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Sample records for second-hand smoke cotinine

  1. Recent trends in children's exposure to second-hand smoke in England: cotinine evidence from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Martin J; Feyerabend, Colin

    2015-09-01

    To examine changes in children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in England since 1998. Repeated cross-sectional surveys of the general population in England. The Health Survey for England. A total of 37 038 children participating in surveys from 1998 to 2012, 13 327 of whom were aged 4-15 years, had available cotinine and were confirmed non-smokers. The proportion of children with smoking parents; the proportion of children living in homes reported to be smoke-free; the proportion of children with undetectable concentrations of cotinine; linear and quadratic trend estimates of geometric mean cotinine across years. By 2012, 87.3% of children lived in a home that was smoke-free {97.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 95.9-98.1] when parents were non-smokers, 61.3% (95% CI = 55.5-66.8) when one or both parents smoked}. A total of 68.6% (95% CI = 64.3-72.6%) of children had undetectable cotinine in 2012, up from 14.3% (95% CI = 12.7-16.0%) in 1998. There was a highly significant linear trend across years (with a small but significant quadratic term) to declining geometric mean cotinine in all children from 0.52 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.48-0.57) in 1998 to 0.11 ng/ml (95% CI = 0.10-0.12) in 2012. Children from routine/manual backgrounds were more exposed, but experienced similar gains across years to those from non-manual backgrounds. In England, children's exposure to second-hand smoke has declined by 79% since 1998, with continuing progress since smoke-free legislation in 2007. An emerging social norm in England has led to the adoption of smoke-free homes not only when parents are non-smokers, but also when they smoke. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Second-hand smoke exposure in 4-year-old children in Spain: Sources, associated factors and urinary cotinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Guxens, Mònica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; López, María José; Lertxundi, Aitana; Castilla, Ane Miren; Espada, Mercedes; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran; Santa-Marina, Loreto

    2016-02-01

    Second-hand smoke exposure (SHS) in children remains as a major pollution problem, with important consequences for children's health. This study aimed to identify the sources of exposure to SHS among 4-year-old children, comparing self-reports to a urinary biomarker of exposure, and characterize the most important variables related to SHS exposure in this population. 4-year-old children's exposure to SHS was assessed by a parental-reported questionnaire and by urinary cotinine (UC) measurements in 1757 participants from 4 different areas of the Spanish INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente - Environment and Childhood) Project. The questionnaire about SHS included information about smoking habits at home by household members, and about exposure to SHS in other places including other homes, bars, restaurants or transportation. The association between quantified UC levels (>4ng/ml) and sociodemographic variables and the different sources of SHS exposure was examined using logistic regression. Based on parental reports, 21.6% of the children were exposed to SHS at home and 47.1% elsewhere; making a total 55.9% of the children exposed to SHS. In addition, 28.2% of the children whose parents reported being not regularly exposed to SHS had quantified UC values. Children from younger mothers (<34 vs. ≥39.4 y) had a higher odds of exposure to SHS [OR (95% CI): 2.28 (1.70-3.05) per year], as well as from families with a lower educational level [OR secondary: 2.12 (1.69-2.65); primary or less: 2.91 (2.19-3.88)]. The odds of quantifiable UC in children dropped after the smoking ban in public places [OR=0.59 (0.42-0.83)]. Regarding the sources of SHS exposure we observed that quantifiable UC odds was increased in children whose parents smoked at home in their presence [OR mother occasionally: 13.39 (7.03-25.50); mother often: 18.48 (8.40-40.66); father occasionally: 10.98 (6.52-18.49); father often: 11.50 (5.96-22.20)] or in children attending other confined places, mainly other

  3. Second-hand smoke in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, S

    2015-12-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) [IARC, 2004]. Of the 5.7 million deaths attributable each year to tobacco smoking, more than 600,000 (i.e., around 1% of all deaths worldwide) refer to subjects who never smoked and that prematurely die due to their lifetime exposure to SHS [WHO, 2012]. Italy has been one of the pioneering countries - and the first large country worldwide - to enact a comprehensive smoke-free legislation in 2005. The law, introduced in order to reduce SHS exposure, banned smoking in indoor public places, including restaurants and bars, and in all workplaces [Gallus et al., 2006]. This legislation has had an undisputed success from a public health perspective: it was widely supported and strongly observed, restaurant and bar owners did not experience any dreaded decline in their business, and tobacco smoking (and its detrimental health effects) substantially decreased [Gallus et al., 2006; Gorini et al., 2007]. More importantly, the regulation has been effective in dramatically reducing SHS exposure [Gorini et al., 2007; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. Most high- income countries followed Italy in the adoption of similar comprehensive smoking ban legislations over the last decade [IARC, 2009]. These regulations and the information campaigns conducted for their enforcement had also the effect to increase the social unacceptability of SHS and consequently the adoption of voluntary home smoking bans [Ferketich et al., 2014; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2014]. This notwithstanding, in 2010 specific Italian subpopulations were still frequently exposed to SHS, both in public and private places. In particular, 54% of the young (i.e., age 15-24 years) were still exposed to SHS in any settings, 27% in private houses, and 33% in private cars [Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. The relatively high SHS exposure in private cars is of

  4. Original Research Article Second-Hand Smoke in a University

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    staff and students concerning tobacco policies at a university campus in a ... to smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke on campus. A. 3-wave e-mailing was used to send the questionnaire. Results: ... smoke free policies on university campuses in North America. ... reported that cigarette smoking among fulltime.

  5. Ambient Air Pollution by Second Hand Tobacco Smoke in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2.5) pollution has been studied and established. People who are often exposed to pollutants by inhaling second-hand tobacco smoke are at risk of adverse health consequences such as heart disease and stroke, increased risk of sudden infant ...

  6. Second-hand smoke in indoor hospitality venues in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, S M A; Moin, O; Khan, J A

    2011-07-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) constitutes a significant public health threat in countries with a high smoking prevalence. However, data assessing the quality of indoor air at public venues in Pakistan are limited. To measure mean concentrations of PM(2.5) (particulate matter ≤2.5 microns in diameter), a sensitive indicator of SHS, in hospitality venues in Pakistan. Data were collected discreetly from 39 indoor venues such as cafes, restaurants and shisha (water-pipe) bars from three major cities in Pakistan. Data were recorded using a portable air quality monitoring device. The overall mean PM(2.5) value for the visited venues was 846 μg/m(3) (95%CI 484-1205). The mean PM(2.5) value was 101 μg/m(3) (95%CI 69-135 μg/m(3)) for non-smoking venues, 689 μg/m(3) (95%CI 241-1138) for cigarette smoking venues and 1745 μg/m(3) (95%CI 925-2565) for shisha smoking venues. The significant levels of SHS recorded in this study, in particular from shisha smoking venues, could represent a major public health burden in Pakistan. Appropriate legislation needs to be enforced to protect the health of those exposed to the hazards of second-hand tobacco smoke.

  7. Impact of a smoking ban in hospitality venues on second hand smoke exposure: a comparison of exposure assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Bauer, Georg F; Hoffmann, Susanne; Röösli, Martin

    2013-06-04

    In May 2010, Switzerland introduced a heterogeneous smoking ban in the hospitality sector. While the law leaves room for exceptions in some cantons, it is comprehensive in others. This longitudinal study uses different measurement methods to examine airborne nicotine levels in hospitality venues and the level of personal exposure of non-smoking hospitality workers before and after implementation of the law. Personal exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was measured by three different methods. We compared a passive sampler called MoNIC (Monitor of NICotine) badge, to salivary cotinine and nicotine concentration as well as questionnaire data. Badges allowed the number of passively smoked cigarettes to be estimated. They were placed at the venues as well as distributed to the participants for personal measurements. To assess personal exposure at work, a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements was calculated. Prior to the ban, smoke-exposed hospitality venues yielded a mean badge value of 4.48 (95%-CI: 3.7 to 5.25; n = 214) cigarette equivalents/day. At follow-up, measurements in venues that had implemented a smoking ban significantly declined to an average of 0.31 (0.17 to 0.45; n = 37) (p = 0.001). Personal badge measurements also significantly decreased from an average of 2.18 (1.31-3.05 n = 53) to 0.25 (0.13-0.36; n = 41) (p = 0.001). Spearman rank correlations between badge exposure measures and salivary measures were small to moderate (0.3 at maximum). Nicotine levels significantly decreased in all types of hospitality venues after implementation of the smoking ban. In-depth analyses demonstrated that a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements represented typical personal SHS exposure at work more reliably than personal exposure measures such as salivary cotinine and nicotine.

  8. Bar workers' exposure to second-hand smoke: the effect of Scottish smoke-free legislation on occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Sean; Maccalman, Laura; Naji, Audrey Atherton; Dempsey, Scott; Hilton, Shona; Miller, Brian G; Ayres, Jon G

    2007-10-01

    To examine changes in bar workers' exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) over a 12-month period before and after the introduction of Scottish smoke-free legislation on the 26 March 2006. A total of 371 bar workers were recruited from 72 bars in three cities: Aberdeen, Glasgow, Edinburgh and small towns in two rural regions (Borders and Aberdeenshire). Prior to the introduction of the smoke-free legislation, we visited all participants in their place of work and collected saliva samples, for the measurement of cotinine, together with details on work patterns, self-reported exposure to SHS at work and non-work settings and smoking history. This was repeated 2 months post-legislation and again in the spring of 2007. In addition, we gathered full-shift personal exposure data from a small number of Aberdeen bar workers using a personal aerosol monitor for fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) at the baseline and 2 months post-legislation visits. Data were available for 371 participants at baseline, 266 (72%) at 2 months post-legislation and 191 (51%) at the 1-year follow-up. The salivary cotinine level recorded in non-smokers fell from a geometric mean of 2.94 ng ml(-1) prior to introduction of the legislation to 0.41 ng ml(-1) at 1-year follow-up. Paired data showed a reduction in non-smokers' cotinine levels of 89% [95% confidence interval (CI) 85-92%]. For the whole cohort, the duration of workplace exposure to SHS within the last 7 days fell from 28.5 to 0.83 h, though some bar workers continued to report substantial SHS exposures at work despite the legislation. Smokers also demonstrated reductions in their salivary cotinine levels of 12% (95% CI 3-20%). This may reflect both the reduction in SHS exposure at work and falls in active cigarette smoking in this group. In a small sub-sample of bar workers, full-shift personal exposure to PM(2.5), a marker of SHS concentrations, showed average reductions of 86% between baseline and 2 months after implementation of the

  9. Second hand tobacco smoke adversely affects the bone of immature rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo César Rosa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure on longitudinal growth of the tibia of growing rats and some parameters of bone quality. METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly divided into four groups: control: rats were sham exposed; 30 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days; 45 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 45 days; and 60 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 60 days. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of cotinine and alkaline phosphatase. Both tibias were dissected and weighed; the lengths were measured, and the bones were then stored in a freezer for analysis of bone mineral content and mechanical resistance (maximal load and stiffness. RESULTS: Exposure of rats to tobacco smoke significantly compromised bone health, suggesting that the harmful effects may be time dependent. Harmful effects on bone growth were detected and were more pronounced at 60-day follow-ups with a 41.8% reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.01 and a decrease of 11.25% in tibia length (p<0.001. Furthermore, a 41.5% decrease in bone mineral density was observed (p<0.001, leading to a 42.8% reduction in maximum strength (p<0.001 and a 56.7% reduction in stiffness (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Second hand cigarette smoke exposure in rats affected bones that were weaker, deforming them and making them osteopenic. Additionally, the long bone was shorter, suggesting interference with growth. Such events seem to be related to time of exposure.

  10. Portuguese children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in the family car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo D. Vitória

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the family car is frequent, especially if one or both parents smoke. This highlights the need for effective tobacco control measures to prevent this severe health hazard.

  11. Adult non-smokers' exposure to second-hand smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study was commissioned by the DHSSPS as part of their smoke-free monitoring and evaluation strategy after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in Northern Ireland in April 2007.The research was undertaken to determine the impact of smoke-free legislation on non-smoking adults who live with a smoker.Using research carried out both before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation, this study details for the first time the attitudes and knowledge of non-smoking...

  12. [Effects of tobacco habit, second-hand smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy on newborn's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Blanca; Isern, Rosanna; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria

    2014-07-22

    Tobacco during pregnancy affects the health of the newborn. The aim was to assess the effect of maternal exposure to active and passive tobacco and of smoking cessation on the risk of preterm deliveries and birth weight, taking into account other risk factors. Longitudinal study conducted in 282 healthy pregnant women. General, obstetrical and hematological data were collected as it was the smoking habit during pregnancy. Pregnant women were classified as "exposed to smoke" (active smoker and passive smoker) and "unexposed to smoke" (non-smokers and women who quitted smoking during pregnancy). A percentage of 59.2 were non-smokers, 18.4% active smokers, 8.5% second-hand smokers and 13.8% had stopped smoking. Unexposed pregnant women who stopped smoking had the same risk of premature deliveries and children with similar birth weight as non-smoker women. Active and second-hand smokers were at higher risk of preterm deliveries than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-30.8 and OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.0-38.9, respectively); however, higher levels of hemoglobin in the 1st and 3rd trimester exerted a protective effect (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Active and second-hand smokers had babies weighing less than non-smokers (around 129 and 178g less, respectively). Active or passive exposure to smoke during pregnancy and lower hemoglobin levels are associated with an increased risk of premature deliveries and lower birth weight. Stopping smoking during pregnancy prevents these detrimental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Should we bother with second-hand smoke exposure if smoking is on track?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adám, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the serious health-damaging effects of tobacco smoke exposure has initiated several preventive programmes on the national and international levels worldwide. In the last decade, a considerable decrease in the prevalence of active smoking was observed in Denmark, changing...... the country from a poor to a favourable position in comparison to other EU countries. However, second-hand tobacco smoke exposure, especially in homes, still ranks Denmark among the problematic countries in Europe. This poorly recognised and studied discrepancy calls for further research and effective...

  14. Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E., E-mail: jinnysanchez@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Bartolomé, Mónica, E-mail: mbj@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Cañas, Ana I, E-mail: acanas@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Huetos, Olga, E-mail: olgahh@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, Carmen, E-mail: carnavarro@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Rodríguez, A. Carolina, E-mail: acrodriguez@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Arribas, Misericordia, E-mail: marribas@isciii.es [Servicio de Prevención, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Esteban, Marta, E-mail: m.esteban@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); López, Ana, E-mail: alopezh@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-01-15

    Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 μg/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 μg/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home.

  15. Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E.; Bartolomé, Mónica; Cañas, Ana I; Huetos, Olga; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, A. Carolina; Arribas, Misericordia; Esteban, Marta; López, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 μg/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 μg/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home

  16. Second-hand smoke: a neglected public health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rana J; Lal, Pranay G

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) causes an estimated 5% of the global burden of disease, slightly higher than the burden from direct use of tobacco. This review highlights the urgent need to address this ignored public health issue by presenting the evidence and impact of SHS on those exposed using global studies including those from the South-East Asia Region. The burden of morbidity from SHS exposure is higher in low-income countries in Southeast Asia region compared to the rest of the world. SHS exposure affects those most vulnerable, especially women and children. While several countries in the region have enacted legislation which offer protection to those exposed to SHS, most measures are partial and inadequate. As a result, implementation and compliance at national and sub-national level within the countries of the Southeast Asia region is variable. Governments must ensure that legislation mandates comprehensive smoke-free environments in order to provide public health benefit which offers universal protection to everyone and everywhere. Where comprehensive legislation exists, stringent implementation and enforcement, along with awareness building, education and monitoring through regular compliance studies must be done to sustain smokefree status of public places within jurisdictions.

  17. Pet owners' attitudes and behaviours related to smoking and second-hand smoke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milberger, S M; Davis, R M; Holm, A L

    2009-04-01

    Although research indicates that second-hand smoke (SHS) harms both human and animal health, data on the percentage of pet owners who smoke or allow smoking in their homes are not readily available. To investigate pet owners' smoking behaviour and policies on smoking in their homes, and the potential for educational interventions to motivate change in pet owners' smoking behaviour. A web-based survey was used with 3293 adult pet owners. The main outcome measures were smoking behaviour of pet owners and their cohabitants; policies on smoking in pet owners' homes; and impact of information about the dangers of pet exposure to SHS on pet owners' smoking intentions. Of respondents, 21% were current smokers and 27% of participants lived with at least one smoker. Pet owners who smoke reported that information on the dangers of pet exposure to SHS would motivate them to try to quit smoking (28.4%) and ask the people with whom they live to quit smoking (8.7%) or not to smoke indoors (14.2%). Moreover, non-smoking pet owners who live with smokers said that they would ask the people with whom they live to quit (16.4%) or not smoke indoors (24.2%) if given this information. About 40% of current smokers and 24% of non-smokers living with smokers indicated that they would be interested in receiving information on smoking, quitting, or SHS. Educational campaigns informing pet owners of the risks of SHS exposure for pets could motivate some owners to quit smoking. It could also motivate these owners and non-smoking owners who cohabit with smokers make their homes smoke-free.

  18. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pascual, José A; López, María J; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ariza, Carles; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-01-01

    A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8%) were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, phospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS or its consequences for respiratory health.

  19. Smoking at workplace – Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers’ awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers’ health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers’ awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. Med Pr 2015;66(6:827–836

  20. [Smoking at workplace - Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Polańska, Kinga; Wiszniewska, Marta; Kleniewska, Aneta; Dörre-Kolasa, Dominika; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers' awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers' health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers' awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. METHODS AND FINDING: We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8% were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, p<0.01. Cotinine concentration decreased by 27.6% (p = 0.068 among workers in venues with designated smoking areas, and by 10.7% (p = 0.475 among workers in venues where smoking was allowed. In Portugal and Andorra, no differences between cotinine concentration were found before (1.2 ng/ml and after the ban (1.2 ng/ml. In Spain, reported respiratory symptom declined significantly (by 71.9%; p<0.05 among workers in venues that became smoke-free. After adjustment for potential confounders, salivary cotinine and respiratory symptoms decreased significantly among workers in Spanish hospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. CONCLUSIONS: Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS

  2. Social disparities in children's exposure to second hand smoke at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is an important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. We hypothesised that there has been a growth in social inequality in children's exposure to SHS at home over time. The purpose of this study was to investigate temporal change in smoking...

  3. Second-hand smoke exposure in outdoor hospitality venues: Smoking visibility and assessment of airborne markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Bilal, Usama; Fernández, Esteve; Valiente, Roberto; Escobar, Francisco J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Franco, Manuel

    2018-08-01

    After the implementation of smoke-free policies in indoor hospitality venues (including bars, cafeterias, restaurants, and pubs), smokers may have been displaced to their outdoor areas. We aimed to study smoking visibility and second-hand smoke exposure in outdoor hospitality venues. We collected information on signs of tobacco consumption on entrances and terraces of hospitality venues in 2016 in the city of Madrid, Spain. We further measured airborne nicotine concentrations and particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) in terraces with monitors by active sampling during 30 min. We calculated the medians and the interquartile ranges (IQR) of nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations, and fitted multivariate models to characterize their determinants. We found 202 hospitality venues between May and September (summer), and 83 between October and December 2016 (fall) that were opened at the time of observation. We found signs of tobacco consumption on 78.2% of the outdoor main entrances and on 95.1% of outdoor terraces. We measured nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations in 92 outdoor terraces (out of the 123 terraces observed). Overall median nicotine concentration was 0.42 (IQR: 0.14-1.59) μg/m 3 , and overall PM2.5 concentration was 10.40 (IQR: 6.76-15.47) μg/m 3 (statistically significantly higher than the background levels). Multivariable analyses showed that nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations increased when the terraces were completely closed, and when tobacco smell was noticed. Nicotine concentrations increased with the presence of cigarette butts, and when there were more than eight lit cigarettes at a time. Outdoor hospitality venues are areas where non-smokers, both employees and patrons, continue to be exposed to second-hand smoke. These spaces should be further studied and considered in future tobacco control interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of second-hand smoke on biological processes important in atherogenesis

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    Schneider Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in western societies and cigarette smoke is among the factors that strongly contribute to the development of this disease. The early events in atherogenesis are stimulated on the one hand by cytokines that chemoattract leukocytes and on the other hand by decrease in circulating molecules that protect endothelial cells (ECs from injury. Here we focus our studies on the effects of "second-hand" smoke on atherogenesis. Methods To perform these studies, a smoking system that closely simulates exposure of humans to second-hand smoke was developed and a mouse model system transgenic for human apoB100 was used. These mice have moderate lipid levels that closely mimic human conditions that lead to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Results "Second-hand" cigarette smoke decreases plasma high density lipoprotein levels in the blood and also decreases the ratios between high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein and triglyceride, and high density lipoprotein and total cholesterol. This change in lipid profiles causes not only more lipid accumulation in the aorta but also lipid deposition in many of the smaller vessels of the heart and in hepatocytes. In addition, mice exposed to smoke have increased levels of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein–1 in circulation and in the heart/aorta tissue, have increased macrophages in the arterial walls, and have decreased levels of adiponectin, an EC-protective protein. Also, cytokine arrays revealed that mice exposed to smoke do not undergo the switch from the pro-inflammatory cytokine profile (that develops when the mice are initially exposed to second-hand smoke to the adaptive response. Furthermore, triglyceride levels increase significantly in the liver of smoke-exposed mice. Conclusion Long-term exposure to "second-hand" smoke creates a state of permanent inflammation and an imbalance in the lipid profile that

  5. Portuguese children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in the family car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitória, Paulo D; Machado, José Cunha; Ravara, Sofia B; Araújo, Ana Carolina; Samorinha, Catarina; Antunes, Henedina; Rosas, Manuel; Becoña, Elisardo; Precioso, José

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the family car; to compare exposure among children with smoking and non-smoking parents. In 2011, a self-administered questionnaire was applied to a 4th grade Portuguese children national sample (N=3187, mean age 9.5 ± 0.7, 51.1% boys). Prevalence rates and chi-square tests were computed. Of the participants, 52.0% reported having, at least, one smoking parent. Overall exposure in the car was 28.9% (95% CI 27.3-30.5). Children's exposure among those reporting smoking parents was 46.9% (95% CI 44.4-49.4); and 8.6% (95% CI 7.1-10.1) among those reporting non-smoking parents (psmoking parents were 5.44 times more likely to be exposed. Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the family car is frequent, especially if one or both parents smoke. This highlights the need for effective tobacco control measures to prevent this severe health hazard. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlations of indoor second-hand smoking, household smoking rules, regional deprivation and children mental health: Scottish Health Survey, 2013.

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    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-07-01

    It has been known that second-hand smoking and deprivation could cluster together affecting child health. However, little is known on the role of household smoking rules. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships among indoor second-hand smoking, household smoking rules, deprivation level and children mental health in a country-wide and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from and analysed in Scottish Health Survey, 2013. Information on demographics, indoor second-hand smoking status, household smoking rules, deprivation level and child mental health by Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was obtained by household interview through parents. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic regression modelling. Of 1019 children aged 4-12, 17.9% (n = 182) lived in the 15% most deprivation areas. Deprived areas tended to be where indoor smoking occurred (p Scottish children are greater Glasgow, Ayrshire & Arran and Forth Valley while the top three sub-regions of exposure to the indoor second-hand smoking are Fife, Forth Valley and Ayrshire & Arran. The top three sub-regions with indoor smoking allowed are greater Glasgow, Western Isles and Borders. Children emotional and behavioural problems were reduced when the strict household smoking rules (not allowed or outdoor areas) applied. One in six Scottish children lived in the 15% most deprivation areas and exposed to indoor second-hand smoking that could have led to emotional and behavioural problems. Public health programs promoting strict household smoking rules should be encouraged in order to optimise children mental health.

  7. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Ryan, Michele B.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels

  8. Second-hand smoke exposure among workers of restaurants, bars, and nightclubs in Lagos State

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    Oluwakemi Ololade Odukoya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Lagos State Regulation of Smoking Law was passed in February 2014 and stipulates the total restriction of tobacco smoking in listed public places. Workers in hospitality venues are at a high risk of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS. Therefore, their awareness of the health risks, attitudes toward SHS and their reported levels of exposure may play a crucial role in developing an effective monitoring, implementation, and enforcement mechanism. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study among workers in restaurants, bars, and nightclubs registered with the Lagos State Ministry of Tourism in the second quarter of the year 2014. We used a multistage sampling technique to select one respondent each from the 300 centers randomly selected to participate in the survey. Data were collected using a modified version of the World Health Organization Global tobacco surveillance system tools. Univariate and bivariate analysis were carried out. Exposure to SHS in the workplace and in other public places was treated as the outcome variable in the bivariate analysis. Results: Majority (75.3% of the respondents were aged between 21 and 40 years with a mean age of 27.7 + 8.6 years. Many (66% were waiters/waitresses and spent more than 8 h a day. Most (60.6% of the venues were indoor only establishments, and 26.8% had no form of smoking restrictions. Majority of the respondents were exposed to SHS at work, and this was higher in bars and nightclubs. A bivariate analysis of results showed that workers were exposed to SHS at work irrespective of workplace smoking restrictions or respondents smoking status. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that second-hand smoke exposure is very high (65% in smokers; 65.6% in nonsmokers among workers in restaurants, bars, and nightclubs in Lagos State. We are therefore of the opinion that strict enforcement of law would ensure the protection of these workers.

  9. Validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke in hospitality venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Iñaki; Mayo, Elga; López, María J; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Schiaffino, Anna; Moncada, Albert; Montes, Agustín; Nebot, Manel; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to assess the validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in 50 hospitality venues of Madrid (Spain) in 2010, taking as a reference vapour-phase nicotine measured by active sampling. The questions posed in the questionnaire permitted distinguishing between the different levels of SHS. However, the moderate relationship found (Spearman׳s correlation=0.387, phospitality venues, based solely on self-reported information, should be used with caution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Attitudes towards second hand smoke amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, P A; Gray, S; Gilmore, A B; Daykin, N

    2006-06-01

    To examine knowledge, attitudes and experiences of London casino workers regarding exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) in the workplace. Postal survey of 1568 London casino workers in 25 casinos who were members of the TGWU or GMB Trade Unions. Of the workers, 559 responded to the survey (36% response), 22% of whom were current smokers. Of the respondents, 71% report being nearly always exposed to heavy levels of SHS at work, and most (65%) want all working areas in their casino to be smoke-free. The majority (78%) are bothered by SHS at work, while 91% have wanted to move away from where they are working because of it. Fifty-seven per cent believe their health has suffered as a result of SHS. Of the workers who smoke at work, 59% believe that they would try to quit smoking if no one was allowed to smoke in the casino. The majority of responders are bothered by SHS, and many are concerned about the health impacts. Most want all working areas in their casino to be smoke-free. Despite difficulties in generalizing from this limited sample, these findings add weight to the argument that the legislation on smoking in public places in England should encompass all workplaces, without exemption.

  11. [Second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality venues in Barcelona: measurement of respirable particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Nazmy; López, María José; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Fernández, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the concentration of respirable particles equal to or smaller than 2.5μm (PM(2.5)) as a marker of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in a sample of hospitality venues in Barcelona 2 years after the Spanish smoking law came into effect. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study from October to December 2007. The study population consisted of 40 hospitality venues in Barcelona selected by a random route sampling, with representation of the different types of smoking regulation included in the law (smoking allowed, smoking ban and venues with smoking areas). SHS levels were quantified by measuring PM(2.5) concentrations, which were measured using a laser photometer (Side Pack AM 510 Personal Aerosol Monitor). The measurements were carried out for 5 minutes outside the venue and for 30 minutes inside the venue. In addition, observational variables related to the characteristics of the venue and signs of tobacco consumption were recorded. The concentration of PM(2.5) in venues where smoking was still allowed was five times higher than that in venues where smoking was banned (182μg/m(3) and 34μg/m(3), respectively) and exceeded the concentration established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as harmful (35μg/m(3)). However, in venues where smoking was banned, the concentration was lower than the EPA standard and there were no significant differences with the outdoor PM(2.5) concentration. Two years after the introduction of the Spanish smoking law, SHS exposure in venues where smoking was allowed was q still very high, representing a significant health risk for hospitality workers. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Children's exposure to second hand smoke at home: A cross-sectional study in Portugal

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    Paulo D. Vitória

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS is a major indoor pollutant that causes serious health problems for all exposed, especially children. Children are often exposed to SHS at home, due to parental or other households’ or guests’ smoking. This study describes Portuguese children's exposure to SHS at home (total and by Portuguese main regions.In 2010/2011, a questionnaire was applied to a sample of Portuguese children in the 4th grade (N = 3187, mean age 9.05 ± 0.7 years, 51.1% male. Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests and crude odds ratios were performed.Of the participants, 62.9% of those with smoking parents and 19.2% of those with non-smoking parents were exposed to SHS at their home. Parental smoking varied significantly among regions and was significantly associated with children's exposure to SHS at home.Children's exposure to SHS at home was high, especially if their parents smoke. Children living in Lisbon Region presented the highest SHS exposure rate. The association of SHS exposure with geographic regions suggests the influence of social and contextual factors on smoking behaviour and on tobacco control effectiveness. Our findings highlight the need to effectively prevent children's SHS exposure at their home and to develop tailored tobacco control measures by region. Keywords: Tobacco smoke pollution, Child welfare, Smoking, Tobacco, Parent–child relations

  13. [Knowledge and attitudes towards second hand smoking among hospitality patronage in five cities in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Ling; Yang, Yan; Liu, Xiu-Rong; Chang, Ai-Ling; Gong, Jie; Zhao, Bai-Fan; Liu, Tao; Jiang, Yuan; Hyland, Andrew; Li, Qiang

    2008-05-01

    To understand the knowledge and attitudes towards second hand smoking (SHS) among restaurant or bar patronage in five cities in China. 405 restaurants and bars were conveniently selected in 5 cities as Beijing, Wuhan, Xi'an, Kunming and Guiyang. From each of these hospitality venues, at least 3 patrons, including one smoker, one female non-smoker and one male nonsmoker were asked to answer a questionnaire on their knowledge and attitudes towards SHS and smoking policies in public places. 43.1% of the respondents had good knowledge on SHS hazards. 65% reported that those who smoked around them had never asked for their permission, and about 60% admitted that they had never asked others to stop smoking in front of them. There were almost two thirds of patrons reporting that they once felt discomfort of SHS in restaurants or bars, nearly half of whom chose to leave the venue to avoid exposure to SHS. Though majority of patrons supported '100% smoke-free hospitals, schools and public vehicles' initiations, the proportions of patrons that supporting '100% smoke-free restaurants and bars' initiations were only 30.0% and 19.8%, respectively. In Beijing, logistic regression model analyses showed that those who supporting 100% smoke-free restaurants and bars tended to be non-smokers, aged 25 years or older and to have had at least college education. Also in Beijing, those being female, having at least college education or non-smokers were more likely to choose restaurants and bars with smoking restrictions. Though knowledge on SHS hospitality patronage was still not high or popular for the public to refuse SHS exposure, banning smoking in hospitality venues was public's inclination and would become a trend in public health endeavor.

  14. Adoption and compliance in second-hand smoking bans: a global econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Richard; Neumayer, Eric

    2014-10-01

    We examine the determinants governing both countries' enactment of smoking bans in public places and their ability to successfully put these bans into effect. Using a large sample (N = 99-184) of low-, middle- and high-income countries, econometric techniques are used to estimate the influence of several variables on cross-national variations in the adoption and compliance of second-hand smoke laws (2010). We find similarities in the determinants of adoption and compliance. Yet more notable are the differences, with several political economy factors which have a statistically significant influence on countries' level of compliance with existing smoke-free laws in public places found not to consistently influence their propensity to adopt bans in the first place. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are that governments are motivated to adopt smoking bans for reasons other than protecting the health of their citizens and that the real costs of smoking bans are predominantly borne at the compliance stage. More effort needs to be made to ensure that governments realize their existing policy commitments through effective enforcement of bans.

  15. Second-Hand Smoke Increases Bronchial Hyperreactivity and Eosinophilia in a Murine Model of Allergic Aspergillosis

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    Brian W. P. Seymour

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary inhalation of tobacco smoke has been shown to aggravate the allergic response. Antibodies to fungal antigens such as Aspergillus fumigatus (Af cause an allergic lung disease in humans. This study was carried out to determine the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS on a murine model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA. BALB/c mice were exposed to aged and diluted sidestream cigarette smoke to simulate 'second-hand smoke'. The concentration was consistent with that achieved in enclosed public areas or households where multiple people smoke. During exposure, mice were sensitized to Af antigen intranasally. Mice that were sensitized to Af antigen and exposed to ETS developed significantly greater airway hyperreactivity than did mice similarly sensitized to Af but housed in ambient air. The effective concentration of aerosolized acetylcholine needed to double pulmonary flow resistance was significantly lower in Af + ETS mice compared to the Af + AIR mice. Immunological data that supports this exacerbation of airway hyperresponsiveness being mediated by an enhanced type 1 hypersensitivity response include: eosinophilia in peripheral blood and lung sections. All Af sensitized mice produced elevated levels of IL4, IL5 and IL10 but no IFN-γ indicating a polarized Th2 response. Thus, ETS can cause exacerbation of asthma in ABPA as demonstrated by functional airway hyperresponsiveness and elevated levels of blood eosinophilia.

  16. Maternal Exposure to Second-hand Smoke and Super Ovulation Outcome for Assisted Reproduction

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    Jila Ganji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of smoking cigarettes is followed by diverse effects on ovaries anddeveloping follicles but the effect of passive smoking on ovarian function is unknown. On the otherhand, the ovarian response to induction is a very important step in assisted reproduction. The aimof this study is to compare ovarian response in passive smokers and non-passive smokers in anassisted reproductive program.Materials and Methods: In a cohort study at the Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center, there were 72women in the passive smoker group and 72 women in the non-passive smoker group who underwentan assisted reproductive technology (ART program. The follicle number at administration of humanchorionic gonadotropin (HCG, number of gonadotropin ampoules and duration of super ovulationinduction were compared.Results: Statistical analyses indicated that the number of mature follicles in the passive smoker groupwas not different from the control group; but the number of unresponsive cycles to super ovulation inthe passive smoker group (33.3% was significantly higher than the control group (12.5%. Durationof induction and number of gonadotropin ampoules were not different between the two groups.Conclusion: The results of this study show that exposure to second-hand smoke increases the chanceof unresponsiveness to ovulation induction. This condition may be due to the result of decline inovarian reserve in second-hand smokers. The duration of induction and number of gonadotropinampules is similar in the two groups. Furthermore, the results show that exposure to cigarette smokedoes not clinically impact women with good ovarian reserve.

  17. Correlates of exposure to second-hand smoke in an urban Mediterranean population

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    Borras Josep

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the socio-demographic factors associated with exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in different settings (home, leisure, and workplace. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data on self-reported SHS exposure in 1059 non-daily smokers interviewed in the Cornellà Health Interview Survey Follow-up Study in 2002. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence rates and prevalence rate ratios of SHS exposure at home, at the workplace, during leisure time, and in any of these settings. Results The age-standardized prevalence rate of SHS exposure in any setting was 69.5% in men and 62.9% in women. Among men, 25.9% reported passive smoking at home, 55.1% during leisure time, and 34.0% at the workplace. Among women, prevalence rates in these settings were 34.1%, 44.3% and 30.1%, respectively. Overall exposure to SHS decreased with age in both men and women. In men, SHS exposure was related to marital status, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. In women, SHS exposure was related to educational level, marital status, occupational status, self-perceived health, smoking-related illness, and alcohol intake. Conclusion The prevalence of SHS exposure in this population was high. The strongest association with exposure were found for age and occupational status in men, and age and educational level in women.

  18. The Effect of Second-Hand Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy on the Newborn Weight in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsa'adah, Bachok; Salinah, Omar

    2014-03-01

    There was strong evidence from studies conducted in developed countries that second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure is detrimental to the birth weight of newborn. This study was conducted to determine the effect of exposure to SHS smoke during pregnancy on the weight of newborns. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The exposed group consists of 209 postnatal women who experienced SHS exposure at home because of a husband or other housemate who smoked inside the house throughout the pregnancy. The non-exposed group included 211 women who did not experience SHS exposure at home or at work during pregnancy. We excluded non-Malay ethnicity, multiple births, and congenital defects. There was a significant difference in the adjusted mean birth weight between exposed infants [2893.0 g (95% confidence interval (CI): 2781.3, 3004.7)] and not exposed infants to SHS [3046.1 g (95% CI 2929.5, 3162.6) (P cigarette (P < 0.001). The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was higher in exposed women, [10% (95% CI: 5.94, 14.06)] compared to non-exposed women [4.7% (95% CI: 1.85, 7.55)]. This study found a significant association between SHS exposure during pregnancy and decreased birth weight.

  19. Knowledge, attitude and perception of second-hand smoke and factors promoting smoking in Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, N Zainol; Zulkifli, A; Abidin, E Zainal; Rasdi, I; Ismail, S N Syed; Rahman, A Abd; Hashim, Z; Semple, S

    2014-07-01

    To identify the relationship between knowledge, attitude and perception regarding environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and smoking among Malaysian adolescents living in states with complete or partial smoke-free legislation (SFL). A total of 898 respondents aged 13-14 years were randomly selected from 21 secondary schools. The Malay version of the modified Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire was used. Hierarchical logistic regression was performed in examining predictors of smoking attempt among adolescents. Participants exposed to ETS >5 h/day were more likely to have smoked compared to those exposed to ETS smoking attempts (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.10-3.43) compared to living in a state with complete SFL. Negative attitudes and perceptions towards smoking and ETS exposure were linked to lower smoking attempts in states with complete SFL. Adolescents with limited ETS exposure who lived in a state with complete SFL were less likely to attempt smoking compared to those exposed more regularly to ETS and living in a state with partial SFL. Preventing adolescents from becoming smokers is the key to reducing national prevalence rates in smoking. There is a need to implement comprehensive smoke-free legislation nationally across Malaysia.

  20. Second-hand smoke in public spaces: how effective has partial smoke-free legislation been in Malaysia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Emilia Zainal; Hashim, Zailina; Semple, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to gather data on second-hand smoke (SHS) concentrations in a range of public venues following the implementation of partial Smoke-Free Legislation in Malaysia in 2004. PM2.5 was measured as a marker of SHS levels in a total of 61 restaurants, entertainment centres, internet cafes and pubs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Under the current smoke-free laws smoking was prohibited in 42 of the 61 premises. Active smoking was observed in nearly one-third (n=12) of these. For premises where smoking was prohibited and no active smoking observed, the mean (standard deviation) indoor PM2.5 concentration was 33.4 (23.8) μg/m3 compared to 187.1 (135.1) μg/m3 in premises where smoking was observed The highest mean PM2.5 was observed in pubs [361.5 (199.3) μg/m3]. This study provides evidence of high levels of SHS across a range of hospitality venues, including about one-third of those where smoking is prohibited, despite 8 years of smoke-free legislation. Compliance with the legislation appeared to be particularly poor in entertainment centres and internet cafes. Workers and non-smoking patrons continue to be exposed to high concentrations of SHS within the hospitality industry in Malaysia and there is an urgent need for increased enforcement of existing legislation and consideration of more comprehensive laws to protect health.

  1. Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: a retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Mattias; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Woodward, Alistair; Peruga, Armando; Prüss-Ustün, Annette

    2011-01-08

    Exposure to second-hand smoke is common in many countries but the magnitude of the problem worldwide is poorly described. We aimed to estimate the worldwide exposure to second-hand smoke and its burden of disease in children and adult non-smokers in 2004. The burden of disease from second-hand smoke was estimated as deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for children and adult non-smokers. The calculations were based on disease-specific relative risk estimates and area-specific estimates of the proportion of people exposed to second-hand smoke, by comparative risk assessment methods, with data from 192 countries during 2004. Worldwide, 40% of children, 33% of male non-smokers, and 35% of female non-smokers were exposed to second-hand smoke in 2004. This exposure was estimated to have caused 379,000 deaths from ischaemic heart disease, 165,000 from lower respiratory infections, 36,900 from asthma, and 21,400 from lung cancer. 603,000 deaths were attributable to second-hand smoke in 2004, which was about 1·0% of worldwide mortality. 47% of deaths from second-hand smoke occurred in women, 28% in children, and 26% in men. DALYs lost because of exposure to second-hand smoke amounted to 10·9 million, which was about 0·7% of total worldwide burden of diseases in DALYs in 2004. 61% of DALYs were in children. The largest disease burdens were from lower respiratory infections in children younger than 5 years (5,939,000), ischaemic heart disease in adults (2,836,000), and asthma in adults (1,246,000) and children (651,000). These estimates of worldwide burden of disease attributable to second-hand smoke suggest that substantial health gains could be made by extending effective public health and clinical interventions to reduce passive smoking worldwide. Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare and Bloomberg Philanthropies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Second-hand smoking and carboxyhemoglobin levels in children: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Branden E; Ahmed, Mohammed I; Brugge, Doug; Farrell, Maureen; Lozada, Gustavo; Idupaganthi, Raghu; Schumann, Roman

    2010-01-01

    To establish baseline noninvasive carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in children and determine the influence of exposure to environmental sources of carbon monoxide (CO), especially environmental tobacco smoke, on such levels. Second-hand smoking may be a risk factor for adverse outcomes following anesthesia and surgery in children (1) and may potentially be preventable. Parents and their children between the ages of 1-12 were enrolled on the day of elective surgery. The preoperative COHb levels of the children were assessed noninvasively using a CO-Oximeter (Radical-7 Rainbow SET Pulse CO-Oximeter; Masimo, Irvine, CA, USA). The parents were asked to complete an environmental air-quality questionnaire. The COHb levels were tabulated and correlated with responses to the survey in aggregate analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. P < 0.05 was statistically significant. Two hundred children with their parents were enrolled. Children exposed to parental smoking had higher COHb levels than the children of nonsmoking controls. Higher COHb values were seen in the youngest children, ages 1-2, exposed to parental cigarette smoke. However, these trends did not reach statistical significance, and confidence intervals were wide. This study revealed interesting trends of COHb levels in children presenting for anesthesia and surgery. However, the COHb levels measured in our patients were close to the error margin of the device used in our study. An expected improvement in measurement technology may allow screening children for potential pulmonary perioperative risk factors in the future.

  3. The association between second-hand smoke exposure and depressive symptoms among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingya; Wen, Guoming; Yang, Weikang; Yao, Zhenjiang; Wu, Chuan'an; Ye, Xiaohua

    2017-10-01

    Tobacco smoking and depression are strongly associated, but the possible association between second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and depression is unclear. This study aimed to examine the possible relation between SHS exposure and depressive symptoms among pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenzhen, China, using a multistage sampling method. The univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore the associations between SHS exposure and depressive symptoms. Among 2176 pregnant women, 10.5% and 2.0% were classified as having probable and severe depressive symptoms. Both binary and multinomial logistic regression revealed that there were significantly increased risks of severe depressive symptoms corresponding to SHS exposure in homes or regular SHS exposure in workplaces using no exposure as reference. In addition, greater frequency of SHS exposure was significantly associated with the increased risk of severe depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that SHS exposure is positively associated with depressive symptoms in a dose-response manner among the pregnant women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Are Canadian youth still exposed to second-hand smoke in homes and in cars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisic, A; Leatherdale, S T; Burkhalter, R; Ahmed, R

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to examine the prevalence of youth exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) in homes and cars, changes in SHS exposure over time, and factors associated with beliefs youth hold regarding SHS exposure among a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth. Descriptive analysis of SHS exposure in homes and cars was conducted using data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (2004, 2006 and 2008). Logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with beliefs youth had about SHS exposure in 2008. In 2008, 21.5% of youth reported being exposed to SHS in their home on a daily or almost daily basis, while 27.3% reported being exposed to SHS while riding in a car at least once in the previous week. Between 2004 and 2008, the prevalence of daily SHS exposure in the home and cars decreased by 4.7% and 18.0% respectively. Despite reductions in SHS exposure over time, a substantial number of Canadian youth continue to be exposed to SHS in homes and cars. Further effort is required to implement and evaluate policies designed to protect youth from SHS.

  5. Second-hand smoke exposure and mitigation strategies among home visitation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keske, Robyn R; Rees, Vaughan W; Behm, Ilan; Wadler, Brianna M; Geller, Alan C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of workers from second-hand smoke (SHS) in occupational settings is an important policy priority, yet little attention has been given to SHS protection for home visitation health workers, who number almost 2 million in the USA. Self-reported SHS exposure, SHS mitigation strategies and suggestions for further SHS exposure reduction approaches were obtained from home visitation health workers in Massachusetts. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Massachusetts Early Intervention workers (N=316) at their state-wide conference in April 2010. Eighty-three per cent of respondents reported at least 1 hour per month of SHS exposure, and 16% reported at least 11 hours per month. Nevertheless, only 22% of workers counselled clients on maintaining a smoke-free home. Fewer than 30% of workers had ever voiced concerns to their employing agency, and just 12% had raised their concerns directly with clients. Only 14% stated that their agency had rules designed to protect workers from SHS. SHS exposure occurs frequently among home visitation health workers. The data point to a substantial population who are not protected from SHS exposure by formal policies.

  6. Prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure after introduction of the Italian smoking ban: the Florence and Belluno survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Gasparrini, Antonio; Tamang, Elizabeth; Nebot, Manel; Lopez, Maria José; Albertini, Marco; Marcolina, Daniela; Fernandez, Esteve

    2008-01-01

    A law banning smoking in enclosed public places was implemented in Italy on January 10, 2005. The aim of this paper is to present a cross-sectional survey on two representative samples of non-smokers of two Italian towns (Florence and Belluno), conducted one year after the introduction of the ban, in order to assess prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure, to record the attitudes towards the ban, and the perception about its compliance in a representative sample of non-smokers. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were carried out in March 2006, from a random sample of households from telephone registries. Respondents were 402 non-smokers from Belluno and 1,073 from Florence. About 12% of Florentines and 7% of Belluno respondents were exposed at home; 39% and 19%, respectively, at work; 10% and 5% in hospitality venues; 20% and 10% in cars. The smoke-free law was almost universally supported (about 98%) even if a smaller proportion of people (about 90%) had the perception that the ban was observed. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and in hospitality premises has dropped to hospitality venues.

  7. Effect of smoke-free patio policy of restaurants and bars on exposure to second-hand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday

    2015-07-01

    While there is increasing support for restricting smoking in restaurant and bar patios, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of this policy. This study examined the effect of smoke-free patio policy of restaurants and bars on adult second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Data were drawn from the 2005-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (n=89,743), a repeated cross-sectional survey of youth and adult. Regression analysis, a quasi-experimental design was used to examine the effect of provincial smoke-free patio policy on self-reported exposure to SHS. Analyses suggest that exposure to SHS on patios of bars and restaurants declined following the adoption of provincial smoke-free patio policy. Relative to pre-policy SHS exposure, regression results showed a reduction in the probability of SHS exposure of up to 25% in Alberta. Similarly, in Nova Scotia, the probability of SHS exposure declined by up to 21%. Analyses stratified by smoking status found similar significant effect on both smokers and non-smokers. Findings suggest that provincial patio smoking ban on bars and restaurants had the intended effect of protecting non-smokers from SHS exposure. This study is consistent with a large body of evidence showing that a strong smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Challenges in Creating Evidence in Environmental Health Risk Assessments: The Example of Second-Hand Smoke

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    Florian Fischer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health interventions are directed to influence the (state of a risk factor, either by behavioral or environmental changes. Therefore, environmental health risk assessments are highly relevant for public health decision making and policy development. The credibility of an environmental health risk assessment depends, to a large extent, on the strength of the scientific evidence on which it is based. In this article, the main challenges for assessing the impact of a potential adverse health effect from an environmental pollutant are described. Second-hand smoke (SHS was chosen to illustrate the current state of evidence. The assessment of the impact of potential adverse health effects from environmental risk factors is dependent on several issues, such as the hypothesized health outcome, the nature of the exposure, the dose-response-relationship and the variability and susceptibility of the exposed population. The example of SHS exposure highlights the need for evidence-based public health. Several challenges in terms of study design, assessment methods, as well as data analysis and synthesis with respect to the stratification of results, and consideration of bias and confounding exist. Future research needs to take into account which methods and techniques will be used to generate evidence for population-level decisions.

  9. Everyday Prospective Memory and Executive Function Deficits Associated with Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke

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    Thomas M. Heffernan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored whether exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS has a detrimental impact upon everyday memory in two groups of non-smokers; one which reported regular exposure to SHS and one that reported never having been exposed to SHS. Thirty-four non-smokers who reported having been regularly exposed to SHS (SHS group and 34 non-smokers who reported never having been exposed to SHS (non-SHS group were compared on self-reports of prospective memory (PM: remembering future intentions and/or activities and executive function (EF: those processes involved in attention, multitasking and decision-making. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ assessed everyday PM lapses; the Executive Function Questionnaire (EFQ assessed self-reported problems in EF; a drug-use questionnaire and a mood questionnaire were also administered. Two univariate ANCOVAs were applied to the PM and EF data, controlling for between-group differences in age, weekly alcohol use, anxiety and depression scores, and self-reported retrospective memory scores. The SHS group reported significantly more lapses on the PRMQ and more deficits on the EFQ than the non-SHS group. These findings provide new insights into PM and EF deficits associated with prolonged exposure to SHS in a group of non-smokers. Possible explanations and suggestions for future research are also considered.

  10. Association between second-hand smoke and psychological well-being amongst non-smoking wageworkers in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Jin; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Park, Shin-Goo; Lee, Bum-Joon; Moon, So-Hyun; Park, Sung-Min; Jang, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been responsible for more than 0.6 million deaths and 10.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYS) lost in never smokers in 2004. The world health organization (WHO) reported smoking-related death of 58,000 per year in South Korea. There is recent emerging evidence of the associations of SHS exposure with anxiety or depression and poor mental health. Although exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been associated with various physical health conditions and mental health, we are unaware of any studies examining its association with psychological well-being as mental factor. This study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported exposure to SHS and well-being among non-smoking wageworkers. The Third Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS, 2011) was conducted on a representative sample of economically active population aged 15 years or over, who were either employees or self-employed at the time of interview. In this study, after removing inconsistent data, 19,879 non-smoking wageworkers among 60,054 workers were participated. Psychological well-being was measured through the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (1998 version). Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of SHS exposure with psychological well-being. The unadjusted OR of poor psychological well-being (OR: 1.594, 95 % CI: 1.421-1.787) was significantly higher for SHS exposure group compared to non-exposure group. Multiple logistic regression analysis results indicated that these relationships were still significant after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted OR: 1.330, 95 % CI: 1.178-1.502). Exposure to SHS was associated with poor well-being measured by the WHO-5 well-being index, indicating the importance of reducing SHS exposure at the workplace for psychological well-being amongst non-smoking wageworkers.

  11. Towards estimating the burden of disease attributable to second-hand smoke exposure in Polish children

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    Dorota Jarosińska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the burden of disease attributable to second-hand smoke (SHS exposure in Polish children in terms of the number of deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs due to lower respiratory infections (LRI, otitis media (OM, asthma, low birth weight (LBW and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. Materials and Methods: Estimates of SHS exposure in children and in pregnant women as well as information concerning maternal smoking were derived from a national survey, the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, and the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland. Mortality data (LRI, OM, asthma, and SIDS, the number of cases (LBW, and population data were obtained from national statistics (year 2010, and DALYs came from the WHO (year 2004. The burden of disease due to SHS was calculated by multiplying the total burden of a specific health outcome (deaths or DALYs by a population attributable fraction. Results: Using two estimates of SHS exposure in children: 48% and 60%, at least 12 and 14 deaths from LRI in children aged up to 2 years were attributed to SHS, for the two exposure scenarios, respectively. The highest burden of DALYs was for asthma in children aged up to 15 years: 2412, and 2970 DALYs, for the two exposure scenarios, respectively. For LRI, 419 and 500 DALYs, and for OM, 61 and 77 DALYs were attributed to SHS, for the two exposure scenarios, respectively. Between 13% and 27% of SIDS cases and between 3% and 16% of the cases of LBW at term were attributed to SHS exposure. Conclusions: This study provides a conservative estimate of the public health impact of SHS exposure on Polish children. Lack of comprehensive, up to date health data concerning children, as well as lack of measures that would best reflect actual SHS exposure are major limitations of the study, likely to underestimate the burden of disease.

  12. The efficacy of different models of smoke-free laws in reducing exposure to second-hand smoke: a multi-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mark; Currie, Laura M; Kabir, Zubair; Clancy, Luke

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke is a serious public health concern and while all EU Member States have enacted some form of regulation aimed at limiting exposure, the scope of these regulations vary widely and many countries have failed to enact comprehensive legislation creating smoke-free workplaces and indoor public places. To gauge the effectiveness of different smoke-free models we compared fine particles from second-hand smoke in hospitality venues before and after the implementation of smoking bans in France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Turkey, and Scotland. Data on PM2.5 fine particle concentration levels were recorded in 338 hospitality venues across these countries before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation. Changes in mean PM2.5 concentrations during the period from pre- to post-legislation were then compared across countries. While a reduction in PM2.5 was observed in all countries, those who had enacted and enforced more fully comprehensive smoke-free legislation experienced the greatest reduction in second-hand tobacco smoke. Comprehensive smoke-free laws are more effective than partial laws in reducing exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke. Also, any law, regardless of scope must be actively enforced in order to have the desired impact. There is continued need for surveillance of smoke-free efforts in all countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge and attitude toward smoke-free legislation and second-hand smoking exposure among workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques in Osun State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onigbogi, Olanrewaju Olusola; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Onigbogi, Modupe; Sekoni, Oluwakemi

    2015-04-01

    One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the second-hand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0%) and 79 females (52.0%). On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2%) with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0%) was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5%) had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of the smoke-free law.

  14. Impact of the Spanish smoking control law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Muñoz, Esteve; Fu Balboa, Marcela; Pascual, José A.; López, María José; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Martínez Sánchez, Jose M.; Ariza, Carles; Saltó i Cerezuela, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. METHO...

  15. Knowledge and Attitude toward Smoke-Free Legislation and Second-Hand Smoking Exposure among Workers in Indoor Bars, Beer Parlors and Discotheques in Osun State of Nigeria

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    Olanrewaju Olusola Onigbogi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. Methods A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the secondhand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0% and 79 females (52.0%. On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2% with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0% was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5% had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Conclusion Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of

  16. Smoking Behavior, Attitudes of Second-Hand Smoke, and No-Smoking Policies on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacek, Georgia N. L. Johnston; Atkins, Janet L.

    2008-01-01

    Smoking, when condoned as socially acceptable, overtly establishes such behavior as normal and risk-free. Scientific evidence verifies that cigarette smoking pervasively damages the body, causes early death, costs billions of dollars annually in medical care for smokers, and poses serious health risks to nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Yet…

  17. Perception of parents about second hand smoke on the health of their children: an ethnographic study

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    Fabiane Alves de Carvalho Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the perception of parents about secondhand smoking in their children's health. Methods: Ethnographic qualitative and quantitative study. We sought the point of view and understanding of the parents who were active smokers in relation to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS and secondhand smoking. Mothers and fathers who are active smokers and that live with their children from seven different public schools in the city of Anápolis, Midwest Brazil, were interviewed in the first semester of in a reserved room in the schools. A descriptive and qualitative analysis was carried out through the ethnography. Results: 58 parents with an average time of smoking of 15.3 years and an average quantity of cigarettes smoked per day of 2 were interviewed. Among them, 59% did not know what ETS was, and 60% stated knowing what a secondhand smoker was. However, when questioned about their children as secondhand smokers, 52% did not consider them to be. Some parents knew some of the effects of secondhand smoking in the health of their children. However, the majority (52% of them did not believe that their children would suffer any respiratory impairment or did not know about these impairments. Conclusions: Children were exposed to environmental tobacco pollution in their residence if one considers parental duration of smoking and average of cigarettes smoked per day. There was a lack of knowledge of the parents about ETS, secondhand smoking and the evils that cigarettes could cause in the health of their children.

