WorldWideScience

Sample records for second-generation total synthesis

  1. Second-generation locking mechanisms and ethylene oxide sterilization reduce tibial insert backside damage in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Michael G; Roy, Marcel E; Whiteside, Leo A

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of polyethylene quality and locking mechanism on damage to the nonarticulating (backside) surface of retrieved tibial inserts in total knee arthroplasty. Inserts with peripheral capture (PC) locking mechanisms and ethylene oxide (EtO)-sterilized polyethylene were hypothesized to prevent major backside damage. A total of 156 inserts were sorted by locking mechanism and sterilization method and analyzed by damage scoring methods. Ninety-seven specimens exhibited burnishing. Significant positive linear correlations were observed between damage score and age in vivo for all combinations, but damage occurred at a significantly lower rate for second-generation PC implants with EtO sterilization. Most specimens in this group were undamaged (46/72), with others exhibiting only burnishing. Sex, body mass index, and weight did not influence backside damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization of Second-Generation Dendronized Poly(ether Monomers Initiated by Ruthenium Carbenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán Pablo E.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP of second-generation dendronized monomers is described. Using the highly active and fast-initiating third-generation ruthenium complex [(H2IMes(pyr2Cl2RuCHPh], moderate to high molecular weight polymers (430-2230 kDa are efficiently synthesized with low dispersities (Ð = 1.01-1.17. This study highlights the power of the metathesis approach toward polymer synthesis in a context where monomer structure can significantly impede polymerization.

  3. Asymmetric Synthesis of Second-Generation Light-Driven Molecular Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Thomas; Danowski, Wojciech; Otten, Edwin; Wezenberg, Sander J; Feringa, Ben L

    2017-05-19

    The enantiomeric homogeneity of light-driven molecular motors based on overcrowded alkenes is crucial in their application as either unidirectional rotors or as chiral multistate switches. It was challenging to obtain these compounds as single enantiomers via the established synthetic procedures due to loss of optical purity in the key step, i.e., the Barton-Kellogg olefination reaction. Searching for strategies to avoid racemization, a new class of light-driven molecular motors was designed, synthesized, and studied. The stereochemical integrity was fully preserved throughout the synthesis, and on the basis of photochemical and kinetic studies using UV/vis, CD, and 1 H NMR spectroscopy, it was established that they still function properly as unidirectional molecular motors.

  4. Total synthesis of (-)-salinosporamide A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiya, Yuji; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi; Momose, Takayuki; Sato, Takaaki; Chida, Noritaka

    2011-01-03

    A detailed description of our second-generation total synthesis of salinosporamide A is presented. Three contiguous stereocenters in the γ-lactam structure seen in the natural product were established by stereoselective functionalization of a D-arabinose scaffold, including an Overman rearrangement to generate a highly congested tetrasubstituted carbon center. One of the definitive reactions in the synthesis was a Lewis acid mediated skeletal rearrangement of a pyranose structure, which enabled the practical conversion of the carbohydrate scaffold to the γ-lactam structure embedded in salinosporamide A. The use of a benzyl ester as a protective group for a sterically hindered carboxylic acid led to a one-pot global deprotection at the end of the synthesis.

  5. First-Generation Versus Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents in Coronary Chronic Total Occlusions: Two-Year Results of a Multicenter Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hwa Ahn

    Full Text Available Limited data are available regarding the long-term clinical outcomes of second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES versus first-generation DES in patients with coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of second-generation DES with those of first-generation DES for the treatment of CTO.Between March 2003 and February 2012, 1,006 consecutive patients with CTO who underwent successful PCI using either first-generation DES (n = 557 or second-generation DES (n = 449 were enrolled in a multicenter, observational registry. Propensity-score matching was also performed. The primary outcome was cardiac death over a 2-year follow-up period. No significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding the incidence of cardiac death (first-generation DES versus second-generation DES; 2.5% vs 2.0%; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37 to 1.98; p = 0.72 or major adverse cardiac events (MACE, 11.8% vs 11.4%; HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.67 to 1.50; p = 0.99. After propensity score matching, the incidences of cardiac death (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.35 to 2.06; p = 0.86 and MACE (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.63 to 1.37; p = 0.71 were still similar in both groups. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed between sirolimus-eluting, paclitaxel-eluting, zotarolimus-eluting, and everolimus-eluting stents regarding the incidence of cardiac death or MACE.This study shows that the efficacy of second-generation DES is comparable to that of first-generation DES for treatment of CTO over 2 years of follow-up.

  6. Total synthesis of aquatolide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saya, J.M.; Vos, K.; Klein Nijenhuis, R.A.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Ingemann, S.; Hiemstra, H.

    2015-01-01

    A total synthesis of the sesquiterpene lactone aquatolide has been accomplished. The central step is an intramolecular [2 + 2]-photocycloaddition of an allene onto an alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactone. Other key steps are an intramolecular Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction to close the lactone and

  7. Combining two-directional synthesis and tandem reactions, part 11: second generation syntheses of (+/-)-hippodamine and (+/-)-epi-hippodamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Annabella F; Rejzek, Martin; Alcaraz, Marie-Lyne; Stockman, Robert A

    2008-01-17

    Hippodamine is a volatile defence alkaloid isolated from ladybird beetles which holds potential as an agrochemical agent and was the subject of a synthesis by our group in 2005. Two enhancements to our previous syntheses of (+/-)-hippodamine and (+/-)-epi-hippodamine are presented which are able to shorten the syntheses by up to two steps. Key advances include a two-directional homologation by cross metathesis and a new tandem reductive amination/double intramolecular Michael addition which generates 6 new bonds, 2 stereogenic centres and two rings, giving a single diastereomer in 74% yield.

  8. Results of a Second-generation Constrained Condylar Prosthesis in Complex Primary and Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Mean 5.5-Year Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Ye

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Second-generation modular CCK prostheses are a safe and practical treatment for both primary and revision knees that cannot be balanced. However, further studies focusing on different types of constrained prostheses are required to validate these results.

  9. Total synthesis of aeruginazole A

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Paolo; Peña, Stella; Just Baringo, Xavier; Albericio Palomera, Fernando; Álvarez Domingo, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    The first total synthesis of Aeruginazole A, prepared via a convergent strategy that involved both solid-phase peptide synthesis and solution phase chemistry and that enabled conservation of the stereochemistry of the intermediates, is reported.

  10. Total Synthesis of Codeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qilin; Zhang, Hongbin

    2015-11-09

    In this paper, a new strategy towards the synthesis of codeine and morphine is reported. This new approach features a cascade cyclization to construct the dihydrofuran ring, and an intramolecular palladium catalyzed C-H olefination of unactivated aliphatic alkene to install the morphinan ring system. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Total Synthesis of Astellatol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Yin, Shuqiang; Xie, Shengling; Yan, Hao; Ren, Pan; Chen, Gui; Chen, Fang; Xu, Jing

    2018-01-24

    A nearly-30-year-old unanswered synthetic puzzle, astellatol, has been solved in an enantiospecific manner. The highly congested pentacyclic skeleton of this rare sesterterpenoid, which possesses a unique bicyclo[4.1.1]octane motif, ten stereocenters, a cyclobutane that contains two quaternary centers, an exo-methylene group, and a sterically encumbered isopropyl trans-hydrindane motif, makes astellatol arguably one of the most challenging targets for sesterterpenoid synthesis. An intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction was exploited to construct the right-hand side scaffold of this sesterterpenoid. An unprecedented reductive radical 1,6-addition, mediated by SmI 2 , forged the cyclobutane motif. Last, a strategic oxidation/reduction step provided not only the decisive solution for the remarkably challenging late-stage transformations, but also a highly valuable unravelling of the notorious issue of trans-hydrindane synthesis. Importantly, the synthesis of astellatol showcases a rapid, scalable strategy to access diverse complex isopropyl trans-hydrindane sesterterpenoids. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Quantifying the role of adverse events in the mortality difference between first and second-generation antipsychotics in older adults: systematic review and meta-synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Jackson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observational studies have reported higher mortality among older adults treated with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs versus second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs. A few studies examined risk for medical events, including stroke, ventricular arrhythmia, venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and hip fracture. OBJECTIVES: 1 Review robust epidemiologic evidence comparing mortality and medical event risk between FGAs and SGAs in older adults; 2 Quantify how much these medical events explain the observed mortality difference between FGAs and SGAs. DATA SOURCES: Pubmed and Science Citation Index. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Studies of antipsychotic users that: 1 evaluated mortality or medical events specified above; 2 restricted to populations with a mean age of 65 years or older 3 compared FGAs to SGAs, or both to a non-user group; (4 employed a "new user" design; (5 adjusted for confounders assessed prior to antipsychotic initiation; (6 and did not require survival after antipsychotic initiation. A separate search was performed for mortality estimates associated with the specified medical events. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: For each medical event, we used a non-parametric model to estimate lower and upper bounds for the proportion of the mortality difference-comparing FGAs to SGAs-mediated by their difference in risk for the medical event. RESULTS: We provide a brief, updated summary of the included studies and the biological plausibility of these mechanisms. Of the 1122 unique citations retrieved, we reviewed 20 observational cohort studies that reported 28 associations. We identified hip fracture, stroke, myocardial infarction, and ventricular arrhythmias as potential intermediaries on the causal pathway from antipsychotic type to death. However, these events did not appear to explain the entire mortality difference. CONCLUSIONS: The current literature suggests that

  13. The second generation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.

    2008-01-01

    The second generation in Europe is coming of age. The first group is making the transition to the labour market. This gives us, for the first time, the opportunity to compare the position of the second generation across Europe. If we look at one group - children of Turkish immigrants - in five

  14. Chiral gold(I vs chiral silver complexes as catalysts for the enantioselective synthesis of the second generation GSK-hepatitis C virus inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martín-Rodríguez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a GSK 2nd generation inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, by enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between a leucine derived iminoester and tert-butyl acrylate, was studied. The comparison between silver(I and gold(I catalysts in this reaction was established by working with chiral phosphoramidites or with chiral BINAP. The best reaction conditions were used for the total synthesis of the hepatitis C virus inhibitor by a four step procedure affording this product in 99% ee and in 63% overall yield. The origin of the enantioselectivity of the chiral gold(I catalyst was justified according to DFT calculations, the stabilizing coulombic interaction between the nitrogen atom of the thiazole moiety and one of the gold atoms being crucial.

  15. The Total Synthesis of Chlorophyll

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. The Total Synthesis of Chlorophyll. Setty Mallikarjuna Babu Subramania Ranganathan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 7 July 2014 pp 645-648. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. The second generation in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, C; Vanderwaeren, E; Crul, M

    2003-01-01

    A growing proportion of second-generation Moroccan and Turkish youngsters in Belgium are moving on to higher secondary education and beyond. This trend is greater among Moroccan youngsters than among their Turkish peers. Turkish girls in particular are still married off at a young age, which

  17. The second generation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, Maurice; Vermeulen, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The study of integration processes has now reached a crucial stage in most Western European countries with the emergence of the second generation. The oldest children born to postwar immigrants on European soil have recently entered the job market, and we can now investigate their performance in

  18. An efficient, second-generation synthesis of the signature dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane core of (+)-sorangicin A and elaboration of the (Z,Z,E)-triene acid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amos B; Dong, Shuzhi

    2009-03-05

    An efficient, second-generation synthesis of the signature dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane core of (+)-sorangicin A (1), in conjunction with an effective, stereocontrolled protocol to arrive at the requisite (Z,Z,E)-triene acid system has been developed. Highlights of the core construction entail a three-component union, a KHMDS-promoted epoxide ring formation-ring opening cascade, a Takai olefination, and a chemoselective Sharpless dihydroxylation. Assembly of the triene acid system was then achieved via Stille cross-coupling with the ethyl ester of (Z,Z)-5-tributylstannyl-2,4-pentadienoic acid, followed by mild hydrolysis preserving the triene configuration.

