solanesol, and respirable suspended particulates. Levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in urine increased significantly during an 8-hour work shift both with and without adjustment for creatinine clearance. Creatinine-unadjusted cotinine significantly increased during the 8-hour shift, but creatinine-adjusted cotinine did not increase significantly. Casino dealers at the three casinos were exposed to airborne ETS components and absorbed an ETS-specific component into their bodies, as demonstrated by detectable levels of urinary NNAL. The casinos should ban smoking on their premises and offer employee smoking cessation programs.

  7. Environmental tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, M.D.; Eng, S.M.; Teitelbaum, S.L.; Britton, J.A.; Kabat, G.C.; Hatch, Maureen; Paykin, A.B.; Neugut, A.I.; Santella, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) influences breast cancer incidence, data from a population-based case-control study were analyzed. Respondents with available ETS information assessed by in-person questionnaires included 1356 newly diagnosed cases and 1383 controls. Relative to nonsmokers who reported no residential ETS exposure throughout the life course, the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer were not substantially elevated in relation to ETS exposure, active smoking, or a joint measure of active and passive smoking (OR, 1.15, 95% CI, 0.90, 1.48). An increased OR, however, was noted among nonsmokers who lived with a smoking spouse for over 27 years (2.10, 95% CI, 1.47, 3.02), although no dose-response was evident. Also, among women with hormone-receptor-positive tumors only, the OR for both active and passive smoking was increased (1.42 for ER + PR + , 95% CI, 1.00, 2.00). Our data suggest that if there is an effect for ETS on breast cancer, that effect is restricted to selected subgroups of women, such as those with long-term exposure from a smoking spouse

  8. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2006-11-01

    Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking.

  9. Mitigating residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    In a companion paper, we used a simulation model to explore secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures for typical conditions in residences. In the current paper, we extend this analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of physical mitigation approaches in reducing nonsmokers' exposure to airborne SHS particulate matter in a hypothetical 6-zone house. Measures investigated included closing doors or opening windows in response to smoking activity, modifying location patterns to segregate the nonsmoker and the active smoker, and operating particle filtration devices. We first performed 24 scripted simulation trials using hypothetical patterns of occupant location. We then performed cohort simulation trials across 25 mitigation scenarios using over 1000 pairs of nonsmoker and smoker time-location patterns that were selected from a survey of human activity patterns in US homes. We limited cohort pairs to cases where more than 10 cigarettes were smoked indoors at home each day and the nonsmoker was at home for more than two thirds of the day. We evaluated the effectiveness of each mitigation approach by examining its impact on the simulated frequency distribution of residential SHS particle exposure. The two most effective strategies were the isolation of the smoker in a closed room with an open window, and a ban on smoking whenever the nonsmoker was at home. The use of open windows to supply local or cross ventilation, or the operation of portable filtration devices in smoking rooms, provided moderate exposure reductions. Closed doors, by themselves, were not effective.

  10. [Cognitive modifications associated with tobacco smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecacheux, Marie; Karila, Laurent; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Dupont, Patrick; Benyamina, Amine; Maman, Judith; Lebert, Amandine; Reynaud, Michel

    2009-09-01

    Tobacco is an important source of somatic diseases and causes high mortality. It is associated with cognitive disorders which tend to maintain addictive mechanisms. In the short term, the nicotine contained in tobacco enhances attention and memory. To realize this review, we made a research, we made a research on Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, Google Scholar using the single or combined key-words "tobacco", "nicotine", "addiction", "dependence", "cognitive disorders", "executive function", "memory", "attention", "neuropsychological". We selected English or French articles from 1987 to 2008 by privileging controlled studies. This effect can be observed in smokers (with or without withdrawal symptoms), non-smokers and in patients suffering from cognitive disorders. In the long term, tobacco accelerates dementia processes. It is associated with an increased risk of cognitive deterioration. This deterioration concerns mainly memory and processing speed. These results were reported in prospective studies. They contradict early reports, that suggested smoking could actually be protective against certain central neural system disorders. These early results relayed on case-control studies, which were certainly biased by a "healthy survival effect". Further studies are required to evaluate nicotine's long term effect and its potential efficacy in treating and preventing cognitive disorders or dementia.

  11. The Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Salivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Petrušić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the detrimental effect of smoking on the function of the salivary glands. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 patients who were divided into two groups: a test group which included smokers and control group represented by non-smokers. Each group included 30 patients. General information was collected from all the respondents via a questionnaire as well as the data on the duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Saliva was collected by spitting method in a graduated tube and the amount of unstimulated and stimulated saliva was measured and recorded in ml per minute. Stimulated saliva was collected immediately after rinsing the mouth with a 2% aqueous solution of citric acid which is carried salivary stimulation. The presence of pigmentation on the teeth and coated tongue were recorded during clinical examination. The degree of oral hygiene was determined by plaque index. All the obtained data were statistically analyzed with significance level p <0.05. Results: The results showed no significant differences in the amount of saliva between smokers and non-smokers, however, the amount of saliva decreases significantly with the duration of smoking and increasing age of smokers. Also proven was the difference in the quality of saliva: smokers have thick saliva and nonsmokers predominantly serous. In addition, smokers have poorer oral hygiene status than non-smokers, and demonstrated a positive correlation between the level of oral hygiene and length of smoking tobacco. Conclusion: This study has proven that smoking adversely affects salivation: long-term smoking reduces the secretion of saliva and changes its quality.

  12. Association between tobacco smoking and cognitive functioning in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people.......Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people....

  13. Smoking inequalities and tobacco control policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the worlds’ leading avoidable cause of mortality and kills 6 million people each year. Individuals of lower socioeconomic status are more likely to initiate smoking and less likely to quit smoking. Tobacco control policies have been implemented in the last decades, but although smoking

  14. Modeling residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    We apply a simulation model to explore the effect of a house's multicompartment character on a nonsmoker's inhalation exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). The model tracks the minute-by-minute movement of people and pollutants among multiple zones of a residence and generates SHS pollutant profiles for each room in response to room-specific smoking patterns. In applying the model, we consider SHS emissions of airborne particles, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in two hypothetical houses, one with a typical four-room layout and one dominated by a single large space. We use scripted patterns of room-to-room occupant movement and a cohort of 5000 activity patterns sampled from a US nationwide survey. The results for scripted and cohort simulation trials indicate that the multicompartment nature of homes, manifested as inter-room differences in pollutant levels and the movement of people among zones, can cause substantial variation in nonsmoker SHS exposure.

  15. Mexico SimSmoke: how changes in tobacco control policies would impact smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James F; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Cummings, K Michael; Meza, Rafael; Zhang, Yian; Levy, David T

    2017-07-01

    We examined the effect of tobacco control policies in Mexico on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths using the Mexico SimSmoke model. The model is based on the previously developed SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy, and uses population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Mexico. It assesses, individually, and in combination, the effect of six tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths. Policies included: cigarette excise taxes, smoke-free laws, anti-smoking public education campaigns, marketing restrictions, access to tobacco cessation treatments and enforcement against tobacco sales youth. The model estimates that, if Mexico were to adopt strong tobacco control policies compared to current policy levels, smoking prevalence could be reduced by 30% in the next decade and by 50% by 2053; an additional 470,000 smoking-related premature deaths could be averted over the next 40 years. The greatest impact on smoking and smoking-related deaths would be achieved by raising excise taxes on cigarettes from 55% to at least 70% of the retail price, followed by strong youth access enforcement and access to cessation treatments. Implementing tobacco control policies in Mexico could reduce smoking prevalence by 50%, and prevent 470,000 smoking-related deaths by 2053.

  16. Is Tobacco Smoke a Germ-Cell Mutagen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although no international organization exists to declare whether an agent is a germ-cell mutagen, tobacco smoke may be a human germ-cell mutagen. In the mouse, tobacco smoke induces a significant increase in the mutation frequency at an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus....

  17. Exposure to and risk awareness of environmental tobacco smoke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many students in higher institutions tend to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. This work was designed to survey the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and awareness of the dangers associated with it among undergraduates of university of Ilorin. Method: It was a cross-sectional study ...

  18. Global and Regional Patterns of Tobacco Smoking and Tobacco Control Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Stoklosa, Michal; Drope, Jeffrey; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-08-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality from various diseases, including urologic diseases. We reviewed, at global and regional levels, the prevalence and trends of tobacco smoking and legislative and regulatory efforts around tobacco control. We also provided information about electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. We used several sources to present the most up-to-date information from national surveys, including the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, the Global Tobacco Control Report, and the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Smoking prevalence has been decreasing globally, although trends in smoking vary substantially across countries and by gender. Among men, smoking prevalence in most high-income countries started to decrease in the mid-1990s, followed after a few decades by generally smaller decreases in some low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there has been no change, or there has even been an increase, in smoking prevalence in many other LMICs. Countries with the highest male smoking prevalence are located in East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe. Similar to men, smoking prevalence for women has been decreasing in most high-income countries and some LMICs, although the decrease began later and was slower than that for men. Except in a few countries, smoking is much less common for women than for men. Most countries with the highest smoking prevalence in women are in Europe. Countries that have implemented the best practices for tobacco control, including monitoring, smoke-free policies, cessation programs, health warnings, advertising bans, and taxation, have been able to reduce smoking rates and related harms. E-cigarette use has rapidly increased since its introduction to the market. Health care providers should advise smoking patients about quitting smoking. Countries must improve the implementation and enforcement of tobacco control policies. Particular attention should be paid to preventing an increase in

  19. TOBACCO SMOKING AND LUNG DISEASES: EFFICIENCY OF TREATMENT APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nikitin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents data on the significant increase of tobacco smoking prevalence and its harmful effect on the development and course of chronic respiratory diseases: tuberculosis, pneumonia, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Negative consequences of tobacco smoking are caused by chronic intoxication of the host by the components of tobacco smoke providing impact on various organs and cells of the host, thus causing a big variety of diseases. Both active and passive smoking deteriorates their course and increase the risk of exacerbation, hinders taking control over the disease and interferes with adequate response to drugs.Current approaches to treatment of tobacco addiction have been presented. There are several ways to overcome nicotine addiction – drug therapy and the other forms of therapy. Integrated approach to tobacco smoking management allows achieving success in 30% of cases within short period of time with continuous and quality remissions. 

  20. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poluyi EO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Objective: To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. Results: The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1% of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%, Yoruba (50.2% or Igbo (40.3% ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%. A majority (90.1% of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8% were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4% and esophageal (68.9% cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%, bladder cancer (47.2%, peripheral vascular disease (35.8% and sudden death (31.1%. Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC. A little over half of the respondents (53.8% were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%, in public places (79.2%, and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%. For

  1. "Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

  2. Establishing a Proper Model of Tobacco Dependence: Influence of Age and Tobacco Smoke Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Gellner, Candice Ann

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Of those who smoke, 9 out of 10 report trying their first cigarette before the age of 18. Although most people who initiate tobacco use are teenagers, animal models for studying tobacco dependence have traditionally focused on how adult animals initiate, withdrawal from and relapse to cigarette smoking. Furthermore, cigarette smoke contains more than 7,000 constituents, including nicotine, yet pre-clinical resea...

  3. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Tobacco and Mainstream Smoke of U.S. Commercial Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Selvin H.; Rossiter, Lana M.; Taylor, Kenneth M.; Holman, Matthew R.; Zhang, Liqin; Ding, Yan S.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are N-nitroso-derivatives of pyridine-alkaloids (e.g., nicotine) present in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Two TSNAs, N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are included on the Food and Drug Administration’s list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco. The amounts of four TSNAs (NNK, NNN, N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and N’-nitrosoanatabine (NAT)) in the tobacco and mainstream smoke from 50 U.S. commercial cigarette brands were measured from November 15, 2011 to January 4, 2012 using a validated, HPLC-MS/MS method. Smoke samples were generated using the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) machine-smoking regimens. NNN and NAT were the most abundant TSNAs in tobacco filler and smoke across all cigarette brands whereas NNK and NAB were present in the least amounts. The average of the ratios for each TSNA in mainstream smoke to filler content is 29% by the CI smoking regimen and 13% for the ISO machine-smoking regimen. The reliability of each TSNA to predict total TSNA amounts in the filler and smoke was examined. NNN, NAT, and NAB have a moderate to high correlation (R2 = 0.61 – 0.98) and all three TSNAs individually predict total TSNAs with minimal difference between measured and predicted total TSNA amounts (error Tobacco weight and levels of TSNAs in filler influence TSNA levels in smoke from the CI machine-smoking regimen. In contrast, filter ventilation is a major determinant of levels of TSNAs in smoke by the ISO machine-smoking regimen. Comparative analysis demonstrates substantial variability in TSNA amounts in tobacco filler and mainstream smoke yields under ISO and CI machine smoking regimens among U.S. commercial cigarette brands. PMID:28001416

  4. Are Tobacco Control Policies Effective in Reducing Young Adult Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360

  5. Effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable deaths in Mexico: the SimSmoke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine how policies adopted in Mexico in response to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control affected smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. METHODS: The SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy is applied to Mexico. This discrete time, first-order Markov model uses data on population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy for Mexico. It assesses, individually and jointly, the effects of seven types of policies: cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment, and youth tobacco access policies. RESULTS: The Mexico SimSmoke model estimates that smoking rates have been reduced by about 30% as a result of policies implemented since 2002, and that the number of smoking-attributable deaths will have been reduced by about 826 000 by 2053. Increases in cigarette prices are responsible for over 60% of the reductions, but health warnings, smoke-free air laws, marketing restrictions and cessation treatments also play important roles. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico has shown steady progress towards reducing smoking prevalence in a short period of time, as have other Latin American countries, such as Brazil, Panama and Uruguay. Tobacco control policies play an important role in continued efforts to reduce tobacco use and associated deaths in Mexico.

  6. [Tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Euro region Eastern Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadarko, Emilian; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Barabasz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Publisher in February 2008 WHO M-POWER report indicates that every year on the world tobacco epidemics kills 5.4 million of people and the analysis of tobacco smoking prevalence change shows great differences between European countries. It is estimated that in Poland 29% of adult people smokes, and 24% in Slovakia. However tobacco smoking among academic youth is still a big problem. The aim of the study was an attempt to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Poland and Slovakia. The study was conducted with the framework of science project: "Physical activity for the whole life". The aim of the project are multidirectional activities addressed to Polish-Slovakian students to create a system of taking care about health based on health education among students, selected modifying cardiovascular risk factors monitoring, as well as creating Internet portal to serve those goals. Project was co-fund by European Union from European Regional Development Fund - ERDF, as well as from the government budget by Euro Region Carpathians with the framework of Cross-border Co-operation Programme Republic of Poland - Slovakia Republic 2007-2013. Analysis considered 4584 group of students from University of Rzeszow and University of Presov, Technical University in Rzeszow and State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. The participation in the study was voluntary. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Based on results it was claimed that the majority of the studied group of students have never smoked and do not smoke cigarettes. Place of residence was a factor influencing the fact of tobacco smoking. Slovakian students were characterized by more frequent tobacco smoking. Far more often smoke man, both in Polish and Slovakian group. Among Polish students there was a relation between subjective health state assessment and

  7. Tobacco smoking and surgical healing of oral tissues: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that the crew of Columbus had introduced tobacco from the ′American India′ to the rest of the world, and tobacco was attributed as a medicinal plant. It was often used to avert hunger during long hours of work. But in reality, tobacco causes various ill effects including pre-malignant lesions and cancers. This article aims at reviewing the literature pertaining to the effect of tobacco smoking upon the outcome of various surgical procedures performed in the oral cavity. Tobacco affects postoperative wound healing following surgical and nonsurgical tooth extractions, routine maxillofacial surgeries, implants, and periodontal therapies. In an experimental study, bone regeneration after distraction osteogenesis was found to be negatively affected by smoking. Thus, tobacco, a peripheral vasoconstrictor, along with its products like nicotine increases platelet adhesiveness, raises the risk of microvascular occlusion, and causes tissue ischemia. Smoking tobacco is also associated with catecholamines release resulting in vasoconstriction and decreased tissue perfusion. Smoking is believed to suppress the innate and host immune responses, affecting the function of neutrophils - the prime line of defense against infection. Thus, the association between smoking and delayed healing of oral tissues following surgeries is evident. Dental surgeons should stress on the ill effects of tobacco upon the routine postoperative healing to smoker patients and should aid them to become tobacco-free.

  8. Associations between bar patron alcohol intoxication and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L; O'Mara, Ryan J; Bastian, Nicholas; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2013-11-01

    To examine the event-specific relationship between alcohol intoxication and nighttime tobacco smoking among college bar patrons. In this secondary analysis of existing data, we examined event-specific associations between self-report measures of tobacco smoking and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) readings obtained from 424 patrons exiting on-premise drinking establishments. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, acute alcohol intoxication was positively associated with same-night incidents of smoking tobacco, adjusting for the effects of established smoking practices and other potential confounders. This investigation is the first known study using data collected in an on-premise drinking setting to link alcohol intoxication to specific incidents of tobacco smoking.

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke and childhood asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Jin Song

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has become an important worldwide public health issue. Children are particularly vulnerable to ETS because they are still developing. ETS exposure causes a wide range of adverse health effects on childhood asthma. There is convincing evidence that ETS exposure is causally associated with an increased prevalence of asthma, increased severity of asthma and worsening asthma control in children who already have the disease, even though a causal relationship with asthma onset is not yet established for asthma incidence. Mechanisms underlying these adverse effects of ETS are not clearly elucidated but e studies on this issue suggest that genetic susceptibility, impaired lung function, and augmented airway inflammation and remodeling may be involved. Children with asthma are just as likely to be exposed to ETS as children in general and there is no risk-free level of exposure. Therefore, providing a smoke-free environment may be of particular importance to the asthmatic children exposed to ETS who have adverse asthma outcomes, as well as to children with genetic susceptibility who are at increased risk of developing asthma upon exposure to ETS in early childhood.

  10. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: a cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravara, Sofia B; Calheiros, Jose M; Aguiar, Pedro; Barata, Luis Taborda

    2011-09-23

    Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC) attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR) was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4) in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8) in females (p smoking bans, even among smokers, despite the fact that 70.3% of the smokers smoked on the premises and 76% of staff reported being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS). In addition 42.8% reported that SHS was unpleasant and 28.3% admitted complaining. MLR showed that smoking behaviour was the most important predictor of TC attitudes. Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial

  11. Reducing domestic exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a review of attitudes and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, E; Courage, C; Rushton, L

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews research on attitudes and behaviours towards environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), with a special focus on child health and the indoor environment. Research needs and ways forward to encourage reductions in domestic ETS levels are discussed. Published material was identified through online literature searches (Medline, Toxline, Cancerlit, Biosis, Embase, Enviroline, Sociological Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, Academic Index and Psychinfo). The literature search strategy employed search terms such as "passive smoking" or "environmental tobacco smoke" with "attitude" or "awareness" and other synonyms. Additional publications were identified by citation chasing and expert advice. Focusing on the UK, studies that provided survey-derived data about attitudes and behaviours in relation to ETS exposure in the indoor environment were selected for review. Published studies from other countries were also included when they provided information pertinent to this review. Most people are aware of the health risks associated with ETS exposure, and there is a high level of support for smoking restrictions in public places to protect non-smokers from ETS. However, although there is concern among both non-smoking and smoking parents about children and second-hand smoke, many people allow children to be exposed to ETS in the home. The review suggests that traditional health promotion campaigns have had only limited success in encouraging ETS risk reduction measures in the home. Because ETS is a public health priority, particularly in relation to child health, the barriers to the uptake of such measures need to be explored in detail to inform the future promotion of reductions in domestic levels of ETS.

  12. The role of public policies in reducing smoking: the Minnesota SimSmoke tobacco policy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Boyle, Raymond G; Abrams, David B

    2012-11-01

    Following the landmark lawsuit and settlement with the tobacco industry, Minnesota pursued the implementation of stricter tobacco control policies, including tax increases, mass media campaigns, smokefree air laws, and cessation treatment policies. Modeling is used to examine policy effects on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. To estimate the effect of tobacco control policies in Minnesota on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths using the SimSmoke simulation model. Minnesota data starting in 1993 are applied to SimSmoke, a simulation model used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies over time on smoking initiation and cessation. Upon validating the model against smoking prevalence, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 on smoking prevalence. Using standard attribution methods, SimSmoke also estimates deaths averted as a result of the policies. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2011. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 29% by 2011 and of 41% by 2041 can be attributed to tobacco control policies, mainly tax increases, smokefree air laws, media campaigns, and cessation treatment programs. Moreover, 48,000 smoking-attributable deaths will be averted by 2041. Minnesota SimSmoke demonstrates that tobacco control policies, especially taxes, have substantially reduced smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Taxes, smokefree air laws, mass media, cessation treatment policies, and youth-access enforcement contributed to the decline in prevalence and deaths averted, with the strongest component being taxes. With stronger policies, for example, increasing cigarette taxes to $4.00 per pack, Minnesota's smoking rate could be reduced by another 13%, and 7200 deaths could be averted by 2041. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Hospitality Venues Before and After Passage of Statewide Smoke-Free Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Boursaw, Blake; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, North Dakota enacted a comprehensive statewide law prohibiting smoking in enclosed public places. Disparities in tobacco control exist in rural areas. This study's objective was to determine the extent to which the passage of a comprehensive, statewide, smoke-free law in a predominantly rural state influenced tobacco smoke pollution in rural and nonrural venues. A longitudinal cohort design study comparing the levels of tobacco smoke pollution before and after passage of the statewide smoke-free law was conducted in 64 restaurants and bars statewide in North Dakota. Particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 μm (a valid atmospheric marker of tobacco smoke pollution) was assessed. A significant 83% reduction in tobacco smoke pollution levels occurred after passage of the law. Significant reductions in tobacco smoke pollution levels occurred in each of the rural categories; however, no difference by rurality was noted in the analysis after passage of the law, in contrast to the study before passage. To our knowledge, this was the largest, single, rural postlaw study globally. A comprehensive statewide smoke-free law implemented in North Dakota dramatically decreased the level of tobacco smoke pollution in bars and restaurants. © 2016 The Authors. Public Health Nursing Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. "Below the Line": The tobacco industry and youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Jaimee; Bond, Laura; Van, Victoria; Daube, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive account of how the tobacco industry, over time, has promoted its products to young people. A comprehensive search of tobacco industry documents relating to youth smoking was conducted using documents available on the World Wide Web through the Master Settlement Agreement. The documents provide evidence that the industry invested great time and resources in developing strategies to attract young people through Youth Smoking Prevention strategies (including education strategies) and marketing to youth. The results include information from published literature and direct excerpts from the tobacco industry documents. The tobacco industry documents confirm that the tobacco industry has promoted and supported strategies that are ineffective in reducing smoking by youth, and opposed strategies that have proven to be effective. It is clear from the documents reviewed that the industry values the youth market and through a number of measures continues to promote its products to young people.

  15. Tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness-Jensen, Eivind; Lagergren, Jesper

    2017-10-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) develops when reflux of gastric content causes troublesome symptoms or complications. The main symptoms are heartburn and acid regurgitation and complications include oesophagitis, strictures, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition to hereditary influence, GORD is associated with lifestyle factors, mainly obesity. Tobacco smoking is regarded as an aetiological factor of GORD, while alcohol consumption is considered a triggering factor of reflux episodes and not a causal factor. Yet, both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption can reduce the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, facilitating reflux. In addition, tobacco smoking reduces the production of saliva rich in bicarbonate, which is important for buffering and clearance of acid in the oesophagus. Alcohol also has a direct noxious effect on the oesophageal mucosa, which predisposes to acidic injury. Tobacco smoking cessation reduces the risk of GORD symptoms and avoidance of alcohol is encouraged in individuals where alcohol consumption triggers reflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Factors Associated with the Initiation of Smoking among University Students in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Sahadat; Hossain, Shakhaoat; Ahmed, Fahad; Islam, Rabiul; Sikder, Tajuddin; Rahman, Abdur

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is considered to be the key preventable risk factor for morbidity and mortality at the global level. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and factors associated with the initiation of smoking among university students in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted with 264 students of Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh in 2015. A standard, self-administered questionnaire consisting of questions on socio-demographic variables, tobacco smoking status, family and peer tobacco smoking history, attitudes and beliefs about tobacco smoking, as well as knowledge about the negative health consequences of tobacco smoking was administered to participants. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models, chi square, and Fisher exact tests. The overall prevalence of tobacco smoking was 60.2%, where males smoked at higher rates than females (68.81% and 19.56%, respectively). The influence of friends was the most significant reason for initiating tobacco smoking (OR: 0.862; CI: 0.810-0.917). Perception regarding tobacco smoking was significantly related to continuing tobacco use. Logistic regression models identified that smoking-related attitudes, potential health problems, and family members dying from cardiovascular disease and cancer were significantly associated with tobacco smoking. The current tobacco smoking prevalence among university students in Bangladesh is over 60%. We suggest adopting WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially for university students.

  17. Are students exposed to tobacco smoke in German schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent 6th grade school children are exposed to tobacco smoke by others. As biomarker for the exposure to tobacco smoke nicotine and cotinine were measured in the urine. Our study population consisted of 771 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years who according to a questionnaire did not smoke. In addition we analysed the data of 459 school children who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the spontaneous urine sample were determined by HPLC methods.On average in about 20% of all non-smoking children, who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home, biomarker (nicotine or cotinine were detected in the urine. The percentage of the detected biomarker values (nicotine and/or cotinine in the urine of the school children varied between 0% and 50% between schools. In addition we determined the proportion of smoking classmates per school. No positive association was found between the detected biomarker values of the non-smoking school children not exposed to tobacco smoke at home and the proportion of smokers per school. The concentration of biomarker depending on the time of day the urine samples were collected showed higher nicotine and cotinine values when the urine sample was collected between 10 and 12 o'clock in the morning compared to urine samples collected between 7 and 10 a.m.In spite of the limitations our study provides some evidence that children are exposed involuntarily to tobacco smoke by others at school. That is why our results support the requirement of a general legal ban on smoking for teachers, the school staff and students.

  18. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and the smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. Since the first version of this review in 2010, more countries have introduced national smoking legislation banning indoor smoking. To assess the effects of legislative smoking bans on (1) morbidity and mortality from exposure to secondhand smoke, and (2) smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and reference lists of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; February 2015. We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans affecting populations. The minimum standard was having an indoor smoking ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. Our search included a broad range of research designs including: randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before-and-after studies, interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. One author extracted characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies and a second author checked the details. We extracted health and smoking behaviour outcomes. We did not attempt a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity in design and content of the studies included. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. There are 77 studies included in this updated review. We retained 12 studies from the original review and identified 65 new studies. Evidence from 21 countries is

  19. Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

    2013-11-09

    The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies.

  20. Tobacco Smoking Habits, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Albanian Nurse Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ylli Vakeffliu; Silvana Bala; Rudina Pirushi; Kujtime Vakeffliu; Jul Bushati; Andrea S. Melani

    2013-01-01

    Background. Available information about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs among Albanian nurse students shows some discrepancies and requires further investigation. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional school-based survey using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire in the Tirana Nurse University in December 2012 about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs. Results. Sixty hundred fifty one students (mean age 20.0 years; males 19%, females 81%) completed the questio...

  1. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places.

  2. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) inside or outside the home among school-going adolescents in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: Data from the Kampala Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of 2002 was used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of self reported exposure to ...

  3. Smoke & Mirrors: The Canadian Tobacco War | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    "An outstanding achievement." Tobacco Control: An International Journal. "A must read for potential or current lobbyists against tobacco consumption in Canada and in developing countries" Annals of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Smoke & Mirrors provides an insider's view of the Canadian ...

  4. Tobacco smoking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Despite reductions in prevalence in recent years, tobacco smoking remains one of the main preventable causes of ill-health and premature death worldwide. This paper reviews the extent and nature of harms caused by smoking, the benefits of stopping, patterns of smoking, psychological, pharmacological and social factors that contribute to uptake and maintenance of smoking, the effectiveness of population and individual level interventions aimed at combatting tobacco smoking, and the effectiveness of methods used to reduce the harm caused by continued use of tobacco or nicotine in some form. Smoking behaviour is maintained primarily by the positive and negative reinforcing properties of nicotine delivered rapidly in a way that is affordable and palatable, with the negative health consequences mostly being sufficiently uncertain and distant in time not to create sufficient immediate concern to deter the behaviour. Raising immediate concerns about smoking by tax increases, social marketing and brief advice from health professionals can increase the rate at which smokers try to stop. Providing behavioural and pharmacological support can improve the rate at which those quit attempts succeed. Implementing national programmes containing these components are effective in reducing tobacco smoking prevalence and reducing smoking-related death and disease.

  5. Tobacco smoking among school children in Colombo district, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katulanda, Prasad; Liyanage, Isurujith Kongala; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Piyadigama, Indunil; Karunathilake, Indika M; Palmer, Paula H; Matthews, David R

    2015-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is an important problem among schoolchildren. The authors studied the patterns of tobacco smoking among schoolchildren in Colombo, Sri Lanka, using a self-administered questionnaire. Multistaged stratified random sampling was used to select 6000 students. Response rate was 90.7% (5446), out of which 53.4% were males. Prevalence rates for males and females, respectively, were as follows: having smoked at least 1 complete cigarette: 27.0% and 13.3%, smoked more than 100 cigarettes: 2.3% and 0.3%, daily smoking: 1.8% and 0.2%. Mean age of starting to smoke was 14.16 years. The tobacco products most used were cigarettes (91.5%) and bidis (3.8%). In univariate analysis, male gender, parental smoking, studying non-science subjects, peer smoking, and participating in sports were significantly associated with smoking of at least 1 complete cigarette (P < .05). In multivariate analysis, the most significant correlates were having close friends (odds ratio = 3.29, confidence interval = 2.47-4.37) or parents who smoked (odds ratio = 1.86, confidence interval = 1.28-2.71). Female smoking has increased from previously reported values. These high-risk groups can be targets for preventive programs. © 2013 APJPH.

  6. Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

    2009-06-01

    African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date.

  7. Tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure in young adolescents aged 12–15 years: data from 68 low-income and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Bo Xi, PhD

    2016-11-01

    Funding: This work was partly supported by the Young Scholars Program of Shandong University (2015WLJH51, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (ZR2012HQ033, and the National Natural Science Foundation (81302496.

  8. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. [/sup 14/C]NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned

  9. Tobacco smoking and hand eczema - is there an association?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jennifer A; Clemmensen, Kim K; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2015-01-01

    than for population-based studies. No studies reported tobacco to be a clear protective factor for hand eczema. Two of five studies regarding severity found a positive association between smoking and hand eczema severity. CONCLUSION: Overall, the data indicate that smoking may cause an increased...... eczema, as well as severity, may be important....