  18. Validity of self-reported intensity of exposure to second-hand smoke at home against environmental and personal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, José M; González-Marrón, Adrián; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Sureda, Xisca; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Galán, Iñaki; Pascual, José Antonio; Fernández, Esteve

    2017-11-02

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity of two questions about the perception of intensity of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home using as a reference environmental markers (airborne nicotine and benzene) and biomarkers of exposure (cotinine in saliva and urine). This was a cross-sectional study in a convenience sample of 49 non-smoking volunteers. We found a high correlation between self-reported SHS exposure and airborne nicotine (r sp =0.806, p0.05). In conclusion, the significant correlation of the two questions proposed with environmental markers and personal markers indicates their potential validity to assess exposure to SHS at home. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [Perception of parents about second hand smoke on the health of their children: an ethnographic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Ribeiro, Fabiane Alves; de Moraes, Micaele Kedma Ribeiro; de Morais Caixeta, Joyce Cristina; da Silva, Jullieth Nadja; Lima, Amanda Sanches; Parreira, Samara Lamounier Santana; Fernandes, Viviane Lemos Silva

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the perception of parents about secondhand smoking in their children's health. Ethnographic qualitative and quantitative study. We sought the point of view and understanding of the parents that were active smokers in relation to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and secondhand smoking. Mothers and fathers who are active smokers and that live with their children from seven different public schools in the city of Anápolis, Midwest Brazil, were interviewed in the first semester of in a reserved room in the schools. A descriptive and qualitative analysis was carried out through the ethnography. 58 parents with an average time of smoking of 15.3 years and an average quantity of cigarettes smoked per day of 2 were interviewed. Among them, 59% didn't know what ETS was, and 60% stated knowing what a secondhand smoker was. However, when questioned about their children as secondhand smokers, 52% didn't consider them to be. Some parents knew some of the effects of secondhand smoking in the health of their children. However, the majority (52%) of them did not believe that their children would suffer any respiratory impairment or did not know about these impairments. Children were exposed to Environmental Tobacco Pollution in their residence if one considers parental duration of smoking and average of cigarettes smoked per day. There was a lack of knowledge of the parents about ETS, secondhand smoking and the evils that cigarettes could cause in the health of their children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiorespiratory response to exercise of nonsmokers occupationally exposed to second hand smoke (SHS

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    Anastasios Mantzoros

    2017-01-01

    Chronic occupational SHS exposure among non-smokers deteriorates CR exercise performance increasing risk of developing SHS associated diseases. Smoking ban legislation should be enforced but also inclusive of all workplaces eliminating the existing violation of labor and human rights.

  1. Italy and Austria before and after study: second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality premises before and after 2 years from the introduction of the Italian smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, G; Moshammer, H; Sbrogiò, L; Gasparrini, A; Nebot, M; Neuberger, M; Tamang, E; Lopez, M J; Galeone, D; Serrahima, E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare nicotine concentration in 28 hospitality premises (HPs) in Florence and Belluno, Italy, where a smoking ban was introduced in 2005, and in 19 HPs in Vienna, Austria, where no anti-smoking law entered into force up to now. Airborne nicotine concentrations were measured in the same HPs in winter 2002 or 2004 (pre-ban measurements) and winter 2007 (post-ban measurements). In Florence and Belluno, medians decreased significantly (P hospitality workers of 11.81 and 14.67 per 10,000, respectively. Lifetime excess lung cancer mortality risks for bar and disco-pub workers were 10-20 times higher than that calculated for restaurant workers, both in Italy and Austria. In winter 2007, it dropped to 0.01 per 10,000 in Italy, whereas in Austria it remained at the same levels. The drop of second-hand smoke exposure indicates a substantial improvement in air quality in Italian HPs even after 2 years from the ban. The nation-wide smoking ban introduced in Italy on January 10, 2005, resulted in a drop in second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality premises, whereas in Austria, where there is no similar nation-wide smoking ban, the exposure to second-hand smoke in hospitality premises remains high. Given that second-hand smoke is considered a group 1 carcinogen according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification, the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control strongly recommends the implementation of nation-wide smoke-free policies in order to improve the indoor air quality of hospitality premises and workplaces. Results from our study strongly supports this recommendation.

  2. Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the home: a household survey in the North of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Nisreen; Siddiqi, Kamran; Thomson, Heather; Cameron, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS) leads to increased risk of health and social problems and uptake of smoking in the future. We aimed to assess the prevalence of children's exposure to SHS in their homes, in a deprived area in the North of England and identify what people thought would help them achieve a smoke-free home (SFH). We performed a cross-sectional survey of 318 households with at least one child aged under 16 years in Beeston Hill, a deprived locality in Leeds, England in June 2008. One hundred and seventy-three households [54%, 95% confidence interval (C.I.) 49-60] had at least one smoker in the house. In 42% (95% C.I. 35-50) of these households (n = 73), smoking took place in the presence of children. The odds of allowing smoking in front of children were 2.2 (95% C.I. 1.1-4.5) times greater in households whose head had less than A-level (national exams at 18 years) or equivalent qualification than in homes with a more qualified head of household. 92% of respondents were aware that SHS has negative effects on children's health. However, 71% felt more information about health risks to children would help reduce exposure to SHS in the home. Smoking in the presence of children takes place in a relatively high proportion of households with smoker(s), despite media awareness campaigns regarding the dangers of passive smoking launched alongside the recently enforced smoke-free public and workplaces legislation. Specific promotion of SFHs is needed to protect the health of children.

  3. Tobacco Use and Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke among Urban Residents: A Community-Based Investigation

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    Zhaorui Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In 2005, China acceded to the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC, the foundation for the global fight against tobacco. Certain cities in China have established local regulations to control tobacco use ahead of national policy; however, without the enforcement of statutory law, some of these regulations are merely lip service. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of city policy on smoking prevalence and on second-hand smoke (SHS exposure status among non-smokers in Changchun City. Methods: A cross-sectional survey covering a multiple-stage, representative sample of the urban population aged ≥15 years was conducted between 1 Dec 2013 and 31 Jan 2014. The WHO and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the questionnaires used, which included demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors and SHS exposure status. Results: Overall cigarette smoking prevalence was 23.5%; daily cigarette smoking prevalence was 21.2%. Smoking prevalence and cigarettes consumed per day was higher among men (p < 0.05 and those aged 45–64 years (p < 0.05. Among current smokers, 8.1% planned to quit within 12 months; 53.4% had no intention of quitting. Overall SHS exposure prevalence was 41.9% (workplace and 34.1% (at home over the previous 30 days. The weighted workplace SHS exposure prevalence increased with age. Conclusions: The high proportion of smokers with no intention of quitting and the high level of SHS exposure may constitute one of the most significant barriers to successful smoking cessation in the city. A continued drive to promote full implementation of the WHO FCTC is still needed.

  4. Changes in air quality and second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality sector businesses after introduction of the English Smoke-free legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotz, N K; van Tongeren, M; Wareing, H; Wallace, L M; Semple, S; Maccalman, L

    2008-12-01

    To monitor and disseminate the short-term effects of the English Smoke-free legislation on air quality and employee exposure in businesses of the hospitality industry. Indoor particle concentrations and salivary cotinine levels were measured in businesses in the hospitality sector and non-smoking employees one month before and after the implementation of the legislation. Results were immediately released to the media to announce the improvements in air quality and employee exposure to the wider public. Measurements were collected in 49 businesses and from 75 non-smoking individuals. Indoor PM(2.5) concentrations decreased by 95% from 217 microg/m(3) at baseline to 11 microg/m(3) at follow-up (P hospitality industry sector. We believe that quick and positive feedback to the public on the effects of smoking restrictions is essential when introducing public health legislation such as the Smoke-free legislation.

  5. Self-reported smoking habits and serum cotinine levels in women with placental abruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Minna; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Bloigu, Aini; Nuutila, Mika; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Hiilesmaa, Vilho; Paavonen, Jorma

    2010-12-01

    smoking is an important risk factor for placental abruption with strong dose-dependency. Pregnant smokers often underreport tobacco use which can be objectively assessed by measuring serum cotinine levels. We examined the accuracy between self-reported smoking habits and early pregnancy serum cotinine levels in women with or without placental abruption. retrospective case-control study. university Hospital. a total of 175 women with placental abruption and 370 control women. serum samples collected during the first trimester were analyzed for serum cotinine levels. Cotinine concentration over 15 ng/ml was considered as the cutoff indicating active smoking. Smoking habits of the women and their partners were recorded at the same visit. placental abruption. of the cases of women with placental abruption, 27.4% reported smoking compared with 14.3% of the controls (p smoked daily correlated well with the cotinine levels (r = 0.68, p smoking habits correlate well with serum cotinine levels in Finland. Therefore, self-reported smoking can be considered as a risk marker for placental abruption.

  6. Association between cotinine-verified smoking status and hypertension in 167,868 Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies showed inconsistent results concerning the relationship between chronic smoking and blood pressure. Most of the studies involved self-reported smoking status. This study was performed to evaluate the association of urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status with hypertension and blood pressure in Korean adults. Among individuals enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study, 167,868 participants (men, 55.7%; age, 37.5 ± 6.9 years) between 2011 and 2013 who had urinary cotinine measurements were included. Individuals with urinary cotinine levels ≥50 ng/mL were defined as cotinine-verified current smokers. The prevalence of hypertension and cotinine-verified current smokers in the overall population was 6.8% and 22.7%, respectively (10.0% in men and 2.8% in women for hypertension: 37.7% in men and 3.9% in women for cotinine-verified current smokers). In a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol drinking, vigorous exercise, and diabetes, cotinine-verified current smoking was associated with lower prevalence of hypertension compared with cotinine-verified never smoking (OR[95% CI], 0.79 [0.75, 0.84]). Log-transformed cotinine levels and unobserved smoking were negatively associated with hypertension, respectively (0.96 [0.96, 0.97] and 0.55 [0.39, 0.79]). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the cotinine-verified current smoking was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (regression coefficient[95% CI], -1.23[-1.39, -1.07] for systolic BP and -0.71 [-0.84, -0.58] for diastolic BP). In subgroup analyses according to sex, the inverse associations between cotinine-verified current smoking and hypertension were observed only in men. This large observational study showed that cotinine-verified current smoking and unobserved smoking were inversely associated with hypertension in Korean adults, especially only in

  7. [The prevalence of exposure of children under the age of 18 to second-hand smoke inside motor vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrol, M T; Tolosana, M; Soler, M T; Taló, M; Godoy, P

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the level of exposure of children under the age of 18 to second-hand smoke (SHS) inside motor vehicles. A prevalence study was conducted on the exposure of children under the age of 18 to SHS in motor vehicles in Lleida (Spain). The population was the users of private motor vehicles. The sample was random, and the data were collected by direct observation. The study variables were: the age and sex of the driver, whether the driver was smoking, and the presence of an exposed passenger under the age of 18. A total of 1600 vehicles were observed, 134 of which (8.4%) were carrying a child. In 8 of these 134 vehicles (6%; 95% CI: 2.5-11.0) a child was exposed to SHS. In all these cases, the driver was a male (P=0.02), and in 75% of cases he was over 40 years old. The rate of child exposure to SHS is very high. There is, therefore, a case for organising campaigns to prevent smoking tobacco inside motor vehicles in the presence of children in Spain. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Developmental exposure to second-hand smoke increases adult atherogenesis and alters mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletions in apoE(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Fetterman

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m(3 total suspended particulate of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i in utero from gestation days 1-19, or (ii from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal. Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12-14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis.

  9. Developmental exposure to second-hand smoke increases adult atherogenesis and alters mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletions in apoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Pompilius, Melissa; Westbrook, David G; Uyeminami, Dale; Brown, Jamelle; Pinkerton, Kent E; Ballinger, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m(3) total suspended particulate) of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i) in utero from gestation days 1-19, or (ii) from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12-14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis.

  10. Developmental Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke Increases Adult Atherogenesis and Alters Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Deletions in apoE−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L.; Pompilius, Melissa; Westbrook, David G.; Uyeminami, Dale; Brown, Jamelle; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m3 total suspended particulate) of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i) in utero from gestation days 1–19, or (ii) from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12–14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis. PMID:23825571

  11. Potential pathways by which maternal second-hand smoke exposure during pregnancy causes full-term low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhongzheng; Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong; Tian, Fuying; Yuan, Shixin; Jia, Deqin; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2016-04-29

    It is well documented that maternal exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) during pregnancy causes low birth weight (LBW), but its mechanism remains unknown. This study explored the potential pathways. We enrolled 195 pregnant women who delivered full-term LBW newborns, and 195 who delivered full-term normal birth weight newborns as the controls. After controlling for maternal age, education level, family income, pre-pregnant body mass index, newborn gender and gestational age, logistic regression analysis revealed that LBW was significantly and positively associated with maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy, lower placental weight, TNF-α and IL-1β, and that SHS exposure was significantly associated with lower placental weight, TNF-α and IL-1β. Structural equation modelling identified two plausible pathways by which maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy might cause LBW. First, SHS exposure induced the elevation of TNF-α, which might directly increase the risk of LBW by transmission across the placenta. Second, SHS exposure first increased maternal secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α, which then triggered the secretion of VCAM-1; both TNF-α and VCAM-1 were significantly associated with lower placental weight, thus increasing the risk of LBW. In conclusion, maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy may lead to LBW through the potential pathways of maternal inflammation and lower placental weight.

  12. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Tissue Trace Element Concentration of Rats Exposed to Second-hand Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    K, Ergen; F, Yildiz; M, Ozcan; M, Cekmen; , Tanyeri P; , Utkan T; Y, Karakoc

    2012-01-01

    Trace elements have an important effect on and play a key role in a variety of the processes necessary for life. Studies have indicated a definite correlation between content of trace elements and many common diseases. It has been concluded that smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements, not only to the smoker, but to nonsmokers via passive smoke, as well. Even passive intake of such elements can change the metabolism of other trace elements and influence their...

  13. Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: implications for noninvasive measurement of tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Benowitz, N L; Feyerabend, C

    1988-01-01

    Cotinine elimination from plasma, saliva, and urine was studied over 11 days in five subjects (three nonsmokers and two occasional smokers). Half-lives for cotinine averaged 16-19 hours in the different body fluids (range 10 to 27 hours between subjects). There was no tendency for the half-life in saliva to be longer than in plasma or urine. We conclude that choice of body fluid for cotinine assay in smoking studies should depend on practical rather than pharmacokinetic considerations. PMID:3369603

  14. Animal models of nicotine exposure: relevance to second-hand smoking, electronic cigarette use and compulsive smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami eCohen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence indicates that individuals use tobacco primarily to experience the psychopharmacological properties of nicotine and that a large proportion of smokers eventually become dependent on nicotine. In humans, nicotine acutely produces positive reinforcing effects, including mild euphoria, whereas a nicotine abstinence syndrome with both somatic and affective components is observed after chronic nicotine exposure. Animal models of nicotine self-administration and chronic exposure to nicotine have been critical in unveiling the neurobiological substrates that mediate the acute reinforcing effects of nicotine and emergence of a withdrawal syndrome during abstinence. However, important aspects of the transition from nicotine abuse to nicotine dependence, such as the emergence of increased motivation and compulsive nicotine intake following repeated exposure to the drug, have only recently begun to be modeled in animals. Thus, the neurobiological mechanisms that are involved in these important aspects of nicotine addiction remain largely unknown. In this review, we describe the different animal models available to date and discuss recent advances in animal models of nicotine exposure and nicotine dependence. This review demonstrates that novel animal models of nicotine vapor exposure and escalation of nicotine intake provide a unique opportunity to investigate the neurobiological effects of second-hand nicotine exposure, electronic cigarette use and the mechanisms that underlie the transition from nicotine use to compulsive nicotine intake.

  15. Secondhand smoke exposure and serum cotinine levels among current smokers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ryan P; Tsoh, Janice Y; Sung, Hai-Yen; Max, Wendy

    2016-03-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) likely provides additional exposure to nicotine and toxins for smokers, but has been understudied. Our objective was to determine whether SHS exposure among smokers yields detectable differences in cotinine levels compared with unexposed smokers at the population level. Using the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2012, we compared serum cotinine levels of 4547 current adult cigarette smokers stratified by self-reported SHS exposure sources (home and/or work) and smoking intensity. A weighted multivariable linear regression model determined the association between SHS exposure and cotinine levels among smokers. Smokers with SHS exposure at home (43.8%) had higher cotinine levels (β=0.483, p≤0.001) compared with those with no SHS exposure at home after controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked per day and number of days smoked in the previous 5 days, survey year, age, gender and education. Smokers with SHS exposure at work (20.0%) did not have significantly higher cotinine levels after adjustment. The adjusted geometric mean cotinine levels of light smokers (1-9 cigarettes per day) with no SHS exposure, exposure at work only, home only, and both home and work were 52.0, 62.7, 67.2, 74.4 ng/mL, respectively, compared with 219.4, 220.9, 255.2, 250.5 ng/mL among moderate/heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day). Smokers living in residences where others smoke inside the home had significantly higher cotinine levels than smokers reporting no SHS exposure, regardless of individual smoking intensity. Future research should target the role that SHS exposure may have in nicotine dependence, cessation outcomes and other health impacts among smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Youth exposure to in-vehicle second-hand smoke and their smoking behaviours: trends and associations in repeated national surveys (2006-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Benjamin; Hoek, Janet; Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George; Taylor, Steve; Edwards, Richard

    2015-03-01

    To extend the limited international evidence on youth in-vehicle second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure by examining trends in New Zealand, a country with a national smoke-free goal and indoors smoke-free environment legislation. We tracked exposure rates and explored the associations between in-vehicle SHS exposure and smoking behaviours. In-home exposure was also examined for comparative purposes. Data were collected in annual surveys of over 25 000 year 10 school students (14-15-year olds) for a 7-year period (2006-2012). Questions covered smoking behaviour, exposure to smoking and demographics. Youth SHS exposure rates in-vehicle and in-home trended down slightly over time (pvehicle in the previous week in 2012. However, marked inequalities in exposure between ethnic groups, and by school-based socioeconomic position, persisted. The strongest association with SHS exposure was parental smoking (eg, for both parents versus neither smoking in 2012: in-vehicle SHS exposure adjusted OR: 7.4; 95% CI: 6.5 to 8.4). After adjusting for seven other factors associated with initiation, logistic regression analyses revealed statistically significant associations of in-vehicle SHS exposure with susceptibility to initiation and smoking. The slow decline in SHS exposure in vehicles and the lack of progress in reducing relative inequalities is problematic. To accelerate progress, the New Zealand Government could follow the example of other jurisdictions and prohibit smoking in cars carrying children. Other major policy interventions, beside enhanced smoke-free environments, will also likely be required if New Zealand is to achieve its 2025 smoke-free nation goal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. [Impact of the new smoke-free legislation (law 42/2010) on levels of second-hand smoke in hospitality venues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Rodrigo; Nerín, Isabel; Galindo, Virginia; Alayeto, Carmen; Villaverde-Royo, M A Victoria; Sanz, Concepción

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate pollution by second-hand smoke in a sample of hospitality venues before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation. A cross sectional, before-after study was conducted in 2008 and 2011 after the total ban. A SidePack Aerosol monitor was used both inside and outside the hospitality venues to measure fine breathable particles (PM2.5). A total of 43 places with pre- and post-legislation measurements were included. The median indoor pollution in hospitality venues was 204.2μg/m(3) in 2008 and 18.82μg/m(3) in 2011; the average outdoor PM2.5 concentration was 47.04μg/m(3) in 2008 and 18.82μg/m(3) in 2011. Pollution was higher in bars and cafeterias, followed by pubs and discos. Before the law was implemented, pollution was 4.34 times higher indoors than outdoors; in 2011 the average indoor PM2.5 concentration decreased by 90.88%. Only a complete ban is able to protect workers and customers against the health risks of second-hand smoke exposure. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Five-year trends of second-hand smoke exposure in Greece: a comparison between complete, partial, and prelegislation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Anagnostopoulos, Nektarios; Patelarou, Evridiki; Minas, Markos; Nakou, Chrysanthi; Dramba, Vassiliki; Giourgouli, Gianna; Bagkeris, Emmanouil; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Pattaka, Paraskevi; Antoniadis, Antonis; Lionis, Christos; Bertic, Monique; Dockery, Douglas; Connolly, Gregory N; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2012-12-01

    Our aim was to assess second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in hospitality venues after the smoke-free legislation implemented in September 2010 in Greece and to compare with when a partial ban was in place and in 2006 when no ban was in place. Hospitality venues were prospectively assessed for their indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM(2.5)) during the partial ban phase (n=149) and the complete ban phase (n=120, 80% followed up), while overall and matched by venue comparisons were also performed (no ban vs. partial ban vs. complete ban). Comparisons with previously collected data in 2006 when no ban was in place also was performed. Indoor air levels of PM(2.5) attributable to SHS dropped following the transition from a partial to a complete ban by 34% (137 μg/m(3) vs. 90 μg/m(3), p=0.003). This drop was larger in bars (from 195 μg/m(3) to 121 μg/m(3)), than in cafes (124 μg/m(3) vs. 87 μg/m(3)) or restaurants (42 μg/m(3) vs. 39 μg/m(3)). PM(2.5) concentrations between 2006 (no ban) and the partial ban of 2010 were also found to decrease by 94 μg/m(3); however, among matched venues, the levels of indoor air pollution were not found to change significantly (218 μg/m(3) vs. 178 μg/m(3), p=0.58). Comparing the 2010 complete ban results (n=120) with previously collected data from 2006 when no ban was in place (n=43), overall PM(2.5) concentrations were found to fall from 268 μg/m(3) to 89 μg/m(3), while a matched analysis found a significant reduction in PM(2.5) concentrations (249 μg/m(3) vs. 46 μg/m(3), p=0.011). The complete ban of smoking in hospitality venues in Greece led to a reduction in SHS exposure, in comparison to when the partial ban or no ban was in place; however, exposure to SHS was not eliminated indicating the need for stronger enforcement.

  19. 'Only Fathers Smoking' Contributes the Most to Socioeconomic Inequalities: Changes in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Infants' Exposure to Second Hand Smoke over Time in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Junko; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is one of the major causes of premature death and disease among children. While socioeconomic inequalities exist for adult smoking, such evidence is limited for SHS exposure in children. Thus, this study examined changes over time in socioeconomic inequalities in infants' SHS exposure in Japan. This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 41,833 infants born in 2001 and 32,120 infants born in 2010 in Japan from nationally representative surveys using questionnaires. The prevalence of infants' SHS exposure was determined and related to household income and parental education level. The magnitudes of income and educational inequalities in infants' SHS exposure were estimated in 2001 and 2010 using both absolute and relative inequality indices. The prevalence of SHS exposure in infants declined from 2001 to 2010. The relative index of inequality increased from 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.89) to 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.56) based on income and from 1.22 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.26) to 2.09 (95% CI, 2.00 to 2.17) based on education. In contrast, the slope index of inequality decreased from 30.9 (95% CI, 29.3 to 32.6) to 20.1 (95% CI, 18.7 to 21.5) based on income and from 44.6 (95% CI, 43.1 to 46.2) to 28.7 (95% CI, 27.3 to 30.0) based on education. Having only a father who smoked indoors was a major contributor to absolute income inequality in infants' SHS exposure in 2010, which increased in importance from 45.1% in 2001 to 67.0% in 2010. The socioeconomic inequalities in infants' second hand smoke exposure increased in relative terms but decreased in absolute terms from 2001 to 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage parents to quit smoking and protect infants from second hand smoke exposure, especially in low socioeconomic households that include non-smoking mothers.

  20. ‘Only Fathers Smoking’ Contributes the Most to Socioeconomic Inequalities: Changes in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Infants’ Exposure to Second Hand Smoke over Time in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Junko; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is one of the major causes of premature death and disease among children. While socioeconomic inequalities exist for adult smoking, such evidence is limited for SHS exposure in children. Thus, this study examined changes over time in socioeconomic inequalities in infants’ SHS exposure in Japan. Methods This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 41,833 infants born in 2001 and 32,120 infants born in 2010 in Japan from nationally representative su...

  1. Independent and joint effects of prenatal maternal smoking and maternal exposure to second-hand smoke on the development of adolescent obesity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Mamudu, Hadii M; Alamian, Arsham; Anderson, James L; Brooks, Billy

    2014-11-01

    To examine associations of prenatal maternal smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure with the development of adolescent obesity. Longitudinal data (1991-2007) from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development involving mothers that smoked and or exposed to SHS during the year before birth were analysed. Adolescent obesity in ages 12.0-15.9 years was defined as a BMI ≥ 95th percentile. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used for the analyses. Obesity was more prevalent among adolescents whose mothers smoked or had SHS exposure than those that did not smoke or exposed to SHS. After adjusting for maternal and child factors, GEE models showed that odds of adolescent obesity increased with prenatal maternal smoking (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.03-2.39) and SHS exposure (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.04-2.27). The odds for obesity increased more than two times among adolescents exposed to both maternal smoking and SHS (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24, 3.56) compared with those without exposure. Additionally, not breastfeeding, maternal obesity, and longer screen viewing hours per day were associated with increased odds of obesity. There is possibly a long-term joint effect of prenatal maternal smoke (smoking and SHS) exposure on obesity among adolescent offspring, and the effect is independent of birthweight. These findings suggest that adolescent obesity could possibly be curtailed with the development and promotion of smoking cessation programmes for families during the year before birth. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Smoke-Free Workplaces Are Associated with Protection from Second-Hand Smoke at Homes in Nigeria: Evidence for Population-Level Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence suggests that smoke-free workplace policies may change social norms towards exposing others to second-hand smoke at home. The aim of the study was to assess whether being employed in a smoke-free workplace (SFWP is associated with living in a smoke-free home (SFH. We used the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey conducted in Nigeria in 2012, in which 9,765 individuals were interviewed including 1,856 persons who worked indoors. The percentage of Nigerians employed in SFWP that reported living in a SFH was higher compared to those employed in a workplace where smoking occurred (95% versus 73%. Working in a SFWP was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of living in a SFH (OR = 5.3; p<0.001. Urban inhabitants indicated more frequently that they lived in SFH compared to rural residents (OR = 2.0; p=0.006. The odds of living in a SFH were significantly higher among nonsmokers and nonsmokeless tobacco users compared to smokers and smokeless tobacco users (OR = 28.8; p<0.001; OR = 7.0; p<0.001. These findings support the need for implementation of comprehensive smoke-free policies in Nigeria that result in substantial health benefits.

  3. Exposure to second-hand smoke and direct healthcare costs in children – results from two German birth cohorts, GINIplus and LISAplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batscheider Ariane

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the negative health consequences of the exposure to second hand tobacco smoke during childhood are already known, evidence on the economic consequences is still rare. The aim of this study was to estimate excess healthcare costs of exposure to tobacco smoke in German children. Methods The study is based on data from two birth cohort studies of 3,518 children aged 9-11 years with information on healthcare utilisation and tobacco smoke exposure: the GINIplus study (German Infant Study On The Influence Of Nutrition Intervention Plus Environmental And Genetic Influences On Allergy Development and the LISAplus study (Influence of Life-Style Factors On The Development Of The Immune System And Allergies In East And West Germany Plus The Influence Of Traffic Emissions And Genetics. Direct medical costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach (base year 2007. We investigated the impact of tobacco smoke exposure in different environments on the main components of direct healthcare costs using descriptive analysis and a multivariate two-step regression analysis. Results Descriptive analysis showed that average annual medical costs (physician visits, physical therapy and hospital treatment were considerably higher for children exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke at home (indoors or on patio/balcony compared with those who were not exposed. Regression analysis confirmed these descriptive trends: the odds of positive costs and the amount of total costs are significantly elevated for children exposed to tobacco smoke at home after adjusting for confounding variables. Combining the two steps of the regression model shows smoking attributable total costs per child exposed at home of €87 [10–165] (patio/balcony and €144 [6–305] (indoors compared to those with no exposure. Children not exposed at home but in other places showed only a small, but not significant, difference in total costs compared to those with no exposure

  4. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine 125I-radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based 125 I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays

  5. The UCB particle monitor: A tool for logging frequency of smoking and the intensity of second-hand smoke concentrations in the home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semple, Sean; Apsley, Andrew; Moir, Gill; Henderson, George; Ayres, Jon, E-mail: sean.semple@abdn.ac.u [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Liberty Safe Work Research Centre, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure generates a large public health burden. Recent legislation has moved to prohibit smoking in public places and there are concerns that this may lead to an increase in exposures in private homes. Measurement of SHS aerosol has tended to use active pumped samples or longer-term diffusive badges. Pumped methods are noisy and poorly tolerated in home settings while diffusive badges do not provide real-time data. The UCB particle monitor (UCB-PM) is a modified smoke-alarm device capable of logging changes in airborne particulate matter over extended periods and has been used successfully to measure biomass fuel smoke concentrations in developing world settings This study has examined the use of the UCB-PM to measure SHS aerosol in both controlled laboratory conditions and a pilot field trial over a 7 day period in a smoker's home. Comparisons with a pumped sampler (TSI Sidepak Personal Aerosol Monitor) indicate good agreement over a range of exposure concentrations but there is evidence of a threshold effect at approximately 0.5 mg/m{sup 3} of fine particulate measured as PM{sub 2.5}. While this threshold effect undermines the ability of the device to provide useful data on the time-weighted average SHS concentration, the field trial indicates that that the UCB-PM has a sensitivity of about 71% and a specificity of 98%. The device has many advantages including zero noise operation, low cost and long battery life and may be a useful tool in quitting and smoke-free home intervention studies.

  6. Effects of "second-hand" smoke on structure and function of fibroblasts, cells that are critical for tissue repair and remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Madhav

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that "second-hand" cigarette smoke leads to abnormal tissue repair and remodelling but the cellular mechanisms involved in these adverse effects are not well understood. Fibroblasts play a major role in repair and remodelling. They orchestrate these processes by proliferating, migrating, and secreting proteins such as, cytokines, growth factors and extracellular matrix molecules. Therefore, we focus our studies on the effects of "second-hand" cigarette smoke on the structure and function of these cells. Results We used sidestream whole (SSW smoke, a major component of "second-hand" smoke, primary embryonic fibroblasts, cells that behave very much like wound fibroblasts, and a variety of cellular and molecular approaches. We show that doses of smoke similar to those found in tissues cause cytoskeletal changes in the fibroblasts that may lead to a decrease in cell migration. In addition, we also show that these levels of cigarette smoke stimulate an increase in cell survival that is reflected in an increase and/or activation of stress/survival proteins such as cIL-8, grp78, PKB/Akt, p53, and p21. We further show that SSW affects the endomembrane system and that this effect is also accomplished by nicotine alone. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that: (i SSW may delay wound repair because of the inability of the fibroblasts to migrate into the wounded area, leading to an accumulation of these cells at the edge of the wound, thus preventing the formation of the healing tissue; (ii the increase in cell survival coupled to the decrease in cell migration can lead to a build-up of connective tissue, thereby causing fibrosis and excess scarring.

  7. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  8. Tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure in young adolescents aged 12-15 years: data from 68 low-income and middle-income countries.

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    Xi, Bo; Liang, Yajun; Liu, Yunxia; Yan, Yinkun; Zhao, Min; Ma, Chuanwei; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco use is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases worldwide. However, the global extent and prevalence of tobacco use in adolescents is poorly described. Using previously collected survey data, we aimed to assess tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure in young adolescents aged 12-15 years in 68 low-income and middle-income countries. We used data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2006-13) and the China Global Tobacco Youth Survey (2013), which are school-based surveys of young adolescents aged 12-15 years that assess health behaviours using a standardised, anonymous, self-reported questionnaire. We calculated the prevalence of current tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke in young adolescents from 68 low-income and middle-income countries that collected these data in the surveys. We used a multilevel model to estimate the association between parental tobacco use, second-hand smoke, and adolescent tobacco use, adjusting for sex, age, school, school class, country's purchasing power parity, smoking initiation age, national prevalence of tobacco use among adults, year the WHO FCTC was ratified for each country, proxy of socioeconomic status, and survey year. The mean prevalence of current tobacco use was 13·6%, ranging from 2·8% in Tajikistan to 44·7% in Samoa. In most countries, the prevalence of tobacco use was higher for boys than girls, and higher for adolescents aged 14-15 years than for those aged 12-13 years. The overall prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure was 55·9%, ranging from 16·4% in Tajikistan to 85·4% in Indonesia. Parental tobacco use (as reported by the young adolescents), especially maternal use, was associated with tobacco use in young adolescents (odds ratio 2·06, 95% CI 1·93-2·19, for maternal and 1·29, 1·23-1·35 for paternal use). Second-hand smoke exposure was also a risk factor for young adolescents' tobacco use (2·56, 2·43-2·69). However, the prevalence of tobacco use was not

  9. Characterization of urinary cotinine in non-smoking residents in smoke-free homes in the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS

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    Jeonghoon Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to determine urinary cotinine concentrations in non-smoking residents of smoke-free homes and to establish the relationship of urinary cotinine with housing type and other socio-demographic and secondhand smoke (SHS exposure factors. Methods We used data from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey I (2009–2011. The study included 814 non-smoking adult residents living in apartments, attached, and detached housing. Residents who lived with smokers were excluded. Urinary cotinine concentration was used as a biomarker for SHS exposure. The factors associated with urinary cotinine levels in non-smoking residents were determined using multivariate regression analysis. Results Urinary cotinine was detected in 88 % of the 814 non-smoking residents of smoke-free homes. The urinary cotinine concentrations of residents living in attached [1.18 ng/mg creatinine (Cr] and detached housing (1.23 ng/mg Cr were significantly higher than those of residents who lived in apartments (0.69 ng/mg Cr. Urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in residents who were men, those with a household income ≤1000 USD/month, those who were former smokers with >1 year and ≤1 year of not smoking, and those who experienced SHS odor every day. In the multivariate regression analysis, housing type, sex, former smoking status, and frequency of experiencing SHS odor were associated with urinary cotinine concentrations (R 2 = 0.14. Conclusions The majority of non-smoking residents of smoke-free homes had detectable urinary cotinine. Housing type, sex, former smoking status, and frequency of experiencing SHS odor were predictors for urinary cotinine concentrations in the study participants.

  10. Do Clinicians Ask Pregnant Women about Exposures to Tobacco and Cannabis Smoking, Second-Hand-Smoke and E-Cigarettes? An Australian National Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Gillian S. Gould

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians often ask pregnant women about tobacco smoking, but their practices of asking about other smoking and nicotine exposures are unknown. This study analysed how often clinicians ask pregnant women about their use of e-cigarettes, cannabis, chewing tobacco, and second-hand smoke (SHS exposure. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken. A random sample of 500 General Practitioner (GP members were invited from the National Faculty of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (NFATSIH to complete an on-line survey, and 5571 GP and Obstetrician (OBS members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG were sent a paper survey by mail. Questions on frequency of asking about the exposures used Likert Scales, later dichotomized to “often-always” and “never-sometimes”. Logistic regressions estimated associations between clinician type and asking about cannabis, e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and SHS. An adjusted model reduced potential confounders of location, guidelines, gender and population. n = 378 GPs and OBS participated (6.2% response. In total, 13–14% asked “often-always” about e-cigarettes; 58% cannabis; 38% cannabis with tobacco; 27% SHS, and 10% chewing tobacco—compared to 95% of the sample asking about cigarette smoking. After adjustment, the odds of RANZCOG GPs (OR 0.34 and OBS (OR 0.63 asking about cannabis were lower compared to NFATSIH GPs. Clinician type was non-significant for asking about e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco and SHS. Surveyed Australian GPs and obstetricians asked less frequently about e-cigarettes, chewing, SHS exposure, and cannabis, potentially missing important exposures for mother and child.

  11. Do Clinicians Ask Pregnant Women about Exposures to Tobacco and Cannabis Smoking, Second-Hand-Smoke and E-Cigarettes? An Australian National Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Gould, Gillian S; Zeev, Yael Bar; Tywman, Laura; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Chiu, Simon; Clarke, Marilyn; Bonevski, Billie

    2017-12-16

    Clinicians often ask pregnant women about tobacco smoking, but their practices of asking about other smoking and nicotine exposures are unknown. This study analysed how often clinicians ask pregnant women about their use of e-cigarettes, cannabis, chewing tobacco, and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken. A random sample of 500 General Practitioner (GP) members were invited from the National Faculty of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (NFATSIH) to complete an on-line survey, and 5571 GP and Obstetrician (OBS) members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) were sent a paper survey by mail. Questions on frequency of asking about the exposures used Likert Scales, later dichotomized to "often-always" and "never-sometimes". Logistic regressions estimated associations between clinician type and asking about cannabis, e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and SHS. An adjusted model reduced potential confounders of location, guidelines, gender and population. n = 378 GPs and OBS participated (6.2% response). In total, 13-14% asked "often-always" about e-cigarettes; 58% cannabis; 38% cannabis with tobacco; 27% SHS, and 10% chewing tobacco-compared to 95% of the sample asking about cigarette smoking. After adjustment, the odds of RANZCOG GPs (OR 0.34) and OBS (OR 0.63) asking about cannabis were lower compared to NFATSIH GPs. Clinician type was non-significant for asking about e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco and SHS. Surveyed Australian GPs and obstetricians asked less frequently about e-cigarettes, chewing, SHS exposure, and cannabis, potentially missing important exposures for mother and child.

  12. Children's exposure to passive smoking in England since the 1980s: cotinine evidence from population surveys

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    Jarvis, Martin J; Goddard, Eileen; Higgins, Vanessa; Feyerabend, Colin; Bryant, Andrew; Cook, Derek G

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether children's exposure to passive smoking has changed since the late 1980s. Design Cross sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of secondary school children carried out between 1988 and 1998 by Office for National Statistics. Setting England. Subjects Secondary school children aged 11-15. Main outcome measures Salivary cotinine concentrations in non-smoking children. Results Cotinine concentrations in all non-smoking children almost halved between 1988 and 1998, from a geometric mean of 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.11) ng/ml in 1988 to 0.52 (0.43 to 0.62) ng/ml in 1998. This reduction was largely due to reductions in exposure in children from non-smoking households and to decreases in the percentage of parents who smoked. Children living with mothers or fathers who smoked experienced little reduction in exposure. Conclusions Exposure to passive smoking among children in England has approximately halved since the late 1980s. This reduction is partly explained by the fall in the percentage of both mothers and fathers who smoke and is also likely to reflect reductions of smoking in public places. However, there is only limited evidence that children from smoking households have experienced a reduction in exposure through parents' avoidance of smoking in their presence. PMID:10926591

  13. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren

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    Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C; Eiser, J R; Morgan, M; Gammage, P; Gray, E M

    1985-10-05

    Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health.

  14. Knowledge and opinion about smoke-free laws and second-hand smoke among hospitality venue managers in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Gupta, Vinay K; Arora, Monika; Sharma, Indrani; Nazar, Gaurang P; Modi, Bhavesh; Singh, Deepti; Millett, Christopher; Reddy, K Srinath

    2013-01-01

    India's Smoke-Free Law (SFL) was implemented in 2004 and reinforced on 2nd October 2008. This research attempts to understand the knowledge and opinion of hospitality venue (HV) managers about second-hand smoke (SHS) and SFL as well as self-reported compliance with SFL in two Indian states. A survey was conducted among 804 randomly sampled HVs from project STEPS (Strengthening of tobacco control efforts through innovative partnerships and strategies) in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India. Four hundred and three HVs from two districts in Gujarat and 401 HVs from six districts in Andhra Pradesh were selected. The owner, manager or supervisor of each HV was interviewed using a pre-tested structured interview schedule. Association of opinion scales with respondents' background characteristics was assessed through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. Out of the 403 respondents in Gujarat and 401 in Andhra Pradesh, 56.1% and 84.3% had knowledge about SFL respectively. Compliance of HVs with SFL was 21.8% in Gujarat and 31.2% in Andhra Pradesh as reported by the managers. Knowledge about SHS was noted among 39.7% of respondents in Gujarat and 25.4% in Andhra Pradesh. Bivariate results indicated that more educated HV managers showed higher support for smoke-free public places (P < 0.001) and were more concerned about the health effects of SHS exposure (P = 0.002). Complete self-reported compliance with, and knowledge of SFL as well as SHS was not found in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. The education level of HV managers is an important determinant to ensure compliance with SFL in public places.

  15. Using air quality monitoring to reduce second-hand smoke exposure in homes: the AFRESH feasibility study

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    Ruaraidh Dobson

    2017-06-01

    participants to create smoke-free homes, although it is not possible to generalise the results of this small study. However, the resources required for the delivery of AFRESH do not match with the resources available in third-sector organisations, despite smoke-free homes being a policy priority

  16. ‘Only Fathers Smoking’ Contributes the Most to Socioeconomic Inequalities: Changes in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Infants’ Exposure to Second Hand Smoke over Time in Japan

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    Saito, Junko; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is one of the major causes of premature death and disease among children. While socioeconomic inequalities exist for adult smoking, such evidence is limited for SHS exposure in children. Thus, this study examined changes over time in socioeconomic inequalities in infants’ SHS exposure in Japan. Methods This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 41,833 infants born in 2001 and 32,120 infants born in 2010 in Japan from nationally representative surveys using questionnaires. The prevalence of infants’ SHS exposure was determined and related to household income and parental education level. The magnitudes of income and educational inequalities in infants’ SHS exposure were estimated in 2001 and 2010 using both absolute and relative inequality indices. Results The prevalence of SHS exposure in infants declined from 2001 to 2010. The relative index of inequality increased from 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.89) to 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.56) based on income and from 1.22 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.26) to 2.09 (95% CI, 2.00 to 2.17) based on education. In contrast, the slope index of inequality decreased from 30.9 (95% CI, 29.3 to 32.6) to 20.1 (95% CI, 18.7 to 21.5) based on income and from 44.6 (95% CI, 43.1 to 46.2) to 28.7 (95% CI, 27.3 to 30.0) based on education. Having only a father who smoked indoors was a major contributor to absolute income inequality in infants’ SHS exposure in 2010, which increased in importance from 45.1% in 2001 to 67.0% in 2010. Conclusions The socioeconomic inequalities in infants’ second hand smoke exposure increased in relative terms but decreased in absolute terms from 2001 to 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage parents to quit smoking and protect infants from second hand smoke exposure, especially in low socioeconomic households that include non-smoking mothers. PMID:26431400

  17. Second-hand smoke exposure in homes and in cars among Canadian youth: current prevalence, beliefs about exposure, and changes between 2004 and 2006.

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    Leatherdale, Scott T; Ahmed, Rashid

    2009-08-01

    The present study examines second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the beliefs youth have about being exposed to SHS in their home and in cars and explores changes in exposure and beliefs over time. Nationally representative data from the 2006 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) were used to examine youth exposure to smoking and beliefs about smoking in the home and car among 71,003 Canadian youth in grades 5-12. Gender-specific logistic regression models were conducted to examine if being exposed to smoking at home or in the car were associated with the beliefs youth have about either smoking around kids at home or smoking around kids in cars. In 2006, 22.1% of youth in grades 5-12 were exposed to smoking in their home on a daily or almost daily basis and 28.1% were exposed to smoking while riding in a car at least once in the previous week. The majority of youth reported that they do not think smoking should be allowed around kids at home (88.3%) or in cars (88.4%). Youth exposed to smoking in the home or in cars reported missing substantially more days of school in the previous month because of their health. Among both male and female youth, being an ever smoker, living in a house where someone smokes inside daily, and having ridden in a car with someone who was smoking cigarettes in the past seven days were all associated with being more likely to report that smoking should not be allowed around kids at home or in cars. Compared to their male counterparts, female youth with at least one parent who smokes were more likely to report that smoking should not be allowed around kids at home or in cars. As rates of SHS exposure in the home and car decreased between 2004 and 2006, the prevalence of youth who reported that they do not think smoking should be allowed around kids at home or in cars also decreased over the same period of time. These results highlight that Canadian youth are frequently exposed to SHS in their homes and in cars despite the fact that the vast majority of

  18. Women exposed to second-hand smoke more at home than at workplace: An analysis of GATS Report, India, 2009-10

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    Deepika Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoke has adverse health effects on women of the reproductive age group with serious health implications for the next generation. Objectives: This study assessed the prevalence of current active smoking, second-hand smoke (SHS exposure and the factors influencing smoke exposure in females of the reproductive age group. Materials and Methods: Data from the nationally representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey-India (GATS 2009 was analyzed for socio demographic variables, tobacco-related variables and knowledge variables. Results: 50.4% of the women in the reproductive age group had been exposed to SHS at home, though only 2.6% of the women were current active smokers. This was more than the SHS exposure at work (21.7% and elsewhere (32.6%. SHS exposure of the women at home did not vary significantly with knowledge of adverse effects of smoking but was affected by the place of dwelling as the smoke exposure was found to be more among rural women. Conclusion: SHS exposure is more prevalent than current active smoking in women of the reproductive age group and that too at home. Thus, policies need to be framed in order to curb this menace which is a vicious one as women don′t really have an alternative as far as this exposure is concerned.

  19. Validation of self-reported smoking status by measuring serum cotinine levels: an Indian perspective.

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    Jeemon, P; Agarwal, S; Ramakrishnan, L; Gupta, R; Snehi, U; Chaturvedi, V; Reddy, K S; Prabhakaran, D

    2010-01-01

    Serum cotinine levels are a reliable marker of tobacco use. Few studies have validated questionnaires assessing smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) against serum levels. We undertook such a study in industrial workers in India. We chose 426 individuals by stratified random sampling from a database of 3397 individuals surveyed at New Delhi for the cardiovascular disease surveillance programme in a large industrial setting. Questionnaires assessing details of smoking practices and duration of exposure to ETS (if any) were administered. Cotinine levels were measured in the blood samples of these individuals. The study population comprised 142 nonsmokers not exposed to ETS, 142 non-smokers exposed to ETS and 142 active smokers. Cotinine levels among nonsmokers not exposed to ETS were non-detectable; and for non-smokers exposed to ETS and active smokers, the median (interquartile range) levels were non-detectable (non-detectable to 46.1 ng/ml) and 336 ng/ml (204-500 ng/ml), respectively. The best combined sensitivity (91%) and specificity (87.2%) yielded a cotinine cut-off level of 40.35 ng/ml to differentiate active smokers from non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS (area under the curve 0.902). The cut-off cotinine level was estimated at 10.95 ng/ml using a similar analysis (sensitivity 43%, specificity 82%; area under the curve 0.64) to distinguish non-smokers not exposed to ETS from those exposed to ETS. The misclassification rate was estimated at 19% and 57.1% among self-reported non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS, respectively. Obtaining a history of tobacco use is an accurate method of detecting smokers in epidemiological studies whereas serum cotinine levels accurately differentiate smokers from non-smokers. However, a brief questionnaire assessing passive exposure to smoke has poor sensitivity in distinguishing non-smokers exposed to ETS from those not exposed to ETS.

  20. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS). In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL) showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL) and very high (> 100 ng/mL) prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008) demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards pregnant women with

  1. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Carme; Vall, Oriol; García-Algar, Oscar; Papaseit, Esther; Pichini, Simona; Saltó, Esteve; Villalbí, Joan R

    2012-04-05

    Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS). In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA). 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL) showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL) and very high (> 100 ng/mL) prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. The results of the three study periods (1996-2008) demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards pregnant women with particular emphasis on non-native pregnant smokers due to

  2. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

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    Puig Carme

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS. In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL and very high (> 100 ng/mL prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008 demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards

  3. Changes in and Factors Affecting Second-hand Smoke Exposure in Nonsmoking Korean Americans in California: A Panel Study

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    Hyeongsu Kim, MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: We showed that SHS exposure increased among Korean American nonsmokers in California, and the most important variables explaining the change in SHS exposure involved smoking among others with whom the subject is associated. These findings could be used as objective evidence for developing public health policies to reduce SHS exposure.

  4. Variation of serum and urine cotinine in passive and active smokers and applicability in preconceptional smoking cessation counseling

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    Weerd, Sabina de; Thomas, Chris M.G.; Kuster, Josien E.T.G.; Cikot, Rolf J.L.M.; Steegers, Eric A.P.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed the applicability of serum and urine cotinine as a biochemical marker of self-reported smoking habits for use in a preconception smoking cessation program. The variation of serum and urine cotinine over the course of the day was investigated in a sample of 21 smokers and 8 passive smokers who reported their smoking habits and exposure to smoke daily in a questionnaire for 10 consecutive days. Blood and urine samples were collected on two sampling days, 1 week apart. Both serum and urine cotinine assay could distinguish between passive and active smokers, but not between higher categories of smokers (1019 and ≥20 cigarettes per ay) due to significant intersubject overlap. In serum, no significant differences were found between morning and afternoon cotinine concentrations in either day, in contrast to urine cotinine (with lower excretions observed n the morning). An overall coefficient of variation of 22- was observed for both specimens in smokers. Because serum cotinine is subject to lower variability over the course of the day, it is more practical for use in a clinical setting where appointments are scheduled throughout the day in order o confirm smoking status

  5. Second hand smoke exposure and the risk of invasive meningococcal disease in children: systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Murray Rachael L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive meningococcal disease remains an important cause of serious morbidity and mortality in children and young people. There is a growing body of literature to suggest that exposure to passive smoke may play a role in the development of the disease, therefore we have performed a systematic review to provide a comprehensive estimate of the magnitude of this effect for smoking by any household member, by individual family members, and of maternal smoking before and after birth. Methods Four databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and CAB Abstracts database were searched to identify studies (to June 2012 and reference lists scanned for further studies. Titles, abstracts and full texts were checked for eligibility independently by two authors. Quality of included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using random effect models, with heterogeneity quantified using I2. Results We identified 18 studies which assessed the effects of SHS on the risk of invasive meningococcal disease in children. SHS in the home doubled the risk of invasive meningococcal disease (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.92, I2 = 72%, with some evidence of an exposure-response gradient. The strongest effect was seen in children under 5 years (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.51 to 4.09, I2 = 47%. Maternal smoking significantly increased the risk of invasive meningococcal disease by 3 times during pregnancy (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.52-5.66 and by 2 times after birth (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.54-3.31. Conclusions SHS exposure, and particularly passive foetal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy, significantly increases the risk of childhood invasive meningococcal disease. It is likely that an extra 630 cases of invasive meningococcal disease annually in children under 16 are directly attributable to SHS exposure in UK homes.

  6. Accuracy of cotinine serum test to detect the smoking habit and its association with periodontal disease in a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, A; Martínez, P-J; Giraldo, A; Gualtero, D-F; Ardila, C-M; Contreras, A; Duarte, S; Lafaurie, G-I

    2017-07-01

    The validity of the surveys on self-reported smoking status is often questioned because smokers underestimate cigarette use and deny the habit. It has been suggested that self-report should be accompanied by cotinine test. This report evaluates the usefulness of serum cotinine test to assess the association between smoking and periodontal status in a study with a large sample population to be used in studies with other serum markers in epidemiologic and periodontal medicine researches. 578 patients who were part of a multicenter study on blood biomarkers were evaluated about smoking and its relation to periodontal disease. Severity of periodontal disease was determinate using clinical attachment loss (CAL). Smoking was assessed by a questionnaire and a blood sample drawn for serum cotinine determination. The optimal cut-off point for serum cotinine was 10 ng/ml. Serum cotinine showed greater association with severity of CAL than self-report for mild-moderate CAL [OR 2.03 (CI95% 1.16-3.53) vs. OR 1.08 (CI95% 0.62-1.87) ] advanced periodontitis [OR 2.36 (CI95% 1.30- 4.31) vs. OR 2.06 (CI95% 0.97-4.38) ] and extension of CAL > 3 mm [ OR 1.78 (CI95% 1.16-1.71) vs. 1.37 (CI95% 0.89-2.11)]. When the two tests were evaluated together were not shown to be better than serum cotinine test. Self-reported smoking and serum cotinine test ≥ 10ng/ml are accurate ,complementary and more reliable methods to assess the patient's smoking status and could be used in studies evaluating serum samples in large population and multicenter studies. The serum cotinine level is more reliable to make associations with the patient's periodontal status than self-report questionnaire and could be used in multicenter and periodontal medicine studies.

  7. Occupational exposure to second hand smoke and respiratory and sensory symptoms: A cross-sectional survey of hospital workers in Egypt

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    Ghada Radwan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to Second Hand Smoke (SHS has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, upper and lower respiratory tract diseases and an increased risk of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The majority of cases of mortality and morbidity is attributable to exposure of adults to SHS and is related to cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. In Egypt, comprehensive smoke-free laws exist, however, in many workplaces they are poorly enforced consequently exposing workers to the detrimental health hazards of SHS. We aimed at determination of workplace exposure to Second Hand Smoke (SHS and its association with respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms in hospital workers in Port-said governorate in Egypt. Material and methods: A cross-sectional face to face survey was conducted by the use of a standardised questionnaire among 415 adult hospital workers; representing 50% of all employees (81% response rate; recruited from 4 randomly selected general hospitals in Port-said governorate in Egypt. Results: All hospitals employees reported exposure to SHS - on average 1.5 (SD = 2.5 hours of exposure per day. After controlling for potential confounders, exposure to SHS at work was significantly associated with an increased risk of wheezes (OR = 1.14, p < 0.01, shortness of breath (OR = 1.17, p < 0.01, phlegm (OR = 1.23, p < 0.01, running and irritated nose (OR = 1.14, p < 0.01 as well as a sore, scratchy throat (OR = 1.23. Conclusions: These findings point out that workplace exposure to SHS is evident in hospitals in Port-said governorate and that workers are adversely affected by exposure to it at work. This underlines the importance of rigorous enforcement of smoke-free policies to protect the workers' health in Egypt.

  8. Health impacts of exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Paul A; Gray, Selena; Gilmore, Anna B

    2007-09-21

    Casino workers are exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) at work, yet remain at risk of being excluded from smoke-free legislation around the world. If the prime motivation for smoke-free legislation is the protection of workers, then a workforce experiencing ill-health associated with SHS exposure should not be excluded from legislation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms among a sample of casino workers, to identify any association between the reporting of symptoms and exposure to SHS at work, and to compare the prevalence of symptoms with that in other workers exposed to SHS. A postal questionnaire survey of 1568 casino workers in London. Using multivariate analysis we identified predictors of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms. 559 workers responded to the questionnaire (response of 36%). 91% of casino workers reported the presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms in the previous four weeks, while the figure was 84% for respiratory symptoms. The presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms was most strongly associated with reporting the highest exposure to SHS at work (OR 3.26; 1.72, 6.16). This was also true for reporting the presence of one or more respiratory irritation symptoms (OR 2.24; 1.34, 3.74). Prevalence of irritation symptoms in the casino workers was in general appreciably higher than that reported in studies of bar workers. Our research supports the need for comprehensive smoke-free legislation around the world, covering all indoor workplaces including casinos.

  9. Health impacts of exposure to second hand smoke (SHS amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers

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    Gilmore Anna B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Casino workers are exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS at work, yet remain at risk of being excluded from smoke-free legislation around the world. If the prime motivation for smoke-free legislation is the protection of workers, then a workforce experiencing ill-health associated with SHS exposure should not be excluded from legislation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms among a sample of casino workers, to identify any association between the reporting of symptoms and exposure to SHS at work, and to compare the prevalence of symptoms with that in other workers exposed to SHS. Methods A postal questionnaire survey of 1568 casino workers in London. Using multivariate analysis we identified predictors of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms. Results 559 workers responded to the questionnaire (response of 36%. 91% of casino workers reported the presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms in the previous four weeks, while the figure was 84% for respiratory symptoms. The presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms was most strongly associated with reporting the highest exposure to SHS at work (OR 3.26; 1.72, 6.16. This was also true for reporting the presence of one or more respiratory irritation symptoms (OR 2.24; 1.34, 3.74. Prevalence of irritation symptoms in the casino workers was in general appreciably higher than that reported in studies of bar workers. Conclusion Our research supports the need for comprehensive smoke-free legislation around the world, covering all indoor workplaces including casinos.

  10. Technical solutions for reducing indoor residential exposures to ultrafine particles from second-hand cigarette smoke infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    was carried out in the field in a multi-storey building and cardboard and plastic foil of polyethylene were used for sealing the entire wooden floor in the receiving flat. Another technical solution examined was a novel air circulating ductwork. The efficiency of the novel air circulating ductwork...... in which smoke infiltrates from one flat to another and also to examine technical solutions for preventing or reducing infiltration of ultrafine particles from the source flat to the receiving flat. One of the technical solutions examined was sealing of the floor in the receiving flat. The study...