  19. E- or Z-Selective synthesis of 4-fluorovinyl-1,2,3-triazoles with fluorinated second-generation Julia-Kocienski reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Govindra; Todaro, Louis J; Yang, Lijia; Zajc, Barbara

    2015-02-07

    A highly modular approach to N-substituted 4-(1-fluorovinyl)triazoles is described. In situ desilylation and Cu-catalyzed ligation reaction of TMS-protected α-fluoropropargyl benzothiazole sulfone with aryl, alkyl, and metallocenyl azides furnished second-generation Julia-Kocienski reagents in good to excellent yields. Condensation reactions of these reagents with aldehydes can be tuned to yield E or Z-alkenes selectively. Under mild conditions with DBU as the base, reactions of aldehydes furnished E-alkenes as the major isomer. On the other hand, in condensation reactions with LHMDS as the base and in appropriate solvents, both aldehydes and ketones reacted to yield fluoroalkenes with Z-selectivity. Stereochemical assignment of E/Z olefins obtained in the reaction of a ketone with two Julia reagents was performed via X-ray crystallographic analysis and comparisons of NMR data. The method allows efficient and ready diversification of the N1-substituent and substituents at the double bond.

  20. Quantifying the role of adverse events in the mortality difference between first and second-generation antipsychotics in older adults: systematic review and meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John W; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Blacker, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies have reported higher mortality among older adults treated with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) versus second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). A few studies examined risk for medical events, including stroke, ventricular arrhythmia, venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and hip fracture. 1) Review robust epidemiologic evidence comparing mortality and medical event risk between FGAs and SGAs in older adults; 2) Quantify how much these medical events explain the observed mortality difference between FGAs and SGAs. Pubmed and Science Citation Index. Studies of antipsychotic users that: 1) evaluated mortality or medical events specified above; 2) restricted to populations with a mean age of 65 years or older 3) compared FGAs to SGAs, or both to a non-user group; (4) employed a "new user" design; (5) adjusted for confounders assessed prior to antipsychotic initiation; (6) and did not require survival after antipsychotic initiation. A separate search was performed for mortality estimates associated with the specified medical events. For each medical event, we used a non-parametric model to estimate lower and upper bounds for the proportion of the mortality difference-comparing FGAs to SGAs-mediated by their difference in risk for the medical event. We provide a brief, updated summary of the included studies and the biological plausibility of these mechanisms. Of the 1122 unique citations retrieved, we reviewed 20 observational cohort studies that reported 28 associations. We identified hip fracture, stroke, myocardial infarction, and ventricular arrhythmias as potential intermediaries on the causal pathway from antipsychotic type to death. However, these events did not appear to explain the entire mortality difference. The current literature suggests that hip fracture, stroke, myocardial infarction, and ventricular arrhythmias partially explain the mortality difference between SGAs and FGAs.

  1. Comparison of wear rate and osteolysis between second-generation annealed and first-generation remelted highly cross-linked polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty. A case control study at a minimum of five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, R; Jinno, T; Koga, D; Miyatake, K; Muneta, T; Okawa, A

    2017-06-01

    There is no previous report that directly compared wear resistance of second-generation annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene with that of first-generation remelted highly cross-linked polyethylene. We therefore performed a retrospective study at a minimum of 5-year follow-up comparing second-generation annealed and first-generation remelted highly cross-linked polyethylene in order to: (1) assess wear rates and (2) compare the incidence of osteolysis between, (3) identify the frequency of complication related to the two types of highly cross-linked polyethylene. There is a difference in the linear wear rate and the incidence of osteolysis between the two types of highly cross-linked polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty. In a single centre study, we reviewed 123 primary cementless total hip arthroplasties between 2010 and 2011 that were performed with 32mm alumina ceramic on second-generation annealed (X3) or first-generation remelted (Longevity) highly cross-linked polyethylene liner. There was no specific reason for the choice of the type of highly cross-linked polyethylene. There were no significant differences between the two groups in respect of gender, diagnosis, body mass index, pre- and post-operative functional and activity score, cup size, and cup orientation except the younger age in the X3 group. The mean wear rate and the incidence of osteolysis were evaluated at the latest follow-up. One hundred nine cases followed over 5 years post-operatively (88.6% in all consecutive cases) were evaluated. X3 and Longevity were used in 54 and 55 cases, respectively. The mean follow-up was 5.3 years in both groups. The mean linear wear rate of X3 and Longevity group was 0.045±0.023mm/year and 0.076±0.031mm/year, respectively (Plinked components. Excellent wear resistance of both types of highly cross-linked polyethylene liner was revealed in our study. The difference of wear rate between two materials should be monitored in a longer follow-up. Level III

  2. Combining two-directional synthesis and tandem reactions, part 11: second generation syntheses of (±)-hippodamine and (±)-epi-hippodamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Annabella F; Rejzek, Martin; Alcaraz, Marie-Lyne; Stockman, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Background Hippodamine is a volatile defence alkaloid isolated from ladybird beetles which holds potential as an agrochemical agent and was the subject of a synthesis by our group in 2005. Results Two enhancements to our previous syntheses of (±)-hippodamine and (±)-epi-hippodamine are presented which are able to shorten the syntheses by up to two steps. Conclusion Key advances include a two-directional homologation by cross metathesis and a new tandem reductive amination/double intramolecular Michael addition which generates 6 new bonds, 2 stereogenic centres and two rings, giving a single diastereomer in 74% yield. PMID:18201377

  3. Combining two-directional synthesis and tandem reactions, part 11: second generation syntheses of (±-hippodamine and (±-epi-hippodamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcaraz Marie-Lyne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hippodamine is a volatile defence alkaloid isolated from ladybird beetles which holds potential as an agrochemical agent and was the subject of a synthesis by our group in 2005. Results Two enhancements to our previous syntheses of (±-hippodamine and (±-epi-hippodamine are presented which are able to shorten the syntheses by up to two steps. Conclusion Key advances include a two-directional homologation by cross metathesis and a new tandem reductive amination/double intramolecular Michael addition which generates 6 new bonds, 2 stereogenic centres and two rings, giving a single diastereomer in 74% yield.

  4. Second-generation HTS conductors

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in 1986 by two IBM scientists led to an unprecedented explosion of research and development efforts world-wide because of the significant potential for practical applications offered by these materials. However, the early euphoria created by the exciting prospects was dampened by the daunting task of fabricating these materials into useful forms with acceptable superconducting properties. Progress towards this goal has been hindered by many intrinsic materials problems, such as weak-links, flux-creep, and poor mechanical properties. The above problems led to the development of the Second-Generation of HTS wires. Three methods were invented to produce flexible metallic substrates, which were also crystallographically biaxially textured, and resembled a long, mosaic single crystal. The first method invented is the Ion-Beam-Assisted-Deposition (IBAD). The second method developed was the Inclined-Substrate-Deposition (ISD). The third method invented is calle...

  5. Total synthesis of chaetoquadrins A-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, U Bin; Furkert, Daniel P; Brimble, Margaret A

    2013-02-01

    The first total synthesis of the monoamine oxidase inhibitors chaetoquadrins A-C has been accomplished. Key steps in the synthesis include an aromatic Claisen rearrangement, asymmetric boron aldol reaction and acid-mediated spiroketalization. Comparison of spectral data for the synthetic spiroketals confirmed the proposed structure for these natural products.

  6. Total synthesis of UCS1025A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Tristan H; Danishefsky, Samuel J

    2006-01-18

    The enantioselective total synthesis of the telomerase inhibitor UCS1025A has been accomplished. The key transformation involves a remarkable boron Reformatsky coupling of iodolactone 13 and aldehyde 17.

  7. Six-Step Total Synthesis of Azaspirene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Taeho; Jo, Deokhee; Han, Sunkyu

    2017-09-15

    The total synthesis of (±)-azaspirene (1) was achieved in a total of six steps from commercially available materials. Keys to the conciseness of our synthetic approach were the effective γ-lactam formation from linear precursor 36 and successful tandem epoxidations of γ-lactam 34 to afford α,β-epoxy-γ-hydroxy-γ-lactam intermediate 14. While our streamlined synthesis of azaspirene (1) sought inspiration from its biogenetic hypothesis, experimentally observed chemical reactivity of biosynthetically relevant precursors conversely provides insights to the biological origin of this natural product.

  8. Consumer Preferences for Second-Generation Bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tongzhe; McCluskey, Jill J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the consumer response toward fuel from second-generation, nature-inspired lignocellulose processing systems. We conduct consumer surveys with two different information treatments. We utilize a dichotomous-choice contingent valuation methodology to estimate willingness to pay for this product and analyze factors that affect consumer choice. The results suggest that the average respondent is willing to purchase second-generation bioethanol with a 4% discount compar...

  9. The Total Synthesis of Cephalosporin C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    1965-12-11

    R B Woodward in his Nobel Lecture, Dec 11, 1965. The total synthesis of Cephalosporin C is yet another example where Woodward identifies an anchor from which he never wavered, in spite of enormous problems. The anchor here was. L (+) cysteine (1). The choice of 1 was indeed ingenious! Not only does 1 contain half ...

  10. Total synthesis of insect antifeedant drimane sesquiterpenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The investigations described in this thesis deal with the total synthesis of sesquiterpenes of the drimane family, named for their widespread occurrence in the stem bark of South American Drimys species. These compounds contain the bicyclofarnesol nucleus

  11. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Secalonic Acid E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Dhandapani; Reiner, Johannes R; Löffler, Lorenz E; Ma, Ling; Gnanaprakasam, Boopathy; Niepötter, Benedikt; Koehne, Ingo; Tietze, Lutz F

    2015-11-16

    The first enantioselective synthesis of a secalonic acid containing a dimeric tetrahydroxanthenone skeleton is described, using a Wacker-type cyclization of a methoxyphenolic compound to form a chiral chroman with a quaternary carbon stereogenic center with >99% ee. Further steps are a Sharpless dihydroxylation and a Dieckmann condensation to give a tetrahydroxanthenone. A late-stage one-pot palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-dimerization reaction leads to the 2,2'-biphenol linkage to complete the enantioselective total synthesis of secalonic acid E in 18 steps with 8% overall yield. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Total Synthesis of (±)-Kuwanol E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, Valentina; Benni, Irene; Sabia, Rocchina; D'Acquarica, Ilaria; Fabrizi, Giancarlo; Botta, Bruno; Calcaterra, Andrea

    2016-10-28

    The total synthesis of the Diels-Alder-type adducts (±)-kuwanol E and the heptamethyl ether derivative of (±)-kuwanon Y has been accomplished via a convergent strategy involving 2'-hydroxychalcone 6 or 9 and dehydroprenylstilbene 7, in nine steps. The synthesis features, as a key step, a Lewis acid-mediated biomimetic intermolecular Diels-Alder [4+2] cycloaddition for the construction of the cyclohexene skeleton with three stereogenic centers. Notably, the endo/exo diastereoselectivity of the reaction proved to be temperature-controlled.