  10. Addressing tobacco smoking in South Africa: Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behavioural risk factors, such as smoking, contribute significantly to the global ... and how many people condoned bullying behaviour at their school. Increased ... smoke tobacco, researchers could examine the actual and perceived norms of ... attract consumers to a particular brand of cigarettes, they can also be used to ...

  11. Peers, tobacco advertising, and secondhand smoke exposure influences smoking initiation in diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Carolyn C; Ye, Cong; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; MacPherson, Laura; Kanamori, Mariano; Zhang, Guangyu; Chen, Lu; Fiedler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Identify demographic, social, and environmental factors associated with smoking initiation in a large, racially and ethnically diverse sample of underage youth participating in the 2006 Maryland Youth Tobacco Survey. Cross-sectional, multistage, probability sample survey. Schools (308 middle and high schools) in Maryland. Subjects were 12- to 17-year-old adolescents participating in a school-based survey. New smokers and nonsmokers were included in the analysis (n  =  57,072). Social and media influence, secondhand smoke exposure, tobacco product use, and demographic information including age, race/ethnicity, and geographic region. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for clustering. Hispanic and Hawaiian/Pacific Islander youth were most likely and Asian and Black youth were least likely to be new smokers. Smoking initiation was positively associated with higher age, living with a current smoker, secondhand smoke exposure, exposure to advertisements for tobacco products, having more friends that smoke, tobacco products offered by friends, risk perceptions, and use of other tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco and cigars. Multivariate logistic regression results suggested that composite measures of peer influence, advertising exposure, and secondhand smoke exposure were independently associated with smoking initiation. Media, peer influence, and secondhand smoke exposure were the most important factors influencing smoking initiation and were common to all racial/ethnic groups in this study. Interventions combining targeted public awareness, education, and media campaigns directed at parents/guardians should be investigated.

  12. Alternative Tobacco Product Use and Smoking Cessation: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. Methods. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Results. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Conclusions. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited. PMID:23488521

  13. The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

  14. Exposure to tobacco smoke and infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Lanting, C.I.; Crone, M.R.; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the association of excessive infant crying with maternal smoking during and after pregnancy, paternal smoking, and smoking by other people in the living environment of the infant. Methods: We collected data on infant crying and smoking in a Dutch national sample of 5845 infants aged

  15. Exposure to tobacco smoke and infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Lanting, Caren; Crone, MR; Van Wouwe, JP

    Aim: To examine the association of excessive infant crying with maternal smoking during and after pregnancy, paternal smoking, and smoking by other people in the living environment of the infant. Methods: We collected data on infant crying and smoking in a Dutch national sample of 5845 infants aged

  16. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Minh An

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives: To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design: GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc. and knowledge on health risks. Results: General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS was good (90% and 83%, respectively. However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer appeared to be lower (51.5%. Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6 and SHS (OR 1.7 than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively. Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively. Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions: It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to

  17. Systematic review on international practices in controlling waterpipe tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Guat Hiong; Hairi, Noran N; Nordin, Fauziah; Choo, Wan Yuen; Chan, Ying Ying; Kaur, Gurpreet; Veerasingam, Pathma Devi; Bulgiba, Awang

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking has becoming popular especially among young people worldwide. Smokers are attracted by its sweeter, smoother smoke, social ambience and the misconception of reduced harm. The objective of this study was to systematically review the effects of waterpipe tobacco policies and practices in reducing its prevalence. A systematic review was conducted electronically using the PubMed, OVID, Science Direct, Proquest and Embase databases. All possible studies from 1980 to 2013 were initially screened based on titles and abstracts. The selected articles were subjected to data extraction and quality rating. Three studies met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for this review. Almost all of the waterpipe tobacco products and its accessories did not comply with the regulations on health warning labelling practices as stipulated under Article 11 of WHO FCTC. In addition, the grisly new warning labels for cigarettes introduced by Food and Drug Administration did not affect hookah tobacco smoking generally. Indoor air quality in smoking lounges was found to be poor and some hookah lounges were operated without smoke shop certification. Our findings revealed the availability of minimal information on the practices in controlling waterpipe smoking in reducing its prevalence. The lack of comprehensive legislations or practices in controlling waterpipe smoking warrants further research and policy initiatives to curb this burgeoning global epidemic, especially among the vulnerable younger population.

  18. Thirdhand smoke and exposure in California hotels: non-smoking rooms fail to protect non-smoking hotel guests from tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Quintana, Penelope J E; Fortmann, Addie L; Zakarian, Joy M; Galaviz, Vanessa E; Chatfield, Dale A; Hoh, Eunha; Hovell, Melbourne F; Winston, Carl

    2014-05-01

    This study examined tobacco smoke pollution (also known as thirdhand smoke, THS) in hotels with and without complete smoking bans and investigated whether non-smoking guests staying overnight in these hotels were exposed to tobacco smoke pollutants. A stratified random sample of hotels with (n=10) and without (n=30) complete smoking bans was examined. Surfaces and air were analysed for tobacco smoke pollutants (ie, nicotine and 3-ethynylpyridine, 3EP). Non-smoking confederates who stayed overnight in guestrooms provided urine and finger wipe samples to determine exposure to nicotine and the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone as measured by their metabolites cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), respectively. Compared with hotels with complete smoking bans, surface nicotine and air 3EP were elevated in non-smoking and smoking rooms of hotels that allowed smoking. Air nicotine levels in smoking rooms were significantly higher than those in non-smoking rooms of hotels with and without complete smoking bans. Hallway surfaces outside of smoking rooms also showed higher levels of nicotine than those outside of non-smoking rooms. Non-smoking confederates staying in hotels without complete smoking bans showed higher levels of finger nicotine and urine cotinine than those staying in hotels with complete smoking bans. Confederates showed significant elevations in urinary NNAL after staying in the 10 most polluted rooms. Partial smoking bans in hotels do not protect non-smoking guests from exposure to tobacco smoke and tobacco-specific carcinogens. Non-smokers are advised to stay in hotels with complete smoking bans. Existing policies exempting hotels from complete smoking bans are ineffective.

  19. No Borders for Tobacco Smoke in Hospitality Venues in Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Neuberger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In public places many countries banned smoking as the most important indoor source of fine airborne particulate matter. In Austria partial bans have been in force since 2009, with exemptions for the hospitality industry. From February to October 2010 we investigated PM2.5 concentrations in the breathing area of guests in well frequented Viennese establishments of all sizes, and compared these chance indoor samples with PM2.5 concentrations measured during the same half hour at the next outdoor monitoring station. The laser particle counter (OPC1.108, Grimm® used for indoor measurements had been calibrated by ß-attenuation (FH 62 I-R, Eberline®, which was used outdoors. 48% of 112 venues visited did not fully comply with the law, notwithstanding its weakness.  Highest median concentrations (in µg/m3 were found in bars (443.7, followed by nightclubs/discotheques (421.1, pubs (147.7, cafes (106.1 and restaurants (23.4. Concentrations increased with number of smokers present (p < 0.01, with medians of 282.4/241,3/67.6/6.9 µg/m³ in smoking venues/smoking rooms/adjacent non-smoking rooms/exclusive non-smoking venues. Only for the latter, a significant correlation was found with outdoor concentrations (r = 0.48, p < 0.01, while concentrations in non-smoking rooms were higher (p < 0.01 and unrelated to outdoor concentrations, but significantly dependent on concentrations in the adjacent smoking room (r = 0.64, p < 0.01. In conclusion, the partial smoking ban failed and guests of Viennese hospitality venues continue to risk disease from passive smoking, even in so-called “non-smoking rooms”, which are second-hand smoke rooms.

  20. Waterpipe tobacco smoking legislation and policy enactment: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; El Kadi, Lama; Mugharbil, Sanaa; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-03-01

    (1) To review how current global tobacco control policies address regulation of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS). (2) To identify features associated with enactment and enforcement of WTS legislation. (1) Legislations compiled by Tobacco Control Laws (www.tobaccocontrollaws.org). (2) Weekly news articles by 'Google Alerts' (www.google.com/alerts) from July 2013 to August 2014. (1) Countries containing legislative reviews, written by legal experts, were included. Countries prohibiting tobacco sales were excluded. (2) News articles discussing aspects of the WHO FCTC were included. News articles related to electronic-waterpipe, crime, smuggling, opinion pieces or brief mentions of WTS were excluded. (1) Two reviewers independently abstracted the definition of "tobacco product" and/or "smoking". Four tobacco control domains (smokefree law, misleading descriptors, health warning labels and advertising/promotion/sponsorship) were assigned one of four categories based on the degree to which WTS had specific legislation. (2) Two investigators independently assigned at least one theme and associated subtheme to each news article. (1) Reviewed legislations of 62 countries showed that most do not address WTS regulation but instead rely on generic tobacco/smoking definitions to cover all tobacco products. Where WTS was specifically addressed, no additional legislative guidance accounted for the unique way it is smoked, except for in one country specifying health warnings on waterpipe apparatuses (2) News articles mainly reported on noncompliance with public smoking bans, especially in India, Pakistan and the UK. A regulatory framework evaluated for effectiveness and tailored for the specificities of WTS needs to be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  2. Detection of tobacco smoke deposition by hyperpolarized krypton-83 MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Zackary I; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Stupic, Karl F; Wooten, Jan B; Repine, John E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Despite the importance of the tobacco smoke particulate matter in the lungs to the etiology of pulmonary disease in cigarette smokers, little is currently known about the spatial distribution of particle deposition or the persistence of the resulting deposits in humans, and no satisfactory technique currently exists to directly observe tobacco smoke condensate in airways. In this proof-of-principle work, hyperpolarized (hp) 83Kr MRI and NMR spectroscopy are introduced as probes for tobacco smoke deposition in porous media. A reduction in the hp-83Kr longitudinal (T1) relaxation of up to 95% under near-ambient humidity, pressure and temperature conditions was observed when the krypton gas was brought into contact with surfaces that had been exposed to cigarette smoke. This smoke-induced acceleration of the 83Kr self-relaxation was observed for model glass surfaces that, in some experiments, were coated with bovine lung surfactant extract. However, a similar effect was not observed with hp-(129)Xe indicating that the 83Kr sensitivity to smoke deposition was not caused by paramagnetic species but rather by quadrupolar relaxation due to high adsorption affinity for the smoke deposits. The 83Kr T1 differences between smoke-treated and untreated surfaces were sufficient to produce a strong contrast in variable flip angle FLASH hp-83Kr MRI, suggesting that hp-83Kr may be a promising contrast agent for in vivo pulmonary MRI.

  3. Scientific Evidence for the Addictiveness of Tobacco and Smoking Cessation in Tobacco Litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwon Roh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smokers keep smoking despite knowing that tobacco claims many lives, including their own and others’. What makes it hard for them to quit smoking nonetheless? Tobacco companies insist that smokers choose to smoke, according to their right to self-determination. Moreover, they insist that with motivation and willpower to quit smoking, smokers can easily stop smoking. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to discuss the addictive disease called tobacco use disorder, with an assessment of the addictiveness of tobacco and the reasons why smoking cessation is challenging, based on neuroscientific research. Nicotine that enters the body via smoking is rapidly transmitted to the central nervous system and causes various effects, including an arousal response. The changes in the nicotine receptors in the brain due to continuous smoking lead to addiction symptoms such as tolerance, craving, and withdrawal. Compared with other addictive substances, including alcohol and opioids, tobacco is more likely to cause dependence in smokers, and smokers are less likely to recover from their dependence. Moreover, the thinning of the cerebral cortex and the decrease in cognitive functions that occur with aging accelerate with smoking. Such changes occur in the structure and functions of the brain in proportion to the amount and period of smoking. In particular, abnormalities in the neural circuits that control cognition and decision-making cause loss of the ability to exert self-control and autonomy. This initiates nicotine dependence and the continuation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, smoking is considered to be a behavior that is repeated due to dependence on an addictive substance, nicotine, instead of one’s choice by free will.

  4. Waterpipe tobacco smoking impact on public health: implications for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinasek MP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mary P Martinasek,1 Linda M Gibson-Young,2 Janiece N Davis,3 Robert J McDermott41Public Health Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, University of Tampa, Kennedy Boulevard, Tampa, FL, 2College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Texas A&M University: Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX, 3Department of Health – Palm Beach County, West Palm beach, FL, 4Department of Population Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USABackground: Given the increasing evidence of its negative health effects, including contributions to both infectious and chronic diseases, waterpipe tobacco smoking raises public health concerns beyond even those presented by traditional smoking. Methods: Identification of Clean Indoor Air Acts (CIAAs from each of the 50 United States and District of Columbia were retrieved and examined for inclusion of regulatory measures where waterpipe tobacco smoking is concerned. Several instances of exemption to current CIAAs policies were identified. The cumulative policy lens is presented in this study. Results: States vary in their inclusion of explicit wording regarding CIAAs to the point where waterpipe tobacco smoking, unlike traditional smoking products, is excluded from some legislation, thereby limiting authorities’ ability to carry out enforcement. Conclusion: Consistent, comprehensive, and unambiguous legislative language is necessary to prevent establishments where waterpipe tobacco smoking occurs from skirting legislation and other forms of regulatory control. Stricter laws are needed due to the increasing negative health impact on both the smoker and the bystander. Actions at both the federal and state levels may be needed to control health risks, particularly among youth and young adult populations.Keywords: health policy, waterpipe tobacco, hookah smoking, tobacco regulation

  5. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among adolescents in an Ethiopian school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabit Abazinab Ababulgu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is responsible for 6 million deaths globally per year, of which 600,000 deaths are due to secondhand smoke (SHS mainly among women and children. This study aims to determine the prevalence of SHS exposure among school-going adolescents and highlights the essential determinants in developing successful strategies to prevent adverse health effects in Ethiopia. The analysis is based on a school based cross sectional study where 1673 students with 98.2% of response rate from grade 9-12, aged 13-19 were included. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire that is adapted from the global youth tobacco survey questionnaire. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were obtained as estimates of prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were made using logistic regression on SPSS version 20.0 software in order to predict factors associated with SHS exposure. About 17% of adolescents were exposed to tobacco smoke in their home, whereas more than half (60.8% of adolescents were exposed to tobacco smoke in public places. In multivariate analysis, sex, parent smoking, peer smoking, and absence of discussion in the classroom about dangers of smoking were seen significantly associated with SHS exposure. The prevalence of SHS exposure among adolescents in Ethiopia is highest. Moreover, exposure to SHS in public places is much higher than at home.

  6. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-08

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women).

  7. Tobacco smoking and oxidative stress to DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Pernille Kempel; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress to DNA from smoking was investigated in one randomized smoking cessation study and in 36 cohort studies from excretion of urinary 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). Meta-analysis of the 36 cohort studies showed smoking associated with a 15.7% (95% CL 11.0:20.3, p < 0.0001) in...

  8. Exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco en locales de hostelería de Barcelona: medición de partículas respirables Second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality venues in Barcelona: measurement of respirable particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmy Villarroel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Medir la concentración de partículas respirables de tamaño igual o menor que 2,5µm (PM2,5 como marcador del humo ambiental de tabaco (HAT en locales de hostelería de Barcelona 2 años después de la entrada en vigor de la Ley 28/2005. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo transversal. La población de estudio fueron 40 locales de la ciudad de Barcelona seleccionados por muestreo de ruta aleatoria con representación de los distintos tipos de regulación existentes tras la aplicación de la Ley (permitido fumar, prohibido fumar y locales con zonas para fumadores y no fumadores. El trabajo de campo se realizó entre octubre y diciembre de 2007. El HAT se cuantificó determinando las PM2,5 con un monitor con fotómetro láser (Side Pack AM 510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. Se realizaron mediciones iniciales de 5 minutos en el exterior del local y de 30 minutos en el interior. Además, se recogieron variables de tipo observacional relacionadas con las características del local y los signos de consumo tabaco. Resultados: La concentración de PM2,5 en los locales donde se permite fumar es cinco veces más alta que en los que se ha prohibido (182 µg/m³ y 34 µg/m³, respectivamente, y supera la concentración establecida como perjudicial por la Environmental Protection Agency: de Estados Unidos (35 µg/m³. En aquellos locales en que se ha prohibido fumar, la concentración de PM2,5 no supera este estándar ni muestra diferencias significativas con la concentración en el exterior del local. Conclusiones: Dos años después de la entrada en vigor de la Ley de medidas sanitarias frente al tabaquismo, la exposición al HAT en los locales de hostelería donde se permitía fumar seguía siendo muy alta. Esto suponía un importante riesgo para la salud de los trabajadores de este sector.Objectives: To quantify the concentration of respirable particles equal to or smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 as a marker of second-hand smoke (SHS exposure

  9. Smoke-Free Policies in New Zealand Public Tertiary Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay A.; Marsh, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates the creation of smoke-free environments to protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke and reduce demand for tobacco. We aimed to examine the extent and nature of smoke-free campus policies at tertiary education institutions throughout New Zealand, and examine the policy development process.…

  10. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Smoke-free Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults. The report finds a causal relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), and declares ... Learn more about asthma at the CDC site . Exposure to secondhand smoke may cause new cases of asthma in children ...

  11. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Klausner, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 doc...

  12. DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF MALE GERM CELLS TO MAINSTREAM AND SIDESTREAM TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE MOUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzos, Aris; Schmid, Thomas Ernst; Pina-Guzman, Belem; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Marchetti, Francesco

    2009-03-13

    Cigarette smoking in men has been associated with increased chromosomal abnormalities in sperm and with increased risks for spontaneous abortions, birth defects and neonatal death. Little is known, however, about the reproductive consequences of paternal exposure to second-hand smoke. We used a mouse model to investigate the effects of paternal exposure to sidestream (SS) smoke, the main constituent of second-hand smoke, on the genetic integrity and function of sperm, and to determine whether male germ cells were equally sensitive to mainstream (MS) and SS smoke. A series of sperm DNA quality and reproductive endpoints were investigated after exposing male mice for two weeks to MS or SS smoke. Our results indicated that: (i) only SS smoke significantly affected sperm motility; (ii) only MS smoke induced DNA strand breaks in sperm; (iii) both MS and SS smoke increased sperm chromatin structure abnormalities; and (iv) MS smoke affected both fertilization and the rate of early embryonic development, while SS smoke affected fertilization only. These results show that MS and SS smoke have differential effects on the genetic integrity and function of sperm and provide further evidence that male exposure to second-hand smoke, as well as direct cigarette smoke, may diminish a couple's chance for a successful pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby.

  13. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishevski, K; Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2008-08-01

    Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face to face in November 2007. Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% thought that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living in a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters of respondents believing that these companies definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal cigarettes. The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns.

  14. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793

  15. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  16. Impact of the implementation of a smoke free law in Serbia on exposure to tobacco smoke in different settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosic Bibic Nada

    2017-05-01

    Results indicate that the implementation of the Smoke Free Law in Serbia led to a decrease in exposure to tobacco smoke in all places where smoking is banned. Legislation should be improved to protect customers and workers from exposure to tobacco smoke in the hospitality sector. It is necessary to improve compliance with the law as 23% of the population is exposed to tobacco smoke at work despite the ban. High exposure to tobacco smoke in citizens’ homes calls for implementation of campaigns aimed at the general population.

  17. Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K; Glantz, Stanton

    2008-02-01

    The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979-1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the US Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming "Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment" (c.1988-1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry's role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the Internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking.

  18. The influence of self-esteem, parental smoking, and living in a tobacco production region on adolescent smoking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, N T; Price, C J

    1988-12-01

    Selected antecedents of smoking initiation among 1,513 eighth grade students in an urban tobacco producing county of North Carolina were studied using the Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Fifteen percent of students reported currently smoking, and 17.2% indicated an intention to smoke upon graduation from high school. Self-esteem and parental smoking behavior related significantly to adolescents' smoking behavior and future intention to smoke. Significantly more females intended to smoke and had lower self-esteem than males. Family involvement in the tobacco industry related significantly to adolescents' intention to smoke but not their smoking behavior. Overall, low self-esteem and parental smoking models may be important to developing the smoking habit among young adolescents. Prevention of smoking initiation should involve promotion of children's self-esteem and avoidance of parental smoking modeling prior to the eighth grade.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco smoke, and epigenetic remodeling in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, E. C.; Hew, K. M.; Nygaard, U. C.; Nadeau, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental determinants including aerosolized pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tobacco smoke have been associated with exacerbation and increased incidence of asthma. The influence of aerosolized pollutants on the development of immune dysfunction in asthmatics has been suggested to be mediated through epigenetic remodeling. Genome accessibility and transcription are regulated primarily through DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA transcript silencing. Epigenetic remodeling has been shown in studies to be associated with Th2 polarization and associated cytokine and chemokine regulation in the development of asthma. This review will present evidence for the contribution of the aerosolized pollutants PAH and environmental tobacco smoke to epigenetic remodeling in asthma. PMID:24760221

  20. Carcinogen derived biomarkers: applications in studies of human exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Hecht, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on carcinogen derived biomarkers of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). These biomarkers are specifically related to known carcinogens in tobacco smoke and include urinary metabolites, DNA adducts, and blood protein adducts.

  1. Sweden SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking and snus prevalence and attributable deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Near, Aimee M.; Blackman, Kenneth; Currie, Laura M.; Levy, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examines the effect of past tobacco control policies and projects the effect of future policies on smoking and snus use prevalence and associated premature mortality in Sweden. Methods: The established SimSmoke model was adapted with population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data from Sweden. SimSmoke evaluates the effect of taxes, smoke-free air, mass media, marketing bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies on smoking and snus pre...

  2. Current Tobacco Smoking and Desire to Quit Smoking Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 61 Countries, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, René A; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Babb, Stephen; Armour, Brian S

    2017-05-26

    Tobacco use is the world's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, resulting in nearly 6 million deaths each year (1). Smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars, are the most common form of tobacco consumed worldwide (2), and most tobacco smokers begin smoking during adolescence (3). The health benefits of quitting are greater for persons who stop smoking at earlier ages; however, quitting smoking at any age has health benefits (4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 61 countries across the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 2012 to 2015 to examine the prevalence of current tobacco smoking and desire to quit smoking among students aged 13-15 years. Across all 61 countries, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 10.7% (range = 1.7%, Sri Lanka to 35.0%, Timor-Leste). By sex, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.6% among males (range = 2.9%, Tajikistan to 61.4%, Timor-Leste) and 7.5% among females (range = 1.6%, Tajikistan to 29.0%, Bulgaria). In the majority of countries assessed, the proportion of current tobacco smokers who desired to quit smoking exceeded 50%. These findings could be used by country level tobacco control programs to inform strategies to prevent and reduce youth tobacco use (1,4).

  3. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Ndugwa Kabwama; Daniel Kadobera; Sheila Ndyanabangi; Kellen Namusisi Nyamurungi; Shannon Gravely; Lindsay Robertson; David Guwatudde

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Word Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to asses...

  4. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Kadobera, Daniel; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Gravely, Shannon; Robertson, Lindsay; Guwatudde, David

    2017-01-01

    Background The Word Health Organization?s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to assess pra...

  5. Smoke and mirrors: the Canadian tobacco war

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Rob

    1996-01-01

    .... It explains how Canada emerged as a global leader in the public health crusade to regulate the powerful tobacco industry and describes in fascinating detail the bitter campaigns to maintain high...

  6. Association of parent and best friend smoking with stage of adolescent tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scragg, Robert; Glover, Marewa; Paynter, Janine; Wong, Grace; McCool, Judith

    2010-11-26

    Compare the effect of parental and best friend smoking across the stages of adolescent smoking, from being a never smoker susceptible to smoking, to being a daily smoker National cross-sectional annual survey (2002-2006 combined) of 157,637 Year 10 students aged 14 and 15 years who answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. The effects of smoking by parents and best friend varied with stage of adolescent tobacco smoking. Attributable risk calculations showed that parental and best friend smoking explained only 6.3% of susceptibility to smoking among never smokers, and 21.7% of non-smoking students who had ever experimented with cigarettes. The attributable risk for parental and best friend smoking progressively increased with smoking frequency, up to 78.7% for daily smoking. The effect of best friend smoking was stronger than parental smoking, although there was a synergistic effect of both variables on the risk of daily smoking. Smoking by best friend and parents are strongly associated with current smoking by adolescents, but unrelated to susceptibility to smoke among those who are non-smokers.

  7. Lethal impacts of cigarette smoke in cultured tobacco cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawano Tomonori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand and generalize the toxic mechanism of cigarette smoke in living cells, comparison of the data between animal systems and other biological system such as microbial and plant systems is highly beneficial. Objective By employing the tobacco cells as model materials for cigarette smoke toxicity assay, the impacts of the combustion by-products such as nitrogen oxides could be highlighted as the toxic impacts of the plant-derived endogenous chemicals could be excluded in the plant cells. Methods Cigarette smoke-induced cell death was assessed in tobacco cell suspension cultures in the presence and absence of pharmacological inhibitors. Results Cigarette smoke was effective in induction of cell death. The smoke-induced cell death could be partially prevented by addition of nitric oxide (NO scavenger, suggesting the role for NO as the cell death mediator. Addition of NO donor to tobacco cells also resulted in development of partial cell death further confirming the role of NO as cell death mediator. Members of reactive oxygen species and calcium ion were shown to be protecting the cells from the toxic action of smoke-derived NO.

  8. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  9. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Kadobera, Daniel; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Gravely, Shannon; Robertson, Lindsay; Guwatudde, David

    2017-01-01

    The Word Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to assess practices related to protection of the public from tobacco smoke exposure, limiting access to tobacco products and TAPS in restaurants and bars in Kampala City to inform implementation of the new law. This was a cross-sectional study that used an observational checklist to guide observations. Assessments were: whether an establishment allows for tobacco products to be smoked on premises, offer of tobacco products for sale, observation of tobacco products for sale, tobacco advertising posters, illuminated tobacco advertisements, tobacco promotional items, presence of designated smoking zones, no-smoking signs and posters, and observation of indoor smoking. Managers of establishments were also asked whether they conducted tobacco product sales promotions within establishments. Data were collected in May 2016, immediately prior to implementation of the smoke-free and TAPS laws. Of the 218 establishments in the study, 17% ( n  = 37) had no-smoking signs, 50% ( n  = 108) allowed for tobacco products to be smoked on premises of which, 63% ( n  = 68) had designated smoking zones. Among the respondents in the study, 33.3% ( n  = 72) reported having tobacco products available for sale of which 73.6% ( n  = 53) had manufactured cigarettes as the available tobacco products. Eleven percent ( n  = 24) of respondents said they conducted tobacco promotion within their establishment while 7.9% ( n  = 17) had promotional items given to them by tobacco companies. Hospitality

  10. Tobacco Marketing — It's All Smoke and Mirrors | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-23

    Dec 23, 2010 ... Like many developing countries, smoking is a well-established habit amongst ... and a lack of legislative controls offer promising new markets to the tobacco industry. ... or "mild" brand can expect to get the same dose of cancer-causing tar. ... Digital solidarity, key to Africa's development — interview with Mr ...

  11. Tobacco smoking in black and white South Africans | Peltzer | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoking in black and white South Africans. K. Peltzer. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal: 2001 78(3): 115-118). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i3.9074 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  12. Cigarette smoking and use of smokeless tobacco in Moshi rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking and use of smokeless tobacco in Moshi rural district of Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. KS Mnyika, E Klouman, K-I Klepp. Abstract. No Abstract. East African Journal of Public Health Vol. 3 (1) April 2006: 24-27. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  13. Effect of maternal tobacco smoke exposure on the placental transcriptome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruchová, H.; Vašíková, A.; Merkerová, M.; Milcová, Alena; Topinka, Jan; Balaščak, I.; Pastorková, Anna; Šrám, Radim; Brdička, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2010), s. 186-191 ISSN 0143-4004 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : placenta * gene expression * tobacco smoke exposure Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.985, year: 2010

  14. Disparities in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution at Romanian worksites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-12-01

    In spite of the increasing presence of smoking bans in public and workplaces, enforcement still seems to be unsuccessful in the occupational space in Romania. In order to reduce SHS exposure in workplaces, strengthening support for tobacco control policies is essential.

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  16. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, J D; Gibson, J; Heatherton, T F

    2009-02-01

    To examine the concurrent effects of exposure to movie smoking and tobacco marketing receptivity on adolescent smoking onset and progression. Cross-sectional study of 4524 northern New England adolescents aged 10-14 in 1999 with longitudinal follow-up of 2603 baseline never-smokers. Cross-sectional outcomes included ever tried smoking and higher level of lifetime smoking among 784 experimenters. The longitudinal outcome was onset of smoking among baseline never-smokers two years later. Movie smoking exposure was modelled as four population quartiles, tobacco marketing receptivity included two levels-having a favourite tobacco advert and wanting/owning tobacco promotional items. All analyses controlled for sociodemographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. In the full cross-sectional sample, 17.5% had tried smoking; both exposure to movie smoking and receptivity to tobacco marketing were associated with having tried smoking. Among experimental smokers, the majority (64%) were receptive to tobacco marketing, which had a multivariate association with higher level of lifetime smoking (movie smoking did not). In the longitudinal study 9.5% of baseline never-smokers tried smoking at follow-up. Fewer never-smokers (18.5%) were receptive to tobacco marketing. Movie smoking had a multivariate association with trying smoking (receptivity to tobacco marketing did not). The results suggest separate roles for entertainment media and tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking. Both exposures deserve equal emphasis from a policy standpoint.

  17. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among non-smoking waiters: measurement of expired carbon monoxide levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Laranjeira

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a health risk that is of concern to patrons and of particular concern to employees of restaurants and bars. OBJECTIVE: To assess environmental tobacco smoke exposure (using expired carbon monoxide levels in non-smoking waiters before and after a normal day's shift and to compare pre-exposure levels with non-smoking medical students. DESIGN: An observational study. SETTING: Restaurants with more than 50 tables or 100 places in São Paulo. SUBJECTS: 100 non-smoking restaurant waiters and 100 non-smoking medical students in São Paulo, Brazil. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Levels of expired carbon monoxide, measured with a Smokerlyser (Bedfont EC 50 Scientific, before and after a normal day's work. RESULTS: Waiters' pre-exposure expired carbon monoxide levels were similar to those of medical students, but after a mean of 9 hours exposure in the workplace, median levels more than doubled (2.0 ppm vs. 5.0 ppm, P <0.001. Post-exposure carbon monoxide levels were correlated with the number of tables available for smokers (Kendall's tau = 0.2, P <0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is the most likely explanation for the increase in carbon monoxide levels among these non-smoking waiters. These findings can be used to inform the ongoing public health debate on passive smoking.