  11. Sex/Gender Differences in Cotinine Levels Among Daily Smokers in the Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Allshine; Krebs, Nicolle M; Zhu, Junjia; Sun, Dongxiao; Stennett, Andrea; Muscat, Joshua E

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine sex/gender differences in smoke exposure and to quantify the role of potential predictors including puffing behaviors, nicotine dependence, and non-nicotinic factors. The Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study (PASS) of 332 adult cigarette smokers utilized portable handheld topography devices to capture the smokers' profiles in a naturalistic environment. Sex/gender differences in salivary biomarkers were modeled using ANCOVA to account for measures of dependence (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, nicotine metabolite ratio [3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine]), and nondependence covariates including anthropomorphic factors and stress. The Blinder-Oaxaca method was used to decompose the sex/gender differences in nicotine uptake due to covariates. Men had significantly higher cotinine levels (313.5 ng/mL vs. 255.8 ng/mL, p < 0.01), cotinine +3-hydroxycotinine levels, (0.0787 mol/L vs. 0.0675 mol/L, p = 0.01), puff volumes (52.95 mL vs. 44.77 mL, p < 0.01), and a lower nicotine metabolite ratio (0.396 vs. 0.475, p = 0.01) than women. The mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score did not differ between men and women (p = 0.24). Women had a higher mean Hooked on Tobacco Checklist score than men (7.64 vs. 6.87, p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, nicotine metabolite levels were not significantly different by sex. Decomposition results show that ten predictors can explain 83% of the sex/gender differences in cotinine uptake. Height was the greatest contributor to these differences, followed by average puff volume. Conclusion and Impact: The higher levels of nicotine metabolites in men, compared to women, can be explained by height, weight, puff volume, and nicotine metabolism.

  12. Whole-genome sequencing of asian lung cancers: second-hand smoke unlikely to be responsible for higher incidence of lung cancer among Asian never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vidhya G; Ebert, Philip J; Ting, Jason C; Lim, Elaine; Wong, Swee-Seong; Teo, Audrey S M; Yue, Yong G; Chua, Hui-Hoon; Ma, Xiwen; Loh, Gary S L; Lin, Yuhao; Tan, Joanna H J; Yu, Kun; Zhang, Shenli; Reinhard, Christoph; Tan, Daniel S W; Peters, Brock A; Lincoln, Stephen E; Ballinger, Dennis G; Laramie, Jason M; Nilsen, Geoffrey B; Barber, Thomas D; Tan, Patrick; Hillmer, Axel M; Ng, Pauline C

    2014-11-01

    Asian nonsmoking populations have a higher incidence of lung cancer compared with their European counterparts. There is a long-standing hypothesis that the increase of lung cancer in Asian never-smokers is due to environmental factors such as second-hand smoke. We analyzed whole-genome sequencing of 30 Asian lung cancers. Unsupervised clustering of mutational signatures separated the patients into two categories of either all the never-smokers or all the smokers or ex-smokers. In addition, nearly one third of the ex-smokers and smokers classified with the never-smoker-like cluster. The somatic variant profiles of Asian lung cancers were similar to that of European origin with G.C>T.A being predominant in smokers. We found EGFR and TP53 to be the most frequently mutated genes with mutations in 50% and 27% of individuals, respectively. Among the 16 never-smokers, 69% had an EGFR mutation compared with 29% of 14 smokers/ex-smokers. Asian never-smokers had lung cancer signatures distinct from the smoker signature and their mutation profiles were similar to European never-smokers. The profiles of Asian and European smokers are also similar. Taken together, these results suggested that the same mutational mechanisms underlie the etiology for both ethnic groups. Thus, the high incidence of lung cancer in Asian never-smokers seems unlikely to be due to second-hand smoke or other carcinogens that cause oxidative DNA damage, implying that routine EGFR testing is warranted in the Asian population regardless of smoking status. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Parents’ educational level and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure at home in a sample of Portuguese children

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    Paulo D. Vitória

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS exposure is a major and entirely avoidable health risk for children's health, well-being and development. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the association between parents’ educational level and children's SHS home exposure.A self-administered questionnaire was conducted within a sample of 949 students in 4th grade (mean age 9.56 ± 0.75, 53.4% male. The sample was randomly selected from all schools located at Lisbon District, Portugal.The current study confirmed that Portuguese children are exposed to unacceptable high levels of SHS at home, mainly by their parents’ smoke. Prevalence of smokers was higher amongst parents with low educational level. Children of parents with low educational level were more likely to suffer SHS exposure at home. These results confirmed the social inequalities associated with smoking, support the relevance of more research on this subject and stress the need for more interventions to control this problem. Some interventions should be specifically aimed at less educated parents, particularly at less educated mothers. Keywords: Air pollution, Health promotion, Parenting, Pediatrics, Poverty, Preventive medicine, Public health practice, Risk factors, Smoking, Tobacco

  14. The impact of second-hand tobacco smoke exposure on pregnancy outcomes, infant health, and the threat of third-hand smoke exposure to our environment and to our children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, T Allen; Mazela, Jan; Adamczak, Aleksandra; Merritt, Travis

    2012-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with various adverse effects on pregnancy and fetal development, carries a lot of serious complications such as spontaneous abortion, placental abruption, and reduced birth weight of the newborn. Children of smoking mothers have an increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory diseases during infancy. Smoking also causes long-term risk of maternal health problems such as: heart disease, cancer, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and higher mortality rate. Because women are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy than at any other time, there are attempts to increase motivation and help them to stop smoking at the procreative phase of their life. The article describes interventions that are carried out in Loma Linda, where the educational program "When You Smoke Your Baby Smokes" reminds parents about the health effects of smoking during pregnancy and harmful impact on child's health caused by second-hand smoke. Another threat to health and environment of our children, is the nicotine coming from indirect exposure to tobacco smoke. Residual nicotine that persists in high concentrations on the interior surfaces, including clothing, is forming in the reaction of nitric acid carcinogenic compounds of specific nitrosamines. In addition, ozone and related atmospheric oxidants react with nicotine smoke or smoke coming from the second-hand smoke, giving the smallest particles with high risk of asthma. Efforts towards reducing exposure to tobacco smoke coming from the passive and indirect smoking should be placed at a high priority throughout the European Union.

  15. Levels of Urine Cotinine from Hookah Smoking and Exposure to Hookah Tobacco Secondhand Smoke in Hookah Lounges and Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Nada O F; Kassem, Noura O; Liles, Sandy; Jackson, Sheila R; Posis, Alexander Ivan B; Chatfield, Dale A; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2018-03-01

    Nicotine, an addictive drug, is present in all forms of tobacco products, including hookah tobacco, which is not yet regulated in the United States. This study aimed to investigate the uptake of nicotine in hookah smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at indoor hookah social events in natural settings where hookah tobacco was smoked exclusively. We quantified cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, in the urine of 105 hookah smokers and 103 non-smokers. Participants provided spot urine samples the morning of and the morning after attending an indoor hookah-only smoking social event at a hookah lounge or in a private home. Following a social event where exclusively hookah tobacco was smoked, urinary cotinine levels increased significantly 8.5 times (geometric mean (GM): 16.0 ng/mg to 136.1 ng/mg) among hookah smokers, and 2.5 times (GM: 0.4 ng/mg to 1.0 ng/mg) among non-smokers exposed exclusively to hookah tobacco SHS. Among hookah smokers, the highest increase in urinary cotinine levels post a hookah event was found in occasional hookah smokers in which GM levels increased significantly 31.2 times post smoking (from 2.0 ng/mg to 62.3 ng/mg). Reported reasons for preference to smoke hookah at home by hookah smokers who attended a hookah social event in a private home included recreational purposes, socializing with friends and family, 'Me' time and relaxing at home, more comfortable to smoke hookah at home, owning a hookah and hookah tobacco, eating and drinking while smoking hookah, and saving money by smoking at home and not going to hookah lounges. Hookah tobacco smoke is a source of substantial nicotine exposure. Our results call for protecting hookah smokers' and non-smokers' health by requiring accurate hookah tobacco labels, raising taxes on hookah tobacco, reducing the spread of hookah lounges, and encouraging voluntary bans on smoking hookah tobacco in private homes.

  16. The impact of multiple interventions to reduce household exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke among women: a cluster randomized controlled trial in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka

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    A. M. A. A. P. Alagiyawanna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-hand smoke (SHS in households remains a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, partly due to a lack of voluntary prohibitions of tobacco smoking inside houses. Women are especially at risk of being exposed. Effective community based interventions to reduce the SHS in households targeting women is scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a multi-component intervention on household SHS exposure among Sri Lankan women. Methods Thirty clusters of 25 women (aged 18–65 from 750 households were randomized into the intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group were exposed to activities which focused on improving knowledge on the health effects of SHS, attitudes towards SHS exposure, right to a smoke-free living and women empowerment against smoking. The duration of the intervention was six months. The comparison group received no intervention. The primary outcome of interest was self-reported SHS exposure in the household within 7 days prior to data collection. The secondary outcomes were exposure in the past 30 days, knowledge of the health risks of exposure, attitudes towards exposure, right to smoke-free living, women empowerment against smoking, and smoking inside the homes. Results Final assessment was in 329 (89.6% in the intervention group and 309 (85.8% in the comparison group. Following the intervention, significantly lower proportion of women in the intervention group as compared to the control group reported SHS exposure in their households within 7-days (9.2% vs. 15.3%, p = 0.02 and 30-days (13.6% vs. 21.6%, p = 0.008 prior to the post survey. As compared to the control group, significantly higher median scores were observed in the intervention group on the knowledge of the health risks of exposure to SHS (p < 0.001, attitudes on exposure to SHS (p = 0.004, right to smoke free living (p = 0.001 and women empowerment (p < 0.001. Conclusion Multi

  17. Meditative Movement as a treatment for pulmonary dysfunction in flight attendants exposed to second-hand cigarette smoke: Study protocol for a randomized trial.

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    Peter ePayne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A study protocol is presented for the investigation of Meditative Movement (MM as a treatment for pulmonary dysfunction in Flight Attendants (FA who were exposed to second-hand cigarette smoke (SHCS while flying before the smoking ban. The study will have three parts, some of which will run concurrently. The first is a data gathering and screening phase, which will gather data on pulmonary and other aspects of the health of FA, and will also serve to screen participants for the other phases. Second is an exercise selection phase, in which a variety of MM exercises will be taught, over a 16-week period, to a cohort of 20 FA. A subset of these exercises will be selected on the basis of participant feedback on effectiveness and compliance. Third is a 52-week randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of a digitally delivered form of the previously selected exercises on a group of 20 FA, as compared with an attention control group. Outcome measures to be used in all three parts of the study include the six-minute walk test as a primary measure, as well as a range of biomarkers, tests and questionnaires documenting hormonal, cardio-respiratory, autonomic and affective state. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT02612389.

  18. Trends in Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke Exposure Levels at Home among Viet Nam School Children Aged 13-15 and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Van, Duong Khanh; Khue, Luong Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure at home, especially among children, is a serious issue in Viet Nam. During the past decade, much effort has been taken for tobacco control in the country, including various prgorammes aiming to reduce SHS exposure among adults and children. This article analysed trends and factors associated with SHS exposure at home among school children aged 13-15 in Viet Nam, using the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 2007 and 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods with logistic regression were applied. Overall, there was a significant reduction in the level of exposure, from 58.5% (95%CI: 57.6-59.3) in 2007 to 47.1% (95%CI: 45.4-48.8) in 2014. Of the associated factors, having one or both parents smoking was significantly associated with the highest odds of SHS exposure at home (OR=5.0; 95%CI: 4.2-6.1). Conversely, having a mother with a college or higher education level was found to be a protective factor (OR=0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.8).

  19. Determinants of Exposure to Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke (SHS among Current Non-Smoking In-School Adolescents (aged 11–18 years in South Africa: Results from the 2008 GYTS Study

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    Karl Peltzer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent’s exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents.

  20. Determinants of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among current non-smoking in-school adolescents (aged 11-18 years) in South Africa: results from the 2008 GYTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years) in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents.

  1. Effect of Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke on the Quality of Life: A Nationwide Population-Based Study from South Korea.

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    Yeon Wook Kim

    Full Text Available Although exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS has been associated with various medical conditions, only limited data are available on its association with health-related quality of life (HRQOL, particularly data obtained with the EQ-5D or EQ visual analogue scale (VAS.This cross-sectional study evaluated 10,532 adult never-smokers who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. By using linear regression models to adjust for possible confounders and incorporating survey weights in analyses, the association between exposure to SHS and HRQOL-measured with the EQ-5D index and the EQ-VAS score-was evaluated. Data were further stratified by the amount of exposure time.After weighted analysis and adjustment, exposure to SHS was significantly associated with lower measures on the EQ-5D index (β = -0.007, P = 0.005 and EQ-VAS score (β = -1.936, P < 0.001. When comparing the unexposed group with the groups exposed <2h/day and ≥2h/day, exposure to a longer duration of SHS was significantly associated with lower scores on the EQ-5D index and the EQ-VAS score.In conclusion, exposure to SHS was associated with reduced HRQOL measured by the EQ-5D index and EQ-VAS score, revealing a dose-response relationship.

  2. Health Impact Assessment for Second-Hand Smoke Exposure in Germany—Quantifying Estimates for Ischaemic Heart Diseases, COPD, and Stroke

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    Florian Fischer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of the adverse health effects attributable to second-hand smoke (SHS exposure is available. This study aims to quantify the impact of SHS exposure on ischaemic heart diseases (IHD, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD, and stroke in Germany. Therefore, this study estimated and forecasted the morbidity for the three outcomes in the German population. Furthermore, a health impact assessment was performed using DYNAMO-HIA, which is a generic software tool applying a Markov model. Overall 687,254 IHD cases, 231,973 COPD cases, and 288,015 stroke cases were estimated to be attributable to SHS exposure in Germany for 2014. Under the assumption that the population prevalence of these diseases and the prevalence of SHS exposure remain constant, the total number of cases will increase due to demographic aging. Assuming a total eradication of SHS exposure beginning in 2014 leads to an estimated reduction of 50% in cases, compared to the reference scenario in 2040 for all three diseases. The results highlight the relevance of SHS exposure because it affects several chronic disease conditions and has a major impact on the population’s health. Therefore, public health campaigns to protect non-smokers are urgently needed.

  3. Second-hand smoke exposure and the factors associated with avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children: a school-based cross-sectional study

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    Lin Wei-Ting

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-hand Smoke (SHS exposure is a significant public health problem that may be responsible for serious health hazards for child. This study aimed to examine the exposure status of SHS and the factors associated with SHS avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was used to obtain a sample of the mothers of pre-school children (n = 1,020 in 30 registered kindergartens in eastern Taiwan. Overall, 919 (a response rate of 90% completed the questionnaires. Regression models were used to identify factors with respect to the avoidance behavior of SHS. Results The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 70% and 50% for the mothers and their children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, mothers who were current smokers (β = -0.260, p Conclusions The high prevalence rate of exposure to SHS for mothers and their children suggests that a well-designed future intervention program should be implemented in regard to pre-school children's mothers in order to prevent these mothers and their children from SHS exposure hazards, more particularly, to strengthen the knowledge base, to enhance self-efficacy and to foster a more positive attitude toward the avoidance of SHS in the mothers.

  4. Second-hand Smoke Increases Nitric Oxide and Alters the IgE Response in a Murine Model of Allergic Aspergillosis

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    Brian W. P. Seymour

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS on nitric oxide (NO and immunoglobulin (Ig production in a murine model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA. Adult BALB/c mice were exposed to aged and diluted sidestream cigarette smoke from day 0 through day 43 to simulate “second-hand smoke”. During exposure, mice were sensitized to soluble Aspergillus fumigatus (Af antigen intranasally between day 14 and 24. All Af sensitized mice in ambient air (Af + AIR made elevated levels of IgE, IgG1, IgM, IgG2a and IgA. Af sensitized mice housed in ETS (Af + ETS made similar levels of immunoglobulins except for IgE that was significantly reduced in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. However, immunohistochemical evaluation of the lung revealed a marked accumulation of IgE positive cells in the lung parenchyma of these Af + ETS mice. LPS stimulation of BAL cells revealed elevated levels of NO in the Af + AIR group, which was further enhanced in the Af+ETS group. In vitro restimulation of the BAL cells on day 45 showed a TH0 response with elevated levels of IL3, 4, 5, 10 and IFN-γ. However, by day 28 the response shifted such that TH2 cytokines increased while IFN-γ decreased. The Af + ETS group showed markedly reduced levels in all cytokines tested, including the inflammatory cytokine IL6, when compared to the Af+AIR group. These results demonstrate that ETS affects ABPA by further enhancing the NO production and reduces the TH2 and the inflammatory cytokines while altering the pattern of IgE responses.

  5. The Living Tomorrow Project: how Philip Morris has used a Belgian tourist attraction to promote ventilation approaches to the control of second hand smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, P; Gilmore, A

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To examine the involvement of Philip Morris in Living Tomorrow 2 and determine the rationale behind its involvement. Design: Research was conducted through a web based search of internal tobacco industry documents made publicly available through litigation. Main results: For approximately €1 000 000 Philip Morris (now Altria) became a co-initiator of Living Tomorrow 2, a tourist complex in Belgium that aims to demonstrate how we will be living in the future. In addition to promoting the company and its grocery products, Philip Morris is using the complex and its website to promote ventilation as a means of accommodating smokers and non-smokers in the indoor environment. Particular emphasis was placed on the bar and restaurant areas. Despite the rationale for its involvement, Philip Morris fails to acknowledge its role as a cigarette manufacturer. As a form of corporate sponsorship Philip Morris thought its involvement could evade any European tobacco advertising ban. Conclusions: Philip Morris is using a tourist attraction to promote its views on control of second hand smoke (SHS) and accommodation of smokers and non-smokers in the indoor environment. However, ventilation does not deal with the health effects of SHS. Policymakers must be cognisant of the devious tactics the industry employs to promote its own agenda, especially in relation to indoor air quality and smoking in public places. Tobacco control legislation should be continually modified and strengthened in response to the changing activities of the tobacco industry as it strives to evade existing legislation and deter the advent of new legislation. PMID:15564621

  6. Particulate Matter in Second-Hand Smoke Emitted from Different Cigarette Sizes and Types of the Brand Vogue Mainly Smoked by Women

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    Nora Kant

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air pollution with harmful particulate matter (PM is mainly caused by cigarette smoke. Super-Slim-Size-Cigarettes (SSL are considered a less harmful alternative to King-Size-Cigarettes (KSC due to longer filters and relatively low contents. We ask if “Combined Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke” (CMSS-associated PM levels of SSL are lower than of KSC and thus are potentially less harmful. PM concentrations in CMSS (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 are measured from four cigarette types of the brand Vogue, using an “automatic-environmental-tobacco-smoke-emitter” (AETSE and laser aerosol spectrometry: SSL-BLEUE, -MENTHE, -LILAS and KSC-La Cigarette and -3R4F reference. This analysis shows that SSL MENTHE emitted the highest amount of PM, and KSC-La Cigarette the lowest. 3R4F reference emitted PM in the middle range, exceeding SSL BLEUE and falling slightly below SSL LILAS. It emerged that PM1 constituted the biggest proportion of PM emission. The outcome shows significant type-specific differences for emitted PM concentrations. Our results indicate that SSL are potentially more harmful for passive smokers than the respective KSC. However, this study cannot give precise statements about the general influence of the size of a cigarette on PM. Alarming is that PM1 is responsible for the biggest proportion of PM pollution, since smaller particles cause more harmful effects.

  7. Smoking, secondhand smoke, and cotinine levels in a subset of EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltar, V.T.; Xun, W.W.; Chuang, S.C.; Relton, C.; Ueland, P.M.; Vollset, S.E.; Midttun, O.; Johansson, M.; Slimani, N.; Jenab, M.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several countries are discussing new legislation regarding the ban on smoking in public places, based on the growing evidence of the hazards of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. The objective of the present study is to quantitatively assess the relationship between smoking, SHS, and serum

  8. Smoking, Secondhand Smoke, and Cotinine Levels in a Subset of EPIC Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltar, Valeria Troncoso; Xun, Wei W.; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Relton, Caroline; Ueland, Per Magne; Vollset, Stein Emil; Midttun, Oivind; Johansson, Mattias; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Agudo, Antonio; Barricarte, Aurelio; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina; Huerta Castano, Jose Maria; Larranaga, Nerea; Sanchez Perez, Maria Jose; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Crowe, Francesca; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlota; Tumino, Rosario; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Rasmuson, Torgny; Hallmans, Goran; Roswall, Nina; Tjonneland, Anne; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    Background: Several countries are discussing new legislation regarding the ban on smoking in public places, based on the growing evidence of the hazards of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. The objective of the present study is to quantitatively assess the relationship between smoking, SHS, and serum

  9. The Influence of Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Childhood and Active Cigarette Smoking on Crohn's Disease Phenotype Defined by the Montreal Classification Scheme in a Western Cape Population, South Africa.

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    Tawanda Chivese

    Full Text Available Smoking may worsen the disease outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD, however the effect of exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is unclear. In South Africa, no such literature exists. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease phenotype, at time of diagnosis of CD, was associated with exposure to second-hand cigarette during childhood and active cigarette smoking habits.A cross sectional examination of all consecutive CD patients seen during the period September 2011-January 2013 at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease centers in the Western Cape, South Africa was performed. Data were collected via review of patient case notes, interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination by the attending gastroenterologist. Disease phenotype (behavior and location was evaluated at time of diagnosis, according to the Montreal Classification scheme. In addition, disease behavior was stratified as 'complicated' or 'uncomplicated', using predefined definitions. Passive cigarette smoke exposure was evaluated during 3 age intervals: 0-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years.One hundred and ninety four CD patients were identified. Cigarette smoking during the 6 months prior to, or at time of diagnosis was significantly associated with ileo-colonic (L3 disease (RRR = 3.63; 95% CI, 1.32-9.98, p = 0.012 and ileal (L1 disease (RRR = 3.54; 95% CI, 1.06-11.83, p = 0.040 compared with colonic disease. In smokers, childhood passive cigarette smoke exposure during the 0-5 years age interval was significantly associated with ileo-colonic CD location (RRR = 21.3; 95% CI, 1.16-391.55, p = 0.040. No significant association between smoking habits and disease behavior at diagnosis, whether defined by the Montreal scheme, or stratified as 'complicated' vs 'uncomplicated', was observed.Smoking habits were associated with ileo-colonic (L3 and ileal (L1 disease at time of diagnosis in a South African cohort.

  10. Self-Reported Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Avoidance Compared with Cotinine Confirmed Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Pregnant Women and Their Infants

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    Adam Gregory Gavarkovs

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS presents substantial health risks for pregnant women and newborn infants. Measurements of ETS include invasive and expensive biochemical tests, as well as less invasive and lower-cost, self-reported exposure and avoidance measures. Better understanding of self-report measures will help to select ETS assessments for evaluation. Methods: This analysis was conducted within the context of a tailored video intervention to reduce tobacco smoking and ETS exposure during pregnancy and after delivery in the control group sample of 147 nonsmoking women. Measurements of salivary cotinine concentration, self-reported ETS exposure, and avoidance behaviors were captured at 32 weeks’ gestation and 6 months postpartum. Results: Salivary cotinine concentration was significantly related to ETS avoidance among pregnant nonsmokers at 32 weeks’ gestation, but not ETS exposure. At 6 months postpartum, both the reported ETS exposure of the infant and maternal avoidance behaviors to reduce her infant’s exposure were associated with the infant’s salivary cotinine concentration. At 32 weeks’ gestation and 6 months postpartum, avoidance behaviors decreased as exposure increased. Discussion: This study suggests that for nonsmoking women during pregnancy, reports of tobacco smoke avoidance are more valid than reports of exposure. After delivery, self-reported ETS exposure or avoidance are associated with each other and the biochemical measurement of salivary cotinine. These results provide researchers and clinicians with evidence to support the inclusion of avoidance behaviors in the selection of ETS measures.

  11. Exposure to second-hand smoke and the risk of tuberculosis in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 observational studies.

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    Jayadeep Patra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available According to WHO Global Health Estimates, tuberculosis (TB is among the top ten causes of global mortality and ranks second after cardiovascular disease in most high-burden regions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated the role of second-hand smoke (SHS exposure as a risk factor for TB among children and adults.We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar up to August 31, 2014. Our a priori inclusion criteria encompassed only original studies where latent TB infection (LTBI and active TB disease were diagnosed microbiologically, clinically, histologically, or radiologically. Effect estimates were pooled using fixed- and random-effects models. We identified 18 eligible studies, with 30,757 children and 44,432 adult non-smokers, containing SHS exposure and TB outcome data for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Twelve studies assessed children and eight studies assessed adult non-smokers; two studies assessed both populations. Summary relative risk (RR of LTBI associated with SHS exposure in children was similar to the overall effect size, with high heterogeneity (pooled RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.00-2.83. Children showed a more than 3-fold increased risk of SHS-associated active TB (pooled RR 3.41, 95% CI 1.81-6.45, which was higher than the risk in adults exposed to SHS (summary RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.68. Positive and significant exposure-response relationships were observed among children under 5 y (RR 5.88, 95% CI 2.09-16.54, children exposed to SHS through any parent (RR 4.20, 95% CI 1.92-9.20, and children living under the most crowded household conditions (RR 5.53, 95% CI 2.36-12.98. Associations for LTBI and active TB disease remained significant after adjustment for age, biomass fuel (BMF use, and presence of a TB patient in the household, although the meta-analysis was limited to a subset of studies that adjusted for these variables. There was a loss of association

  12. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-24

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Spain remains high. UC is a reliable biomarker for classifying

  13. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Design We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. Participants At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Results Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Conclusions Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in

  14. Did smokefree legislation in England reduce exposure to secondhand smoke among nonsmoking adults? Cotinine analysis from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Michelle; Mindell, Jennifer S; Jarvis, Martin J; Feyerabend, Colin; Wardle, Heather; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-03-01

    On 1 July 2007, smokefree legislation was implemented in England, which made virtually all enclosed public places and workplaces smokefree. We examined trends in and predictors of secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking adults to determine whether exposure changed after the introduction of smokefree legislation and whether these changes varied by socioeconomic status (SES) and by household smoking status. We analyzed salivary cotinine data from the Health Survey for England that were collected in 7 of 11 annual surveys undertaken between 1998 and 2008. We conducted multivariate regression analyses to examine secondhand smoke exposure as measured by the proportion of nonsmokers with undetectable levels of cotinine and by geometric mean cotinine. Secondhand smoke exposure was higher among those exposed at home and among lower-SES groups. Exposure declined markedly from 1998 to 2008 (the proportion of participants with undetectable cotinine was 2.9 times higher in the last 6 months of 2008 compared with the first 6 months of 1998 and geometric mean cotinine declined by 80%). We observed a significant fall in exposure after legislation was introduced--the odds of having undetectable cotinine were 1.5 times higher [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 1.8] and geometric mean cotinine fell by 27% (95% CI: 17%, 36%) after adjusting for the prelegislative trend and potential confounders. Significant reductions were not, however, seen in those living in lower-social class households or homes where smoking occurs inside on most days. We found that the impact of England's smokefree legislation on secondhand smoke exposure was above and beyond the underlying long-term decline in secondhand smoke exposure and demonstrates the positive effect of the legislation. Nevertheless, some population subgroups appear not to have benefitted significantly from the legislation. This finding suggests that these groups should receive more support to reduce their exposure.

  15. A Case of Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia Following Short-Term Passive Smoking: An Evidence of Very High Level of Urinary Cotinine

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    Kosaku Komiya

    2010-01-01

    The level of urinary cotinine, which is a biomarker of smoke exposure, was considerably higher (0.198 μg/ml [201 ng/mg Creatinine] than that in nonsmokers, but never detected following period. This case suggests that short-term passive smoking may cause AEP.

  16. Second Hand Smoke Exposure and Excess Heart Disease and Lung Cancer Mortality among Hospital Staff in Crete, Greece: A Case Study

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    Anthony Kafatos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS is a serious threat to public health, and a significant cause of lung cancer and heart disease among non-smokers. Even though Greek hospitals have been declared smoke free since 2002, smoking is still evident. Keeping the above into account, the aim of this study was to quantify the levels of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and to estimate the attributed lifetime excess heart disease and lung cancer deaths per 1000 of the hospital staff, in a large Greek public hospital. Environmental airborne respirable suspended particles (RSP of PM2.5 were performed and the personnel’s excess mortality risk was estimated using risk prediction formulas. Excluding the intensive care unit and the operating theatres, all wards and clinics were polluted with environmental tobacco smoke. Mean SHS-RSP measurements ranged from 11 to 1461 μg/m3 depending on the area. Open wards averaged 84 μg/m3 and the managing wards averaged 164 μg/m3 thus giving an excess lung cancer and heart disease of 1.12 (range 0.23-1.88 and 11.2 (range 2.3–18.8 personnel in wards and 2.35 (range 0.55-12.2 and 23.5 (range 5.5–122 of the managing staff per 1000 over a 40-year lifespan, respectively. Conclusively, SHS exposure in hospitals in Greece is prevalent and taking into account the excess heart disease and lung cancer mortality risk as also the immediate adverse health effects of SHS exposure, it is clear that proper implementation and enforcement of the legislation that bans smoking in hospitals is imperative to protect the health of patients and staff alike.

  17. Prevalencia de tabaquismo y exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco en las mujeres embarazadas: diferencias entre españolas e inmigrantes Prevalence of smoking and second-hand smoke exposure: differences between Spanish and immigrant pregnant women

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    Adriana Jiménez-Muro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer las diferencias que hay entre las mujeres embarazadas españolas e inmigrantes en la prevalencia de tabaquismo y la exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco, así como los factores asociados a que las mujeres continúen fumando durante la gestación. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico transversal en mujeres atendidas en el momento del parto en la provincia de Zaragoza. Variables recogidas mediante cuestionario: características sociodemográficas y de consumo de tabaco de la mujer y la pareja, exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco y percepción de riesgo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 2.440 mujeres (35% inmigrantes. El 31,1% fumaba a diario antes de quedarse embarazada y el 18,2% (n=445 fumó durante toda la gestación, con diferencias entre españolas e inmigrantes (21,9% frente 8,7%; pObjectives: To identify differences in the prevalence of smoking and second-hand smoke exposure between Spanish and immigrant pregnant women, as well as the factors associated with continued smoking during pregnancy. Methods: An epidemiologic cross-sectional study was carried out in women attended at delivery in Zaragoza (Spain. A smoking questionnaire was used to collect the following variables: the women's and partners' sociodemographic factors and smoking behavior, second-hand smoke exposure and perception of the risks of this exposure. Results: We included 2440 women (35% immigrants. A total of 31.1% smoked before becoming pregnant and 18.2% during pregnancy, with significant differences between Spanish and immigrant women (21.9% versus 8.7%; p<0.001. Immigrant women lived with a greater number of smokers, smoked more inside the home, were exposed to second-hand smoke for a greater number of hours per day, avoided public places with second-hand smoke less, and more often worked in bars and restaurants. The following factors were associated with smoking during pregnancy: being Spanish, smoking a greater number of cigarettes before pregnancy

  18. Comparing salivary cotinine concentration in non-smokers from the general population and hospitality workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Moncada, Albert; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to compare the pattern of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the general population and in hospitality workers. We used the adult (16-64 years) non-smokers of two independent studies (general population and hospitality workers) in Spain. We assessed the exposure to SHS by means of questionnaire and salivary cotinine concentration. The salivary cotinine concentration by sex, age, educational level, day of week of saliva collection, and exposure to SHS were always higher in hospitality workers than in the general population. Our results indicated that non-smoker hospitality workers have higher levels of exposure to SHS than general population.

  19. Levels of second hand smoke in pubs and bars by deprivation and food-serving status: a cross-sectional study from North West England

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    Hart Judy

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK government proposed introducing partial smokefree legislation for England with exemptions for pubs and bars that do not prepare and serve food. We set out to test the hypothesis that pubs from more deprived areas and non food-serving pubs have higher levels of particulate air pollution. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in four mainly urban areas of the North West of England. We recruited a stratified random sample of 64 pubs divided into four groups based on whether their local population was affluent or deprived (using a UK area based deprivation measure, and whether or not they served food. The timing of air quality monitoring stratified to ensure similar distribution of monitoring by day of the week and time of evening between groups. We used a portable air quality monitor to collect fine particle (PM2.5 levels over a minimum of 30 minutes in areas where smoking was allowed,, and calculated mean time-time weighted average PM2.5 levels. Results Mean PM2.5 was 285.5 μg/m3 (95% CI 212.7 to 358.3. Mean levels in the four groups were: affluent food-serving pubs (n = 16 188.1 μg/m3 (95%CI 128.1 to 248.1; affluent non food-serving (n = 16 186.8 μg/m3 (95%CI 118.9 to 254.3; deprived food-serving (n = 17 399.4 μg/m3 (95%CI 177.7 to 621.2; and deprived non food-serving (n = 15 365.7 μg/m3 (195.6 to 535.7. Levels were higher in pubs in deprived communities: mean 383.6 μg/m3 (95% CI 249.2 to 518.0 vs 187.4 μg/m3 (144.8 to 229.9; geometric mean 245.2 μg/m3 vs 151.2 μg/m3 (p = 0.03. There was little difference in particulate levels between food and non food-serving pubs. Conclusion This study adds to the evidence that the UK government’s proposals for partial smokefree legislation in England would offer the least protection to the most heavily exposed group - bar workers and customers in non food-serving pubs in deprived areas. The results suggest these proposals would work against the UK government

  20. Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine

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    Sungroul Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure in Baltimore (Maryland, USA. A subset of the study participants (n = 52 were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.

  1. Urinary cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke in mothers and children of Romania, Portugal and Poland within the European human biomonitoring pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Nunes, Baltazar; Ligocka, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    study sample consisted of 360 children and their mothers (120 in each of the three countries - Romania (RO), Portugal (PT) and Poland (PL). Smoking was assessed using a detailed questionnaire for the participants, which addresses both active and passive smoking. This assessment uses exposure......-relevant questionnaire data, in particular on the home environment and residence, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle such as nutrition, smoking behavior, other exposure-relevant behavior and occupational history, as well as urinary cotinine and creatinine measurements. We performed general statistical analysis...... confirmation of the high and similar smoking prevalence for the three countries. Concerning ETS exposure, Romania presented significantly higher levels, for children as well as for non-smoking mothers, with Portugal showing significantly lower levels. Compared to non-smoking mothers, the children showed...

  2. Discrepancy between Self-Reported and Urine-Cotinine Verified Smoking Status among Korean Male Adults: Analysis of Health Check-Up Data from a Single Private Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngju; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Oh, Seung-Won; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kwon, Hyuktae; Um, Yoo-Jin; Ahn, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Cheol Min

    2016-05-01

    Enquiry into smoking status and recommendations for smoking cessation is an essential preventive service. However, there are few studies comparing self-reported (SR) and cotinine-verified (CV) smoking statuses, using medical check-up data. The rates of discrepancy and under-reporting are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study using health examination data from Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital in 2013. We analyzed SR and CV smoking statuses and discrepancies between the two in relation to sociodemographic variables. We also attempted to ascertain the factors associated with a discrepant smoking status among current smokers. In the sample of 3,477 men, CV smoking rate was 11.1% higher than the SR rate. About 1 in 3 participants either omitted the smoking questionnaire or gave a false reply. The ratio of CV to SR smoking rates was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-1.61). After adjusting for confounding factors, older adults (≥60 years) showed an increased adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for discrepancy between SR and CV when compared to those in their twenties and thirties (aOR, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.69-10.96). Educational levels of high school graduation or lower (aOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.36-4.01), repeated health check-ups (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.03-2.06), and low cotinine levels of pay attention to participants with greater discrepancy between SR and CV smoking status, and formulate interventions to improve response rates.

  3. The impact of Michigan's Dr Ron Davis smoke-free air law on levels of cotinine, tobacco-specific lung carcinogen and severity of self-reported respiratory symptoms among non-smoking bar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teri; Shamo, Farid; Boynton, Katherine; Kiley, Janet

    2012-11-01

    To determine the impact on bar employee's health and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) before and after the implementation of Michigan's Dr Ron Davis smoke-free air law that went into effect on 1 May 2010, prohibiting smoking in places of work, including bars. This study used a pre/postintervention experimental design. The setting was bars in 12 Michigan counties. Subjects were bar employees, recruited through flyers and individual discussions with local health department staff. Participants completed a screening questionnaire to determine eligibility. A total of 40 eligible employees completed a demographic survey, provided urine samples for analysis of cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and completed questionnaires on respiratory and general health status 6 weeks before and 6-10 weeks after the law went into effect. The main outcome measures were urine samples for total cotinine and total NNAL and data from a self-administered respiratory and general health status questionnaire collected during the pre-law and post-law study periods. There was a significant decrease in the mean cotinine levels from 35.9 ng/ml to a non-quantifiable value (plevel from 0.086 pmol/ml to 0.034 pmol/ml (plaw. There was also a significant improvement in all six self-reported respiratory symptoms (plaw is protecting bar employee health.

  4. Measuring tobacco smoke exposure: quantifying nicotine/cotinine concentration in biological samples by colorimetry, chromatography and immunoassay methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Preeti

    2004-04-01

    Procedures to assess tobacco smoke exposure are reviewed and biomarkers used for determining the smoking status of an individual are compared. Methods used to extract these biomarkers from saliva, urine, and blood and the advantages and disadvantages of the assays are discussed. Finally, the procedures used to measure the levels of cortisol, a stress hormone speculated to be linked to nicotine metabolism, are discussed.

  5. Impacto de la nueva legislación sobre tabaquismo (Ley 42/2010 en los niveles de humo ambiental de tabaco en locales de hostelería Impact of the new smoke-free legislation (law 42/2010 on levels of second-hand smoke in hospitality venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Córdoba

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la contaminación por humo ambiental de tabaco en una muestra de locales de hostelería antes y después de la nueva legislación sobre tabaquismo. Métodos: Estudio evaluativo antes-después realizado en 2008 y 2011, tras la prohibición total. Medición de partículas respirables (PM2,5 mediante SidePack Aerosol Monitor en el interior de los locales y en el exterior. Se incluyeron 43 locales con mediciones antes y después de la legislación. Resultados: La concentración mediana de PM2,5 en el interior de los locales en 2008 fue 204,2μg/m³, y en 2011 fue 18,62μg/m³; en el exterior, en 2008 fue 47,04μg/m³ y en 2011 fue 18,82μg/m³. Las concentraciones más altas se encontraron en bares y cafeterías, seguidos de los locales de ocio nocturno. La contaminación en 2008 era 4,34 veces más alta en el interior de los locales que en el exterior; en 2011, la concentración de PM2,5 disminuyó un 90,88% en el interior. Conclusiones: La prohibición total de fumar en los locales de hostelería protege a trabajadores y clientes de los riesgos para la salud de la exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco.Objective: To evaluate pollution by second-hand smoke in a sample of hospitality venues before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation. Methods: A cross sectional, before-after study was conducted in 2008 and 2011 after the total ban. A SidePack Aerosol monitor was used both inside and outside the hospitality venues to measure fine breathable particles (PM2.5. A total of 43 places with pre- and post-legislation measurements were included. Results: The median indoor pollution in hospitality venues was 204.2μg/m³ in 2008 and 18.82μg/m³ in 2011; the average outdoor PM2.5 concentration was 47.04μg/m³ in 2008 and 18.82μg/m³ in 2011. Pollution was higher in bars and cafeterias, followed by pubs and discos. Before the law was implemented, pollution was 4.34 times higher indoors than outdoors; in 2011 the average

  6. Impacto de la Ley 28/2005 de medidas sanitarias frente al tabaquismo en la prevalencia de la exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco en Barcelona Impact of the 28/2005 Spanish smoking law on second-hand smoke exposure in Barcelona

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    Sandra Manzanares-Laya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de la Ley 28/2005 de medidas sanitarias frente al tabaquismo en la prevalencia de la exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco (HAT en Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio de evaluación antes-después mediante comparación de dos encuestas transversales. Las fuentes de datos fueron las Encuestas de Salud de Barcelona de 2000 y 2006. Se analizó la prevalencia de exposición al HAT en población adulta no fumadora según el ámbito de exposición (hogar, trabajo y tiempo libre y las variables sociodemográficas. Resultados: La exposición al HAT en no fumadores en el hogar y el trabajo disminuyó significativamente (p Objective: To assess the impact of the 28/2005 Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in Barcelona. Methods: We performed a pre-post evaluation study. Two cross-sectional surveys were compared. Data were obtained from the Barcelona Health Surveys of 2000 and 2006. The prevalence of SHS exposure among non-smoking adults was analyzed by setting (home, workplace and leisure time and sociodemographic variables. Results: SHS exposure in non-smokers significantly decreased between 2000 and 2006 (p <0.01. Odds ratios adjusted by sex, age and social class were 0.7 (95% CI: 0.6-0.8 for home and 0.2 (95% CI: 0.2-0.3 for workplace exposure in 2006 compared with 2000. In both settings, the decrease in exposure was greater in the higher social classes. After the implementation of the law, almost 50% of the population remained exposed to SHS during leisure time, younger people being the most exposed (83.5%. Conclusion: After the implementation of the law, the prevalence of SHS exposure in non-smokers in Barcelona decreased significantly in workplaces and in the home. Nevertheless, nearly half of the population remained exposed to SHS during leisure time.

  7. Low Cotinine Glucuronidation Results in Higher Serum and Saliva Cotinine in African American Compared to White Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sharon E; Sipe, Christopher J; Choi, Kwangsoo; Raddatz, Leah M; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Donny, Eric C; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2017-07-01

    Background: Tobacco exposure is often quantified by serum or saliva concentrations of the primary nicotine metabolite, cotinine. However, average cotinine concentrations are higher in African Americans (AA) compared with Whites with similar smoking levels. Cotinine is metabolized by UGT2B10 and CYP2A6, and low UGT2B10 activity is common in AA, due to the prevalence of a UGT2B10 splice variant. Methods: UGT2B10 activity was phenotyped in 1,446 smokers (34% AA) by measuring the percentage of cotinine excreted as a glucuronide. Urinary total nicotine equivalents (TNE), the sum of nicotine and 6 metabolites, were determined to quantify smoking dose, and cotinine and 3'-hydroxycotinine were quantified in saliva (study 1) or serum (study 2). Results: Ninety-seven smokers (78% AA) were null for UGT2B10 activity, and the saliva and serum cotinine levels, after adjustment for TNE and cigarettes per day (CPD), were 68% and 48% higher in these smokers compared with nonnull smokers ( P smokers, but with additional adjustment for UGT2B10 activity, there were no significant differences in saliva and serum cotinine concentrations between these two groups. Conclusions: UGT2B10 activity significantly influences plasma cotinine levels, and higher cotinine concentrations in AA versus White smokers (after adjustment for smoking dose) result from lower levels of UGT2B10-catalyzed cotinine glucuronidation by AA. Impact: UGT2B10 activity or genotype should be considered when using cotinine as a tobacco exposure biomarker, particularly in populations such as AA with high frequencies of UGT2B10 nonfunctional variants. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1093-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Analysis of nicotine and cotinine in hair by on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inukai, Takehito; Kaji, Sanae; Kataoka, Hiroyuki

    2018-07-15

    Smoking not only increases the risk of lung cancer but is strongly related to the onset of cardiovascular disease. Particularly, passive smoking due to sidestream smoke is a critical public health problem. To assess active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, we developed a simple and sensitive method, consisting of on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to determine nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in hair samples. These compounds were separated within 5 min using a Polar-RP80A column and detected in the positive ion mode by multiple reaction monitoring. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 25 draw/eject cycles of 40 μL of sample at a flow rate of 200 μL/min using a Carboxen 1006 capillary column as an extraction device. The extracted compounds in the stationary phase on the inner wall of the capillary could be dissolved easily into the mobile phase and transferred to an LC column. Using the in-tube SPME LC-MS/MS method, the calibration curves were linear in the 5-1000 pg/mL ranges for nicotine and cotinine, and the detection limits (signal to noise ratio of 3) were 0.45 and 0.13 pg/mL, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were below 3.4% and 6.0% (n = 5), respectively. This method was utilized successfully to analyze pg/mg levels of nicotine and cotinine in 1 mg of hairs without interference peaks, and good recoveries were obtained. The concentration of cotinine in hair was two orders of magnitude lower than that of nicotine, but a good positive correlation was found between the concentrations of these compounds. This method can automate the extraction, concentration and analysis of samples, and is useful for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Racial Differences in Serum Cotinine Levels of Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B. Signorello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008 and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52. We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.

  10. Racial differences in serum cotinine levels of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Tarone, Robert E; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Blot, William J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women) were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008) and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52). We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.

  11. Punto de corte óptimo de la concentración de cotinina en saliva para discriminar entre fumadores y no fumadores en la población adulta de Barcelona Optimal cut-point of salivary cotinine concentration to discriminate smoking status in the adult population in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    specificity according to sex, age, smoking status (daily and occasional, and exposure to second-hand smoke at home. ROC curves and the area under the curve were calculated. Results: The prevalence of smokers (daily and occasional was 27.8% (95% CI: 25.2-30.4%. The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status was 9.2ng/ml (sensitivity=88.7% and specificity=89.0%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.952. The optimal cut-point was 12.2ng/ml in men and 7.6ng/ml in women. The optimal cut-point was higher at ages with a greater prevalence of smoking. Daily smokers had a higher cut-point than occasional smokers. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point to discriminate smoking status in the adult population is 9.2ng/ml, with sensitivities and specificities around 90%. The cut-point was higher in men and in younger people. The cut-point increases with higher prevalence of daily smokers.

  12. Serum Cotinine Levels and Prehypertension in Never Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omayma Alshaarawy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few studies have shown that self-reported secondhand smoke exposure in never smokers is associated with high blood pressure. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine levels, and high blood pressure in never smokers. Methods. We examined never smokers (n=2027 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008. Our exposure of interest was the secondhand smoke exposure estimated by serum cotinine level and our outcome was prehypertension (n=734, defined as a systolic blood pressure of 120–139 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of 80–89 mmHg. Results. We found that, in never smokers, serum cotinine levels were positively associated with prehypertension. Compared to those with cotinine levels in the lowest quartile (≤0.024 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of prehypertension among those with cotinine levels in the highest quartile (≥0.224 ng/mL was 1.45(1.00, 2.11; P trend =0.0451. In subsequent subgroup analyses, the positive association was found to be stronger among men, non-Whites, and non-obese subjects. Conclusion. Higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with prehypertension in certain subgroups of a representative sample of the US population.

  13. Exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco en locales de hostelería de Barcelona: medición de partículas respirables Second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality venues in Barcelona: measurement of respirable particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmy Villarroel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Medir la concentración de partículas respirables de tamaño igual o menor que 2,5µm (PM2,5 como marcador del humo ambiental de tabaco (HAT en locales de hostelería de Barcelona 2 años después de la entrada en vigor de la Ley 28/2005. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo transversal. La población de estudio fueron 40 locales de la ciudad de Barcelona seleccionados por muestreo de ruta aleatoria con representación de los distintos tipos de regulación existentes tras la aplicación de la Ley (permitido fumar, prohibido fumar y locales con zonas para fumadores y no fumadores. El trabajo de campo se realizó entre octubre y diciembre de 2007. El HAT se cuantificó determinando las PM2,5 con un monitor con fotómetro láser (Side Pack AM 510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. Se realizaron mediciones iniciales de 5 minutos en el exterior del local y de 30 minutos en el interior. Además, se recogieron variables de tipo observacional relacionadas con las características del local y los signos de consumo tabaco. Resultados: La concentración de PM2,5 en los locales donde se permite fumar es cinco veces más alta que en los que se ha prohibido (182 µg/m³ y 34 µg/m³, respectivamente, y supera la concentración establecida como perjudicial por la Environmental Protection Agency: de Estados Unidos (35 µg/m³. En aquellos locales en que se ha prohibido fumar, la concentración de PM2,5 no supera este estándar ni muestra diferencias significativas con la concentración en el exterior del local. Conclusiones: Dos años después de la entrada en vigor de la Ley de medidas sanitarias frente al tabaquismo, la exposición al HAT en los locales de hostelería donde se permitía fumar seguía siendo muy alta. Esto suponía un importante riesgo para la salud de los trabajadores de este sector.Objectives: To quantify the concentration of respirable particles equal to or smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 as a marker of second-hand smoke (SHS exposure

  14. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine.

  15. Tobacco-induced neuronal degeneration via cotinine in rats subjected to experimental spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgic, Ali; Okay, Onder; Helvacioglu, Fatma; Daglioglu, Ergun; Akdag, Rifat; Take, Gulnur; Belen, Deniz

    2013-05-01

    Cigarette smoke contains over 4000 chemicals including well-characterized toxicants and carcinogens, among which is cotinine. Cotinine is the principal metabolite of nicotine that has adverse affects on the microcirculation via vasoconstriction, hypoxia and the wound-healing cascade. Its impact on spinal cord injury (SCI) has not been investigated yet. The aim of the present study is to investigate the cotinine effect on SCI. 48 male Wistar rats were divided into six groups as follows: sham-control, sham-trauma, vehicle-control, vehicle-trauma, cotinine-control, and cotinine-trauma. Initially, a defined concentration of cotinine blood level was maintained by daily intraperitoneal injection of cotinine for 14 days in the cotinine groups. The concentration was similar to the cotinine dose in the blood level of heavy smokers. Only ethyl alcohol was injected in the vehicle groups during the same period. Then, SCI was performed by a Tator clip. The cotinine groups were compared with rats subjected to vehicle and sham groups by immunohistochemical biomarkers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP) expressions. Electron microscopic examination was also performed. GFAP-positive cells were noted to be localized around degenerated astrocytes. Marked vacuolization with perivascular and perineural edema was seen in the cotinin consumption groups. These findings showed the inhibition of regeneration after SCI. Similarly, vacuolization within myelin layers was noted in the cotinine groups, which was detected through reduced CNP expression. Cotinine, a main metabolite of nicotine, has harmful effects on SCI via GFAP and CNP expression. The findings of the present study support the hypothesis that tobacco causes neuronal degeneration via cotinine. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Levels of saliva cotinine in electronic cigarette users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    To assess saliva cotinine levels in experienced users of e-cigarettes ('vapers'). An internet survey in 2011 and 2012, with collection of saliva vials by mail. Participants were 71 users of e-cigarettes enrolled mainly on websites and online forums dedicated to e-cigarettes. Use of e-cigarettes, tobacco and nicotine medications. Collection of saliva by mail and analysis of cotinine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most participants (89%) were former smokers, most (92%) were using e-cigarettes daily, had been using e-cigarettes for 12 months on average and puffed a median of 150 times per day on their e-cigarettes [mean = 220 puffs/day, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 169-271]. The median concentration of nicotine in refill liquids was 16 mg/ml (mean = 16.4, 95% CI = 14.5-18.3). In the 62 e-cigarette users who, in the past 5 days, had not used any tobacco or nicotine medications, the median cotinine level was 353 ng/ml (mean = 374, 95% CI = 318-429), the correlation between cotinine and nicotine concentration in e-liquids was r = 0.33 (P = 0.013), and the correlation between cotinine and the number of cigarettes smoked per day before quitting smoking was r = 0.48 (P Addiction.

  17. Second-hand market as an alternative in reverse logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochampally, Kishore K.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-02-01

    Collectors of discarded products seldom know when those products were bought and why they are discarded. Also, the products do not indicate their remaining life periods. So, it is difficult to decide if it is "sensible" to repair (if necessary) a particular product for subsequent sale on the second-hand market or to disassemble it partially or completely for subsequent remanufacture and/or recycle. To this end, we build an expert system using Bayesian updating process and fuzzy set theory, to aid such decision-making. A numerical example demonstrates the building approach.

  18. Determination of the Nicotine Metabolites Cotinine and Trans-3′-Hydroxycotinine in Biologic fluids of Smokers and Non-Smokers using Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Biomarkers for Tobacco Smoke Exposure and for Phenotyping Cytochrome P450 2A6 Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Peyton; Yu, Lisa; Duan, Minjiang; Ramos, Lita; Yturralde, Olivia; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2011-01-01

    The nicotine metabolite cotinine is widely used to assess the extent of tobacco use in smokers, and secondhand smoke exposure in non-smokers. The ratio of another nicotine metabolite, trans-3′-hydroxycotinine, to cotinine in biofluids is highly correlated with the rate of nicotine metabolism, which is catalyzed mainly by Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). Consequently, this nicotine metabolite ratio is being used to phenotype individuals for CYP2A6 activity and to individualize pharmacotherapies for tobacco addiction. In this paper we describe a highly sensitive liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of the nicotine metabolites cotinine and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine in human plasma, urine, and saliva. Lower limits of quantitation range from 0.02 to 0.1 ng/ mL. The extraction procedure is straightforward and suitable for large-scale studies. The method has been applied to several thousand biofluid samples for pharmacogenetic studies and for studies of exposure to low levels of secondhand smoke. Concentrations of both metabolites in urine of non-smokers with different levels of secondhand smoke exposure are presented. PMID:21208832

  19. Cotinine: beyond that expected, more than a biomarker of tobacco consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eEcheverria Moran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A greater incidence of tobacco consumption occurs among individuals with psychiatric conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression and schizophrenia, compared with the general population. Even when still controversial, it has been postulated that smoking is a form of self-medication that reduces psychiatric symptoms among individuals with these disorders. To better understand the component(s of tobacco-inducing smoking behavior, greater attention has been directed toward nicotine. However, in recent years, new evidence has shown that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, exhibits beneficial effects over psychiatric symptoms and may therefore promote smoking within this population. Some of the behavioral effects of cotinine compared to nicotine are discussed here. Cotinine, which accumulates in the body as a result of tobacco exposure, crosses the blood-brain barrier and has different pharmacological properties compared with nicotine. Cotinine has a longer plasma half-life than nicotine and showed no addictive or cardiovascular effects in humans. In addition, at the preclinical level, cotinine facilitated the extinction of fear memory and anxiety after fear conditioning, improved working memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and in a monkey model of schizophrenia. Altogether, the new evidence suggests that the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cotinine may play a key role in promoting tobacco smoking in individuals that suffer from psychiatric conditions and represents a new potential therapeutic agent against psychiatric conditions such as AD and PTSD.

  20. Nicotine Dependence and Urinary Nicotine, Cotinine and Hydroxycotinine Levels in Daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overmeire, Ilse P I; De Smedt, Tom; Dendale, Paul; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vanacker, Hilde; Vanoeteren, Jan F A; Van Laethem, Danny M G; Van Loco, Joris; De Cremer, Koen A J

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine dependence and smoking frequency are critical factors for smoking cessation. The aims of this study are (1) to determine if nicotine dependence Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores are associated with urinary levels of nicotine metabolites, (2) to assess the relationship of hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio with FTND score and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), and (3) to identify significant predictors of cigarettes per day among biomarker concentrations and individual FTND items. Urine samples and questionnaire data of 239 daily smokers were obtained. Nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine urinary levels were determined by UPLC MS/MS.Multiple linear regression models were developed to explore the relationship between nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine levels and separate FTND scores (for all six items). We found significant correlations between the different urinary biomarker concentrations, and the FTND score. The time before the first cigarette after waking (TTFC) was significantly associated with the nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine concentrations. No association was found between the ratio of hydroxycotinine to cotinine and either the FTND or the CPD. A model including four FTND questions, sex, age, and the cotinine concentration, accounted for 45% of the variance of CPD. There are significant relationships between urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine and the FTND score. Especially the FTND question about TTFC is relevant for explaining the biomarker concentrations. CPD (below 15) was significantly explained by four FTND dependence items and urinary cotinine levels in a regression model. We investigated associations between urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine in daily smokers and the FTND scores for nicotine dependence. We did not find association between the hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio and CPD. We developed a model that explains the cigarettes smoked daily (CPD) in a group of light

  1. Sex-related differences in serum cotinine concentrations in daily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Cohen, Sigal Ben-Zaken; Man, S F Paul; Sin, Don D

    2008-08-01

    Self-reported use of cigarettes generally underestimates the true cigarette exposure of smokers. Serum cotinine is considered the best biomarker to evaluate tobacco exposure. This study determined whether or not there were any significant differences in serum cotinine concentrations between men and women when they reported smoking the same number of cigarettes per day. We analyzed cotinine and tobacco consumption data on 680 women and 840 men, aged 20 years or older, who smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and were still actively smoking at the time of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2002). Overall, compared with men, women reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day (16.1 vs. 18.7, ppoverty status, the use of either menthol or regular cigarettes, and the nicotine content in cigarettes, female compared with male smokers had lower serum cotinine concentrations (difference of 117.6 nmol/L; 95% CI = 42.6-192.6, p = .003). The difference was particularly notable in moderate to heavy smokers (i.e., those who smoked more than 15 cigarettes/day). These findings indicate that significant sex-related differences exist in serum cotinine levels among smokers, which suggests that self-reports may overestimate cigarette exposure in women compared with men.