  13. The first and second generation Aussat systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, W.

    1988-12-01

    The present three-spacecraft Aussat satellite communication system is described and illustrated with extensive drawings, diagrams, and photographs; and plans for the second-generation system (Aussat-B, to begin replacing the current spacecraft in 1992) are discussed. Consideration is given to the legal status, structure, and staff of the Aussat organization; the first-generation space segment; satellite launch and orbital transfer procedures; the Aussat communication payload; the ground segment; and the current market for satellite services in Australia. For the second-generation system, topics addressed include additional and improved services, the Aussat-B procurement program, mobile satellite services, and the impact on the Australian space industry.

  14. Total synthesis of panicein A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Lili; Pilkington, Lisa I; Cadelis, Melissa M; Copp, Brent R; Barker, David

    2015-01-01

    The first total synthesis of the unusual aromatic sesquiterpene panicein A2 is reported and the structure of the natural product has been confirmed. When tested by the NCI against a range of human cancer cell lines, it was found that panicein A2 exhibits very little antiproliferative activity at 10 μM - an observation that is at odds with the earlier report that stated panicein A2 exhibits in vitro cytotoxicity against a number of tumour cell lines.

  15. Total synthesis of the indolizidine alkaloid tashiromine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElhinney Alison D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tashiromine 1 is a naturally occurring indolizidine alkaloid. It has been the subject of thirteen successful total syntheses to date. Our own approach centres on the stereoselective construction of the indolizidine core by capture of an electrophilic acyliminium species by a pendant allylsilane. The key cyclisation precursor is constructed using olefin cross-metathesis chemistry, which has the potential to facilitate both racemic and asymmetric approaches, depending upon the choice of the allylsilane metathesis partner. Results The use of the allyltrimethylsilane cross-metathesis approach enables the rapid construction of the key cyclisation precursor 3 (3 steps from commercial materials, which undergoes acid-induced cyclisation to give the desired bicyclic indolizidine skeleton as a 96:4 mixture of diastereomers. Simple functional group interconversions allowed the completion of the total synthesis of racemic tashiromine in six steps (19% overall yield. Three chiral α-alkoxyallylsilanes (12,14 and 15 were prepared in enantioenriched form and their cross-metathesis reactions studied as part of a putative asymmetric approach to tashiromine. In the event, α-hydroxysilane 12 underwent isomerisation under the reaction conditions to acylsilane 17, while silanes 14 and 15 were unreactive towards metathesis. Conclusion A concise, stereoselective total synthesis of racemic tashiromine has been developed. Attempts to translate this into an asymmetric synthesis have thus far been unsuccessful.

  16. New insights into the second generation antihistamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, GM; Annunziato, L; Frossard, N; Knol, K; Levander, S; Nicolas, JM; Taglialatela, M; Tharp, MD; Tillement, JP; Timmerman, H

    2001-01-01

    Second generation antihistamines are recognised as being highly effective treatments for allergy-based disease and are among the most frequently prescribed and safest drugs in the world. However, consideration of the therapeutic index or the benefit/risk ratio of the H-1 receptor antagonists is of

  17. Total synthesis of panicein A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Yeung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The first total synthesis of the unusual aromatic sesquiterpene panicein A2 is reported and the structure of the natural product has been confirmed. When tested by the NCI against a range of human cancer cell lines, it was found that panicein A2 exhibits very little antiproliferative activity at 10 μM – an observation that is at odds with the earlier report that stated panicein A2 exhibits in vitro cytotoxicity against a number of tumour cell lines.

  18. Enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-acylfulvene and (-)-irofulven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Dustin S; Piizzi, Grazia; Piersanti, Giovanni; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2009-12-18

    We report our full account of the enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-acylfulvene (1) and (-)-irofulven (2), which features metathesis reactions for the rapid assembly of the molecular framework of these antitumor agents. We discuss (1) the application of an Evans Cu-catalyzed aldol addition reaction using a strained cyclopropyl ketenethioacetal, (2) an efficient enyne ring-closing metathesis cascade reaction in a challenging setting, (3) the reagent IPNBSH for a late-stage reductive allylic transposition reaction, and (4) the final RCM/dehydrogenation sequence for the formation of (-)-acylfulvene (1) and (-)-irofulven (2).

  19. Total Synthesis of (±)-Integrifolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomaki, Katsuya; Kusama, Hiroyuki; Iwasawa, Nobuharu

    2016-07-11

    The total synthesis of (±)-integrifolin has been achieved for the first time through the stereoselective preparation of the bicyclo[5.3.0]decane skeleton based on the tungsten-catalyzed cyclization of acyclic trienynes under photoirradiation conditions. Further key transformations of the cyclized product are the Tamao oxidation through cyclic silyl ether, the introduction of two oxygen functionalities by the oxidation of the diene and the construction of three exo-methylene moieties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Discrimination, race relations and the second generation

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Mary C.; Kasinitz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    In an increasingly diverse America, the experience of race and racial discrimination is too often described as if it is the same for all racial and ethnic groups. Utilizing the perspective on ethnic and racial groups developed by Zolberg that stresses their contingent and dynamic nature, we explore ethnic and racial discrimination in depth. Drawing on data from the New York Second Generation Study we describe the experience of prejudice and discrimination among eight groups of young adults-na...

  1. Second generation professional doctorates in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Gary; Davies, Ruth

    2009-09-01

    This paper traces the increase in number and diversity of professional doctorates over the last two decades and discusses the evolution from first to second generation doctorates as a response to the rise of the knowledge economy and new understandings of knowledge-production. Distinctions between first and second generation doctorates are interpreted in the light of Gibbons et al. [Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P., Trow, M., 1994. The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. Sage, London] taxonomy of knowledge-production, and it is argued that second generation doctorates, based on Mode 2 knowledge-production, are not only relevant to the economy but also have the potential to transform practice. However, as this paper highlights, this reconceptualisation of the professional doctorate presents particular challenges to academia and the discipline of nursing, which centre upon the threats posed to the power and authority of the University by the radical nature of Mode 2 knowledge generation and application in the workplace. Implications of these threats are discussed in relation to the current debate about the rigour of professional doctorates and the call by some for a return to the traditional doctorate or PhD. We conclude that the discipline of nursing has much to gain from embracing, rather than retreating from, the challenges posed by second generation professional doctorates, and that these offer an alternative but no less academically sound education in preparing nurses to pay a full and active role at the theory-practice interface.

  2. Herbert: A Second Generation Mobile Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    PROJECT. TASK S Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A WORK UNIT NUMBERS ’ ~ 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME...AD-AI93 632 WMRT: A SECOND GENERTION MOBILE ROWT(U) / MASSACHUSETTS IMST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB R BROOKS ET AL .JAN l8 Al-M...MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A. I. Memo 1016 January, 1988 HERBERT: A SECOND GENERATION MOBILE ROBOT Rodney A

  3. Total synthesis of the Daphniphyllum alkaloid daphenylline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaoyong; Li, Yong; Deng, Jun; Li, Ang

    2013-08-01

    The Daphniphyllum alkaloids are a large class of natural products isolated from a genus of evergreen plants widely used in Chinese herbal medicine. They display a remarkable range of biological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant, and vasorelaxation properties as well as elevation of nerve growth factor. Daphenylline is a structurally unique member among the predominately aliphatic Daphniphyllum alkaloids, and contains a tetrasubstituted arene moiety mounted on a sterically compact hexacyclic scaffold. Herein, we describe the first total synthesis of daphenylline. A gold-catalysed 6-exo-dig cyclization reaction and a subsequent intramolecular Michael addition reaction, inspired by Dixon's seminal work, were exploited to construct the bridged 6,6,5-tricyclic motif of the natural product at an early stage, and the aromatic moiety was forged through a photoinduced olefin isomerization/6π-electrocyclization cascade followed by an oxidative aromatization process.

  4. ADVANCED SECOND GENERATION CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Alvin

    2002-01-31

    Through sponsorship from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), development and manufacture of advanced second generation candle filters was undertaken in the early 1990's. Efforts were primarily focused on the manufacture of fracture toughened, 1.5 m, continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) and filament wound candle filters by 3M, McDermott, DuPont Lanxide Composites, and Techniweave. In order to demonstrate long-term thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability of the advanced second generation candle filter materials, Siemens Westinghouse initiated high temperature, bench-scale, corrosion testing of 3M's CVI-SiC and DuPont's PRD-66 mini-candles, and DuPont's CFCC SiC-SiC and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} coupons under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) conditions. This effort was followed by an evaluation of the mechanical and filtration performance of the advanced second generation filter elements in Siemens Westinghouse's bench-scale PFBC test facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Arrays of 1.4-1.5 m 3M CVI-SiC, DuPont PRD-66, DuPont SiC-SiC, and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} candles were subjected to steady state process operating conditions, increased severity thermal transients, and accelerated pulse cycling test campaigns which represented {approx}1760 hours of equivalent filter operating life. Siemens Westinghouse subsequently participated in early material surveillance programs which marked entry of the 3M CVI-SiC and DuPont PRD-66 candle filters in Siemens Westinghouse Advanced Particulate Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio. Siemens Westinghouse then conducted an extended, accelerated life, qualification program, evaluating the performance of the 3M, McDermott, and Techniweave oxide-based CFCC filter elements, modified DuPont PRD-66 elements, and the Blasch, Scapa Cerafil{sup TM}, and Specific Surface monolithic

  5. The total synthesis of cannabisin G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAMU XIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A convenient method for the synthesis of lignanamide cannabisin G, starting from vanillin, was developed. The convergent synthesis was based on the Stobbe reaction as C–C bond-forming steps to give the skeleton of lignan, which was condensed with a derivative of tyramine to obtain synthetic cannabisin G for the first time.

  6. Perennial forages as second generation bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matt A; Adler, Paul R

    2008-05-01

    The lignocellulose in forage crops represents a second generation of biomass feedstock for conversion into energy-related end products. Some of the most extensively studied species for cellulosic feedstock production include forages such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). An advantage of using forages as bioenergy crops is that farmers are familiar with their management and already have the capacity to grow, harvest, store, and transport them. Forage crops offer additional flexibility in management because they can be used for biomass or forage and the land can be returned to other uses or put into crop rotation. Estimates indicate about 22.3 million ha of cropland, idle cropland, and cropland pasture will be needed for biomass production in 2030. Converting these lands to large scale cellulosic energy farming could push the traditional forage-livestock industry to ever more marginal lands. Furthermore, encouraging bioenergy production from marginal lands could directly compete with forage-livestock production.

  7. Total synthesis of (±)-divanillyltetrahydrofuran ferulate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Keywords. Synthesis; sesquilignan; stobbe reaction; divanillyltetrahydrofuran ferulate. 1. Introduction. Divanillyltetrahydrofuran ferulate was first isolated from the ... plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous human malaria parasite. 9. Two sesquilignans Chushizisins H and I exhibited antioxidant activities against H2O2-.