  18. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  19. Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

    2013-11-25

    This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13-25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56-70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans.

  20. Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W; Winkler-Heil, R; McAughey, J

    2009-01-01

    Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212 Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

  1. Tobacco withdrawal symptoms mediate motivation to reinstate smoking during abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-08-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and 3 unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day; N = 286) attended 2 counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1 hr vs. 17 hr). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke by x-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Shaikh, G.N.; Sadasivan, S.

    1986-01-01

    Trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke of a large number of commonly available brands of cigarettes were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence. This work supplements the data on the same samples gathered by INAA and reported earlier. Data on some toxic elements like Pb, Cu and Ni that could not be measured by INAA are presented. A number of chewing and snuff tobacco samples were also analyzed. The concentrations of Ca, K, Cl, Br, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti and Zn in all these samples are presented and their relative hazards are discussed. (author)

  3. Family Smoking Prevention And Tobacco Control Act: banning outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Douglas A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Smith, Carson; Sorg, Amy A

    2011-03-01

    The tobacco industry has challenged new FDA rules restricting outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds on First Amendment grounds, arguing that they would lead to a near complete ban on tobacco advertising in dense urban areas. To examine how the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) rules banning outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds would affect tobacco retailers. GIS spatial analyses of two different states (Missouri, New York), along with more detailed analyses of two urban areas within those states (St. Louis, New York City), were conducted in 2010. The percentage of tobacco retailers falling within 350-, 500-, and 1000-foot buffer zones was then calculated. 22% of retailers in Missouri and 51% in New York fall within 1000-foot buffers around schools. In urban settings, more retailers are affected, 29% in St. Louis and 79% in New York City. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate that smaller buffers decrease the proportion of affected retailers. That is, 350-foot buffers affect only 6.7% of retailers in St. Louis and 29% in New York City. The effects of new outdoor tobacco advertising restrictions vary by location and population density. In Missouri and New York, outdoor tobacco advertising would still be permitted in many locations if such advertising was prohibited in a 1000-foot buffer zone around schools and playgrounds. Much smaller buffer zones of 350 feet may result in almost no reduction of outdoor advertising in many parts of the country. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. A comparison of mainstream and sidestream marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke produced under two machine smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, David; Rickert, William S; Levasseur, Genevieve; Larose, Yolande; Maertens, Rebecca; White, Paul; Desjardins, Suzanne

    2008-02-01

    The chemical composition of tobacco smoke has been extensively examined, and the presence of known and suspected carcinogens in such smoke has contributed to the link between tobacco smoking and adverse health effects. The consumption of marijuana through smoking remains a reality and, among youth, seems to be increasing. There have been only limited examinations of marijuana smoke, including for cannabinoid content and for tar generation. There have not been extensive studies of the chemistry of marijuana smoke, especially in direct comparison to tobacco smoke. In this study, a systematic comparison of the smoke composition of both mainstream and sidestream smoke from marijuana and tobacco cigarettes prepared in the same way and consumed under two sets of smoking conditions, was undertaken. This study examined the suite of chemicals routinely analyzed in tobacco smoke. As expected, the results showed qualitative similarities with some quantitative differences. In this study, ammonia was found in mainstream marijuana smoke at levels up to 20-fold greater than that found in tobacco. Hydrogen cyanide, NO, NO x , and some aromatic amines were found in marijuana smoke at concentrations 3-5 times those found in tobacco smoke. Mainstream marijuana smoke contained selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at concentrations lower than those found in mainstream tobacco smoke, while the reverse was the case for sidestream smoke, with PAHs present at higher concentrations in marijuana smoke. The confirmation of the presence, in both mainstream and sidestream smoke of marijuana cigarettes, of known carcinogens and other chemicals implicated in respiratory diseases is important information for public health and communication of the risk related to exposure to such materials.

  5. Does acute tobacco smoking prevent cue-induced craving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagintweit, Hera E; Barrett, Sean P

    2016-05-01

    Smoking cessation aids appear to be limited in their ability to prevent craving triggered by exposure to smoking-associated stimuli; however, the extent to which cue-induced cravings persist following denicotinized or nicotine-containing tobacco smoking is not known. Thirty (17 male) ⩾12-hour abstinent dependent smokers completed two sessions during which they smoked a nicotine-containing or denicotinized cigarette. Instructions regarding the nicotine content of the cigarette varied across sessions, and all participants were exposed to a neutral cue followed by a smoking cue after cigarette consumption. Craving was assessed before and after cigarette consumption and cue exposure. Reduced intentions to smoke were associated with both nicotine expectancy (pSmoking-associated stimuli increased craving regardless of nicotine expectancy or administration (p-valuessmoking, neither smoking-related nicotine administration nor expectation prevents increases in craving following exposure to smoking-associated stimuli. These findings suggest that cue-induced craving may be resistant to various pharmacological and psychological interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M; Fawcett, J; Dickson, S; Berezowski, R; Garrett, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine quantitatively the extent of exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during the course of a work shift, and to relate these results to the customer smoking policy of the workplace. Subjects: Three categories of non-smoking workers were recruited: (1) staff from hospitality premises (bars and restaurants) that permitted smoking by customers; (2) staff from smokefree hospitality premises; and (3) government employees in smokefree workplaces. All participants met with a member of the study team before they began work, and again at the end of their shift or work day. At each meeting, participants answered questions from a standardised questionnaire and supplied a saliva sample. Main outcome measures: Saliva samples were analysed for cotinine. The difference between the first and second saliva sample cotinine concentrations indicated the degree of exposure to ETS over the course of the work shift. Results: Hospitality workers in premises allowing smoking by customers had significantly greater increases in cotinine than workers in smokefree premises. Workers in hospitality premises with no restrictions on customer smoking were more highly exposed to ETS than workers in premises permitting smoking only in designated areas. Conclusions: Overall, there was a clear association between within-shift cotinine concentration change and smoking policy. Workers in premises permitting customer smoking reported a higher prevalence of respiratory and irritation symptoms than workers in smokefree workplaces. Concentrations of salivary cotinine found in exposed workers in this study have been associated with substantial involuntary risks for cancer and heart disease. PMID:12035005

  7. The association between exposure to tobacco coupons and predictors of smoking behaviors among US youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A recent report showed that 13.1% of US middle and high school students were exposed to tobacco coupons in the past 30 days in 2012. The current study reanalyzed data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey 2012 to examine the associations between exposure to tobacco coupons in the past 30 days and predictors of smoking among US youth by smoking status. Methods 24658 middle and high school students were asked if and where they had received tobacco coupons in the past 30 days. Demographics, smoking behaviors, smoking-related beliefs, susceptibility to smoking, and confidence in quitting smoking were assessed. Analyses were stratified by smoking status (never smokers, experimenters, and current smokers). Data were weighted to be representative of US youth. Results Exposure to tobacco coupons was associated with lower likelihood of denying the social benefits of cigarette smoking and believing all tobacco products are dangerous, higher likelihood of being susceptible to smoking (among non-smokers), lower likelihood to feel confident in quitting cigarettes completely (among current smokers) and higher likelihood to intend to purchase cigarettes in the next 30 days (among experimenters and current smokers; p < 0.05). Conclusions Tobacco coupons may promote smoking and hinder smoking cessation among youth. Regulating tobacco coupons may reduce youth smoking in the US. Further research is needed to determine the effect of tobacco coupons on youth tobacco use globally. PMID:25882686

  8. Tobacco smoke induced COPD/emphysema in the animal model – are we all on the same page?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike eLeberl

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is one of the foremost causes of death worldwide. It is primarily caused by tobacco smoke, making it an easily preventable disease, but facilitated by genetic α-1 antitrypsin deficiency. In addition to active smokers, health problems also occur in people involuntarily exposed to second hand smoke (SHS. Currently, the relationship between SHS and COPD is not well established. Knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms is limited, thereby halting the advancement of new treatments for this socially and economically detrimental disease. Here, we attempt to summarize tobacco smoke studies undertaken in animal models, applying both mainstream (direct, nose only and side stream (indirect, whole body smoke exposures. This overview of 155 studies compares cellular and molecular mechanisms as well as proteolytic, inflammatory, and vasoreactive responses underlying COPD development. This is a difficult task, as listing of exposure parameters is limited for most experiments. We show that both mainstream and SHS studies largely present similar inflammatory cell populations dominated by macrophages as well as elevated chemokine/cytokine levels, such as TNF-α. Additionally, SHS, like mainstream smoke, has been shown to cause vascular remodeling and neutrophil elastase-mediated proteolytic matrix breakdown with failure to repair. Disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions appear to coincide in both exposure scenarios. One of the more widely applied interventions, the anti-oxidant therapy, is successful for both mainstream and SHS. The comparison of direct with indirect smoke exposure studies in this review emphasizes that, even though there are many overlapping pathways, it is not conclusive that SHS is using exactly the same mechanisms as direct smoke in COPD pathogenesis, but should be considered a preventable health risk. Some characteristics and therapeutic alternatives uniquely exist in SHS-related COPD.

  9. Catalytic Reduction of NO and NOx Content in Tobacco Smoke

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    Cvetkovic N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the nitric oxide (NO and nitrogen oxides (NO content in mainstream tobacco smoke, a new class of catalyst based on Cu-ZSM-5 zeolite has been synthesized. The effectiveness of the new catalyst (degree of reduction and specific catalytic ability was tested both by adding Cu-ZSM-5 zeolite directly to the tobacco blend and by addition to the filter. We have determined that adding the catalyst to the tobacco blend does not cause any changes in the physical, chemical or organoleptic properties of the cigarette blend. But, the addition reduces the yield of nitrogen oxides while having no influence on nicotine and “tar” content in the tobacco smoke of the modified blend. The catalyst addition increases the static burning rate (SBR. The changes in the quantity of NO and NOmay be explained by changes in burning conditions due to the increase of Oobtained from catalytic degradation of NO and NO, and adsorptive and diffusive properties of the catalyst. The changes in mainstream smoke analytes are also given on a puff-by-puff basis.

  10. Annoyance from environmental tobacco smoke and support for no-smoking policies at eight large Dutch workplaces

    OpenAIRE

    Willemsen, M. C.; de Vries, H.; Genders, R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect descriptive data on annoyance from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), attitudes toward smoking at the workplace, and support for a no-smoking policy. DESIGN: Survey of eight large companies in four sectors of Dutch industry. SUBJECTS: A representative sample of smoking and non-smoking employees (n = 1480). RESULTS: Thirty- five per cent of non-smoking employees felt it was "annoying" to "very annoying" when their colleagues smoked during worktime, and 78% thought a...

  11. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015

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    Steven Ndugwa Kabwama

    2017-06-01

    Hospitality establishments in Kampala are not protecting the public from tobacco smoke exposure nor adequately limiting access to tobacco products. Effective dissemination of the Tobacco Control Act 2015 is important in ensuring that owners of public places are aware of their responsibility of complying with critical tobacco control laws. This would also likely increase self-enforcement among owners of hospitality establishments and public patrons of the no-smoking restrictions.

  12. Smokeless tobacco: a gateway to smoking or a way away from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikian, Assieh A; Hoffmann, Dietrich

    2009-07-01

    Recently, tobacco companies have been marketing moist smokeless tobacco products that are 'spitless'. These products have lower concentrations of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and of other harmful chemicals than other tobacco products, but can deliver relatively high doses of nicotine. They are packaged in small sachets, similar to tea bags that are placed between cheek and gum. Global promotion of smokeless tobacco products is hotly debated among tobacco control and public health experts. Proponents point to the Swedish experience where snus (Swedish moist snuff) is widely used as an alternative to cigarette smoking among men. Meanwhile, Sweden has low rates of smoking and a lower rate of respiratory diseases and lung cancers by comparison to other developed countries. The opponents argue that snus has its own risks, that no form of tobacco should ever be promoted; and that 'snus is culture-bound and not transferable to other settings'. Critics also suspect that the tobacco industry will use snus marketing as a 'gateway' to promote cigarettes among young people. Research on the effects of marketing snus to smokers is too limited to support using snus as a harm-reduction tool, and the epidemiological data are not conclusive.

  13. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

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    Tountas Yiannis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5, performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 μg/m3 to 612 μg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 μg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 μg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 μg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  14. Tobacco smoking: From 'glamour' to 'stigma'. A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Ventriglio, Antonio; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review, we explore the history of tobacco smoking, its associations and portrayal of its use with luxury and glamour in the past, and intriguingly, its subsequent transformation into a mass consumption industrialized product encouraged by advertising and film. Then, we describe the next phase where tobacco in parts of the world has become an unwanted product. However, the number of smokers is still increasing, especially in new markets, and increasingly younger individuals are being attracted to it, despite the well-known health consequences of tobacco use. We also explore current smoking behaviors, looking at trends in the prevalence of consumption throughout the world, discrimination against smokers, light and/or intermittent smokers, and the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We place these changes in the context of neuroscience, which may help explain why the cognitive effects of smoking can be important reinforcers for its consumption despite strong anti-smoking pressure in Western countries. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  15. Tobacco smoking – popularity and main trends on research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Bartoń

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year smoking leads to the premature death of over 5 million people around the world. However, the tobacco industry took actions like introducing cigarettes which contain less nicotine and tar aimed at not only maintaining the old clientele, but also attracting a new one. The knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking became widespread in the second half of the 20th century and changed attitudes towards smoking. In recent years, in many markets in the world a new device representing an alternative to tobacco products was introduced. Electronic cigarettes are designed to deliver nicotine into the respiratory system in the form of an aerosol. They have been gaining more and more popularity, as evidenced by the increase in the percentage of users as well as in the numbers of publications about them. Currently, opinions are divided and the e-cigarette has almost as many supporters as opponents. All this resembles the situation concerning conventional cigarettes in the 20th century. The aim of the study is to gather the most significant information concerning, on the one hand, the spreading popularity of tobacco smoking and, on the other, the research topics undertaken by contemporary scientists, as well as the government actions meant to protect from dangers of nicotine addiction in the 20th and 21st century. New developments of products containing this highly addictive substance call for systematic research in the interest of public health.

  16. The role of tobacco promoting and restraining factors in smoking intentions among Ghanaian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, David; Raisamo, Susanna; Wiium, Nora

    2012-08-15

    In Western countries, the relationship between smoking intentions and smoking behaviour is well established. However, youth smoking intentions and associated factors in developing countries are largely unexplored and the former may occur for a variety of reasons. We investigated youth smoking intentions in Ghana with regard to several tobacco promoting and restraining factors, including environmental, familial, attitudinal and knowledge measures. A school-based survey of a representative sample of 12-20-year-olds was conducted in 2008 in Ghana (N = 1338, response rate 89.7%). In a bivariate model, both among ever and never smokers, allowing smoking on school compound, exposure to tobacco advertisement and parental smoking were associated with future intention to smoke. Compared to those who agreed that smoking is harmful to health, smoking is difficult to quit and that tobacco should not be sold to minors, those who disagreed or were not sure were more likely to have an intention to smoke. In the multivariate analyses, these associations persisted, except that the attitude measures concerning the difficulty of quitting smoking once started and tobacco sales ban were no longer significantly associated with smoking intentions. These findings underscore the importance of school smoking policy, parental smoking behaviour and knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use in determining Ghanaian youths' future smoking intentions. Because current high percentages of smoking intentions may turn into high smoking rates in the future, the introduction of effective tobacco control measures at all levels of society to prevent youth smoking in Ghana may be essential.

  17. The Impact of Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Wheezing and Overweight in 4–6-Year-Old Children

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    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy, second-hand tobacco smoke (STS exposure, education level, and preschool children’s wheezing and overweight. Methods. This cohort study used data of the KANC cohort—1,489 4–6-year-old children from Kaunas city, Lithuania. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the influence of prenatal and postnatal STS exposure on the prevalence of wheezing and overweight, controlling for potential confounders. Results. Children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy had a slightly increased prevalence of wheezing and overweight. Postnatal exposure to STS was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of wheezing and overweight in children born to mothers with lower education levels (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.04–4.35 and 3.57; 95% CI 1.76–7.21, accordingly. Conclusions. The present study findings suggest that both maternal smoking during pregnancy and STS increase the risk of childhood wheezing and overweight, whereas lower maternal education might have a synergetic effect. Targeted interventions must to take this into account and address household smoking.

  18. Impacto de la nueva legislación sobre tabaquismo (Ley 42/2010 en los niveles de humo ambiental de tabaco en locales de hostelería Impact of the new smoke-free legislation (law 42/2010 on levels of second-hand smoke in hospitality venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Córdoba

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la contaminación por humo ambiental de tabaco en una muestra de locales de hostelería antes y después de la nueva legislación sobre tabaquismo. Métodos: Estudio evaluativo antes-después realizado en 2008 y 2011, tras la prohibición total. Medición de partículas respirables (PM2,5 mediante SidePack Aerosol Monitor en el interior de los locales y en el exterior. Se incluyeron 43 locales con mediciones antes y después de la legislación. Resultados: La concentración mediana de PM2,5 en el interior de los locales en 2008 fue 204,2μg/m³, y en 2011 fue 18,62μg/m³; en el exterior, en 2008 fue 47,04μg/m³ y en 2011 fue 18,82μg/m³. Las concentraciones más altas se encontraron en bares y cafeterías, seguidos de los locales de ocio nocturno. La contaminación en 2008 era 4,34 veces más alta en el interior de los locales que en el exterior; en 2011, la concentración de PM2,5 disminuyó un 90,88% en el interior. Conclusiones: La prohibición total de fumar en los locales de hostelería protege a trabajadores y clientes de los riesgos para la salud de la exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco.Objective: To evaluate pollution by second-hand smoke in a sample of hospitality venues before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation. Methods: A cross sectional, before-after study was conducted in 2008 and 2011 after the total ban. A SidePack Aerosol monitor was used both inside and outside the hospitality venues to measure fine breathable particles (PM2.5. A total of 43 places with pre- and post-legislation measurements were included. Results: The median indoor pollution in hospitality venues was 204.2μg/m³ in 2008 and 18.82μg/m³ in 2011; the average outdoor PM2.5 concentration was 47.04μg/m³ in 2008 and 18.82μg/m³ in 2011. Pollution was higher in bars and cafeterias, followed by pubs and discos. Before the law was implemented, pollution was 4.34 times higher indoors than outdoors; in 2011 the average

  19. The Chemical Components Identified in Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke Prior to 1954: A Chronology of Classical Chemistry

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    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the excellent fractionation and identification technologies developed during the early-1950s, the compositions of tobacco and tobacco smoke, both classified as highly complex mixtures, have been defined more completely than the composition of any other highly complex commercial product such as coffee. By year-end 1953, the many years of research by scientists using classical chemical techniques to define the composition of tobacco and its smoke provided meaningful information on the nature of over 300 tobacco components and fewer than 100 tobacco smoke components. Those involved in the pre-1954 research not only provided the cornerstone of our knowledge of the two compositions but also deserve the gratitude of their successors for the early information generated on tobacco and its smoke. This article is our tribute to those researchers who generated much meaningful knowledge on the composition of tobacco and tobacco smoke prior to 1954 despite the now known fractionation and analytical limitations of the so-called classical chemical techniques. It also notes the similarity of some of the early and more recent research results obtained on the chemical and biological properties of smoke condensate and several of its components from tobacco with those obtained by Roffo in the 1930s on a destructive distillate of tobacco.

  20. Smoking, environmental tobacco smoke and occupational irritants increase the risk of chronic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisinger-Mölkänen, Hanna; Piirilä, Päivi; Haahtela, Tari; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Pallasaho, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis cause a lot of symptoms in everyday life. To decrease the burden more information of the preventable risk factors is needed. We assessed prevalence and risk factors for chronic nasal symptoms, exploring the effects of smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, exposure to occupational irritants, and their combinations. In 2016, a postal survey was conducted among a random population sample of 8000 adults in Helsinki, Finland with a 50.5% response rate. Smoking was associated with a significant increase in occurrence of chronic rhinitis (longstanding nasal congestion or runny nose), but not with self-reported or physician diagnosed allergic rhinitis. The highest prevalence estimates of nasal symptoms, 55.1% for chronic rhinitis, 49.1% for nasal congestion, and 40.7% for runny nose, were found among smokers with occupational exposure to gases, fumes or dusts.Besides active smoking, also exposure to environmental tobacco smoke combined with occupational exposure increased the risk of nasal symptoms. Smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and occupational irritants are significant risk factors for nasal symptoms with an additive pattern. The findings suggest that these factors should be systematically inquired in patients with nasal symptoms for appropriate preventive measures. (192 words).

  1. 'A real man smells of tobacco smoke'--Chinese youth's interpretation of smoking imagery in film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Gareth; Zhao, Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have associated youth's exposure to filmic images of smoking with real-life smoking acquisition; initial research in low- and middle-income countries confirms this relationship. The present study in Yunnan, southwest China sought answers to the following questions: How do young people in China make sense of smoking imagery they have seen in film? How are these perceptions shaped by the cultural and social context of images? How do these understandings relate to real-life tobacco use? A study with focus groups and grounded theory was conducted in 2010 and 2011 (Sept-Jan) with middle-school students ages 12 and 13 (n=68, focus groups=12, schools=6). Films and media literacy were important means through which knowledge about smoking was constructed and communicated. Film representations of smoking concurred with Chinese social behaviour (Confucian social networks, face-making, and the notion of society as a harmonious social unit), and were interpreted as congruent with real-life smoking. This pattern, in turn, was intertwined with perceived gender identities of smokers, gender-specific social behaviour, and willingness of girls to explore issues of gender equity. These findings lend new insights into interaction between smoking imagery in film and Chinese youth's smoking beliefs. Tobacco control programs in China should consider young people's interpretations of smoking and the ways they are nested in cultural and social milieu. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M.; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm2) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm2), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products. PMID:27690199

  3. Regional brain [(11)C]carfentanil binding following tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Edward F; Hirasawa-Fujita, Mika; Ni, Lisong; Guthrie, Sally K; Zubieta, Jon Kar

    2015-06-03

    To determine if overnight tobacco abstinent carriers of the AG or GG (*G) vs. the AA variant of the human mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) differ in [(11)C]carfentanil binding after tobacco smoking. Twenty healthy American male smokers who abstained from tobacco overnight were genotyped and completed positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the mu opioid receptor agonist, [(11)C]carfentanil. They smoked deniconized (denic) and average nicotine (avnic) cigarettes during the PET scans. Smoking avnic cigarette decreased the binding potential (BPND) of [(11)C]carfentanil in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPfc; 6, 56, 18), left anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPfc; -2, 46, 44), right ventral striatum (vStr; 16, 3, -10), left insula (Ins; -42, 10, -12), right hippocampus (Hippo; 18, -6, -14) and left cerebellum (Cbl; -10, -88, -34), and increased the BPND in left amygdala (Amy; -20, 0, -22), left putamen (Put; -22, 10, -6) and left nucleus accumbens (NAcc; -10, 12, -8). In the AA allele carriers, avnic cigarette smoking significantly changed the BPND compared to after denic smoking in most brain areas listed above. However in the *G carriers the significant BPND changes were confirmed in only amPfc and vStr. Free mu opioid receptor availability was significantly less in the *G than the AA carriers in the Amy and NAcc. The present study demonstrates that BPND changes induced by avnic smoking in OPRM1 *G carriers were blunted compared to the AA carriers. Also *G smokers had less free mu opioid receptor availability in Amy and NAcc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and determinants of support for complete smoking bans in psychiatric settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, M.C.; Gorts, C.A.; Soelen, P. van; Jonkers, R.E.; Hilberink, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A

  5. Impacto de la Ley 28/2005 de medidas sanitarias frente al tabaquismo en la prevalencia de la exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en Barcelona Impact of the 28/2005 Spanish smoking law on second-hand smoke exposure in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Manzanares-Laya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de la Ley 28/2005 de medidas sanitarias frente al tabaquismo en la prevalencia de la exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco (HAT en Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio de evaluación antes-después mediante comparación de dos encuestas transversales. Las fuentes de datos fueron las Encuestas de Salud de Barcelona de 2000 y 2006. Se analizó la prevalencia de exposición al HAT en población adulta no fumadora según el ámbito de exposición (hogar, trabajo y tiempo libre y las variables sociodemográficas. Resultados: La exposición al HAT en no fumadores en el hogar y el trabajo disminuyó significativamente (p Objective: To assess the impact of the 28/2005 Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in Barcelona. Methods: We performed a pre-post evaluation study. Two cross-sectional surveys were compared. Data were obtained from the Barcelona Health Surveys of 2000 and 2006. The prevalence of SHS exposure among non-smoking adults was analyzed by setting (home, workplace and leisure time and sociodemographic variables. Results: SHS exposure in non-smokers significantly decreased between 2000 and 2006 (p <0.01. Odds ratios adjusted by sex, age and social class were 0.7 (95% CI: 0.6-0.8 for home and 0.2 (95% CI: 0.2-0.3 for workplace exposure in 2006 compared with 2000. In both settings, the decrease in exposure was greater in the higher social classes. After the implementation of the law, almost 50% of the population remained exposed to SHS during leisure time, younger people being the most exposed (83.5%. Conclusion: After the implementation of the law, the prevalence of SHS exposure in non-smokers in Barcelona decreased significantly in workplaces and in the home. Nevertheless, nearly half of the population remained exposed to SHS during leisure time.

  6. Tobacco smoking, occupational exposure and bladder cancer in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscovich, J; Castelletto, R; Estève, J; Muñoz, N; Colanzi, R; Coronel, A; Deamezola, I; Tassi, V; Arslan, A

    1987-12-15

    The highest rate for bladder cancer in Latin America has been reported from La Plata, Argentina. A case-control study was carried out to investigate the reasons for this high rate. A total of 117 cases, 117 hospital controls and 117 neighbourhood sex- and age-matched controls were interviewed regarding their smoking and drinking habits and occupational exposures. Cigarette smoking and coffee drinking were identified as the major risk factors, and a significant association was also found for truck and railway drivers and for oil refinery workers. The relative risks for male smokers who ever smoked cigarettes vs. non-smokers was 4.3 (95% Cl: 1.9-10.3). The risk associated with black tobacco cigarettes was 2-3 times higher than that of blond cigarettes. For male ex-smokers the risk after 5 years of no smoking is less than one third of that of current smokers. The RR for drinking coffee was 2.4 (95% Cl: 1.4-4.4) after adjusting for the effects of tobacco smoking, and the risk increased with the number of cups per day. No association was found with the use of saccharin.

  7. Formation of Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke; Part 1, FTC Smoking

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    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This report evaluates the formation of nitrosonornicotine (NNN and of 4-(methyl-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK from nicotine, and of NNN from nornicotine in the mainstream smoke of a burning cigarette. The cigarettes analyzed in the study were Kentucky reference cigarettes 1R4F and 2R4F, and five other cigarettes, three of them having tobaccos with low levels of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs. All cigarettes had ‘tar’ levels around 10 mg [where ‘tar’ is defined as the weight of total wet particulate matter (TPM minus the weight of nicotine and water]. Cigarettes were smoked according to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC puffing regimen, using a 35 mL puff volume, 2 sec puff duration and 60 sec puff intervals. Three separate experiments were performed in this study to evaluate the proportion of TSNAs transferred from preexistent tobacco TSNAs and the proportion formed during smoking (pyrosynthesized. In one experiment, the results were obtained by GC/MS analysis of 13C3-TSNAs formed in smoke when 13C3-nicotine was intentionally added to cigarettes. Another experiment used GC analysis with chemiluminescence detection of TSNAs from smoke before and after an excess of nornicotine was intentionally added to cigarettes, and another experiment consisted of LC/MS/MS analysis of 2H4-TSNAs formed in the smoke when 2H4-nicotine and when 2H4-nornicotine were intentionally added to cigarettes. The use of different analytical methods for the study of TSNA formation conveyed an additional level of confidence regarding the reliability of the results obtained. It was found that NNK was generated during smoking from nicotine with 3 × 10-5% to 8 × 10-5% conversion (0.3 ppm to 0.8 ppm conversion of the nicotine while the result for NNN generation was not conclusive. One experiment demonstrated the formation of NNN from nicotine between 4 × 10-5% and 1.5 × 10-4% (0.4 ppm to 1.5 ppm reported to nicotine, but another experiment did not

  8. Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

  9. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  10. New report highlights epidemic of tobacco and global health inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new set of 11 global health studies calls attention to the burden of tobacco-related inequalities in low- and middle-income countries and finds that socioeconomic inequalities are associated with increased tobacco use, second-hand smoke exposure and tob

  11. Environmental tobacco smoke is just as damaging to DNA as mainstream smoke.

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, E; Stone, K; Carter, K M; Pryor, W A

    1994-01-01

    This study demonstrates the ability of tar isolated from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to nick DNA in mammalian cells. Solutions of ETS tar behave similarly to aqueous solutions of cigarette tar from mainstream smoke. Both solutions contain the tar semiquinone radical, and this radical associates with the DNA in viable rat alveolar macrophages. Solutions of tar from ETS cause single-strand DNA breaks in rat thymocytes in proportion to the amount of tar present, until a plateau is reached....

  12. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Kim

    2011-05-01

    To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers.