  2. Nicotine and Cotinine Levels With Electronic Cigarette: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsot, A; Simon, N

    2016-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2004, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained popularity worldwide. E-cigarettes are marketed as nicotine delivery devices. Commonly reported reasons for use include to quit smoking, to reduce urge to smoke, or the perceived lower risk alternative to smoking. But what are the actual amounts of nicotine delivered? This review summarizes all the published studies concerning nicotine or cotinine levels following e-cigarette use. A literature search was conducted from the PubMed database, from 1985 to January 2014, using the following terms: electronic cigarette(s), e-cigarette(s), electronic nicotine delivery system, cotinine, and nicotine. Articles were excluded if they were not pertinent according to our criteria. References of all relevant articles were also evaluated. Eight studies were included in this review. The following information was extracted from the articles: population size, age of participants, recruitment, inclusion and exclusion criteria, concentration of nicotine in refills liquids, study sample design, and observed concentrations. Following design of studies, plasma nicotine Cmax was observed between 0 and 5 ng/mL (no significant changes) or between 13.9 and 16.3 ng/mL (similar to a tobacco cigarette) with a Tmax between 70 and 75 minutes. Cotinine levels after "vaping" an e-cigarette are similar to a tobacco cigarette. This review summarizes e-cigarette studies that contain information on nicotine or cotinine levels. The peak concentration of nicotine appears to be dependent on the use and dose level of e-cigarette cartridge. The value of this peak concentration is similar to the value found with a tobacco cigarette. However, the time corresponding to the peak concentration is delayed compared to a tobacco cigarette. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The relationship between self-reported tobacco exposure and cotinines in urine and blood for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien-Tsai; Isaac Wu, Hong-Dar; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2008-11-15

    To explore the relationship of self-reported exposure to tobacco smoke and the cotinine levels in the urine and blood over the follow-up period for pregnant women. Three hundred ninety-eight pregnant women undergoing prenatal care were interviewed in different trimesters at three hospitals in central Taiwan using a structured questionnaire. Based on their self-reported smoking experience, the participants were classified into three groups (25 smokers, 191 passive smokers, and 182 non-smokers) and were tracked in this study up to the time of delivery. Cotinine levels were tested for the maternal blood and urine at the end of each trimester and for the umbilical cord-blood of the newborns. All specimens were measured using a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique. In general, urinary cotinine levels were higher in subjects who smoked (including current- and ex-smokers) than those who never smoked. The pattern of distribution of cotinine levels among smoking/ETS exposure group in the urine sample was similar to that in the blood sample. The umbilical cord-blood cotinine levels was found to be highest in the active smoking group, followed by the ETS group exposed to ETS both at home and in the workplace. Over the course of the pregnancies, there was an increase in cotinine levels in urine and maternal blood for each of 3 exposure groups. Exposure to smoking by self-reported information in pregnant women has been found to be directly related to the levels of cotinine in the umbilical cord-blood of the fetus. Cotinine is a sensitive measure of ETS exposure, but if biochemical analysis is not available or convenient for a pregnant woman, then self-reported exposure to ETS can provide a good estimate if the information is gathered by a well-trained interviewer in a structured way.

  4. Concentration of perfluorinated compounds and cotinine in human foetal organs, placenta, and maternal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.

    2017-01-01

    levels. Foetal exposure has previously been estimated from umbilical cord plasma, but the actual concentration in foetal organs has never been measured. Objectives The concentrations of 5 PFASs and cotinine – the primary metabolite of nicotine – were measured in human foetuses, placentas, and maternal...... plasma to evaluate to what extent these compounds were transferred from mother to foetus and to determine if the PFAS concentrations were associated with maternal cigarette smoking. Methods Thirty-nine Danish women who underwent legal termination of pregnancy before gestational week 12 were included; 24...... ratio for all five PFASs and cotinine. Smokers presented 99 ng/g cotinine in plasma, 108 ng/g in placenta, and 61 ng/g in foetal organs. No correlation between the maternal cotinine concentrations and PFAS concentrations was found. Conclusions PFASs were transferred from mother to foetus, however...

  5. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS, active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  6. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  7. Nicotine Dependence and Urinary Nicotine, Cotinine and Hydroxycotinine Levels in Daily Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Van Overmeire, Ilse P. I.; De Smedt, Tom; Dendale, Paul; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vanacker, Hilde; Vanoeteren, Jan F. A.; Van Laethem, Danny M. G.; Van Loco, Joris; De Cremer, Koen A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine dependence and smoking frequency are critical factors for smoking cessation. The aims of this study are (1) to determine if nicotine dependence Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores are associated with urinary levels of nicotine metabolites, (2) to assess the relationship of hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio with FTND score and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), and (3) to identify significant predictors of cigarettes per day among biomarker concentrations and individual F...

  8. Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, M.; Chuang, S.C.; Dahm, C.C.; Overvad, K.; Ueland, P.M.; Midttun, O.; Vollset, S.E.; Tjonneland, A.; Halkjaer, J.; Jenab, M.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Kaaks, R.; Canzian, F.; Boeing, H.; Weikert, C.; Trichopoulou, A.; Bamia, C.; Naska, A.; Palli, D.; Pala, V.; Mattiello, A.; Tumino, R.; Sacerdote, C.; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Lund, E.; Rodriguez, L.; Duell, E.J.; Perez, M.J.; Molina-Montes, E.; Castano, J.M.; Barricarte, A.; Larrañaga, N.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Sund, M.; Ye, W.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Michaud, D.S.; Riboli, E.; Xun, W.W.; Allen, N.E.; Crowe, F.L.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Vineis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective

  9. Growing in Motion: The Circulation of Used Things on Second-hand Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Staffan Appelgren; Anna Bohlin

    2015-01-01

    From having been associated with poverty and low status, the commerce with second-hand goods in retro shops, flea markets, vintage boutiques and trade via Internet is expanding in Sweden as in many countries in the Global North. This article argues that a significant aspect of the recent interest in second-hand and reuse concerns the meaning fulness of circulation in social life. Using classic anthropological theory on how the circulation of material culture generates sociality, it focuses on...

  10. Qualification Needs, Approaches and Strategies in the Second-Hand Sector A European Good Practice Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arold, Heike

    2008-01-01

    Against the background of changing consumer behaviour and environmental policies, a growing second-hand sector is expected. In order to ensure quality and professionalism within companies operating in this sector, it is necessary to develop a unified Europe-wide and sector-specific qualification which is geared to real working processes and requirements. This good practice report describes the training and qualification structures in the European second-hand sector. In addition, occupational ...

  11. THE BRAZIL-BOLIVIA BORDER AND THE SECOND-HAND CLOTHING DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Carlos Machado Oliveira; Fernanda Loureiro Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The second-hand clothing trade started widely in Bolivia in 1994. This kind of trade usually involves popular globalization activities, whose practices are often identified by State agencies as illegal, although with natural popular acceptance. It is established within a complex system of networks, and takes advantage of distribution (stock and transfer) meshes and knots, with the consequent conformation of connected territorial circuits. This paper aims at analyzing the second-hand clothing ...

  12. Cotinine and tobacco-specific carcinogen exposure among nondaily smokers in a multiethnic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Berg, Carla J; Hayes, Rashelle B; Nollen, Nicole L; Thomas, Janet L; Guo, Hongfei; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L

    2014-05-01

    Nondaily smoking has increased among current U.S. smokers during the past decade and is practiced by a significant percentage of smokers. Although research in nondaily smoking has grown, little is known about levels of exposure to tobacco toxicants among nondaily smokers and their variation across ethnic groups. We examined urinary levels of cotinine and a tobacco-specific nitrosamine (NNAL) in community participants. Associations between the biomarker data and smoking characteristics were evaluated with Spearman's correlation analysis. Participants included 28 Blacks, 4 Latinos, and 25 Whites who smoked at least 1 cigarette on 4-24 days in the past 30 days. Participants averaged 3.3 (SD = 2.1) cigarettes per day (cpd) on days smoked, they smoked an average of 13.0 (SD = 5.4) days in the past month, and they smoked nondaily for 10.5 (SD = 10.5) years. Median levels of creatinine-normalized cotinine and NNAL were 490.9 ng/mg and 140.7 pg/mg, respectively. NNAL and cotinine were highly correlated (r = .84); NNAL and cotinine were modestly correlated with cpd (r = .39 and r = .34; all p values smokers are, on average, exposed to significant levels of nicotine and carcinogenic nitrosamines, with exposures of 40%-50% of those seen in daily smokers. This level of exposure suggests a significant health risk. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure is most closely related to number of cigarettes smoked per day but not to number of days per month of smoking.

  13. Growing in Motion: The Circulation of Used Things on Second-hand Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Appelgren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available From having been associated with poverty and low status, the commerce with second-hand goods in retro shops, flea markets, vintage boutiques and trade via Internet is expanding in Sweden as in many countries in the Global North. This article argues that a significant aspect of the recent interest in second-hand and reuse concerns the meaning fulness of circulation in social life. Using classic anthropological theory on how the circulation of material culture generates sociality, it focuses on how second-hand things are transformed by their circulation. Rather than merely having cultural biographies, second-hand things are reconfigured through their shifts between different social contexts in a process that here is understood as a form of growing. Similar to that of an organism, this growth is continuous, irreversible and dependent on forces both internal and external to it. What emerges is a category of things that combine elements of both commodities and gifts, as these have been theorized within anthropology. While first cycle commodities are purified of their sociality, the hybrid second-hand thing derives its ontological status as well as social and commercial value precisely from retaining "gift qualities", produced by its circulation.

  14. THE BRAZIL-BOLIVIA BORDER AND THE SECOND-HAND CLOTHING DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Carlos Machado Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The second-hand clothing trade started widely in Bolivia in 1994. This kind of trade usually involves popular globalization activities, whose practices are often identified by State agencies as illegal, although with natural popular acceptance. It is established within a complex system of networks, and takes advantage of distribution (stock and transfer meshes and knots, with the consequent conformation of connected territorial circuits. This paper aims at analyzing the second-hand clothing trade in three locations: Santa Cruz de la Sierra and Puerto Quijarro (Bolivia, and Corumbá (Brazil. The purpose is to identify the route and the nuances regarding the second-hand clothing distribution network from Santa Cruz de la Sierra to Corumbá, on the Bolivia-Brazil border.

  15. The phase-out of second-hand clothing imports: what impact for Tanzania?

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, Linda; Balchin, Neil; Mendez-Parra, Maximiliano

    2017-01-01

    The East African Community has begun phasing-out imports of second-hand clothing to promote the development of the domestic garment sector. Using trade data and information obtained from the exporters, this study produces the first estimate of disaggregated imports of second-hand clothing in Tanzania. The net import of used clothing is estimated at over 540 million pieces per year, compared to a domestic production of new clothing of 20 million pieces and import of 177 million pieces of new c...

  16. Urinary cotinine testing as pre-operative assessment of patients undergoing free flap surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbold, C; Rausky, J; Binder, J-P; Revol, M

    2015-02-01

    The identified risks of smoking with regard to operated tissues are so elevated that it is clearly dangerous to operate a smoker when the proposed intervention is neither vital nor urgent. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate a simple method of screening patients who smoke, with the evaluation carried out before agreeing to carry out free tissue transfer. The purpose of the testing was to hold the patient responsible for his actions and minimize smoking-related complications by cancelling or postponing the planned operation if the patient continued to smoke. Screening included use of a standardized questionnaire at the first consultation and detection of cotinine using a urine test strip 7 days before the scheduled surgery. Patients were informed that in the event of positive results, the operation would not take place. A six-week preoperative smoking cessation period was mandatory. Seventy-six patients were included in this study. Among them, 25 (32.9%) reported being former smokers and 11 (14.5%) admitted in the initial questionnaire to being active smokers. Six patients (7.9%), including one self-reported non-smoker, tested positive for cotinine, and their operations were cancelled. Screening using a questionnaire and cotinine detection appeared to constitute a simple, inexpensive, rapid and reliable test. It allowed us to refuse to operate 6 non-compliant patients and was thereby likely to diminish morbidity in the free tissue transfers carried out in our ward. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. What Do Students' Explanations Look Like When They Use Second-Hand Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delen, Ibrahim; Krajcik, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Explanation studies underlined the importance of using evidence in support of claims. However, few studies have focused on students' use of others' data (second-hand data) in this process. In this study, students collected data from a local water source and then took all the data back to the classroom to create scientific explanations by using…

  18. Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: A round-robin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Peyton; Holiday, David B.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Doig, Mira V.; Feyerabend, Colin; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Sharifi, Mehran; Kellogg, Mark D.; Langman, Loralie J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Cotinine, the primary proximate metabolite of nicotine, is commonly measured as an index of exposure to tobacco in both active users of tobacco and nonsmokers with possible exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A number of laboratories have implemented analyses for measuring serum cotinine in recent years, but there have been few interlaboratory comparisons of the results. Among nonsmokers exposed to SHS, the concentration of cotinine in blood can be quite low, and extensive variability in these measurements has been reported in the past. Methods: In this study, a group of seven laboratories, all experienced in serum cotinine analysis, measured eight coded serum pools with concentrations ranging from background levels of about 0.05 ng/ml to relatively high concentrations in the active smokers range. All laboratories used either gas–liquid chromatography with nitrogen–phosphorus detection or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Results: All seven laboratories reliably measured the cotinine concentrations in samples that were within the range of their methods. In each case, the results for the pools were correctly ranked in order, and no significant interlaboratory bias was observed at the 5% level of significance for results from any of the pools. Discussion: We conclude that present methods of chromatographic analysis of serum cotinine, as used by these experienced laboratories, are capable of providing accurate and precise results in both the smoker and the nonsmoker concentration range. PMID:19933777

  19. Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Stragierowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000 ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000 ng/mL. The mean recoveries were 3.7±7.6% for urine and 99.1±2.6% for saliva. LOD for saliva was 0.12 ng/mL and for urine 0.05 ng/mL; LOQ was 0.4 ng/mL and 0.8 ng/mL, respectively. Intraday and interday precision equaled, respectively, 1.2% and 3.4% for urine, and 2.3% and 6.4% for saliva. There was a strong correlation between salivary cotinine and the uncorrected cotinine concentration in urine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The cutoff values were established for saliva 12.9 ng/mL and urine 42.3 ng/mL or 53.1 μg/g creatinine with the ROC curve analysis. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to quantify cotinine, and a significant correlation between the urinary and salivary cotinine levels was found. The presented cut-off values for salivary and urinary cotinine ensure a categorization of the smoking status among pregnant women that is more accurate than self-reporting.

  20. Different physiological and behavioural effects of e-cigarette vapour and cigarette smoke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, L; Moretti, M; Sala, M; Fasoli, F; Mucchietto, V; Lucini, V; Cannazza, G; Gallesi, G; Castellana, C N; Clementi, F; Zoli, M; Gotti, C; Braida, D

    2015-10-01

    Nicotine is the primary addictive substance in tobacco smoke and electronic cigarette (e-cig) vapour. Methodological limitations have made it difficult to compare the role of the nicotine and non-nicotine constituents of tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of traditional cigarette smoke and e-cig vapour containing the same amount of nicotine in male BALB/c mice exposed to the smoke of 21 cigarettes or e-cig vapour containing 16.8 mg of nicotine delivered by means of a mechanical ventilator for three 30-min sessions/day for seven weeks. One hour after the last session, half of the animals were sacrificed for neurochemical analysis, and the others underwent mecamylamine-precipitated or spontaneous withdrawal for the purposes of behavioural analysis. Chronic intermittent non-contingent, second-hand exposure to cigarette smoke or e-cig vapour led to similar brain cotinine and nicotine levels, similar urine cotinine levels and the similar up-regulation of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different brain areas, but had different effects on body weight, food intake, and the signs of mecamylamine-precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal episodic memory and emotional responses. The findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that e-cig vapour induces addiction-related neurochemical, physiological and behavioural alterations. The fact that inhaled cigarette smoke and e-cig vapour have partially different dependence-related effects indicates that compounds other than nicotine contribute to tobacco dependence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  1. [Cotinine concentration in the saliva in relation to oral hygiene procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachanek, Teresa; Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Piekarczyk, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Cotinine is a biomarker of the exposure to the tobacco smoke, nicotine metabolite with half-life in the saliva which is 17 hours. Assessment of cotinine concentration enables among others verification of the questionnaire data as well as evaluation of both smokers and non-smokers exposure to the tobacco smoke. Practicing proper oral hygiene procedures is an essential factor of the prophylaxis of dental caries and periodontal diseases which influence general health state. The removal of dental calculus is achieved by proper teeth brushing and the use of additional oral aids. The aim of the study was evaluation of cotinine concentration in non-stimulated saliva in order to verify questionnaire data (smoker/non-smoker) and analysis of practicing oral hygiene procedures in relation to the status of cigarette smoking. Questionnaire and biochemical studies were conducted in the group of 116 people aged 20-54. In questionnaire survey 53 people (45.69%) confirmed cigarette smoking, 63 (54.31%) declared they had never smoked and never tried to smoke. Non-stimulated saliva was collected between 9(30) and 11(30), 1,5-2 hours after meal. Cotinine concentration was assayed with the use of Cotinine ELISA (Calbiotech, USA). Obtained study results were submitted to statistic analysis with the use of Chi2. Statistically essential test values were those with psmokers and 4.76% non-smokers, brushing teeth at least twice a day was reported subsequently by 73.08% and 95.24% participants. Non-smokers in comparison with smokers considerably more frequently brushed their teeth, at least twice a day (XZ=11.11, pSmokers used a toothbrush with medium hardness bristle (X2=6.05, pSmokers more fre. quently brushed their teeth improperly (X2=1 3.41, pSmokers in comparison with non-smokers did not practice proper oral hygiene which is an essential risk factor of the oral health. It is crucial for dental surgeons to conduct oral hygiene instructions in smokers as well as realization of health

  2. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  3. Urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide levels among bar and restaurant employees in ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caman, Ozge Karadag; Erguder, Berrin I; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi

    2013-08-01

    Hospitality sector employees constitute one of the key groups with respect to their secondhand tobacco smoke exposure at work. This study aimed to detect urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels among bar and restaurant employees in Ankara, as well as the employees' opinions on the new antitobacco law, changes in smoking behavior, and subjective health status before and after the law entered into force. This before-after study was conducted in 19 premises, with the participation of 65 employees before implementation and 81 employees 3 months after implementation of the new antitobacco law in the hospitality sector. Data in both phases were collected through face-to-face surveys, breath CO measurements, and urinary cotinine analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square test, paired and unpaired t tests, and analysis of variance were used to compare groups. Most of the restaurant and bar employees were male and below 35 years old. Before-after comparison showed that health complaints of the hospitality sector employees such as watering and itching in the eyes, difficulty in breathing, and cough (p law. Among the smoking employees, mean number of cigarettes smoked was also found to decrease (p = .012). Majority of the employees (83.8%) were found to support the smoking ban in enclosed public places. Results of this study provide solid evidence on the positive health effects of smoke-free laws and employees' support for smoke-free workplaces.

  4. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women....... This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  5. FAST FASHON AND SECOND HAND CLOTHES BETWEEN ECOLOGICAL CONCERNS AND GLOBAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUC Sunhilde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of the fast fashion and how these lead to an excessive consumption of clothes and as result a growth of the worn products market. The paper also aims to establish how fast fashion is influencing not only the economy also the environment. The fast fashion model can also damage developing economies with a low household income, which are not the necessary most important markets of these companies. Our study has identified the influences in increased purchase behavior and focused especially of the positive relationship between income and clothing expenses. We found out that it is a large gap between the European countries regarding clothing expenses in year and Romania is for far the lowest consumer. It is presented the second hand clothes import-export trade during 2007-2012 and we found out that there is an inverse relation between the balances sheet of import-export of textile products between the developed and developing countries. The authors conclude that the Romania is the largest European importer of second hand clothes but has no large scale recycling. Since collection is done on a voluntary basis it can be confusing for population to know how and where to discard used clothing therefore it is recommended a focus on collection systems of second hand clothes. The methodology used for this paper has mainly been a literature study where both scientific literature, such as scientific articles and reports, and popular science articles have been studied. We also use official information provided from National and International statistical Offices. Academic research on the effects of redirecting used clothing from the waste stream is still in its infancy; however this paper provides some insights into the phenomenon which may add to the emerging literature. .

  6. Increased efficiency in the second-hand tire trade provides opportunity for dengue control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego Pliego, Emilene; Velázquez-Castro, Jorge; Eichhorn, Markus P; Fraguela Collar, Andrés

    2018-01-21

    Dengue fever is increasing in geographical range, spread by invasion of its vector mosquitoes. The trade in second-hand tires has been implicated as a factor in this process because they act as mobile reservoirs of mosquito eggs and larvae. Regional transportation of tires can create linkages between rural areas with dengue and disease-free urban areas, potentially giving rise to outbreaks even in areas with strong local control measures. In this work we sought to model the dynamics of mosquito transportation via the tire trade, in particular to predict its role in causing unexpected dengue outbreaks through vertical transmission of the virus across generations of mosquitoes. We also aimed to identify strategies for regulating the trade in second-hand tires, improving disease control. We created a mathematical model which captures the dynamics of dengue between rural and urban areas, taking into account the movement and storage time of tires, and mosquito diapause. We simulate a series of scenarios in which a mosquito population is introduced to a dengue-free area via movement of tires, either as single or multiple events, increasing the likelihood of a dengue outbreak. A persistent disease state can be induced regardless of whether urban conditions for an outbreak are met, and an existing endemic state can be enhanced by vector input. Finally we assess the potential for regulation of tire processing as a means of reducing the transmission of dengue fever using a specific case study from Puerto Rico. Our work demonstrates the importance of the second-hand tire trade in modulating the spread of dengue fever across regions, in particular its role in introducing dengue to disease-free areas. We propose that reduction of tire storage time and control of their movement can play a crucial role in containing dengue outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal smoking exposure and asymmetric fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Loretta; Drummond, Sandra; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking exposure causes intrauterine fetal growth restriction ( IUGR), although its effects on fetal proportionality are less clearly defined. Aim: The present study assessed fetal proportionality in babies with IUGR using maternal salivary cotinine to indicate maternal smoking

  8. THE INCREASING PHENOMENON OF SECOND-HAND CLOTHES PURCHASE: INSIGHTS FROM THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimin Herjanto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global trend of second-hand clothing (SHC consumption is significantly increasing and unstoppable. This trend has made, and will continue to make, a huge impact in the clothing industry in virtually every part of the world. However, the number of studies on SHC are still limited and more importantly, the findings are mixed and inconclusive. This study investigates the trend in SHC research between 1990 and 2014. 131 published academic articles from different disciplines were collected and content analyzed and the results indicate that SHC research was highly focused on the topics of consumption behavior, textile disposal behavior, and SHC trading related issues. In addition, the results also show that SHC research was mainly conducted from the consumers’ point of view. With the increasing interest in SHC, this study attempts to develop a better understanding of SHC phenomena and provide clear future research directions to scholars in designing SHC related research.

  9. Qualification Needs, Approaches and Strategies in the Second-Hand Sector. A European Good-Practice Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arold, Heike; Koring, Claudia; Windelband, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Against the background of changing consumer behaviour and environmental policies, a growing second-hand sector is expected. In order to ensure quality and professionalism within companies operating in this sector, it is necessary to develop a unified Europewide and sector-specific qualification which is geared to real working processes and requirements. This good practice report describes the training and qualification structures in the European second-hand sector. In addition, occupational a...

  10. Imported Second-Hand Clothes in South Korea: An Examination of Guje Clothing as an Autonomous Consumer Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jiyeon

    2009-01-01

    This thesis considers issues of individual's 'style competence' within global order. Guje (imported second-hand garments) fashion in South Korea is an ideal case study from which to examine consumer autonomy in the adoption of this Western vintage fashion trend since the 1990s. The importance of guje clothing lies in the local-cultural discrimination between the 'imported' and the local second-hand garments; guje clothes have been considered far more fashionable than the locally generated ...

  11. Buying clothes from thrift stores: an analysis of young people consuming second-hand clothing in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Borges Corrêa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research that analyzed the consumption of second-hand clothing among young people in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Theoretically speaking, the research was guided by the anthropological perspective of consumption. The research was conducted based on the ethnographic method with participant observation and in-depth interviews. The results show the relationships between consumers and merchandise and reveal the main motivations for buying second-hand clothing and accessories.

  12. Oral fluid nicotine markers to assess smoking status and recency of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Marrone, Gina F.; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Singleton, Edward G.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Oral fluid collection is non-invasive and easily observed making it an attractive matrix for objectively determining smoking status. Despite large inter-subject variability, cotinine oral fluid concentrations correlate with cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Few studies, however, assessed nicotine markers in oral fluid other than cotinine; other markers might improve smoking status assessment and/or time of last cigarette. Materials and Methods Smoking histories and oral fluid specimens were collected from non-treatment-seeking light (1–10 CPD) and heavy smokers (>10 CPD), and from environmentally exposed and nonexposed nonsmokers who provided written informed consent for this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine) and norcotinine oral fluid concentrations were quantified via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Comparison of 1, 3 and 10ng/mL oral fluid LCMSMS cutoffs demonstrated that 10ng/mL cutoffs performed optimally for cotinine, OH-cotinine, nicotine and norcotinine identifying 98, 97, 88 and 15% of self-reported smokers; 1% nonsmokers had >10ng/mL cotinine. No self-reported nonsmoker had >10ng/mL OH-cotinine, nicotine or norcotinine. Norcotinine was only identified in smokers’ oral fluid. Oral fluid nicotine, cotinine and nicotine/cotinine ratios were negatively correlated with time of last smoking (r=−0.53, −0.23, and −0.51; pnicotine, cotinine and nicotine/cotinine ratios may be useful for determining smoking recency in “spot samples” collected during nicotine cessation treatment. PMID:21860341

  13. Pregnancy outcome and cord blood cotinine level: A cross-sectional comparative study between secondhand smokers and non-secondhand smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, B; Muadz, B; Norizal, M N; Ismail, N; Kornain, N K; Kutty, M

    2017-07-01

    To compare the pregnancy outcome and cord blood cotinine levels between secondhand smokers and non-secondhand smokers. This was a cross-sectional comparative study in a Malaysian tertiary obstetric hospital involving 200 non-smoking pregnant women at term, of whom 100 were secondhand smokers and 100 were non-secondhand smokers. Those with multiple pregnancies, with a body mass index (BMI) of more than 30kg/m 2 or who delivered by Caesarean section were excluded. The participants' basic demographic details, delivery details, neonatal outcome and placental weight were recorded. Umbilical cord blood samples were obtained, and cord blood cotinine levels were measured with a Cotinine ELISA kit. The primary outcomes were baby's birth weight, length, and head circumference, Apgar score at 5min and placental weight. The secondary outcome was difference in cord blood cotinine levels between the two groups and the correlation of these differences with the neonatal outcome. The secondhand smoker group had significantly lower baby weight (2.94±0.31kg vs 3.05±0.40kg), head circumference (30.87±2.35cm vs 37.13±2.36cm), length (46.58±1.95cm vs 51.53±2.05cm) and placental weight (520±73.5g vs 596±61.3g) and significantly higher cord blood cotinine levels (16.35±12.84ng/mL vs 0.56±0.22ng/mL). Cord blood cotinine levels had significant negative correlations with placental weight (r=-0.461), baby's weight (r=-0.297), baby's head circumference (r=-0.501) and baby's length (r=-0.374). Secondhand smoke increases the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (newborns'anthropometric measurements and placental weight) and causes higher cord blood cotinine levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of serum cotinine concentration within and across smokers of menthol and nonmenthol cigarette brands among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white U.S. adult smokers, 2001-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Ralph S; Holiday, David B; Stellman, Steven D; Mowery, Paul D; Giovino, Gary A; Muscat, Joshua E; Eriksen, Michael P; Bernert, John T; Richter, Patricia A; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2011-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is examining options for regulating menthol content in cigarettes. There are many pharmacologic properties of menthol that may facilitate exposure to tobacco smoke, and it has been suggested that the preference for menthol cigarettes in black smokers accounts for their higher cotinine levels. To assess cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted cotinine levels in relation to smoking a menthol or nonmenthol cigarette brand among non-Hispanic black and white U.S. adult smokers under natural smoking conditions. Serum cotinine concentrations were measured in 1,943 smokers participating in the 2001 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The effect of smoking a menthol brand on cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted serum cotinine levels in these two populations was modeled by adjusting for sex, age, number of smokers living in the home, body weight, time since last smoked, and FTC (Federal Trade Commission)-measured nicotine levels. The 8- or 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC) on the cigarette label was used to determine the cigarette brand and whether it was menthol. Smoking a menthol cigarette brand versus smoking a nonmenthol cigarette brand was not associated (P ≥ 0.05) with mean serum cotinine concentration in either black or white smokers. The higher levels of cotinine observed in black smokers compared with white smokers are not explained by their higher preference for menthol cigarette brands. Further studies like ours are needed to improve our ability to understand health consequences of future changes in tobacco product design. ©2011 AACR

  15. The 2007 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available All organisations, whether in the public or private sector, increasingly use computers and other devices that contain computer hard disks for the storage and processing of information relating to their business, their employees or their customers. Individual home users also increasingly use computers and other devices containing computer hard disks for the storage and processing of information relating to their private, personal affairs. It continues to be clear that the majority of organisations and individual home users still remain ignorant or misinformed of the volume and type of information that is stored on the hard disks that these devices contain and have not considered, or are unaware of, the potential impact of this information becoming available to their competitors or to people with criminal intent.This is the third study in an ongoing research effort that is being conducted into the volume and type of information that remains on computer hard disks offered for sale on the second hand market.  The purpose of the research has been to gain an understanding of the information that remains on the disk and to determine the level of damage that could, potentially be caused, if the information fell into the wrong hands.  The study examines disks that have been obtained in a number of countries to determine whether there is any detectable national or regional variance in the way that the disposal of computer disks is addressed and to compare the results for any other detectable regional or temporal trends.The first study was carried out in 2005 and was repeated in 2006 with the scope extended to include additional countries. The studies were carried out by British Telecommunications, the University of Glamorgan in the UK and Edith Cowan University in Australia. The basis of the research was to acquire a number of second hand computer disks from various sources and then determine whether they still contained information relating to a

  16. Optimization of greenhouse gas emissions in second-hand consumer product recovery through reuse platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Lorena M; Diyamandoglu, Vasil

    2017-08-01

    Product reuse in the solid waste management sector is promoted as one of the key strategies for waste prevention. This practice is considered to have favorable impact on the environment, but its benefits have yet to be established. Existing research describes the perspective of "avoided production" only, but has failed to examine the interdependent nature of reuse practices within an entire solid waste management system. This study proposes a new framework that uses optimization to minimize the greenhouse gas emissions of an integrated solid waste management system that includes reuse strategies and practices such as reuse enterprises, online platforms, and materials exchanges along with traditional solid waste management practices such as recycling, landfilling, and incineration. The proposed framework uses material flow analysis in combination with an optimization model to provide the best outcome in terms of GHG emissions by redistributing product flows in the integrated solid waste management system to the least impacting routes and processes. The optimization results provide a basis for understanding the contributions of reuse to the environmental benefits of the integrated solid waste management system and the exploration of the effects of reuse activities on waste prevention. A case study involving second-hand clothing is presented to illustrate the implementation of the proposed framework as applied to the material flow. Results of the case study showed the considerable impact of reuse on GHG emissions even for small replacement rates, and helped illustrate the interdependency of the reuse sector with other waste management practices. One major contribution of this study is the development of a framework centered on product reuse that can be applied to identify the best management strategies to reduce the environmental impact of product disposal and to increase recovery of reusable products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The 2006 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available All organisations, whether in the public or private sector, use computers for the storage and processing of information relating to their business or services, their employees and their customers. A large proportion of families and individuals in their homes now also use personal computers and, both intentionally and inadvertently, often store on those computers personal information. It is clear that most organisations and individuals continue to be unaware of the information that may be stored on the hard disks that the computers contain, and have not considered what may happen to the information after the disposal of the equipment.In 2005, joint research was carried out by the University of Glamorgan in Wales and Edith Cowan University in Australia to determine whether second hand computer disks that were purchased from a number of sources still contained any information or whether the information had been effectively erased. The research revealed that, for the majority of the disks that were examined, the information had not been effectively removed and as a result, both organisations and individuals were potentially exposed to a range of potential crimes.  It is worthy of note that in the disposal of this equipment, the organisations involved had failed to meet their statutory, regulatory and legal obligations.This paper describes a second research project that was carried out in 2006 which repeated the research carried out the previous year and also extended the scope of the research to include additional countries.  The methodology used was the same as that in the previous year and the disks that were used for the research were again supplied blind by a third party. The research involved the forensic imaging of the disks which was followed by an analysis of the disks to determine what information remained and whether it could be easily recovered using publicly available tools and techniques.

  18. Analysis of Information Remaining on Hand Held Devices Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The ownership and use of mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants and other hand held devices is now ubiquitous both for home and business use. The majority of these devices have a high initial cost, a relatively short period before they become obsolescent and a relatively low second hand value.  As a result of this, when the devices are replaced, there are indications that they tend to be discarded.  As technology has continued to develop, it has led to an increasing diversity in the number and type of devices that are available, and the processing power and the storage capacity of the digital storage in the device. All organisations, whether in the public or private sector increasingly use hand held devices that contain digital media for the storage of information relating to their business, their employees or their customers. Similarly, individual private users increasingly use hand held devices containing digital media for the storage of information relating to their private lives.The research revealed that a significant number of organisations and private users are ignorant or misinformed about the volume and type of information that is stored on the hand held devices and the media on which it is stored.  It is apparent that they have either not considered, or are unaware of, the potential impact of this information becoming available to their competitors or those with criminal intent.This main purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the volume and type of information that may remain on hand held devices that are offered for sale on the second hand market.  A second aim of the research was to determine the level of damage that could, potentially be caused, if the information that remains on the devices fell into the wrong hands.  The study examined a number of hand held devices that had been obtained from sources in the UK and Australia that ranged from internet auction sites, to private sales and commercial

  19. The Safety of Transnational Imported Second-Hand Cars: A Case Study on Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crashes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolie Coșciug

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Certain features of imported second-hand cars (e.g., age, degree of wear and tear, technical design can increase their likelihood for traffic crashes. Three official datasets which cover an eight year period (2008–2015 are used to test the connection between importation of second-hand cars and different types of traffic crashes. The traffic crashes database was provided by the Traffic Department of the General Inspectorate of Romanian Police (GIRPTD. The car registration database was provided by Driving-License and Vehicles-Registration Direction (DLVRD. Right-hand driving (RHD cars database was provided by the Romanian Automotive Registry (RAR. A spatio-temporal visualization of data was performed using Geographic Information System (GIS while for the statistical analysis we use regression models and Pearson-Correlation-coefficient. The analysis suggests that a significant part of the variation in the volume of traffic accidents can be explained by the volume of imported second-hand cars at the county level. Moreover, an even stronger direct relation exists between the number of imported second-hand cars and Severe Traffic Accidents but also in the case of RHD imported second-hand cars. The overall impact of imported second-hand cars on the traffic safety in Romania is significant but small in comparison to other types of car registration. Study results belong to the category of empirical evidence production which can improve the quality of existing traffic regulations focused both on organizing and ensuring traffic safety, and on the policy of sustainable transport infrastructure development.

  20. Screening for secondhand smoke in schoolchildren in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Toshihiro; Kurosawa, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    There is no systematic screening for secondhand smoke exposure in children. In 2002, we began a secondhand smoke screening (SSS) program for grade 4 elementary schoolchildren with the cooperation of public administration. The SSS program consisted of urinary cotinine measurement in children and a questionnaire survey of their parents. More than 1200 schoolchildren were enrolled in this program annually. The level of urinary cotinine in 30% of the children was >5 ng/mL, whereas in half of them it was undetectable. The major risk factor affecting cotinine level was mother's smoking. Average cotinine was significantly high in children who had a history of "short stature", "decayed tooth and/or periodontal disease," and "frequent stridor". In addition, the highest level of cotinine was detected in children whose father and/or mother smoked in the living room and the lowest level of cotinine was detected in children whose father and/or mother smoked on the veranda or outside the door. These levels, however, were two-fivefold higher than in children whose parents did not smoke. On follow-up questionnaire survey 4 years after initial SSS, significant elevated motivation for smoking cessation was noted. The SSS program is a very simple mass screen that can be done using only a urine test and is very effective for motivating parents to stop smoking with regard to cost benefit. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. The 2009 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing use and reliance upon computers in both the public and private sector has led to enormous numbers of computers being disposed of at the end of their useful life within an organisation. As the cost of computers has dropped, their use in the home has also continued to increase. In most organisations, computers have a relatively short life and are replaced on a regular basis with the result that, if not properly cleansed of data, they are released into the public domain containing data that can be relatively up to date. This problem is exacerbated by the increasing popularity and use of smart phones, which also contain significant storage capacity. From the results of the research it remains clear that the majority of organisations and private individuals that are using these computers still remain ignorant or misinformed of the potential volume and type of information that is stored on the hard disks contained within these systems. The evidence of the research is that neither organisations nor individuals have considered, or are aware of, the potential impact of the information that is contained in the disks from these systems becoming available to an unintended third party.This is the fifth study in an ongoing research programme being conducted into the levels and types of information that remain on computer hard disks that have been offered for sale on the second hand market. This ongoing research series has been undertaken to gain an understanding of the level and types of information that remains on these disks, to determine the damage that could potentially be caused if the information was misused, and to determine whether there are any developing trends. The disks used have been purchased in a number of countries.The rationale for this was to determine whether there are any national or regional differences in the way that computer disks are disposed of and to compare the results for any regional or temporal trends. The

  2. Workplace exposure to secondhand smoke among non-smoking hospitality employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhorn, Nikki A; Lirette, David K; Klink, Jenna L; Hu, Chih-Yang; Contreras, Cassandra; Ajori Bryant, Ty-Runet Pinkney; Brown, Lisanne F; Diaz, James H

    2013-02-01

    This article examines salivary cotinine concentrations to characterize secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-smoking hospitality employees (bar and casino employees and musicians who perform in bars) who are exposed to SHS in the workplace. A pre-post test study design was implemented to assess SHS exposure in the workplace. The convenience sample of 41 non-smoking hospitality employees included 10 controls (non-smoking hospitality employees not exposed to SHS in the workplace). The findings demonstrate that post-shift saliva cotinine levels of hospitality employees who are exposed to SHS in the workplace are significantly higher than controls who work in smoke-free venues. Findings also suggested a statistically significant increase between pre- and post-shift saliva cotinine levels of hospitality employees who are exposed in the workplace. No statistically significant difference was noted across labor categories, suggesting that all exposed employees are at increased risk. The study results indicate that non-smoking hospitality employees exposed to SHS in the workplace have significantly higher cotinine concentration levels compared with their counterparts who work in smoke-free venues. Findings from other studies suggest that these increased cotinine levels are harmful to health. Given the potential impact on the health of exposed employees, this study further supports the efforts of tobacco prevention and control programs in advocating for comprehensive smoke-free air policies to protect bar and casino employees.

  3. A longitudinal study of cotinine in long-term daily users of e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2016-03-01

    It is not clear whether, in established vapers, cotinine levels remain stable or change over time. We enrolled 98 exclusive users of e-cigarettes on websites and forums dedicated to smoking cessation and to e-cigarettes. We collected saliva vials by mail in 2013-2014 (baseline), and collected a second saliva vial eight months later (follow-up) in the same participants. Participants had not used any tobacco or nicotine medications in the previous five days. Cotinine in saliva was analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Use of e-cigarettes, tobacco and nicotine medications was self-reported. All participants were former smokers, and 99% were using e-cigarettes daily. They had already been using e-cigarettes for nine months on average at baseline. The median cotinine level was 252ng/mL at baseline (quartiles: 124-421ng/mL) and 307ng/mL at follow-up (114-466ng/mL, W=0.9, p=0.4 for change over time). The median concentration of nicotine in refill liquids was 11mg/mL at baseline (quartiles: 6-15mg/mL) and 6mg/mL at follow-up (5-12mg/mL) (Wilcoxon signed rank test: W=5.2, p<0.001 for change over time). The median volume of e-liquid used per month was 80mL at baseline (quartiles: 50-130mL) and 100mL at follow-up (60-157mL, W=3.3, p=0.001 for change over time). In experienced e-cigarette users enrolled online, cotinine levels were similar to levels usually observed in cigarette smokers. Over time, these users decreased the concentration of nicotine in their e-liquids, but increased their consumption of e-liquid in order to maintain their cotinine levels constant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Elevada concentración de metabolitos de cotinina en hijos de padres fumadores High levels of cotinine metabolite in smoker's parents children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce

    2007-01-01

    ños, no sólo de padres fumadores sino también de padres no fumadores. Esto pone de relevancia que la exposición al HTSM no es sólo un problema de salud pública que se presenta en hogares de padres fumadores, sino que la exposición en niños mexicanos es frecuente en diversos lugares públicos. Es necesario implementar estudios adicionales en México para evaluar el impacto de intervenciones que garanticen hogares y espacios libres de humo de tabaco.INTRODUCTION: Children and adult exposure to SecondHand Smoke (SHS may occur in government offices, work and public places as well as in vehicles. Nevertheless, SHS is particularly important at home. High exposure levels in children may be the main reason to prevent parents and other family members from smoking at home. This study aims at establishing SHS levels by measuring biomakers in serum in pairs of parents and their younger than five years old children in Mexico, included in the 2000 National Health Survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six parents-children pairs were taken from households with non smokers adults, as well as 83 pairs with adult smokers at home. Selection was limited to the adult population in households with children under five years old. Serum samples were analyzed through liquid chromatographic. Correlation exposure models between parents-children pairs were built and stratified according to parents’ background concerning smoking. RESULTS: In the smokers group, people with more than 15ng/mL of cotinine metabolites in serum showed prevalence of 100%. Minimum quantification was 18.50 and maximum 221.5ng/mL. In adults, cotinine metabolite levels in serun were 50 times higher in smokers (107.4ng/mL, than in non smokers (1.99 ng/mL. Concerning 3-hydroxycotinine, something similar was observed (0.60 in non smokers vs. 33.50 ng/mL in smokers. A significant difference three times higher in cotinine levels (0.10 vs. 0.60ng/mL and 3-hydroxycotinine (0.06 vs. 0.19ng/mL was found in those children with, at

  5. What determines levels of passive smoking in children with asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, L.; Crombie, I. K.; Clark, R. A.; Slane, P. W.; Goodman, K. E.; Feyerabend, C.; Cater, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with parents who smoke are often exposed to high levels of environmental tobacco smoke, and children with asthma are particularly susceptible to the detrimental effects of passive smoking. Data were collected from parents who smoke and from their asthmatic children. The families are currently taking part in a randomised controlled trial to test an intervention designed to reduce passive smoking in children with asthma. This paper reports on the baseline data. Questionnaire data and cotinine levels were compared in an attempt to assess exposure and to identify factors which influence exposure of the children. The aim of the study was to identify the scope for a reduction in passive smoking by these children. METHODS: A sample of 501 families with an asthmatic child aged 2-12 years was obtained. Factors influencing passive smoking were assessed by interviewing parents. Cotinine levels were measured from saliva samples using gas liquid chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous detection. RESULTS: Cotinine levels in children were strongly associated with the age of the child, the number of parents who smoked, contact with other smokers, the frequency of smoking in the same room as the child, and crowding within the home. Parental cotinine levels, the amount smoked in the home, and whether the home had a garden also exerted an independent effect on cotinine levels in the children. CONCLUSIONS: Many children are exposed to high levels of environmental tobacco smoke and their cotinine levels are heavily dependent upon proximity to the parent who smokes. Parents who smoke have a unique opportunity to benefit their child's health by modifying their smoking habits within the home. 


 PMID:9371205

  6. Exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M; Fawcett, J; Dickson, S; Berezowski, R; Garrett, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine quantitatively the extent of exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during the course of a work shift, and to relate these results to the customer smoking policy of the workplace. Subjects: Three categories of non-smoking workers were recruited: (1) staff from hospitality premises (bars and restaurants) that permitted smoking by customers; (2) staff from smokefree hospitality premises; and (3) government employees in smokefree workplaces. All participants met with a member of the study team before they began work, and again at the end of their shift or work day. At each meeting, participants answered questions from a standardised questionnaire and supplied a saliva sample. Main outcome measures: Saliva samples were analysed for cotinine. The difference between the first and second saliva sample cotinine concentrations indicated the degree of exposure to ETS over the course of the work shift. Results: Hospitality workers in premises allowing smoking by customers had significantly greater increases in cotinine than workers in smokefree premises. Workers in hospitality premises with no restrictions on customer smoking were more highly exposed to ETS than workers in premises permitting smoking only in designated areas. Conclusions: Overall, there was a clear association between within-shift cotinine concentration change and smoking policy. Workers in premises permitting customer smoking reported a higher prevalence of respiratory and irritation symptoms than workers in smokefree workplaces. Concentrations of salivary cotinine found in exposed workers in this study have been associated with substantial involuntary risks for cancer and heart disease. PMID:12035005

  7. Is importing second-hand products a good thing? The cases of computers and tires in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanthy, Lay; Nitivattananon, Vilas

    2011-01-01

    Is importing second-hand products (SHPs) good for Cambodia? To answer this question, one must seriously consider environmental and social effects. The main objective of this study is to identify and assess the economic, social, and environmental impacts of imported SHPs to determine whether or not Cambodia benefits. Imported second-hand computers (SHPCs) and second-hand tires (SHTs) were selected as cases for the study. The study used a scaling checklist to identify significant impacts of these two imported items. Significant impacts were ranked and rated into a single value (score) for integration. Integrated impact assessment showed that imported SHPCs create a very small positive impact (+ 0.1 of + 5) and imported SHTs generate a large negative impact (- 2.83 of - 5). These scores are mainly the result of environmental impact, predominantly waste issues. Thus, current imports of SHPCs and SHTs do not really benefit Cambodia, but instead cause serious environmental problems from their waste issues. The import serves as a channel to transfer waste into developing countries.

  8. Tobacco toxins deposited on surfaces (third hand smoke) impair wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, Sandeep; Alamat, Raquelle; Castro, Anthony; Sarker, Altaf H; Mao, Jian-Hua; Chan, Alex; Hang, Bo; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    Third hand smoke (THS) is the accumulation of second hand smoke (SHS) toxins on surfaces in homes, cars, clothing and hair of smokers. It is known that 88M US nonsmokers ≥3 years old living in homes of smokers are exposed to THS toxicants and show blood cotinine levels of ≥0.05 ng/ml, indicating that the toxins are circulating in their circulatory systems. The goal of the present study is to investigate the mechanisms by which THS causes impaired wound healing. We show that mice living under conditions that mimic THS exposure in humans display delayed wound closure, impaired collagen deposition, altered inflammatory response, decreased angiogenesis, microvessels with fibrin cuffs and a highly proteolytic wound environment. Moreover, THS-exposed mouse wounds have high levels of oxidative stress and significantly lower levels of antioxidant activity leading to molecular damage, including protein nitration, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage that contribute to tissue dysfunction. Furthermore, we show that elastase is elevated, suggesting that elastin is degraded and the plasticity of the wound tissue is decreased. Taken together, our results lead us to conclude that THS toxicants delay and impair wound healing by disrupting the sequential processes that lead to normal healing. In addition, the lack of elastin results in loss of wound plasticity, which may be responsible for reopening of wounds. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L

    2015-01-01

    . In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180µg/L (range 0.10-0.69µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50µg/L (range 0.80-39.91µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation...... and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age-sex groups: boys (6-8 years, 9-10 years and 11 years old......), and girls (6-7 years, 8-9 years, 10-11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1µg/L for Cd, and 0.8µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level...

  10. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  11. Parental behaviours, but not parental smoking, influence current smoking and smoking susceptibility among 14 and 15 year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waa, Andrew; Edwards, Richard; Newcombe, Rhiannon; Zhang, Jane; Weerasekera, Deepa; Peace, Jo; McDuff, Ingrid

    2011-12-01

    To explore whether parental behaviours related to smoking socialisation and parenting are associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking in 14-15 year old students. Data were sourced from the New Zealand 2006 Year 10 In-depth Survey, a school-based survey of 3,189 students. Outcome measures were susceptibility to smoking and current smoking. Potential determinants were second-hand smoke exposure in the home, parental smoking, parental anti-smoking expectations, anti-smoking rules, pocket money, monitoring of pocket money expenditure, general rule setting and monitoring, and concern about education. Analysis used logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding factors. Exposure to second-hand smoke and lack of parental anti-smoking expectations were independently associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Parental smoking was not independently associated with current smoking or susceptibility. Receiving pocket money and an absence of monitoring of expenditure were associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Lack of parental rule setting was associated with smoking susceptibility. Findings were similar whether or not one or more parents were smokers. Not allowing smoking in the home, communicating non-smoking expectations to children, monitoring pocket money, and setting rules to guide behaviour are strategies which are likely to reduce risk of smoking uptake. The study provides evidence to inform the development of parent-focused interventions to reduce the risk of smoking initiation by children. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Nicotine and Cotinine Exposure from Electronic Cigarettes: A Population Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendizábal, Nieves Vélez; Jones, David R.; Jahn, Andy; Bies, Robert R.; Brown, Joshua W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a recent technology that has gained rapid acceptance. Still, little is known about them in terms of safety and effectiveness. A basic question is how effectively they deliver nicotine, however the literature is surprisingly unclear on this point. Here, a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed for nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine with the aim to provide a reliable framework for the simulation of nicotine and cotinine concentrations over time, based solely on inhalation airflow recordings and individual covariates (i.e. weight and breath carbon monoxide CO levels). Methods This study included 10 adults self-identified as heavy smokers (at least one pack per day). Plasma nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured at regular 10-minute intervals for 90 minutes while human subjects inhaled nicotine vapor from a modified e-cigarette. Airflow measurements were recorded every 200 milliseconds throughout the session. A population PK model for nicotine and cotinine was developed based on previously published PK parameters and the airflow recordings. All the analyses were performed with the nonlinear mixed-effect modelling software NONMEM 7.2. Results The results show that e-cigarettes deliver nicotine effectively, although the pharmacokinetic profiles are lower than those achieved with regular cigarettes. Our PK model effectively predicts plasma nicotine and cotinine concentrations from the inhalation volume, and initial breath CO. Conclusion E-cigarettes are effective at delivering nicotine. This new PK model of e-cigarette usage might be used for pharmacodynamic analysis where the PK profiles are not available. PMID:25503588

  13. Second-hand signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Studies of signaling theory have traditionally focused on the dyadic link between the sender and receiver of the signal. Within a science‐based perspective this framing has led scholars to investigate how patents and publications of firms function as signals. I explore another important type...... used by various agents in their search for and assessment of products and firms. I conclude by arguing how this second‐hand nature of signals goes beyond a simple dyadic focus on senders and receivers of signals, and thus elucidates the more complex interrelations of the various types of agents...

  14. Spatial dimension changes in second hand housing prices in Alcalá de Henares and León (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. González González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to show different recent trends (2001-2009 in second-hand housing prices in Spain and in different neighbourhoods in Alcala de Henares and León, both of which are cities with very diverse economic and demographic characteristics. The first is a city in the metropolitan area of Madrid, with high land prices. The increasing demand for housing in Alcala de Henares is a good alternative for households, in view of high prices in Madrid. The second is Léon, the capital of the province of León, which is undergoing a depopulation process. We will demonstrate that house price dynamics is a local phenomenon and national or regional level data conceal interesting differences within cities (districts and neighbourhoods. The latest rise and decline in housing prices is clearly visible on the outskirts and sometimes non-existent in the town centre area.

  15. Up in Smoke: The Effects of Secondhand Smoke on Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Joe

    1993-01-01

    Environmental or second-hand smoke can have serious effects on children. Many smokers are more likely to consider quitting if they know they are causing harm to their children and families. Physicians must take the time to point out the dangers of passive smoking to parents who smoke. (SM)

  16. Validity of subjective smoking status in orthopedic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Bender,* Patrick Haubruck,* Sonja Boxriker, Sebastian Korff, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Arash Moghaddam Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: In this level 1 diagnostic study, we analyzed the validity of subjective smoking status and, as secondary research question, the smoking cessation adherence in orthopedic patients during a routine hospital stay of nonunion patients by measuring serum cotinine.  Methods: We included patients undergoing revision surgery due to nonunion of long bones. Patients were interviewed about their smoking status. Blood samples were taken from all the patients prior to surgery and for an additional 6 weeks following surgery. Serum levels of cotinine were measured, and coherence between subjective smoking status and objective cotinine analysis was evaluated.  Results: Between March 2012 and August 2014, we enrolled 136 patients. Six of the 26 “previous smokers” (23% and four of the 65 “nonsmokers” (6% had serum cotinine above cutoff levels. In self-labeled smokers, serum cotinine levels averaged at 2,367.4±14,885.9 ng/mL (with a median of 100 ng/mL, whereas in previous smokers the levels averaged at 4,270±19,619.4 ng/mL (with a median of 0 ng/mL and in the nonsmokers group the levels averaged at 12±53.9 ng/mL (with a median of 0.03 ng/mL. Overall, the subjective smoking status matched serum cotinine testing in 88% of the cases. Sensitivity was 79.6% and specificity was 93.1%. Ninety-one percent of the patients with preoperative positive serum values were still positive at follow-up.  Conclusion: In this study, we could show that subjective smoking status in orthopedic patients is predominantly reliable as validated by objective cotinine measurements; however, patients who declare themselves as “previous smokers” are at elevated risk

  17. A prospective cohort study of biomarkers of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure: the correlation between serum and meconium and their association with infant birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Joe M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of infant meconium as a cumulative matrix of prenatal toxicant exposure requires comparison to established biomarkers of prenatal exposure. Methods We calculated the frequency of detection and concentration of tobacco smoke metabolites measured in meconium (nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentrations and three serial serum cotinine concentrations taken during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy among 337 mother-infant dyads. We estimated the duration and intensity of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure using serial serum cotinine concentrations and calculated geometric mean meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations according to prenatal exposure. We also compared the estimated associations between these prenatal biomarkers and infant birth weight using linear regression. Results We detected nicotine (80%, cotinine (69%, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (57% in most meconium samples. Meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with serum cotinine concentrations and increased with the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure. Like serum cotinine, meconium tobacco smoke metabolites were inversely associated with birth weight. Conclusions Meconium is a useful biological matrix for measuring prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and could be used in epidemiological studies that enroll women and infants at birth. Meconium holds promise as a biological matrix for measuring the intensity and duration of environmental toxicant exposure and future studies should validate the utility of meconium using other environmental toxicants.