  8. Second generation sequencing of the mesothelioma tumor genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Bueno

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The current paradigm for elucidating the molecular etiology of cancers relies on the interrogation of small numbers of genes, which limits the scope of investigation. Emerging second-generation massively parallel DNA sequencing technologies have enabled more precise definition of the cancer genome on a global scale. We examined the genome of a human primary malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM tumor and matched normal tissue by using a combination of sequencing-by-synthesis and pyrosequencing methodologies to a 9.6X depth of coverage. Read density analysis uncovered significant aneuploidy and numerous rearrangements. Method-dependent informatics rules, which combined the results of different sequencing platforms, were developed to identify and validate candidate mutations of multiple types. Many more tumor-specific rearrangements than point mutations were uncovered at this depth of sequencing, resulting in novel, large-scale, inter- and intra-chromosomal deletions, inversions, and translocations. Nearly all candidate point mutations appeared to be previously unknown SNPs. Thirty tumor-specific fusions/translocations were independently validated with PCR and Sanger sequencing. Of these, 15 represented disrupted gene-encoding regions, including kinases, transcription factors, and growth factors. One large deletion in DPP10 resulted in altered transcription and expression of DPP10 transcripts in a set of 53 additional MPM tumors correlated with survival. Additionally, three point mutations were observed in the coding regions of NKX6-2, a transcription regulator, and NFRKB, a DNA-binding protein involved in modulating NFKB1. Several regions containing genes such as PCBD2 and DHFR, which are involved in growth factor signaling and nucleotide synthesis, respectively, were selectively amplified in the tumor. Second-generation sequencing uncovered all types of mutations in this MPM tumor, with DNA rearrangements representing the dominant type.

  9. GRIP AIRBORNE SECOND GENERATION PRECIPITATION RADAR (APR-2) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Airborne Second Generation Precipitation Radar (APR-2) dataset was collected from the Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2), which is a...

  10. NAMMA SECOND GENERATION AIRBORNE PRECIPITATION RADAR (APR-2) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2) dataset was collected by using the Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2), which is...

  11. model synthetic studies towards palitantin total synthesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis of palitantin, 5-(1'E, 3'E-heptadienyl)~cis-2,3-dihydroxy-6-hydroxy- methylcyclohexan-l-oue (1), model ... envisioned a rctrosynthctic approach based on a one-pot Michael-Wittig reactions followed by standard .... the material may have been converted to the polyhydroxylated ester (21). The loss of regioselectivity ...

  12. First total synthesis of (+/-)-3-hydroxy-11-norcytisine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yohannes, Daniel; Hansen, Camilla Petrycer; Akireddy, Srinivasa Rao

    2008-01-01

    The first total synthesis of the natural product 3-hydroxy-11-norcytisine ( 1), structurally related to cytisine ( 2), a benchmark ligand at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs), has been achieved. The synthesis permits the unambiguous confirmation of the structure originally proposed...

  13. Recruiting the Students to Fight Cancer: Total Synthesis of Goniothalamin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Fady; Riant, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A modified total synthesis of (S)-goniothalamin is described for an advanced course in organic chemistry. This experiment gives students an opportunity to handle organometallic reagents and perform an enzymatic kinetic resolution and a metathesis reaction, all in the same synthesis. Furthermore, students learn flame-drying techniques for the…

  14. A facile three-step total synthesis of tanshinone I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Rui; Wang, Jie-Jie; Shao, Peng-Peng; Yuan, Si-Yi; Li, Xu-Qin

    2016-07-01

    A facile synthetic approach for total synthesis of tanshinone I has been accomplished. The key precursor is a novel compound, epoxy phenanthraquinone. And this synthesis of tanshinone I is achieved in only three simple stages, which include Diels-Alder reaction, Δ(2)-Weitz-Scheffer-type epoxidation, and Feist-Bénary reaction from commercially available styrene.

  15. Study Toward the Total Synthesis of Pyrenophorin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo F. Santos Filho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrodiolides are macrocyclic compounds containing two ester groups in a cyclic chain. Of this class of compounds, Pyrenophorin (1 shows antifungal activity, and is produced from the pathogenic fungus Pyrenophora avenae. As this substance, derived from nature, is isolated in small quantities, an asymmetric synthesis using a simple and efficient methodology would be of great interest. The proposed synthetic route starts with the protection of propargyl alcohol 3 using DHP and feldspar as catalyst. Compound 5 obtained in this reaction was then subjected to acid-base reaction between the acetylenic proton and 1 eq. n-BuLi, leading to formation of the acetylide 5A. The 1,2- addition reaction between 5A and g-valerolactone (6 leads to the formation of alkinone 7 in 67% yield. Subsequently, compound 7 was subjected to a ketalization reaction using the same feldspar catalyst. Ketal 8 was formed under concomitant removal of the THP group. The product of this reaction (8 was then submitted to a reduction reaction of the triple bond to form olefin 9 with E configuration. Currently, the conditions for obtaining 10 by oxidation using Jones reagent, are being optimized. Compound 10,    obtained as described, is being subjected to a macrolactonization reaction. Various conditions including the use of enzymes are being studied. In addition, a study involving the enantioselective synthesis of (R,R-(--pyrenophorin, using enzymatic kinetic resolution of the racemic mixture of compound 8, is in progress in the group

  16. Total enzymatic synthesis of cholecystokinin CCK-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, H; Xiang, G Y; Lu, Z M; Guo, L; Eckstein, H

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes the enzymatic synthesis of the C-terminal fragment H-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 of cholecystokinin. Immobilized enzymes were used for the formation of all peptide bonds except thermolysin. Beginning the synthesis with phenylacetyl (PhAc) glycine carboxamidomethyl ester (OCam) and H-Trp-OMe by using immobilized papain as biocatalyst in buffered ethyl acetate, the dipeptide methyl ester was then coupled directly with Met-OEt.HCl by alpha-chymotrypsin/Celite 545 in a solvent free system. For the 3+2 coupling PhAc-Gly-Trp-Met-OEt had to be converted into its OCam ester. The other fragment H-Asp(OMe)-Phe-NH2 resulted from the coupling of Cbo-Asp(OMe)-OH with H-Phe-NH2.HCl and thermolysin as catalyst, followed by catalytic hydrogenation. Finally PhAc-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 was obtained in a smooth reaction from PhAc-Gly-Trp-Met-OCam and H-Asp(OMe)-Phe-NH2 with alpha-chymotrypsin/Celite 545 in acetonitrile, followed by basic hydrolysis of the beta-methyl ester. The PhAc-group is removed with penicillin G amidase and CCK-5 is obtained in an overall isolated yield of 19.6%.

  17. The Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)‐Liphagal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Joshua J.; McFadden, Ryan M.; Virgil, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Ring a ding: The first catalytic enantioselective total synthesis of the meroterpenoid natural product (+)-liphagal is disclosed. The approach showcases a variety of technology including enantioselective enolate alkylation, a photochemical alkyne-alkene [2+2] reaction, microwaveassisted metal cat...

  18. Total synthesis and structural revision of (+)-cristatumin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Paula; Álvarez, Rosana; de Lera, Ángel R

    2014-02-28

    Naturally occurring (+)-cristatumin C, a bis-pyrrolidinoindoline diketopiperazine alkaloid isolated from Eurotium cristatum EN-220, is the 2R,3R,11S,15R,2'R,3'R,11'S,15'S enantiomer, as confirmed by total synthesis.

  19. Second-generation migrants: Europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.; Schneider, J.; Ness, I.; Bellwood, P.

    2013-01-01

    The public debate about the second generation in Europe has taken a dramatic shift in the last five years. The riots in the banlieues in France, involving mostly Algerian and Moroccan second-generation youth, pitched the cherished republican model into deep crisis. In the Netherlands, arguments

  20. Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Marine Norditerpenoid Xestenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Miyaoka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  1. Total Synthesis of Mycalolides A and B through Olefin Metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Masaki; Oka, Hirotaka; Usui, Akihiro; Ishitsuka, Tomoya; Mogi, Yuzo; Watanabe, Hidekazu; Tsunoda, Masaki; Kigoshi, Hideo

    2015-11-16

    An asymmetric total synthesis of the trisoxazole marine macrolides mycalolides A and B is described. This synthesis involves the convergent assembly of highly functionalized C1-C19 trisoxazole and C20-C35 side-chain segments through the use of olefin metathesis and esterification as well as Julia-Kocienski olefination and enamide formation as key steps. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. GRIP AIRBORNE SECOND GENERATION PRECIPITATION RADAR (APR-2) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2) is a dual-frequency (13 GHz and 35 GHz), Doppler, dual-polarization radar system. It has a downward...

  3. GRIP METEOSAT SECOND GENERATION (MSG) IMAGE DATA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Image Data was collected during the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment from August 15, 2010 to...

  4. [Suicid attempts among first and second generation immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Tarik A; Riecher-Rössler, Anita

    2008-01-01

    To examine the characteristics of suicide attempters among first and second generation immigrants from Turkey living in Basel-City, Switzerland. All immigrants living in Basel City and admitted to the University Hospital of Basel-City, Switzerland, after a suicide attempt, were consecutively examined during a 7-year period (n=70). 35,7% of the suicide attempters were first generation and 64,3% second generation immigrants. Among the first generation the sex ratio female to male was 1,3 and among second generation 3,1. 36,9% of those concerned were at immigration 15 to 19 years of age. 24,1 % of females from first generation and 14,7% of females from second generation mentioned violence in family and partnership as the main problem. Female migrants of 2. generation seem to be at risk with regard to suicidal behavior. Violence seems to be a significant problem in suicidal female immigrants of both generations.

  5. GRIP METEOSAT SECOND GENERATION (MSG) IMAGE DATA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) data and browse was collected during the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment from 15 Aug 2010 to...

  6. Trust of Second Generation Immigrants: Intergenerational Transmission or Cultural Assimilation?

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Moschion; Domenico Tabasso

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the respective influence of intergenerational transmission and the environment in shaping individual trust. Focusing on second generation immigrants in Australia and the United States, we exploit the variation in the home and in the host country to separate the effect of the cultural background from that of the social and economic conditions on individual trust. Our results indicate that trust in the home country contributes to the trust of second generation immigrants in b...

  7. First total synthesis of a guanidine alkaloid Nitensidine D using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An efficient first total synthesis of a naturally occurring guanidine alkaloid, Nitensidine D isolated from ethanol extract of Pterogyne nitens has been described. Geraniol has been used as the starting material. N-alkylation of phthalimide has been achieved using immobilized ionic liquid and formamidinesulfinic acid acts as ...

  8. Asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-azaspirene, a novel angiogenesis inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yujiro; Shoji, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Junichiro; Sato, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Shinpei; Mukaiyama, Takasuke; Sakai, Ken; Asami, Yukihiro; Kakeya, Hideaki; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2002-10-16

    The asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-azaspirene, an angiogenesis inhibitor, has been accomplished, establishing its absolute stereochemistry. The key steps are a MgBr2.OEt2-mediated, diastereoselective Mukaiyama aldol reaction, a NaH-promoted, intramolecular cyclization of an alkynylamide, and the aldol reaction of a ketone containing functionalized gamma-lactam moiety without protection of tert-alcohol and amide functionalities.

  9. Total synthesis of the proposed structure of astakolactin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Tonoi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first total synthesis of the proposed structure of astakolactin, a sesterterpene metabolite isolated from the marine sponge Cacospongia scalaris, has been achieved, mainly featuring Johnson–Claisen rearrangement, asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reaction and MNBA-mediated lactonization.

  10. Total synthesis of (-)-exiguolide via an organosilane-based strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongze; Xie, Hengmu; Zhang, Zhigao; Xu, Yongjin; Lu, Ji; Gao, Lu; Song, Zhenlei

    2015-05-18

    An organosilane-based strategy has been used to accomplish the convergent total synthesis of (-)-exiguolide. The key steps involve: (1) geminal bis(silyl) Prins cyclization to construct the A ring; (2) silicon-protected RCM reaction to construct the 20-membered macrocycle; and (3) Hiyama-Denmark cross-coupling of vinylsilane with vinyliodide to install the triene side chain.