  13. Reigniting tobacco ritual: waterpipe tobacco smoking establishment culture in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Mary V; Chang, Judy; Sidani, Jaime E; Barnett, Tracey E; Soule, Eric; Balbach, Edith; Primack, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an increasingly prevalent form of tobacco use in the United States. Its appeal may stem from its social, ritualistic, and aesthetic nature. Our aim in this study was to understand WTS as a social ritual with the goal of informing prevention efforts. We conducted a covert observational study consisting of 38 observation sessions in 11 WTS establishments in 3 U.S. cities. Data collection was based on an established conceptual framework describing ritualistic elements of tobacco use. Iterative codebook development and qualitative thematic synthesis were used to analyze data. Atmospheres ranged from quiet coffee shop to boisterous bar party environments. While some children and older adults were present, the majority of clientele were young adults. Men and women were evenly represented. However, there were 19 occurrences of a male smoking by himself, but no women smoked alone. The vast majority (94%) of the clientele were actively smoking waterpipes. All 83 observed groups manifested at least 1 of the ritual elements of our conceptual framework, while 41 of the 83 observed groups (49%) demonstrated all 4 ritual elements. Despite its heterogeneity, WTS is often characterized by 1 or more established elements of a tobacco-related social ritual. It may be valuable for clinical and public health interventions to acknowledge and address the ritualistic elements and social function of WTS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Smoking among Patients in Substance Use Disorders Treatment: Associations with Tobacco Advertising, Anti-tobacco Messages and Perceived Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Barbara K.; Le, Thao; Andrews, K. Blakely; Pramod, Sowmya; Guydish, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background Although tobacco control efforts have contributed to an overall decline in smoking, individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) continue to smoke at high rates and remain targets of advertising to vulnerable groups, including those with mental health disorders and SUDs. Objective We examined associations of tobacco advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness, and health-risk perception with smoking status and cigarettes-per-day (CPD) in a national sample of SUD treatment patients. Method Patients (N=1,113) in 24 programs chosen randomly, stratified by program type, from among publicly funded, adult treatment programs within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network completed surveys of smoking, advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness and perceived health risks. Results Current smokers (77.9% of the sample) smoked a daily median of 10 cigarettes (IQR= 13). Participants reporting daily advertising exposure were 1.41 times more likely to be smokers (p=0.019) than others. Those highly receptive to advertising were 2.34 times more likely to be smokers (padvertising was 11.1% (95% CI: 2.8%-20.0%) higher than for smokers with low/moderate advertising receptivity. Anti-tobacco message awareness was not associated with smoking status or CPD. Conclusion The high rate of smoking among SUD treatment patients is associated with daily exposure and high receptivity to tobacco advertisements, and lower perception of health-related, smoking risks. Tobacco control efforts should target this vulnerable population. PMID:27314450

  15. Smoking among patients in substance use disorders treatment: associations with tobacco advertising, anti-tobacco messages, and perceived health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Barbara K; Le, Thao; Andrews, K Blakely; Pramod, Sowmya; Guydish, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Although tobacco control efforts have contributed to an overall decline in smoking, individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) continue to smoke at high rates and remain targets of advertising to vulnerable groups, including those with mental health disorders and SUDs. We examined associations of tobacco advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness, and health-risk perception with smoking status and cigarettes-per-day (CPD) in a national sample of SUD treatment patients. The patients (N = 1,113) in 24 programs chosen randomly, stratified by program type, from among publicly funded adult treatment programs within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network completed surveys of smoking, advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness, and perceived health risks. Current smokers (77.9% of the sample) smoked a daily median of 10 cigarettes (IQR = 13). The participants reporting daily advertising exposure were 1.41 times more likely to be smokers (p = 0.019) than others. Those highly receptive to advertising were 2.34 times more likely to be smokers (p advertising was 11.1% (95% CI: 2.8%-20.0%) higher than for smokers with low/moderate advertising receptivity. Anti-tobacco message awareness was not associated with smoking status or CPD. The high rate of smoking among SUD treatment patients is associated with daily exposure and high receptivity to tobacco advertisements and lower perception of health-related smoking risks. Tobacco control efforts should target this vulnerable population.

  16. Secondhand tobacco smoke in public venues in three Indonesian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Byron

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to measure secondhand tobacco (including kretek smoke (SHS concentrations in public places in Jakarta, Bogor, and Palembang before laws banning smoking in public spaces went into effect.Methods: Particulate matter (PM2.5 was measured in 15 hospitals, 15 government offices, 30 restaurants, and 26 entertainment venues throughout the three cities. Also, in Jakarta, vapor-phase nicotine was measured in 5 schools, 5 hospitals, 5 government offices, 9 restaurants, and 10 entertainment venues. Data were analyzed descriptively. Differences by city and venue characteristics were analyzed by Student’s t-test, ANOVA, and Bonferroni pairwise statistical tests.Results: Geometric mean PM2.5 levels were highest in entertainment venues (96 μg/m3, followed by restaurants (78 μg/m3, government offices (57 μg/m3, and hospitals (46 μg/m3. Air nicotine levels in Jakarta were highest in designated smoking areas (4.71 μg/m3 and designated non-smoking areas (1.55 μg/m3 of entertainment venues. These were followed by government offices (0.30 μg/m3, designated smoking areas (0.24 μg/m3 and designated non-smoking areas (0.19 μg/m3 of restaurants, hospitals (0.01 μg/m3, and schools (0.01 μg/m3.Conclusion: SHS was detected in all venues in the three cities in Indonesia. High levels of air nicotine were found in non-smoking areas of restaurants and entertainment venues, indicating that designated smoking areas are not an effective solution to eliminate SHS. There is no safe level of SHS exposure and thus SHS in these venues increases the risk of adverse health effects among children and adults. These findings support the need for 100% smoke-free laws covering all public venues in these and other Indonesian cities. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:232-7. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.606 Keywords: Cigarettes, kretek, protection, protect, secondhand smoke, smoke-free policy, tobacco

  17. Potential health effects of tobacco smoking in Uganda and how to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper rigourolys analyses literature on tobacco smoking and provides a historical perspective of tobacco smoking and the prevalence of smoking in different parts of the world. The dangerous chemical ingredients in cigarettes and their associated health effects are indentified and rigouroulsy analysed. Later, this paper ...

  18. Density and Proximity of Licensed Tobacco Retailers and Adolescent Smoking: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Seok Hyun; DeGuzman, Pamela B.; Kulbok, Pamela A.; Jeong, Suyong

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent smoking prevention is an important issue in health care. This literature review describes the theoretical concept of ecological model for adolescent smoking and tobacco retailers and summarizes previous studies on the association between the density and proximity of tobacco retailers and adolescent smoking. We reviewed nine studies on…

  19. Supporting smoking cessation in healthcare: obstacles in scientific understanding and tobacco addiction management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, D.; van Schayck, O.C.P.; van Spiegel, P.; Kaptein, A.A.; Sachs, A.; Rutten-van Mölken, M.; Chavannes, N.; Tromp-Beelen, T.; Bes, R.; Allard, R.; Peeters, G.; Kliphuis, L.; Schouten, J.W.; van Gennip, L.; van Ommen, R.; Asin, J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite ongoing efforts to reduce tobacco smoking, the smoking prevalence in many countries has remained stable for years. This may be a consequence of either lack of knowledge about effective ways to reduce smoking, or failing treatment of tobacco addiction in healthcare. This study explored gaps

  20. Severe acne vulgaris and tobacco smoking in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaz, Itay; Kochba, Ilan; Shohat, Tzipora; Zarka, Salman; Brenner, Sarah

    2006-08-01

    As the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne remains unclear, we examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and severe acne in a large cohort of young men. Trained nurses interviewed subjects upon discharge from compulsory military service, regarding family history, habits, and tobacco smoking habits. Data was correlated with severe acne status, as diagnosed and coded by board-certified dermatologists. In total, 27,083 male subjects participated in the study from 1983 to 2003, of which 237 (0.88%) had severe acne, 11,718 (43.27%) were active smokers, and 15,365 (56.73%) were nonsmokers at the time of interviews. Active smokers showed a significantly lower prevalence of severe acne (0.71%) than nonsmokers (1.01%) (P = 0.0078). An inverse dose-dependent relationship between severe acne prevalence and daily cigarette consumption became significant from 21 cigarettes a day (chi2 and trend test: P < 0.0001), odds ratio: 0.2 (95% CI: 0.06-0.63). The study did not aim to establish a temporal correlation, and passive smoking and acne treatments were not measured. Previous in vitro and clinical studies strongly support an association with nicotine. We suggest a trial with topical nicotine treatment for acne to further investigate this association.

  1. The role of tobacco-specific media exposure, knowledge, and smoking status on selected attitudes toward tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly D; Viswanath, K; Blendon, Robert J; Vallone, Donna

    2010-02-01

    In August 2007, the President's Cancer Panel urged the leadership of the nation to "summon the political will to address the public health crisis caused by tobacco use" (President's Cancer Panel, N, 2007, Promoting healthy lifestyles: Policy, program, and personal recommendations for reducing cancer risk. http://deainfo.nci.nih.gov/advisory/pcp/pcp07rpt/pcp07rpt.pdf). While some research has examined predictors of public support for tobacco control measures, little research has examined modifiable factors that may influence public attitudes toward tobacco control. We used the American Legacy Foundation's 2003 American Smoking and Health Survey 2 to examine the contribution of smoking status, knowledge of the negative effects of tobacco, and tobacco-specific media exposure (antitobacco messages, news coverage of tobacco issues, and protobacco advertising) on U.S. adults' attitudes toward tobacco control. In addition, we assessed whether smoking status moderates the relationship between tobacco-specific media exposure and policy attitudes. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were employed. Results suggest that knowledge of the negative effects of tobacco and smoking status are associated with attitudes toward tobacco control and that exposure to tobacco-specific information in the media plays a role only in some instances. We found no evidence of effect modification by smoking status on the impact of exposure to tobacco-specific media on attitudes toward tobacco control. Understanding the impact of readily modifiable factors that shape policy attitudes is essential if we are to target outreach and education in a way that is likely to sway public support for tobacco control.

  2. Factors associated with secondhand tobacco smoke in the home: an exploratory cross-sectional study among women in Aleta Wondo, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Berit Petersen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, female smoking rates are currently low (1 %. However, because of male smoking rates (overall 7.7 % and up to 27 % depending on region, women and children’s risk of second hand smoke (SHS exposure is a pressing concern. In order to develop effective public health interventions that prevent the uptake and exposure to smoking, thereby averting the projected increase in tobacco-induced disease, an understanding of Ethiopian women’s practices regarding tobacco is needed. The purpose of this study was to explore Ethiopian women’s tobacco use and prevalence of SHS exposure, and to identify covariates associated with SHS exposure. Methods We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional study in Southern Ethiopia between August and October 2014, and systematically sampled households in Aleta Wondo town and surrounding districts. Trained interviewers verbally administered surveys to women 18–55 years of age. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results None of the 353 participants reported current tobacco use and less than 1 % reported ever use, however, 11 % reported ever use of the stimulant leaf khat. Twenty-seven women (7.6 % reported living with a tobacco user, however, twice that number (14.4 % overall, and 22 % of urban participants reported that smoking occurred daily in their home. When controlling for other factors, living with a tobacco user (OR = 9.91, 95 % CI [3.32, 29.59], allowing smoking in the home (OR = 5.67, 95 % CI [2.51, 12.79], place of residence (OR = 2.74, 95 % CI [1.11, 6.74], and exposure to point-of-sale advertising within the last 30 days (OR = 2.87, 95 % CI [1.26, 6.54] contributed significantly to a model predicting the likelihood of reporting daily occurrence of smoking/SHS in the home. Conclusions While few women reported having ever used tobacco, one in seven women in this study reported that smoking/SHS occurred

  3. Factors associated with secondhand tobacco smoke in the home: an exploratory cross-sectional study among women in Aleta Wondo, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne Berit; Thompson, Lisa M; Dadi, Gezahegn Bekele; Tolcha, Alemu; Cataldo, Janine K

    2016-08-31

    In Ethiopia, female smoking rates are currently low (1 %). However, because of male smoking rates (overall 7.7 % and up to 27 % depending on region), women and children's risk of second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is a pressing concern. In order to develop effective public health interventions that prevent the uptake and exposure to smoking, thereby averting the projected increase in tobacco-induced disease, an understanding of Ethiopian women's practices regarding tobacco is needed. The purpose of this study was to explore Ethiopian women's tobacco use and prevalence of SHS exposure, and to identify covariates associated with SHS exposure. We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional study in Southern Ethiopia between August and October 2014, and systematically sampled households in Aleta Wondo town and surrounding districts. Trained interviewers verbally administered surveys to women 18-55 years of age. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. None of the 353 participants reported current tobacco use and less than 1 % reported ever use, however, 11 % reported ever use of the stimulant leaf khat. Twenty-seven women (7.6 %) reported living with a tobacco user, however, twice that number (14.4 %) overall, and 22 % of urban participants reported that smoking occurred daily in their home. When controlling for other factors, living with a tobacco user (OR = 9.91, 95 % CI [3.32, 29.59]), allowing smoking in the home (OR = 5.67, 95 % CI [2.51, 12.79]), place of residence (OR = 2.74, 95 % CI [1.11, 6.74)]), and exposure to point-of-sale advertising within the last 30 days (OR = 2.87, 95 % CI [1.26, 6.54]) contributed significantly to a model predicting the likelihood of reporting daily occurrence of smoking/SHS in the home. While few women reported having ever used tobacco, one in seven women in this study reported that smoking/SHS occurred daily in their homes. Therefore SHS exposure is a potential health

  4. Acrylamide content in cigarette mainstream smoke and estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Mojska

    2016-07-01

    Our results demonstrate that tobacco smoke is a significant source of acrylamide and total exposure to acrylamide in the population of smokers, on average, is higher by more than 50% in comparison with non-smokers. Our estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke is the first estimation taking into account the actual determined acrylamide content in the cigarettes available on the market.

  5. Sociocultural Determinants of Tobacco Smoking Initiation among University Students in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura del Pilar Cadena Afanador

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco.

  6. Teens Using E-cigarettes May Be More Likely to Start Smoking Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Release Tuesday, August 18, 2015 Teens using e-cigarettes may be more likely to start smoking tobacco New NIH-funded study shows possible link between e-cigarettes and initiation of tobacco use. Students who have ...

  7. Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community Disparities in Lung Health Series "Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community" is part of the American Lung Association's ...

  8. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Ryan, Michele B.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels

  10. Antioxidant status of neonates exposed in utero to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, L; Gulian, J M; Dalmasso, C; Calaf, R; Simeoni, U; Millet, V

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the influence of maternal smoke exposure on neonatal and maternal antioxidant status, 39 mothers who were active smokers, 14 mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 17 controls, and their newborns were included in a prospective, controlled study. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, measured as total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and concentrations of specific antioxidants were measured in cord and in maternal blood. A similar, significant increase in ceruloplasmin concentration was observed in neonates born to actively smoking mothers and in those born to ETS exposed mothers. Uric acid and TRAP concentrations were significantly increased in ETS-exposed newborns and their mothers, compared to newborns and mothers from the active smoking and no-exposure groups with a trend towards increased uric acid, TRAP and FRAP concentrations being observed in the active smokers group. Neonatal and maternal antioxidant concentrations correlated significantly, except for ceruloplasmin. Cord blood vitamin A, E and C concentrations were unaffected by smoke exposure. These results show that maternal active smoking as well as ETS exposure significantly affect neonatal and maternal antioxidant status. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. [Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking among students of medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Bielska, Dorota; Wojtal, Mariola; Seń, Mariola; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    To determine the level of alcohol intake (including risky drinking) and tobacco smoking among students of higher medical schools, as well as the level of students' knowledge about epidemiology and consequences of alcohol abuse. The study was conducted in 2010-2012 and involved 1054 students of medical school. The majority of the participants were female (82.3%). Average age of respondents was 25.13 years (SD = 6.64, median = 24). The questionnaire was to determine the students' knowledge of alcohol abuse, short version of AUDIT and questions about tobacco smoking. The average 100% alcohol intake in Poland was correctly identified by 32.0% (318) of students. The alcohol level in blood which indicates the state after alcohol intake was correctly determined by 57.2% (571) of respondents. Tobacco was the choice of 13.8% (138) of students as the main health risk factor and cause of premature deaths in Europe, alcohol was chosen by 17.8% (177). Cirrhosis was recognized correctly by 52% of students (521) as the most frequent disease caused by alcohol in European men. Regarding the question about the biochemical indicators helpful in diagnostics of alcohol abuse only 27.6% (275) indicated correctly: MCV and GGT. In short version of AUDIT 32.2% (238) of women gained 4 points and above, 56.2% (91) of men gained 5 points and above. Among women: 3.5% (28) have 14 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Among men: 6.5% (11) have 28 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Non-smokers represent 20.6% (205) of respondents. A majority (39.4%, 82) indicate they smoke not more than 5 cigarettes per day. The students first began smoking in secondary (21.7%, 45) and high school (45.9%, 95). Smokers statistically significantly more often (palcohol. More than four times higher percentage of smokers (10.0% vs 2.3% non-smokers) drink in a day when they drink 10 or more standardized portions of an alcoholic drink (palcoholic drink

  12. Effects of tobacco-smoke on radiation-induced pneumonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, K.; Henriksson, R.; Cai, Y.-Q.; Hellstroem, S.; Bjermer, L.; Hoernqvist Bylunds, S.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) on the development of irradiation-induced pneumonitis in rats, five groups of animals were investigated including controls (C), tobacco smoke exposed (S), irradiated (RNS) and irradiated and tobacco smoke exposed (RS). An additional group (RS/NS) was exposed to tobacco before irradiation but not afterwards. Results indicate that smoking suppresses the radiation-induced inflammation but to a lesser degree affects the radiation-induced increase in membrane permeability as reflected by increased protein levels in BAL. Moreover, the marked effects on the numbers of mast cells and neutrophils in the RS group may indicate that these cells play an important role in the mechanism by which tobacco smoke modulates the effects of irradiation. When exposure to tobacco smoke was terminated immediately after irradiation (RS/NS), the inflammatory response was unaffected. (author)

  13. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS). In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL) showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL) and very high (> 100 ng/mL) prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008) demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards pregnant women with

  14. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Carme; Vall, Oriol; García-Algar, Oscar; Papaseit, Esther; Pichini, Simona; Saltó, Esteve; Villalbí, Joan R

    2012-04-05

    Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS). In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA). 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL) showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL) and very high (> 100 ng/mL) prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. The results of the three study periods (1996-2008) demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards pregnant women with particular emphasis on non-native pregnant smokers due to

  15. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Carme

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS. In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL and very high (> 100 ng/mL prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008 demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards

  16. Sweden SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking and snus prevalence and attributable deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Aimee M; Blackman, Kenneth; Currie, Laura M; Levy, David T

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the effect of past tobacco control policies and projects the effect of future policies on smoking and snus use prevalence and associated premature mortality in Sweden. The established SimSmoke model was adapted with population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data from Sweden. SimSmoke evaluates the effect of taxes, smoke-free air, mass media, marketing bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies on smoking and snus prevalence and the number of deaths attributable to smoking and snus use by gender from 2010 to 2040. Sweden SimSmoke estimates that significant inroads to reducing smoking and snus prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tax increases, especially when combined with other policies. Smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 26% in the first few years, reaching a 37% reduction within 30 years. Without effective tobacco control policies, almost 54 500 lives will be lost in Sweden due to tobacco use by the year 2040. Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model identifies gaps in surveillance and evaluation that can help better focus tobacco control policy in Sweden. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Tobacco smoke exposure and impact of smoking legislation on rural and non-rural hospitality venues in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J; Boursaw, Blake

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 135 bars and restaurants in North Dakota was to describe factors that influenced tobacco smoke pollution levels in the venues; to compare the quantity of tobacco smoke pollution by rurality and by presence of local ordinances; and to assess compliance with state and local laws. In data collection in 2012, we measured the indoor air quality indicator of particulate matter (2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter or smaller), calculated average smoking density and occupant density, and determined compliance with state and local smoking ordinances using observational methods. As rurality increased, tobacco smoke pollution in bars increased. A significant association was found between stringency of local laws and level of tobacco smoke pollution, but the strength of the association varied by venue type. Compliance was significantly lower in venues in communities without local ordinances. Controlling for venue type, 69.2% of smoke-free policy's impact on tobacco smoke pollution levels was mediated by observed smoking. This study advances scientific knowledge on the factors influencing tobacco smoke pollution and informs public health advocates and decision makers on policy needs, especially in rural areas. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Review of hookah tobacco smoking among college students: policy implications and research recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathuru, Irene M; Tarter, Ralph E; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele

    2015-01-01

    About 30% of college students have smoked hookah tobacco. Although most students perceive this product to be innocuous and non-addictive, hookah tobacco increases the risk for disease and nicotine dependence. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah tobacco. Empirical literature pertaining to hookah tobacco smoking is reviewed with a focus on the implications for regulatory policy. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched to locate articles published in English. The literature search combined several key words including "hookahs", "college", "advertising", "health effects", and "health policy". Smoking hookah tobacco may play a role in the initiation of smoking among tobacco-naïve college students and may portend persistent smoking among those who have smoked cigarettes. College students are typically nondaily, social smokers. They do not perceive that their heightened risk for tobacco diseases and nicotine dependence relates to their smoking behavior. However, few public health messages target college-age adults to counter media messages that endorse hookah tobacco smoking. Given that the FDA is not authorized to ban specific tobacco products, policy actions should focus on the development of effective risk communication strategies that target college-age adults and on limiting the accessibility of hookah tobacco products to these adults. Accordingly, a research agenda that would inform these policy actions is proposed.

  19. Chemical studies on tobacco smoke. LXIII. Use of radioactive tobacco isolates for studying the formation of smoke components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeltz, I.; Wenger, A.; Hoffmann, D.; Tso, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    Tobacco plants exposed to 14 CO 2 during growth served as sources for radioactive phytosterols, neophytadiene, alkaloids, fatty acids and others. Techniques for the isolation and identification of these compounds included solvent distribution, gel-permeation chromatography, thin-layer chromatography in conjunction with radioscanning, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The radioactive isolates were then incorporated into cigarettes, and their distribution patterns in the smoke were determined. A substantial portion of the labeled isolates was combusted to 14 CO 2 , in addition to being transferred intact into the smoke ''tars,'' and degraded to volatile organic compounds. Measurable quantities (less than 1%) were also converted to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The techniques utilized can serve as models for additional studies of this kind and lead to practical approaches for modifying smoke composition

  20. Smoking behaviours and attitudes toward tobacco control among assistant environmental health officer trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, G H; Gurpreet, K; Hairi, N N; Zarihah, Z; Fadzilah, K

    2013-12-01

    Assistant environmental health officers (AEHO) are health care providers (HCPs) who act as enforcers, educators and trusted role models for the public. This is the first study to explore smoking behaviour and attitudes toward tobacco control among future HCPs. Almost 30% of AEHO trainees did not know the role of AEHOs in counselling smokers to stop smoking, but 91% agreed they should not smoke before advising others not to do so. The majority agreed that tobacco control regulations may be used as a means of reducing the prevalence of smoking. Future AEHOs had positive attitudes toward tobacco regulations but lacked understanding of their responsibility in tobacco control measures.

  1. Smoking behaviour, involuntary smoking, attitudes towards smoke-free legislations, and tobacco control activities in the European Union.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Martínez-Sánchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The six most important cost-effective policies on tobacco control can be measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS. The objective of our study was to describe the correlation between the TCS and smoking prevalence, self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS and attitudes towards smoking restrictions in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ecologic study in the EU27. We used data from the TCS in 2007 and from the Eurobarometer on Tobacco Survey in 2008. We analysed the relations between the TCS and prevalence of smoking, self-reported exposure to SHS (home and work, and attitudes towards smoking bans by means of scatter plots and Spearman rank-correlation coefficients (r(sp. Among the EU27, smoking prevalence varied from 22.6% in Slovenia to 42.1% in Greece. Austria was the country with the lowest TCS score (35 and the UK had the highest one (93. The correlation between smoking prevalence and TCS score was negative (r(sp = -0.42, p = 0.03 and the correlation between TCS score and support to smoking bans in all workplaces was positive (r(sp = 0.47, p = 0.01 in restaurants; r(sp = 0.5, p = 0.008 in bars, pubs, and clubs; and r(sp = 0.31, p = 0.12 in other indoor workplaces. The correlation between TCS score and self-reported exposure to SHS was negative, but statistically non-significant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Countries with a higher score in the TCS have higher support towards smoking bans in all workplaces (including restaurants, bars, pubs and clubs, and other indoor workplaces. TCS scores were strongly, but not statistically, associated with a lower prevalence of smokers and a lower self-reported exposure to SHS.

  2. The determinants of quitting or reducing smoking due to the tobacco tax increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Ukraine has adopted State targeted social program for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco on public health in Ukraine till 2012. One of the measures to be implemented is increasing excise tax on tobacco products; therefore, a highly important question is which groups of population are likely to benefit from tax increase through quitting or reducing smoking.METHODS. Data used for analysis were collected in a nationally representative survey of Ukrainian population conducted in 2010. An outcome measure was the anticipated keeping smoking versus quitting (reducing smoking due to tobacco tax increase. Independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics, experience of quitting smoking, exposure to different tobacco control measures, exposure to tobacco advertizing. Binary logistic regression was used to measure associations.RESULTS. Respondents were more likely to expect to keep smoking after the tobacco tax increase if they were dependent on tobacco (odds ratio 2.57, not interested in quitting, not in favor of tobacco tax increase, and exposed to tobacco advertising on TV and cigarette promotions. Respondents were more likely to expect to reduce or quit smoking if they had higher wealth status (OR=0.55, were aware of tobacco health hazard (OR=0.09, had earlier attempts of quitting smoking, were not exposed to secondhand smoke, observed tobacco-related information on television (OR=0.7 and in newspapers (OR=0.45, and observed advertizing of tobacco on radio (OR=0.33 and in public transport (OR=0.25.CONCLUSIONS. Several aspects are important while implementing taxation policy. It is more likely to result in quitting or reducing smoking among those who are less dependent, have tried quitting smoking earlier, and have higher wealth level. Concurrent smoke-free policies and awareness campaigns may potentiate the effect of taxation policies and are recommended to be developed further.

  3. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling Induced by Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, Marcos; Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Priscila; Polegato, Bertha; Roscani, Meliza; Fernandes, Ana Angelica; Lustosa, Beatriz; Paiva, Sergio; Zornoff, Leonardo; Azevedo, Paula, E-mail: paulasa@fmb.unesp.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    Tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor for cardiac remodeling. Under this condition, inflammation, oxidative stress, energy metabolism abnormalities, apoptosis, and hypertrophy are present. Pentoxifylline has anti‑inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic and anti-proliferative properties. The present study tested the hypothesis that pentoxifylline would attenuate cardiac remodeling induced by smoking. Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: Control (C), Pentoxifylline (PX), Tobacco Smoke (TS), and PX-TS. After two months, echocardiography, invasive blood pressure measurement, biochemical, and histological studies were performed. The groups were compared by two-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. TS increased left atrium diameter and area, which was attenuated by PX. In the isolated heart study, TS lowered the positive derivate (+dp/dt), and this was attenuated by PX. The antioxidants enzyme superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in the TS group; PX recovered these activities. TS increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and decreased 3-hydroxyacyl Coenzyme A dehydrogenases (OH-DHA) and citrate synthase (CS). PX attenuated LDH, 3-OH-DHA and CS alterations in TS-PX group. TS increased IL-10, ICAM-1, and caspase-3. PX did not influence these variables. TS induced cardiac remodeling, associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and changed energy metabolism. PX attenuated cardiac remodeling by reducing oxidative stress and improving cardiac bioenergetics, but did not act upon cardiac cytokines and apoptosis.

  4. Protecting children and families from tobacco and tobacco-related NCDs in the Western Pacific: good practice examples from Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, A M; Mercado, S P; Klein, J D; Kaundan, M s/o K; Koong, H N; Garcia, E

    2017-09-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are generally considered diseases of adulthood, but NCD risk factors like tobacco use often are taken up during childhood and adolescence, and second-hand smoke exposure affects child survival and development. At a regional meeting of the Asia Pacific Child and Family Health Alliance for Tobacco Control, members reviewed existing good practices of child-focused tobacco control approaches using health promotion strategies. These interventions were implemented nationally in Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore. Three good practice national examples were identified that focused on creating supportive tobacco-free environments and upgrading cessation skills among paediatricians. These country examples highlight strategic areas to protect children and families from the harms of tobacco, as part of NCD prevention and control. Training paediatricians in brief cessation advice has enabled them to address tobacco-using parents. Fully enforcing smoke-free public areas has led to an increase in smoke-free homes. The Tobacco Free Generation is a tobacco control 'endgame' strategy that taps into a social movement to deglamorize tobacco use and empower youth born in and after year 2000 to reject tobacco and nicotine addiction. Tobacco control is pivotal in the fight against NCDs; health promotion strategies to protect children and youth from tobacco have a critical role to play in NCD prevention and control. Frontline health workers, including primary care paediatricians, need to step up and actively advocate for full implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, including tobacco tax increases and smoke-free areas, while monitoring patients and their parents for tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure, preventing adolescent smoking uptake, and offering cessation support. A life-course approach incorporating child-focused efforts to prevent initiation of smoking and second-hand smoke exposure with measures promoting

  5. Environmental tobacco smoke aerosol in non-smoking households of patients with chronic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino-Christina; Lianou, Maria; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Karakatsani, Anna; Katsouyanni, Klea; Hoek, Gerard; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter samples were collected in an urban ambient fixed site and, outside and inside residencies in Athens greater area, Greece. n-Alkanes, iso/anteiso-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The values of concentration diagnostic ratios indicated a mixture of vehicular emissions, fuel evaporation, oil residues and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in outdoor and indoor samples. Particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes, specific tracers of ETS, were detected in both non-smoking and smoking households. The indoor-to-outdoor ratios of particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture (a tracer of outdoor air pollution) in non-smoking households were comparable to the measured air exchange rate. This suggested that penetration of outdoor air was solely responsible for the detection of tobacco smoke particulate tracers in indoor non-smoking environments. Overall, residential outdoor concentrations accounted for a large fraction (from 25 up to 79%) of indoor aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Open windows/doors and the operation of an air condition unit yielded also in higher indoor concentrations than those measured outdoors.

  6. Understanding the impact of school tobacco policies on adolescent smoking behaviour: A realist review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuders, Michael; Nuyts, Paulien A. W.; van den Putte, Bas; Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and

  7. Understanding the impact of school tobacco policies on adolescent smoking behaviour: A realist review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuders, M.; Nuyts, P.A.W.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A.E.

    Background Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and

  8. Smoking behaviors and attitudes during adolescence prospectively predict support for tobacco control policies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C

    2012-07-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. This study's findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies.

  9. Effects of 24 hours of tobacco withdrawal and subsequent tobacco smoking among low and high sensation seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dustin C; Perkins, Kenneth A; Zimmerman, Eli; Robbins, Glenn; Kelly, Thomas H

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that high sensation seekers are more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of nicotine, initiate smoking at an earlier age, and smoke greater amounts of cigarettes. This study examined the influence of sensation-seeking status on tobacco smoking following deprivation in regular tobacco users. Twenty healthy tobacco-smoking volunteers with low or high impulsive sensation-seeking subscale scores completed 2 consecutive test days per week for 3 consecutive weeks. Each week, a range of self-report, performance, and cardiovascular assessments were completed during ad libitum smoking on Day 1 and before and after the paced smoking of a tobacco cigarette containing 0.05, 0.6, or 0.9 mg of nicotine following 24 hr of tobacco deprivation on Day 2. In addition, self-administration behavior was analyzed during a 2-hr free access period after the initial tobacco administration. In high sensation seekers, tobacco smoking independent of nicotine yield ameliorated deprivation effects, whereas amelioration of deprivation effects was dependent on nicotine yield among low sensation seekers. However, this effect was limited to a small subset of measures. Subsequent cigarette self-administration increased in a nicotine-dependent manner for high sensation seekers only. Compared with low sensation seekers, high sensation seekers were more sensitive to the withdrawal relieving effects of nonnicotine components of smoking following 24 hr of deprivation on selective measures and more sensitive to nicotine yield during subsequent tobacco self-administration. These results are consistent with studies suggesting that factors driving tobacco dependence may vary as a function of sensation-seeking status.