  18. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucic, A., E-mail: afucic@imi.hr [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska c 2, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Plavec, D [Children Hospital Srebrnjak (Croatia); Casteleyn, L. [KU Leuven (Belgium); Aerts, D. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment - DG Environment (Belgium); Biot, P. [DG Environment, Multilateral and Strategic Affairs (Belgium); Katsonouri, A. [State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Cerna, M. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); Knudsen, L.E. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Castano, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Rudnai, P. [National Institute of Environmental Health (Hungary); Gutleb, A. [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann (Luxembourg); Ligocka, D. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Poland); Lupsa, I-R. [Environmental Health Center (Romania); Berglund, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Horvat, M. [Institute Josef Stefan (Slovenia); Halzlova, K. [Public Health Authority (Slovakia); State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health (Netherlands); Hadjipanayis, A. [Larnaca General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Republic of Cyprus (Cyprus); Krskova, A. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  19. Thirdhand smoke and exposure in California hotels: non-smoking rooms fail to protect non-smoking hotel guests from tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Quintana, Penelope J E; Fortmann, Addie L; Zakarian, Joy M; Galaviz, Vanessa E; Chatfield, Dale A; Hoh, Eunha; Hovell, Melbourne F; Winston, Carl

    2014-05-01

    This study examined tobacco smoke pollution (also known as thirdhand smoke, THS) in hotels with and without complete smoking bans and investigated whether non-smoking guests staying overnight in these hotels were exposed to tobacco smoke pollutants. A stratified random sample of hotels with (n=10) and without (n=30) complete smoking bans was examined. Surfaces and air were analysed for tobacco smoke pollutants (ie, nicotine and 3-ethynylpyridine, 3EP). Non-smoking confederates who stayed overnight in guestrooms provided urine and finger wipe samples to determine exposure to nicotine and the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone as measured by their metabolites cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), respectively. Compared with hotels with complete smoking bans, surface nicotine and air 3EP were elevated in non-smoking and smoking rooms of hotels that allowed smoking. Air nicotine levels in smoking rooms were significantly higher than those in non-smoking rooms of hotels with and without complete smoking bans. Hallway surfaces outside of smoking rooms also showed higher levels of nicotine than those outside of non-smoking rooms. Non-smoking confederates staying in hotels without complete smoking bans showed higher levels of finger nicotine and urine cotinine than those staying in hotels with complete smoking bans. Confederates showed significant elevations in urinary NNAL after staying in the 10 most polluted rooms. Partial smoking bans in hotels do not protect non-smoking guests from exposure to tobacco smoke and tobacco-specific carcinogens. Non-smokers are advised to stay in hotels with complete smoking bans. Existing policies exempting hotels from complete smoking bans are ineffective.

  20. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ?18 years old, smoking ?25 of the last 30 days, smoking ?5 cigarettes pe...

  1. Smoke-Free Child Care = Proyecto de Cuidado Diurno Para Ninos Donde "No se Fuma."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Public Health, Boston.

    This packet of materials on smoke-free child care contains: (1) "Smoke Free Child Care," a booklet warning child care providers about the dangers of second-hand smoke and the fact that children often imitate adult behaviors, such as smoking; (2) "Smoke-Free Child Care: A Booklet for Family Day Care Providers," warning about the…

  2. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona C Fang

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in public multi-unit housing (MUH is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear.We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD 0.02 ng/ml and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng. Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine.Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively. Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml, with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%. TSE in the home, car, and other peoples' homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15-0.25, while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161, a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6% compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4% (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3 (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%.Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population.

  3. Urinary cotinine levels of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göney, Gülşen; Çok, İsmet; Tamer, Uğur; Burgaz, Sema; Şengezer, Tijen

    2016-07-01

    The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is rapidly increasing in many countries. These devices are designed to imitate regular cigarettes, delivering nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco but currently, there is a lack of scientific evidence on the presence or absence of nicotine exposure. Such research relies on evidence from e-cigarette users urine samples. In this study, we aimed to determine the levels and compare the amount of nicotine to which e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers and passive smokers are exposed. Therefore, urine samples were collected from e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, passive smokers, and healthy nonsmokers. The urinary cotinine levels of the subjects were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mean (±SD) urinary cotinine levels were determined as 1755 ± 1848 ng/g creatinine for 32 e-cigarette users, 1720 ± 1335 ng/g creatinine for 33 cigarette smokers and 81.42 ± 97.90 ng/g creatinine for 33 passive smokers. A significant difference has been found between cotinine levels of e-cigarette users and passive smokers (p e-cigarette users and cigarette smokers (p > 0.05). This is a seminal study to demonstrate the e-cigarette users are exposed to nicotine as much as cigarette smokers.

  4. Determinants of passive smoking in children in Edinburgh, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M J; Strachan, D P; Feyerabend, C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Using saliva cotinine as a quantitative marker, we examined the contribution of factors other than parental smoking to children's passive exposure to tobacco smoke. METHODS. Saliva specimens from a random sample of 734 7-year-old schoolchildren in Edinburgh, Scotland, were analyzed for cotinine. Their parents completed a questionnaire covering smoking habits and conditions in the home. RESULTS. A number of independent predictors of cotinine were identified in addition to the main one of smoking by household members. These predictors included home ownership, social class, day of the week, season of the year, number of parents present, crowding in the home, the number of children in the household, and sex. Cotinine was higher in children from less advantaged backgrounds, during winter, on Mondays, in girls, and when fewer other children were present. The effects were similar between children from nonsmoking and smoking homes. CONCLUSIONS. Questionnaire measures of parental smoking are insufficient to fully characterize young children's exposure to passive smoking. Because socioeconomic variables contribute to measured exposure, passive-smoking studies that treat class as a confounder and control for it may be overcontrolling. PMID:1503162

  5. Are students exposed to tobacco smoke in German schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent 6th grade school children are exposed to tobacco smoke by others. As biomarker for the exposure to tobacco smoke nicotine and cotinine were measured in the urine. Our study population consisted of 771 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years who according to a questionnaire did not smoke. In addition we analysed the data of 459 school children who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the spontaneous urine sample were determined by HPLC methods.On average in about 20% of all non-smoking children, who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home, biomarker (nicotine or cotinine were detected in the urine. The percentage of the detected biomarker values (nicotine and/or cotinine in the urine of the school children varied between 0% and 50% between schools. In addition we determined the proportion of smoking classmates per school. No positive association was found between the detected biomarker values of the non-smoking school children not exposed to tobacco smoke at home and the proportion of smokers per school. The concentration of biomarker depending on the time of day the urine samples were collected showed higher nicotine and cotinine values when the urine sample was collected between 10 and 12 o'clock in the morning compared to urine samples collected between 7 and 10 a.m.In spite of the limitations our study provides some evidence that children are exposed involuntarily to tobacco smoke by others at school. That is why our results support the requirement of a general legal ban on smoking for teachers, the school staff and students.

  6. A convenient synthesis of sup 14 C-cotinine from sup 14 C-nicotine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, D.H.; Djordjevic, M.V.; Amin, S. (American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY (USA). Naylor Dana Inst. for Disease Prevention)

    1991-03-01

    A convenient synthesis with analytical monitoring of {sup 14}C-cotinine is reported. {sup 14}C-Nicotine was converted into {sup 14}C-dibromocotinine hydrobromide perbromide. Debromination, achieved by using Zn dust/acetic acid, resulted in high yields (71%) of {sup 14}C-cotinine. (author).

  7. Changes in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure over a 20-year period: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferis, Barbara J; Thomson, Andrew G; Lennon, Lucy T; Feyerabend, Colin; Doig, Mira; McMeekin, Laura; Wannamethee, S Goya; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2009-01-01

    Aims To examine long-term changes in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in British men between 1978 and 2000, using serum cotinine. Design Prospective cohort: British Regional Heart Study. Setting General practices in 24 towns in England, Wales and Scotland. Participants Non-smoking men: 2125 studied at baseline [questionnaire (Q1): 1978–80, aged 40–59 years], 3046 studied 20 years later (Q20: 1998–2000, aged 60–79 years) and 1208 studied at both times. Non-smokers were men reporting no current smoking with cotinine < 15 ng/ml at Q1 and/or Q20. Measurements Serum cotinine to assess ETS exposure. Findings In cross-sectional analysis, geometric mean cotinine level declined from 1.36 ng/ml [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31, 1.42] at Q1 to 0.19 ng/ml (95% CI: 0.18, 0.19) at Q20. The prevalence of cotinine levels ≤ 0.7 ng/ml [associated with low coronary heart disease (CHD) risk] rose from 27.1% at Q1 to 83.3% at Q20. Manual social class and northern region of residence were associated with higher mean cotinine levels both at Q1 and Q20; older age was associated with lower cotinine level at Q20 only. Among 1208 persistent non-smokers, cotinine fell by 1.47 ng/ml (95% CI: 1.37, 1.57), 86% decline. Absolute falls in cotinine were greater in manual occupational groups, in the Midlands and Scotland compared to southern England, although percentage decline was very similar across groups. Conclusions A marked decline in ETS exposure occurred in Britain between 1978 and 2000, which is likely to have reduced ETS-related disease risks appreciably before the introduction of legislation banning smoking in public places. PMID:19207361

  8. Reference Intervals for Urinary Cotinine Levels and the Influence of Sampling Time and Other Predictors on Its Excretion Among Italian Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Protano

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure remains a public health problem worldwide. The aims are to establish urinary (u- cotinine reference values for healthy Italian children, to evaluate the role of the sampling time and of other factors on children’s u-cotinine excretion. (2 Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 330 children. Information on participants was gathered by a questionnaire and u-cotinine was determined in two samples for each child, collected during the evening and the next morning. (3 Results: Reference intervals (as the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the distribution in evening and morning samples were respectively equal to 0.98–4.29 and 0.91–4.50 µg L−1 (ETS unexposed and 1.39–16.34 and 1.49–20.95 µg L−1 (ETS exposed. No statistical differences were recovered between median values found in evening and morning samples, both in ETS unexposed and exposed. Significant predictors of u-cotinine excretions were ponderal status according to body mass index of children (β = 0.202; p-value = 0.041 for evening samples; β = 0.169; p-value = 0.039 for morning samples and paternal educational level (β = −0.258; p-value = 0.010; for evening samples; β = −0.013; p-value = 0.003 for morning samples. (4 Conclusions: The results evidenced the need of further studies for assessing the role of confounding factors on ETS exposure, and the necessity of educational interventions on smokers for rising their awareness about ETS.

  9. Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Hospitality Workers Before and After a State Smoking Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A.; Schillo, Barbara A.; Moilanen, Molly M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3000 cancer deaths per year. While several countries and states in the U.S. have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of non-smoking employees (N=24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking prior to the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

  10. Airborne Nicotine, Secondhand Smoke, and Precursors to Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jennifer J; Racicot, Simon; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Hammond, S Katharine; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) directly increases exposure to airborne nicotine, tobacco's main psychoactive substance. When exposed to SHS, nonsmokers inhale 60% to 80% of airborne nicotine, absorb concentrations similar to those absorbed by smokers, and display high levels of nicotine biomarkers. Social modeling, or observing other smokers, is a well-established predictor of smoking during adolescence. Observing smokers also leads to increased pharmacological exposure to airborne nicotine via SHS. The objective of this study is to investigate whether greater exposure to airborne nicotine via SHS increases the risk for smoking initiation precursors among never-smoking adolescents. Secondary students ( N = 406; never-smokers: n = 338, 53% girls, mean age = 12.9, SD = 0.4) participated in the AdoQuest II longitudinal cohort. They answered questionnaires about social exposure to smoking (parents, siblings, peers) and known smoking precursors (eg, expected benefits and/or costs, SHS aversion, smoking susceptibility, and nicotine dependence symptoms). Saliva and hair samples were collected to derive biomarkers of cotinine and nicotine. Adolescents wore a passive monitor for 1 week to measure airborne nicotine. Higher airborne nicotine was significantly associated with greater expected benefits ( R 2 = 0.024) and lower expected costs ( R 2 = 0.014). Higher social exposure was significantly associated with more temptation to try smoking ( R 2 = 0.025), lower aversion to SHS ( R 2 = 0.038), and greater smoking susceptibility ( R 2 = 0.071). Greater social exposure was significantly associated with more nicotine dependence symptoms; this relation worsened with higher nicotine exposure (cotinine R 2 = 0.096; airborne nicotine R 2 = 0.088). Airborne nicotine exposure via SHS is a plausible risk factor for smoking initiation during adolescence. Public health implications include limiting airborne nicotine through smoking bans in homes and cars, in addition to stringent restrictions

  11. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among casino dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achutan, Chandran; West, Christine; Mueller, Charles; Bernert, John T; Bernard, Bruce

    2011-04-01

    This study quantified casino dealers' occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We measured casino dealers' exposure to ETS components by analyzing full-shift air and preshift and postshift urine samples. Casino dealers were exposed to nicotine, 4-vinyl pyridine, benzene, toluene, naphthalene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, solanesol, and respirable suspended particulates. Levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in urine increased significantly during an 8-hour work shift both with and without adjustment for creatinine clearance. Creatinine-unadjusted cotinine significantly increased during the 8-hour shift, but creatinine-adjusted cotinine did not increase significantly. Casino dealers at the three casinos were exposed to airborne ETS components and absorbed an ETS-specific component into their bodies, as demonstrated by detectable levels of urinary NNAL. The casinos should ban smoking on their premises and offer employee smoking cessation programs.

  12. Tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure in young adolescents aged 12–15 years: data from 68 low-income and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Bo Xi, PhD

    2016-11-01

    Funding: This work was partly supported by the Young Scholars Program of Shandong University (2015WLJH51, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (ZR2012HQ033, and the National Natural Science Foundation (81302496.

  13. A survey of schoolchildren's exposure to secondhand smoke in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Stephen W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of data describing the exposure of Malaysian schoolchildren to Secondhand Smoke (SHS. The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing schoolchildren's exposures to SHS in Malaysia. Method This cross-sectional study was carried out to measure salivary cotinine concentrations among 1064 schoolchildren (10-11 years attending 24 schools in Malaysia following recent partial smoke-free restrictions. Parents completed questionnaires and schoolchildren provided saliva samples for cotinine assay. Results The geometric mean (GM salivary cotinine concentrations for 947 non-smoking schoolchildren stratified by household residents' smoking behaviour were: for children living with non-smoking parents 0.32 ng/ml (95% CI 0.28-0.37 (n = 446; for children living with a smoker father 0.65 ng/ml (95% CI 0.57-0.72 (n = 432; for children living with two smoking parents 1.12 ng/ml (95% CI 0.29-4.40 (n = 3; for children who live with an extended family member who smokes 0.62 ng/ml (95% CI 0.42-0.89 (n = 33 and for children living with two smokers (father and extended family member 0.71 ng/ml (95% CI 0.40-0.97 (n = 44. Parental-reported SHS exposures showed poor agreement with children's self-reported SHS exposures. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that cotinine levels were positively associated with living with one or more smokers, urban residence, occupation of father (Armed forces, parental-reported exposure to SHS and education of the father (Diploma/Technical certificate. Conclusions This is the first study to characterise exposures to SHS using salivary cotinine concentrations among schoolchildren in Malaysia and also the first study documenting SHS exposure using salivary cotinine as a biomarker in a South-East Asian population of schoolchildren. Compared to other populations of similarly aged schoolchildren, Malaysian children have higher salivary cotinine concentrations. The partial nature of smoke

  14. Changes in hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke following the implementation of New York's smoke-free law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, M C; Nonnemaker, J M; Chou, R; Hyland, A; Peterson, K K; Bauer, U E

    2005-08-01

    To assess the impact on hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke of New York's smoke-free law that prohibits smoking in all places of employment, including restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities. Pre-post longitudinal follow up design. Restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities in New York State. At baseline, 104 non-smoking workers in restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities were recruited with newspaper ads, flyers, and radio announcements. Of these, 68 completed a telephone survey and provided at least one saliva cotinine specimen at baseline. At three, six, and 12 month follow up studies, 47, 38, and 32 workers from the baseline sample of 68 completed a telephone survey and provided at least one saliva cotinine specimen. The smoke-free law went into effect 24 July 2003. Self reported sensory and respiratory symptoms and exposure to secondhand smoke; self administered saliva cotinine specimens. Analyses were limited to subjects in all four study periods who completed a telephone survey and provided at least one saliva cotinine specimen. All analyses were limited to participants who completed both an interview and a saliva specimen for all waves of data collection (n = 30) and who had cotinine concentrations hospitality jobs decreased from 12.1 hours (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.0 to 16.3 hours) to 0.2 hours (95% CI -0.1 to 0.5 hours) (p law had its intended effect of protecting hospitality workers from exposure to secondhand smoke within three months of implementation. One year after implementation, the results suggest continued compliance with the law.

  15. South African tobacco smoking cessation clinical practice guideline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smokers have an increased risk of cancer (i.e. lung, throat, bladder), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (i.e. stroke, heart attack). Smoking affects unborn babies, children and others exposed to second hand smoke. Stopping or 'quitting' is not easy. Nicotine is highly ...

  16. The effects of taxes and bans on passive smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome Adda; Francesca Cornaglia

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of excise taxes and bans on smoking in public places on the exposure to tobacco smoke of non-smokers. We use a novel way of quantifying passive smoking: we use data on cotinine concentration- a metabolite of nicotine- measured in a large population of non-smokers over time. Exploiting state and time variation across US states, we reach two important conclusions. First, excise taxes have a significant effect on passive smoking. Second, smoking bans have on avera...

  17. The Effect of Taxes and Bans on Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Adda; Francesca Cornaglia

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of excise taxes and bans on smoking in public places on the exposure to tobacco smoke of non-smokers. We use a novel way of quantifying passive smoking: we use data on cotinine concentration- a metabolite of nicotine- measured in a large population of non-smokers over time. Exploiting state and time variation across US states, we reach two important conclusions. First, excise taxes have a significant effect on passive smoking. Second, smoking bans have on avera...

  18. Smoking as a Determinant of High Organochlorine Levels in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2003-01-01

    diet, and smoking or plasma cotinine in multiple linear-regression models (p smoking status. These findings confirm that the source of POPs among the Inuit in Greenland is diet, but smoking......The authors investigated the accumulation of organochlorines among smoking and nonsmoking Inuit hunters (n = 48) in Uummanaq, Greenland, a population with high dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Human plasma organochlorine levels were positively correlated with age, marine...... is an important determinant of POP bioaccumulation. Smoking cessation may provide a means to lower the body burden of POPs....

  19. Smoke-Free Policies in New Zealand Public Tertiary Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay A.; Marsh, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates the creation of smoke-free environments to protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke and reduce demand for tobacco. We aimed to examine the extent and nature of smoke-free campus policies at tertiary education institutions throughout New Zealand, and examine the policy development process.…

  20. Influence of radioiodine therapy on ocular changes and their relation to urine cotinine level in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnywojtek, A.; Czepczynski, R.; Budny, B.; Ruchata, M.; Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, M.; Florek, E.; Komar-Rychlicka, K.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Radioiodine therapy (RIT) is frequently used as the definitive treatment in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism when remission is not achieved with anti-thyroid drugs (ATDs). In this observational study, we intended to examine whether the use of high doses of radioiodine (RAI) [22 mCi (814 MBq)] with prophylaxis of oral glucocorticoids (oGCS) does not exacerbate Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) in smokers and non-smokers, especially with regard to cotinine concentrations and ocular changes before and after RIT. Material and methods: The studied group consisted of 26 smokers, aged 28-61 years and 25 non-smoker patients, aged 21-54 years, respectively. The patients were qualified to RAI after one-year of ineffective ATDs treatment. Criterion for acceptance in the study were patients with mild GO with hyperthyroidism at diagnosis based on the severity (NOSPECS) and activity (CAS) scale. All the patients were subjected to RIT with oGCS prophylaxis and evaluated prospectively during a one-year follow-up. The ophthalmological examination was performed at various stages of RIT: initial pre-radioiodine administration, at the time of treatment 6, and 12 months after RAI. Urine cotinine measurement was employed to detect nicotine exposure, also in regard to smoking intensity. Results: TSHR-Abs concentration was higher in smokers (P < 0.05), rising from (22.9 ± 1.2) IU/l before therapy to (29.6 ± 5.3) IU/l at 2 months, (32.6 ± 8.6) IU/l at 6 months, and (28.9 ± 10.6) IU/l at 12 months after RIT. These observed changes were statistically different between groups at baseline (P < 0.05) and after one-year follow-up (P < 0.005). Mean urine cotinine were considerably higher in smokers comparing to non smokers in each point of. CAS values in the smoking group before RIT increased statistically from 2.8 ± 0.2 points at baseline to 4.3 ± 0.3 after 6 months, and 4.0 ± 0.5 (12 months), while in the non-smoking patients it was 1.4 ± 0.2, 2.8

  1. Counseling parents to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Sharon L; Free, Teresa A

    2005-01-01

    It is estimated that 20%-50% of adult smokers reside with children, and the majority of these smokers (70%) continue to smoke inside their homes despite the adverse health effects of second hand smoke (SHS) for their children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997). Smoking is more prevalent among parents with lower incomes and less education (U.S. Surgeon General's Report, 2002a). Young persons, ages 20-40 in the family child-rearing stage, are more likely to be smokers. However, they usually have less time and financial resources for quitting smoking. To prevent the adverse health effects of SHS for children, pediatric nurses must provide parents with accurate information on affordable smoking cessation education resources. Evidenced-based smoking cessation guidelines, the cost and efficacy of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) pharmacological aids, and essential counseling tips for parents are reviewed.

  2. TAX AND ACCOUNTING IMPLICATIONS OF THE USE OF SPECIAL CHARGE SCHEME FOR SECOND-HAND GOODS TO THE PAWN SHOPS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE ECOBICI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the same time with the crisis deepening in Romania, pawn businessesare also growing. In this paper we discussed several issues concerning the choice of the schemeof registration and determination of value added tax at Pawn Shops, together with the tax andaccounting implications of this choice. Therefore, we presented the theoretical aspectsregarding the likelihood of Pawn Shops to choose the special scheme for second-hand goods, asthey are covered by the Fiscal Code. At the end of this paper we presented based on an examplethe tax and accounting implications of such special scheme as compared with the “normal”scheme regarding VAT at the Pawn Shops in Romania.

  3. Number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in saliva versus the status of cigarette smoking, considering duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa

    2017-09-21

    A large number of colonies of Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus (LB) cariogenic bacteria in the saliva show a high risk of dental caries development. Cotinine is a biomarker of exposure to the tobacco smoke. The aim of the study was assessment of the number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in the saliva of non-smokers and smokers considering the duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked daily. The number of SM and LB was analysed in relation to the frequency of oral health check-ups. The investigated group comprised 124 people aged 20-54. 58 (46.8%) reported cigarette smoking; 66 (53.2%) reported they had never smoked cigarettes and had never attempted to smoke. Cotinine concentration in the saliva was assayed using the Cotinine test (Calbiotech), and the number of SM and LB with the use of the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein). Statistical analysis was conducted using Chi2 and Mann-Whitney tests. Test values of pSM and LB and the status of smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of cigarette smoking. Smokers who reported having dental check-ups at least once a year significantly more frequently had a small number of LB stated in relation to people who had dental check-ups to control their oral health less frequently than once a year. The number of SM and LB in saliva does not depend on the smoking status, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of smoking.

  4. Reducing tobacco smoking and smoke exposure to prevent preterm birth and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagijo, Mary-Ann; Sheikh, Aziz; Duijts, Liesbeth; Been, Jasper V

    2017-03-01

    Tobacco smoking and smoke exposure during pregnancy are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth. Also, children born preterm have a higher risk of complications including bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma when their mothers smoked during pregnancy. Smoking cessation in early pregnancy can help reduce the adverse impact on offspring health. Counselling interventions are effective in promoting smoking cessation and reducing the incidence of preterm birth. Peer support and incentive-based approaches are likely to be of additional benefit, whereas the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, has not definitely been established. Smoke-free legislation can help reduce smoke exposure as well as maternal smoking rates at a population level, and is associated with a reduction in preterm birth. Helping future mothers to stop smoking and protect their children from second hand smoke exposure must be a key priority for health care workers and policy makers alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between Secondhand Smoke in Hospitality Venues and Urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol Concentrations in Non-Smoking Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Lee, Kiyoung; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Lee, Do Hoon; Kim, KyooSang

    2016-11-08

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between urinary cotinine and total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) concentrations in non-smoking staff and the indoor levels of fine particles (PM 2.5 ) in hospitality venues that allow smoking, with respect to demographic and indoor environmental factors. We evaluated 62 hospitality venues that allowed smoking in Seoul, Korea. A real-time aerosol monitor was used to measure indoor PM 2.5 concentrations. Field technicians recorded indoor environmental characteristics. One non-smoking staff member in each hospitality venue was tested for urinary cotinine and total NNAL concentrations. Demographic characteristics were obtained from self-reported staff questionnaires. Natural-log (ln)-transformed PM 2.5 concentrations were significantly correlated with the ln-transformed cotinine ( r = 0.31) and the total NNAL concentrations ( r = 0.32). In multivariable regression analysis, the urinary cotinine concentrations of the staff members were significantly correlated with indoor PM 2.5 concentrations; those with the highest concentrations were more likely to be women or staff members that worked in venues with a volume hospitality venues that allow smoking.

  6. How accurate are self‐reported smoking habits in patients with tuberculosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cope GF

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Smoking or chewing tobacco is a global public health problem that is becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. These same countries often also have high rates of tuberculosis disease and infection. As smoking can adversely affect tuberculosis severity, response to treatment and relapse, it is therefore important that clinicians have an accurate picture of patients’ smoking habits. Self‐reported smoking habits may be unreliable and objective measurements of tobacco exposure more accurate. Objective To determine the reliability of self‐reported smoking habits in patients with tuberculosis by measurement of urinary cotinine levels, an objective measure of tobacco exposure. Methods Self‐reported tobacco use was recorded in 100 patients receiving treatment for active or latent tuberculosis using an interviewer administered ‘questionnaire. Urinary cotinine levels were measured by the SmokeScreen test 24hours after the end of treatment. Findings Of 81 reported non‐smokers, 10 had a positive test for cotinine, six of whom gave a result indicative of heavy (11‐15 cigarettes/day or very heavy (>16/day smoking. Of the 17 self‐confessed smokers and two chewers of tobacco, nine gave a result consistent with very heavy smoking although none had reported this degree of tobacco use. Conclusions Important discrepancies exist between subjective and objective smoking habits. Reliance on patient history may adversely affect response to tuberculosis treatment, and some patients will be denied appropriate intervention for smoking cessation.

  7. Comparative cytotoxicity study of nicotine and cotinine on MRC-5 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Vlasceanu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine has several health hazards regarding carcinogenic potential. It also imparts increased risk for respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal disorders. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the carcinogenic potential, including effects on cell proliferation, inducing oxidative stress, DNA mutation, or inhibition of apoptosis. The cotinine metabolite is generally thought to have effects similar to nicotine in some experimental systems. The purpose of this study was to assess the nicotine and cotinine cytotoxicity on MRC-5 lung fibroblasts. The pulmonary fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of nicotine or cotinine (in the range 1 µM – 2 mM for 24 or 48 h and analyzed for cell viability by MTT test. The results indicated that high nicotine concentrations (2 mM induced marked cell death (about 50% in MRC-5 cell line. Cotinine showed lower toxicity than nicotine on the MRC-5 cells. In contrast to nicotine treatment, cells treated with cotinine continued to proliferate after the 48h incubation period.

  8. Biomarkers of passive smoking among Greek preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristeidis M; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios; Balomenaki, Evaggelia; Linardakis, Manolis K; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2006-12-01

    Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence in the European Union, affecting not only those who smoke but also threatening the health of those who are involuntarily exposed to passive smoke, especially young Greek children. The aim of this study was to quantify passive smoking biomarkers (serum nicotine and cotinine levels) among preschool children in Crete in relation to parental smoking habits. All children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete (1,757 preschool children and 2,809 parents) were interviewed during the 2004-2005 Cretan health promotion programme out of which a sample of 81 children was randomly selected according to parental smoking status and blood samples for cotinine and nicotine assay were taken. The geometric means of serum nicotine values in children with both parents current smokers and in those with both parents non-smokers were 0.71 ng/ml (95%CI 0.62, 0.80) and 0.59 ng/ml (95%CI 0.49, 0.69), respectively, (p=0.073). Cotinine geometric mean values were found at 1.69 ng/ml (95%CI 0.93, 3.06) and 0.15 ng/ml (95%CI 0.09, 0.28), respectively, (pparents had also greater cotinine geometric mean values than boys (3.35 versus 0.85 ng/ml, respectively, p=0.018). Our findings prove that Greek preschool children, especially young girls, are exposed to substantial levels of passive smoke which therefore stresses the need for immediate action so as to prevent the predisposition and early addiction of Greek preschool children to tobacco.

  9. [Exposure of smoking pregnant women to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Ligocka, Danuta

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds that are formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic matter. The most common sources of PAHs are cigarette smoke, coal-fired utilities, steel plants, coke-oven plants, graphite electrode manufacturing plant, Söderberg aluminum electrolysis plant, vehicle exhaust, wood-burning ovens and fireplaces, and charcoal-grilled and smoked food. The aim of the study was to assess the exposure of smoking pregnant women to PAHs. The study population consisted of 189 pregnant women from the Lódź voivodeship (province). Smoking status was assessed based on saliva cotinine level analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The cutoff point 10 ng/ml was adopted for saliva cotinine level. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) concentration in urine sample was chosen as the biomarker of exposure to PAHs. The mean concentration of 1-HP in urine of nonsmoking woman was 0.60 microg/g creatinine, whereas in smoking one 1.35 microg/g creatinine. Among the women with saliva cotinine level higher than 10 ng/ml, the mean concentration of 1-HP in urine was over twofold higher than that in women with cotinine level lower than 10 ng/ml after adjustment for the day of urine ample collection (ratio of geometric mean 2.3; 95% CI 1.7-3.0). The study confirmed a higher risk of exposure to PAHs in the group of women who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy as compared to nonsmoking women. It should be stressed that cigarette smoking is not the only source of exposure to PAHs.

  10. The association between self-reported versus nicotine metabolite-confirmed smoking status and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2018-05-01

    There are no data comparing the relationship between coronary artery calcification and self-reported and cotinine-verified smoking. This study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status in Korean adults. Study participants included 22 797 individuals (19 181 men; mean age±SD 39.2±7.1 years) who were enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study between 2011 and 2013, and who had urinary cotinine and CAC measurements. Cotinine-verified current smokers were defined as having a urinary cotinine level of above 50 ng/ml. The prevalence of never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers according to the self-reported questionnaires was 44.6, 24.2, and 31.2%, respectively, and that of cotinine-verified current smokers was 30.2%. The prevalence of the presence of CAC in self-reported current smokers was higher than that in self-reported never/former smokers (13.7 vs. 10.2%, P<0.001), and that in cotinine-verified current smokers was higher than that in cotinine-verified never smokers (14.0 vs. 10.2%, P<0.001). A multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for the variables with univariate relationships showed that self-reported former smokers and current smokers had significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for the presence of CAC compared with self-reported never smokers [OR (95% confidence interval): 1.20 (1.03-1.40) in former smokers and 1.29 (1.11-1.50) in current smokers]. Cotinine-verified current smokers also showed a significant association with the presence of CAC [1.23 (1.12-1.35)]. Furthermore, log-transformed cotinine levels increased the OR for the presence of CAC [1.03 (1.01-1.05)]. This study is the first large cohort study to show that both self-reported and cotinine-verified smoking is associated independently with the presence of CAC in Korean adults.

  11. Students? attitude and smoking behaviour following the implementation of a university smoke-free policy: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaaya, Monique; Alameddine, Maysam; Nakkash, Rima; Afifi, Rima A; Khalil, Joanna; Nahhas, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Objective In view of the high-smoking rate among university students in Lebanon and the known adverse effects of second-hand smoking, the American University of Beirut (AUB) decided to implement a non-smoking policy on campus. This study sought to examine the students? compliance and attitudes following the ban. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A private university in Lebanon. Participants 545 randomly selected students were approached. A stratified cluster sample of classes offered in t...

  12. LC-MS-MS Measurements of Urinary Creatinine and the Application of Creatinine Normalization Technique on Cotinine in Smokers’ 24 Hour Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Hou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of creatinine in human urine. The analysis was carried out on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (2.1×150 mm, 3.5 μm. The mobile phase was 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile (50/50, v/v. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 1–2000.0 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 0.99 ng/mL. The intra- and interday precision (RSD values were below 3%. The method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of creatinine in Chinese smokers and nonsmokers. The total cotinine in 24 h urine and cotinine : creatinine ratio were also positively associated (Pearson R=0.942, P<0.0001. However, cotinine : creatinine ratio varied significantly across smoking groups for the difference of individual. 24 h urinary cotinine was more appropriate for expressing correlation with tar than cotinine : creatinine ratio.

  13. DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF MALE GERM CELLS TO MAINSTREAM AND SIDESTREAM TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE MOUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzos, Aris; Schmid, Thomas Ernst; Pina-Guzman, Belem; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Marchetti, Francesco

    2009-03-13

    Cigarette smoking in men has been associated with increased chromosomal abnormalities in sperm and with increased risks for spontaneous abortions, birth defects and neonatal death. Little is known, however, about the reproductive consequences of paternal exposure to second-hand smoke. We used a mouse model to investigate the effects of paternal exposure to sidestream (SS) smoke, the main constituent of second-hand smoke, on the genetic integrity and function of sperm, and to determine whether male germ cells were equally sensitive to mainstream (MS) and SS smoke. A series of sperm DNA quality and reproductive endpoints were investigated after exposing male mice for two weeks to MS or SS smoke. Our results indicated that: (i) only SS smoke significantly affected sperm motility; (ii) only MS smoke induced DNA strand breaks in sperm; (iii) both MS and SS smoke increased sperm chromatin structure abnormalities; and (iv) MS smoke affected both fertilization and the rate of early embryonic development, while SS smoke affected fertilization only. These results show that MS and SS smoke have differential effects on the genetic integrity and function of sperm and provide further evidence that male exposure to second-hand smoke, as well as direct cigarette smoke, may diminish a couple's chance for a successful pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby.

  14. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  15. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Children’s Intelligence at 8–11 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Han, Doug Hyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence supporting a link between postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and cognitive problems among children is mounting, but inconsistent. Objectives: We examined the relationship between ETS exposure, measured using urine cotinine, and IQ scores in Korean school-aged children. Methods: The participants were 996 children 8–11 years of age recruited from five administrative regions in South Korea. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of urinary cotinine concentrations and IQ scores obtained using the abbreviated form of a Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders, and estimates were derived with and without adjustment for mother’s Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) score. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic and developmental covariates, urinary cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with FSIQ, Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), vocabulary, math, and block design scores. Following further adjustment for maternal IQ, only the VIQ scores remained significantly associated with urinary cotinine concentration (B = –0.31; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.03 for a 1-unit increase in natural log-transformed urine cotinine concentration; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Urine cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with children’s VIQ scores before and after adjusting for maternal IQ. Further prospective studies with serial measurements of cotinine are needed to confirm our findings. Citation: Park S, Cho SC, Hong YC, Kim JW, Shin MS, Yoo HJ, Han DH, Cheong JH, Kim BN. 2014. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children’s intelligence at 8–11 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:1123–1128; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307088 PMID:24911003

  16. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Jensen, Janne F; Hansen, Pernille W; Hansen, Anne K; Christoffersen, Lea N; Siersma, Volkert D; Larsen, Ida H; Hohlmann, Linette K; Skaanild, Mette T; Frederiksen, Hanne; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair; Bloemen, Louis; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Lopez, Ana; Cañas, Ana; Aerts, Dominique; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2015-08-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Smoking cessation is followed by a sharp but transient rise in the incidence of overt autoimmune hypothyroidism – A population‐based, case–control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Bülow Pedersen, Inge; Knudsen, Nils

    2012-01-01

    habits were verified by measuring urinary cotinine (a nicotine metabolite). Incident hypothyroidism was very common in people who had recently stopped smoking: OR vs never smokers (95%‐CI); quit smoking 10 years, 0·76 (0·38–1·51). Results were consistent in both sexes and irrespective of age. Within two...

  18. The number of oogonia and somatic cells in the human female embryo and fetus in relation to whether or not exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutterodt, M C; Sørensen, K P; Larsen, K B

    2009-01-01

    of in utero exposure to cigarette smoking. METHODS: Twenty-nine human first-trimester ovaries from legal abortions [aged 38-64 days post-conception (p.c.)] were collected. Mothers filled out a questionnaire about their smoking habits and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. The ovarian cell numbers...

  19. NHS patients, staff, and visitor viewpoints of smoking within a hospitals’ ground: a qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Serafin, Alina; Franklin, Sarah; Mehta, Rashesh; Crosby, Scott; Lee, Diane; Edlin, Becky; Bewick, Bridgette M

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking is a public health concern and an avoidable cause of morbidity and mortality. Widening tobacco control policies might help shift social norms, the acceptability of exposing others to second-hand smoke, and cultural attitudes towards smoking. This study explored patient, staff, and visitor viewpoints of smoking within the grounds of a National Health Service hospital. Methods Analysis of free text responses given as part of a larger repeat cross sectional questionnaire study...

  20. The potential role of cotinine in the cognitive and neuroprotective actions of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccafusco, Jerry J; Terry, Alvin V

    2003-05-16

    Cotinine is a primary metabolite of nicotine that has been suggested in many studies in animals and in humans to exert measurable effects on aspects of on-going behavior or on cognitive function. Much of the interest in cotinine derives from its long pharmacological half-life (15-19 hours) relative to nicotine (2-3 hours). Despite decades of study focusing on nicotine as the predominant behaviorally active component of tobacco, there continue to be aspects of the pharmacology of the drug that have yet to be explained. For example, nicotine can evoke a protracted behavioral response, i.e., in great excess of the presence of the drug in the plasma. Also, there is often a striking differential between the potency for nicotine-induced behavioral responses in humans and animals, and its potency as a cholinergic agonist, neurochemically. One possibility that may explain one or more of these properties of nicotine is the presence of a long-lived bioactive metabolite or breakdown product of nicotine such as cotinine. Preliminary data in support of this hypothesis are consistent with the ability of cotinine to improve performance accuracy on delayed matching task by macaque monkeys, and in reversing apomorphine-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in rats. The drug also was shown to be as potent as nicotine in the ability to act as a cytoprotective agent in cells that express a neuronal cholinergic phenotype. This new appreciation for the role of cotinine in nicotine's actions, and as a pharmacological agent in its own right, particularly in aspects of cognitive function and for neuroprotection, ultimately may be applied towards the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders, and for various psychiatric syndromes.

  1. Assessment of urinary cotinine as a marker of nicotine absorption from tobacco leaves: a study on tobacco farmers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Mayumi; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Kimura, Kaoru; Sato, Hajime; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Naing, Lin; Morita, Yoko; Sakai, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Yasuki; Araki, Shunichi

    2003-05-01

    To assess dermal absorption of nicotine from tobacco leaves in relation to Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS), urinary cotinine concentrations were measured in 80 male tobacco-growing farmers and in 40 healthy males (controls) who did not handle wet tobacco leaves in Kelantan, Malaysia. Among non-smokers, urinary cotinine levels in farmers were significantly higher than those of controls; farmers with urinary cotinine of 50 ng/ml/m2 or above showed eye symptoms more frequently than those below this level (ptobacco farmers evidence a risk of nicotine poisoning from tobacco leaves, assessment including GTS together with effects of pesticides will be necessary.

  2. Tobacco smoke exposure in nonsmoking hospitality workers before and after a state smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A; Schillo, Barbara A; Moilanen, Molly M; Lindgren, Bruce R; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2010-04-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3,000 cancer deaths per year. Although several countries and states in the United States have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of nonsmoking employees (n = 24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking before the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues.

  3. Newsprint coverage of smoking in cars carrying children: a case study of public and scientific opinion driving the policy debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Bain, Josh; Patterson, Chris; Duffy, Sheila; Semple, Sean

    2014-10-29

    Media content has been shown to influence public understandings of second-hand smoke. Since 2007 there has been legislation prohibiting smoking in all enclosed public places throughout the United Kingdom (UK). In the intervening period, interest has grown in considering other policy interventions to further reduce the harms of second-hand smoke exposure. This study offers the first investigation into how the UK newsprint media are framing the current policy debate about the need for smoke-free laws to protect children from the harms of second-hand smoke exposure whilst in vehicles. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on relevant articles from six UK and three Scottish national newspapers. Articles published between 1st January 2004 and 16th February 2014 were identified using the electronic database Nexis UK. A total of 116 articles were eligible for detailed coding and analysis that focused on the harms of second-hand smoke exposure to children in vehicles. Comparing the period of 2004-2007 and 2008-2014 there has been an approximately ten-fold increase in the number of articles reporting on the harms to children of second-hand smoke exposure in vehicles. Legislative action to prohibit smoking in vehicles carrying children was largely reported as necessary, enforceable and presented as having public support. It was commonly reported that whilst people were aware of the general harms associated with second-hand smoke, drivers were not sufficiently aware of how harmful smoking around children in the confined space of the vehicle could be. The increased news reporting on the harms of second-hand smoke exposure to children in vehicles and recent policy debates indicate that scientific and public interest in this issue has grown over the past decade. Further, advocacy efforts might draw greater attention to the success of public-space smoke-free legislation which has promoted a change in attitudes, behaviours and social norms. Efforts might also specifically

  4. Impact of the Spanish smoking law in smoker hospitality workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Ariza, Carles; Pascual, José A; Schiaffino, Anna; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-09-01

    A smoke-free law went into effect in Spain on 1 January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, where only partial bans were implemented. The objective was to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers who smoke. The study design is a before-and-after evaluation. We formed a cohort at baseline, during the 3 months before the law went into effect, with 431 hospitality workers (222 smokers). From them, 288 were successfully followed-up 12 months after the ban (118 were smokers at baseline). We analyzed the quit rate, the reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, changes in the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores, and changes in salivary cotinine concentrations in smokers from baseline to 1 year after the ban. Among 118 smokers, six (5.1%) quit smoking. Among the 112 remaining smokers, the mean number of cigarettes smoked decreased by 8.9% after the ban (from 17.9 to 16.3 cigarettes/day, p 6) was reduced by half after the ban (19.5% vs. 9.7%, p = .03). Salivary cotinine decreased by 4.4% after the ban (geometric mean 104.3 vs. 99.7 ng/ml, p = .02). No meaningful differences were found in quit rates and the FTND scores according to type of regulation. The Spanish smoking law has had beneficial effects (reduction in number of cigarettes smoked, cotinine levels, and FTND score) among hospitality workers who smoke.

  5. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mørck, Thit A. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nielsen, Flemming [Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Nielsen, Jeanette K.S.; Jensen, Janne F.; Hansen, Pernille W.; Hansen, Anne K.; Christoffersen, Lea N. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Siersma, Volkert D. [The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Ida H.; Hohlmann, Linette K. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Skaanild, Mette T. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Denmark); Frederiksen, Hanne [Department of Growth and Reproduction, University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Biot, Pierre [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine [University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda [Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany); Castaño, Argelia [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum (Germany); Esteban, Marta [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-08-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to levels in the

  6. Validity of self-reported adult secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Grossman, William; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of adults to secondhand smoke (SHS) has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease. The current study evaluated brief self-report screening measures for accurately identifying adult cardiology patients with clinically significant levels of SHS exposure in need of intervention. A cross-sectional study conducted in a university-affiliated cardiology clinic and cardiology inpatient service. Participants were 118 non-smoking patients (59% male, mean age=63.6 years, SD=16.8) seeking cardiology services. Serum cotinine levels and self-reported SHS exposure in the past 24 h and 7 days on 13 adult secondhand exposure to smoke (ASHES) items. A single item assessment of SHS exposure in one's own home in the past 7 days was significantly correlated with serum cotinine levels (r=0.41, p85% and correct classification rates >85% at cotinine cut-off points of >0.215 and >0.80 ng/mL. The item outperformed multi-item scales, an assessment of home smoking rules, and SHS exposure assessed in other residential areas, automobiles and public settings. The sample was less accurate at self-reporting lower levels of SHS exposure (cotinine 0.05-0.215 ng/mL). The single item ASHES-7d Home screener is brief, assesses recent SHS exposure over a week's time, and yielded the optimal balance of sensitivity and specificity. The current findings support use of the ASHES-7d Home screener to detect SHS exposure and can be easily incorporated into assessment of other major vital signs in cardiology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Biomarkers of Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Racial/Ethnic Groups at High Risk for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchan, Eric T.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Cassel, Kevin D.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe’aimoku; Sy, Angela; Alexander, Linda A.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Johnson, C. Anderson; Antonio, Alyssa; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Clanton, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Whites, groups that have different lung cancer risk. Methods. We collected survey data and height, weight, saliva, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels from a sample of daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 179). Mean measures of nicotine, cotinine, cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, trans 3′ hydroxycotinine, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), and expired CO were compared among racial/ethnic groups. Results. The geometric means for cotinine, the cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, and CO did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups in the adjusted models. After adjusting for gender, body mass index, menthol smoking, Hispanic ethnicity, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the NMR was significantly higher among Whites than among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos (NMR = 0.33, 0.20, 0.19, P ≤ .001). The NMR increased with increasing White parental ancestry. The NMR was not significantly correlated with social–environmental stressors. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic groups with higher rates of lung cancer had slower nicotine metabolism than Whites. The complex relationship between lung cancer risk and nicotine metabolism among racial/ethnic groups needs further clarification. PMID:25880962

  8. Differences in Current Cigarette Smoking Between Non-Hispanic Whites and Non-Hispanic Blacks by Gender and Age Group, United States, 2001 – 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Ralph S.; Sharapova, Saida; Asman, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For years, national U.S. surveys have consistently found a lower cigarette smoking prevalence among non-Hispanic (NH) black adolescents and young adults than their NH white counterpart while finding either similar or higher smoking prevalence in NH blacks among older adults. Because these surveys do not collect biomarker information to validate smoking self-reports, we also present results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which collects cotinine (a nicotine biomarker) to determine if U.S. surveys consistently show racial differences in smoking prevalence. Methods We present NH black and NH white current smoking estimates in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2001–2013), National Youth Tobacco Survey (2004–2012), National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2002–2012), National Health Interview Survey (2001–2013), and NHANES (2001–2012). Results Using cotinine by itself or with self-reports to compare smoking prevalence between NH black and NH white males aged 12 – 25 years, no difference in current smoking was found. For male adult ≥26 years, all surveys consistently found a higher smoking prevalence among NH blacks. For females aged 12 – 25 years, all surveys found a higher smoking prevalence among NH whites. While inconsistent results across surveys were found for those aged ≥26 years, cotinine results showed a higher smoking prevalence among NH black females. Conclusion Some racial differences in self-reported smoking are not confirmed when supplemented with serum cotinine to detect current cigarette smokers. Improving the measurement of current smoking is important to accurately evaluate racial smoking differences. PMID:26980863

  9. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szponar, B.; Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) and 0.0007/m 3 (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: ► Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. ► Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. ► LPS from mainstream smoke contains 3-hydroxy 14:0 and 12:0 fatty acids in similar proportion as

  10. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  11. Cotinine improves visual recognition memory and decreases cortical Tau phosphorylation in the Tg6799 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizzell, J Alex; Patel, Sagar; Barreto, George E; Echeverria, Valentina

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the progressive aggregation of hyperphosphorylated forms of the microtubule associated protein Tau in the central nervous system. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, reduced working memory deficits, synaptic loss, and amyloid β peptide aggregation into oligomers and plaques as well as inhibited the cerebral Tau kinase, glycogen synthase 3β (GSK3β) in the transgenic (Tg)6799 (5XFAD) mice. In this study, the effect of cotinine on visual recognition memory and cortical Tau phosphorylation at the GSK3β sites Serine (Ser)-396/Ser-404 and phospho-CREB were investigated in the Tg6799 and non-transgenic (NT) littermate mice. Tg mice showed short-term visual recognition memory impairment in the novel object recognition test, and higher levels of Tau phosphorylation when compared to NT mice. Cotinine significantly improved visual recognition memory performance increased CREB phosphorylation and reduced cortical Tau phosphorylation. Potential mechanisms underlying theses beneficial effects are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Unravelling the Conformational Landscape of Nicotinoids: the Structure of Cotinine by Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, Iciar; Ecija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Perez, Cristobal; Caballero-Mancebo, Elena; Lesarri, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Alkaloids such as nicotine, cotinine or anabasine share a common floppy structural motif consisting of a two-ring assembly with a 3-pyridil methylamine skeleton. In order to investigate the structure-activity relationship of these biomolecules, structural studies with rotational resolution have been carried out for nicotine and anabasine in the gas phase, where these molecules can be probed in an "interaction-free" environment (no solvent or crystal-packing interactions). We hereby present a structural investigation of cotinine in a jet expansion using the chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer recently built at the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU). The rotational spectrum (6-18 GHz) reveals the presence of two different conformations. The conformational preferences of cotinine originate from the internal rotation of the two ring moieties, the detected species differing in a near 180° rotation of pyridine. The final structure is modulated by steric effects. J.-U. Grabow, S. Mata, J. L. Alonso, I. Peña, S. Blanco, J. C. López, C. Cabezas, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 21063. A. Lesarri, E. J. Cocinero, L. Evangelisti, R. D. Suenram, W. Caminati, J.-U. Grabow, Chem. Eur. J. 2010, 16, 10214.

  13. Synthesis of optically pure deuterium-labelled nicotine, nornicotine and cotinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P. III; Benowitz, N.L.; Shulgin, A.T.; California Univ., San Francisco

    1988-01-01

    We describe methods for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure (S)-nicotine-3',3'-d 2 , (S)-nornicotine-3',3-d 2 , and (S)-cotinine-4',4'-d 2 . The key intermediate was 5-bromomyosmine, which underwent base catalyzed exchange with deuterium oxide to give 5-bromomyosmine-3',3'- d 2 with >99% incorporation of label. This intermediate was reduced to (±)-5-bromo-nornicotine-3',3'-d 2 with sodium borohydride, resolved, and converted to (S)-nornicotine-3',3'-d(sub)2 by reductive debromination with hydrogen and a palladium catalyst. Reductive alkylation with formaldehyde and sodium borohydride provided (S)-nicotine-3',3'-d 2 , which was converted to (S)-cotinine-4',4'-d 2 by reaction with bromine followed by zinc reduction. The deuterium label is located at positions that are not attacked in the major routes of mammalian metabolism of these alkaloids. Syntheses of tetradeuterated analogs of nicotine and cotinine and a pentadeuterated analog of nicotine, in which additional deuterium atoms are incorporated in the methyl groups, are also reported. (author)

  14. Measurement of urinary Benzo[a]pyrene tetrols and their relationship to other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites and cotinine in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Donald C; Trinidad, Debra A; Hubbard, Kendra; Li, Zheng; Sjödin, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Biomonitoring of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) typically uses measurement of metabolites of PAHs with four or less aromatic rings, such as 1-hydroxypyrene, even though interest may be in exposure to larger and carcinogenic PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). An improved procedure for measuring two tetrol metabolites of B[a]P has been developed. Using 2 mL urine, the method includes enzymatic deconjugation of the tetrol conjugates, liquid-liquid extraction, activated carbon solid phase extraction (SPE) and Strata-X SPE, and gas chromatography-electron capture negative ionization-tandem mass spectrometric determination. Limits of detection were 0.026 pg/mL (benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol, BPT I-1) and 0.090 pg/mL (benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,c-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol, BPT II-1). We quantified BPT I-1 and BPT II-1 in urine from a volunteer who consumed one meal containing high levels of PAHs (barbequed chicken). We also measured urinary concentrations of BPT I-1 and BPT II-1 in smokers and nonsmokers, and compared these concentrations with those of monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) and cotinine. Urinary elimination of BPT I-1 and BPT II-1 as a function of time after dietary exposure was similar to that observed previously for OH-PAHs. While the median BPT I-1 concentration in smokers' urine (0.069 pg/mL) significantly differs from nonsmokers (0.043 pg/mL), BPT I-1 is only weakly correlated with cotinine. The urinary concentration of BPT I-1 shows a weaker relationship to tobacco smoke than metabolites of smaller PAHs, suggesting that other routes of exposure such as for example dietary routes may be of larger quantitative importance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the Uni...

  16. Asthma diagnosis in a child and cessation of smoking in the child's home : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Alet H; Schipper, Maarten; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H; Gehring, Ulrike

    Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased incidence and severity of childhood asthma. We investigated whether, in turn, asthma diagnosis in a child is associated with cessation of smoking exposure in the child's home. In the PIAMA birth cohort (n=3963), parents reported on

  17. Asthma diagnosis in a child and cessation of smoking in the child's home : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Alet H.; Schipper, Maarten; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Gehring, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased incidence and severity of childhood asthma. We investigated whether, in turn, asthma diagnosis in a child is associated with cessation of smoking exposure in the child's home. In the PIAMA birth cohort (n = 3963), parents reported on

  18. The Influence of Cigarette Smoking on Gingival Bleeding and Serum Concentrations of Haptoglobin and Alpha 1-Antitrypsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad H. Al-Bayaty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding and serum concentrations of cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin in Malaysian smokers. A total of 197 male smokers and nonsmokers were recruited for this study. Plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP, and levels of serum cotinine, haptoglobin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin were evaluated. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0, with the significance level set at α≤0.05. Linear regression analyses were performed. The mean cigarette consumption per day was 13.39±5.75 cigarettes; the mean duration was 16.03±8.78 years. Relatively low BOP values (26.05±1.48 and moderate plaque indexes (51.35±11.27 were found. The levels of serum cotinine (106.9±30.71 ng/dL, haptoglobin (76.04±52.48 mg/dL, and alpha 1-antitrypsin (141.90±18.40 mg/dL were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression models for all variables and smokers demonstrated observed differences between BOP, the number of cigarettes per day, and duration of smoking, while serum cotinine, haptoglobin and alpha-1 antitrypsin levels showed no significant differences. Duration of smoking (years and the cotinine level in serum showed a significant correlation with plaque index. The present analysis demonstrated that the duration of smoking in years, but not the number of cigarettes smoked per day, was associated with reduced gingival bleeding in smokers.

  19. Maternal smoking effects on infant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, G.; Berlanga, R.; Garcia, C.; Vio, F.