  11. Total synthesis of (±)-nardoaristolone B and its analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handore, Kishor L; Reddy, D Srinivasa

    2014-08-15

    The first total synthesis of nardoaristolone B, a nor-sesquiterpenoid with an unusual fused ring system and having protective effects on the injury of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, has been accomplished. Stereoselective synthesis of its novel analogues inlcuding exo-cyclopropyl ring fusion is also part of this disclosure. In addition, an alternate and more efficient one-step method to make a 3/5/6 tricyclic ring system using the Robinson annulation method has been developed toward the generation of a library of compounds around this skeleton.

  12. Asymmetric total synthesis of Apocynaceae hydrocarbazole alkaloids (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ji-Yuan; Zeng, Chao; Han, Xiao-Jie; Qu, Hu; Zhao, Xian-He; An, Xian-Tao; Fan, Chun-An

    2015-04-01

    An unprecedented asymmetric catalytic tandem aminolysis/aza-Michael addition reaction of spirocyclic para-dienoneimides has been designed and developed through organocatalytic enantioselective desymmetrization. A unified strategy based on this key tandem methodology has been divergently explored for the asymmetric total synthesis of two natural Apocynaceae alkaloids, (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine. The present studies not only enrich the tandem reaction design concerning the asymmetric catalytic assembly of a chiral all-carbon quaternary stereocenter contained in the densely functionalized hydrocarbazole synthons but also manifest the potential for the application of the asymmetric catalysis based on the para-dienone chemistry in asymmetric synthesis of natural products.

  13. Total Synthesis of Lagunamide A via Remote Vinylogous Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions, Chemical Studies Toward the Total Synthesis of Micromide and Preliminary Studies Toward the Total Synthesis of Azaspirene

    OpenAIRE

    Banasik, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Lagunamide A represents a class of novel cyclic depsipeptide obtained from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. With an array of biological activity and impressive IC50 values including anti-malarial properties (IC50 0.19-0.91 μM), significant cytotoxic properties against P388 murine leukemia cell lines (IC50 6.4-20.5 nM) and ileocecal colon cancer (1.6 nM), lagunamide A shows promise as an extremely powerful therapeutic agent. Unexpectedly, in a recent total synthesis of lagunamide ...

  14. Total synthesis of mycobacterial arabinogalactan containing 92 monosaccharide units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong; Xiong, De-Cai; Chen, Si-Cong; Wang, Yong-Shi; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2017-03-01

    Carbohydrates are diverse bio-macromolecules with highly complex structures that are involved in numerous biological processes. Well-defined carbohydrates obtained by chemical synthesis are essential to the understanding of their functions. However, synthesis of carbohydrates is greatly hampered by its insufficient efficiency. So far, assembly of long carbohydrate chains remains one of the most challenging tasks for synthetic chemists. Here we describe a highly efficient assembly of a 92-mer polysaccharide by the preactivation-based one-pot glycosylation protocol. Several linear and branched oligosaccharide/polysaccharide fragments ranging from 5-mer to 31-mer in length have been rapidly constructed in one-pot manner, which enables the first total synthesis of a biologically important mycobacterial arabinogalactan through a highly convergent [31+31+30] coupling reaction. Our results show that the preactivation-based one-pot glycosylation protocol may provide access to the construction of long and complicated carbohydrate chains.

  15. Second-Generation Prisoners and the Transmission of Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Joanna L; Loper, Ann B; Jackson, Shelly L

    2016-01-01

    Adult inmates who experienced the incarceration of a parent, known as "second-generation prisoners," experience unique challenges and are at heightened risk for experiencing other adversities throughout the life span. Our study investigated one specific, and previously unexplored, type of adversity--domestic violence--within a sample of 293 incarcerated adults. We examined the relation between generation status (first- or second-generation prisoners), childhood exposure to domestic violence, and participation in adult relationship violence prior to incarceration. Results indicate that prisoners who had been exposed to domestic violence in childhood were more likely to engage in intimate partner violence resulting in inflicted and received injury. Relative to first-generation prisoners, second-generation prisoners reported more childhood domestic violence exposure and were more likely to have been injured by a relationship partner. However, this relation between second-generation status and injury victimization was mediated by domestic violence exposure. These results support an intergenerational pattern of domestic violence and suggest that second-generation prisoners are a unique population worthy of future investigation and mental health intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. The Daphniphyllum Alkaloids: Total Synthesis of (−)-Calyciphylline N

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Presented here is a full account on the development of a strategy culminating in the first total synthesis of the architecturally complex daphniphyllum alkaloid, (−)-calyciphylline N. Highlights of the approach include a highly diastereoselective, intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction of a silicon-tethered acrylate; an efficient Stille carbonylation of a sterically encumbered vinyl triflate; a one-pot Nazarov cyclization/proto-desilylation sequence; and the chemoselective hydrogenation of a fully substituted diene ester. PMID:25756504

  17. Structure of FD-895 revealed through total synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Reymundo; Mandel, Alexander L; Jones, Brian D; La Clair, James J; Burkart, Michael D

    2012-11-02

    The total synthesis of FD-895 was completed through a strategy that featured the use of a tandem esterification ring-closing metathesis (RCM) process to construct the 12-membered macrolide and a modified Stille coupling to append the side chain. These studies combined with detailed analysis of all four possible C16-C17 stereoisomers were used to confirm the structure of FD-895 and identify an analog with an enhanced subnanomolar bioactivity.

  18. Current and future economic performance of first and second generation biofuels in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijck, Janske|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297954296; Batidzirai, Batidzirai|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341355909; Faaij, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Net Present Value (NPV) and total production cost calculations aremade for first and second generation biofuels in 74 settings, covering 5 fuel output types, 8 feedstock types, 12 countries and 8 combinations of agricultural management systems between 2010 and 2030. Yields are assumed to increase

  19. Total chemical synthesis of proteins without HPLC purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, S F; Harpaz, Z; Zitterbart, R; Seitz, O

    2016-11-01

    The total chemical synthesis of proteins is a tedious and time-consuming endeavour. The typical steps involve solid phase synthesis of peptide thioesters and cysteinyl peptides, native chemical ligation (NCL) in solution, desulfurization or removal of ligation auxiliaries in the case of extended NCL as well as many intermediary and final HPLC purification steps. With an aim to facilitate and improve the throughput of protein synthesis we developed the first method for the rapid chemical total on-resin synthesis of proteins that proceeds without a single HPLC-purification step. The method relies on the combination of three orthogonal protein tags that allow sequential immobilization (via the N-terminal and C-terminal ends), extended native chemical ligation and release reactions. The peptide fragments to be ligated are prepared by conventional solid phase synthesis and used as crude materials in the subsequent steps. An N-terminal His6 unit permits selective immobilization of the full length peptide thioester onto Ni-NTA agarose beads. The C-terminal peptide fragment carries a C-terminal peptide hydrazide and an N-terminal 2-mercapto-2-phenyl-ethyl ligation auxiliary, which serves as a reactivity tag for the full length peptide. As a result, only full length peptides, not truncation products, react in the subsequent on-bead extended NCL. After auxiliary removal the ligation product is liberated into solution upon treatment with mild acid, and is concomitantly captured by an aldehyde-modified resin. This step allows the removal of the most frequently observed by-product in NCL chemistry, i.e. the hydrolysed peptide thioester (which does not contain a C-terminal peptide hydrazide). Finally, the target protein is released with diluted hydrazine or acid. We applied the method in the synthesis of 46 to 126 amino acid long MUC1 proteins comprising 2-6 copies of a 20mer tandem repeat sequence. Only three days were required for the parallel synthesis of 9 MUC1 proteins

  20. Search for Second Generation Leptoquarks with ATLAS at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Krobath, Gernot

    The Large Hadron Collider will collide protons with protons at a center-of-mass energy of up to 14 TeV. New physics phenomena and new particles are predicted to be detectable with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. One of these predicted new particles beyond the Standard Model are leptoquarks. This thesis deals with the search for scalar second generation leptoquarks produced in pairs. Second generation leptoquarks decay into a muon-type lepton and a quark. In this thesis the decay of both second generation leptoquarks into a muon and a quark is considered. Since pair production is studied the final state consists of two high-energetic muons and two high-energetic jets. This thesis studies second generation leptoquarks with masses of mLQ = 300 GeV, mLQ = 400 GeV, mLQ = 600 GeV and mLQ = 800 GeV. The best cut variables for the discrimination between the signal and the main Standard Model backgrounds ttbar and Z/gamma* found in this analysis are the pT of the muons, ST (the scalar sum of the trans...

  1. Discrimination of Second-Generation Professionals in Leadership Positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E. Waldring (Ismintha); M.R.J. Crul (Maurice); H. Ghorashi (Halleh)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis article, based on interviews from the Dutch Pathways to Success Project, investigates how Turkish-Dutch and Mo- roccan-Dutch second-generation professionals in leadership positions experience and deal with subtle discrimination at work. We argue that subtle discrimination in

  2. Second-generation colon capsule endoscopy compared with colonoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spada, Cristiano; Hassan, Cesare; Munoz-Navas, Miguel; Neuhaus, Horst; Deviere, Jacques; Fockens, Paul; Coron, Emmanuel; Gay, Gerard; Toth, Ervin; Riccioni, Maria Elena; Carretero, Cristina; Charton, Jean P.; van Gossum, Andrè; Wientjes, Carolien A.; Sacher-Huvelin, Sylvie; Delvaux, Michel; Nemeth, Artur; Petruzziello, Lucio; de Frias, Cesar Prieto; Mayershofer, Rupert; Amininejad, Leila; Aminejab, Leila; Dekker, Evelien; Galmiche, Jean-Paul; Frederic, Muriel; Johansson, Gabriele Wurm; Cesaro, Paola; Costamagna, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) represents a noninvasive technology that allows visualization of the colon without requiring sedation and air insufflation. A second-generation colon capsule endoscopy system (PillCam Colon 2) (CCE-2) was developed to increase sensitivity for colorectal polyp detection

  3. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  4. Potential benefits of second-generation human papillomavirus vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorapop Kiatpongsan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV target two oncogenic types (16 and 18 that contribute to 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide. Our objective was to quantify the range of additional benefits conferred by second-generation HPV prophylactic vaccines that are expected to expand protection to five additional oncogenic types (31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. METHODS: A microsimulation model of HPV and cervical cancer calibrated to epidemiological data from two countries (Kenya and Uganda was used to estimate reductions in lifetime risk of cervical cancer from the second-generation HPV vaccines. We explored the independent and joint impact of uncertain factors (i.e., distribution of HPV types, co-infection with multiple HPV types, and unidentifiable HPV types in cancer and vaccine properties (i.e., cross-protection against non-targeted HPV types, compared against currently-available vaccines. RESULTS: Assuming complete uptake of the second-generation vaccine, reductions in lifetime cancer risk were 86.3% in Kenya and 91.8% in Uganda, representing an absolute increase in cervical cancer reduction of 26.1% in Kenya and 17.9% in Uganda, compared with complete uptake of current vaccines. The range of added benefits was 19.6% to 29.1% in Kenya and 14.0% to 19.5% in Uganda, depending on assumptions of cancers attributable to multiple HPV infections and unidentifiable HPV types. These effects were blunted in both countries when assuming vaccine cross-protection with both the current and second-generation vaccines. CONCLUSION: Second-generation HPV vaccines that protect against additional oncogenic HPV types have the potential to improve cervical cancer prevention. Co-infection with multiple HPV infections and unidentifiable HPV types can influence vaccine effectiveness, but the magnitude of effect may be moderated by vaccine cross-protective effects. These benefits must be weighed against the cost of the vaccines in future