  10. Effect of televised, tobacco company-funded smoking prevention advertising on youth smoking-related beliefs, intentions, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Emery, Sherry; Saffer, Henry; Chaloupka, Frank J; Szczypka, Glen; Flay, Brian; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2006-12-01

    To relate exposure to televised youth smoking prevention advertising to youths' smoking beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. We obtained commercial television ratings data from 75 US media markets to determine the average youth exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted and parent-targeted smoking prevention advertising. We merged these data with nationally representative school-based survey data (n = 103,172) gathered from 1999 to 2002. Multivariate regression models controlled for individual, geographic, and tobacco policy factors, and other televised antitobacco advertising. There was little relation between exposure to tobacco company-sponsored, youth-targeted advertising and youth smoking outcomes. Among youths in grades 10 and 12, during the 4 months leading up to survey administration, each additional viewing of a tobacco company parent-targeted advertisement was, on average, associated with lower perceived harm of smoking (odds ratio [OR]=0.93; confidence interval [CI]=0.88, 0.98), stronger approval of smoking (OR=1.11; CI=1.03,1.20), stronger intentions to smoke in the future (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.21), and greater likelihood of having smoked in the past 30 days (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.19). Exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted smoking prevention advertising generally had no beneficial outcomes for youths. Exposure to tobacco company parent-targeted advertising may have harmful effects on youth, especially among youths in grades 10 and 12.

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15...... regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of weekly smoking with components of the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), and to assess whether this association varied according to family affluence (FAS). Analyses were carried out per gender and adjusted for national wealth and general smoking rate...

  12. An experimental investigation of tobacco smoke pollution in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendzik, Taryn; Fong, Geoffrey T; Travers, Mark J; Hyland, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a serious public health threat. Although the number of jurisdictions that prohibit smoking in public places has increased rapidly, just a few successful attempts have been made to pass similar laws prohibiting smoking in cars, where the cabin space may contribute to concentrated exposure. In particular, TSP constitutes a potentially serious health hazard to children because of prolonged exposure and their small size. The present study investigated the levels of TSP in 18 cars via the measurement of fine respirable particles (Car owners smoked a single cigarette in their cars in each of five controlled air-sampling conditions. Each condition varied on movement of the car, presence of air conditioning, open windows, and combinations of these airflow influences. Smoking just a single cigarette in a car generated extremely high average levels of PM(2.5): more than 3,800 microg/m3 in the condition with the least airflow (motionless car, windows closed). In moderate ventilation conditions (air conditioning or having the smoking driver hold the cigarette next to a half-open window), the average levels of PM(2.5) were reduced but still at significantly high levels (air conditioning = 844 microg/m3; holding cigarette next to a half-open window = 223 microg/m3). This study demonstrates that TSP in cars reaches unhealthy levels, even under realistic ventilation conditions, lending support to efforts occurring across a growing number of jurisdictions to educate people and prohibit smoking in cars in the presence of children.

  13. Air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    The health of populations in industrialized societies has been affected for many years by ambient air pollutants presenting a threat of chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. In the 1980s indoor pollutants received much needed investigation to assess their hazards to health. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon is now the subject of much research and concern. This review attempts to put some perspective on lung cancer that is attributable to lifetime exposure to airborne pollutants. The view is expressed that air pollution control authorities have played and are playing a major role in health improvement

  14. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 in 3 countries, representing 39% of the world's population, monitors tobacco use by repeating nationally representative youth ... 1.4 billion people, or 20% of the world's population, are protected by comprehensive national smoke-free laws. ...

  15. Portrayal of tobacco smoking in popular women's magazines: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasujee, Naseera; Britton, John; Cranwell, Jo; Lyons, Ailsa; Bains, Manpreet

    2017-09-01

    Whilst many countries have introduced legislation prohibiting tobacco advertising and sponsorship, references to tobacco continue to appear in the media. This study quantified and characterized tobacco smoking content in popular women's magazines. The 10 top weekly and 5 monthly women's magazines most popular among 15-34 year olds in Britain published over a 3-month period were included. A content analysis was conducted for both written and visual content. In 146 magazines, there were 310 instances of tobacco content, the majority of which were positive towards smoking. Instances of celebrities smoking were most common (171, 55%), often in holiday or party settings that could be perceived to be luxurious, glamorous or fun. In all, 55 (18%) tobacco references related to fashion, which generally created an impression of smoking as a norm within the industry; and 34 (11%) text and image references to tobacco in TV and film. There were 50 (16%) reader-initiated mentions of smoking, typically in real-life stories or readers writing in to seek advice about smoking. Anti-smoking references including the hazards of smoking were infrequent (49; 16%). Although tobacco advertising is prohibited in Britain, women's magazines still appear to be promoting positive messages about tobacco and smoking. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Haider, M Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R; Thrasher, James F; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-02-18

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.4). Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking.

  17. Factors associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among Lebanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Karim N; Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R; Adib, Salim M

    2017-12-14

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) has become a serious public health threat in the Middle East and beyond. To estimate the prevalence rates of cigarette and WTS among Lebanese women and describe characteristics associated with each behavior. Secondary analysis of women's health data obtained in a national survey in 2010. Of 2,255 selected women, 78 percent reported no or past long-term WTS. Among the 12 percent of regular waterpipe smokers, 40 percent were light users (mean three waterpipe heads weekly), while 60 percent were heavy users (mean of 11 heads per week). About 70 percent were never or past long-term cigarette smokers. Younger age, location within Greater Beirut (GB) and having professional employment were significantly associated with use of WTS. Older age, GB location, lower education, and ever-married were significantly associated with cigarette smoking. WTS is becoming a socially normative behavior among empowered professional women, who can spare the time and expense to engage in this behavior in easily accessible cafés, which prohibit cigarette smoking. Public health implications: Government, media, and NGO campaigns against smoking should target waterpipe use, not only in Lebanon but also across the Arab world and among Arab communities in the Diaspora with messages different from anti-cigarette campaigns.

  18. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Gastric Cancer Risk among Vietnamese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hang Thi Minh; Koriyama, Chihaya; Tokudome, Shinkan; Tran, Hoc Hieu; Tran, Long Thanh; Nandakumar, Athira; Akiba, Suminori; Le, Ngoan Tran

    2016-01-01

    The association of waterpipe tobacco (WPT) smoking with gastric cancer (GC) risk was suggested. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to examine the association of WPT with GC risk among Vietnamese men, in Hanoi city, during the period of 2003-2011. Newly-diagnosed GC cases (n = 454) and control patients (n = 628) were matched by age (+/- 5 years) and the year of hospitalization. Information on smoking and alcohol drinking habits and diet including salty food intake and fruits/vegetables consumption were obtained by the interview. Maximum likelihood estimates of odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (Cis) were obtained using conditional logistic regression models. The group with the highest consumption of citrus fruits showed a significantly low GC risk (OR = 0.6, 95%CI = 0.4-0.8, P for trend = 0.002). However, there was no association of raw vegetable consumption with GC risk. Referring to never smokers, GC risk was significantly higher in current WPT smokers (OR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.3-2.4), and it was more evident in exclusively WPT smokers (OR = 2.7, 95%CI = 1.2-6.5). GC risk tended to be higher with daily frequency and longer duration of WPT smoking but these trends were not statistically significant (P for trend: 0.144 and 0.154, respectively). GC risk of those who started smoking WPT before the age of 25 was also significantly high (OR = 3.7, 95%CI = 1.2-11.3). Neither cigarette smoking nor alcohol drinking was related to GC risk. The present findings revealed that WPT smoking was positively associated with GC risk in Vietnamese men.

  19. Awareness of tobacco advertising, perceived harms of smoking, and beliefs about tobacco control among a sample of Shanghainese in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, PinPin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to examine beliefs among residents of Shanghai, China concerning tobacco advertising and control policies concurrent with new restrictions on tobacco use and advertising in the city. A total of 518 residents of Shanghai completed a telephone interview survey. We found that 51% of participants had seen or heard of the Zhonghua cigarette brand's 'Love China' tobacco ad campaign in the past 2 years, 59% believed that the campaign would influence people to buy this specific cigarette brand as a gift, and 30% believed that it would encourage smoking. More than 75% of respondents would support legislation banning tobacco advertising in all public places, and 88% would support legislation prohibiting smoking in all public places. Multivariate analyses indicated that those who were female, more than 50 years, have accepted college and above education, and perceived greater benefits to smoking cessation were more likely to support banning tobacco advertising and prohibiting smoking in public places. Non-smokers were more likely to support prohibiting smoking in public places. The findings suggest that although tobacco advertising is widely prevalent in Shanghai, it is disliked by the public. Respondents showed high levels of support for tobacco control policies.

  20. Pre-adolescent Receptivity to Tobacco Marketing and Its Relationship to Acquiring Friends Who Smoke and Cigarette Smoking Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Hartman, Sheri J; Nodora, Jesse; Vera, Lisa; White, Martha M; Leas, Eric; Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; Borek, Nicolette; Pierce, John P

    2017-10-01

    This study extends research on receptivity to tobacco marketing over a key developmental period for cigarette smoking experimentation. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of receptivity to tobacco marketing and exposure to friends who smoke on smoking experimentation. Participants were 10 to 13 years old who had never tried cigarettes (n = 878), interviewed six times at 8-month intervals. At baseline, 25% percent of the 10 and 11 years old in the sample of never smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing, while less than 5% had friends who smoked. Having a friend who smoked at study baseline and acquiring such friends for the first time during the study were the strongest predictors of smoking experimentation. Initial receptivity to tobacco marketing increased the risk of smoking experimentation independently of having friends who smoke at baseline or acquiring friends who smoke throughout the study period. The high level of receptivity observed even among 10 and 11 years old and its robust relationship with cigarette smoking experimentation independent of the significant risk associated with having friends who smoke suggests that successful prevention of receptivity may require intervention at an early age.

  1. Exploring the Predictive Validity of the Susceptibility to Smoking Construct for Tobacco Cigarettes, Alternative Tobacco Products, and E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Adam G; Kennedy, Ryan David; Chaurasia, Ashok; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-12-06

    Within tobacco prevention programming, it is useful to identify youth that are at risk for experimenting with various tobacco products and e-cigarettes. The susceptibility to smoking construct is a simple method to identify never-smoking students that are less committed to remaining smoke-free. However, the predictive validity of this construct has not been tested within the Canadian context or for the use of other tobacco products and e-cigarettes. This study used a large, longitudinal sample of secondary school students that reported never using tobacco cigarettes and non-current use of alternative tobacco products or e-cigarettes at baseline in Ontario, Canada. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the susceptibility construct for predicting tobacco cigarette, e-cigarette, cigarillo or little cigar, cigar, hookah, and smokeless tobacco use one and two years after baseline measurement were calculated. At baseline, 29.4% of the sample was susceptible to future tobacco product or e-cigarette use. The sensitivity of the construct ranged from 43.2% (smokeless tobacco) to 59.5% (tobacco cigarettes), the specificity ranged from 70.9% (smokeless tobacco) to 75.9% (tobacco cigarettes), and the positive predictive value ranged from 2.6% (smokeless tobacco) to 32.2% (tobacco cigarettes). Similar values were calculated for each measure of the susceptibility construct. A significant number of youth that did not currently use tobacco products or e-cigarettes at baseline reported using tobacco products and e-cigarettes over a two-year follow-up period. The predictive validity of the susceptibility construct was high and the construct can be used to predict other tobacco product and e-cigarette use among youth. This study presents the predictive validity of the susceptibility construct for the use of tobacco cigarettes among secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. It also presents a novel use of the susceptibility construct for

  2. A Correlative Study of Smokeless Tobacco induced Lesion and Smoke-induced Leukoplakia in Various Aspects

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    Parita K Chitroda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various oral mucosal lesions are attributed to tobacco use. The presence of these conditions vanes with particular type of tobacco used (smoking or smokeless and the form in which it is used, such as cigarettes, pipes, cigars and chewing moist snuff. The frequency and duration of use as well as the ways in which the tobacco product is used also contributes to the clinical presentation and seventy of the lesion. The present study is mainly focused on the correlation between the smokeless tobacco-induced lesion and smoke-induced leukoplakia on various aspects with an objective to determine smokeless tobacco as a possible cause for leukoplakia.

  3. Association of Exercise Training with Tobacco Smoking Prevents Fibrosis but has Adverse Impact on Myocardial Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Junior, Dermeval; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; de Franco, Marcello Fabiano; de Oliveira, Helenita Antonia; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Serra, Andrey Jorge

    2016-12-01

    There was no data for cardiac repercussion of exercise training associated with tobacco smoking. This issue is interesting because some smoking people can be enrolled in an exercise-training program. Thus, we evaluated swimming training effects on the function and structural myocardial in rats exposed to tobacco smoking. Male Wistar rats were assigned to one of four groups: C, untrained rats without exposure to tobacco smoking; E, exercised rats without exposure to tobacco smoking; CS, untrained rats exposed to tobacco smoking; ECS, exercised rats exposed to tobacco smoking. Rats swam five times a week twice daily (60min per session) for 8 weeks. Before each bout exercise, rats breathed smoke from 20 cigarettes for 60min. Twenty-four hours after the last day of the protocol, papillary muscles were isolated for in vitro analysis of myocardial mechanics. The myocardial mass and nuclear cardiomyocyte volume were used as hypertrophy markers, and collagen content was determined by picrosirius red staining. There was a well-pronounced myocardial hypertrophic effect for two interventions. The exercise blunted myocardial collagen increases induced by tobacco smoking. However, exercise and tobacco-smoking association was deleterious to myocardial performance. Thereby, in vitro experiments with papillary muscles contracting in isometric showed impairment myocardial inotropism in exercised rats exposed to tobacco smoking. This work presents novel findings on the role of exercise training on cardiac remodeling induced by tobacco smoking. Although exercise has mitigated tissue fibrosis, their association with tobacco smoking exacerbated hypertrophy and in vitro myocardial dysfunction. This is first study to show that the association of an aerobic exercise training with tobacco smoking intensifies the phenotype of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, the combination of interventions resulted in exacerbated myocardial hypertrophy and contractility dysfunction. These

  4. Current and Emerging Pharmacotherapies for Cessation of Tobacco Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coronado, Nieves; Walker, Adam J; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal

    2018-02-01

    Tobacco use disorder is a chronic illness. With its high comorbidity rate, it is a major cause of years of life lost or years lived with disability; however, it is also considered the most preventable cause of death in developed countries. Since the development of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in 1978, treatment options have continued to evolve and expand. Despite this, currently available treatments remain insufficient, with less than 25% of smokers remaining abstinent 1 year after treatment. In this article, we review existing and emerging smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, with a special emphasis on the most promising agents that are currently being investigated. A search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the PubMed, Ovid, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases (August 2 to September 1, 2017) was undertaken for articles on smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, applying no language restrictions. More than 40 pharmacotherapies were reviewed including conventional pharmacotherapies-NRT, bupropion, and varenicline (all approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as first-line treatment of smoking cessation)-and novel therapies: cytisine, N-acetylcysteine, cycloserine, memantine, baclofen, topiramate, galantamine, and bromocriptine. Studies of combination NRT and varenicline showed the greatest smoking cessation rates. Clonidine and nortriptyline are second-line treatments used when first-line treatments fail or are contraindicated, or by patient preference. Some novel therapies, especially acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, cytisine, and N-acetylcysteine, display promising results. Because the results of randomized clinical trials were reported using varied end points and outcome measures, direct comparisons between different pharmacotherapies cannot easily be evaluated. Additional high-quality randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials with long-term follow-up, using validated sustained abstinence measures, are needed to find more

  5. Alterations in oral microbial flora induced by waterpipe tobacco smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhatreh MAK

    2018-02-01

    waterpipe smoking. Keywords: waterpipe, smoking, oral microflora, hookah, tobacco

  6. A systematic review on the impact of point-of-sale tobacco promotion on smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; McGee, Rob; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The tobacco retail environment is a crucial marketing medium for the industry. A 2009 review found evidence of a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco promotion and increased smoking and smoking susceptibility, though limitations in the evidence base were identified. We reviewed and critically appraised recent evidence documenting the influence of POS tobacco promotion, and POS tobacco display bans, on smoking-related behavior and cognitions. We reviewed original quantitative and qualitative research that examined the relationship between POS tobacco promotion and smoking prevalence, individual-level smoking and quitting and tobacco purchasing behavior, smoking susceptibility, and smoking-related cognitions. Twenty peer-reviewed studies (18 quantitative and 2 qualitative) met the inclusion criteria; each study reported findings consistent with a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking or smoking susceptibility. Several studies met key criteria for causality: 4 indicated a dose-response association, 2 prospective studies were identified, and evidence from intervention studies supported the reversibility of the association. Findings were consistent across different study designs, settings, and measures. The existing evidence supports a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking. This review provides evidence to support the continuation of POS tobacco display bans in those jurisdictions where such legislation has been introduced and strengthens the evidence encouraging similar policies in jurisdictions without a POS display ban. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tobacco industry attempts to frame smoking as a 'disability' under the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Yvette; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-01-01

    Using the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Library and Congressional records, we examined the tobacco industry's involvement with the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). During legislative drafting of the ADA (1989-1990), the Tobacco Institute, the tobacco industry's lobbying and public relations arm at the time, worked with industry lawyers and civil rights groups to include smoking in the ADA's definition of "disability." Focus was on smoking as a perceived rather than actual disability so that tobacco companies could maintain that smoking is not addictive. Language that would have explicitly excluded smoking from ADA coverage was weakened or omitted. Tobacco Institute lawyers did not think the argument that smokers are "disabled" would convince the courts, so in the two years after the ADA was signed into law, the Tobacco Institute paid a lawyer to conduct media tours, seminars, and write articles to convince employers that hiring only non-smokers would violate the ADA. The ultimate goal of these activities was to deter employers from promoting a healthy, tobacco-free workforce and, more broadly, to promote the social acceptability of smoking. Employers and policy makers need to be aware that tobacco use is not protected by the ADA and should not be misled by tobacco industry efforts to insinuate otherwise.

  9. The Risk of Hypertension and Other Chronic Diseases: Comparing Smokeless Tobacco with Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Anand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn the past, studies have compared smokeless tobacco and non-tobacco users for the risk of various chronic diseases. The differences in the risk of chronic diseases between smokeless tobacco user and smokers have not been explored. The objective of this study is to estimate the risk of chronic diseases among smokeless tobacco users compared to smokers.MethodsThe data were used from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave-1, conducted in 2007–2008 in India. The study sample is the respondents who reported consuming any form of tobacco in last 1 month. The total sample size was 4,038 respondents. The odds ratio of chronic morbidities was estimated taking smokers as the reference category.ResultsThe odds ratios for (self-reported diabetes, asthma, and hypertension were not significant for smokeless tobacco user compared to smoked tobacco users. The odds ratio of chronic lung diseases (CLDs was significantly lower among smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. The odds ratio of hypertension (measured combined with low education and belonging to lowest wealth quintiles were not significant for smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. Duration of the use of smokeless tobacco and quantity of use was found to have no significant relation with risk of chronic diseases as compared to smoking.ConclusionThis study did not find the significantly higher risk of chronic morbidities except for CLD for smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. The study suggests that the use of any form of tobacco may have a similar risk of chronic diseases.

  10. Smoking cessation and tobacco prevention in Indigenous populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Esterman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article systematically reviews 91 smoking cessation and tobacco prevention studies tailored for Indigenous populations around the world, with a particular focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. We identified several components of effective interventions, including the use of multifaceted programs that simultaneously address the behavioural, psychological and biochemical aspects of addiction, using resources culturally tailored for the needs of individual Indigenous populations. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation was effective when combined with culturally tailored behavioural interventions and health professional support, though it is generally underused in clinical practice. From a policy perspective, interventions of greater intensity, with more components, were more likely to be effective than those of lower intensity and shorter duration. For any new policy it is important to consider community capacity building, development of knowledge, and sustainability of the policy beyond guided implementation. Future research should address how the intervention can be supported into standard practice, policy, or translation into the front-line of clinical care. Investigations are also required to determine the efficacy of emerging therapies (such as e-cigarettes and the use of social media to tackle youth smoking, and under-researched interventions that hold promise based on non-Indigenous studies, such as the use of Champix. We conclude that more methodologically rigorous investigations are required to determine components of the less-successful interventions to aid future policy, practice and research initiatives.

  11. Identification of nuclear phosphoproteins as novel tobacco markers in mouse lung tissue following short-term exposure to tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Niimori-Kita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a risk factor for lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the progression of these diseases remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to identify signaling pathways activated by tobacco-smoke exposure, by analyzing nuclear phosphoprotein expression using phosphoproteomic analysis of lung tissue from mice exposed to tobacco smoke. Sixteen mice were exposed to tobacco smoke for 1 or 7 days, and the expression of phosphorylated peptides was analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 253 phosphoproteins were identified, including FACT complex subunit SPT16 in the 1-day exposure group, keratin type 1 cytoskeletal 18 (K18, and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, in the 7-day exposure group, and peroxiredoxin-1 (OSF3 and spectrin β chain brain 1 (SPTBN1, in both groups. Semi-quantitative analysis of the identified phosphoproteins revealed that 33 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between the control and exposed groups. The identified phosphoproteins were classified according to their biological functions. We found that the identified proteins were related to inflammation, regeneration, repair, proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, and response to stress and nicotine. In conclusion, we identified proteins, including OSF3 and SPTBN1, as candidate tobacco smoke-exposure markers; our results provide insights into the mechanisms of tobacco smoke-induced diseases.

  12. A Comprehensive Examination of the Influence of State Tobacco Control Programs and Policies on Youth Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R.; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joe; Kuiper, Nicole; Couzens, G. Lance; Dube, Shanta; Caraballo, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of tobacco control policies (tobacco control program expenditures, smoke-free air laws, youth access law compliance, and cigarette prices) on youth smoking outcomes (smoking susceptibility, past-year initiation, current smoking, and established smoking). Methods. We combined data from the 2002 to 2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health with state and municipality population data from the US Census Bureau to assess the associations between state tobacco control policy variables and youth smoking outcomes, focusing on youths aged 12 to 17 years. We also examined the influence of policy variables on youth access when these variables were held at 2002 levels. Results. Per capita funding for state tobacco control programs was negatively associated with all 4 smoking outcomes. Smoke-free air laws were negatively associated with all outcomes except past-year initiation, and cigarette prices were associated only with current smoking. We found no association between these outcomes and retailer compliance with youth access laws. Conclusions. Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing youth smoking. PMID:23327252

  13. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, E.; Nagelhout, G.E.; van den Putte, B.; Janssen, E.; Mons, U.; Guignard, R.; Beck, F.; de Vries, H.; Thrasher, J.F.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and

  14. [Impact of the Spanish smoking laws on the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (2005-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Malvar, Alberto; Jesús García, María; Seoane, Bernardo; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a valuable index to assess the impact of the laws for tobacco control. The objective of this work is to analyse variations in the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (Spain) between 2005, before the Law 28/2005, and 2011, after the law 42/2010. Data were obtained from five population-based independent cross-sectional studies, telephone surveys, developed in Galicia between 2005 and 2011 among population aged 16 to 74 (n=34.419). Self-reported exposure among population aged between 16 and 74 was analysed by setting and tobacco consumption by prevalence with 95% confidence intervals. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure decreased dramatically in Galicia between 2005 and 2011. In 2005, before the Law 28/2005, 95% of the population reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke compared to 28% in 2011, after the Law 42/2010. Decrease was greater in workplaces in 2006 and in leisure time venues in 2011. After an initial decrease in 2006, exposure at home remains unchanged. An important reduction in self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke occurred in Galicia in the period 2005-2011, specially after the introduction of Laws 28/2005 and 42/2010. Nevertheless, one in four of the population aged 16 to 74 remained exposed in 2011. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic Review of Studies of Workplace Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuo WANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been reported that there was a close relationship between lung cancer risk and environmental tobacco smoke at workplace. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Methods By searching Medline, CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI and VIP et al, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents on workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk. Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct systematic review on the study results, the combined odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated as well. Results 22 reports were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that 25% lung cancer risk was increased by exposing to workplace environment tobacco smoke (OR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.13-1.39, P < 0.001. For female the increased risk was 22% (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42, P=0.011. For male the increased risk was 54%, but it does not reach the statistical significance (OR=1.54, 95%CI: 0.74-3.18, P=0.247. Conclusion Workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor of lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Especially for non-smoking women who expose to workplace environment tobacco smoke have a close relationship with lung cancer.

  16. Impact of the Spanish smoking laws on tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke exposure: A longitudinal population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Martínez, Cristina; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2017-12-01

    In Spain, two smoke-free laws have been passed after the approval of the WHO-FCTC. This study assesses the impact of these Spanish smoking legislations on the active and passive smoking through a population cohort in Barcelona (Spain). This is a longitudinal study before and after the implementation of two national smoking bans in Spain in a representative sample (n=1245) of adults (≥16years old) from Barcelona (Spain) surveyed in 2004-2005 and followed-up in 2013-2014. The final sample analyzed was 736 individuals. Both questionnaires (before and after the two laws) included the same variables about active and passive smoking. We calculated the prevalence and the prevalence ratio (PR, with their 95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of smoking cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco and also the prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home, work, public transport, leisure time and at any setting after vs. before Spanish legislations. After the implementation of the two Spanish smoke-free bans, a significant decrease was observed in the smoking prevalence (from 34.5% to 26.1%, PR=0.76, psmoke-free legislations in Spain is related to a reduction in smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. However, the smoking of other tobacco products, particularly hand-rolled tobacco, has increased among young population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and sensitisation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannerö, E; Wickman, M; van Hage, M; Bergström, A; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, L

    2008-02-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increases the risk of respiratory illness in children but data are inconclusive regarding the risk of IgE sensitisation. To elucidate whether exposure to smoking prenatally and/or postnatally is related to IgE sensitisation in children at 4 years of age. As part of a prospective birth cohort study (BAMSE), a total of 4089 families with children answered questionnaires when the child was 2 months, 1, 2 and 4 years old on environmental factors and symptoms of allergic disease. Blood collected at age 4 years from 2614 children was analysed for IgE antibodies to common inhalant and food allergens. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression with adjustments for potential confounders. There was no evident association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of IgE sensitisation. In contrast, a dose-response effect was found for exposure to ETS from parental smoking during the first few months of life and IgE sensitisation. There was an increased risk of sensitisation to inhalant and/or food allergens (OR(adj) 1.28 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.62)) among children exposed to ETS at 2 months of age. The risk appeared particularly elevated for indoor inhalant allergens, such as cat (OR(adj) 1.96 (95% CI 1.28 to 2.99)) and for food allergens (OR(adj) 1.46 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.93)). The IgE sensitising effect of ETS seemed to be confined to infants of parents without allergic diseases and to ETS exposure during early infancy. Our data indicate that exposure in early infancy to ETS increases the risk of IgE sensitisation to indoor inhalant and food allergens.

  18. The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence: results from the Michigan SimSmoke tobacco policy simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Huang, An-Tsun; Havumaki, Joshua S; Meza, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Michigan has implemented several of the tobacco control policies recommended by the World Health Organization MPOWER goals. We consider the effect of those policies and additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths (SADs). The SimSmoke tobacco control policy simulation model is used to examine the effect of past policies and a set of additional policies to meet the MPOWER goals. The model is adapted to Michigan using state population, smoking, and policy data starting in 1993. SADs are estimated using standard attribution methods. Upon validating the model, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 against a counterfactual with policies kept at their 1993 levels. The model is then used to project the effect of implementing stronger policies beginning in 2014. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2010. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 22 % by 2013 and of 30 % by 2054 can be attributed to tobacco control policies. Of the 22 % reduction, 44 % is due to taxes, 28 % to smoke-free air laws, 26 % to cessation treatment policies, and 2 % to youth access. Moreover, 234,000 SADs are projected to be averted by 2054. With additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals, the model projects that, by 2054, smoking prevalence can be further reduced by 17 % with 80,000 deaths averted relative to the absence of those policies. Michigan SimSmoke shows that tobacco control policies, including cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, and cessation treatment policies, have substantially reduced smoking and SADs. Higher taxes, strong mass media campaigns, and cessation treatment policies would further reduce smoking prevalence and SADs.

  19. Levels of Urine Cotinine from Hookah Smoking and Exposure to Hookah Tobacco Secondhand Smoke in Hookah Lounges and Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Nada O F; Kassem, Noura O; Liles, Sandy; Jackson, Sheila R; Posis, Alexander Ivan B; Chatfield, Dale A; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2018-03-01

    Nicotine, an addictive drug, is present in all forms of tobacco products, including hookah tobacco, which is not yet regulated in the United States. This study aimed to investigate the uptake of nicotine in hookah smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at indoor hookah social events in natural settings where hookah tobacco was smoked exclusively. We quantified cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, in the urine of 105 hookah smokers and 103 non-smokers. Participants provided spot urine samples the morning of and the morning after attending an indoor hookah-only smoking social event at a hookah lounge or in a private home. Following a social event where exclusively hookah tobacco was smoked, urinary cotinine levels increased significantly 8.5 times (geometric mean (GM): 16.0 ng/mg to 136.1 ng/mg) among hookah smokers, and 2.5 times (GM: 0.4 ng/mg to 1.0 ng/mg) among non-smokers exposed exclusively to hookah tobacco SHS. Among hookah smokers, the highest increase in urinary cotinine levels post a hookah event was found in occasional hookah smokers in which GM levels increased significantly 31.2 times post smoking (from 2.0 ng/mg to 62.3 ng/mg). Reported reasons for preference to smoke hookah at home by hookah smokers who attended a hookah social event in a private home included recreational purposes, socializing with friends and family, 'Me' time and relaxing at home, more comfortable to smoke hookah at home, owning a hookah and hookah tobacco, eating and drinking while smoking hookah, and saving money by smoking at home and not going to hookah lounges. Hookah tobacco smoke is a source of substantial nicotine exposure. Our results call for protecting hookah smokers' and non-smokers' health by requiring accurate hookah tobacco labels, raising taxes on hookah tobacco, reducing the spread of hookah lounges, and encouraging voluntary bans on smoking hookah tobacco in private homes.

  20. Tobacco smoking: How far do the legislative control measures address the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiloha, Ram C.