    2000-01-01

    Maternal smoking is known to have adverse effects on birth weight, duration and volume of breast feeding. It also negatively affects maternal body composition and prolactin concentration at the end of pregnancy. The effect of smoking on longitudinal growth has not been studied thoroughly. Sixteen smoking mothers (S) during pregnancy and lactation (7.1 ± 4.4 cigarettes/day) and 22 non-smoking mothers (NS), were selected at delivery time, in Santiago, Chile. Infants were evaluated monthly and volume of breast milk was measured at one month by dose-to-infant deuterium dilution, as well as cotinine levels. The concentration of zinc, copper and iron in milk was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Zinc, copper and cadmium were also determined in the infant's hair at one and six months and once in the mother (beginning of lactation). Cotinine levels were determined at one and six months by a radio-immuno-analysis standard kit. In monthly visits to the house, additional formula/food intake to breast feeding was determined in a 48 hours questionnaire to the mother, as well as infant's morbidity was registered. At birth, weight and height were not significantly different, although higher in NS infants. Cotinine levels were 30 times higher in S-mothers compared to NS mothers and 12 times higher in their infants. Both S and NS infants grew within normality as defined by the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) in the Z-scores curves (weight/age, height/age and weight/height). Breast milk was similar in a partial group of NS and S groups (730 ± 133 g/d, 736 ± 136 g/d) and there was no difference in the content of zinc, copper and iron in milk or hair, except for cadmium which was higher in infant's hair at one month of age. Significant differences in height and height/age were found from one to six months of age. Weight/height began to be significantly higher in S-infants from three months onward, due to their slower height growth. Another group of

  20. Comparison of secondhand smoke exposure measures during pregnancy in the development of a clinical prediction model for small-for-gestational-age among non-smoking Chinese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong; Niu, Zhongzheng; Ding, Peng; Liu, Tao; He, Yanhui; Lin, Jianmiao; Yuan, Shixin; Guo, Xiaoling; Jia, Deqin; Chen, Weiqing

    2015-10-01

    To compare predictive values of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) by different measures for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy and to develop and validate a prediction model for SGA using SHS exposure along with sociodemographic and pregnancy factors. We compared the predictability of different measures of SHS exposure during pregnancy for SGA among 545 Chinese pregnant women, and then used the optimal SHS measure along with other clinically available factors to develop and validate a prediction model for SGA. We fit logistic regression models to predict SGA by single measures of SHS exposure (self-report, serum cotinine and CYP2A6*4) and different combinations (self-report+cotinine, cotinine+CYP2A6*4, self-report+CYP2A6*4 and self-report+cotinine+CYP2A6*4). We found that self-reported SHS exposure alone predicted SGA (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve or area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC), 0.578) better than the other two single measures (cotinine, 0.547; CYP2A6*4, 0.529) or as accurately as combined SHS measures (0.545-0.584). The final prediction model that contained self-reported SHS exposure, prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain velocity during the second and third trimesters, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension and the third-trimester biparietal diameter Z-score could predict SGA fairly accurately (AUROC, 0.698). Self-reported SHS exposure at peribirth performs better in predicting SGA than a single measure of serum cotinine at the same time, although repeated biochemical cotinine assessments throughout pregnancy may be optimal. Our simple prediction model is fairly accurate and can be potentially used in routine prenatal care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Tobacco Use, Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Cessation Training among Third-Year Medical Technology Students in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjuntra, Pisit; Suriyaprom, Kanjana

    2015-10-01

    Compare tobacco use, exposure to second-hand smoke, and smoking cessation training among third-year medical technology students in Thailand between 2006 and 2011. The medical technology student survey was carried out with Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) between October and November 2011. The population of the present study was all students in nine medical technology schools. There were 773 students enrolled in this study yielding a response rate of 95.1%. The prevalence of current cigarette smokers had decreased from 2006 to 2011 (4.8% to 1.4%, respectively). Rates of exposure to second-hand smoke at home were 36.3% in 2006 and 39.7% in 2011, while rates of exposure to second-hand smoke in other places did not change. Most students recognized that they should give patients counseling to quit smoking, but only 20.6% in 2006 and 28.4% in 2011 of them had received formal training in tobacco cessation counseling. There were low percentages of current cigarette smoking but high percentages of exposure to second-hand smoke among medical technology students. The percentage of cessation training was still low among students. Therefore, medical technology schools should provide formal training in tobacco cessation for all students to help improve their ability in providing advice to patients.

  2. Italy: the first European country to forbid smoking in closed spaces. First results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurendi, G; Galeone, D; Spizzichino, L; Vasselli, S; D'Argenio, P

    2007-04-01

    Second-hand smoke is a well-known risk factor for several diseases, including lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma. Evidence exists that smoke-free policies have an effect on reducing or eliminating the exposure to second-hand smoke, decreasing the prevalence of smokers, encouraging smokers to quit or preventing the initiation of smoking, and reducing cigarettes consumption among smokers. Italy has been the first European country to forbid smoking in closed places, also in working areas not open to the public, as protection to the health of the entire population. This article describes the first results obtained from the application of this new law, the positive effects and unexpected modifications in the behaviour and social habits of the Italian people, thus, revealing itself an important instrument to protect public health.

  3. Evaluation of Dried Urine Spot Method to Screen Cotinine among Tobacco Dependents: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raka; Quraishi, Rizwana; Verma, Arpita

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine in body fluids, is an important approach for validating the self-report among tobacco users. Adaptation of assays on dried urine spots (DUSs) has advantages of ease of collection, transportation, minimal invasiveness, and requirement of small volume. The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient method for testing cotinine in DUSs and evaluating its clinical applicability. This involved optimization of conditions for detection, recovery, and stability of cotinine from dried urine, spotted on filter paper. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for screening, whereas confirmation was done by gas chromatography. For clinical applicability, urine samples of tobacco users were tested. Water was found to be a suitable extracting solvent as compared to carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (pH 9.2) and saline. Screening was achieved by two punches taken from a 20 μl (diameter 1.3 cm) spotted urine samples, and confirmation was achieved by five complete circles each of 20 μl sample volume. The recovery was found to be 97% in water. Limit of detection for the method was found to be 100 ng/ml. No signs of significant degradation were found under all storage conditions. All the urine samples of tobacco users were found to be positive by a conventional method as well as DUSs, and the method proved to be efficient. DUS samples are a useful alternative for biological monitoring of recent nicotine use, especially in developing countries where sample logistics could be an important concern.

  4. Greater gains from smoke-free legislation for non-smoking bar staff in Belfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Finian; Devlin, Anne; McElwee, Gerry; Gavin, Anna

    2009-12-01

    In April 2007, smoke-free legislation was enacted in workplaces throughout N. Ireland. The effects of this legislation on bar workers' health and their exposure to second-hand smoke at home, work and social environment, and their attitudes to the legislation before and after its implementation remain to be documented. A self-completed questionnaire of bar staff in 35 Belfast bars, before (March 2007, n = 110) and after the legislation (July 2007, n = 110). Smokers (excluding 'social smokers') made up 41.6% of respondents. After the introduction of the smoke-free legislation, the reductions in the proportion of bar workers reporting various respiratory symptoms ranged from 1.3% to 18.6% for smokers and from 21.9% to 33.2% for non-smokers. Likewise, the reductions for various sensory symptoms ranged from 7.3% to 17.7% for smokers and from 29.6% to 46.8% for non-smokers. Reduction in wheeze, cough and throat symptoms after the legislation were much greater for non-smokers than smokers. The proportion of bar staff who reported satisfaction with the legislation remained unchanged across the surveys. Decreases in perceived exposure to second-hand smoke occurred at work, home and in social settings. After the legislation's enactment, a majority of bar workers felt the workplace was healthier (98%). These first findings show reduced reported symptoms among bar workers, both smokers and non-smokers, after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in N. Ireland, though greater among non-smokers. There was also a reported fall in the hours of second-hand smoke exposure in the home for this group of workers which has a high prevalence of smokers.

  5. Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmes John

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although personal cigarette smoking is the most important cause and modulator of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, secondhand smoke (SHS exposure could influence the course of the disease. Despite the importance of this question, the impact of SHS exposure on COPD health outcomes remains unknown. Methods We used data from two waves of a population-based multiwave U.S. cohort study of adults with COPD. 77 non-smoking respondents with a diagnosis of COPD completed direct SHS monitoring based on urine cotinine and a personal badge that measures nicotine. We evaluated the longitudinal impact of SHS exposure on validated measures of COPD severity, physical health status, quality of life (QOL, and dyspnea measured at one year follow-up. Results The highest level of SHS exposure, as measured by urine cotinine, was cross-sectionally associated with poorer COPD severity (mean score increment 4.7 pts; 95% CI 0.6 to 8.9 and dyspnea (1.0 pts; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.7 after controlling for covariates. In longitudinal analysis, the highest level of baseline cotinine was associated with worse COPD severity (4.7 points; 95% CI -0.1 to 9.4; p = 0.054, disease-specific QOL (2.9 pts; -0.16 to 5.9; p = 0.063, and dyspnea (0.9 pts; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.6 pts; p Conclusion Directly measured SHS exposure appears to adversely influence health outcomes in COPD, independent of personal smoking. Because SHS is a modifiable risk factor, clinicians should assess SHS exposure in their patients and counsel its avoidance. In public health terms, the effects of SHS exposure on this vulnerable subpopulation provide a further rationale for laws prohibiting public smoking.

  6. Detecting biomarkers of secondhand marijuana smoke in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Karen M; Torok, Michelle R; Wei, Binnian; Wang, Lanqing; Robinson, Michelle; Sosnoff, Connie S; Blount, Benjamin C

    2017-04-01

    The impact of secondhand marijuana smoke exposure on children is unknown. New methods allow detection of secondhand marijuana smoke in children. We studied children ages 1 mo to 2 y hospitalized with bronchiolitis in Colorado from 2013 to 2015. Parents completed a survey, and urine samples were analyzed for cotinine using LC/MS/MS (limits of detection 0.03 ng/ml) and marijuana metabolites including COOH-THC (limits of detection 0.015 ng/ml). A total of 43 subjects had urine samples available for analysis. Most (77%) of the subjects were male, and 52% were less than 1 y of age. COOH-THC was detectable in 16% of the samples analyzed (THC+); the range in COOH-THC concentration was 0.03-1.5 ng/ml. Two subjects had levels >1 ng/ml. Exposure did not differ by gender or age. Non-white children had more exposure than white children (44 vs. 9%; P 2.0 ng/ml were THC+, compared with 7% of those with lower cotinine (P marijuana smoke can be detected in children; in this cohort, 16% were exposed. Detectable COOH-THC is more common in children with tobacco smoke exposure. More research is needed to assess the health impacts of marijuana smoke exposure on children and inform public health policy.

  7. Vulnerable children, stigmatised smokers: The social construction of target audiences in media debates on policies regulating smoking in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Josh; Weishaar, Heide; Semple, Sean; Duffy, Sheila; Hilton, Shona

    2016-01-01

    Following restrictions on smoking in vehicles carrying children in several countries, legislation to safeguard minors from second-hand smoke exposure in vehicles is under-consideration or has been implemented across the United Kingdom. This article presents the first investigation into social constructions of children, smokers and smoking parents in newsprint media and coverage of debates about protecting children from exposure to second-hand smoke in vehicles. Using Scotland as an example, articles on children’s exposure to second-hand smoke published between 1 January 2004 and 16 February 2014 in three Scottish newspapers were identified using Nexis UK. In all, 131 articles were thematically coded and analysed. Children were portrayed as vulnerable and requiring protection, with few articles highlighting children’s ability to voice concerns about the dangers of smoking. Smokers and smoking parents were mainly portrayed in a factual manner, but also frequently as irresponsible and, in some cases, intentionally imposing harm. Individual smokers were blamed for their recklessness, with only a small number of articles mentioning the need to assist smokers in quitting. Supporters of legislation focused on corresponding discourse, whereas critics directed debates towards established arguments against policy, including individual freedom, privacy and problems of enforcement. Focusing on children’s vulnerability to second-hand smoke might have increased support for legislation but risked a side effect of smokers being stigmatised. The media and supporters of public health policy are encouraged to consider appropriate approaches to raise awareness of the health harms of second-hand smoke to children while avoiding unintended stigmatisation of those in which they want to encourage behaviour change. PMID:27457688

  8. Vulnerable children, stigmatised smokers: The social construction of target audiences in media debates on policies regulating smoking in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Josh; Weishaar, Heide; Semple, Sean; Duffy, Sheila; Hilton, Shona

    2017-11-01

    Following restrictions on smoking in vehicles carrying children in several countries, legislation to safeguard minors from second-hand smoke exposure in vehicles is under-consideration or has been implemented across the United Kingdom. This article presents the first investigation into social constructions of children, smokers and smoking parents in newsprint media and coverage of debates about protecting children from exposure to second-hand smoke in vehicles. Using Scotland as an example, articles on children's exposure to second-hand smoke published between 1 January 2004 and 16 February 2014 in three Scottish newspapers were identified using Nexis UK. In all, 131 articles were thematically coded and analysed. Children were portrayed as vulnerable and requiring protection, with few articles highlighting children's ability to voice concerns about the dangers of smoking. Smokers and smoking parents were mainly portrayed in a factual manner, but also frequently as irresponsible and, in some cases, intentionally imposing harm. Individual smokers were blamed for their recklessness, with only a small number of articles mentioning the need to assist smokers in quitting. Supporters of legislation focused on corresponding discourse, whereas critics directed debates towards established arguments against policy, including individual freedom, privacy and problems of enforcement. Focusing on children's vulnerability to second-hand smoke might have increased support for legislation but risked a side effect of smokers being stigmatised. The media and supporters of public health policy are encouraged to consider appropriate approaches to raise awareness of the health harms of second-hand smoke to children while avoiding unintended stigmatisation of those in which they want to encourage behaviour change.

  9. Bingo halls and smoking: perspectives of First Nations women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Carey, Joanne; Mowatt, Roberta; Varcoe, Colleen; Johnson, Joy L; Hutchinson, Peter; Sullivan, Debbie; Williams, Wanda; Wardman, Dennis

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine bingo halls as a frequent site for exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke for First Nations women in rural communities. Thematic analysis of interviews with key informants, group discussions with young women, and observations in the study communities revealed that smoky bingo halls provided an important refuge from everyday experiences of stress and trauma, as well as increased women's risk for addiction, marginalization, and criticism. The findings illustrate how the bingo economy in isolated, rural First Nation communities influences tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure, and how efforts to establish smoke-free bingos can be supported.

  10. Female non-smokers' environmental tobacco smoking exposure by public transportation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seyoung; Park, Jin-Soo; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Yeji; Lim, Sinye; Lee, Hye-Eun

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze environmental tobacco smoking exposure in female nonsmokers by public transportation mode using representative data of Koreans. Data from the Second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2012-2014) were analyzed. Urine cotinine was analyzed by public transport behavior, secondhand smoke exposure, socioeconomic factors, and health-related factors. Participants were 1322 adult females; those with the top 75% urine cotinine concentrations were assigned to the high exposure group. A logistic regression analysis was performed considering appropriate weights and stratification according to the sample design of the Second Korean National Environmental Health Survey. The geometric mean of urine cotinine concentrations differed according to public transportation modes: subway (1.66 μg/g creatinine) bus (1.77 μg/g creatinine), and taxi (1.94 μg/g creatinine). The odds ratio [OR] was calculated for the high exposure group. The OR of the taxi (2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-5.69) was statistically significantly higher than the subway value (reference), and marginally significant after adjusted with life style, sociodemographic factors and involuntary smoking frequency (2.42, 95% confidence interval, 0.97-6.04). The odds ratio of passengers who mainly used taxis was marginally significantly higher than those of passengers who used subways and buses after adjusted with life style and sociodemographic factors. Implementation of supplementary measures and further studies on exposure to environmental tobacco smoking in taxis are warranted.

  11. Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures: workplace exposures, related perceptions of SHS risk, and reactions to smoking in catering workers in smoking and nonsmoking premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sandy Qiuying; Fielding, Richard; Hedley, Anthony J; Wong, Lai-Chin; Lai, Hak Kan; Wong, C M; Repace, James L; McGhee, Sarah M

    2011-05-01

    Smoke-free workplace legislation often exempts certain venues. Do smoking (exempted) and nonsmoking (nonexempted) catering premises' workers in Hong Kong report different perceptions of risk from and reactions to nearby smoking as well as actual exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS)? In a cross-sectional survey of 204 nonsmoking catering workers, those from 67 premises where smoking is allowed were compared with workers from 36 nonsmoking premises in Hong Kong on measures of perceptions of risk and behavioral responses to self-reported SHS exposure, plus independent exposure assessment using urinary cotinine. Self-reported workplace SHS exposure prevalence was 57% (95% CI = 49%-65%) in premises prohibiting and 100% (95% CI = 92%-100%) in premises permitting smoking (p < .001). Workers in smoking-permitted premises perceived workplace air quality as poorer (odds ratio [OR] = 9.3, 95% CI = 4.2-20.9) with higher associated risks (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.6-8.6) than workers in smoking-prohibited premises. Workers in smoking-prohibited premises were more bothered by (OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5) and took more protective action to avoid SHS (OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.4) than workers in smoking-permitted premises. Nonwork exposure was negatively associated with being always bothered by nearby smoking (OR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.9), discouraging nearby smoking (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.2-1.1), and discouraging home smoking (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.9). Urinary cotinine levels were inversely related to workers' avoidance behavior but positively related to their perceived exposure-related risks. Different workplace smoking restrictions predicted actual SHS exposure, exposure-related risk perception, and protective behaviors. Workers from smoking-permitted premises perceived greater SHS exposure-related risks but were more tolerant of these than workers in smoking-prohibited premises. This tolerance might indirectly increase both work and nonwork exposures.

  12. The meanings and context of smoking among Mexican university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Bentley, Mararet E

    2006-01-01

    We sought to describe the dominant social contexts and meanings of smoking among Mexican university students. Structured observations were made and individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 43 university students who were at five levels of involvement with smoking (i.e., never smoker; ex-smoker; experimenter; regular smoker; frequent smoker). Content analysis of interview transcripts was used to distill the primary settings and themes that students associated with smoking. Outside their homes and away from the purview of their parents, the environments that students frequented were permissive of smoking, supporting their perceptions of smoking behavior, cigarettes, and the tobacco industry as normal and socially acceptable. Cigarette smoking was a highly social practice, with students practicing simultaneous smoking and cigarette sharing to underscore bonds with others. Moreover, the leisure times and places in which students smoked appeared to bolster their perceptions of cigarettes as offering them pleasurable relaxation and escape from boredom and conflictual social relations. All students believed that smoking was addictive and that second-hand smoke was dangerous to non-smokers. The short-term negative outcomes of smoking appeared more salient to students than either the longer-term health outcomes of smoking or the practices of the tobacco industry. The meanings and context of smoking were comparable to those found among youth in other parts of the world. Successful tobacco prevention messages and policies to prevent smoking in other youth populations may also succeed among Mexican youth.

  13. Policies on smoking in the casino workplace and their impact on smoking behavior among employees: Case study of casino workers in Macao

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, S. H.; Pilkington, P.; Wan, Y. K. P.; Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macao; Institute for Sustainability, Health and Environment, UWE

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is a major health concern, contributing to a range of adverse health effects. Workers in the hospitality industry are often exposed to increased levels of SHS in the workplace, and casino workers in particular have been shown to be exposed to high levels of SHS. During the past decade, authorities worldwide have introduced smoke-free legislation in enclosed public places, primarily to protect workers from the harmful effects of SHS. Importantly, implementat...

  14. Increased oxidative stress in preschool children exposed to passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Faruk; Sermetow, Kabil; Aycicek, Ali; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Erel, Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on plasma oxidative and antioxidative status in passive smoking preschool children and to compare them with controls. Thirty-four passive smoking (five to 50 cigarettes per day) preschool children (study group) and 32 controls who had never been exposed to cigarette smoke were randomly chosen from children aged from 4 to 6 years. Urinary cotinine and plasma indicators of oxidative and antioxidative status, i.e., total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI), were determined. Mean environmental cigarette consumption was 22±13 cigarettes per day in passive smoking children. Mean urinary cotinine levels were 77.6±41.4 ng/mL and 11.9±2.3 ng/mL in the study and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean plasma TAC levels were 0.95±0.13 mmol Trolox equivalent/L and 1.01±0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent/L, respectively (p = 0.039). Mean plasma TOS levels were 28.6±7.9 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L and 18.5±6.3 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean OSI levels were 3.08±0.98 arbitrary units and 1.84±0.64 arbitrary units, respectively (p < 0.001). A small amount of cigarette smoke (five to 10 cigarettes per day) causes considerable oxidative stress. There were significant correlations between number of cigarettes consumed and oxidant status and OSI levels. Passive smoke is a potent oxidant in preschool children. Its deleterious effects are not limited just to heavy passive smoking, but also occur with exposure to small amounts of smoke.

  15. High prevalence of smoking among patients with suspected tuberculosis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, L; Pai, M; Davids, V; Ling, D; Paradis, G; Lenders, L; Meldau, R; van Zyl Smit, R; Calligaro, G; Allwood, B; Dawson, R; Dheda, K

    2011-07-01

    There is growing evidence that tobacco smoking is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). There are no data validating the accuracy of self-reported smoking in TB patients and limited data about the prevalence of smoking in TB patients from high-burden settings. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 500 patients with suspected TB in Cape Town, South Africa. All underwent comprehensive diagnostic testing. The accuracy of their self-reported smoking status was determined against serum cotinine levels. Of the 424 patients included in the study, 56 and 60% of those with active and latent TB infection (LTBI), respectively, were current smokers. Using plasma cotinine as a reference standard, the sensitivity of self-reported smoking was 89%. No statistically significant association could be found between smoking and active TB or LTBI. In Cape Town, the prevalence of smoking among patients with suspected and confirmed TB was much higher than in the general South African population. Self-reporting is an accurate measure of smoking status. These results suggest the need to actively incorporate tobacco cessation programmes into TB services in South Africa.

  16. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  17. How does tobacco smoke influence the morphometry of the fetus and the umbilical cord?-Research on pregnant women with intrauterine growth restriction exposed to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk, Ewa; Bizoń, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Proper structure of the umbilical cord is important for the fetal development. We evaluated effects of toxic factors from tobacco smoke on fetal and umbilical cord morphometry. 109 women in weeks 29-40 of pregnancy (31 smokers with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); 28 non-smoking women with IUGR; 50 healthy pregnancies) were included. In smokers with IUGR, cotinine, cadmium and lead concentrations were significantly higher than in controls (mean 55.23ng/l; 1.52ng/ml; 14.85ng/ml vs 1.07; 0.34; 9.42) and inverse correlation between lead concentration and uncoiled umbilical cord was significant (r=-0.80). In smokers with IUGR, area of Wharton's jelly was increased compared to nonsmokers and controls. Inverse correlations occurred between cotinine and cadmium concentration and fetal percentile in smokers (r=-0.87; r=-0.87) and non-smokers (r=-0.47; r=-0.78) with IUGR. Exposure to tobacco smoke measured by cotinine, cadmium and lead concentration has an impact on fetal growth and umbilical cord morphometry and correlates with intensity of IUGR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reference Interval and Subject Variation in Excretion of Urinary Metabolites of Nicotine from Non-Smoking Healthy Subjects in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Å. M.; Garde, A. H.; Christensen, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    for determination of cotinine was carried out on 27 samples from non-smokers and smokers. Results obtained from the RIA method showed 2.84 [confidence interval (CI): 2.50; 3.18] times higher results compared to the GC-MS method. A linear correlation between the two methods was demonstrated (rho=0.96). CONCLUSION......BACKGROUND: Passive smoking has been found to be a respiratory health hazard in humans. The present study describes the calculation of a reference interval for urinary nicotine metabolites calculated as cotinine equivalents on the basis of 72 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke less than 25....... Parametric reference interval for excretion of nicotine metabolites in urine from non-smokers was established according to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and International Federation for Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) for use of risk assessment of exposure to tobacco smoke...

  19. Changes in child exposure to secondhand smoke after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Wales: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holliday Jo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoke-free legislation was introduced in Wales in April 2007. In response to concerns regarding potential displacement of smoking into the home following legislation, this study assessed changes in secondhand smoke (SHS exposure amongst non-smoking children. Methods Approximately 1,750 year 6 (aged 10-11 children from 75 Welsh primary schools were included in cross-sectional surveys immediately pre-legislation and one year later. Participants completed self-report questionnaires and provided saliva samples for cotinine assay. Regression analyses assessed the impact of legislation on children's SHS exposure at the population level, and amongst subgroups defined by parental figures who smoke within the home. Results Geometric mean salivary cotinine concentrations were 0.17 ng/ml (95% CI 0.15,0.20 pre-legislation and 0.15 ng/ml (95% CI 0.13,0.17, post-legislation, although this change was not statistically significant. Significant movement was however observed from the middle (0.10-0.50 ng/ml to lower tertile, though not from the higher end (>0.51 ng/ml to the middle. Reported exposure to SHS was greatest within the home. Home-based exposure did not change significantly post-legislation. Reported exposure in cafés or restaurants, buses and trains, and indoor leisure facilities fell significantly. The proportion of children reporting that parent figures smoked in the home declined (P = 0.03, with children with no parent figures who smoke in the home significantly more likely to provide saliva with cotinine concentrations of <0.10 ng/ml post-legislation. Amongst children with no parent figures who smoke in the home, the likelihood of 'not knowing' or 'never' being in a place where people were smoking increased post-legislation. Conclusion Smoke-free legislation in Wales did not increase SHS exposure in homes of children aged 10-11. Reported SHS exposure in public places fell significantly. The home remained the main source of

  20. Airborne exposure and biological monitoring of bar and restaurant workers before and after the introduction of a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Dag G; Fladseth, Geir; Daae, Hanne L; Gjølstad, Merete; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Skogstad, Marit; Olsen, Raymond; Thorud, Syvert; Molander, Paal

    2006-03-01

    The aims were to assess the impact of a total smoking ban on the level of airborne contaminants and the urinary cotinine levels in the employees in bars and restaurants. In a follow up design, 13 bars and restaurants were visited before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Ninety-three employees in the establishments were initially included into the study. The arithmetic mean concentration of nicotine and total dust declined from 28.3 microg m(-3) (range, 0.4-88.0) and 262 microg m(-3) (range, 52-662), respectively, to 0.6 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-3.7) and 77 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-261) after the smoking ban. The Pearson correlation coefficient between airborne nicotine and total dust was 0.86 (p introduction of a smoking ban in bars and restaurants. The urinary cotinine levels were reduced in non-smokers. The decline found in smokers may suggest a reduction in the amount of smoking after intervention. In non-smokers cotinine concentrations were higher based on urine sampled the morning after a shift than based on urine sampled immediately post-shift.

  1. Ny konsumtion av gamla kläder : – En studie om konsumenters miljömedvetenhet och motiv till att köpa second hand kläder på Myrorna

    OpenAIRE

    Björling, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The world’s consumption is increasing at an accelerating rate and it´s produced and consumed more goods and services than ever before. A large part of people's consumption consists of clothing that is bought and discarded increasingly leading to a number of environmental problems such as global warming, pollution, loss of biodiversity and the depletion of natural assets. One way to save the earth's resources is to buy used clothing, so called second hand, instead of new ones. The store chain ...

  2. Intranasal Cotinine Plus Krill Oil Facilitates Fear Extinction, Decreases Depressive-Like Behavior, and Increases Hippocampal Calcineurin A Levels in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ricartes, Nathalie; Oliveros-Matus, Patricia; Mendoza, Cristhian; Perez-Urrutia, Nelson; Echeverria, Florencia; Iarkov, Alexandre; Barreto, George E; Echeverria, Valentina

    2018-02-27

    Failure in fear extinction is one of the more troublesome characteristics of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cotinine facilitates fear memory extinction and reduces depressive-like behavior when administered 24 h after fear conditioning in mice. In this study, it was investigated the behavioral and molecular effects of cotinine, and other antidepressant preparations infused intranasally. Intranasal (IN) cotinine, IN krill oil, IN cotinine plus krill oil, and oral sertraline were evaluated on depressive-like behavior and fear retention and extinction after fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice. Since calcineurin A has been involved in facilitating fear extinction in rodents, we also investigated changes of calcineurin in the hippocampus, a region key on contextual fear extinction. Short-term treatment with cotinine formulations was superior to krill oil and oral sertraline in reducing depressive-like behavior and fear consolidation and enhancing contextual fear memory extinction in mice. IN krill oil slowed the extinction of fear. IN cotinine preparations increased the levels of calcineurin A in the hippocampus of conditioned mice. In the light of the results, the future investigation of the use of IN cotinine preparations for the extinction of contextual fear memory and treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in PTSD is discussed.

  3. Salivary cotinine levels as a biomarker for green tobacco sickness in dry tobacco production among Thai traditional tobacco farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeon, Thanusin; Siriwong, Wattasit; Maldonado-Pérez, Héctor Luis; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Dry Thai traditional tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum L.) production involves a unique process: (a) picking tobacco leaves, (b) curing tobacco leaves, (c) removing stems of tobacco leaves, cutting leaves and putting on a bamboo rack, (d) drying in the sun, reversing a rack, spraying a tobacco extract to adjust the tobacco's color, storing dried tobacco and packaging. These processes may lead to adverse health effects caused by dermal absorption of nicotine such as Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between GTS resulting from dry Thai traditional tobacco production and salivary cotinine levels among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan Province, Thailand. A prospective cohort study was conducted with 20 tobacco farmers and 20 non-tobacco farmers in Praputtabath Sub-District and Phatow Sub-District. The participants were randomly selected and interviewed using in person questionnaires with bi-weekly follow-up for 14 weeks. During each contact, the cotinine concentration was measured by NicAlert(TM) Saliva strip tests (NCTS). Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation (Spearman's rho) was used to examine the relationship between the variables at both 0.01 and 0.05 significant probability levels. This study indicated that GTS from dry tobacco production has the potential to be considered a common occupational disease. This study demonstrated the usefulness of salivary cotinine level measurements by NCTS. The levels were well correlated with farmers who were employed in the dry Thai tobacco production industry. Salivary cotinine levels were also significantly correlated with the prevalence of GTS in the group of tobacco farmers at any given time within a crop season. However, the production process of dry Thai traditional tobacco is different from that evaluated in our previous studies where GTS and salivary cotinine level were correlated in workers working in humid conditions. The long-term effects of such exposure

  4. Secondhand tobacco smoke and severity in wheezing children: Nasal oxidant stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozge; Turkeli, Ahmet; Onur, Ece; Bilge, Sema; Yuksel, Hasan

    2018-05-01

    Prenatal and postnatal smoke exposures are associated with many lung diseases in children due to impaired lung function, increased inflammation, and oxidative stress. We aimed to determine the influence of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on the levels of nasal glutathione, IL-8, IL-17, MMP-9, and TIMP-1, as well as serum surfactant protein-D (SP-D) in wheezy children. We enrolled 150 children with recurrent wheezing and recorded wheezing characteristics at enrollment. We measured the levels of serum cotinine, SP-D, nasal glutathione, IL-8, IL-17, MMP-9, and TIMP-1. Serum cotinine levels between 3 and 12 ng/mL, and above 12 ng/mL were defined as lower and higher level secondhand tobacco smoke exposure, respectively. The ANOVA test, Pearson's correlation analysis and multivariate analysis with a linear regression test were used for the statistical analysis. Ninety-one children had been exposed to lower level secondhand tobacco smoke, while 24 children were exposed to higher level secondhand tobacco smoke. Thirty-five children were not exposed to cigarette smoke. Wheezing symptom scores were higher in exposed children (p = 0.03). Levels of other biomarkers showed no significant difference. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is associated with more severe respiratory symptoms in wheezing children. However, levels of nasal or serum inflammatory markers fail to explain this association, either because of different mechanical factors in the process or due to low levels of the biomarkers especially in nasal secretions.

  5. Socioeconomic disparities in secondhand smoke exposure among US never-smoking adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Mannino, David M; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-11-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a leading preventable cause of illness, disability and mortality. There is a lack of quantitative analyses on socioeconomic disparities in SHS; especially, it is not known how socioeconomic disparities have changed in the past two decades in the USA. To examine socioeconomic disparities and long-term temporal trends in SHS exposure among US never-smoking adults aged ≥20 years. 15 376 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010 were included in the analysis of socioeconomic disparities; additional 8195 participants from NHANES III 1988-1994 were included in the temporal trend analysis. SHS exposure was assessed using self-reported exposure in the home and workplace as well as using serum cotinine concentrations ≥0.05 ng/mL. Individual socioeconomic status (SES) was assessed using poverty-to-income ratio. During the period 1999-2010, 6% and 14% of participants reported SHS exposure in the home and workplace, respectively; 40% had serum cotinine-indicated SHS exposure. Individual SES was strongly associated with SHS exposure in a dose-response fashion; participants in the lowest SES group were 2-3 times more likely to be exposed to SHS compared with those in the highest SES group. During the period 1988-2010, the prevalence declined over 60% for the three types of SHS exposure. However, for cotinine-indicated exposure, the magnitudes of the declines were smaller for lower SES groups compared with higher SES groups, leading to widening socioeconomic disparities in SHS exposure. SHS exposure is still widespread among US never-smoking adults, and socioeconomic disparities for cotinine-indicated exposure have substantially increased in the past two decades. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Association of passive smoking with caries and related salivary biomarkers in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşar, A; Darka, O; Topaloğlu, B; Bek, Y

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the association between passive smoking, as determined by salivary cotinine level, and caries, salivary pH, buffering capacity, flow rate and microbiological counts in young children. Ninety passive smokers (PS) with a mean age of 5.02 years and 90 healthy age-matched controls were included in this study. Family income, smoking habits of household members, parental education levels, child's tooth-brushing habit and child's daily dietary sugar exposure were recorded by questionnaire. Three categories were formed with respect to the number of cigarettes smoked. A dmft score was calculated according to the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. The children were also investigated for stimulated salivary cotinine level, pH, flow rate, buffering capacity and salivary Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli colonisation. There were no significant differences in tooth-brushing habit, sugar exposure, family income and parental education levels between the two groups (P>0.05). The mean cotinine level of the PS subjects was 1.58+/-4.3ng/ml. The dmft scores, and salivary S. mutans and lactobacilli colonisation in PS children were significantly higher than in the control subjects (Psalivary pH, flow rate and buffering capacity were found in the PS subjects (P<0.05). PS children are at increased risk of caries compared with control subjects.

  7. The effect of faith-based smoking cessation intervention during Ramadan among Malay smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Suriani; Abdul Rahman, Hejar; Abidin, Emelia Zainal; Isha, Ahmad Sharul Nizam; Abu Bakar, Sallehuddin; Zulkifley, Nur Aishah; Fuad, Ahmad Farhan Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of a faith-based smoking cessation intervention during Ramadan among Malay male smokers working in public offices. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted during Ramadan 2015. The intervention was developed based on the constructs within the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The intervention intended to increase the intention and the perceived behaviour control to stop smoking among Muslim smokers during Ramadan. The outcomes measured were changes in the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence score and saliva cotinine levels. Data were collected at baseline (5 days before Ramadan), during Ramadan (21st day of Ramadan) and post-Ramadan (21 days after Ramadan). Statistical tests to examine changes within and between groups were carried out and the significance level was set at p  Ramadan, the saliva cotinine level decreased significantly in both groups ( p  = 0.001 in the control group and p  = Ramadan, it remained significant only in the intervention group ( p  = 0.025). A significant change between the groups was only noticed during Ramadan ( p  = 0.049). Conclusion: The reduction in the saliva cotinine level was found to be more sustainable post-Ramadan in the intervention group. This finding could indicate the positive effect of using this culturally-competent intervention to encourage smoking cessation during Ramadan.

  8. Smoke-Free Medical Facility Campus Legislation: Support, Resistance, Difficulties and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gary Wheeler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although medical facilities restrict smoking inside, many people continue to smoke outside, creating problems with second-hand smoke, litter, fire risks, and negative role modeling. In 2005, Arkansas passed legislation prohibiting smoking on medical facility campuses. Hospital administrators (N=113 were surveyed pre- and post-implementation. Administrators reported more support and less difficulty than anticipated. Actual cost was 10-50% of anticipated cost. Few negative effects and numerous positive effects on employee performance and retention were reported. The results may be of interest to hospital administrators and demonstrate that state legislation can play a positive role in facilitating broad health-related policy change.

  9. [Current status and issues of anti-smoking measures in the workplace in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mayumi Saito

    2014-02-01

    Compared with developed foreign countries, anti-smoking measures in Japan is lagging behind. As a country that has signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), it should be run the appropriate tobacco control. For example, in many stores of the service industry that smoking is allowed, employees are working while being exposed to second-hand smoke. Even in workplace air polluted environment, employees will not be able to leave there. Such a harsh environment to ignore health and safety, it must be eliminated as soon as possible. In order to protect the health of workers, the workplace should be smoke free.

  10. Problems with cigarette smoking and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, W W; Ma, W; Zhu, Q; Chen, H; Tang, L

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China, as causes for failure to control smoking. Environmental monitoring and population survey. Particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements were conducted in randomly selected public places (restaurants, non-alcoholic drink shops and internet bars) and exposure-related health hazards were evaluated. University students and adult citizens were randomly selected to determine their extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitude towards the ban of smoking in public places. The collected data were used to evaluate possible causes and solutions to the smoking problem. From PM2.5 measurements, the average indoor to outdoor concentrations in non-smoking restaurants were 33.4 vs. 30.6 μg/m(3), P > 0.05; average indoor of smoking restaurants was 350.0% higher, P  0.001. From our survey of 1100 university students: 1) 17.5% and 7.5% were active male and female smokers, respectively; and 2) 57.5% of students would accept a smoke-ban policy. From 502 adult citizens: 1) 27.5% were active male smokers; 2) Approximately 40 and 60% had inadequate knowledge of health hazards from smoking and second-hand smoke exposure; and 3) >90% of them would accept a smoke-ban policy. Our data indicate that failure to ban smoking was not caused by resistance from smokers but inadequate (national and local) government effort to educate the public and to enforce existing policy. The data suggest that development of a citizen-based approach, in collaboration with willing officials, may be highly successful in the control of cigarette smoking in China. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tween and teen health Want to prevent teen smoking? Understand why teens smoke and how to talk ... teen about cigarettes. By Mayo Clinic Staff Teen smoking might begin innocently, but it can become a ...

  12. Within family transmission of secondhand smoke sensitivity and smoking attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Laszlo Tarnoki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction and objective[/b]. The role of genetic factors in nicotine dependence is well understood, but no information is available on the inheritability of second-hand smoke (SHS exposure sensitivity and their co-variance. [b]materials and methods[/b]. 186 adult same-gender pairs of twin (146 monozygotic, 40 dizygotic; 44±17 years±SD completed a questionnaire. [b]results[/b]. The model showed a significant role of unshared environmental factors influencing the co-variance between smoking habit and SHS sensitivity (r[sub]e[/sub]=-0.191, 95% CI, -0.316 to -0.056, or the total phenotypic correlation of r[sub]ph[/sub]=-0.406, p<0.001 without evidence for genetic covariation. Age, gender and country-adjusted analysis indicated 51.5% heritability for smoking habit (95% confidence interval/CI/, 6.2 to 89.8%, 49.7% for SHS sensitivity (95%CI, 19.1–72.0%, 35.5% for general opinions on SHS exposure in restaurants/cafés (95%CI, 10.7–58.6%, and 16.9% in pubs/bars (95%CI, 0.0–49.0%. [b]conclusions[/b]. The co-variance between SHS sensitivity and smoking habits is driven mainly by the unshared environment. SHS sensitivity is moderately inheritable. The considerable influence of environmental factors on general opinions on SHS exposure in designated indoor public venues emphasizes the importance of smoking bans and health behaviour interventions at the individual level in developing an anti-smoking attitude.

  13. Risks for heart disease and lung cancer from passive smoking by workers in the catering industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Anthony J; McGhee, Sarah M; Repace, James L; Wong, Lai-Chin; Yu, Marcus Y S; Wong, Tze-Wai; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2006-04-01

    Workers in the catering industry are at greater risk of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) when smoke-free workplace policies are not in force. We determined the exposure of catering workers to SHS in Hong Kong and their risk of death from heart disease and lung cancer. Nonsmoking catering workers were provided with screening at their workplaces and at a central clinic. Participants reported workplace, home, and leisure time exposure to SHS. Urinary cotinine was estimated by enzyme immunoassay. Catering facilities were classified into three types: nonsmoking, partially restricted smoking (with nonsmoking areas), and unrestricted smoking. Mean urinary cotinine levels ranged from 3.3 ng/ml in a control group of 16 university staff through 6.4 ng/ml (nonsmoking), 6.1 ng/ml (partially restricted), and 15.9 ng/ml (unrestricted smoking) in 104 workers who had no exposures outside of work. Workers in nonsmoking facilities had exposures to other smoking staff. We modeled workers' mortality risks using average cotinine levels, estimates of workplace respirable particulates, risk data for cancer and heart disease from cohort studies, and national (US) and regional (Hong Kong) mortality for heart disease and lung cancer. We estimated that deaths in the Hong Kong catering workforce of 200,000 occur at the rate of 150 per year for a 40-year working-lifetime exposure to SHS. When compared with the current outdoor air quality standards for particulates in Hong Kong, 30% of workers exceeded the 24-h and 98% exceeded the annual air quality objectives due to workplace SHS exposures.

  14. The association between smoking and ectopic pregnancy: why nicotine is BAD for your fallopian tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Horne

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for tubal ectopic pregnancy but the reason for this remains unclear. Here, we set out to determine the effect of smoking on Fallopian tube gene expression. An oviductal epithelial cell line (OE-E6/E7 and explants of human Fallopian tubes from non-pregnant women (n = 6 were exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of cotinine, the principle metabolite of nicotine, and changes in gene expression analyzed using the Illumina Human HT-12 array. Cotinine sensitive genes identified through this process were then localized and quantified in Fallopian tube biopsies from non-pregnant smokers (n = 10 and non-smokers (n = 11 using immunohistochemistry and TaqMan RT-PCR. The principle cotinine induced change in gene expression detected by the array analysis in both explants and the cell line was significant down regulation (P<0.05 of the pro-apoptotic gene BAD. We therefore assessed the effect of smoking on cell turnover in retrospectively collected human samples. Consistent with the array data, smoking was associated with decreased levels of BAD transcript (P<0.01 and increased levels of BCL2 transcript (P<0.05 in Fallopian tube biopsies. BAD and BCL2 specific immunolabelling was localized to Fallopian tube epithelium. Although no other significant differences in levels of apoptosis or cell cycle associated proteins were observed, smoking was associated with significant changes in the morphology of the Fallopian tube epithelium (P<0.05. These results suggest that smoking may alter tubal epithelial cell turnover and is associated with structural, as well as functional, changes that may contribute to the development of ectopic pregnancy.

  15. The association between various smoking behaviors, cotinine biomarkers and skin autofluorescence, a marker for advanced glycation end product accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waateringe, Robert P.; Mook-Kanamori, Marjonneke J.; Slagter, Sandra N.; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Graaff, Reindert; Lutgers, Helen L.; Suhre, Karsten; Selim, Mohammed M. El-Din; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin autofluorescence, a biomarker for advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulation, has been shown to predict diabetes-related cardiovascular complications and is associated with several environmental and lifestyle factors. In the present study, we examined the association

  16. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2003-01-01

    pregnant smokers. The intervention group (n = 327) received initial individual smoking cessation counseling supplemented by an invitation to join, individually or in a group, a smoking cessation program with nicotine replacement therapy as a voluntary option. Intervention was designed as an integral part...... of the midwives' prenatal care. All pregnant smokers in the usual care group (n = 320) received standard counseling from a midwife. Outcome was self-reported smoking cessation in the 37th week of pregnancy and the reported cessation was validated by cotinine saliva concentration. RESULTS: Self-reported cessation...... rates during pregnancy were significantly higher in the intervention group (14%) than in the group receiving usual care (5.0%) (p

  17. Business Model Innovation through Second Hand Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kerli Kant

    2015-01-01

    The issue of business model innovation for sustainability is becoming increasingly relevant for fashion companies. This paper investigates how the resell of a fashion brand's own product can facilitate business model adaption towards sustainability. Based on a single revelatory case study...... the article highlights a premium fashion brand's endeavours in prolonging their products life through resell activities and the main issues, challenges and opportunities the brand can encounter in integrating this strategy into its existing business model....

  18. Smoking cessation early in pregnancy and birth weight, length, head circumference, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in umbilical and chorionic vessels: an observational study of healthy singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene R; Simonsen, Ulf; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    and chorionic vessels from nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers and related the findings to the fetal outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 266 healthy, singleton pregnancies, 182 women were nonsmokers, 43 were smokers, and 41 stopped smoking early in pregnancy. eNOS activity and concentration were quantified...... in endothelial cells of the fetal vessels. Cotinine, lipid profiles, estradiol, l-arginine, and dimethylarginines that may affect NO production were determined in maternal and fetal blood. Serum cotinine verified self-reported smoking. Newborns of smokers had a lower weight (P... were similar for nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that maternal smoking reduces eNOS activity in the fetal vascular bed, contributing to retarded fetal growth caused by the reduction of vasodilatory capacity, and suggest that smoking cessation early in pregnancy...

  19. The support for smoke free policy and how it is influenced by tolerance to smoking - experience of a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul; Manan, Azizah Ab; Yahya, Noorlia; Ibrahim, Lailanor

    2014-01-01

    This cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the support in making Penang UNESCO World Heritage Site (GTWHS) smoke free and to determine the influence of tolerance towards smoking on this support. This is the first phase in making Penang, Malaysia a smoke free state. A multistage sampling process was done to select a sample of respondents to represent the population of GTWHS. Attitude towards smoking was assessed using tolerance as a proxy. A total of 3,268 members of the community participated in the survey. A big majority (n = 2969; 90.9%) of the respondents supported the initiative. Support was lowest among the owners and residents/tenants, higher age groups, the Chinese, men, respondents who had poor knowledge of the places gazetted as smoke free, and respondents with poor knowledge of the health effects on smokers and on passive smokers. The odds (both adjusted and unadjusted) of not supporting the initiative was high among those tolerant to smoking in public areas. Tolerance towards smoking was associated with 80.3% risk of non-support in the respondents who were tolerant to smoking and a 57.2% risk in the population. Health promotion and education concerning the harm of tobacco smoke in Malaysia, which has mainly targeted smokers, must change. Health education concerning the risks of second hand smoke must also be given to non-smokers and efforts should be made to denormalize smoking.

  20. The support for smoke free policy and how it is influenced by tolerance to smoking - experience of a developing country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    Full Text Available This cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the support in making Penang UNESCO World Heritage Site (GTWHS smoke free and to determine the influence of tolerance towards smoking on this support. This is the first phase in making Penang, Malaysia a smoke free state. A multistage sampling process was done to select a sample of respondents to represent the population of GTWHS. Attitude towards smoking was assessed using tolerance as a proxy. A total of 3,268 members of the community participated in the survey. A big majority (n = 2969; 90.9% of the respondents supported the initiative. Support was lowest among the owners and residents/tenants, higher age groups, the Chinese, men, respondents who had poor knowledge of the places gazetted as smoke free, and respondents with poor knowledge of the health effects on smokers and on passive smokers. The odds (both adjusted and unadjusted of not supporting the initiative was high among those tolerant to smoking in public areas. Tolerance towards smoking was associated with 80.3% risk of non-support in the respondents who were tolerant to smoking and a 57.2% risk in the population. Health promotion and education concerning the harm of tobacco smoke in Malaysia, which has mainly targeted smokers, must change. Health education concerning the risks of second hand smoke must also be given to non-smokers and efforts should be made to denormalize smoking.

  1. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to not allow smoking indoors. Separating smokers from non-smokers (like “no smoking” sections in restaurants)‚ cleaning the air‚ and airing out buildings does not get rid of secondhand smoke. Other Ways Smoking Affects Others Smoking affects the people in your life ...

  2. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  3. The effects of electronic cigarette emissions on systemic cotinine levels, weight and postnatal lung growth in neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A McGrath-Morrow

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (E-cigarettes emissions present a potentially new hazard to neonates through inhalation, dermal and oral contact. Exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes may cause significant systemic absorption in neonates due to the potential for multi-route exposure. Systemic absorption of nicotine and constituents of E-cigarette emissions may adversely impact weight and lung development in the neonate. To address these questions we exposed neonatal mice to E-cigarette emissions and measured systemic cotinine levels and alveolar lung growth.Neonatal mice were exposed to E-cigarettes for the first 10 days of life. E-cigarette cartridges contained either 1.8% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG or PG vehicle alone. Daily weights, plasma and urine cotinine levels and lung growth using the alveolar mean linear intercept (MLI method were measured at 10 days of life and compared to room air controls. Mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG had a 13.3% decrease in total body weight compared to room air controls. Plasma cotinine levels were found to be elevated in neonatal mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG E-cigarettes (mean 62.34± 3.3 ng/ml. After adjusting for sex and weight, the nicotine exposed mice were found to have modestly impaired lung growth by MLI compared to room air control mice (p<.054 trial 1; p<.006 trial 2. These studies indicate that exposure to E-cigarette emissions during the neonatal period can adversely impact weight gain. In addition exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes can cause detectable levels of systemic cotinine, diminished alveolar cell proliferation and a modest impairment in postnatal lung growth.

  4. The effects of electronic cigarette emissions on systemic cotinine levels, weight and postnatal lung growth in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Hayashi, Madoka; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Malinina, Alla; Collaco, Joseph M; Neptune, Enid; Klein, Jonathan D; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Breysse, Patrick; Lazarus, Philip; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarette (E-cigarettes) emissions present a potentially new hazard to neonates through inhalation, dermal and oral contact. Exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes may cause significant systemic absorption in neonates due to the potential for multi-route exposure. Systemic absorption of nicotine and constituents of E-cigarette emissions may adversely impact weight and lung development in the neonate. To address these questions we exposed neonatal mice to E-cigarette emissions and measured systemic cotinine levels and alveolar lung growth. Neonatal mice were exposed to E-cigarettes for the first 10 days of life. E-cigarette cartridges contained either 1.8% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or PG vehicle alone. Daily weights, plasma and urine cotinine levels and lung growth using the alveolar mean linear intercept (MLI) method were measured at 10 days of life and compared to room air controls. Mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG had a 13.3% decrease in total body weight compared to room air controls. Plasma cotinine levels were found to be elevated in neonatal mice exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG E-cigarettes (mean 62.34± 3.3 ng/ml). After adjusting for sex and weight, the nicotine exposed mice were found to have modestly impaired lung growth by MLI compared to room air control mice (pE-cigarette emissions during the neonatal period can adversely impact weight gain. In addition exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes can cause detectable levels of systemic cotinine, diminished alveolar cell proliferation and a modest impairment in postnatal lung growth.

  5. Working Inside for Smoking Elimination (Project W.I.S.E. study design and rationale to prevent return to smoking after release from a smoke free prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarcerated individuals suffer disproportionately from the health effects of tobacco smoking due to the high smoking prevalence in this population. In addition there is an over-representation of ethnic and racial minorities, impoverished individuals, and those with mental health and drug addictions in prisons. Increasingly, prisons across the U.S. are becoming smoke free. However, relapse to smoking is common upon release from prison, approaching 90% within a few weeks. No evidence based treatments currently exist to assist individuals to remain abstinent after a period of prolonged, forced abstinence. Methods/Design This paper describes the design and rationale of a randomized clinical trial to enhance smoking abstinence rates among individuals following release from a tobacco free prison. The intervention is six weekly sessions of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy initiated approximately six weeks prior to release from prison. The control group views six time matched videos weekly starting about six weeks prior to release. Assessments take place in-person 3 weeks after release and then for non-smokers every 3 months up to 12 months. Smoking status is confirmed by urine cotinine. Discussion Effective interventions are greatly needed to assist these individuals to remain smoke free and reduce health disparities among this socially and economically challenged group. Trial Registration NCT01122589

  6. Impact of the Spanish smoke-free legislation on adult, non-smoker exposure to secondhand smoke: cross-sectional surveys before (2004 and after (2012 legislation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2006, Spain implemented a national smoke-free legislation that prohibited smoking in enclosed public places and workplaces (except in hospitality venues. In 2011, it was extended to all hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas (hospital campuses, educational centers, and playgrounds. The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult non-smoking population before the first law (2004-05 and after the second law (2011-12. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional survey (2004-2005 and 2011-2012 of a representative sample of the adult (≥ 16 years non-smoking population in Barcelona, Spain. We assess self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (at home, the workplace, during leisure time, and in public/private transportation vehicles and salivary cotinine concentration. RESULTS: Overall, the self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke fell from 75.7% (95%CI: 72.6 to 78.8 in 2004-05 to 56.7% (95%CI: 53.4 to 60.0 in 2011-12. Self-reported exposure decreased from 32.5% to 27.6% (-15.1%, p<0.05 in the home, from 42.9% to 37.5% (-12.6%, p=0.11 at work/education venues, from 61.3% to 38.9% (-36.5%, p<0.001 during leisure time, and from 12.3% to 3.7% (-69.9%, p<0.001 in public transportation vehicles. Overall, the geometric mean of the salivary cotinine concentration in adult non-smokers fell by 87.2%, from 0.93 ng/mL at baseline to 0.12 ng/mL after legislation (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Secondhand smoke exposure among non-smokers, assessed both by self-reported exposure and salivary cotinine concentration, decreased after the implementation of a stepwise, comprehensive smoke-free legislation. There was a high reduction in secondhand smoke exposure during leisure time and no displacement of secondhand smoke exposure at home.

  7. Impact of the Spanish smoke-free legislation on adult, non-smoker exposure to secondhand smoke: cross-sectional surveys before (2004) and after (2012) legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Martínez, Cristina; Carabasa, Esther; López, María J; Saltó, Esteve; Pascual, José A; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, Spain implemented a national smoke-free legislation that prohibited smoking in enclosed public places and workplaces (except in hospitality venues). In 2011, it was extended to all hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas (hospital campuses, educational centers, and playgrounds). The objective of the study is to evaluate changes in exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult non-smoking population before the first law (2004-05) and after the second law (2011-12). Repeated cross-sectional survey (2004-2005 and 2011-2012) of a representative sample of the adult (≥ 16 years) non-smoking population in Barcelona, Spain. We assess self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (at home, the workplace, during leisure time, and in public/private transportation vehicles) and salivary cotinine concentration. Overall, the self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke fell from 75.7% (95%CI: 72.6 to 78.8) in 2004-05 to 56.7% (95%CI: 53.4 to 60.0) in 2011-12. Self-reported exposure decreased from 32.5% to 27.6% (-15.1%, p<0.05) in the home, from 42.9% to 37.5% (-12.6%, p=0.11) at work/education venues, from 61.3% to 38.9% (-36.5%, p<0.001) during leisure time, and from 12.3% to 3.7% (-69.9%, p<0.001) in public transportation vehicles. Overall, the geometric mean of the salivary cotinine concentration in adult non-smokers fell by 87.2%, from 0.93 ng/mL at baseline to 0.12 ng/mL after legislation (p<0.001). Secondhand smoke exposure among non-smokers, assessed both by self-reported exposure and salivary cotinine concentration, decreased after the implementation of a stepwise, comprehensive smoke-free legislation. There was a high reduction in secondhand smoke exposure during leisure time and no displacement of secondhand smoke exposure at home.