  5. Total synthesis and biological evaluation of neodysiherbaine A and analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Muneo; Akiyama, Nobuyuki; Tsubone, Koichi; Lash, L Leanne; Sanders, James M; Swanson, Geoffrey T; Sakai, Ryuichi; Shimamoto, Keiko; Oikawa, Masato; Sasaki, Makoto

    2006-07-07

    Dysiherbaine (1) and its congener neodysiherbaine A (2) are naturally occurring excitatory amino acids with selective and potent agonistic activity for ionotropic glutamate receptors. We describe herein the total synthesis of 2 and its structural analogues 3-8. Advanced key intermediate 16 was employed as a branching point to assemble a series of these analogues 3-8 with respect to the C8 and C9 functionalities, which would not have been accessible through manipulations of the natural product itself. The synthesis of key intermediate 16 features (i) stereocontrolled C-glycosylation to set the C6 stereocenter, (ii) concise synthesis of the bicyclic ether skeleton through chemo- and stereoselective dihydroxylation of the exo-olefin and stereoselective epoxidation of the endo-olefin, followed by epoxide ring opening/5-exo ring closure, and (iii) catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation of enamide ester to construct the amino acid appendage. A preliminary biological evaluation of analogues for their in vivo toxicity against mice and binding affinity for glutamate receptors showed that both the type and stereochemistry of the C8 and C9 functional groups affected the subtype selectivity of dysiherbaine analogues for members of the kainic acid receptor family.

  6. Appropriate technology: the challenge of the second generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jéquier, N

    1980-07-28

    Appropriate technology, defined here as a low-cost technology aimed at helping to meet the most basic needs of the world's poorest people, can only be a viable proposition if its proponents succeed in making the transition from the first to the second generation, i.e. from the small-scale experiments and pilot innovations of today, to the massive application of new devices (hardware) and new forms of organization (software). The main agents in this second generation are national planning institutions, government ministries, established research centres, development agencies, financial institutions and industral corporations. Some of the ways in which this transition can be facilitated are examined, as well as a number of specific issues such as intelligence policies in appropriate technology, the structure of decision-making mechanisms and the linkage between appropriate technology and overall development strategies.

  7. Second-generation colon capsule endoscopy compared with colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Spada, C.; Muñoz-Navas, M. (Miguel); C. Hassan; Neuhaus, H.; Deviere, J; Fockens, P.; Coron, E; G Gay; Toth, E.; Riccioni, M.E.; Carretero, C.; Charton, J.P.; Van Gossum, A; Wientjes, C.A. (Caroline A.); Sacher-Huvelin, S. (Sylvie)

    2011-01-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) represents a noninvasive technology that allows visualization of the colon without requiring sedation and air insufflation. A second-generation colon capsule endoscopy system (PillCam Colon 2) (CCE-2) was developed to increase sensitivity for colorectal polyp detection compared with the first-generation system. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, accuracy, and safety of CCE-2 in a head-to-head comparison with colono...

  8. Resegmenting assimilation : analyzing second generation education from a binational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Travis Scott

    2010-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the educational aspirations and outcomes among people associated with Tlacuitapa, a small Mexican town with a long history of immigration to the United States. Second generation Tlacuitapenses raised and educated in the United States are compared to similarly aged co-ethnics who grew up in the origin community. Results indicate that Tlacuitapenses set high educational goals for themselves regardless of where they live, though aspirations are slightly higher in the United ...

  9. Mediators of First- Versus Second-generation Antipsychotic-related Mortality in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John W; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Blacker, Deborah; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    Observational studies of older adults showed higher mortality for first-generation antipsychotics than their second- generation counterparts, which led to US Food and Drug Administration warnings, but the actual mechanisms involved remain unclear. A cohort of 9,060 initiators of first-generation antipsychotics and 17,137 of second-generation antipsychotics enrolled in New Jersey and Pennsylvania Medicare were followed for 180 days. Medical events were assessed using diagnostic and procedure codes on inpatient billing claims. For the individual and joint set of medical events (mediators), we estimated the total, direct, and indirect effects of antipsychotic type (first versus second generation) on mortality on the risk ratio scale and the proportion mediated on the risk difference scale, obtaining 95% confidence intervals through bootstrapping. We performed bias analyses for false-negative mediator misclassification in claims data, with sensitivity ranging from 0.25 to 0.75. There were 3,199 deaths (outcomes), 862 cardiovascular events, 675 infectious events, and 491 hip fractures (potential mediators). Mortality was higher for first- than second-generation antipsychotic initiators (adjusted risk ratio: 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.22). In naïve analyses, that ignored potential misclassification, less than 4% of this difference was explained by any particular medical event. In bias analyses, the proportion mediated ranged from 6% to 16% for stroke, 3% to 9% for ventricular arrhythmia, 3% to 11% for myocardial infarction, 0% venous thromboembolism, 3% to 9% for pneumonia, 0% to 1% for other bacterial infection, and 1% to 3% for hip fracture. Acute cardiovascular events and pneumonia may explain part of the mortality difference between first- and second-generation antipsychotic initiators in this analysis.

  10. Construction of an advanced tetracyclic intermediate for total synthesis of the marine alkaloid sarain A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungwoo; Yang, Jinhai; Weinreb, Steven M

    2006-03-03

    In work directed toward a total synthesis of the marine alkaloid sarain A (1), the advanced intermediate 54, containing all the key elements and the seven stereogenic centers of sarain A, has been successfully synthesized from bicyclic lactam 4, previously prepared via an intramolecular stereospecific [3 + 2]-azomethine ylide dipolar cycloaddition. Intermediate lactam 4 could be efficiently converted to N-Boc derivative 12. Introduction of a two-carbon fragment into lactam 12 which eventually becomes the C-7',8' syn diol of the "eastern" ring was then achieved by C-acylation of the corresponding enolate with methoxyacetyl chloride followed by a highly stereoselective ketone reduction with Zn(BH4)2 to afford alcohol 16. Intermediate 16 has the incorrect C-7' relative stereochemistry for sarain A, but this problem was conveniently remedied by inverting the C-7' center via an intramolecular Ohfune-type cyclization of the silyl carbamate derived from Boc mesylate 27 to produce the key cyclic carbamate 28. It was then possible to convert acetal 28 to allylsilane 32 followed by cyclization to the alkaloid tricyclic core 33 via an allylsilane/N-sulfonyliminium ion cyclization. Formation of the "western" macrocyclic ring has been successfully addressed using functional group handles at C-3' and N-1' on the tricyclic core via a ring-closing olefin metathesis (RCM) strategy with the second-generation Grubbs ruthenium catalyst to produce intermediate macrolactam 47. A chelation-controlled addition of ethynylmagnesium bromide to advanced aldehyde 51 afforded a single diastereomeric adduct 53 which is tentatively assigned to have the correct C-7',8' syn-diol stereochemistry. This adduct could be rearranged to the conveniently protected amino carbonate 54 which is set up for construction of the remainder of the eastern ring of sarain A.

  11. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski; Mark S. Sheldon; David Moyeda; Roy Payne

    2001-06-30

    This project develops a family of novel Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) NO{sub x} control technologies, which can achieve 95% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The conventional Advanced Reburning (AR) process integrates basic reburning and N-agent injection. The SGAR systems include six AR variants: (1) AR-Lean--injection of the N-agent and promoter along with overfire air; (2) AR-Rich--injection of N-agent and promoter into the reburning zone; (3) Multiple Injection Advanced Reburning (MIAR)--injection of N-agents and promoters both into the reburning zone and with overfire air; (4) AR-Lean + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters with overfire air and into the temperature zone at which Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) is effective; (5) AR-Rich + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters into the reburning zone and into the SNCR zone; and (6) Promoted Reburning + Promoted SNCR--basic or promoted reburning followed by basic or promoted SNCR process. The project was conducted in two phases over a five-year period. The work included a combination of analytical and experimental studies to confirm the process mechanisms, identify optimum process configurations, and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. Phase I was conducted from October, 1995 to September, 1997 and included both analytical studies and tests in bench and pilot-scale test rigs. Phase I moved AR technology to Maturity Level III-Major Subsystems. Phase II is conducted over a 45 month period (October, 1997-June, 2001). Phase II included evaluation of alternative promoters, development of alternative reburning fuel and N-Agent jet mixing systems, and scale up. The goal of Phase II was to move the technology to Maturity Level I-Subscale Integrated System. Tests in combustion facility ranging in firing rate from 0.1 x 10{sup 6} to 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr demonstrated the

  12. Design of the Second-Generation ILC Marx Modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2010-09-14

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) has initiated a program to design and build a Marx-topology modulator to produce a relatively compact, low-cost, high availability klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Building upon the success of the P1 Marx, the SLAC P2 Marx is a second-generation modulator whose design further emphasizes the qualities of modularity and high-availability. This paper outlines highlights of this design and presents single-cell performance data obtained during the proof-of-concept phase of the project.

  13. Total Synthesis and Stereochemical Assignment of Nostosin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoji Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nostosins A and B were isolated from a hydrophilic extract of Nostoc sp. strain from Iran, which exhibits excellent tryps inhibitory activity. Nostosin A was the most potent natural tripeptide aldehyde as trypsin inhibitor up to now. Both R‐ and S‐2‐hydroxy‐4‐(4‐hydroxy‐phenyl butanoic acid (Hhpba were prepared and incorporated into the total synthesis of nostosin B, respectively. Careful comparison of the NMR spectra and optical rotation data of synthetic nostosin B (1a and 1b with the natural product led to the unambiguous identification of the R‐configuration of the Hhpba fragment, which was further confirmed by co‐injection with the authentic sample on HPLC using both reversed phase column and the chiral AD‐RH column.

  14. A total synthesis of spirastrellolide A methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Alexander; Benson, Stefan; Schulthoff, Saskia; Gabor, Barbara; Fürstner, Alois

    2013-03-11

    A concise total synthesis of spirastrellolide A methyl ester (1 a, R(1) =Me) as the parent compound of a series of highly cytotoxic marine macrolides is disclosed, which exploits and expands the flexibility of a synthesis plan previously developed by our group en route to the sister compound spirastrellolide F methyl ester (6 a, R(1) =Me). Key to success was the masking of the signature Δ(15,16) -bond of 1 a as a C16-carbonyl group until after the stereogenic center at C24 had been properly set by a highly selective hydrogenation of the C24 exo-methylene precursor 66. Conformational control over the macrocyclic frame allowed the proper stereochemical course to be dialed into this reduction process. The elaboration of the C16 ketone to the C15-C16 double bond was accomplished by a chemoselective alkenyl triflate formation followed by a palladium-catalyzed hydride delivery. The role of the ketone at C16 as a strategic design element is also evident up-stream of the key intermediate 66, the assembly of which hinged upon the addition of the polyfunctionalized dithiane 37 to the similarly elaborate aldehyde fragment 46. Other crucial steps of the total synthesis were an alkyl-Suzuki coupling and a Yamaguchi lactonization that allowed the Northern and the Southern sector of the target to be stitched together and the macrocyclic perimeter to be forged. The lateral chain comprising the remote C46 stereocenter was finally attached to the core region by a modified Julia-Kocienski olefination. The preparation of the individual building blocks led to some methodological spin-offs, amongst which the improved procedure for the N-O-bond cleavage of isoxazolines by zero-valent molybdenum and the ozonolysis of a double bond in the presence of other oxidation-prone functionality are most noteworthy. Preliminary biological data suggest that the entire carbon framework, that is the macrocyclic core plus the lateral chain, might be necessary for high cytotoxicity. Copyright

  15. Promon's participation in the Brasilsat program: first & second generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaiva, Ricardo N.