    2012-01-01

    India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003” which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

  1. Is there an association between home-tobacco outlet proximity and smoking status in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; K Seid, Abdu; Stock, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    and/or tobacco outlets on smoking habits for the first time in a population based survey in Denmark. Method: Data came from the 2011 Danish national alcohol and drug survey of the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research of Aarhus University (response rate 64%) and registries of Statistics Denmark were...... between residing close to a tobacco outlet and the prevalence of current and previous smoking. However, no significant association was found between distance from residence to tobacco outlets and smoking habits. Discussion: The prevalence of current smokers (24%) is in accordance with the 2011 annual......Abstract It is well established that exposure to point-of-sale tobacco promotion or impulse purchases and access to and distance to tobacco outlets are related to youth and adult smoking. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of distance from residence to the nearest alcohol...

  2. Results of survey for assessing awareness level regarding radiological hazards of tobacco smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, S. N. A.

    2009-01-01

    Human consumption of tobacco is as old as human history. However, injurious health effects due to tobacco smoking may not be evident to the public at large. This article presents results of a questionnaire based on a survey carried out in the metropolitan city of Lahore of Pakistan with an aim to understand the awareness level of the general population about the radiological hazards associated with tobacco smoking. Some 3600 participants from different educational backgrounds from all segments of the society participated in this survey. Analysis of the data collected concluded that the awareness level of the representative participants regarding the radiological hazards associated with tobacco smoking was alarmingly poor. These results suggest that a nationwide mass media campaign may be launched by the government authorities in Health and Environment departments to enlighten the general public in this respect to avoid tobacco-smoking-associated health risks. (authors)

  3. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  4. Japanese spousal smoking study revisited: how a tobacco industry funded paper reached erroneous conclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, E

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a participant's account of the development of a paper commissioned by the tobacco industry examining the reliability of self reported smoking status; to redress the distorted report of this Japanese spousal smoking study which evaluated the reliability and validity of self reported smoking status, and estimated confounding by diet and lifestyle factors.

  5. [Socio-demographic factors and tobacco smoking among the Rzeszow's collage students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Chmiel-Połeć, Zdzisława; Marć, Małgorzata; Januszewicz, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most known single factor of the highest impact on the number of cancerous deceases. Chemical compound contained in the tobacco smoke have an affect on strong mutagen and carcinogenic actions. Among 400 chemical compound 40 of them have a proven carcinogenic action for human. From the medical point of view the most important are: nicotine- responsible as well as for the pharmacologic tobacco smoking addiction, carbon monoxide, carcinogenic and irritant substances. Regular monitoring of the tobacco smoking among academic students might be used in the actions considering the health risk management. The aim of the study was identifying the relation among selected socio-demographic factors like: age, sex, major, permanent residence, parent's education, material status, medical profile and tobacco smoking among academic students. The research was carried out among 521: science, humanities and medical stationary students. The research was conducted with a usage of the chi-squared evenness test. The research shows that sex and place of residence are the two factors having the most impact on tobacco smoking among academic students. Academic students originated from town or cities as well as men are more often to make a decision on smoking tobacco.

  6. Changing the Smoking Trajectory: Evaluating the Impact of School-Based Tobacco Interventions on Changes to Susceptibility to Future Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G. Cole

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available School-based programs and policies can reduce student smoking rates. However, their impact on never-smoking students has not been investigated despite the clear transition between non-susceptible, susceptible, and ever tried smoking statuses. The objective of this paper was to examine the longitudinal student-level impact of six changes in school-based tobacco control programs and policies on student transitions in susceptibility to smoking over one year. Two multinomial logistic regression models identified the relative risk of a change in self-reported susceptibility to smoking or in trying a cigarette among never-smoking students in each of the six intervention schools compared to the relative risk among never-smoking students in control schools. Model 1 identified the relative risk of a change in smoking susceptibility status among baseline non-susceptible never smoking students, while Model 2 identified the relative risk of a change in smoking susceptibility status among baseline susceptible never smoking students. Students at some intervention schools were at increased risk of becoming susceptible to or trying a cigarette at one year follow-up. Intervention studies should examine changes to susceptibility to future smoking when evaluating impact to ensure that school-based tobacco control programs and policies do not negatively change the risk status of never-smoking students.

  7. Attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control among pre-clinical medical students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, G H; Hairi, N N; Hairi, F

    2012-08-01

    Physicians should play a leading role in combatting smoking; information on attitudes of future physicians towards tobacco control measures in a middle-income developing country is limited. Of 310 future physicians surveyed in a medical school in Malaysia, 50% disagreed that it was a doctor's duty to advise smokers to stop smoking; 76.8% agreed that physicians should not smoke before advising others not to smoke; and 75% agreed to the ideas of restricting the sale of cigarettes to minors, making all public places smoke-free and banning advertising of tobacco-related merchandise. Future physicians had positive attitudes towards tobacco regulations but had not grasped their responsibilities in tobacco control measures.

  8. Characterization of Toxic Metals in Tobacco, Tobacco Smoke, and Cigarette Ash from Selected Imported and Local Brands in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Ajab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS. Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals.

  9. Russia SimSmoke: the long-term effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Galina Ya; Oganov, Rafael G; Boytsov, Sergey A; Ross, Hana; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee; Kotov, Alexey; Berezhnova, Irina; Levy, David T

    2014-11-01

    Russia has high smoking rates and weak tobacco control policies. A simulation model is used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies on past and future smoking prevalence and premature mortality in Russia. The Russia model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control model previously developed for the USA and other nations. The model inputs population size, birth, death and smoking rates specific to Russia. It assesses, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies consistent with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): taxes, smoke-free air, mass media campaign, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies. Outcomes are smoking prevalence and the number of smoking-attributable deaths by age and gender from 2009 to 2055. Increasing cigarette taxes to 70% of retail price, stronger smoke-free air laws, a high-intensity media campaign and comprehensive treatment policies are each potent policies to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable premature deaths in Russia. With the stronger set of policies, the model estimates that, relative to the status quo trend, smoking prevalence can be reduced by as much as 30% by 2020, with a 50% reduction projected by 2055. This translates into 2 684 994 male and 1 011 985 female premature deaths averted from 2015-2055. SimSmoke results highlight the relative contribution of policies to reducing the tobacco health burden in Russia. Significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through strengthening tobacco control policies in line with FCTC recommendations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Pregnant women and children's exposure to tobacco and solid fuel smoke in southwestern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Moore, Janet; Derman, Richard; Kodkany, Bhala; Bellad, Mrutyunjaya; Naik, Vijjaya A; Angolkar, Mubashir; Bloch, Michele

    2011-07-01

    To examine factors associated with smoke exposure among pregnant women in rural India. We conducted a survey of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) and solid fuel smoke (SFS) among 736 pregnant women. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression models to assess the relationship between demographic variables and exposure to SHS and to SFS. While few respondents smoked cigarettes, 19.9% of women and 27.8% of children were frequently or always exposed to SHS, and 43.5% were at high and 46.7% at medium risk for SFE. Low educational levels and illiteracy were associated with exposure. Smoke exposure is a serious health risk for many poor women and children in India.

  11. Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Hospitality Workers Before and After a State Smoking Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A.; Schillo, Barbara A.; Moilanen, Molly M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3000 cancer deaths per year. While several countries and states in the U.S. have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of non-smoking employees (N=24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking prior to the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

  12. Reduction of secondhand tobacco smoke in public places following national smoke-free legislation in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Marquizo, Adriana; Goja, Beatriz; Peruga, Armando; Jones, Miranda R; Yuan, Jie; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-06-01

    Smoke-free legislation eliminating tobacco smoke in all indoor public places and workplaces is the international standard to protect all people from exposure to secondhand smoke. Uruguay was the first country in the Americas and the first middle-income country in the world to enact a comprehensive smoke-free national legislation in March 2006. To compare air nicotine concentrations measured in indoor public places and workplaces in Montevideo, Uruguay before (November 2002) and after (July 2007) the implementation of the national legislation. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7-14 days using the same protocol in schools, a hospital, a local government building, an airport and restaurants and bars. A total of 100 and 103 nicotine samples were available in 2002 and 2007, respectively. Median (IQR) air nicotine concentrations in the study samples were 0.75 (0.2-1.54) microg/m(3) in 2002 compared to 0.07 (0.0-0.20) microg/m(3) in 2007. The overall nicotine reduction comparing locations sampled in 2007 to those sampled in 2002 was 91% (95% CI 85% to 94%) after adjustment for differences in room volume and ventilation. The greatest nicotine reduction was observed in schools (97% reduction), followed by the airport (94% reduction), the hospital (89% reduction), the local government building (86% reduction) and restaurants/bars (81% reduction). Exposure to secondhand smoke has decreased greatly in indoor public places and workplaces in Montevideo, Uruguay, after the implementation of a comprehensive national smoke-free legislation. These findings suggest that it is possible to successfully implement smoke-free legislations in low and middle-income countries.

  13. A Model To Estimate the Sources of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowicz, Peter J; Seeman, Jeffrey I

    2017-08-21

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are one of the most extensively and continually studied classes of compounds found in tobacco and cigarette smoke.1-5 The TSNAs N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) have been characterized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products,6 and cigarette manufacturers report their levels in cigarette tobacco filler and cigarette smoke to the FDA. NNN and NNK are classified by IARC as carcinogenic to humans.7 TSNAs transfer from tobacco to smoke by evaporation driven by heat and the flow of gases down the cigarette rod. Other TSNA sources in smoke include pyrorelease, where room temperature-unextractable TSNAs are released by smoking, and pyrosynthesis, where TSNAs are formed by reactions during smoking. We propose the first model that quantifies these three sources of TSNA in smoke. In our model, evaporative transfer efficiency of a TSNA is equated to the evaporative transfer efficiency of nicotine. Smoke TSNA measured in excess of what is transferred by evaporation is termed "pyrogeneration," which is the net sum of pyrorelease and pyrosynthesis minus pyrodegredation. This model requires no internal standard, is applicable to commercial cigarettes "as is," and uses existing analytical methods. This model was applied to archived Philip Morris USA data. For commercial blended cigarettes, NNN pyrogeneration appears to be unimportant, but NNK pyrogeneration contributes roughly 30-70% of NNK in smoke with the greater contribution at lower tobacco NNK levels. This means there is an opportunity to significantly reduce smoke NNK by up to 70% if pyrogeneration can be decreased or eliminated, perhaps by finding a way to grow and cure tobacco with reduced matrix-bound NNK. For burley research cigarettes, pyrogeneration may account for 90% or more of both NNN and NNK in smoke.

  14. [Application of tobacco smoking regulations in restaurants in Tromsö 1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaus, A; Løchen, M L; Høifødt, R

    2001-02-10

    Under the Norwegian Environmental Tobacco Smoke Act, a minimum of 50% of tables in restaurants have to be in smoke-free areas. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs has defined "smoke-free restaurants" as a priority objective in its anti-tobacco strategy. We have investigated smoking policies in restaurants in the City of Tromsø in Northern Norway, as reported by restaurateurs in 1998. Representatives of all the 85 restaurants, bars and pubs in the city were interviewed and their smoking policies and habits reported. This study was part of the local health authority's evaluation of the degree of compliance with the legislation. In 71% of establishments, at least 50% of tables were smoke-free; in 88%, smoking areas were in compliance with the legislation. 86% of restaurateurs reported a positive or neutral attitude to the legislation, 80% thought that their guests were of the same opinion. 47% smoked every day; however, there was no association between smoking habits and smoking policies. Though the prevalence of smoking was high among restaurateurs, this did not affect their attitudes towards the Environmental Tobacco Smoke Act or their policies on smoking.

  15. [Smoking and doctors: from 'therapeutic panacea' to 'tobacco use discouragement in the individual'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, W J

    2008-06-28

    In The Netherlands smoking will be prohibited in bars, restaurants, pubs and enclosed public spaces on 1 July 2008, in accordance with European legislation. Smoking is already not allowed in most Dutch hospitals. Europeans have a long history of tobacco smoking, going back to the introduction of this habit by Columbus. For centuries tobacco was used as a medicine, and later as a recreational drug, especially after the introduction of the cigarette. There was no scientific understanding of the harmful effects of smoking until the 19th century, when nicotine was isolated and recognised as a poison. Despite the fact that health care professionals represent a valuable resource for tobacco control, doctors have generally shown a poor appreciation of their critical role in smoking control. A decreasing smoking prevalence in the general population however, will emphasize the function of physicians as role model.

  16. Prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among population aged 15 years or older, Vietnam, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-04-18

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45-54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking.

  17. Tobacco Retail Environments and Social Inequalities in Individual-Level Smoking and Cessation Among Scottish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Jamie; Rind, Esther; Shortt, Niamh; Tisch, Catherine; Mitchell, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Many neighborhood characteristics may constrain or enable smoking. This study investigated whether the neighborhood tobacco retail environment was associated with individual-level smoking and cessation in Scottish adults, and whether inequalities in smoking status were related to tobacco retailing. Tobacco outlet density measures were developed for neighborhoods across Scotland using the September 2012 Scottish Tobacco Retailers Register. The outlet data were cleaned and geocoded (n = 10,161) using a Geographic Information System. Kernel density estimation was used to calculate an outlet density measure for each postcode. The kernel density estimation measures were then appended to data on individuals included in the 2008-2011 Scottish Health Surveys (n = 28,751 adults aged ≥16), via their postcode. Two-level logistic regression models examined whether neighborhood density of tobacco retailing was associated with current smoking status and smoking cessation and whether there were differences in the relationship between household income and smoking status, by tobacco outlet density. After adjustment for individual- and area-level confounders, compared to residents of areas with the lowest outlet densities, those living in areas with the highest outlet densities had a 6% higher chance of being a current smoker, and a 5% lower chance of being an ex-smoker. There was little evidence to suggest that inequalities in either current smoking or cessation were narrower in areas with lower availability of tobacco retailing. The findings suggest that residents of environments with a greater availability of tobacco outlets are more likely to start and/or sustain smoking, and less likely to quit. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Seeing, wanting, owning: the relationship between receptivity to tobacco marketing and smoking susceptibility in young people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E.; Borzekowski, D.; Schooler, C.; Flora, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the effect of the tobacco industry's marketing practices on adolescents by examining the relationship between their receptivity to these practices and their susceptibility to start smoking.
DESIGN—Paper-and-pencil surveys measuring association with other smokers, exposure to tobacco industry marketing strategies, experience with smoking, and resolve not to smoke in the future.
SETTING—25 randomly selected classrooms in five middle schools in San Jose, California.
SUBJECTS—571 seventh graders with an average age of 13 years and 8 months; 57% were female. Forty-five per cent of the students were Asian, 38% were Hispanic, 12% were white, and 5% were black.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Exposure to social influences, receptivity to marketing strategies, susceptibility to start smoking.
RESULTS—About 70% of the participants indicated at least moderate receptivity to tobacco marketing materials. Children who are more receptive are also more susceptible to start smoking. In addition to demographics and social influences, receptivity to tobacco marketing materials was found to be strongly associated with susceptibility.
CONCLUSIONS—Tobacco companies conduct marketing campaigns that effectively capture teenage attention and stimulate desire for their promotional items. These marketing strategies may function to move young teenagers from non-smoking status toward regular use of tobacco. Our results demonstrate that there is a clear association between tobacco marketing practices and youngsters' susceptibility to smoke. The findings, along with other research, provide compelling support for regulating the manner in which tobacco products are marketed, to protect young people from the tobacco industry's strategies to reach them.


Keywords: adolescents; advertising; smoking initiation PMID:9789929

  19. The Expansion of Tobacco and Its Effect on Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green CR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For nearly four decades, the expansion of tobacco has been recognized as one of eight technologies significant in the design of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette. The data previously presented at scientific conferences and/or published in several scientific monographs and journals on the effect of the expansion of tobacco on the composition and biological properties of the mainstream smoke from cigarettes containing it are summarized. In addition, previously unpublished data on the same subjects are presented in considerable detail. Included are 1 the effect of tobacco expansion on the yields of total particulate matter (TPM, nicotine, and several hundred components of cigarette mainstream smoke from control tobacco cigarettes vs. expanded tobacco cigarettes; 2 the changes in mainstream smoke yields of total particulate matter, nicotine, and specific smoke components produced by inclusion of various levels of expanded tobacco in a cigarette blend; and 3 the changes in composition of expanded tobacco. In the latter study, the decrease in levels of numerous significant flavorful components of the tobacco produced by expansion provides the need for inclusion of such compounds in flavor formulations. In study 2, the reductions in per cigarette yields of total particulate matter, nicotine, and several components of concern were determined and confirmed the significance of tobacco expansion as a cigarette design technology to produce what was originally defined as a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette but more recently as a ‘potential reduced exposure product’ (PREP.

  20. The density of tobacco retailers and its association with attitudes toward smoking, exposure to point-of-sale tobacco advertising, cigarette purchasing, and smoking among New York youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R; Kim, Annice E; Busey, Andrew H; Farrelly, Matthew C; Willett, Jeffrey G; Juster, Harlan R

    2012-11-01

    Estimate the association between the density of licensed tobacco retailers (LTRs) and smoking-related attitudes and behaviors among middle and high school students in New York. The 2000-2008 New York Youth Tobacco Surveys were pooled (N=70,427) and linked with county-level density of LTRs and retailer compliance with laws restricting youth access to cigarettes. Logistic regressions tested for associations with attitudes toward smoking exposure to point-of-sale tobacco advertising, cigarette purchasing, and smoking prevalence. LTR density is associated with self-reported exposure to point-of-sale advertising in New York City (NYC) among all youth (OR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.30) and nonsmokers (OR=1.14; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30); youth believing that smoking makes them look cool, overall (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.22, 2.52) and among nonsmokers (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.55); and a counter-intuitive negative relationship with frequent smoking in NYC (OR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.84). Retailer compliance was negatively associated with youth reporting that a retail store is their usual source for cigarettes (OR=0.93; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.98). Restricting tobacco licenses and enforcing youth access laws are reasonable policy approaches for influencing youth smoking outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of implementation, compliance and acceptance of partial smoking bans among hospitality workers before and after the Swiss Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Hoffmann, Susanne; Röösli, Martin; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization recommends uniform comprehensive smoking bans in public places. In Switzerland, regulations differ between various areas and are mostly incomplete for hospitality venues. As ambiguous regulations offer more leeway for implementation, we evaluated the Swiss regulations with respect to their effects on implementation, acceptance and compliance among hospitality workers. In our longitudinal study, a standardized, self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a sample of 185 hospitality workers before and 4-6 month after the smoking ban came into effect. The matched longitudinal sample comprised 71 participants (repeated response rate 38.4%). We developed a seven-item acceptance scale. Logistic regressions were performed to explore the factors associated with acceptance. Acceptance of smoking bans was influenced by smoking status and perceived annoyance with second-hand smoke in private. Although not statistically significant (P = 0.09), we found some indications that post-ban acceptance increased in an area with strict regulations, whereas it decreased in two areas with less stringent regulations. Tobacco bans in Swiss hospitality venues are still in a period of consolidation. The incomplete nature of the law may also have had a negative impact on the development of greater acceptance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Antioxidant responses following active and passive smoking of tobacco and electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulianiti, Konstantina; Karatzaferi, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2016-07-01

    It has been indicated that acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking may cause changes on redox status balance that may result in significant pathologies. However, no study has evaluated the effects of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on redox status of consumers. To examine the acute effects of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on selected redox status markers. Using a randomized single-blind crossover design, 30 participants (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers) were exposed to three different experimental conditions. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session (smoked 2 cigarettes within 30-min) and an active e-cigarette smoking session (smoked a pre-determined number of puffs within 30-min using a liquid with 11 ng/ml nicotine). Similarly, nonsmokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to 23 ± 1 ppm of CO in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber) and a passive e-cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to air enriched with pre- determined number of puffs in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assessed in participants' blood prior to, immediately after, and 1-h post-exposure. TAC, CAT and GSH remained similar to baseline levels immediately after and 1-h-post exposure (p > 0.05) in all trials. Tobacco and e-cigarette smoking exposure do not acutely alter the response of the antioxidant system, neither under active nor passive smoking conditions. Overall, there is not distinction between tobacco and e-cigarette active and passive smoking effects on specific redox status indices.

  3. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612...... women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking....

  4. Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haqwi Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students′ attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.

  5. Environmental exposure of pregnant women to tobacco smoke and selected socio-economic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kalinowski

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions. Study results indicate the problem of exposure of pregnant women to smoke. Studied socio-economic factors affect the degree of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. There is a need to implement systematic activities in the field of social education about the influence of tobacco smoke on intrauterine development of the fetus. For this purpose it would be useful to develop a health program for women of child-bearing age with focus on the most vulnerable social groups of women. It is also necessary to provide people actively smoking from pregnant women, in particular of home environment, with health education.

  6. How the tobacco industry responded to an influential study of the health effects of secondhand smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Mi-Kyung; Bero, Lisa A

    2002-01-01

    In 1981 an influential Japanese study showed an association between passive smoking and lung cancer. This article documents the tobacco industry's attempts to refute this study by producing a credible alternative study.

  7. Smoking in Ghana: a study of the history of tobacco industry activity, current prevalence and risk factors for smoking, and implementation of tobacco control policy

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud There has been relatively little research on the prevalence and use of tobacco products in developing countries, where the majority of morbidity and mortality from tobacco use in this century is expected to occur. This is particularly true of countries in Africa. I conducted this study in the Ashanti region of Ghana, primarily to measure prevalence and risk factors for smoking, and secondarily to develop a template for national surveys in similar settings in developing count...

  8. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  9. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-05-01

    To examine differential effects of smoking in films and tobacco advertising on adolescent smoking. We hypothesize that movie smoking will have greater effects on smoking initiation, whereas tobacco advertising receptivity will primarily affect experimentation. Longitudinal observational study of adolescents. School-based surveys conducted in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. A total of 4384 adolescents age 11-15 years at baseline and re-surveyed 1 year later; ever smoking prevalence was 38% at time 1. The main outcome variable combined two items assessing life-time and current smoking (alpha = 0.87). Baseline never smokers were analyzed separately from those who had tried smoking (ever smokers). Exposure to smoking in 398 internationally distributed US movies was modeled as a continuous variable, with 0 corresponding to the 5th percentile and 1 to the 95th percentile of exposure. Tobacco marketing receptivity consisted of naming a brand for a favorite tobacco advertisement. Ordinal logistic regressions controlled for socio-demographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Whereas 34% of ever smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing at time 1, only 6% of never smokers were. Among time 1 never smokers, exposure to movie smoking was a significantly stronger predictor of higher time 2 smoking level [adjusted proportional odds ratio = 2.76, 95% confidence interval (1.84, 4.15)] than was tobacco marketing receptivity (1.53 [1.07, 2.20]). Among time 1 ever smokers, both tobacco marketing receptivity and exposure to movie smoking predicted higher levels of time 2 smoking [2.17 (1.78, 2.63) and 1.62 (1.18, 2.23), respectively], and the two estimates were not significantly different. In this longitudinal study, exposure to movie smoking was a stronger predictor of smoking initiation than tobacco marketing receptivity, which was more common among ever smokers. The results suggest that entertainment media smoking should be

  10. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D.; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine differential effects of smoking in films and tobacco advertising on adolescent smoking. We hypothesize that movie smoking will have greater effects on smoking initiation, whereas tobacco advertising receptivity will primarily affect experimentation. Design Longitudinal observational study of adolescents. Setting School-based surveys conducted in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Participants A total of 4384 adolescents age 11–15 years at baseline and re-surveyed 1 year later; ever smoking prevalence was 38% at time 1. Measurements The main outcome variable combined two items assessing life-time and current smoking (alpha = 0.87). Baseline never smokers were analyzed separately from those who had tried smoking (ever smokers). Exposure to smoking in 398 internationally distributed US movies was modeled as a continuous variable, with 0 corresponding to the 5th percentile and 1 to the 95th percentile of exposure. Tobacco marketing receptivity consisted of naming a brand for a favorite tobacco advertisement. Ordinal logistic regressions controlled for socio-demographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Findings Whereas 34% of ever smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing at time 1, only 6% of never smokers were. Among time 1 never smokers, exposure to movie smoking was a significantly stronger predictor of higher time 2 smoking level [adjusted proportional odds ratio = 2.76, 95% confidence interval (1.84, 4.15)] than was tobacco marketing receptivity (1.53 [1.07, 2.20]). Among time 1 ever smokers, both tobacco marketing receptivity and exposure to movie smoking predicted higher levels of time 2 smoking [2.17 (1.78, 2.63) and 1.62 (1.18, 2.23), respectively], and the two estimates were not significantly different. Conclusions In this longitudinal study, exposure to movie smoking was a stronger predictor of smoking initiation than tobacco marketing receptivity, which was more common among ever

  11. Influence of tobacco marketing and exposure to smokers on adolescent susceptibility to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N; Farkas, A; Gilpin, E; Berry, C; Pierce, J P

    1995-10-18

    Today the uptake of smoking is primarily an adolescent pursuit. Awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion is high, and evidence suggests that it plays a role in adolescent smoking uptake. We evaluated the influence of tobacco advertising and promotion and exposure to smokers on never-smoking adolescents' susceptibility to smoking. We used data on 3536 adolescent never smokers (those who had never even puffed on a cigarette) from the 1993 California Tobacco Survey. That survey questioned adolescents about smoking history and inclinations. For this analysis, we defined as susceptible to smoking those never smokers who said on the survey that they could not rule out independently deciding to try a cigarette soon or smoking one offered by a friend. Also for this analysis, we devised two indices: 1) a 5-point index of an individual's receptivity to tobacco advertising as determined by the number of positive responses to five survey items (recognition of advertising messages, having a favorite advertisement, naming a brand he/she might buy, owning a tobacco-related promotional item, and willingness to use a tobacco-related promotional item) and 2) an index classifying an individual's reported exposure to family and peer smoking into one of four levels. Using logistic regression, we assessed the independent importance of our indices in predicting susceptibility to smoking after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, including age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and for perceived school performance. Tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Receptivity to tobacco advertising and exposure to smokers were independently associated with susceptibility to smoking, but the relationship appeared stronger for receptivity to advertising. Adolescents exposed to family members and peers (n = 489) who smoked were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-2.74) times as likely to be susceptible, whereas adolescents who scored 4 or more on the Index of Receptivity to Tobacco

  12. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  13. Reinforcement of smoking and drinking: tobacco marketing strategies linked with alcohol in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Ling, Pamela M

    2011-10-01

    We investigated tobacco companies' knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Tobacco companies' numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use.

  14. Tobacco smoking and risk of hip fracture in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S; Prescott, E; Sørensen, T I

    2000-01-01

    population studies conducted in Copenhagen with detailed information on smoking habit. A total of 13,393 women and 17,379 men, initially examined between 1964 and 1992, were followed until 1997 for first admission due to hip fracture. The relative risks (RR) of hip fracture associated with smoking were......BACKGROUND: Previous findings suggest that tobacco smoking increases the risk of hip fracture in women. A similar adverse effect of smoking is suspected to be present in men, but bone mineral density studies have raised the concern that men may be more sensitive to the deleterious effect of smoking...... on bone than women. In this study we prospectively determined the influence of current, previous, and cumulative smoking history on risk of hip fracture in men and women and addressed the issue of possible gender difference in the susceptibility to tobacco smoking. METHODS: Pooled data from three...

  15. Using Anti-Tobacco Industry Messages to Prevent Smoking among High-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Niederdeppe, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Christine; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2006-01-01

    Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strategy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10,035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in…

  16. Does tobacco marketing undermine the influence of recommended parenting in discouraging adolescents from smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Distefan, Janet M; Jackson, Christine; White, Martha M; Gilpin, Elizabeth A

    2002-08-01

    The tobacco industry contends that parenting practices, not marketing practices, are critical to youth smoking. Our objective was to examine whether tobacco-industry marketing practices undermine the protective effect of recommended authoritative parenting against adolescent smoking. Receptivity to tobacco advertising and promotions was assessed in 1996 from a representative sample of California adolescent never-smokers aged 12 to 14 years. A follow-up survey of 1641 of these adolescents was conducted in 1999 that included measures of the key components of authoritative parenting: parental responsiveness, monitoring, and limit setting. Smoking initiation in adolescents. Adolescents in families with more-authoritative parents were half as likely to smoke by follow-up as adolescents in families with less-authoritative parents (20% vs 41%, p parents, adolescents who were highly receptive to tobacco-industry advertising and promotions were significantly more likely to smoke (odds ratio=3.52, 95% confidence interval =1.10-11.23), compared to those who were minimally receptive. This effect was not significant in adolescents in families with less-authoritative parents. The overall attributable risk (adjusted for exposure to peer smokers) of smoking from tobacco-industry advertising and promotions was 25%. However, an estimated 40% of adolescent smoking in families with more-authoritative parents was attributable to tobacco-industry advertising and promotions; this was five times the attributable risk seen in families with less-authoritative parents (8%). The promotion of smoking by the tobacco industry appears to undermine the capability of authoritative parenting to prevent adolescents from starting to smoke.

  17. Exposure of Human Lung Cells to Tobacco Smoke Condensate Inhibits the Nucleotide Excision Repair Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Holcomb

    Full Text Available Exposure to tobacco smoke is the number one risk factor for lung cancer. Although the DNA damaging properties of tobacco smoke have been well documented, relatively few studies have examined its effect on DNA repair pathways. This is especially true for the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway which recognizes and removes many structurally diverse DNA lesions, including those introduced by chemical carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on NER in human lung cells. We studied the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC, a surrogate for tobacco smoke, on the NER pathway in two different human lung cell lines; IMR-90 lung fibroblasts and BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. To measure NER, we employed a slot-blot assay to quantify the introduction and removal of UV light-induced 6-4 photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. We find a dose-dependent inhibition of 6-4 photoproduct repair in both cell lines treated with CSC. Additionally, the impact of CSC on the abundance of various NER proteins and their respective RNAs was investigated. The abundance of XPC protein, which is required for functional NER, is significantly reduced by treatment with CSC while the abundance of XPA protein, also required for NER, is unaffected. Both XPC and XPA RNA levels are modestly reduced by CSC treatment. Finally, treatment of cells with MG-132 abrogates the reduction in the abundance of XPC protein produced by treatment with CSC, suggesting that CSC enhances proteasome-dependent turnover of the protein that is mediated by ubiquitination. Together, these findings indicate that tobacco smoke can inhibit the same DNA repair pathway that is also essential for the removal of some of the carcinogenic DNA damage introduced by smoke itself, increasing the DNA damage burden of cells exposed to tobacco smoke.