  8. Intranasal cotinine improves memory, and reduces depressive-like behavior, and GFAP+ cells loss induced by restraint stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Urrutia, Nelson; Mendoza, Cristhian; Alvarez-Ricartes, Nathalie; Oliveros-Matus, Patricia; Echeverria, Florencia; Grizzell, J Alex; Barreto, George E; Iarkov, Alexandre; Echeverria, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic psychological stress, and major depressive disorder have been found to be associated with a significant decrease in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of rodents. Cotinine is an alkaloid that prevents memory impairment, depressive-like behavior and synaptic loss when co-administered during restraint stress, a model of PTSD and stress-induced depression, in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of post-treatment with intranasal cotinine on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, visual recognition memory as well as the number and morphology of GFAP+ immunoreactive cells, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice subjected to prolonged restraint stress. The results revealed that in addition to the mood and cognitive impairments, restraint stress induced a significant decrease in the number and arborization of GFAP+ cells in the brain of mice. Intranasal cotinine prevented these stress-derived symptoms and the morphological abnormalities GFAP+ cells in both of these brain regions which are critical to resilience to stress. The significance of these findings for the therapy of PTSD and depression is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Impairs Fracture Healing in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Hildemberg A R; Zamarioli, Ariane; Sousa Neto, Manoel D; Volpon, Jose B

    2017-03-01

    Nonsmokers may be affected by environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke), but the effects of such exposure on fracture healing have not been well studied. To explore the possible effects of passive inhalation of tobacco smoke on the healing of a diaphyseal fracture in femurs of rats. We hypothesized that secondhand exposure to tobacco smoke adversely affects fracture healing. A mid-diaphyseal fracture was created in the femur of 41 female Wistar rats and fixed with an intramedullary metallic pin; 14 rats were excluded (nine for inadequate fractures and five for K wire extrusion). Tobacco exposure was provided by a smoking machine on a daily basis of four cigarettes a day. Each cigarette yielded 10 mg tar and 0.8 mg nicotine, and was puffed by alternating injections of fresh air for 30 seconds and smoke air for 15 seconds. The smoke exposure was previously adjusted to provide serum levels of cotinine similar to human secondhand tobacco exposure. Cotinine is a predominant catabolite of nicotine that is used as a biological biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke. In one group (n = 11), the animals were intermittently exposed to tobacco smoke before sustaining the fracture but not afterward. In another group (n = 7), the exposure occurred before and after the fracture. The control group (n = 9) was sham-exposed before and after the fracture. We evaluated the specimens 28 days after bone fracture. The callus quality was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (bone mineral density [BMD], bone mineral content [BMC], and callus area), μCT (callus volume and woven bone fraction), and mechanical bending (maximum force and stiffness). Tobacco exposure resulted in delayed bone callus formation, which is represented by decreased BMD (Control: 0.302 ± 0.008 g/cm 2 vs Preexposed: 0.199 ± 0.008 g/cm 2 and Pre- and Postexposed: 0.146 ± 0.009 g/cm 2 ; mean difference = 0.103 g/cm 2 , 95% CI, 0.094-0.112 g/cm 2 and mean difference = 0.156 g/cm 2 , 95% CI, 0.147-0.167 g

  10. Parental tobacco smoke exposure: Epigenetics and the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic programming is an important mechanism underlying the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Much of the research in this area has focused on maternal nutrition. Parental smoking has emerged as a prime example of how exposure to environmental toxicants during the preconceptional and in utero periods can have long-term effects on offspring health, and the role of the epigenome in these effects. Maternal smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy result in lower birth weight of offspring, and there is now clear evidence that these offspring are at elevated risk for overweight/obesity, type-2 diabetes, respiratory effects during adolescence and adulthood, and may be programmed for increased risk of nicotine addiction. Epigenetic analyses of placenta, cord blood and offspring buccal cells have consistently revealed altered DNA methylation of genes involved in developmental processes and xenobiotic metabolism, and these epigenetic changes are persistent. Animal studies with cigarette smoke and nicotine support these findings. Paternal preconceptional smoking has been positively related to childhood cancers, potentially linked to changes in the sperm epigenome. Germ cell specification and preimplantation development are periods of widespread erasure and reprogramming of DNA methylation, and as such are likely to be sensitive periods for environmental effects on the epigenome. Exposure to tobacco smoke during gametogenesis and in

  11. Self-determination, smoking, diet and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey C; Minicucci, Daryl S; Kouides, Ruth W; Levesque, Chantal S; Chirkov, Valery I; Ryan, Richard M; Deci, Edward L

    2002-10-01

    A Clinical Trial will test (1) a Self-Determination Theory (SDT) model of maintained smoking cessation and diet improvement, and (2) an SDT intervention, relative to usual care, for facilitating maintained behavior change and decreasing depressive symptoms for those who quit smoking. SDT is the only empirically derived theory which emphasizes patient autonomy and has a validated measure for each of its constructs, and this is the first trial to evaluate an SDT intervention. Adult smokers will be stratified for whether they are at National Cholesterol Education Program (1996) recommended goal for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Those with elevated LDL-C will be studied for diet improvement as well as smoking cessation. Six-month interventions involve a behavior-change counselor using principles of SDT to facilitate autonomous motivation and perceived competence for healthier behaving. Cotinine-validated smoking cessation and LDL-C-validated dietary recall of reduced fat intake, as well as depressive symptoms, will be assessed at 6 and 18 months. Structural equation modeling will test the model for both behaviors within the intervention and usual-care conditions.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of cotinine in rats: a potential therapeutic agent for disorders of cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Beck, Wayne D; Callahan, Patrick M; Terry, Alvin V; Bartlett, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    Attention has been paid to cotinine (COT), one of the major metabolites of nicotine (NIC), for its pro-cognitive effects and potential therapeutic activities against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other types of cognitive impairment. In order to facilitate pharmacological and toxicological studies on COT for its pro-cognitive activities, we conducted a pharmacokinetic (PK) study of COT in rats, providing important oral and intravenously (iv) PK information. In this study, plasma samples were obtained up to 48 h after COT was dosed to rats orally and iv at a dose of 3mg/kg. Plasma samples were prepared and analyzed using a sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) bioanalytical method, providing concentration profiles of COT and metabolites after oral and iv administrations. The data were fitted into a one-compartment model and a two-compartment model for the oral and iv groups, respectively, providing important PK information for COT including PK profiles, half-life, clearance and bioavailability. The results suggested fast absorption, slow elimination and high bioavailability of COT in rats. Several important facts about the PK properties in rats suggested COT could be a potential pro-cognitive agent. Information about the pharmacokinetics of COT in rats revealed in this study is of great importance for the future studies on COT or potential COT analogs as agents for improving cognition. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of secondhand smoke exposure on infant growth: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Shamsi, Azar; Mohsenifar, Afshin; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Hatmi, Zinat; Milani, Mohammad; Keshavarz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Mother's and infant exposure to cigarette smoke is one of the most important public health problems. There is no study in Iran evaluating the impact of cigarette smoke on infant growth and development. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cigarette. This prospective cohort study was conducted on 51 cigarette smoke-exposed infants (exposed group) and 51 non-exposed infants (non-exposed group). They were evaluated for weight, height and head circumference three times; five to seven days, two months and four months after birth. Urine samples were also collected in each turn. Exposure to secondhand smoke was assessed through questionnaires and urinary cotinine levels. The analysis was performed using an independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square and Fisher's exact and Kappa tests. Mean urinary cotinine level in the exposed group was 38.57±2.85 ng/mg creatinine at baseline, 86.95±1.16 at two months and 63.32±2.08 at four months of age. These indicated a gradual reduction of exposure from two to four months. The weight and height of the exposed group were significantly lower than the non-exposed group (Psecondhand smoke during infancy may lead to weight and height growth reduction in the first four months of life.

  14. The effects of secondhand smoke exposure on infant growth: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Baheiraei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mother's and infant exposure to cigarette smoke is one of the most important public health problems. There is no study in Iran evaluating the impact of cigarette smoke on infant growth and development. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cigarette. This prospective cohort study was conducted on 51 cigarette smoke-exposed infants (exposed group and 51 non-exposed infants (non-exposed group. They were evaluated for weight, height and head circumference three times; five to seven days, two months and four months after birth. Urine samples were also collected in each turn. Exposure to secondhand smoke was assessed through questionnaires and urinary cotinine levels. The analysis was performed using an independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square and Fisher's exact and Kappa tests. Mean urinary cotinine level in the exposed group was 38.57±2.85 ng/mg creatinine at baseline, 86.95±1.16 at two months and 63.32±2.08 at four months of age. These indicated a gradual reduction of exposure from two to four months. The weight and height of the exposed group were significantly lower than the non-exposed group (P< 0.001 at two and four months after birth. The results of the present study showed that the exposure to secondhand smoke during infancy may lead to weight and height growth reduction in the first four months of life.

  15. Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar ePatel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-β (Aβ plaque pathology in the transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C57BL/6 mice. Here, we extend our previous studies by investigating the effects of cotinine on the progression of AD-like pathology, depressive-like behavior, and the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects in the Tg6799 mice when left untreated until after a more advanced stage of the disease’s development. The results show that vehicle-treated Tg6799 mice displayed an accentuated loss of working memory and an abundant Aβ plaque pathology that were accompanied by higher levels of depressive-like behavior as compared to control littermates. By contrast, prolonged daily cotinine treatment, withheld until after a mid-level progression of AD-like pathology, reduced Aβ levels, Aβ plaques, and depressive-like behavior as well as dramatically improved working memory in Tg6799 mice to levels no different from control littermates. The beneficial effects of cotinine were accompanied by an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B (Akt and the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices of Tg6799 mice. This suggests that cotinine halts the progression of AD-like pathology while reducing depressive-like behavior by stimulating signaling pathways supporting synaptic plasticity in Tg6799 mice. The potential use of cotinine to treat cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of AD is discussed.

  16. Employee and employer support for workplace-based smoking cessation: results from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Michael T; Taylor, Humphrey

    2010-01-01

    Workplace smoking cessation programs can increase smoking cessation rates, improve employee health, reduce exposure to second-hand smoke, and decrease costs. To assist with the development of such programs, we conducted a Global Workplace Smoking Survey to collect information on workplace attitudes towards smoking cessation programs. Data were collected from 1,403 employers (smoking and non-smoking) and 3,525 smoking employees participating in surveys in 14 countries in Asia, Europe, and South America in 2007. Results were weighted to ensure that they were representative of smokers and employers at companies with the specified number of employees. More than two-thirds of employers (69%) but less than half of employees (48%) indicated that their company should help employees with smoking cessation. Approximately two-thirds of employees and 81% of employers overall felt that smoke-free policies encourage cessation, but fewer individuals from Europe (vs. from Asia or South America) agreed with this. In companies with a smoke-free policy, 76% of employees and 80% of employers felt that their policy had been somewhat, very, or extremely effective in motivating employees to quit or reduce smoking. Employers and employees differed substantially regarding appropriate methods for encouraging cessation, with more employees favouring financial incentives and more employers favouring education. Both employees and employers value smoke-free workplace programs and workplace cessation support activities, although many would like their companies to offer more support. These results will be useful for organizations exploring means of facilitating smoking cessation amongst employees.

  17. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... smoke from burning tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. 1,5,6 Secondhand smoke also ...

  18. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  19. Solid-phase extraction and HPLC assay of nicotine and cotinine in plasma and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ralph; Messina, S M; Stokes, C; Salyani, S; Alcalay, N; De Fiebre, N C; De Fiebre, C M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable assay for nicotine (NIC) and its major metabolite, cotinine (COT), in plasma and brain. A method was developed that uses an extraction method compatible with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and ultraviolet (UV) detection. Sequential solid-phase extraction on silica columns followed by extraction using octadecyl (C18) columns resulted in mean percent recovery (n = 5) of 51 +/- 5, 64 +/- 10, and 52 +/- 10% for NIC, COT, and phenylimidazole (PI), respectively, in spiked 1-mL serum samples. Recovery (mean +/- SEM) of the internal standard (PI) from spiked samples of nicotine-injected rats averaged 64.1 +/- 1.5% (n = 138) from plasma, and 20.7+/-0.8% (n = 128) from brain. The limits of detection of NIC in plasma samples were approximately 8 ng per mL, and of COT, 13.6 ng per mL. Further optimization of our extraction method, using slower flow rates and solid-phase extraction on silica columns, followed by C18 column extraction, yielded somewhat better recoveries (38 +/-3%) for 1-mL brain homogenates. Interassay precision (coefficient of variation) was determined on the basis of daily calibrations for 2 months and was found to be 7%, 9%, and 9% for NIC, COT, and PI, respectively, whereas intra-assay variability was 3.9% for both NIC and COT. Limited studies were performed on analytical columns for comparison of retention, resolution, asymmetry, and column capacity. We concluded that a simple two-step solid-phase extraction method, coupled with HPLC separation and UV detection, can be used routinely to measure NIC and COT in biological fluids and tissues.

  20. Iodine nutrition in breast-fed infants is impaired by maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Nøhr, Susanne B; Pedersen, Klaus M

    2004-01-01

    the sodium-iodide symporter responsible for iodide transport in the lactating mammary gland. Smoking during the period of breastfeeding increases the risk of iodine deficiency-induced brain damage in the child. Women who breastfeed should not smoke, but if they do, an extra iodine supplement should......Lack of iodine for thyroid hormone formation during the fetal stage and/or the first years of life may lead to developmental brain damage. During the period of breastfeeding, thyroid function of the infant depends on iodine in maternal milk. We studied healthy, pregnant women admitted for delivery...... and their newborn infants. Cotinine in urine and serum was used to classify mothers as smokers (n = 50) or nonsmokers (n = 90). Smoking and nonsmoking mothers had identical urinary iodine on d 5 after delivery, but smoking was associated with reduced iodine content in breast milk (smokers 26.0 micro g/liter vs...

  1. Factors associated with secondhand smoke exposure prevalence and secondhand smoke level of children living with parental smokers: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Sabina; Unger, Friederike; Groß, Stefan; Nauck, Matthias; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    Factors that might account for the probability of children being exposed to secondhand smoke compared to those who are unexposed and characteristics associated with the urinary cotinine level (UCL) of those who are exposed were investigated. All households in a German region with a child aged 3 years or younger (n = 3,570) were invited to participate in a study that tested the efficacy of an intervention for reducing secondhand smoke exposure. In 1,282 households, at least one parent reported daily smoking. Among these, 915 (71.3%) participated in the study. For data analyses, we used a two-part model. Characteristics of the households associated with SHSE of the youngest child were analyzed, as well as characteristics associated with UCL among those exposed. Exposure to secondhand smoke was defined using a UCL ≥ 10 ng/ml. Secondhand smoke exposure was detected in 57.1% of the samples. Nursery attendance was associated with secondhand smoke exposure, in addition to the number of smokers living in the household, extent of home smoking ban and parental education. Among children exposed, nursery attendance, season of urine collection and age of the child were associated with UCL. Consideration of seasonal smoking behavior and a child's age at the time of intervention may increase attention to the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke exposure.

  2. Youth’s narratives about family members smoking: parenting the parent- it’s not fair!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    second hand smoke in their home environment and emotional and lifestyle-related health difficulties. Results emphasize the relational impact of smoking when developing anti-tobacco and cancer prevention campaigns. Recognizing the potential toll that second-hand smoke can have on youth’s emotional well-being, health care professionals are encouraged to give youth positive messages in coping with their parents’ smoking behaviour. PMID:23140551

  3. Youth’s narratives about family members smoking: parenting the parent- it’s not fair!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodgate Roberta L

    2012-11-01

    between youth exposed to second hand smoke in their home environment and emotional and lifestyle-related health difficulties. Results emphasize the relational impact of smoking when developing anti-tobacco and cancer prevention campaigns. Recognizing the potential toll that second-hand smoke can have on youth’s emotional well-being, health care professionals are encouraged to give youth positive messages in coping with their parents’ smoking behaviour.

  4. The Comparison of Hookah Smoking Prevalence in Medical Students between 2009 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Nakhostin-Roohi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hookah smoking is increasing worldwide. It is estimated the worldwide prevalence of daily hookah smoking is 100 million. The aim of this study was to compare hookah smoking prevalence in Islamic Azad University medical students in the city of Ardabil between 2009 and 2014. Method: Of 2956 Islamic Azad University medical students, Ardabil branch, almost 25% of students {737 students (226 males vs. 511 females; 436 subjects at 2009 vs. 301 subjects at 2014} were randomly selected to participate in this survey. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used after verbal informed consent according to the Review Committee of Ardabil Branch Islamic Azad University Medicine School approved protocol. A cluster sampling technique was used. The questions focused on gender, hookah smoking status, and students’ replies for the following issues: (1 Kind of hookah (2 Frequency of smoking (3 Motivation of hookah use (4 Place of smoking use (5 and Second-hand exposure to hookah. Results: Hookah use showed significant decrease in male students compared with five years ago (P<0.05. Frequency of molasses (tobacco with sweetened fruit flavors and mild aromatic smoke use has significantly enhanced among both genders in 2014 compared with 2009 (P<0.05. Furthermore, second-hand exposure to hookah was significantly higher among both nonsmoker genders at 2014 compared with 2009 (32.7% at 2014 vs. 13.2% at 2009. Conclusion: Unfortunately, in spite of knowledge promotion among medicine school students in recent years, hookah use is still prevalent among medical students. Molasses use has significantly increased and second hand exposure to tobacco has escalated since 2009.

  5. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  6. Evaluation of different smoking habits during music festivals through wastewater analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Grabic, Roman; Gál, Marián; Gál, Miroslav; Birošová, Lucia; Bodík, Igor

    2015-11-01

    Wastewater analysis is a powerful method that can provide useful information about the abuse of legal and illicit drugs. The aim of our study was to determine nicotine consumption during four different music festivals and to find a connection between smoking and preferences for specific music styles using wastewater analysis. The amount of the nicotine metabolite cotinine was monitored in wastewater at the influent of three waste water treatment plants WWTPs in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, where the festivals took place. Urinary bio-markers of nicotine utilization were analyzed by LC-HRMS. More than 80,000 festival participants were monitored during our study from June to September 2014. A significant increase of nicotine consumption was observed in wastewaters during music festivals. The nicotine ingestion level was back-calculated and expressed as mass of pure drug consumed per day and per 1000 inhabitants for selected cities of both countries. The highest differences between typical levels of cotinine in wastewaters and the levels during music festivals were detected in Piešťany: 4 g/L/1000 inhabitants during non-festival days compared to 8 g/L/1000 inhabitants during the Topfest pop-rock festival and 6g/L/1000 inhabitants during the Grape dance festival. No significant increase of the amounts of cotinine in wastewater was recorded for the Country and Folk festivals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Support for Smoke Free Policy and How It Is Influenced by Tolerance to Smoking – Experience of a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul; Manan, Azizah Ab; Yahya, Noorlia; Ibrahim, Lailanor

    2014-01-01

    This cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the support in making Penang UNESCO World Heritage Site (GTWHS) smoke free and to determine the influence of tolerance towards smoking on this support. This is the first phase in making Penang, Malaysia a smoke free state. A multistage sampling process was done to select a sample of respondents to represent the population of GTWHS. Attitude towards smoking was assessed using tolerance as a proxy. A total of 3,268 members of the community participated in the survey. A big majority (n = 2969; 90.9%) of the respondents supported the initiative. Support was lowest among the owners and residents/tenants, higher age groups, the Chinese, men, respondents who had poor knowledge of the places gazetted as smoke free, and respondents with poor knowledge of the health effects on smokers and on passive smokers. The odds (both adjusted and unadjusted) of not supporting the initiative was high among those tolerant to smoking in public areas. Tolerance towards smoking was associated with 80.3% risk of non-support in the respondents who were tolerant to smoking and a 57.2% risk in the population. Health promotion and education concerning the harm of tobacco smoke in Malaysia, which has mainly targeted smokers, must change. Health education concerning the risks of second hand smoke must also be given to non-smokers and efforts should be made to denormalize smoking. PMID:25338116

  8. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  9. Biochemical verification of the self-reported smoking status of screened male smokers of the Dutch-Belgian randomized controlled lung cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aalst, Carlijn M; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, so data linked to smoking behaviour are important in lung cancer screening trials. However, self-reporting data concerning smoking behaviour are mainly used. The aim of this study was to biochemically determine the validity and reliability of self-reported smoking status among smokers at high risk for developing lung cancer participating in the Dutch-Belgian lung cancer screening (NELSON) trial. For this sub study, a random sample of 475 men was selected who were scheduled for the fourth screening round in the NELSON trial. They were asked to complete a short questionnaire to verify the smoking behaviour for the previous seven days and a blood sample was collected to measure the cotinine level. The validity (sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV)) and reliability (Kappa) of the self-reported smoking status compared to the cotinine level (as golden standard) were determined. Both a completed questionnaire as well as a cotinine level were available for 199 (41.9%) participants. Based on these data, Se and Sp were respectively 98% (95%-Confidence Interval (CI): 91-99) and 98% (95%-CI: 93-100). PPV and NPV were 98% and 96% and Kappa was 0.96. In conclusion, the validity of the self-reported smoking status turned out to be reliable amongst men at high risk for developing lung cancer who participate in the NELSON lung cancer screening trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Underestimation of Self-Reported Smoking Prevalence in Korean Adolescents: Evidence from Gold Standard by Combined Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Kim, Jong Yeon; Lee, Do Hoon; Jung, Hye Gyoun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2018-04-05

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported smoking prevalence in Korean adolescents by using an improved gold standard by a combined method. Using a stratified sampling method, we selected 13 schools from among 397 high schools that participated in the 2015 Korean Youth Health Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBS). A second survey (repeated self-reporting questionnaire and urinary cotinine test) was conducted on 1058 students who completed the KYRBS. The gold standard of current smoker was defined as those either self-reporting as a smoker in the second survey or having a urinary cotinine concentration ≥50 ng/mL. The current smoking prevalence in the first survey (KYRBS) was 7.9% (boys 16.5% and girls 1.8%), which was lower than the results based on gold standard (11.3% total, boys 21.9% and girls 3.7%). The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking status was 62.5% and 99.0%, respectively. In particular, the sensitivity of girls (43.5%) was lower than that of boys (67.0%). The self-reported smoking prevalence in Korean adolescents was underestimated, particularly among girls. Careful attention should be paid to interpreting adolescents' smoking prevalence, and supplementary surveys or periodic validity tests need to be considered in Asian countries.

  11. Developing a smoke free homes initiative in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Padmajam, Sreedevi; Nichter, Mark; Sairu, P; Aswathy, S; Mini, G K; Bindu, V C; Pradeepkumar, A S; Thankappan, K R

    2015-05-10

    Results of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Kerala, India found that 42 % of adults were exposed to second hand smoke (SHS) inside the home. Formative research carried out in rural Kerala suggests that exposure may be much higher. Numerous studies have called for research and intervention on SHS exposure among women and children as an important component of maternal and child health activities. Community-based participatory research was carried out in Kerala. First, a survey was conducted to assess prevalence of SHS exposure in households. Next, a proof of concept study was conducted to develop and test the feasibility of a community-wide smoke free homes initiative. Educational materials were developed and pretested in focus groups. After feasibility was established, pilot studies were implemented in two other communities. Post intervention, surveys were conducted as a means of assessing changes in community support. At baseline, between 70 and 80 % of male smokers regularly smoked inside the home. Over 80 % of women had asked their husband not to do so. Most women felt powerless to change their husband's behavior. When women were asked about supporting a smoke free homes intervention, 88 % expressed support for the idea, but many expressed doubt that their husbands would comply. Educational meetings were held to discuss the harms of second hand smoke. Community leaders signed a declaration that their community was part of the smoke free homes initiative. Six months post intervention a survey was conducted in these communities; between 34 and 59 % of men who smoked no longer smoked in their home. The smoke free homes initiative is based on the principle of collective efficacy. Recognizing the difficulty for individual women to effect change in their household, the movement establishes a smoke free community mandate. Based on evaluation data from two pilot studies, we can project that between a 30 and 60 % reduction of smoking in the home may be achieved, the

  12. Dealing with a Latent Danger: Parents Communicating with Their Children about Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Sandra P.; Eastlick Kushner, Kaysi; Neufeld, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand parental approach to the topic of smoking with school-age preadolescent children. In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 parents and yielded a grounded theory that explains how parents communicated with their children about smoking. Parents perceived smoking to be a latent danger for their children. To deter smoking from occurring they verbally interacted with their children on the topic and took action by having a no-smoking rule. There were three interaction approaches, which differed by style and method of interaction. Most parents interacted by discussing smoking with their children. They intentionally took advantage of opportunities. Some interacted by telling their children about the health effects of smoking and their opposition to it. They responded on the spur-of-the-moment if their attention was drawn to the issue by external cues. A few interacted by acknowledging to their children the negative effects of smoking. They responded only when their children brought it up. The parents' intent for the no-smoking rule, which pertained mainly to their homes and vehicles, was to protect their children from second-hand smoke and limit exposure to smoking. The theory can be used by nurses to guide interventions with parents about youth smoking prevention. PMID:22792452

  13. Dealing with a Latent Danger: Parents Communicating with Their Children about Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra P. Small

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to understand parental approach to the topic of smoking with school-age preadolescent children. In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 parents and yielded a grounded theory that explains how parents communicated with their children about smoking. Parents perceived smoking to be a latent danger for their children. To deter smoking from occurring they verbally interacted with their children on the topic and took action by having a no-smoking rule. There were three interaction approaches, which differed by style and method of interaction. Most parents interacted by discussing smoking with their children. They intentionally took advantage of opportunities. Some interacted by telling their children about the health effects of smoking and their opposition to it. They responded on the spur-of-the-moment if their attention was drawn to the issue by external cues. A few interacted by acknowledging to their children the negative effects of smoking. They responded only when their children brought it up. The parents’ intent for the no-smoking rule, which pertained mainly to their homes and vehicles, was to protect their children from second-hand smoke and limit exposure to smoking. The theory can be used by nurses to guide interventions with parents about youth smoking prevention.

  14. Dealing with a Latent Danger: Parents Communicating with Their Children about Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Sandra P; Eastlick Kushner, Kaysi; Neufeld, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand parental approach to the topic of smoking with school-age preadolescent children. In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 parents and yielded a grounded theory that explains how parents communicated with their children about smoking. Parents perceived smoking to be a latent danger for their children. To deter smoking from occurring they verbally interacted with their children on the topic and took action by having a no-smoking rule. There were three interaction approaches, which differed by style and method of interaction. Most parents interacted by discussing smoking with their children. They intentionally took advantage of opportunities. Some interacted by telling their children about the health effects of smoking and their opposition to it. They responded on the spur-of-the-moment if their attention was drawn to the issue by external cues. A few interacted by acknowledging to their children the negative effects of smoking. They responded only when their children brought it up. The parents' intent for the no-smoking rule, which pertained mainly to their homes and vehicles, was to protect their children from second-hand smoke and limit exposure to smoking. The theory can be used by nurses to guide interventions with parents about youth smoking prevention.

  15. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: a cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravara, Sofia B; Calheiros, Jose M; Aguiar, Pedro; Barata, Luis Taborda

    2011-09-23

    Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC) attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR) was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4) in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8) in females (p smoking bans, even among smokers, despite the fact that 70.3% of the smokers smoked on the premises and 76% of staff reported being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS). In addition 42.8% reported that SHS was unpleasant and 28.3% admitted complaining. MLR showed that smoking behaviour was the most important predictor of TC attitudes. Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial

  16. Impact of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in women on oxidative stress in the antral follicle and assisted reproduction outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein Nasr; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2013-08-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many oxidants and may alter the human reproduction by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in both active and passive smokers. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on oxidative stress in the follicular fluid and the assisted reproduction outcomes. An observational prospective study was carried out on 236 infertile women, who underwent assisted reproduction cycles. The ETS exposure was assessed using self-reported ETS exposure and the cotinine level in follicular fluid. To evaluate the OS in follicular fluid (FF) malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. The number of retrieved oocytes, rate of metaphase II stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were considered as the assisted reproduction outcomes. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index, duration, and etiology of infertility; P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. The MDA and TAC levels in FF were not related to the self-report number of the weekly ETS exposure and cotinine levels in FF. Also, the number of retrieved oocytes, MII stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were not related to the cotinine level and weekly ETS exposure. However, in women whose cotinine levels in FF were lower and equal/above 3.5 ng/ml, the number of retrieved oocytes was higher (12.63 ± .71 vs. 9.28 ± 1.11, P = 0.01). The relationship between the MDA level and cleavage rate (Beta = -18.5, confidence interval-34.9 and-2.1, P assisted reproduction success by influencing the number of available oocytes. Although, the OS in a follicular environment affect the ability of oocytes to reach the specific cleavage stages at appropriate time intervals, it does not mediate poor-assisted reproduction outcomes due to ETS exposure.

  17. Impact of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in women on oxidative stress in the antral follicle and assisted reproduction outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein Nasr; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoke contains many oxidants and may alter the human reproduction by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in both active and passive smokers. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on oxidative stress in the follicular fluid and the assisted reproduction outcomes. Materials and Methods: An observational prospective study was carried out on 236 infertile women, who underwent assisted reproduction cycles. The ETS exposure was assessed using self-reported ETS exposure and the cotinine level in follicular fluid. To evaluate the OS in follicular fluid (FF) malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. The number of retrieved oocytes, rate of metaphase II stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were considered as the assisted reproduction outcomes. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index, duration, and etiology of infertility; P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The MDA and TAC levels in FF were not related to the self-report number of the weekly ETS exposure and cotinine levels in FF. Also, the number of retrieved oocytes, MII stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were not related to the cotinine level and weekly ETS exposure. However, in women whose cotinine levels in FF were lower and equal/above 3.5 ng/ml, the number of retrieved oocytes was higher (12.63 ± .71 vs. 9.28 ± 1.11, P = 0.01). The relationship between the MDA level and cleavage rate (Beta = −18.5, confidence interval-34.9 and-2.1, P reproduction success by influencing the number of available oocytes. Although, the OS in a follicular environment affect the ability of oocytes to reach the specific cleavage stages at appropriate time intervals, it does not mediate poor-assisted reproduction outcomes due to ETS exposure. PMID:24379845

  18. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and pulmonary function: a cross-sectional study among non-smoking employees of bar and restaurants in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Javiera; Aceituno, Paulina; Droppelmann, Andrea; Mesías, Sthepanie; Muñoz, Claudio; Marchetti, Nella; Iglesias, Verónica

    2017-10-06

    The workplace remains a significant source of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. This pollutant is known to be associated with respiratory and cardiovascular problems, but its effects on specific pulmonary function parameters remain largely unexplored. The objectives of this study were to measure SHS exposure among non-smoking employees of bar and restaurants in Santiago, Chile and to evaluate the effects of such exposure on pulmonary function. Cross-sectional design. The study sample included non-smoking workers from 57 restaurants and bars in Santiago, Chile. The outcome variable was pulmonary function and the exposure variables were urine cotinine concentration, a biomarker for current SHS exposure, and years of SHS exposure in the workplace as proxy of chronic exposure. Personal and occupational variables were also recorded. Data analysis was performed using linear regression models adjusted by confounders. The median age of the workers was 35 years and the median employment duration at the analysed venues was 1 year. Workers in smoking facilities reported greater SHS exposure (36 hours per week) than workers in smoke-free locations (4 hours per week). Urine cotinine levels were inversely correlated with forced vital capacity, but the finding was not statistically significant (β=-0.0002; 95% CI -0.007 to 0.006). Years of exposure to SHS showed to be significantly associated with forced expiratory flow 25/75 (β=-0.006; 95% CI -0.010 to -0.0004). These findings suggest that cumulative exposure to SHS at work may contribute to deterioration of pulmonary function in non-smoking employees. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. The study protocol of women′s education to create smoke-free home on the basis of family ties in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Zamani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoke is the leading cause of preventable death world-wide. Unfortunately, the risk is not limited to smokers. It is dangerous for non-smokers particularly women, kids and elderly. Despite the remarkable reduction of tobacco exposure in public places, it is still continuing at homes as the most common places. Interventions to create a smoke-free home are needed, but little is known about them. The aim of this study is to explain the field randomized controlled trial that is designed to examine the role of non-smoker women to create a smoke-free home through establishing complete agreement on ban smoking at home. Methods: In this field randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of women′s education will be evaluated in primary health-care centers. A total of 136 non-smoker women who exposed to second-hand smoke by their husbands at home will be included (68 intervention/non-intervention group. The intervention arm will receive an educational package including a consultation visit individually, a peer group session, a booklet, a "no smoking" sign. The primary outcome is the frequency of smoke-free home (no exposure to second-hand smoke at home. Mediator outcomes include a complete agreement to ban smoking at home, second-hand smoke exposure rate and self-assertiveness rate. All measurements will be conducted on baseline, 1 and 3 months after intervention. Conclusions: Outcomes will present the effects of implementing multi-component women′s education intervention program to ban smoking at home. If the effectiveness of the trial is confirmed, it will be suggested to merge this package to routine care in primary health-care centers.

  20. Income Inequality and US Children's Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Distinct Associations by Race-Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenassa, Edmond D; Rossen, Lauren M; Cohen, Jonathan; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Payne-Sturges, Devon C

    2017-11-01

    Prior studies have found considerable racial and ethnic disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Although a number of individual-level determinants of this disparity have been identified, contextual determinants of racial and ethnic disparities in SHS exposure remain unexamined. The objective of this study was to examine disparities in serum cotinine in relation to area-level income inequality among 14 649 children from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We fit log-normal regression models to examine disparities in serum cotinine in relation to Metropolitan Statistical Areas level income inequality among 14 649 nonsmoking children aged 3-15 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2012). Non-Hispanic black children had significantly lower serum cotinine than non-Hispanic white children (-0.26; 95% CI: -0.38, -0.15) in low income inequality areas, but this difference was attenuated in areas with high income inequality (0.01; 95% CI: -0.16, 0.18). Serum cotinine declined for non-Hispanic white and Mexican American children with increasing income inequality. Serum cotinine did not change as a function of the level of income inequality among non-Hispanic black children. We have found evidence of differential associations between SHS exposure and income inequality by race and ethnicity. Further examination of environments which engender SHS exposure among children across various racial/ethnic subgroups can foster a better understanding of how area-level income inequality relates to health outcomes such as levels of SHS exposure and how those associations differ by race/ethnicity. In the United States, the association between children's risk of SHS exposure and income inequality is modified by race/ethnicity in a manner that is inconsistent with theories of income inequality. In overall analysis this association appears to be as predicted by theory. However, race-specific analyses reveal that higher levels of income

  1. Pregnant women and children's exposure to tobacco and solid fuel smoke in southwestern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Moore, Janet; Derman, Richard; Kodkany, Bhala; Bellad, Mrutyunjaya; Naik, Vijjaya A; Angolkar, Mubashir; Bloch, Michele

    2011-07-01

    To examine factors associated with smoke exposure among pregnant women in rural India. We conducted a survey of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) and solid fuel smoke (SFS) among 736 pregnant women. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression models to assess the relationship between demographic variables and exposure to SHS and to SFS. While few respondents smoked cigarettes, 19.9% of women and 27.8% of children were frequently or always exposed to SHS, and 43.5% were at high and 46.7% at medium risk for SFE. Low educational levels and illiteracy were associated with exposure. Smoke exposure is a serious health risk for many poor women and children in India.

  2. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Persistence of smoking-induced dysregulation of miRNA expression in the small airway epithelium despite smoking cessation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Wang

    Full Text Available Even after quitting smoking, the risk of the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer remains significantly higher compared to healthy nonsmokers. Based on the knowledge that COPD and most lung cancers start in the small airway epithelium (SAE, we hypothesized that smoking modulates miRNA expression in the SAE linked to the pathogenesis of smoking-induced airway disease, and that some of these changes persist after smoking cessation. SAE was collected from 10th to 12th order bronchi using fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Affymetrix miRNA 2.0 arrays were used to assess miRNA expression in the SAE from 9 healthy nonsmokers and 10 healthy smokers, before and after they quit smoking for 3 months. Smoking status was determined by urine nicotine and cotinine measurement. There were significant differences in the expression of 34 miRNAs between healthy smokers and healthy nonsmokers (p1.5, with functions associated with lung development, airway epithelium differentiation, inflammation and cancer. After quitting smoking for 3 months, 12 out of the 34 miRNAs did not return to normal levels, with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway being the top identified enriched pathway of the target genes of the persistent dysregulated miRNAs. In the context that many of these persistent smoking-dependent miRNAs are associated with differentiation, inflammatory diseases or lung cancer, it is likely that persistent smoking-related changes in SAE miRNAs play a role in the subsequent development of these disorders.

  4. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dying from cancer goes down. Your blood pressure goes down. Your pulse and blood oxygen level return to normal. If you have children, you can help them be healthier by quitting smoking. Children whose parents smoke around them are at higher risk for ...

  5. Exposure to active and passive smoking among Greek pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria G. Vivilaki

    2016-04-01

    Of 300 women recruited to the study 48 % reported tobacco use during the first trimester of pregnancy. Amongst participants who were tobacco users, 83.3 % reported making an attempt to quit but less than half (45.1 % were successful. Among women who continued to smoke during pregnancy the majority (55.8 % reported that they felt unable to quit, and 9.3 % reported that they considered smoking cessation was not an important health issue for them. Participants who continued to smoke during pregnancy were more likely to report fetal (χ2 = 11.41; df = 5; p < 0.05 and newborn complications (χ2 = 6.41; df = 2; p < 0.05, including preterm birth and low birth weight. Participants who reported that their partners were smokers were more likely to smoke throughout their pregnancy (χ2 = 14.62; df = 1; p < 0.001. High rates of second-hand smoke exposure were reported among both smoking and non-smoking women. Pregnant smokers had significantly higher levels of postnatal depressive and anxiety symptomatology, as measured using the EPDS, than non-smokers.

  6. Surgical smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.

  7. Analysis of self-reported versus biomarker based smoking prevalence: methodology to compute corrected smoking prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of smoking is needed to estimate the need for future public health resources. To compute and compare smoking prevalence rates by using self-reported smoking statuses, two serum cotinine (SCOT) based biomarker methods, and one urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) based biomarker method. These estimates were then used to develop correction factors to be applicable to self-reported prevalences to arrive at corrected smoking prevalence rates. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2007-2012 for those aged ≥20 years (N = 16826) were used. Self-reported prevalence rate for the total population computed as the weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by weighted number of all participants was 21.6% and 24% when computed by weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by the weighted number of self-reported smokers and nonsmokers. The corrected prevalence rate was found to be 25.8%. A 1% underestimate in smoking prevalence is equivalent to not being able to identify 2.2 million smokers in US in a given year. This underestimation, if not corrected, could lead to serious gap in the public health services available and needed to provide adequate preventive and corrective treatment to smokers.

  8. No Borders for Tobacco Smoke in Hospitality Venues in Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Neuberger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In public places many countries banned smoking as the most important indoor source of fine airborne particulate matter. In Austria partial bans have been in force since 2009, with exemptions for the hospitality industry. From February to October 2010 we investigated PM2.5 concentrations in the breathing area of guests in well frequented Viennese establishments of all sizes, and compared these chance indoor samples with PM2.5 concentrations measured during the same half hour at the next outdoor monitoring station. The laser particle counter (OPC1.108, Grimm® used for indoor measurements had been calibrated by ß-attenuation (FH 62 I-R, Eberline®, which was used outdoors. 48% of 112 venues visited did not fully comply with the law, notwithstanding its weakness.  Highest median concentrations (in µg/m3 were found in bars (443.7, followed by nightclubs/discotheques (421.1, pubs (147.7, cafes (106.1 and restaurants (23.4. Concentrations increased with number of smokers present (p < 0.01, with medians of 282.4/241,3/67.6/6.9 µg/m³ in smoking venues/smoking rooms/adjacent non-smoking rooms/exclusive non-smoking venues. Only for the latter, a significant correlation was found with outdoor concentrations (r = 0.48, p < 0.01, while concentrations in non-smoking rooms were higher (p < 0.01 and unrelated to outdoor concentrations, but significantly dependent on concentrations in the adjacent smoking room (r = 0.64, p < 0.01. In conclusion, the partial smoking ban failed and guests of Viennese hospitality venues continue to risk disease from passive smoking, even in so-called “non-smoking rooms”, which are second-hand smoke rooms.

  9. Smoking effects on milk's micronutrient content and infant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar Rodriguez, G.; Berlanga, R.; Garcia, C.

    1999-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy negatively affects birth weight and during breast-feeding alters volume and duration of lactation. As consequence of both effects, breast fed infants of smoking mothers have lower growth rates, compared to those of non-smoking mothers. In smoking mothers, at the end of pregnancy, there is an inverse association between cadmium content in maternal plasma and zinc content in fetal blood, while their newborns exhibited increased copper and diminished iron concentrations. No information exists on micronutrient content of breast milk of smoking mothers, associated to longitudinal growth. Ten smoking mothers (mean of cigarettes: 7.1) and 22 non-smoker controls and their infants, have been recruited within one month after delivery, at a Public Hospital in Santiago, Chile. Infant's weight, height, tricipital skinfold, arm and head circumferences and mother's weight were registered. Milk volume has been assessed by deuterium dilution and cotinine concentrations by radio-immuno-assay (RIA). No significant differences existed in age and nutritional status, between mothers. Cotinine levels were 50 times higher in smoking mothers (2576±2341 mU/L vs 54±25) and 12 times higher in their infants compared with those of non smokers (121±99 mU/L vs 10±5 mU/L). Birth weight was significantly different (3290±327 g vs 3558±432 g, p=0.01) but not so at 3 months of age (6026±550 g vs 6099±510 g, p=0.8). Infants' height was significantly smaller in smokers' infants at birth and 3 months of age (50±1 cm vs 51±1 cm and 59±1 cm vs 61±2 cm). The evidence so far indicates that infant's height is compromised which could be related to an altered transference of essential micronutrients, due to a lesser amount of breast-milk and micronutrient concentrations. These objectives will be proved in the second year of the Coordinated Research Project. (author)

  10. Association between high school students’ cigarette smoking, asthma and related beliefs: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resa M. Jones

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking has a detrimental effect on the symptoms and severity of asthma, a common chronic disease among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between asthma and smoking among high school students and assess provider-patient communication with asthmatic adolescents regarding smoking and adolescents’ beliefs about the harms of smoking. Methods In fall 2014, data from high school students, ages 14–18 years, completing the 2009-2010 Virginia Youth Tobacco Survey (N = 1796 were used in descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for model-specific confounders as appropriate. Results Overall, an estimated 19 % of high school students in Virginia smoked and 16 % had asthma. Odds of smoking did not differ by asthma status; however, asthmatics had 1.5 times higher odds of being asked if they smoke (95 % CI 1.06–2.13 and being advised not to smoke by a health professional (95 % CI 1.10–2.14 compared to non-asthmatics. Asthmatics who believed second-hand smoke or smoking 1–5 cigarettes/day was not harmful had respectively 4.2 and 2.8 times higher odds of smoking than those who thought each was harmful. Further, asthmatics who thought smoking 1−2 years is safe had 3.4 times higher odds of smoking than those who did not (95 % CI 1.57–10.1. Conclusions While asthmatic adolescents are just as likely to smoke as non-asthmatics, less healthy beliefs about the risks of smoking increase the odds of smoking among asthmatics. Thus, targeted asthma-specific smoking prevention and education to change attitudes and beliefs could be an effective tool for adolescents.

  11. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  12. Absorption of nicotine and carbon monoxide from passive smoking under natural conditions of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C

    1983-01-01

    Seven non-smokers were exposed to tobacco smoke under natural conditions for two hours in a public house. Measures of nicotine and cotinine in plasma, saliva, and urine and expired air carbon monoxide all showed reliable increases. The concentrations of carbon monoxide and nicotine after exposure averaged 15.7% and 7.5% respectively of the values found in heavy smokers. Although the increase in expired air carbon monoxide of 5.9 ppm was similar to increases in smokers after a single cigarette, the amount of nicotine absorbed was between a tenth and a third of the amount taken in from one cigarette. Since this represented a relatively extreme acute natural exposure, any health risks of passive smoking probably depend less on quantitative factors than on qualitative differences between sidestream and mainstream smoke. PMID:6648864

  13. Prenatal Cigarette Smoke Exposure Causes Hyperactivity and Agressive Behavior: Role of Altered Catcholamines and BDNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yochum, Carrie; Doherty-Lyon, Shannon; Hoffman, Carol; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Zellikoff, Judith T.; Richardson, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with a variety of untoward effects on the offspring. However, recent epidemiological studies have brought into question whether the association between neurobehavioral deficits and maternal smoking is causal. We utilized an animal model of maternal smoking to determine the effects of prenatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on neurobehavioral development. Pregnant mice were exposed to either filtered air or mainstream CS from gestation day (GD) 4 to parturition for 4 hr/d and 5 d/wk, with each exposure producing maternal plasma concentration of cotinine equivalent to smoking <1 pack of cigarettes per day (25 ng/ml plasma cotinine level). Pups were weaned at postnatal day (PND) 21 and behavior assessed on at 4 weeks of age and again at 4–6 months of age. Male, but not female, offspring of CS-exposed dams demonstrated a significant increase in locomotor activity during adolescence and adulthood that was ameliorated by methylphenidate treatment. Additionally, male offspring exhibited increased aggression, as evidenced by decreased latency to attack and number of attacks in a resident intruder task. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by a significant decrease in striatal and cortical dopamine and serotonin and a significant reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein. Taken in concert, these data demonstrate that prenatal exposure to CS produces behavioral alterations in mice that are similar to those observed in epidemiological studies linking maternal smoking to neurodevelopmental disorders and suggest a role for monoaminergic and BDNF alterations in these effects. PMID:24486851

  14. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with the requirements of the World Health Organization. (WHO) Framework ... meals.6,7 For this reason, it is important to deal with the patient's physical nicotine ... habits associated with smoking, and helps to motivate them to.

  15. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing, when smokers come back inside, they should wash their hands and change their clothing, especially before holding or hugging children. Never smoke in a car with other people. Even exhaling out the window ...

  16. Maintain levels of nicotine but reduce other smoke constituents: a formula for ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.C.; Young, J.C.; Rickert, W.S.

    1984-09-01

    Twenty-two volunteers who smoked more than 20 cigarettes with ''high'' nicotine yields (0.8 to 1.2 mg) per day participated in an 8-week study designed to test the hypothesis that smoking cigarettes with a constant level of nicotine but reduced deliveries of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide leads to a decrease in smoke absorption. All subjects smoked their usual high-nicotine brand for the first 3 weeks (P1), and the absorption of smoke constituents was determined from levels of thiocyanate and cotinine in saliva and serum, levels of carbon monoxide in expired air, and levels of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. During the final 5 weeks (P2), the treatment group (16 subjects) switched to the ''light'' version of their usual brands (similar yields of nicotine but with reduced yields of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide); the control group (6 subjects) smoked their usual brands for the duration of the study. Average levels of cotinine for the subjects who switched during P2 were not significantly different from those of the control group as was expected. Slight reductions were noted in average expired-air carbon monoxide levels, blood carboxyhemoglobin, and saliva thiocyanate, but these reductions were smaller than anticipated based on brand characteristics. The results suggest that the ratio of smoke constituents is different when individuals, rather than machines, smoke cigarettes. Yields determined under subject-defined conditions are necessary in order to properly evaluate the role of nicotine in the design of ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes.

  17. Smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, L; Ogilvie, A; Pelkonen, M; Notkola, I; Tukiainen, H; Tervahauta, M; Tuomilehto, J; Nissinen, A

    2002-01-01

    Kirandeep Kaur, Shivani Juneja, Sandeep KaushalDepartment of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaWith reference to the article published under the title "Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review", we would like to add some information related to smoking cessation therapy among pregnant females. In that article, in the nicotine replacement therapy section, pregnancy has been considered as a contraindication...

  18. Smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies, and non-smokers’ assertiveness for smoke-free air in the workplace: a study from the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Zlatev, Martin; Rodafinos, Angelos; Eiser, J Richard

    2012-10-01

    Identify the psychosocial variables that predict smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies at work, and non-smokers’ assertiveness for smoke-free rights in Greek and Bulgarian workplaces. Data were collected from employees in Greece and Bulgaria. The main outcome measures were smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies, and non-smokers’ assertiveness intentions. Demographic variables, tobacco use and dependence, as well as beliefs about second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoking at work were also assessed. Regression analyses showed that smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies was predicted by age, perceived health risks of smoking, and beliefs related to the benefits of smoking at work. Non-smokers’ assertiveness was predicted by annoyance from exposure to SHS at work, and assertiveness-related social cognitions (e.g., attitudes, social norms, and self-efficacy). Interventions to promote support for tobacco control policies at work in Greece and Bulgaria may benefit from targeting smokers’ beliefs about the actual effects of tobacco use on health and job performance. Accordingly, efforts to promote non-smokers assertiveness should build stronger assertiveness-related attitudes, convey anti-smoking normative messages, and strengthen self-efficacy skills.

  19. Smoke-free policies in New Zealand public tertiary education institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay A; Marsh, L

    2015-04-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates the creation of smoke-free environments to protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke and reduce demand for tobacco. We aimed to examine the extent and nature of smoke-free campus policies at tertiary education institutions throughout New Zealand, and examine the policy development process. Stage one comprised an audit and content analysis of smoke-free policies. In stage two, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to investigate the process of developing and implementing policies. Qualitative content analysis was undertaken on interview notes. Policies were identified for most institutions (n = 26/29), though varied widely in nature. Only nine mandated 100% smoke-free campuses without exceptions and few prohibited the sale of tobacco on campus, or connections with the tobacco industry. During interviews (n = 22/29), cited barriers to developing a 100% smoke-free policy included enforcement challenges and anticipated opposition from staff and students. However, participants from institutions with 100% smoke-free policies reported having encountered few challenges. Varying levels of compliance with 100% smoke-free policies were reported yet, overall, these policies were viewed as being effective. Smoke-free campus policies could be strengthened to better reflect a completely tobacco-free organization. Other institutions and workplaces could use these findings to develop 100% smoke-free policies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Students' attitude and smoking behaviour following the implementation of a university smoke-free policy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Alameddine, Maysam; Nakkash, Rima; Afifi, Rima A; Khalil, Joanna; Nahhas, Georges

    2013-01-01

    In view of the high-smoking rate among university students in Lebanon and the known adverse effects of second-hand smoking, the American University of Beirut (AUB) decided to implement a non-smoking policy on campus. This study sought to examine the students' compliance and attitudes following the ban. Cross-sectional study. A private university in Lebanon. 545 randomly selected students were approached. A stratified cluster sample of classes offered in the spring semester of the 2008/2009 academic year was selected. Students completed a self-administered paper and pencil survey during class time. The main outcomes were compliance with and attitudes towards the ban. Other secondary outcomes were the perception of barriers to implementation of the ban and attitudes towards tobacco control in general. 535 students participated in the study. Smokers were generally compliant with the ban (72.7%) and for some (20%) it led to a decrease in their smoking. Students' attitude towards the ban and the enforcement of a non-smoking policy in public places across Lebanon varied according to their smoking status whereby non-smokers possessed a more favourable attitude and strongly supported such policies compared with smokers; overall, the largest proportions of students were satisfied to a large extent with the ban and considered it justified (58.6% and 57.2%, respectively). While much smaller percentages reported that the ban would help in reducing smoking to a large extent (16.7%) or it would help smokers quit (7.4%). Perceived barriers to implementation of the non-smoking policy in AUB included the lack of compliance with and strict enforcement of the policy as well as the small number and crowdedness of the smoking areas. An education campaign, smoking cessation services and strict enforcement of the policy might be necessary to boost its effect in further reducing students' cigarette use.

  1. Students’ attitude and smoking behaviour following the implementation of a university smoke-free policy: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Alameddine, Maysam; Nakkash, Rima; Afifi, Rima A; Khalil, Joanna; Nahhas, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Objective In view of the high-smoking rate among university students in Lebanon and the known adverse effects of second-hand smoking, the American University of Beirut (AUB) decided to implement a non-smoking policy on campus. This study sought to examine the students’ compliance and attitudes following the ban. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A private university in Lebanon. Participants 545 randomly selected students were approached. A stratified cluster sample of classes offered in the spring semester of the 2008/2009 academic year was selected. Students completed a self-administered paper and pencil survey during class time. Primary and secondary outcome measures The main outcomes were compliance with and attitudes towards the ban. Other secondary outcomes were the perception of barriers to implementation of the ban and attitudes towards tobacco control in general. Results 535 students participated in the study. Smokers were generally compliant with the ban (72.7%) and for some (20%) it led to a decrease in their smoking. Students' attitude towards the ban and the enforcement of a non-smoking policy in public places across Lebanon varied according to their smoking status whereby non-smokers possessed a more favourable attitude and strongly supported such policies compared with smokers; overall, the largest proportions of students were satisfied to a large extent with the ban and considered it justified (58.6% and 57.2%, respectively). While much smaller percentages reported that the ban would help in reducing smoking to a large extent (16.7%) or it would help smokers quit (7.4%). Perceived barriers to implementation of the non-smoking policy in AUB included the lack of compliance with and strict enforcement of the policy as well as the small number and crowdedness of the smoking areas. Conclusions An education campaign, smoking cessation services and strict enforcement of the policy might be necessary to boost its effect in further reducing students

  2. Racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and nicotine intake from cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Gubner, Noah R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn; George, Tony P; Cinciripini, Paul; Schnoll, Robert A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-09-01

    Rate of nicotine metabolism has been identified as an important factor influencing nicotine intake and can be estimated using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a validated biomarker of CYP2A6 enzyme activity. Individuals who metabolize nicotine faster (higher NMR) may alter their smoking behavior to titrate their nicotine intake in order to maintain similar levels of nicotine in the body compared to slower nicotine metabolizers. There are known racial differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism with African Americans on average having a slower rate of nicotine metabolism compared to Whites. The goal of this study was to determine if there are racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and measures of nicotine intake assessed using multiple biomarkers of nicotine and tobacco smoke exposure. Using secondary analyses of the screening data collected in a recently completed clinical trial, treatment-seeking African American and White daily smokers (10 or more cigarettes per day) were grouped into NMR quartiles so that the races could be compared at the same NMR, even though the distribution of NMR within race differed. The results indicated that rate of nicotine metabolism was a more important factor influencing nicotine intake in White smokers. Specifically, Whites were more likely to titrate their nicotine intake based on the rate at which they metabolize nicotine. However, this relationship was not found in African Americans. Overall there was a greater step-down, linear type relationship between NMR groups and cotinine or cotinine/cigarette in African Americans, which is consistent with the idea that differences in blood cotinine levels between the African American NMR groups were primarily due to differences in CYP2A6 enzyme activity without titration of nicotine intake among faster nicotine metabolizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Eustachian Tube Disorders in US Children and Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira A Patel

    Full Text Available To describe the association between active, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and the prevalence of eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD in the U.S. pediatric population.Cross-sectional.U.S. representative demographic and audiometric data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES;2005-2010.The study consisted of 2,977 children aged 12-19 years. ETD was defined as middle ear pressure <100mm H20. ETS was defined as non-active smoking in individuals with serum cotinine over the limit of detection (≥0.015 ng/mL and <10 ng/mL(N = 1559.The prevalence of ETD was 6.1%. After multivariate adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, education level, ethnicity, or having a cold, sinus problem or earache during the last 24 hours, compared to unexposed children, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval of ETD for those exposed to ETS ages 12-15 in the first, second and third tertile of cotinine concentrations were, respectively, 1.38 (0.53-3.60, 0.99 (0.53-3.60 and 2.67 (1.12-6.34. Similarly, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval of ETD for those exposed to ETS ages 16-19 in the first, second and third tertile of cotinine concentrations were, respectively, 1.28 (0.48-3.41, 0.99 (0.40-2.48 and 2.86 (1.19-6.88.These data suggest that children and adolescents exposed to high concentrations of ETS may have an increased prevalence of ETD.

  4. Effect of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Mouhamed, D; Ezzaher, A; Neffati, F; Douki, W; Gaha, L; Najjar, M F

    2016-02-01

    Smoking is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism(s) of the effects of smoking on CVD are not clearly understood; however, a number of atherogenic characteristics, such as insulin resistance have been reported. We aim to investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance and to determine the correlation between this parameter with smoking status characteristics. This study was conducted on 138 non-smokers and 162 smokers aged respectively 35.6±16.0 and 38.5±21.9 years. All subjects are not diabetic. Fasting glucose was determined by enzymatic methods and insulin by chemiluminescence method. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated using the Homeostasis Model of Assessment equation: HOMA-IR=[fasting insulin (mU/L)×fasting glucose (mmol/L)]/22.5. IR was defined as the upper quartile of HOMA-IR. Values above 2.5 were taken as abnormal and reflect insulin resistance. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had significantly higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR index. These associations remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (age, gender, BMI and alcohol consumption). A statistically significant association was noted between the smoking status parameters, including both the number of cigarettes smoked/day and the duration of smoking, and fasting insulin levels as well for HOMA-IR index. Among smokers, we noted a positive correlation between HOMA-IR index and both plasma thiocyanates and urinary cotinine. Our results show that smokers have a high risk to developing an insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, compared with a matched group of non-smokers, and may help to explain the high risk of cardiovascular diseases in smokers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p's e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes.

  6. A 5-year evaluation of a smoking cessation incentive program for chemical employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G W; Lacy, S E; Sprafka, J M; Arceneaux, T G; Potts, T A; Kravat, B A; Gondek, M R; Bond, G G

    1991-11-01

    This 5-year study of the Dow Chemical Texas Operations 1984-1985 Smoking Cessation Incentive Program (SCIP) evaluated the smoking habits of 1,097 participants and 1,174 nonparticipants. We observed, via questionnaire and saliva cotinine data, that participants were 2.3 times more likely to be long-term (greater than or equal to 5 years) nonusers of tobacco than nonparticipants (10.2% vs 4.4%, P less than or equal to 0.01). However, smoking cessation rates for 3-4 years, 1-2 years, and less than 1 year were similar for participants who remained smokers at the conclusion of SCIP and nonparticipants. Age and the interaction between the management job category and having quit smoking for at least 30 days sometime prior to the worksite program were important predictors of smoking cessation among participants. Thirty-six percent of the participants who were considered exsmokers of 6 months duration at the conclusion of the program in 1985 remained long-term quitters 5 years later. Stress and enjoyment of smoking were the two most important reasons provided by participants for recidivism. The results of this 5-year evaluation demonstrate the heterogeneity of employee participation and success with a worksite smoking cessation program.