    This paper presents an overview of the Brasilsat program, space and ground segments, developed by Hughes and Promon. Promon is a Brazilian engineering company that has been actively participating in the Brasilsat Satellite Telecommunications Program since its beginning. During the first generation, as subcontractor of the Spar/Hughes/SED consortium, Promon had a significant participation in the site installation of the Ground Segment, including the antennas. During the second generation, as partner of a consortium with Hughes, Promon participated in the upgrade of Brasilsat's Ground Segment systems: the TT&C (TCR1, TCR2, and SCC) and the COCC (Communications and Operations Control Center). This upgrade consisted of the design and development of hardware and software to support the second generation requirements, followed by integration and tests, factory acceptance tests, transport to site, site installation, site acceptance tests and warranty support. The upgraded systems are distributed over four sites with remote access to the main ground station. The solutions adopted provide a high level of automation, and easy operator interaction. The hardware and software technologies were selected to provide the flexibility to incorporate new technologies and services from the demanding satellite telecommunications market.

  16. Second-generation antidepressants for seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Kylie; Delivuk, Marlene; Chapman, Andrea; Gaynes, Bradley N; Kaminski, Angela; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2011-12-07

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a seasonal pattern of recurrent depressive episodes that is often treated with second-generation antidepressants (SGAs), light therapy or psychotherapy. To assess the efficacy and safety of SGAs for the treatment of SAD in adults in comparison with placebo, light therapy, other SGAs or psychotherapy. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neuorosis Review Group's specialised register (CCDANCTR) on the 26 August 2011. The CCDANCTR contains reports of relevant randomised controlled trials from The Cochrane Library (all years), EMBASE (1974 to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). In addition, we searched pharmaceutical industry trials registers via the Internet to identify unpublished trial data. Furthermore, we searched OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-process, EMBASE and PsycINFO to 27July 2011 for publications on adverse effects (including non-randomised studies). For efficacy we included randomised trials of SGAs compared with other SGAs, placebo, light therapy or psychotherapy in adult participants with SAD. For adverse effects we also included non-randomised studies. Two review authors screened abstracts and full-text publications against the inclusion criteria. Data abstraction and risk of bias assessment were conducted by one reviewer and checked for accuracy and completeness by a second. We pooled data for meta-analysis where the participant groups were similar and the studies assessed the same treatments with the same comparator and had similar definitions of outcome measures over a similar duration of treatment. For efficacy we included three randomised trials of between five and eight weeks duration with a total of 204 participants. For adverse effects we included two randomised trials and three observational (non-randomised) studies of five to eight weeks duration with a total of 225 participants. Overall, the randomised trials had low-to-moderate risk of bias, and the observational studies had

  17. Second Generation MOSAIC:A Novel Mechanism Based on Reference Database for Map Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, G.; Bignone, F.

    2011-08-01

    A totally new automatic workflow mechanism, named Second generation Mosaic module, based on the well-known Pixel Factory system, will be introduced here, which enables existing digital orthoimages and mosaics to be quickly updated. The process extracts all required parameters from the reference database to be able to perform automatic bundle adjustment and radiometric adaptation.In this paper, two examples for both satellite data and aerial data processed based on this mechanism will be presented here and discussed. Finally, the cost reduction will also be analysed according to the real mapping updating project.In a final statement, this paper will present an integrated solution named second generation mosaic module based on the well-known Pixel Factory system which is completely dedicated to fast processing of photogrammetric products Thanks to this integrated hardware and software solution, it is even possible to manage large data volume quickly in order to have precise map updating information as soon as possible after acquisition.

  18. Efforts Towards The Total Synthesis Of Aureobasidin L

    OpenAIRE

    Rani Maharani

    2015-01-01

    Aureobasidin L AbL 2 was synthesised using a strategy applied for the synthesis of analog 2S3S-Hmp-AbL 1 through a combination of solution- and solid-phase peptide synthesis. It was assumed that the synthesis of the natural AbL 2 will be more straightforward than the synthesis of the analog 2. However some issues were found during the synthesis. Due to these issues a small amount of AbL 2 was obtained. The AbL 2 was characterized by ESI-MS analysis and a comparison of 1H-NMR spectrum between ...

  19. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.

    2015-01-01

    In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...... on the economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary....

  20. Applications of second generation sequencing technologies in complex disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayés, Mònica; Heath, Simon; Gut, Ivo Glynne

    2012-01-01

    Second generation sequencing (2ndGS) technologies generate unprecedented amounts of sequence data very rapidly and at relatively limited costs, allowing the sequence of a human genome to be completed in a few weeks. The principle is on the basis of generating millions of relatively short reads from amplified single DNA fragments using iterative cycles of nucleotide extensions. However, the data generated on this scale present new challenges in interpretation, data analysis and data management. 2ndGS technologies are becoming widespread and are profoundly impacting biomedical research. Common applications include whole-genome sequencing, target resequencing, characterization of structural and copy number variation, profiling epigenetic modifications, transcriptome sequencing and identification of infectious agents. New methodologies and instruments that will enable to sequence the complete human genome in less than a day at a cost of less than $1,000 are currently in development.

  1. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bonk, D. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  2. Second-generation Holocaust survivors: Psychological, theological, and moral challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from trauma theory, psychodynamic conceptualization, developmental psychology, clinical data, and personal experience, this article portrays a life haunted by tragedy predating its victims. Healthy child development is outlined, with particular attention to socialization and theological perspectives. Key characteristics of trauma are delineated, highlighting the nuances of trauma that are most harmful. As is the case with general trauma, Holocaust survivors are described as evincing survivor's guilt and paranoia in response to their experiences. Divergent disorders resulting from the Holocaust are described for 1st-generation and 2nd-generation survivors, respectively. Primary trauma responses and pervasive attitudes of survivors are shown to have harmful ramifications on their children's personality and worldview as well as on their interpersonal and theistic object relations. These limitations translate into problems in the adult lives of second generation survivors.

  3. A second generation genetic map for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gahr Scott A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic maps characterizing the inheritance patterns of traits and markers have been developed for a wide range of species and used to study questions in biomedicine, agriculture, ecology and evolutionary biology. The status of rainbow trout genetic maps has progressed significantly over the last decade due to interest in this species in aquaculture and sport fisheries, and as a model research organism for studies related to carcinogenesis, toxicology, comparative immunology, disease ecology, physiology and nutrition. We constructed a second generation genetic map for rainbow trout using microsatellite markers to facilitate the identification of quantitative trait loci for traits affecting aquaculture production efficiency and the extraction of comparative information from the genome sequences of model fish species. Results A genetic map ordering 1124 microsatellite loci spanning a sex-averaged distance of 2927.10 cM (Kosambi and having 2.6 cM resolution was constructed by genotyping 10 parents and 150 offspring from the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA reference family mapping panel. Microsatellite markers, representing pairs of loci resulting from an evolutionarily recent whole genome duplication event, identified 180 duplicated regions within the rainbow trout genome. Microsatellites associated with genes through expressed sequence tags or bacterial artificial chromosomes produced comparative assignments with tetraodon, zebrafish, fugu, and medaka resulting in assignments of homology for 199 loci. Conclusion The second generation NCCCWA genetic map provides an increased microsatellite marker density and quantifies differences in recombination rate between the sexes in outbred populations. It has the potential to integrate with cytogenetic and other physical maps, identifying paralogous regions of the rainbow trout genome arising from the evolutionarily recent genome duplication event, and

  4. Efforts Towards The Total Synthesis Of Aureobasidin L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Maharani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aureobasidin L AbL 2 was synthesised using a strategy applied for the synthesis of analog 2S3S-Hmp-AbL 1 through a combination of solution- and solid-phase peptide synthesis. It was assumed that the synthesis of the natural AbL 2 will be more straightforward than the synthesis of the analog 2. However some issues were found during the synthesis. Due to these issues a small amount of AbL 2 was obtained. The AbL 2 was characterized by ESI-MS analysis and a comparison of 1H-NMR spectrum between AbL 2 and 2S3S-Hmp-AbL 1.

  5. Design of Heterogeneous Hoveyda-Grubbs Second-Generation Catalyst-Lipase Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Anthony; Iniesta, Javier; Palomo, Jose M

    2016-12-06

    Heterogeneous catalysts have been synthesi zed by the conjugation of Hoveyda-Grubbs second-generation catalyst with a lipase. The catalytic properties of the organometallic compound in solution were firstly optimized, evaluating the activity of Ru in the ring-closing metathesis of diethyldiallymalonate at 25 °C at different solvents and in the presence of different additives. The best result was found using tetrahydrofuran as a solvent. Some additives such as phenylboronic acid or polyetheneglycol slightly improved the activity of the Ru catalyst whereas others, such as pyridine or dipeptides affected it negatively. The organometallic compound immobilized on functionalized-surface materials activated with boronic acid or epoxy groups (around 50-60 µg per mg support) and showed 50% conversion at 24 h in the ring-closing metathesis. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA's) of the Hoveyda-Grubbs second-generation catalyst with Candida antarctica lipase (CAL-B) were prepared, although low Ru catalyst was found to be translated in low conversion. Therefore, a sol-gel preparation of the Hoveyda-Grubbs second-generation and CAL-B was performed. This catalyst exhibited good activity in the metathesis of diethyldiallymalonate in toluene and in aqueous media. Finally, a new sustainable approach was used by the conjugation lipase-Grubbs in solid phase in aqueous media. Two strategies were used: one using lipase previously covalently immobilized on an epoxy-Sepharose support (hydrophilic matrix) and then conjugated with grubbs; and in the second, the free lipase was incubated with organometallic in aqueous solution and then immobilized on epoxy-Sepharose. The different catalysts showed excellent conversion values in the ring-closing metathesis of diethyldiallymalonate in aqueous media at 25 °C.