  18. Consumo y exposición al humo de tabaco en mujeres embarazadas de Ecuador Smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke among pregnant women in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. Poletta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar la frecuencia de tabaquismo y exposición ambiental al humo de tabaco en mujeres embarazadas de Ecuador y describir los perfiles sociodemográficos asociados con esos factores de riesgo perinatal. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal mediante una encuesta aplicada a mujeres de 18 a 46 años con más de 3 meses de embarazo que asistieron entre octubre de 2004 y septiembre de 2005 a sus consultas de seguimiento en siete servicios de maternidad de seis ciudades de Ecuador. Se analizaron los datos demográficos y de exposición medioambiental (variables independientes y su relación con el hábito de fumar cigarrillos y la exposición ambiental al humo de tabaco. RESULTADOS: De las 746 mujeres analizadas, 53,3% había fumado ocasionalmente y 4,3% había fumado habitualmente; de estas, 75,0% había dejado de fumar antes o durante el embarazo. De las encuestadas, 12,9% estuvo expuesta con frecuencia o siempre al humo de tabaco en ambientes cerrados. Tener mayor educación (11 años o más y un nivel socioeconómico medio o alto, ser caucásica y considerar aceptable que las mujeres de su comunidad fumen se asoció significativa y directamente con el hábito de fumar cigarrillos (P OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of smoking and second-hand smoke exposure among pregnant women in Ecuador and to describe the sociodemographic profiles associated with these perinatal risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study using a survey of women 18-46 years of age who were more than three months pregnant and attended follow-up consultations in seven maternity clinics in six cities in Ecuador between October 2004 and September 2005. Demographics and environmental exposure (independent variables data and their relationship to cigarette smoking and secondhand-smoke exposure were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 746 women studied, 53.3% had smoked occasionally, and 4.3%, regularly; of these, 75% had quit smoking before or during

  19. Encoded exposure to tobacco use in social media predicts subsequent smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depue, Jacob B; Southwell, Brian G; Betzner, Anne E; Walsh, Barbara M

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the potential link between smoking behavior and exposure to mass media depictions of smoking on social networking Web sites. A representative longitudinal panel of 200 young adults in Connecticut. Telephone surveys were conducted by using computer assisted telephone interviewing technology and electronic dialing for random digit dialing and listed samples. Connecticut residents aged 18 to 24 years. To measure encoded exposure, respondents were asked whether or not they had smoked a cigarette in the past 30 days and about how often they had seen tobacco use on television, in movies, and in social media content. Respondents were also asked about cigarette use in the past 30 days, and a series of additional questions that have been shown to be predictive of tobacco use. Logistic regression was used to test for our main prediction that reported exposure to social media tobacco depictions at time 1 would influence time 2 smoking behavior. Encoded exposure to social media tobacco depictions (B = .47, p media depictions of tobacco use predict future smoking tendency, over and above the influence of TV and movie depictions of smoking. This is the first known study to specifically assess the role of social media in informing tobacco behavior.

  20. Ethical and legal analyses of policy prohibiting tobacco smoking in enclosed public spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriola, Taiwo A

    2009-01-01

    A spate of legislations prohibiting cigarette smoking in enclosed public spaces, mainly on grounds of public health protection, recently swept across cities around the world. This is in tandem with a raft of increasingly restrictive national laws that emerged on the back of the ratification of the WHO Framework for Tobacco Control by more than one 168 countries in 2005. The central debate on the increasingly restrictive tobacco laws revolves on the extent to which public health interests justification should ground political intervention in a private right as basic as tobacco smoking, which interestingly is often lumped in the food and beverage category. The pertinent legal and ethical questions therefore are the following: Is or should there be a general unrestricted right to tobacco smoking? If there were such a right, should public health or ethical considerations trump private right to smoke in enclosed public spaces? And if public health interests were so paramount, should they go farther and ground tobacco smoking proscription in all private and public spheres? Using ethical principles and rights-based arguments, the paper critically examines the legal and ethical ramifications of public health justification for tobacco smoking proscription in enclosed public spaces.

  1. Cigarette prices and smoking prevalence after a tobacco tax increase--Turkey, 2008 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Andes, Linda; Erguder, Toker; Yurekli, Ayda; Keskinkılıç, Bekir; Polat, Sertaç; Culha, Gönül; Kilinç, Evin Aras; Taştı, Enver; Erşahin, Yılmaz; Ozmen, Mehmet; San, Ramazan; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi; Asma, Samira

    2014-05-30

    Raising the price of tobacco products has been shown to reduce tobacco consumption in the United States and other high-income countries, and evidence of this impact has been growing for low- and middle-income countries as well. Turkey is a middle-income country surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) twice in a 4-year period, in 2008 and 2012. During this time, the country introduced a policy raising its Special Consumption Tax on Tobacco and implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program banning smoking in public places, banning advertising, and introducing graphic health warnings. The higher tobacco tax took effect in early 2010, allowing sufficient time for subsequent changes in prices and smoking to be observed by the time of the 2012 GATS. This report uses data from GATS Turkey to examine how cigarette prices changed after the 2010 tax increase, describe the temporally associated changes in smoking prevalence, and learn whether this smoking prevalence changed more in some demographic groups than others. From 2008 to 2012, the average price paid for cigarettes increased by 42.1%, cigarettes became less affordable, and smoking prevalence decreased by 14.6%. The largest reduction in smoking was observed among persons with lower socioeconomic status (SES), highlighting the potential role of tax policy in reducing health disparities across socioeconomic groups.

  2. Association between tobacco control policies and smoking behaviour among adolescents in 29 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hublet, Anne; Schmid, Holger; Clays, Els

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between well-known, cost-effective tobacco control policies at country level and smoking prevalence among 15-year-old adolescents. DESIGN: Multi-level modelling based on the 2005-06 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, a cross-national study...... at individual level, and with country-level variables from the Tobacco Control Scale and published country-level databases. SETTING: Twenty-nine European countries. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 25 599 boys and 26 509 girls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported regular smoking defined as at least weekly smoking...... vending machines) = -0.372, P = 0.06]. CONCLUSIONS: For boys, some of the currently recommended tobacco control policies may help to reduce smoking prevalence. However, the model is less suitable for girls, indicating gender differences in the potential efficacy of smoking policies. Future research should...

  3. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine.

  4. International law, national policies and youth smoking: an examination of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Emmanuel Guindon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC addresses a wide range of issues including protection from exposure to secondhand smoke and advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The FCTC represents a minimum set of tobacco control policies, although the treaty explicitly encourages countries to go above and beyond these measures. Despite its lack of mandatory provisions. FCTC ratification and its timing may be good proxy for a country's commitment to tobacco control. Our first objective is to assess the impact of the FCTC on global youth tobacco use. Our second objective is to explore two areas that are amenable to policy change: secondhand smoke and advertising. Methods We used pooled repeated-cross-sectional data from youth surveys conducted between 1999 and 2015 in more than 150 low- and middle-income countries and multilevel analyses to account for the nesting of students in schools and schools in countries. First, we examined the association between three outcome variables (smoking susceptibility, defined as the absence of a firm decision not to smoke, current smoking defined as 30-day smoking prevalence and a five-point scale of smoking uptake and various indicators of the FCTC implementation. Second, we examined the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and advertising and indicators of the FCTC implementation. Results We found considerable heterogeneity in the association between different measures of youth smoking and indicators of the FCTC implementation. On the whole, we found clearer associations between exposure to secondhand smoke and advertising and indicators of the FCTC implementation. Conclusions A number of studies have examined changes in the implementation of tobacco control measures since the ratification of the FCTC but few studies have examined the effect of the FCTC on tobacco use; fewer still have used pre- and post-FCTC data. More research that use such data is needed.

  5. Surfactant Protein D is a candidate biomarker for subclinical tobacco smoke-induced lung damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock Johansson, Sofie; Tan, Qihua; Holst, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Variation in Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is associated with lung function in tobacco smoke-induced chronic respiratory disease. We hypothesized that the same association exists in the general population and could be used to identify individuals sensitive to smoke-induced lung damage. The associat......Variation in Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is associated with lung function in tobacco smoke-induced chronic respiratory disease. We hypothesized that the same association exists in the general population and could be used to identify individuals sensitive to smoke-induced lung damage...... or haplotypes, and expiratory lung function were assessed using twin study methodology and mixed-effects models. Significant inverse associations were evident between sSP-D and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity in the presence of current tobacco smoking but not in non...... with lung function measures in interaction with tobacco smoking. The obtained data suggest sSP-D as a candidate biomarker in risk assessments for subclinical tobacco smoke-induced lung damage. The data and derived conclusion warrant confirmation in a longitudinal population following chronic obstructive...

  6. Secondhand tobacco smoke and severity in wheezing children: Nasal oxidant stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozge; Turkeli, Ahmet; Onur, Ece; Bilge, Sema; Yuksel, Hasan

    2018-05-01

    Prenatal and postnatal smoke exposures are associated with many lung diseases in children due to impaired lung function, increased inflammation, and oxidative stress. We aimed to determine the influence of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on the levels of nasal glutathione, IL-8, IL-17, MMP-9, and TIMP-1, as well as serum surfactant protein-D (SP-D) in wheezy children. We enrolled 150 children with recurrent wheezing and recorded wheezing characteristics at enrollment. We measured the levels of serum cotinine, SP-D, nasal glutathione, IL-8, IL-17, MMP-9, and TIMP-1. Serum cotinine levels between 3 and 12 ng/mL, and above 12 ng/mL were defined as lower and higher level secondhand tobacco smoke exposure, respectively. The ANOVA test, Pearson's correlation analysis and multivariate analysis with a linear regression test were used for the statistical analysis. Ninety-one children had been exposed to lower level secondhand tobacco smoke, while 24 children were exposed to higher level secondhand tobacco smoke. Thirty-five children were not exposed to cigarette smoke. Wheezing symptom scores were higher in exposed children (p = 0.03). Levels of other biomarkers showed no significant difference. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is associated with more severe respiratory symptoms in wheezing children. However, levels of nasal or serum inflammatory markers fail to explain this association, either because of different mechanical factors in the process or due to low levels of the biomarkers especially in nasal secretions.

  7. Characterization of Indian cigarette tobacco and its smoke aerosol by nuclear and allied techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, A.N.; Negi, B.S.; Sadasivan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Forty brands of tobacco used in Indian cigarettes, 20 brands of bidis (tobacco rolled in wrapper leaves), 15 brands of chewing tobacco and 15 brands of snuff tobacco were analyzed by nuclear and allied techniques. The elements measured into tobacco can be grouped into seven categories from less than 1 ppm to 5% by weight. Concentration level varied from 0.5-5% for (Ca, K, Cl), 400-1500 ppm (Fe), 200-600 ppm (Na), 100-300 ppm (Ti, Mn, Br and Sr), 10-100 ppm (Cu, Zn and Rb), 1-10 ppm (Cr, Ni, Pb and La) and less than 1 ppm (As, Co, Cd, Sb, Hg and Eu). Among the above elements Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, Hg and Sb are considered toxic. The percentage transfer of the elements from cigarette tobacco to smoke particles during smoking was also estimated using a smoking machine and collecting the smoke particles on a filter paper. The results show that Br, Cr, Sb and Zn have high percentage transfer from tobacco to its smoke of the order of 2-15%. Out of these Sb has the highest 15%. Cobalt, Fe and Sc have lowest percentage of transfer of the order of less than 1%. The percent transfer of these elements from tobacco to tobacco smoke is higher in case of bidis (1.5-3.0 times) as compared to cigarettes. In cigarettes also non-filter cigarettes have higher transfer (2-3 times) as compared to filter tip cigarettes. (author)

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking. A multilevel study in 29 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; de Looze, Margaretha; Baška, Tibor; Molcho, Michal; Kannas, Lasse; Kunst, Anton E.; Richter, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15-year-old boys

  9. Impact of tobacco control interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah; Amos, Amanda; Clifford, David; Platt, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    We updated and expanded a previous systematic literature review examining the impact of tobacco control interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in smoking. We searched the academic literature for reviews and primary research articles published between January 2006 and November 2010 that examined the socioeconomic impact of six tobacco control interventions in adults: that is, price increases, smoke-free policies, advertising bans, mass media campaigns, warning labels, smoking cessation support and community-based programmes combining several interventions. We included English-language articles from countries at an advanced stage of the tobacco epidemic that examined the differential impact of tobacco control interventions by socioeconomic status or the effectiveness of interventions among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. All articles were appraised by two authors and details recorded using a standardised approach. Data from 77 primary studies and seven reviews were synthesised via narrative review. We found strong evidence that increases in tobacco price have a pro-equity effect on socioeconomic disparities in smoking. Evidence on the equity impact of other interventions is inconclusive, with the exception of non-targeted smoking cessation programmes which have a negative equity impact due to higher quit rates among more advantaged smokers. Increased tobacco price via tax is the intervention with the greatest potential to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in smoking. Other measures studied appear unlikely to reduce inequalities in smoking without specific efforts to reach disadvantaged smokers. There is a need for more research evaluating the equity impact of tobacco control measures, and development of more effective approaches for reducing tobacco use in disadvantaged groups and communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. [Water-pipe tobacco smoking among school children in Israel: frequencies, habits, and attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsano, Shabtai; Ganz, Irit; Eldor, Naomi; Garenkin, Mila

    2003-11-01

    Tobacco smoking via a water-pipe (Nargile) is a new phenomena among school children in Israel in recent years. Water-pipe tobacco has the potential for nicotine addiction, for other smoking-related damages and for drug abuse. Our primary goal was to characterize the frequencies of water-pipe smoking among school children in Israel, its distribution according to age, gender, habits and attitudes. The secondary goal was to compare its use to cigarette smoking among these school children. A self-reported questionnaire was distributed among 388 school children (ages 12-18 years old) in grades A, and C, of middle schools and grade B of high schools in a central region of Israel. The questionnaires were answered unanimously and the process was conducted in classes by the school teacher and by nursing school students. Among all school children in this study, 41% smoke a water-pipe at various frequencies. Of all the children, 22% smoke at least every weekend. Water-pipe smoking was 3 times more frequent than cigarette smoking and was almost equally distributed among both genders, but girls were heavier smokers than boys, of either water pipe or cigarette smoking. Six percent of water-pipe smokers add psychoactive drugs or alcohol to the tobacco. The main reasons for water-pipe smoking were the pleasure achieved and the intimacy that it adds to the youngsters' meetings. Ninety percent of all the school children believe that water-pipe smoking is not healthy, but at least 50% believes it is less harmful than cigarettes. According to school children that smoke water-pipes at least every weekend, 40% of their parents are current or ex-smokers of water-pipes, in contrast with 10% of parents to non-smoking children and about a quarter of the children who smoke also do so together with their parents. Tobacco smoking via water-pipes is a very common phenomena among middle and high school children in Israel. Girls are heavier smokers and adding drugs or alcohol to water

  11. Smoke and mirrors: the perceived benefits of continued tobacco use among current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite 50+ years of public health efforts to reduce smoking rates in the United States, approximately one-fifth of the adults living in this country continue to smoke cigarettes. Previous studies have examined smokers’ risk perceptions of cigarette smoking, as well as the perceived benefits of quitting smoking. Less research has focused on the perceived benefits of smoking among current cigarette smokers. The latter is the main focus of the present paper. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 485 adult current cigarette smokers recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area between 2004 and 2007. Active and passive recruiting approaches were used, along with a targeted sampling strategy. Results revealed that most current cigarette smokers perceive themselves to experience benefits as a result of their cigarette use, including (among others increased relaxation, diminished nervousness in social situations, enjoyment of the taste of cigarettes when smoking, and greater enjoyment of parties when smoking. Perceiving benefits from cigarette smoking was associated with a variety of tobacco use measures, such as smoking more cigarettes, an increased likelihood of chain smoking, and overall negative attitude toward quitting smoking, among others. Several factors were associated with the extent to which smokers perceived themselves to benefit from their tobacco use, including education attainment, the age of first purchasing cigarettes, the proportion of friends who smoked, hiding smoking from others, being internally-oriented regarding locus of control, and self-esteem.

  12. Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Kleinjan, M.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; DiFranza, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    A recent line of studies has brought attention to the question whether repeated exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is capable of producing psycho-physiological effects in non-smokers and whether symptoms of nicotine dependence can develop in the absence of active smoking. Children seem to

  13. Smoke & Mirrors: The Canadian Tobacco War | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control: An International Journal "A must read for potential or current lobbyists against ... a global leader in the public health crusade to regulate the powerful tobacco ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Research Awards 2019.

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on youth access to tobacco products and tobacco marketing to youth, and closely follow them. Check the ... Director for Communications (OADC) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  15. Influences of Tobacco Advertising Exposure and Conduct Problems on Smoking Behaviors Among Adolescent Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males’ excess risk for conduct problems and females’ susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents’ exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Methods: Adolescents completed baseline (2001–2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007–2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. Results: At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. Conclusions: The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted. PMID:24590388

  16. Influences of tobacco advertising exposure and conduct problems on smoking behaviors among adolescent males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Gilman, Stephen E; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S

    2014-06-01

    Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males' excess risk for conduct problems and females' susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents' exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Adolescents completed baseline (2001-2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007-2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted.

  17. Update on Performance in Tobacco Control: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Tobacco Control Policy and the US Adult Smoking Rate, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Emily M; Lapin, Brittany; Cameron, Brianna J; Carr, Thomas A; Morley, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. States and municipalities have instituted a variety of tobacco control measures (TCMs) to address the significant impact tobacco use has on population health. The American Lung Association annually grades state performance of tobacco control using the State of Tobacco Control grading framework. To gain an updated understanding of how recent efforts in tobacco control have impacted tobacco use across the United States, using yearly State of Tobacco Control TCM assessments. The independent TCM variables of smoke-free air score, cessation score, excise tax, and percentage of recommended funding were selected from the American Lung Association State of Tobacco Control reports. Predictors of adult smoking rates were determined by a mixed-effects model. The 50 US states and District of Columbia. Adult smoking rate in each state from 2011 to 2013. The average adult smoking rate decreased significantly from 2011 to 2013 (21.3% [SD: 3.5] to 19.3% [SD: 3.5], P = .016). All forms of TCMs varied widely in implementation levels across states. Excise taxes (β = -.812, P = .006) and smoke-free air regulations (β = -.057, P = .008) were significant, negative predictors of adult smoking. Cessation services (β = .015, P = .46) did not have a measurable effect on adult smoking. Tobacco control measures with the strongest influence on adult smoking include the state excise tax and state smoke-free air regulations. The lack of robust funding for tobacco cessation services across the majority of US states highlights an important shortfall in current tobacco control policy.

  18. Population exposure to smoking and tobacco branding in the UK reality show 'Love Island'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alexander B; Opazo Breton, Magdalena; Cranwell, Jo; Britton, John; Murray, Rachael L

    2018-02-05

    Reality television shows are popular with children and young adults; inclusion of tobacco imagery in these programmes is likely to cause smoking in these groups. Series 3 of the UK reality show Love Island, broadcast in 2017, attracted widespread media criticism for high levels of smoking depicted. We have quantified this tobacco content and estimated the UK population exposure to generic and branded tobacco imagery generated by the show. We used 1-min interval coding to quantify actual or implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia or branding, in alternate episodes of series 3 of Love Island, and Census data and viewing figures from Kantar Media to estimate gross and per capita tobacco impressions. We coded 21 episodes comprising 1001 min of content. Tobacco imagery occurred in 204 (20%) intervals; the frequency of appearances fell significantly after media criticism. An identifiable cigarette brand, Lucky Strike Double Click, appeared in 16 intervals. The 21 episodes delivered an estimated 559 million gross tobacco impressions to the UK population, predominantly to women, including 47 million to children aged branding, including 4 million to children branded tobacco impressions both to children and adults in the UK. More stringent controls on tobacco content in television programmes are urgently needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Out smoking on the big screen: Tobacco use in LGBT movies, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G. L.; Agnew-Brune, Christine B.; Clapp, Justin A.; Blosnich, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have significantly higher smoking prevalence than heterosexual people in the United States. The reasons for this disparity remain unclear. Tobacco use in movies has a substantial influence on tobacco use behaviours, particularly among youth. Yet, no research has examined tobacco use in movies for LGBT audiences or containing LGBT characters. Methods We identified 81 U.S. movies from 2000–2011 with a theatre release and with LGBT themes or characters. We then selected a random sample of these movies (n = 45) for quantitative content analysis to examine the proportion of movies with depictions of tobacco use and the number of occurrences of tobacco use. Results Tobacco use was depicted in 87%(95% confidence interval [CI]: 80%–94%) of movies with an average of 4 occurrences of tobacco use per hour (95% CI: 3–5). Only 15% (95% CI: 8%–23%) of movies and 3% of all depictions of tobacco use conveyed any harms of tobacco use. Conclusions Viewers of movies with LGBT themes or characters are exposed, on average, to one depiction of tobacco use for every 15 minutes of movie run-time. As a major component of the entertainment media environment, movies may contribute to smoking among LGBT people. PMID:24277775

  20. Out smoking on the big screen: tobacco use in LGBT movies, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Agnew-Brune, Christine B; Clapp, Justin A; Blosnich, John R

    2014-11-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people have significantly higher smoking prevalence than heterosexual people in the U.S.A. The reasons for this disparity remain unclear. Tobacco use in movies has a substantial influence on tobacco use behaviours, particularly among youth. Yet, no research has examined tobacco use in movies for LGBT audiences or containing LGBT characters. We identified 81 U.S. movies from 2000 to 2011 with a theatre release and with LGBT themes or characters. We then selected a random sample of these movies (n=45) for quantitative content analysis to examine the proportion of movies with depictions of tobacco use and the number of occurrences of tobacco use. Tobacco use was depicted in 87% (95% CI 80% to 94%) of movies with an average of four occurrences of tobacco use per hour (95% CI 3 to 5). Only 15% (95% CI 8% to 23%) of movies and 3% of all depictions of tobacco use conveyed any harms of tobacco use. Viewers of movies with LGBT themes or characters are exposed, on average, to one depiction of tobacco use for every 15 min of movie run-time. As a major component of the entertainment media environment, movies may contribute to smoking among LGBT people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Monica L.; Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Background: School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this…

  2. Subjective Invulnerability and Perceptions of Tobacco-Related Benefits Predict Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence adolescents' decisions to start smoking is necessary to improve interventions for reducing tobacco use. The current longitudinal study was designed to determine the direction of influence between feelings of invulnerability to harm and cigarette smoking, and to test whether the perceived risks and benefits of…

  3. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  4. Knowledge of and attitudes towards tobacco control among smoking and non-smoking physicians in 2 Gulf Arab states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbehani, Nasser N; Hamadeh, Randah R; Macklai, Nejma S

    2004-05-01

    The global health professional survey is a project organized by the World Health Organization, to determine the smoking habits, knowledge and attitude towards tobacco control of health professionals in several countries around the world. This paper presents data from Kuwait and Bahrain. The survey period was between May 2000 and March 2001. A questionnaire was distributed to all physicians in Bahrain and to a random sample from Kuwait. The responses to knowledge and attitude questions were on a scale of 1-5, (1 strongly agree, 2 agree, 3 unsure, 4 disagree and 5 strongly disagree). Four hundred and seventy physicians from Bahrain and 1095 from Kuwait completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of cigarette smoking in Kuwait was: current smokers 18.4%, previous smokers 15.8%, Bahrain 14.6% and 14.3%. The prevalence of shisha smoking was 12% and 6.4% for Kuwait and Bahrain, (p=0.004). The mean scores of agreement with the association between passive smoking and lung diseases, lower respiratory tract infections in children were 1.6, 1.7 and 1.8, 1.9 for non smoking physicians and smoking physicians (Pnon-smoking physicians (pattitude towards tobacco control compared to non-smokers. There was no difference in the prevalence of cigarette smoking between Kuwait and Bahrain, but the prevalence of shisha smoking was higher in Kuwait.

  5. How tobacco smoke causes disease: the biology and behavioral basis for smoking-attributable disease : a report of the Surgeon General

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2010-01-01

    .... This report specifically reviews the evidence on the potential mechanisms by which smoking causes diseases and considers whether a mechanism is likely to be operative in the production of human disease by tobacco smoke...

  6. Does smoke-free legislation and smoking outside bars increase feelings of stigmatization among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout, G.E.; Willemsen, M.C.; Gebhardt, W.A.; van den Putte, B.; Hitchman, S.C.; Crone, M.R.; Fong, G.T.; van der Heiden, S.; de Vries, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether smokers' perceived level of stigmatization changed after the implementation of smoke-free hospitality industry legislation and whether smokers who smoked outside bars reported more perceived stigmatization. Longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC)

  7. Self-control, future orientation, smoking, and the impact of Dutch tobacco control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-06-01

    The pronounced discrepancy between smokers' intentions to quit and their smoking behavior has led researchers to suggest that many smokers are time inconsistent, have self-control problems, and may benefit from external efforts to constrain their consumption. This study aims to test whether self-control and future orientation predict smoking levels and to identify if these traits modify how cigarette consumption responds to the introduction of tobacco control measures. A sample of Dutch adults (N = 1585) completed a measure of self-control and the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS) in 2001 and indicated their tobacco consumption each year from 2001 to 2007. In 2004, a workplace smoking ban and substantial tax increase on tobacco was introduced in the Netherlands. To identify the potential impact of these tobacco control measures we examined whether participants smoked or were heavy smokers (20 + cigarettes per day) each year from 2001 to 2007. Participants with high self-control and CFCS scores showed lower rates of smoking across the seven year period of the study. The 2004 smoking restrictions were linked with a subsequent decline in heavy smoking. This decline was moderated by self-control levels. Those with low self-control showed a large reduction in heavy smoking whereas those with high self-control did not. The effects were, however, temporary: many people with low self-control resumed heavy smoking 2-3 years after the introduction of the tobacco restrictions. The immediate costs which national tobacco control measures impose on smokers may assist smokers with poor self-control in reducing their cigarette consumption.

  8. Dual use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and smoked tobacco: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; Hoek, Janet; Blank, Mei-Ling; Richards, Rosalina; Ling, Pamela; Popova, Lucy

    2018-02-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) arguably pose fewer health risks than smoking, yet many smokers adopt ENDS without fully relinquishing smoking. Known as 'dual use', this practice is widespread and compromises the health benefits that ENDS may offer. To date, few studies have explored how dual use practices arise and manifest. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 20 current ENDS users from New Zealand who reported smoking tobacco at least once a month. We explored participants' smoking history, their recent and current smoking, trial, uptake and patterns of ENDS use, and future smoking and vaping intentions. We managed the data using NVivo V.11 and used a thematic analysis approach to interpret the transcripts. Dual use practices among participants evolved in four ways. First, as an attempt to manage the 'inauthenticity' of vaping relative to smoking and to retain meaningful rituals. Second, as complex rationalisations that framed decreased tobacco use, rather than smoking cessation, as 'success'. Third, as a means of alleviating the financial burden smoking imposed and to circumvent smoke-free policies. Lastly, dual use reflected attempts to comply with social group norms and manage stigma. Dual use reflects both social and physical cues. It assisted participants to navigate smoking restrictions and allowed them to manage divergent norms. Policies that discourage smoking, particularly excise tax increases on smoked tobacco and smoke-free space restrictions, appear important in prompting ENDS use. Future research could explore whether these policies also help foster complete transition from smoking to exclusive ENDS use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

  10. The impact of tobacco use and secondhand smoke on hospitality workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Osinubi, Omowunmi Y

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco use has a substantial impact on hospitality industry employees because of the disproportionate prevalence of smoking among these workers and because of the high levels of secondhand smoke to which they are exposed. The severity of this impact is evidenced by the high mortality rates observed among hospitality industry workers from diseases related to tobacco smoke exposure. Several states and localities have begun to enact laws to protect these workers from secondhand smoke exposure. Such policies seem to be effective in reducing exposure and improving health among these workers without causing any adverse impact on business. Occupational clinicians can play a significant role in protecting the health of hospitality workers by supporting laws to create smoke-free workplaces, including bars and restaurants, and promoting smoking cessation in these worksites.

  11. A qualitative study on tobacco smoking and betel quid use among Burmese refugees in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furber, Susan; Jackson, Janet; Johnson, Keryn; Sukara, Radmila; Franco, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that there are high rates of smoking among Burmese men in Wollongong, Australia. A qualitative study was undertaken to explore the beliefs and experiences of Burmese refugees in Wollongong on smoking to guide the development of smoking cessation interventions. Three focus groups were conducted with Burmese refugees. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with service providers involved with Burmese refugees. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise responses to the questions. Participants were aware of the health effects of tobacco smoking but had little knowledge of support for quitting. Many participants chewed betel quid and were unaware of the health consequences. Service providers noted the lack of resources on smoking and betel quid use for Burmese people. Smoking cessation interventions for Burmese people should consider the co-related use of betel quid due to the possibility of inadvertently encouraging use of betel nut as an alternative to tobacco.

  12. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking. A multilevel study in 29 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; de Looze, Margaretha; Baška, Tibor; Molcho, Michal; Kannas, Lasse; Kunst, Anton E; Richter, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15-year-old boys and girls among 29 European countries varies according to socioeconomic group. Data were used from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in 2005/2006 comprising 50,338 adolescents aged 15 years from 29 European countries. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of weekly smoking with components of the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), and to assess whether this association varied according to family affluence (FAS). Analyses were carried out per gender and adjusted for national wealth and general smoking rate. For boys, tobacco price was negatively associated with weekly smoking rates. This association did not significantly differ between low and high FAS. Levels of tobacco-dependence treatment were significantly associated with weekly smoking. This association varied between low and high FAS, with higher treatment levels associated with higher probability of smoking only for low FAS boys. For girls, no tobacco policy was significantly associated with weekly smoking, irrespective of the FAS. Results indicated that most tobacco control policies are not clearly related to adolescent weekly smoking across European countries. Only tobacco price seemed to be adequate decreasing smoking prevalence among boys, irrespective of their socioeconomic status.

  13. Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marica Sorak-Pokrajac; Dermelj, M.; Zdenka Slejkovec; Eskinja, I.

    1994-01-01

    In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extermely important. As one of the volatile elements is can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis

  14. Antioxidant responses following active and passive smoking of tobacco and electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Poulianiti, Konstantina; Karatzaferi, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D.; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: \\ud \\ud It has been indicated that acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking may cause changes on redox status balance that may result in significant pathologies. However, no study has evaluated the effects of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on redox status of consumers.\\ud \\ud OBJECTIVE: \\ud \\ud To examine the acute effects of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on selected redox status markers.\\ud \\ud METHODS: \\ud \\ud Using a randomized sing...