  7. Intolerance for smoking abstinence among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Lisa J; Baker, Nathaniel L; Saladin, Michael E

    2018-09-01

    The Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort Questionnaire (IDQ-S) assesses distress tolerance specific to nicotine withdrawal. Though developed to assess withdrawal-related distress, the IDQ-S has not been validated among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers. The present study extended previous research by examining the predictive utility of the IDQ-S among abstinent, motivated-to-quit smokers. Abstinent, treatment-seeking smokers completed the IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance and Lack of Cognitive Coping scales, assessments of nicotine dependence and reinforcement, and smoking history at baseline. At baseline and at 24-h, 2-week, and 1-month follow-up, participants completed a smoking cue-reactivity task (collection of cue-elicited craving and negative affect), and assessments of cigarettes per day (CPD; daily diaries at follow-up), carbon monoxide (CO), and cotinine. Greater IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance was associated with younger age, higher nicotine dependence and reinforcement, and less smoking years (ps  .10). Withdrawal intolerance and lack of cognitive coping did not predict smoking outcomes among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers, but were associated with smoking characteristics, including nicotine dependence and reinforcement. Withdrawal intolerance and lack of cognitive coping may not be especially useful in predicting craving and smoking behavior, but future studies should replicate the present study's findings and assess the stability of the IDQ-S before forming firm conclusions about its predictive utility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamin C is not the Missing Link Between Cigarette Smoking and Spinal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Clermont E; Laurin, Danielle; Desrosiers, Thérèse; Abdous, Belkacem; Le Sage, Natalie; Frenette, Jérôme; Mondor, Myrto; Pelletier, Sylvie

    2018-06-15

    A nationwide cross-sectional study. To measure the associations between cigarette smoking (defined as serum cotinine concentration >15 ng/mL) and the 3-month prevalence of spinal pain (neck pain, low back pain, low back pain with pain below knee, and self-reported diagnosis of arthritis/rheumatism) and related limitations, and to verify whether these associations are mediated by serum concentrations of vitamin C. Cigarette smoking has been consistently associated with back pain, but this association has never been explained. Because vitamin C has recently been reported to be associated with spinal pain and related functional limitations, and the metabolism of vitamin C differs between smokers and nonsmokers, we hypothesized that the prevalence of spinal pain and related limitations might be greater among smokers because they are more susceptible to be in a state of hypovitaminosis C. We conducted secondary analyses of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003 to 2004 data on 4438 individuals aged ≥20 years. Serum concentrations of vitamin C and cotinine were strongly and inversely correlated (r = -0.35, P < 0.0001). Smoking was statistically associated with the prevalence of neck pain [adjusted odds ratio: aOR: 1.25; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.06-1.47], low back pain (aOR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.04-1.39), and low back pain with pain below knee (aOR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.13-2.22) and related limitations, with a dose-response relationship (P < 0.05). However, the associations between smoking and spinal pain were not mediated by concentrations of vitamin C. These results confirm the relationship between smoking and spinal pain, but they do not support a mediating effect of vitamin C on this relationship. 2.

  9. The effects of a smoking cessation programme on health-promoting lifestyles and smoking cessation in smokers who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ai Hee; Lee, Suk Jeong; Oh, Seung Jin

    2015-04-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for not only the occurrence of myocardial ischaemia but also recurrences of vascular stenosis. This study aimed to evaluate health-promoting lifestyles and abstinence rate after a smoking cessation programme. Sixty-two smokers who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group (n = 30) received 10 phone counselling sessions and 21 short message service messages for abstinence and coronary disease prevention, whereas the control group (n = 32) received only the standard education. After the intervention, 14 members of the experimental group had switched to a non-smoking status, confirmed biochemically; moreover, their physical activity and stress management scores increased significantly. However, self-efficacy of smoking cessation was not reflected in the cotinine levels. Thus, it is necessary not only to increase self-efficacy but also to determine the factors that affect the success of smoking cessation so that they can be included in the intervention. Our results suggest that phone counselling and short message service messaging might be important tools for the realization of smoking cessation and lifestyle changes among patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  11. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  12. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Alaska Native people: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Kristen; Boles, Myde; Bushore, Chris J; Pizacani, Barbara A; Maher, Julie E; Peterson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%-44.4%) among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%-18.4%) among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.6-9.6) than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9-2.1), but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9). Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS) was very harmful (OR = 4.5, 95% CI: 2.8-7.2), to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1) or in restaurants (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.5-6.9), to have a home smoking ban (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.6-3.9), and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5-3.6) than non-Natives. Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse, and establish smoke-free environments.

  13. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among Alaska Native people: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Rohde

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Objective. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. Methods. We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Results. Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%–44.4% among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%–18.4% among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 2.6–9.6 than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR=1.4, 95% CI: 0.9–2.1, but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.2–0.9. Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS was very harmful (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 2.8–7.2, to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1 or in restaurants (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2.5–6.9, to have a home smoking ban (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.6–3.9, and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.5–3.6 than non-Natives. Conclusion. Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse

  14. Study of secondhand smoke levels pre and post implementation of the comprehensive smoking ban in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Aditi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research was undertaken with the aim of assessing the indoor air quality in popular hospitality venues, as also to evaluate the effectiveness of the nationwide comprehensive public smoking ban. The analysis was split into two halves - baseline study taken up prior to implementation of the said ban on 2 nd October 2008, and the follow-up study after it came into effect. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five venues including five restaurants, fourteen resto-bars, two hookah (smoking water-pipe cafes and four pubs were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. Particulate matter (PM 2.5 measurements at these venues were made using TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. Results: The average PM 2.5 level in venues where smoking was permitted prior to implementation of ban was found to be 669.95 ΅g/m 3 in the baseline study. Post ban, the average PM 2.5 level in same test venues reduced to 240.8 ΅g/m 3 . The hookah cafes were an exception as the average PM 2.5 levels exceeded the permissible limits before as well as post ban. Conclusion: The baseline study showed that the hospitality venues had hazardous levels of PM 2.5 particles arising from second-hand smoke prior to smoking ban. These decreased by a maximum of 64% after the law took effect. A substantial improvement in air quality at these venues post implementation of the smoking ban indicated the effectiveness of the law.

  15. Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Among Nonsmokers in New York City in the Context of Recent Tobacco Control Policies: Current Status, Changes Over the Past Decade, and National Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Sharon E; Chernov, Claudia; Farley, Shannon M; Greene, Carolyn M; Aldous, Kenneth M; Freeman, Amy; Rodriguez-Lopez, Jesica; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke is hazardous and can cause cancer, coronary heart disease, and birth defects. New York City (NYC) and other jurisdictions have established smoke-free air laws in the past 10-15 years. NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) 2013-2014 was a population-based survey of NYC residents, aged 20 years and older, in which biospecimens were collected and cotinine levels were measured. Secondhand smoke exposure was assessed by demographics and risk factors and compared with that from NYC HANES 2004 and national HANES. More than a third (37.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 33.3%-41.2%) of nonsmoking adult New Yorkers were exposed to secondhand smoke, defined as a cotinine level of 0.05-10ng/mL. This was significantly lower than in 2004 NYC HANES, when 56.7% (95% CI = 53.6%-59.7%) of nonsmokers were exposed to secondhand smoke, but was greater than the proportion of adults exposed nationwide, as measured by national HANES (24.4%, 95% CI = 22.0%-26.9% in 2011-2012). Men, non-Hispanic blacks, adults aged 20-39, those with less education, and those living in high-poverty neighborhoods were more likely to be exposed. There has been a large decrease in secondhand smoke exposure in NYC, although disparities persist. The decrease may be the result of successful policies to limit exposure to secondhand smoke in public places and of smokers smoking fewer cigarettes per day. Yet NYC residents still experience more secondhand smoke exposure than US residents overall. Possible explanations include multiunit housing, greater population density, and pedestrian exposure. Measuring exposure to secondhand smoke can be difficult, and few studies have monitored changes over time. This study uses serum cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, from a local population-based examination survey, the NYC HANES 2013-2014, to examine exposure to secondhand smoke in an urban area that has implemented stringent antismoking laws. Comparison with NYC HANES conducted 10

  16. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Kassim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking.

  17. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Saba; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E

    2016-02-19

    Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking.

  18. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

  19. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  20. Pre- and postnatal exposure of children to tobacco smoke during the first four years of life – observations of the authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kamer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Environmental exposure to tobacco smoke is a significant threat for human health, where the higher is its degree, the more immature the human organism is. Therefore, the exposure to Tobacco smoke in foetal life exerts unfavourable effects on developing foetus and may cause early and distant results in children. [b]Material and methods.[/b] The study comprised 318 children in their first four years of life, treated for various medical conditions. The examined children were divided into two groups, Group 1 – children exposed to Tobacco smoke – and Group 2 – a control group with children from non-smoking families. History data were obtained on the basis of a specially designed questionnaire, used by the doctor in an individual conversation with parent. In each third child from the group 1 cotinine concentration in urine was assayed by the method of high performance liquid chromatography-UV-VIS and the cotinine/creatinine ratio was calculated. [b]Results of stud[/b][b]y[/b]. Results demonstrated environmental exposure to tobacco smoke in 173 children (Group 1. Out of them 31.2% were the children whose mothers had smoked also during pregnancy (Subgroup A. The other 119 children from Group 1 were accounted to Subgroup B, i.e., children, where other household members had been smoking cigarettes. A comparative group comprised 143 children from non-smoking families. The results demonstrated then that 17% of all the examined children were those, exposed to tobacco smoke effects already in their foetal life, predisposing them to prematurity and low birth weight. Moreover, it was observed that the young age and lower education level of their parents, together with worse housing conditions, may suggest a predisposing character and role of the mentioned factors.

  1. The Influence of Tobacco Smoke on Protein and Metal Levels in the Serum of Women during Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wrześniak

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking by pregnant women has a negative effect on fetal development and increases pregnancy risk by changing the oxidative balance and microelements level. Smoking affects the concentration, structure and function of proteins, potentially leading to various negative effects on pregnancy outcomes.The influence of tobacco smoke on key protein fractions in smoking and non-smoking healthy pregnant women was determined by capillary electrophoresis (CE. Concentrations of the proteins α1-antitrypsin, α1-acid glycoprotein, α2-macroglobulin and transferrin were determined by ELISA tests. Total protein concentration was measured by the Biuret method. Smoking status was established by cotinine levels. Cadmium (Cd and Zinc (Zn concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and the Zn/Cd ratio was calculated based on these numbers. Smoking women had a 3.7 times higher level of Cd than non-smoking women. Zn levels decreased during pregnancy for all women. The Zn/Cd ratio was three times lower in smoking women. The differences between the changes in the protein profile for smoking and non-smoking women were noted. Regarding proteins, α1-antitrypsin and α2-macroglobulin levels were lower in the non-smoking group than in the smoking group and correlated with Cd levels (r = -0.968, p = 0.032 for non-smokers; r = -0.835, p = 0.019 for smokers. Zn/Cd ratios correlated negatively with α1-, α2- and β-globulins.Exposure to tobacco smoke increases the concentration of Cd in the blood of pregnant women and may lead to an elevated risk of pregnancy disorders. During pregnancy alter concentrations of some proteins. The correlation of Cd with proteins suggests that it is one of the causes of protein aberrations.

  2. Smoking-related microRNAs and mRNAs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Ming-Wei; Yu, Sung-Liang; Lin, Wen-Chang; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Chen, Po-Hua; Lee, Yungling Leo

    2016-01-01

    Teenager smoking is of great importance in public health. Functional roles of microRNAs have been documented in smoke-induced gene expression changes, but comprehensive mechanisms of microRNA-mRNA regulation and benefits remained poorly understood. We conducted the Teenager Smoking Reduction Trial (TSRT) to investigate the causal association between active smoking reduction and whole-genome microRNA and mRNA expression changes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A total of 12 teenagers with a substantial reduction in smoke quantity and a decrease in urine cotinine/creatinine ratio were enrolled in genomic analyses. In Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes altered by smoke reduction were mainly associated with glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway. The integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA found eleven differentially expressed microRNAs negatively correlated with predicted target genes. CD83 molecule regulated by miR-4498 in human PBMC, was critical for the canonical pathway of communication between innate and adaptive immune cells. Our data demonstrated that microRNAs could regulate immune responses in human PBMC after habitual smokers quit smoking and support the potential translational value of microRNAs in regulating disease-relevant gene expression caused by tobacco smoke. - Highlights: • We conducted a smoke reduction trial program and investigated the causal relationship between smoke and gene regulation. • MicroRNA and mRNA expression changes were examined in human PBMC. • MicroRNAs are important in regulating disease-causal genes after tobacco smoke reduction.

  3. An RCT protocol of varying financial incentive amounts for smoking cessation among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynagh Marita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking during pregnancy is harmful to the unborn child. Few smoking cessation interventions have been successfully incorporated into standard antenatal care. The main aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of a personal financial incentive scheme for encouraging smoking cessation among pregnant women. Design A pilot randomised control trial will be conducted to assess the feasibility and potential effectiveness of two varying financial incentives that increase incrementally in magnitude ($20 vs. $40AUD, compared to no incentive in reducing smoking in pregnant women attending an Australian public hospital antenatal clinic. Method Ninety (90 pregnant women who self-report smoking in the last 7 days and whose smoking status is biochemically verified, will be block randomised into one of three groups: a. No incentive control group (n=30, b. $20 incremental incentive group (n=30, and c. $40 incremental incentive group (n=30. Smoking status will be assessed via a self-report computer based survey in nine study sessions with saliva cotinine analysis used as biochemical validation. Women in the two incentive groups will be eligible to receive a cash reward at each of eight measurement points during pregnancy if 7-day smoking cessation is achieved. Cash rewards will increase incrementally for each period of smoking abstinence. Discussion Identifying strategies that are effective in reducing the number of women smoking during pregnancy and are easily adopted into standard antenatal practice is of utmost importance. A personal financial incentive scheme is a potential antenatal smoking cessation strategy that warrants further investigation. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR number: ACTRN12612000399897

  4. Smoking-related microRNAs and mRNAs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Ming-Wei [Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Sung-Liang [Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wen-Chang [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ching-Hui [Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Po-Hua [School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yungling Leo, E-mail: leolee@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Teenager smoking is of great importance in public health. Functional roles of microRNAs have been documented in smoke-induced gene expression changes, but comprehensive mechanisms of microRNA-mRNA regulation and benefits remained poorly understood. We conducted the Teenager Smoking Reduction Trial (TSRT) to investigate the causal association between active smoking reduction and whole-genome microRNA and mRNA expression changes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A total of 12 teenagers with a substantial reduction in smoke quantity and a decrease in urine cotinine/creatinine ratio were enrolled in genomic analyses. In Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes altered by smoke reduction were mainly associated with glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway. The integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA found eleven differentially expressed microRNAs negatively correlated with predicted target genes. CD83 molecule regulated by miR-4498 in human PBMC, was critical for the canonical pathway of communication between innate and adaptive immune cells. Our data demonstrated that microRNAs could regulate immune responses in human PBMC after habitual smokers quit smoking and support the potential translational value of microRNAs in regulating disease-relevant gene expression caused by tobacco smoke. - Highlights: • We conducted a smoke reduction trial program and investigated the causal relationship between smoke and gene regulation. • MicroRNA and mRNA expression changes were examined in human PBMC. • MicroRNAs are important in regulating disease-causal genes after tobacco smoke reduction.

  5. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  6. Attitudes of students and employees towards the implementation of a totally smoke free university campus policy at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional baseline study on smoking behavior following the implementation of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2014-10-01

    Tobacco smoking is the preventable health issue worldwide. The harmful consequences of tobacco smoking and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke are well documented. The aim of this study is to compares the prevalence of smoking among students, faculty and staff and examines their interest to quit. Study also determines the difference on perceptions of smoking and non-smoking students, faculty and staff with regard to implementation of a smoke-free policy. A cross-sectional survey was administered to one of the largest universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the academic year of 2013. A Likert scale was used on questionnaires towards attitude to smoking and smoking free policy. The Chi squared test was used to determine the difference of support on completely smoke free campus for smokers and non-smokers. Smoking rates were highest among staff members (36.8 %) followed by students (11.2 %) and faculty (6.4 %). About half of the smokers (53.7 %) within the university attempted to quit smoking. Students (OR 3.10, 95 % CI 1.00-9.60) and faculty (OR 4.06, 95 % CI 1.16-14.18) were more likely to make quit smoking than staff members. Majority of the respondents (89.6 %) were supportive of a smoking--free policy and indicated that should be strictly enforced especially into public places. Results also showed that smokers were more likely to support a smoke-free policy if there are no fines or penalties. These baseline findings will provide information among administrators in formulating and carrying out a total smoke free policy. Although the majority of people within the King Saud University demonstrate a high support for a smoke-free policy, administrators should consider difference between smokers and non-smokers attitudes when implementing such a policy.

  7. Red Wine Prevents the Acute Negative Vascular Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Viktoria; Bachelier, Katrin; Schirmer, Stephan H; Werner, Christian; Laufs, Ulrich; Böhm, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine is associated with fewer cardiovascular events. We investigated whether red wine consumption counteracts the adverse vascular effects of cigarette smoking. Participants smoked 3 cigarettes alone or after drinking a titrated volume of red wine. Clinical chemistry, blood counts, plasma cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunomagnetic separation of CD14 + monocytes for gene expression analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting for microparticles, and isolation of circulating mononuclear cells to measure telomerase activity were performed, and urine cotinine levels were quantified. Compared with baseline, leukocytosis (P = .019), neutrophilia (P <.001), lymphopenia (P <.001), and eosinopenia (P = .008) were observed after only smoking. Endothelial and platelet-, monocyte-, and leukocyte-derived microparticles (P <.001 each) were elevated. In monocytes, messenger RNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 (2.6- ± 0.57-fold), tumor necrosis factor alpha (2.2- ± 0.62-fold), and IL-1b (2.3- ± 0.44-fold) were upregulated, as was IL-6 (1.2 ± 0.12-fold) protein concentration in plasma. Smoking acutely inhibited mononuclear cell telomerase activity. Markers of endothelial damage, inflammation, and cellular aging were completely attenuated by red wine consumption. Cigarette smoke results in acute endothelial damage, vascular and systemic inflammation, and indicators of the cellular aging processes in otherwise healthy nonsmokers. Pretreatment with red wine was preventive. The findings underscore the magnitude of acute damage exerted by cigarette smoking in "occasional lifestyle smokers" and demonstrate the potential of red wine as a protective strategy to avert markers of vascular injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Passive Smoke Exposure and Its Effects on Cognition, Sleep, and Health Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine L; Tingen, Martha S; Jia, Jenny; Sherman, Forrest; Williams, Celestine F; Bhavsar, Kruti; Wood, Nancy; Kobleur, Jessica; Waller, Jennifer L

    2016-04-01

    Passive smoke exposure (PSE) may be a risk factor for childhood overweight and obesity and is associated with worse neurocognitive development, cognition, and sleep in children. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of PSE on adiposity, cognition, and sleep in overweight and obese children using an objective measure of PSE. Overweight or obese children (n = 222) aged 7-11 (9.4 ± 1.1 years; 58% black; 58% female; 85% obese) were recruited from schools near Augusta, Georgia, over the course of the school year from 2003-2006 for a clinical trial, with data analyzed in 2009-2010. Passive smoke exposure was measured with plasma cotinine. Health, cognitive, and sleep measures and parent report of smoke exposure were obtained. Overweight and obese children with PSE had greater overall and central adiposity than nonexposed overweight and obese children (p prevent adverse health outcomes related to tobacco use and obesity.

  9. The effect of workplace smoking bans on heart rate variability and pulse wave velocity of non-smoking hospitality workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Wellenius, Gregory A; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Moeller, Alexander; Röösli, Martin

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of a change in second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure on heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), this study utilized a quasi-experimental setting when a smoking ban was introduced. HRV, a quantitative marker of autonomic activity of the nervous system, and PWV, a marker of arterial stiffness, were measured in 55 non-smoking hospitality workers before and 3-12 months after a smoking ban and compared to a control group that did not experience an exposure change. SHS exposure was determined with a nicotine-specific badge and expressed as inhaled cigarette equivalents per day (CE/d). PWV and HRV parameters significantly changed in a dose-dependent manner in the intervention group as compared to the control group. A one CE/d decrease was associated with a 2.3% (95% CI 0.2-4.4; p = 0.031) higher root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), a 5.7% (95% CI 0.9-10.2; p = 0.02) higher high-frequency component and a 0.72% (95% CI 0.40-1.05; p < 0.001) lower PWV. PWV and HRV significantly improved after introducing smoke-free workplaces indicating a decreased cardiovascular risk.

  10. Oxidative Stress of Office Workers Relevant to Tobacco Smoking and Inner Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have used 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG as a biomarker to detect systemic oxidative DNA damage associated with oxidative stress. However, studies on the association between exposure to tobacco smoking and urinary 8-OHdgG give inconsistent results. Limited studies have estimated the oxidative stress among office workers. This study assessed the association between urinary 8-OHdG and cotinine for office workers.  Workers (389 including smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers from 87 offices at high-rise buildings in Taipei participated in this study with informed consent. Each participant completed a questionnaire and provided a spot urine specimen at the end of work day for measuring urinary 8-OHdG and cotinine. The carbon dioxide (CO2 levels in workers’ offices were also measured. The questionnaire reported socio-demographic characteristics, life styles and allergic history. The urinary 8-OHdG level increased with the cotinine level among participants (Spearmans’ rho = 0.543, p < 0.001. The mean of urinary 8-OHdG and cotinine was 5.81 ± 3.53 μg/g creatinine and 3.76 ± 4.06 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Comparing with non-smokers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR of having urinary 8-OHdG greater than the median level of 4.99 μg/g creatinine was 5.30 (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.30–21.5 for current smokers and 0.91 (95% CI = 0.34–2.43 for former smokers. We also found workers exposed to 1,000 ppm of CO2 at offices had an adjusted OR of 4.28 (95% CI = 1.12–16.4 to have urinary 8-OHdG greater than 4.99 μg/g creatinine, compared to those exposed to indoor CO2 under 600 ppm. In conclusion, urinary 8-OHdG could represent a suitable marker for measuring smoking and CO2 exposure for office workers.

  11. Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusiane Malafatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for determination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD. Urine (5.0 mL was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 μL in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable, precise, linear and presented ruggedness in the range evaluated. The results suggest that it can be applied in routine analysis for passive and active smokers, since it is able to quantify a wide range of cotinine concentrations in urine.A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrizes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de

  12. Health effects of exposure to second- and third-hand marijuana smoke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holitzki, Hannah; Dowsett, Laura E; Spackman, Eldon; Noseworthy, Tom; Clement, Fiona

    2017-11-24

    Recreational marijuana has been legalized in 11 jurisdictions; Canada will legalize marijuana by July 2018. With this changing landscape, there is a need to understand the public health risks associated with marijuana to support patient-care provider conversations, harm-reduction measures and evidence-informed policy. The objective of this work was to summarize the health effects of exposure to second- and third-hand marijuana smoke. In this systematic review, we searched 6 databases from inception to October 2017. Abstract and full-text review was conducted in duplicate. Studies were included if they were human, in vivo or in vitro studies with more than 1 case reported in English or French, and reported original, quantitative data. Three outcomes were extracted: 1) cannabinoids and cannabinoid metabolites in bodily fluids, 2) self-reported psychoactive effects and 3) eye irritation and discomfort. Of the 1701 abstracts identified, 60 proceeded to full-text review; the final data set contained 15 articles. All of the included studies were of good to poor quality as assessed with the Downs and Black checklist. There is evidence of a direct relation between the tetrahydrocannabinol content of marijuana and effects on those passively exposed. This relation is mediated by several environmental factors including the amount of smoke, ventilation, air volume, number of marijuana cigarettes lit and number of smokers present. No evidence was identified assessing exposure to third-hand marijuana smoke or the health effects of long-term exposure. Exposure to second-hand marijuana smoke leads to cannabinoid metabolites in bodily fluids, and people experience psychoactive effects after such exposure. Alignment of tobacco and marijuana smoking bylaws may result in the most effective public policies. More research is required to understand the impact of exposure to third-hand smoke and the health effects of long-term exposure to second-hand smoke. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or

  13. Effects of maternal smoking on the placental expression of genes related to angiogenesis and apoptosis during the first trimester.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Kawashima

    Full Text Available Maternal cigarette smoking is reportedly associated with miscarriage, fetal growth restriction and placental abruption, and is paradoxically associated with a decreased risk of developing preeclampsia. In the present study, we investigated the gene expression levels of villous tissues in early gestation. We compared the expression levels of the genes related to angiogenesis and apoptosis in the villous tissues obtained from smoking and non-smoking pregnant women.We collected villous tissue samples from 57 women requesting surgical termination due to non-medical reasons at 6-8 weeks of gestation. The maternal cigarette smoking status was evaluated by the level of serum cotinine and patients were divided into active smokers and non-smokers by the serum cotinine level. The placental levels of VEGFA, PGF, FLT1, HIF1A, TP53, BAX and BCL2 mRNA were quantified by real time PCR.The gene expression level of PGF and HIF1A in the active smoker group was significantly higher than that in the non-smoker group. We did not observe any significant differences in the VEGFA or FLT1 expression between the groups. In active smoker group, the gene expression levels of TP53 and BAX were significantly higher than those in the non-smoker group. The ratio of BAX/BCL2 mRNA in the active smoker group was significantly higher than that in the non-smoker group.Our findings revealed that smoking might affect the placenta during early pregnancy. Maternal cigarette smoking in early pregnancy may be associated with villus hypoxia, which may influence angiogenesis and apoptosis.

  14. [Wound healing complications in smokers, non-smokers and after abstinence from smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, O; Kapalschinski, N; Skorzinski, T; Kolbenschlag, J; Daigeler, A; Hirsch, T; Homann, H H; Muehlberger, T

    2012-07-01

    The pulmonary and cardiovascular ramifications of smoking are well documented and this also applies to increased wound healing complications in smokers. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether preoperatively refraining from smoking would affect the incidence of wound healing disorders. Between 2006 and 2008 a total of 295 patients underwent aesthetic (n = 167) or reconstructive surgery (n = 128). They were divided into three groups: A (n = 98) non-smokers for at least 2 years, B (n = 99) patients who refrained from smoking 6 weeks prior to surgery and C (n = 98) smokers. Smoking abstinence was verified by cotinine tests. Wound healing complications were defined as dehiscent wounds, wound infections, atypical scar formation and adiponecrosis. Smokers developed wound healing complications in 48.2% of cases, non-smokers in 21.0% and patients who had stopped smoking for 6 weeks in 30.8% of cases (p = 0.006). Elective surgery should only be performed on non-smokers and smokers who had refrained from smoking for at least 6 weeks to reduce wound healing complications as far as possible.

  15. Smoking and pregnancy outcome among African-American and white women in central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, D A; Dole, N; Terry, J W; Zhou, H; Thorp, J M

    2001-11-01

    Despite extensive research on tobacco smoking during pregnancy, few studies address risks among African-American and white women, groups that differ in brand preference and smoking habits. The Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study is a prospective cohort study that included 2,418 women with detailed information on smoking during pregnancy, including brand, number of cigarettes per day, and changes during pregnancy. We analyzed risk of preterm birth (age deliveries in relation to tobacco use. Pregnant African-American smokers differed markedly from whites in brand preference (95% vs 26% smoked menthol cigarettes) and number of cigarettes per day (1% of African-Americans and 12% of whites smoked 20+ cigarettes per day). Smoking was not related to risk of preterm birth overall, but cotinine measured at the time of delivery was (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-4.5). A clear association and dose-response gradient was present for risk of fetal growth restriction (risk ratio for 20+ cigarettes/day = 2.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.4-4.0). Associations of tobacco use with preterm premature rupture of amniotic membrane resulting in preterm birth were notably stronger than the associations with other types of preterm birth.

  16. Measuring Indoor Air Quality and Engaging California Indian Stakeholders at the Win-River Resort and Casino: Collaborative Smoke-Free Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E. Klepeis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most casinos owned by sovereign American Indian nations allow smoking, even in U.S. states such as California where state laws restrict workplace smoking. Collaborations between casinos and public health workers are needed to promote smoke-free policies that protect workers and patrons from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS exposure and risks. Over seven years, a coalition of public health professionals provided technical assistance to the Redding Rancheria tribe in Redding, California in establishing a smoke-free policy at the Win-River Resort and Casino. The coalition provided information to the casino general manager that included site-specific measurement of employee and visitor PM2.5 personal exposure, area concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM2.5, visitor urinary cotinine, and patron and staff opinions (surveys, focus groups, and a Town Hall meeting. The manager communicated results to tribal membership, including evidence of high SHS exposures and support for a smoke-free policy. Subsequently, in concert with hotel expansion, the Redding Rancheria Tribal Council voted to accept a 100% restriction of smoking inside the casino, whereupon PM2.5 exposure in main smoking areas dropped by 98%. A 70% partial-smoke-free policy was instituted ~1 year later in the face of revenue loss. The success of the collaboration in promoting a smoke-free policy, and the key element of air quality feedback, which appeared to be a central driver, may provide a model for similar efforts.

  17. Measuring Indoor Air Quality and Engaging California Indian Stakeholders at the Win-River Resort and Casino: Collaborative Smoke-Free Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E; Dhaliwal, Narinder; Hayward, Gary; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Ott, Wayne R; Read, Nathan; Layton, Steve; Jiang, Ruoting; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Hildemann, Lynn M; Repace, James L; Taylor, Stephanie; Ong, Seow-Ling; Buchting, Francisco O; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

    2016-01-20

    Most casinos owned by sovereign American Indian nations allow smoking, even in U.S. states such as California where state laws restrict workplace smoking. Collaborations between casinos and public health workers are needed to promote smoke-free policies that protect workers and patrons from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and risks. Over seven years, a coalition of public health professionals provided technical assistance to the Redding Rancheria tribe in Redding, California in establishing a smoke-free policy at the Win-River Resort and Casino. The coalition provided information to the casino general manager that included site-specific measurement of employee and visitor PM2.5 personal exposure, area concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM2.5, visitor urinary cotinine, and patron and staff opinions (surveys, focus groups, and a Town Hall meeting). The manager communicated results to tribal membership, including evidence of high SHS exposures and support for a smoke-free policy. Subsequently, in concert with hotel expansion, the Redding Rancheria Tribal Council voted to accept a 100% restriction of smoking inside the casino, whereupon PM2.5 exposure in main smoking areas dropped by 98%. A 70% partial-smoke-free policy was instituted ~1 year later in the face of revenue loss. The success of the collaboration in promoting a smoke-free policy, and the key element of air quality feedback, which appeared to be a central driver, may provide a model for similar efforts.

  18. Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Choudhury, Sohel; Mustafa, Zaman; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2011-01-01

    To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh. Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples. The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9%) (male-58.2% and female-51.7%), in workplace (63%) (male-67.8% and female-30.4%), and in any public place (57.8%) (male-90.4% and female-25.1%) 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3%) and health care facilities (5.8%); however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%), and restaurants (27.6%). SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups. Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on protecting the people from hazardous effect of SHS as well as

  19. [Hospitality workers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke before and after implementation of smoking ban in public places: a review of epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure induces serious negative health consequences, of which the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory symptoms and poor pregnancy outcomes appear to be most important. Taking into account those health consequences of ETS exposure most countries have introduced legislation to ban or restrict smoking in public places. In this paper the effectiveness of the introduced legislation was analyzed with regard to the protection of hospitality workers from ETS exposure in the workplace. The analysis of 12 papers published after 2000 covered the year of publication, type of legislation, study population, hospitality venue (pub, bar, restaurant, disco) and type of markers or self-reported perception of exposure to ETS. The analysis indicates that the legislation to ban smoking in hospitality venues protects workers from ETS exposure when the venues are 100% tobacco smoke free. The reduction of the cotinine level in biological samples after the implementation of smoke free law was 57-89%, comparing to the biomarker level in the samples taken before the new law was introduced. About 90% of reduction in nicotine and PM levels was also noted. In addition, the positive self perception reported by workers proved the effectiveness of new legislation protecting them from ETS exposure.

  20. Plausible Roles for RAGE in Conditions Exacerbated by Direct and Indirect (Secondhand) Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joshua B; Hirschi, Kelsey M; Arroyo, Juan A; Bikman, Benjamin T; Kooyman, David L; Reynolds, Paul R

    2017-03-17

    Approximately 1 billion people smoke worldwide, and the burden placed on society by primary and secondhand smokers is expected to increase. Smoking is the leading risk factor for myriad health complications stemming from diverse pathogenic programs. First- and second-hand cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents, including several carcinogens and cytotoxic chemicals that orchestrate chronic inflammatory responses and destructive remodeling events. In the current review, we outline details related to compromised pulmonary and systemic conditions related to smoke exposure. Specifically, data are discussed relative to impaired lung physiology, cancer mechanisms, maternal-fetal complications, cardiometabolic, and joint disorders in the context of smoke exposure exacerbations. As a general unifying mechanism, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and its signaling axis is increasingly considered central to smoke-related pathogenesis. RAGE is a multi-ligand cell surface receptor whose expression increases following cigarette smoke exposure. RAGE signaling participates in the underpinning of inflammatory mechanisms mediated by requisite cytokines, chemokines, and remodeling enzymes. Understanding the biological contributions of RAGE during cigarette smoke-induced inflammation may provide critically important insight into the pathology of lung disease and systemic complications that combine during the demise of those exposed.

  1. Support for smoke-free policies in the Cyprus hospitality industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Savva, Christos S; Talias, Michael A; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S

    2015-12-01

    The present study used attitudinal and behavioural indicators to measure support for smoke-free policies among employers and employees in the hospitality industry in Cyprus. A representative sample of 600 participants (95 % response rate) completed anonymous structured questionnaires on demographic variables, smoking status, exposure to second-hand smoke at work and related health beliefs, social norms, and smoke-free policy support. Participants were predominantly males (68.3 %), with a mean age of 40 years (SD = 12.69), and 39.7 % were employers/owners of the hospitality venue. Analysis of variance showed that employers and smokers were less supportive of smoke-free policies, as compared to employees and non-smokers. Linear regression models showed that attitudes towards smoke-free policy were predicted by smoking status, SHS exposure and related health beliefs, and social norm variables. Logistic regression analysis showed that willingness to confront a policy violator was predicted by SHS exposure, perceived prevalence of smoker clients, and smoke-free policy attitudes. SHS exposure and related health beliefs, and normative factors should be targeted by interventions aiming to promote policy support in the hospitality industry in Cyprus.

  2. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  3. Smoking Topography among Korean Smokers: Intensive Smoking Behavior with Larger Puff Volume and Shorter Interpuff Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungroul; Yu, Sol

    2018-05-18

    The difference of smoker's topography has been found to be a function many factors, including sex, personality, nicotine yield, cigarette type (i.e., flavored versus non-flavored) and ethnicity. We evaluated the puffing behaviors of Korean smokers and its association with smoking-related biomarker levels. A sample of 300 participants was randomly recruited from metropolitan areas in South Korea. Topography measures during a 24-hour period were obtained using a CReSS pocket device. Korean male smokers smoked two puffs less per cigarette compared to female smokers (15.0 (13.0⁻19.0) vs. 17.5 (15.0⁻21.0) as the median (Interquartile range)), but had a significantly larger puff volume (62.7 (52.7⁻75.5) mL vs. 53.5 (42.0⁻64.2) mL); p = 0.012). The interpuff interval was similar between men and women (8.9 (6.5⁻11.2) s vs. 8.3 (6.2⁻11.0) s; p = 0.122) but much shorter than other study results. A dose-response association ( p = 0.0011) was observed between daily total puff volumes and urinary cotinine concentrations, after controlling for sex, age, household income level and nicotine addiction level. An understanding of the difference of topography measures, particularly the larger puff volume and shorter interpuff interval of Korean smokers, may help to overcome a potential underestimation of internal doses of hazardous byproducts of smoking.

  4. Sociodemographic characteristics and diabetes predict invalid self-reported non-smoking in a population-based study of U.S. adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton Brent J

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all studies reporting smoking status collect self-reported data. The objective of this study was to assess sociodemographic characteristics and selected, common smoking-related diseases as predictors of invalid reporting of non-smoking. Valid self-reported smoking may be related to the degree to which smoking is a behavior that is not tolerated by the smoker's social group. Methods True smoking was defined as having serum cotinine of 15+ng/ml. 1483 "true" smokers 45+ years of age with self-reported smoking and serum cotinine data from the Mobile Examination Center were identified in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Invalid non-smoking was defined as "true" smokers self-reporting non-smoking. To assess predictors of invalid self-reported non-smoking, odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for age, race/ethnicity-gender categories, education, income, diabetes, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Multiple logistic regression modeling took into account the complex survey design and sample weights. Results Among smokers with diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 15%, ranging from 0% for Mexican-American (MA males to 22%–25% for Non-Hispanic White (NHW males and Non-Hispanic Black (NHB females. Among smokers without diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 5%, ranging from 3% for MA females to 10% for NHB females. After simultaneously taking into account diabetes, education, race/ethnicity and gender, smokers with diabetes (ORAdj = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.35–7.34, who did not graduate from high school (ORAdj = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.30–3.22 and who were NHB females (ORAdj = 5.12; 95% CI: 1.41–18.58 were more likely to self-report as non-smokers than smokers without diabetes, who were high school graduates, and MA females, respectively. Having a history of myocardial infarction or hypertension did not predict invalid reporting of non-smoking. Conclusion Validity of self

  5. [Changes in hospitality workers' expectations and attitudes after the implementation of the Spanish smoking law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fenández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; López, María J; Alonso, Begoña; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel; Borràs, Josep M

    2010-01-01

    To assess changes in hospitality workers' expectations and attitudes towards the Spanish smoking law before and 2 years after the smoking ban. We performed a longitudinal study of a cohort (n=431) of hospitality workers in five regions in Spain before the law came into effect and 24 months later. Expectations and attitudes towards the ban and knowledge about the effect of second-hand smoke on health were compared before and after the ban. We recruited 431 hospitality workers in the baseline survey and 219 were followed-up 24 months later (overall follow-up rate of 50.8%). The percentage of hospitality workers who knew the law was 79.0% before it was passed and was 94.1% 24 months later (phospitality workers increased 2 years after the implementation of the ban. Copyright 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Changing smoking attitudes by strengthening weak antismoking beliefs - Taiwan as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chingching

    2006-12-01

    I first explored the strength of Taiwanese high school students' beliefs regarding five antismoking messages. Findings of a nationwide survey showed that the students held these beliefs in the following order of decreasing strength: second-hand smoke damages health, smoking has long-term health consequences, smoking has short-term health consequences, cigarette marketers are manipulative, and smokers are perceived negatively. Experiment one further showed that antismoking ads featuring weakly held beliefs are more effective than those featuring strongly held beliefs. Experiment two demonstrated that antismoking campaigns need to be framed carefully; in general, it is more effective to positively frame messages about strongly held antismoking beliefs but negatively frame messages about weakly held antismoking beliefs.

  7. Integrating smoking cessation and alcohol use treatment in homeless populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo-Fati, Olamide; John, Florence; Thomas, Janet; Joseph, Anne M; Raymond, Nancy C; Cooney, Ned L; Pratt, Rebekah; Rogers, Charles R; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Luo, Xianghua; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2015-08-29

    Despite progress in reducing cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population, smoking rates, cancer morbidity and related heart disease remain strikingly high among the poor and underserved. Homeless individuals' cigarette smoking rate remains an alarming 70% or greater, and this population is generally untreated with smoking cessation interventions. Furthermore, the majority of homeless smokers also abuse alcohol and other drugs, which makes quitting more difficult and magnifies the health consequences of tobacco use. Participants will be randomized to one of three groups, including (1) an integrated intensive smoking plus alcohol intervention using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), (2) intensive smoking intervention using CBT or (3) usual care (i.e., brief smoking cessation and brief alcohol counseling). All participants will receive 12-week treatment with a nicotine patch plus nicotine gum or lozenge. Counseling will include weekly individual sessions for 3 months, followed by monthly booster group sessions for 3 months. The primary smoking outcome is cotinine-verified 7-day smoking abstinence at follow-up week 52, and the primary alcohol outcome will be breathalyzer-verified 90-day alcohol abstinence at week 52. This study protocol describes the design of the first community-based controlled trial (n = 645) designed to examine the efficacy of integrating alcohol abuse treatment with smoking cessation among homeless smokers. To further address the gap in effectiveness of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions in the homeless population, we are conducting a renewed smoking cessation clinical trial called Power to Quit among smokers experiencing homelessness. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01932996. Date of registration: 20 November 2014.

  8. Family-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Smoking Fathers and Nonsmoking Mothers with a Child: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Emmons, Karen; Leung, Angela Yee Man; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-03-01

    To examine whether a family-based intervention targeting both smoking fathers and nonsmoking mothers in well-child health clinics is effective in increasing fathers' abstinence from cigarette smoking. This parallel 2-arm randomized controlled trial recruited a total of 1158 families with a daily-smoking father, a nonsmoking mother, and a child aged 0-18 months from the 22 maternal and child health centers in Hong Kong. The intervention group received the family-based intervention, including 6 nurse-led individual face-to-face and telephone counseling sessions within 1 month after recruitment and a voluntary face-to-face family counseling session (FCS). The control group received a leaflet, a self-help booklet, and brief quitting advice only. Father-reported 7-day and 6-month abstinence, smoking reduction, quit attempts, mother-reported help and support, and child salivary cotinine level were assessed at 12 months. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare these outcomes between the 2 study groups. Compared with the control group, the intervention group reported a greater prevalence of 7-day (13.7% vs 8.0%; OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.16-3.17; P fathers' self-reported abstinence (20.2% vs 12.3%; P = .02), mothers' help (66.1% vs 43.8%; P fathers (55.0% vs 45.4%; P family-based smoking cessation intervention for the families in the well-child healthcare setting was effective in increasing the fathers' self-reported abstinence. Additional participation in the FCS increased mothers' help and support to the fathers. Controlled-trials.com: ISRCTN99111655; Hkuctr.com: HKUCTR-465. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between cigarette smoking and the vaginal microbiota: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Rebecca M; He, Xin; Gajer, Pawel; Fadrosh, Doug; Sharma, Eva; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Ravel, Jacques; Glover, Elbert D; Rath, Jessica M

    2014-08-28

    Smoking has been identified in observational studies as a risk factor for bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition defined in part by decimation of Lactobacillus spp. The anti-estrogenic effect of smoking and trace amounts of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) may predispose women to BV. BPDE increases bacteriophage induction in Lactobacillus spp. and is found in the vaginal secretions of smokers. We compared the vaginal microbiota between smokers and non-smokers and followed microbiota changes in a smoking cessation pilot study. In 2010-2011, 20 smokers and 20 non-smokers were recruited to a cross-sectional study (Phase A) and 9 smokers were enrolled and followed for a 12-week smoking cessation program (Phase B). Phase B included weekly behavioral counseling and nicotine patches to encourage smoking cessation. In both phases, participants self-collected mid-vaginal swabs (daily, Phase B) and completed behavioral surveys. Vaginal bacterial composition was characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes (V1-V3 regions). Vaginal smears were assigned Nugent Gram stain scores. Smoking status was evaluated (weekly, Phase B) using the semi-quantitative NicAlert® saliva cotinine test and carbon monoxide (CO) exhalation. In phase A, there was a significant trend for increasing saliva cotinine and CO exhalation with elevated Nugent scores (P value Vaginal microbiota clustered into three community state types (CSTs); two dominated by Lactobacillus (L. iners, L. crispatus), and one lacking significant numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and characterized by anaerobes (termed CST-IV). Women who were observed in the low-Lactobacillus CST-IV state were 25-fold more likely to be smokers than those dominated by L. crispatus (aOR: 25.61, 95 % CI: 1.03-636.61). Four women completed Phase B. One of three who entered smoking cessation with high Nugent scores demonstrated a switch from CST-IV to a L.iners-dominated profile with a concomitant drop in Nugent scores which coincided

  10. Parent quit attempts after counseling to reduce children's secondhand smoke exposure and promote cessation: main and moderating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Sandy; Hovell, Melbourne F; Matt, Georg E; Zakarian, Joy M; Jones, Jennifer A

    2009-12-01

    This study explored predictors of smoking quit attempts in a sample of low-income smoking mothers who participated in a randomized trial of a 6-month, 14-session counseling intervention to decrease their children's secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) and eliminate smoking. Measures were taken at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months on 150 mothers who exposed their children (aged or = 10 cigarettes/week in the home. Reported 7-day quits were verified by saliva cotinine or urine anabasine and anatabine levels. There were few quits longer than 6 months. Mothers in the counseling group reported more 24-hr quits (p = .019) and more 7-day quits (p = .029) than controls. Multivariate modeling revealed that having quit for at least 24 hr in the year prior to baseline and the number of alternative cessation methods ever tried were predictive of the longest quit attempt during the 18-month study. Mothers in the counseling group who at baseline felt SHSe posed a health risk for their children or who at baseline had more permissive home smoking policies had longer quit attempts. Results confirm that attempts to quit smoking predict additional quit attempts. This suggests that practice may be necessary for many people to quit smoking permanently. Findings of interaction analyses suggest that participant factors may alter the effects of treatment procedures. Failure to account for or employ such factors in the analysis or design of community trials could confound the results of intervention trials.

  11. Validation of smoking cessation self-reported by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander R Hilberink

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sander R Hilberink1, Johanna E Jacobs1, Sanne van Opstal2, Trudy van der Weijden2, Janine Keegstra1, Pascal LJ Kempers3, Jean WM Muris2, Richard PTM Grol1, Hein de Vries41IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Department of General Practice, Maastricht University, Research Institute CAPHRI, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 3Department of Health Risk, Analysis and Toxicology, 4Department of Health Promotion and Health, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The NetherlandsPurpose: The present study reports on the biochemical validation of the self-reported smoking status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The objective is to establish the proportion of overestimation of self-reported success rates.Methods: A cross-sectional smoking-status validation study including 60 patients with COPD who reported that they had stopped smoking. In the analysis of urine samples, a cut-off point of 50 ng/mL of cotinine was used.Results: At the time of biochemical validation, 55 patients reported that they had quit smoking while five patients resumed smoking. Smoking status was biochemically confirmed for 43 patients (78% and 12 patients (22% were classified as smokers. The sensitivity of the self-report of smoking was 29% and the specificity was 100%.Conclusion: Many primary care patients with COPD do not provide valid information on their smoking status, which hamper adequate therapeutic interventions. Integration of biochemical validation in daily care could overcome this problem, but may harm the doctor–patient relationship.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking cessation, biochemical validation, general practice, outcome measurement

  12. Prenatal smoking exposure, measured as maternal serum cotinine, and children's motor developmental milestones and motor function: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Høgenhof; Bjerre Høyer, Birgit; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2016-01-01

    and duration of breastfeeding. Data were stratified by country.ResultsNo statistically significant difference in age at motor milestones was found comparing children of smokers with children of non-smokers. Also, there was no statistically significant difference in motor score (Developmental Coordination...

  13. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth / For Kids / Smoking Stinks! What's in ... out more about cigarettes and tobacco. What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  14. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and blood vessel problems, such as: Blood clots and aneurysms in ...

  15. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  16. Correlates of smoking initiation among young adults in Ukraine: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasovsky Konstantin S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim: To estimate the impact of smoking restrictions in homes and schools, and tobacco advertising and information on smoking initiation by young people in Ukraine. Methods Data of 609 young people aged 15–29 was taken from the national representative survey conducted in June 2005. Outcome measures: The reported age of cigarette initiation was used to characterize the start of smoking experimentation, and the reported age of daily smoking initiation was considered to be a characteristic of established smoking. Analysis: survival analysis Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Age of smoking initiation was reported by 87% of young men and 61% of young women, the beginning of daily smoking by 71% and 33% respectively. Being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke and having no household smoking restrictions was associated with a higher risk of earlier smoking initiation both for men and women. For women, this risk was associated with age, HR = 0.95, (95% CI 0.91–0.98, that is, younger girls were more likely to smoke their first cigarette earlier in their lifetime. Those women had a higher risk of early smoking initiation who reported to receive tobacco-related information from magazines, HR = 1.40 (1.01–1.92, and outdoor tobacco advertising, HR = 1.99 (1.45–2.75. With both men and women, the risk of establishing daily smoking was higher in those with lower levels of tobacco-related knowledge and less household smoking restrictions. For women, the risk was higher in those who live in larger cities HR = 1.77 (1.10–2.86, and who received information about tobacco smoking from colleagues or friends HR = 1.83 (1.13–2.95. Conclusion Encouraging people to eliminate their homes of tobacco smoke and tobacco advertising bans can be effective measures in preventing the initiation of smoking among young people. Young female smoking initiation is of special concern in Ukraine, since they are more responsive

  17. Changes in circulating leptin levels during the initial stage of cessation are associated with smoking relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Allen, Sharon; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Leptin has been linked to tobacco craving and withdrawal-related symptoms. Very few studies have examined leptin prospectively in both male and female nonsmokers and smokers. We examine leptin concentrations prospectively in both male and female nonsmokers and smokers to assess the associations of leptin with psychological symptoms and smoking relapse during ad libitum smoking, the first 48 h post quit, and 4 weeks post-cessation. Self-report psychological, anthropomorphic, and biological measures (cotinine, carbon monoxide, and plasma leptin) were collected before and after 48 h of smoking abstinence. Smokers were stratified at 28 days post quit as abstinent or relapsed if they had smoked daily for seven consecutive days at any point in the 28 days. Leptin concentration (square root transformed ng/ml) increased over the 48-h abstinence, but only in female abstainers. In contrast, leptin was very stable across time for nonsmokers, relapsers, and males. Cox regression supported that increased leptin was associated with decreased risk of relapse. Leptin was correlated negatively with withdrawal symptoms for abstainers only. Females produce more leptin than males and this level increases from ad libitum smoking to 48-h post quit. The current analysis indicates that a leptin increase early in cessation predicts abstinence. The increase in women, but not men, in response to abstinence provides further evidence of important gender differences. The negative correlation between leptin and withdrawal symptoms indicates a possible protective effect of leptin. Further research is ongoing to elucidate the psychological and biological determinants of this effect.

  18. The influence of maternal smoking on transferrin sialylation and fetal biometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrześniak, Marta; Królik, Małgorzata; Kepinska, Marta; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2016-10-01

    Transferrin is a glycosylated protein responsible for transporting iron, an essential metal responsible for proper fetal development. Tobacco is a heavily used xenobiotic having a negative impact on the human body and pregnancy outcomes. Aims of this study was to examine the influence of tobacco smoking on transferrin sialic acid residues and their connection with fetal biometric parameters in women with iron-deficiency. The study involved 173 samples from pregnant women, smokers and non-smokers, iron deficient and not. Transferrin sialylation was determined by capillary electrophoresis. The cadmium (Cd) level was measured by atomic absorption and the sialic acid concentration by the resorcinol method. Women with iron deficiencies who smoked gave birth earlier than non-smoking, non-iron-deficient women. The Cd level, but not the cotinine level, was positively correlated with transferrin sialylation in the blood of iron-deficient women who smoked; 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-sialoTf correlated negatively with fetal biometric parameters in the same group. It has been shown the relationship between Cd from tobacco smoking and fetal biometric parameters observed only in the iron deficient group suggests an additive effect of these two factors, and indicate that mothers with anemia may be more susceptible to Cd toxicity and disturbed fetal development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal smoking promotes chronic obstructive lung disease in the offspring as adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyer D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In utero and/or childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure is well known to adversely affect lung function and to depreciate child's health in many ways. Fewer studies have assessed the long-term effects on COPD development and disease severity in later adulthood. Methods COPD patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire regarding their personal as well as the smoking habits of their parents. Data were compared with the disease history, e.g. COPD exacerbation rate, and their lung function data. Results Between 2003 and 2004 COPD patients were recruited a in a private practice specialized in pulmonary medicine (n = 133 and b in a hospital (n = 158. 75% of their fathers and only 15.4 of all mothers smoked regularly. COPD patients from smoking mothers had lower FEV1 predicted than those raised in household without maternal smoking exposure: 39.4 ± 9.5% vs. 51.9 ± 6.0% (P = 0.037. Fathers had no effect on FEV1 regardless if they are smokers or non-smokers. Rate of severe exacerbations requiring hospitalization remained unaffected by parental second hand smoke exposure. Conclusion Maternal smoking negatively affects lung function of their offspring even in late adulthood when they develop COPD. It even aggravates the cumulative effect of active cigarette consumption. Clinical course of the COPD remained unaffected.

  20. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Smoking cessation medicines can: Help with the craving for tobacco. Help you with withdrawal symptoms. Keep you ...

  1. Circulating B-vitamins and smoking habits are associated with serum polyunsaturated Fatty acids in patients with suspected coronary heart disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Eli; Strand, Elin; Pedersen, Eva R; Bjørndal, Bodil; Bohov, Pavol; Berge, Rolf K; Svingen, Gard F T; Seifert, Reinhard; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Ulvik, Arve; Hustad, Steinar; Drevon, Christian A; Gregory, Jesse F; Nygård, Ottar

    2015-01-01

    The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered to be of major health importance, and recent studies indicate that their endogenous metabolism is influenced by B-vitamin status and smoking habits. We investigated the associations of circulating B-vitamins and smoking habits with serum polyunsaturated fatty acids among 1,366 patients who underwent coronary angiography due to suspected coronary heart disease at Haukeland University Hospital, Norway. Of these, 52% provided information on dietary habits by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were assessed using partial correlation (Spearman's rho). In the total population, the concentrations of most circulating B-vitamins were positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the associations between B-vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids tended to be weaker in smokers. This could not be solely explained by differences in dietary intake. Furthermore, plasma cotinine, a marker of recent nicotine exposure, showed a negative relationship with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a positive relationship with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion, circulating B-vitamins are, in contrast to plasma cotinine, generally positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with suspected coronary heart disease. Further studies should investigate whether B-vitamin status and smoking habits may modify the clinical effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

  2. A Comparison of Survey Measures and Biomarkers of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure causes several adverse physical health outcomes. Conceptual differences in survey measures of 'psychosocial' (SHS exposure from smokers in an individual's life) and 'physical' (environments where an individual is exposed to SHS) SHS exposure exist. Few studies have examined the association between psychosocial and physical SHS exposures measures in comparison to biomarkers of SHS exposure. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was examined among a convenience sample of 20 adults. Data included survey items on SHS exposure and hair nicotine and saliva cotinine levels. Spearman analysis was used to assess correlations among variables. Medium and strong correlations were found among SHS exposure measures with the exception of saliva cotinine levels. Strong correlations were found among and between psychosocial and physical SHS exposure measures. Hair nicotine levels had medium strength associations with only perceived frequency of SHS exposure. As psychosocial measures of exposure were associated with biomarkers, such measures (particularly perceived frequency of SHS exposure) should be added to surveys in addition to physical SHS exposure measures to enhance accuracy of SHS measurement. Future explorations with robust sample sizes should further examine the strength of relationship between psychosocial and physical SHS exposure measures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Insufficient smoking restrictions in restaurants around junior high schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kurozawa, Youichi; Kishimoto, Takuji

    2006-12-01

    Controls for second hand smoke (SHS) and adolescent smoking have been still sociomedical concerns in Japan. Restaurant smoking restrictions are associated with community social norms affecting adolescent smoking behavior, and the status in areas around Junior high schools (JHSs) in the community could be a sign of community practices on regulating SHS for adolescents. To examine whether restaurant smoking restrictions are seen especially in areas around JHSs in Japan, a survey using the direct inspection of a total of 163 restaurants (64 restaurants within and 99 outside a 1-km radius from the nearest JHSs) was conducted in May 2003 in Yonago city, Japan. We assessed smoking restriction status in each restaurant and classified them into 2 groups according to the distance from the nearest JHSs. There were only 2 (3.1%) restaurants with 100% non-smoking and 11 (17.2%) with some partial restrictions among the restaurants within a 1-km radius of JHSs. There were 1 (1.0%) restaurant with 100% non-smoking, 3 (3.0%) with complete non-smoking sections and 17 (17.2%) with some partial restrictions among the restaurants outside a 1-km radius of JHSs. Among restaurants with some partial restrictions, restriction methods were considered insufficient. The smoking restriction status was not significantly different between the restaurant groups within and outside a 1-km radius of JHSs. These results suggest that the public awareness of and attitude toward adolescent smoking problems remains low in Japan. Further SHS control actions for adolescents are needed in Japan.

  4. Smoking effects on milk`s micronutrient content and infant growth