  15. A content analysis of smoking fetish videos on YouTube: regulatory implications for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyongseok; Paek, Hye-Jin; Lynn, Jordan

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence, accessibility, and characteristics of eroticized smoking portrayal, also referred to as smoking fetish, on YouTube. The analysis of 200 smoking fetish videos revealed that the smoking fetish videos are prevalent and accessible to adolescents on the website. They featured explicit smoking behavior by sexy, young, and healthy females, with the content corresponding to PG-13 and R movie ratings. We discuss a potential impact of the prosmoking image on youth according to social cognitive theory, and implications for tobacco control.

  16. Tobacco smoking leads to extensive genome-wide changes in DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Sonja; Kühnel, Brigitte; Klopp, Norman; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Kleinschmidt, Anja; Gieger, Christian; Weidinger, Stephan; Lattka, Eva; Adamski, Jerzy; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Waldenberger, Melanie; Illig, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Environmental factors such as tobacco smoking may have long-lasting effects on DNA methylation patterns, which might lead to changes in gene expression and in a broader context to the development or progression of various diseases. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAs) comparing current, former and never smokers from 1793 participants of the population-based KORA F4 panel, with replication in 479 participants from the KORA F3 panel, carried out by the 450K BeadChip with genomic DNA obtained from whole blood. We observed wide-spread differences in the degree of site-specific methylation (with p-values ranging from 9.31E-08 to 2.54E-182) as a function of tobacco smoking in each of the 22 autosomes, with the percent of variance explained by smoking ranging from 1.31 to 41.02. Depending on cessation time and pack-years, methylation levels in former smokers were found to be close to the ones seen in never smokers. In addition, methylation-specific protein binding patterns were observed for cg05575921 within AHRR, which had the highest level of detectable changes in DNA methylation associated with tobacco smoking (-24.40% methylation; p = 2.54E-182), suggesting a regulatory role for gene expression. The results of our study confirm the broad effect of tobacco smoking on the human organism, but also show that quitting tobacco smoking presumably allows regaining the DNA methylation state of never smokers.

  17. Environmental tobacco smoke and low birth weight: a hazard in the workplace?

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, D P; Nguyen, R H

    1999-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) increases infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. One well-established risk factor is maternal smoking. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure has recently been focused on as another potential risk factor. In this article, we review epidemiologic literature on the effects of ETS on LBW and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), the cause of LBW related to maternal smoking. As we consider the feasibility of modifying women's exposure, we focus our discussion on wo...

  18. The effects of tobacco sales promotion on initiation of smoking--experiences from Finland and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpelä, M K; Aarø, L E; Rimpelä, A H

    1993-01-01

    Norway and Finland were among the first countries to adopt a total ban on tobacco sales promotion. Such legislation came into force in Norway and Finland in 1975 and 1978 respectively. These two countries are sometimes referred to as illustrations that such legislation has been successfully used as a means to reduce tobacco consumption. Tobacco industry spokesmen seem to interpret available evidence in the opposite way and maintain that the prohibition has not contributed to reducing the use of tobacco. Among the publications referred to and misused by tobacco industry spokesmen are publications from the authors of the present report. The effects of a ban on advertising can only be properly examined after describing a reasonable conceptual model. Such a model has to take into account (i) other social and cultural predictors of smoking, (ii) tobacco sales promotion in the contexts of all other mass communication, (iii) control measures other than a ban, and (iv) the degree of success in implementing the ban on advertising. Like any other kind of mass communication tobacco advertising influences the individual in a rather complex way. Behaviour change may be regarded as the outcome of an interpersonal and intrapersonal process. Social science research on tobacco advertising and the effects of banning such advertising has a short history, most studies having been carried out in the late 1980s. After examining available evidence related to the effects of tobacco advertising on the smoking habits of adolescents we conclude as follows: the few scientifically valid reports available today give both theoretical and empirical evidence for a causal relationship. Tobacco sales promotion seems both to promote and to reinforce smoking among young people. The dynamic tobacco market represented by children and adolescents is probably the main target of tobacco sales promotion. In Finland, there have been few studies explicitly addressing the causal links between tobacco sales

  19. Plutonium-239, 240Pu and 210Po contents of tobacco and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Jaakkola, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 239 Pu and 240 Pu found in the environment has mainly been produced by atmospheric nuclear tests. The accumulation of fallout Pu in man from inhalation and ingestion and its distribution in the body has previously been studied. Information about the accumulation is needed because of the expanding production of this highly radiotoxic substance. In the present work the Pu content of tobacco and cigarette smoke was determined to evaluate the contribution of smoking to total Pu intake by man. For comparison the 210 Po content of tobacco and smoke were analyzed. The release of 210 Po in tobacco smoke and the radiation dose for man have been widely studied because of the high incidence of lung cancer among smokers

  20. The road to effective tobacco control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan; Wang, Yu; Wu, Yiqun; Yang, Jie; Wan, Xia

    2015-03-14

    The non-communicable disease burden in China is enormous, with tobacco use a leading risk factor for the major non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of tobacco use in men is one of the highest in the world, with more than 300 million smokers and 740 million non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke. In the past decade public awareness of the health hazards of tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke has grown, social customs and habits have changed, aggressive tactics used by the tobacco industry have been revealed, and serious tobacco control policies have been actively promoted. In 2014, national legislators in China began actively considering national bans on smoking in public and work places and tobacco advertising. However, tobacco control in China has remained particularly difficult because of interference by the tobacco industry. Changes to the interministerial coordinating mechanism for implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are now crucial. Progress towards a tobacco-free world will be dependent on more rapid action in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. NHS patients, staff, and visitor viewpoints of smoking within a hospitals’ ground: a qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Serafin, Alina; Franklin, Sarah; Mehta, Rashesh; Crosby, Scott; Lee, Diane; Edlin, Becky; Bewick, Bridgette M

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking is a public health concern and an avoidable cause of morbidity and mortality. Widening tobacco control policies might help shift social norms, the acceptability of exposing others to second-hand smoke, and cultural attitudes towards smoking. This study explored patient, staff, and visitor viewpoints of smoking within the grounds of a National Health Service hospital. Methods Analysis of free text responses given as part of a larger repeat cross sectional questionnaire study...

  2. Association between tobacco control policies and smoking behaviour among adolescents in 29 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublet, Anne; Schmid, Holger; Clays, Els; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Joossens, Luk; Maes, Lea

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the associations between well-known, cost-effective tobacco control policies at country level and smoking prevalence among 15-year-old adolescents. Multi-level modelling based on the 2005-06 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, a cross-national study at individual level, and with country-level variables from the Tobacco Control Scale and published country-level databases. Twenty-nine European countries. A total of 25 599 boys and 26 509 girls. Self-reported regular smoking defined as at least weekly smoking, including daily smoking (dichotomous). Interaction effects between gender and smoking policies were identified, therefore boys and girls were analysed separately. Large cross-national differences in smoking prevalence were documented. Intraclass correlations (ICC) of 0.038 (boys) and 0.035 (girls) were found. In the final multi-level model for boys, besides the significance of the individual variables such as family affluence, country-level affluence and the legality of vending machines were related significantly to regular smoking [b(country affluence) = -0.010; b(partial restriction vending machines) = -0.366, P vending machines had a borderline significance in the final model [b(total ban vending machines) = -0.372, P = 0.06]. For boys, some of the currently recommended tobacco control policies may help to reduce smoking prevalence. However, the model is less suitable for girls, indicating gender differences in the potential efficacy of smoking policies. Future research should address this issue.

  3. The association between implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking and support for tobacco control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking and support for tobacco control policies. Participants were from an ongoing longitudinal study of the natural history of smoking who also completed a web-based assessment of implicit attitudes toward smoking (N = 1,337). Multiple regression was used to test the association between covariates (sex, age, educational attainment, parent status, and smoking status), implicit attitude toward smoking, and explicit attitude toward smoking and support for tobacco control policies. The moderating effect of the covariates on the relation between attitudes and support for policies was also tested. Females, those with higher educational attainment, parents, and nonsmokers expressed more support for tobacco control policy measures. For nonsmokers, only explicit attitude was significantly associated with support for policies. For smokers, both explicit and implicit attitudes were significantly associated with support. The effect of explicit attitude was stronger for those with lower educational attainment. Both explicit and implicit smoking attitudes are important for building support for tobacco control policies, particularly among smokers. More research is needed on how to influence explicit and implicit attitudes to inform policy advocacy campaigns.

  4. Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2012-10-01

    The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (Pissues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Level of tobacco smoking amongst 6th year students of Wroclaw Medical University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Wojtal, Mariola; Bielska, Dorota; Rogalska, Monika; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Prevention of tobacco smoking amongst youths and young adult could limit deaths because of illness tobacco related to 2050. The assessment of the level of smoking was the aim of examinations amongst medical students. An anonymous questionnaire containing questions on the subject of tobacco smoking was carried amongst 6th year students of the Medical Department of Wroclaw Medical University in the academic year 2008/2009. Two hundreds then students took part in the study. 62% of examined came from the provincial capital, the 11.4% from the town with the population above 100 hundred of inhabitants, 22.4% of towns with the population below 100 hundred of inhabitants and 3.8% of students--from country centers. 14.8 % respondents admitted to smoking cigarettes, 75.2% were non-smoking persons, 10% were smokers but ceased smoking cigarettes in the sequence of a few last years. Amongst smokers--the most (59% of students and 71% of students) is smoking to 5 cigarettes per day. The most students (56% of women and 60% of men) began smoking in the secondary school. In studied group 67.6% (142) examined is claiming that the anti-tobacco advice should give family doctors, and 43% thinks that a patient which isn't able to cease the smoking in spite of strong motivation should be seen by a family doctor. The percentage of smokers amongst medical students didn't take turns in the sequence of two last years, however amongst smokers--biggest percentage is smoking to 5 cigarettes per day. The students most often begin smoking in the secondary school. The straight majority of the medical students is paying attention, that family doctors should take up giving the anti-tobacco advice and helping patients which isn't able to cease the smoking in spite of strong motivation. The ones smoking the small number of cigarettes and which began smoking in the secondary school are predominating amongst smokers. Overbalancing percentage of examined is located anti-tobacco therapy into competence of

  6. Admission to a psychiatric unit and changes in tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Suzy; Owens, David

    2008-05-06

    Smoking and withdrawal from smoking complicates the assessment and treatment of mental illness. We aimed to establish whether psychiatric inpatients smoke different amounts after admission than beforehand and, if so, to find out why. Forty-three inpatients on a working age adult psychiatry ward completed self-report questionnaires about smoking habits. Those who smoked a different amount after admission had a follow-up interview to find out why they thought this had occurred. The interview incorporated qualitative and quantitative aspects which were analysed accordingly.Fifty-six percent of participants were smokers before admission, rising to 70% afterwards. Of the smokers, 17% smoked less after admission, and 63% smoked more. The average number of cigarettes smoked per person per day increased from five to thirteen. The main reasons for smoking more were boredom, stress and the wish to socialise.

  7. [Response of the tobacco industry to the creation of smoke-free environments in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Presman, Sabrina; Gigliotti, Analice; Muggli, Monique; Hurt, Richard

    2010-04-01

    To document the response of the tobacco industry to the regulation of smoking in public places in Brazil starting in 1996. The Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (legacy.library.ucsf.edu/) and the British American Tobacco (BAT) Company Documents (bat.library.ucsf.edu/) were searched. The following key words were used: Brasil/Brazil; Souza Cruz; fumo passivo, tabagismo passivo/passive smoking; fumo de segunda mão/secondhand smoking; convivência em harmonia/courtesy of choice; along with the names of institutions, politicians, and individuals associated with tobacco control. We also searched the websites of cigarette manufacturers and hospitality industry organizations and businesses, news websites, and online newspapers and magazines. The search was limited to the period from 1995 to 2005. The text of the first law restricting smoking in Brazil (no. 9 294, of 1996) benefited the industry by stating that smokers and nonsmokers could share the same space provided that specific areas were designated as smoking and nonsmoking. As in other countries, the tobacco industry established partnerships with hotel, bar, and restaurant associations to prevent the passing of laws creating 100% smoke-free environments, as recommended by the World Health Organization. However, local state and city laws in major cities and states (such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo) have been successful in ensuring the creation of 100% smoke-free places. It is essential that Brazil recognize the damage caused by smoking and revise its federal law regulating smoking in closed environments. The knowledge concerning the strategies employed by the industry may be useful for politicians and health care professionals to prepare arguments opposing measures that can be detrimental to public health.

  8. Cost of tobacco-related diseases, including passive smoking, in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, S M; Ho, L M; Lapsley, H M; Chau, J; Cheung, W L; Ho, S Y; Pow, M; Lam, T H; Hedley, A J

    2006-04-01

    Costs of tobacco-related disease can be useful evidence to support tobacco control. In Hong Kong we now have locally derived data on the risks of smoking, including passive smoking. To estimate the health-related costs of tobacco from both active and passive smoking. Using local data, we estimated active and passive smoking-attributable mortality, hospital admissions, outpatient, emergency and general practitioner visits for adults and children, use of nursing homes and domestic help, time lost from work due to illness and premature mortality in the productive years. Morbidity risk data were used where possible but otherwise estimates based on mortality risks were used. Utilisation was valued at unit costs or from survey data. Work time lost was valued at the median wage and an additional costing included a value of USD 1.3 million for a life lost. In the Hong Kong population of 6.5 million in 1998, the annual value of direct medical costs, long term care and productivity loss was USD 532 million for active smoking and USD 156 million for passive smoking; passive smoking accounted for 23% of the total costs. Adding the value of attributable lives lost brought the annual cost to USD 9.4 billion. The health costs of tobacco use are high and represent a net loss to society. Passive smoking increases these costs by at least a quarter. This quantification of the costs of tobacco provides strong motivation for legislative action on smoke-free areas in the Asia Pacific Region and elsewhere.

  9. Point-of-sale tobacco promotion and youth smoking: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; Cameron, Claire; McGee, Rob; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet

    2016-12-01

    Previous systematic reviews have found consistent evidence of a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco promotion and increased smoking and smoking susceptibility among children and adolescents. No meta-analysis has been conducted on these studies to date. Systematic literature searches were carried out to identify all quantitative observational studies that examined the relationship between POS tobacco promotion and individual-level smoking and smoking-related cognitions among children and adolescents, published between January 1990 and June 2014. Random-effects meta-analyses were used. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to extent of tobacco POS advertising environment in the study environment. Sensitivity analyses were performed according to study size and quality. 13 studies met the inclusion criteria; 11 reported data for behavioural outcomes, 6 for cognitive outcomes (each of these assessed smoking susceptibility). The studies were cross-sectional, with the exception of 2 cohort studies. For the behavioural outcomes, the pooled OR was 1.61 (95% CI 1.33 to 1.96) and for smoking susceptibility the pooled OR was 1.32 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.61). Children and adolescents more frequently exposed to POS tobacco promotion have around 1.6 times higher odds of having tried smoking and around 1.3 times higher odds of being susceptible to future smoking, compared with those less frequently exposed. Together with the available evaluations of POS display bans, the results strongly indicate that legislation banning tobacco POS promotion will effectively reduce smoking among young people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Beliefs and perceptions toward quitting waterpipe smoking among cafe waterpipe tobacco smokers in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgan, Saif M; Marhoon, Zaid A; Whitford, David L

    2013-11-01

    There is a rising prevalence of waterpipe smoking worldwide, but still a paucity of information on perceptions toward quitting waterpipe use. We set out to establish the beliefs and perceptions of café waterpipe smokers toward quitting waterpipe smoking in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A cross-sectional study. A random sample of 20 of 91 cafés serving waterpipe tobacco in Bahrain was taken. A questionnaire was administered in each café to 20 participants aged 18 and above. Three hundred eighty participants completed questionnaires from waterpipe smokers. Eighty-four percent of participants were Bahraini and 71% had a university degree. Mean age was 28.9 years. Average age of waterpipe smoking initiation was 20.3 years. The majority of waterpipe users chose flavored tobacco. Sixty-one percent smoked waterpipe tobacco daily with a mean smoking time of 2.6hr/day. Seventy-two percent considered waterpipe tobacco as harmful as or more harmful than cigarettes, but 67% considered cigarettes as more addictive. Eighty-two percent stated that they could quit waterpipe at any time, but only 40% were interested in quitting. Interest in quitting smoking was related to 4 variables: a physician mentioning the need to quit smoking, being non-Bahraini, having a family with a hostile attitude toward waterpipe smoking, and not considering oneself "hooked" on waterpipe tobacco. Waterpipe smokers in Bahrain cafés are frequent and high users. Health professionals must consider waterpipe smoking in all consultations and health promotion messages. A partnership between health professionals and disapproving members of families may be an effective strategy in encouraging waterpipe smokers to quit.

  11. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona C Fang

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in public multi-unit housing (MUH is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear.We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD 0.02 ng/ml and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng. Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine.Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively. Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml, with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%. TSE in the home, car, and other peoples' homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15-0.25, while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161, a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6% compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4% (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3 (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%.Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population.

  12. Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In spite of the negative health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking, its use is becoming more common. The objective of this study is to systematically review the medical literature for motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science in January 2012. We included both quantitative and qualitative studies. We selected studies and abstracted data using standard systematic review methodology. We synthesized data qualitatively. Results We included 58 papers reporting on 56 studies. The main motives for waterpipe tobacco smoking were socializing, relaxation, pleasure and entertainment. Peer pressure, fashion, and curiosity were additional motives for university and school students while expression of cultural identity was an additional motive for people in the Middle East and for people of Middle Eastern descent in Western countries. Awareness of the potential health hazards of waterpipe smoking was common across settings. Most but not all studies found that the majority of people perceived waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarette smoking. Waterpipe smoking was generally socially acceptable and more acceptable than cigarette smoking in general. In Middle Eastern societies, it was particularly more acceptable for women’s use compared to cigarette use. A majority perceived waterpipe smoking as less addictive than cigarette smoking. While users were confident in their ability to quit waterpipe smoking at any time, willingness to quit varied across settings. Conclusions Socializing, relaxation, pleasure and entertainment were the main motives for waterpipe use. While waterpipe users were aware of the health hazards of waterpipe smoking, they perceived it as less harmful, less addictive and more socially acceptable than cigarette smoking and were confident about their ability to quit. PMID:23816366

  13. Tobacco Smoking and Antisocial Deviance among Vietnamese, Vietnamese-American, and European-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Bahr; Nguyen, Tam; Trung, Lam; Ngo, Victoria; Lau, Anna

    2018-03-21

    Tobacco smoking is one of the most significant modifiable behavioral health risk factors worldwide. Although smoking rates in some high-income countries (HIC) have declined, rates in many low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC) remain high. Adolescence is a key developmental risk period for smoking initiation. Research indicates that a major adolescent risk factor for tobacco smoking is antisocial deviance, which includes such behaviors as aggression, risk-taking, and rule-breaking. The linkages between antisocial deviance and smoking suggest that these behaviors and their underlying attitudes can be important targets for smoking prevention programs, but for public health efficiency it is important to target the components of antisocial deviance most closely linked smoking. However, although 80% of smokers live in LMIC, most relevant research has been conducted in HIC and its applicability to LMIC is unclear, given cultural differences between many HIC and LMIC. The purpose of the present study was to assess cross-cultural variations in relations among components of antisocial deviance and self-reported tobacco smoking among 2,724 10th and 11th grade Vietnamese, Vietnamese-American, and European-American students. Within the combined sample the relation between self-reported smoking and overall antisocial deviance was β = 0.33. However, the component of antisocial deviance most strongly related to smoking varied across groups, with Risk-taking most strongly related to smoking for Vietnamese-American (β = 0.37) and Vietnamese (β = 0.36) adolescents, and Rule-breaking Behavior most strongly related to smoking for European-American (β = 0.51) adolescents. These and other findings suggest the possible importance of culturally-tailored foci for smoking prevention programs emphasizing different aspects of antisocial deviance.

  14. Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Jawad, Mohammed; Lam, Wai Yim; Co, Christopher N; Obeid, Rawad; Irani, Jihad

    2013-07-02

    In spite of the negative health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking, its use is becoming more common. The objective of this study is to systematically review the medical literature for motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking. We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science in January 2012. We included both quantitative and qualitative studies. We selected studies and abstracted data using standard systematic review methodology. We synthesized data qualitatively. We included 58 papers reporting on 56 studies. The main motives for waterpipe tobacco smoking were socializing, relaxation, pleasure and entertainment. Peer pressure, fashion, and curiosity were additional motives for university and school students while expression of cultural identity was an additional motive for people in the Middle East and for people of Middle Eastern descent in Western countries. Awareness of the potential health hazards of waterpipe smoking was common across settings. Most but not all studies found that the majority of people perceived waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarette smoking. Waterpipe smoking was generally socially acceptable and more acceptable than cigarette smoking in general. In Middle Eastern societies, it was particularly more acceptable for women's use compared to cigarette use. A majority perceived waterpipe smoking as less addictive than cigarette smoking. While users were confident in their ability to quit waterpipe smoking at any time, willingness to quit varied across settings. Socializing, relaxation, pleasure and entertainment were the main motives for waterpipe use. While waterpipe users were aware of the health hazards of waterpipe smoking, they perceived it as less harmful, less addictive and more socially acceptable than cigarette smoking and were confident about their ability to quit.

  15. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschner, Ware G; Reddy, Sunayana; Mehrotra, Nidhi; Paintal, Harman S

    2011-02-01

    PRIMARY CARE PROVIDERS SHOULD BE AWARE OF TWO NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN NICOTINE ADDICTION AND SMOKING CESSATION: 1) the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e-) cigarette; and 2) new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as "thirdhand smoke". The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room. Counseling patients about the hazards of thirdhand smoke may provide additional motivation to quit smoking.

  16. Impact of tobacco advertising and promotion on increasing adolescent smoking behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Chris; Watts, Allison; Stead, Lindsay F

    2011-10-05

    The tobacco industry denies that their marketing is targeted at young nonsmokers, but it seems more probable that tobacco advertising and promotion influences the attitudes of nonsmoking adolescents, and makes them more likely to try smoking. To assess the effects of tobacco advertising and promotion on nonsmoking adolescents' future smoking behaviour. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Group specialized register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Sociological Abstracts, PsycLIT, ERIC, WorldCat, Dissertation Abstracts, ABI Inform and Current Contents to August 2011. We selected longitudinal studies that assessed individuals' smoking behaviour and exposure to advertising, receptivity or attitudes to tobacco advertising, or brand awareness at baseline, and assessed smoking behaviour at follow ups. Participants were adolescents aged 18 or younger who were not regular smokers at baseline. Studies were prescreened for relevance by one reviewer. Two reviewers independently assessed relevant studies for inclusion. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Nineteen longitudinal studies that followed up a total of over 29,000 baseline nonsmokers met inclusion criteria. The studies measured exposure or receptivity to advertising and promotion in a variety of ways, including having a favourite advertisement or an index of receptivity based on awareness of advertising and ownership of a promotional item. One study measured the number of tobacco advertisements in magazines read by participants. All studies assessed smoking behaviour change in participants who reported not smoking at baseline. In 18 of the 19 studies the nonsmoking adolescents who were more aware of tobacco advertising or receptive to it, were more likely to have experimented with cigarettes or become smokers at follow up. There was variation in the strength of association, and the degree to which potential confounders were controlled for

  17. Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction effectively reduced exposure to tobacco smoke among restaurant workers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Reijula

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess work-related exposure to tobacco smoke in Finnish restaurants, a series of nationwide questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the levels of indoor air nicotine concentrations were measured in restaurants. The survey aimed to evaluate the impact of the smoke-free legislation in general and in particular after the total smoking ban launched in 2007. Materials and Methods: In 2003-2010, four national questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the concentration of nicotine in indoor air was measured in different types of restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Results: Between 2003 and 2010, the proportion of restaurant workers reporting occupational exposure to tobacco smoke dropped from 59% to 11%. Among pub workers, the decrease was from 97% to 18% and in workers of dining restaurants from 49% to 10%, respectively. The median concentration of nicotine in indoor air of all restaurants decreased from 11.7 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. The most significant decrease was detected in pubs where the decrease was from 16.1 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. Among all restaurant workers, in 2003-2010 the prevalence of daily smokers was reduced from 39% to 31% in men and from 35% to 25% in women. Conclusion: Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction in restaurants was effective in reducing work-related exposure to tobacco smoke. Strict tobacco legislation may partly be associated with the significant decrease of daily smoking prevalence among restaurant workers.

  18. Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction effectively reduced exposure to tobacco smoke among restaurant workers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijula, Jere; Johnsson, Tom; Kaleva, Simo; Tuomi, Tapani; Reijula, Kari

    2013-10-01

    To assess work-related exposure to tobacco smoke in Finnish restaurants, a series of nationwide questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the levels of indoor air nicotine concentrations were measured in restaurants. The survey aimed to evaluate the impact of the smoke-free legislation in general and in particular after the total smoking ban launched in 2007. In 2003-2010, four national questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the concentration of nicotine in indoor air was measured in different types of restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Between 2003 and 2010, the proportion of restaurant workers reporting occupational exposure to tobacco smoke dropped from 59% to 11%. Among pub workers, the decrease was from 97% to 18% and in workers of dining restaurants from 49% to 10%, respectively. The median concentration of nicotine in indoor air of all restaurants decreased from 11.7 μg/m(3) to 0.1 μg/m(3). The most significant decrease was detected in pubs where the decrease was from 16.1 μg/m(3) to 0.1 μg/m(3). Among all restaurant workers, in 2003-2010 the prevalence of daily smokers was reduced from 39% to 31% in men and from 35% to 25% in women. Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction in restaurants was effective in reducing work-related exposure to tobacco smoke. Strict tobacco legislation may partly be associated with the significant decrease of daily smoking prevalence among restaurant workers.

  19. Exploration of the Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Metabolic Measures in Young People Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Rubinstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted cross-sectional, multicenter studies in HIV-positive young women and men to assess metabolic and morphologic complications from tobacco smoking in 372 behaviorally infected HIV-positive youth, aged 14–25 years. Measurements included self-reported tobacco use, fasting lipids, glucose, fat distribution, and bone mineral density (BMD; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. Overall, 144 (38.7% self-reported smoking tobacco and 69 (47.9% of these reported smoking greater than five cigarettes per day. Smokers versus nonsmokers had lower mean total cholesterol (146.0 versus 156.1 mg/dL; P<0.01 and lower mean total body fat percent (24.1% versus 27.2%, P=0.03. There was no difference between smokers and nonsmokers in fasting glucose or BMD. There appear to be only minimal effects from tobacco smoking on markers of cardiac risk and bone health in this population of HIV-positive youth. While these smokers may not have had sufficient exposure to tobacco to detect changes in the outcome measures, given the long-term risks associated with smoking and HIV, it is critical that we encourage HIV-positive youth smokers to quit before the deleterious effects become apparent.

  20. Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) exposure, anti-TAPS policies, and students' smoking behavior in Botswana and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lorna McLeod; Hsia, Jason; Malarcher, Ann

    2016-10-01

    We examined the change over time in tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure and the concurrent changes in cigarette smoking behavior among students age 13 to 15years in two African countries with different anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies. In South Africa, anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies became more comprehensive over time and were more strictly enforced, whereas the partial anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies adopted in Botswana were weakly enforced. We analyzed two rounds of Global Youth Tobacco Survey data from South Africa (1999, n=2342; 2011, n=3713) and in Botswana (2001, n=1073; 2008, n=1605). We assessed several indicators of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure along with prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smoking susceptibility for each data round. Logistic regression was used to examine changes over time in tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure and smoking behavior in both countries. Between 1999 and 2011, South African students' exposure to tobacco advertising and sponsorship decreased significantly by 16% (p value, promotion was lower and did not decrease significantly. Botswanan students' tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure did not change significantly between 2001 and 2008. South African students' prevalence of cigarette smoking decreased over time (OR, 0.68) as did susceptibility to smoking (OR, 0.75), but declines did not remain significant after adjusting for parents' and friends' smoking. In Botswana, students' prevalence of cigarette smoking increased significantly over time (OR, 1.84), as did susceptibility to smoking (OR, 2.71). Enforcement of strong anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies is a vital component of effective tobacco control programs in Africa. Such regulations, if effectively implemented, can reduce tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship

  1. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Lung Adenocarcinoma In Situ/Minimally Invasive Adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Xie, Dong; Wampfler, Jason A; Cote, Michele L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Le Marchand, Loic; Schwartz, Ann G; Morgenstern, Hal; Christiani, David C; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke on the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma in situ/minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA). Data from seven case-control studies participating in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) were pooled, resulting in 625 cases of AIS/MIA and 7,403 controls, of whom 170 cases and 3,035 controls were never smokers. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted ORs (ORadj) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status (ever/never), and pack-years of smoking. Study center was included in the models as a random-effects intercept term. Ever versus never exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke was positively associated with AIS/MIA incidence in all subjects (ORadj = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14-1.93) and in never smokers (ORadj = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00-2.12). There was, however, appreciable heterogeneity of ORadj across studies (P = 0.01), and the pooled estimates were largely influenced by one large study (40% of all cases and 30% of all controls). These findings provide weak evidence for an effect of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on AIS/MIA incidence. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure using the newly recommended classification of subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure, risk of schizophrenia, and severity of positive/negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Anastasia; Beratis, Ion N; Beratis, Stavroula

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke causes chronic fetal hypoxia, dysregulation of endocrine equilibrium, and disruption of fetal neurodevelopment associated with brain malfunction, all of which potentially could induce vulnerability to schizophrenia. A total of 212 schizophrenia patients aged 14-30years, and 212 matched controls were studied. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure of the schizophrenia patients was compared to that of the normal controls by applying logistic regression analysis and controlling for several confounding factors. The outcomes of interest were comparison of the frequency of maternal and paternal smoking between patients and controls, as well as the severity of positive and negative symptoms between the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking parents. Among the mothers of schizophrenia patients and controls, 92 (43.4%) and 46 (21.7%) smoked, respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy had a significant unique contribution on increasing the risk for development of schizophrenia (p=0.001), and a greater severity of negative symptoms (p=0.023). Paternal smoking did not have a significant effect on the risk of schizophrenia, or severity of negative symptoms. The findings suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy puts offspring at an increased risk for later schizophrenia, with increased severity of negative symptoms. Given the wide practice of smoking during pregnancy, fetal exposure to tobacco smoke could be a major preventable neurodevelopmental factor that increases vulnerability to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Rosen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoke-free homes can help protect children from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify effects of interventions on changes in tobacco smoke pollution in the home, as measured by air nicotine and particulate matter (PM. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase. We included controlled trials of interventions which aimed to help parents protect children from tobacco smoke exposure. Two review