  6. Climate regulation enhances the value of second generation biofuel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, T. W.; Steinbuks, J.; Tyner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Commercial scale implementation of second generation (2G) biofuels has long been 'just over the horizon - perhaps a decade away'. However, with recent innovations, and higher oil prices, we appear to be on the verge of finally seeing commercial scale implementations of cellulosic to liquid fuel conversion technologies. Interest in this technology derives from many quarters. Environmentalists see this as a way of reducing our carbon footprint, however, absent a global market for carbon emissions, private firms will not factor this into their investment decisions. Those interested in poverty and nutrition see this as a channel for lessening the biofuels' impact on food prices. But what is 2G technology worth to society? How valuable are prospective improvements in this technology? And how are these valuations affected by future uncertainties, including climate regulation, climate change impacts, and energy prices? This paper addresses all of these questions. We employ FABLE, a dynamic optimization model for the world's land resources which characterizes the optimal long run path for protected natural lands, managed forests, crop and livestock land use, energy extraction and biofuels over the period 2005-2105. By running this model twice for each future state of the world - once with 2G biofuels technology available and once without - we measure the contribution of the technology to global welfare. Given the uncertainty in how these technologies are likely to evolve, we consider a range cost estimates - from optimistic to pessimistic. In addition to technological uncertainty, there is great uncertainty in the conditions characterizing our baseline for the 21st century. For each of the 2G technology scenarios, we therefore also consider a range of outcomes for key drivers of global land use, including: population, income, oil prices, climate change impacts and climate regulation. We find that the social valuation of 2G technologies depends critically on climate change

  7. Decoloring hemoglobin as a feedstock for second-generation bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Aaron; Lay, Mark; Verbeek, Johan; Swan, Janis

    2012-01-01

    The color of red blood cell concentrate (RBCC) limits its application in human food, but there is potential to use it for second-generation bioplastics. Several methods have been developed to remove color from RBCC, but they are expensive or may produce difficult-to-remove toxic residues. Hydrogen peroxide treatment is a cheaper alternative. The effects of RBCC concentration, pH, and reaction temperature were the most important factors influencing the decolorizing process. They were investigated with the aim of developing a method that could be scaled to commercial level for producing a bioplastic feedstock. Initial trials showed pH was an important factor for decolorization and foaming. At pH 15 there was a 96% reduction in solution color and 8.4% solids were lost due to foaming. There was a 76% reduction in solution color at pH 2 and only 2.6% solids were lost due to foaming. The optimal reaction conditions were to centrifuge 9% w/w, pH 2 aqueous RBCC solution to remove aggregates. The solution was reacted at 30°C with 7.5 g of 30% (w/w) hydrogen peroxide. These conditions achieved a 93% reduction in solution color after 3 hr and the molecular weight of the decolored protein was not significantly reduced.

  8. Isomerization of Second-Generation Isoprene Peroxy Radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ambro, Emma L.; Møller, Kristian Holten; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.

    2017-01-01

    kinetics box model, we find that to explain the behavior of low-volatility products and SOA mass yields relative to input H2O2 concentrations, the second-generation dihydroxy hydroperoxy peroxy radical (C5H11O6·) must undergo an intramolecular H-shift with a net forward rate constant of order 0.1 s-1...... or higher. This finding is consistent with quantum chemical calculations that suggest a net forward rate constant of 0.3-0.9 s-1. Furthermore, these calculations suggest that the dominant product of this isomerization is a dihydroxy hydroperoxy epoxide (C5H10O5), which is expected to have a saturation vapor...... pressure ∼2 orders of magnitude higher, as determined by group-contribution calculations, than the dihydroxy dihydroperoxide, ISOP(OOH)2(C5H12O6), a major product of the peroxy radical reacting with HO2. These results provide strong constraints on the likely volatility distribution of isoprene oxidation...

  9. Ultrafast dynamics of epicocconone, a second generation fluorescent protein stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Soumit; Burai, Tarak Nath; Karuso, Peter; Datta, Anindya

    2011-09-15

    Femtosecond upconversion experiment has been carried out for epicocconone and its butylamine adduct in acetonitrile and tert-butanol. An ultrafast component is found to dominate the decay of fluorescence of epicocconone in acetonitrile solution. Upon reacting with butylamine, a model for the epicocconone-protein adduct, this ultrafast component remains almost unaffected but an additional rise time occurs, indicating the formation of a highly emissive species from the locally excited state. This phenomenon is central to the extraordinary applications of epicocconone in biotechnology. The magnitude of the rise time of the butylamine adduct is similar to that of the longer component of the decay of epicocconone in acetonitrile, suggesting that the dynamics of epicocconone and its butylamine adduct are similar. The ultrafast component is slowed upon increasing the viscosity of the solvent. This results in a marked increase in quantum yield and suggests that it corresponds to rapid bond isomerization, leading to a nonradiative decay. Surprisingly, in water/sucrose mixtures, the ultrafast component remains unaffected but there is still an increase in quantum yield, suggesting that there are at least two nonradiative pathways, one involving bond isomerization and another involving proton transfer. The correct interpretation of these data will allow the design of second generation protein stains based on the epicocconone scaffold with increased quantum yields and photostability. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Special Issue on Second Generation General System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Minati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this editorial is to briefly introduce some papers of different nature presented by the contributors to the special issue on “Second Generation General System Theory”. These contributions have been focused on the need for building a post-Bertalanffy Systemics, based on new problems, representations, and approaches to complexity. Furthermore, such new Systemics is expected to be able to theoretically generalize new related systemic concepts and approaches introduced by different disciplines. Such a theoretical generalization is going to coincide with a new kind of interdisciplinarity. The latter should substitute the classical one, based on considering problems and solutions within a discipline as equivalent to problems and solutions within another one. This equivalence was used within the framework of general systemic concepts like Anticipation, Completeness, Feedback, Finality, Forecast, Separability, Openness, and Reversibility. The contributions contained in this special issue constitute very interesting examples of new approaches and of their possibilities of theoretical generalization. Therefore, the issue itself can be considered as a window on the new Systemics and its challenges.

  11. A Facile Stereoselective Total Synthesis of (R)-Rugulactone

    OpenAIRE

    B Narasimha Reddy; R. P. Singh

    2014-01-01

    An efficient and novel synthesis of (R)-rugulactone has been achieved employing Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation of allyl alcohols followed by selective hydride reduction of epoxy alcohols and olefin cross metathesis reactions.

  12. Trends in Off-Label Use of Second-Generation Antipsychotics in the Medicare Population From 2006 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Julia; Baik, Seo Hyon; Zhang, Yuting

    2016-08-01

    The study evaluated trends in the off-label use of second-generation antipsychotics in the Medicare population, a practice that has been identified as lacking adequate supporting evidence for many indications. Medicare claims data from 2006 to 2012 were used to identify beneficiaries who filled at least one prescription for any second-generation antipsychotic. Any use that was not associated with a medical claim for an approved indication in a given year was classified as off-label use. Rates of off-label use and of diagnoses associated with off-label use were compared over time. Fill counts standardized for 30-day supply and costs were compared by type of use. On the basis of a sample of 490,314 patient-years, the rate of off-label use among beneficiaries prescribed a second-generation antipsychotic declined from 51% to 45%. Fill counts were 16% lower for off-label users compared with on-label users. Off-label users had higher out-of-pocket costs but lower total costs for second-generation antipsychotics. Off-label users most commonly had claims related to dementia, minor depression, anxiety disorders, and other psychosis. The proportion of off-label users without any claims for the most common off-label uses of second-generation antipsychotics declined from 45% in 2006 to 30% in 2012. Off-label use of second-generation antipsychotics has declined, especially among persons without any of the common off-label conditions. The diagnoses accompanying off-label use did not systematically reflect changes in the evidence base for the use of these drugs, suggesting a mismatch between evidence supporting the use of off-label second-generation antipsychotics and prescribing practices.

  13. Second-Generation Drosophila Chemical Tags: Sensitivity, Versatility, and Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Ben; Ng, Julian; Auer, Thomas O; Pasche, Mathias; Benton, Richard; Jefferis, Gregory S X E; Cachero, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Labeling and visualizing cells and subcellular structures within thick tissues, whole organs, and even intact animals is key to studying biological processes. This is particularly true for studies of neural circuits where neurons form submicron synapses but have arbors that may span millimeters in length. Traditionally, labeling is achieved by immunofluorescence; however, diffusion of antibody molecules (>100 kDa) is slow and often results in uneven labeling with very poor penetration into the center of thick specimens; these limitations can be partially addressed by extending staining protocols to over a week (Drosophila brain) and months (mice). Recently, we developed an alternative approach using genetically encoded chemical tags CLIP, SNAP, Halo, and TMP for tissue labeling; this resulted in >100-fold increase in labeling speed in both mice and Drosophila, at the expense of a considerable drop in absolute sensitivity when compared to optimized immunofluorescence staining. We now present a second generation of UAS- and LexA-responsive CLIPf, SNAPf, and Halo chemical labeling reagents for flies. These multimerized tags, with translational enhancers, display up to 64-fold increase in sensitivity over first-generation reagents. In addition, we developed a suite of conditional reporters (4xSNAPf tag and CLIPf-SNAPf-Halo2) that are activated by the DNA recombinase Bxb1. Our new reporters can be used with weak and strong GAL4 and LexA drivers and enable stochastic, intersectional, and multicolor Brainbow labeling. These improvements in sensitivity and experimental versatility, while still retaining the substantial speed advantage that is a signature of chemical labeling, should significantly increase the scope of this technology. Copyright © 2017 Sutcliffe et al.

  14. Search for second generation scalar leptoquarks using the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Jason

    2014-07-24

    Leptoquarks are hypothetical particles that attempt to explain the coincidental similarities between leptons and quarks included in SM. Their exact properties vary between different theoretical models, and there are no strong theoretical constraints on their possible mass values. They can possibly be produced from particle collisions, and there have already been searching efforts at previous collider experiments. Their presence have not yet been observed, and this fact has been translated into lower bound exclusions on their possible mass values. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) being the most recently constructed particle collider with the highest collision energies ever achieved experimentally, provides a new platform to continue the search for Leptoquarks at even higher mass ranges. This thesis describes a search for pair-produced second-generation Leptoquarks using 20.3 fb{sup -1} of data recorded by the ATLAS detector of LHC at √(s) = 8 TeV. Events with two oppositely charged muons and two or more jets in the final state were used. Candidate leptoquark events were selected with the help of four observables: the di-muon invariant mass (M{sub μμ}), the sum of the p{sub T} of the two muons (L{sub T}), the sum of the p{sub T} of the two leading jets (H{sub T}) and the average Leptoquark mass (M{sub LQ}). Monte Carlo simulations of SM background processes have shown to be in good agreement with data, both in the region constructed using selection requirements for candidate leptoquark events and in the designated control regions. Since no significant excess of events was observed in data, a exclusion limit was set as a function of the Leptoquark mass.

  15. Design and development of the second generation Mars Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouni, Ikhlas; Smith, Roy; Taylor, Steven; Harrell, Brock; Crawford, Earnest

    1992-01-01

    The second generation of Mars Habitat is to be utilized as an advanced permanent base for 20 crew members to live on Mars for a period of 6-12 months. It is designed to be a self-contained environment accommodating five main facilities: living, working, service, medical, and a greenhouse. The objective of the design is to create a comfortable, safe, living environment. Hexamars-2 and Lavapolis-2 are two different concepts for the advanced Mars Habitat. The design team assumes there will be an initial habitat located near or on the site from earlier missions that satisfies the requirement for a short-term habitation for the crew to use while constructing Hexamars-2 or Lavapolis-2. Prefabricated structures and materials will be shipped to the site before the long-term crew members arrive. Partial construction and preparation for the long-term habitat will be done by crew members or robotics from a previous mission. The construction of the long-term base will occur in phases. Hexamars-2 consists of six sphere-shaped inflatable modules that will be partially buried below the Martian surface. The construction of each sphere will occur in ten steps. Shape charges will be used to create the crater in which the spherical structure will be placed. The interior core will be unloaded and put into place followed by the exterior structure. The foundation will be filled, the interior bladder will be inflated, floor-to-floor joists connected, and sand pockets filled. Finally, the life support system and interior partitions are put in place. Each sphere consists of three levels of which the lower level will be safe haven. Particular attention is given to structural support, the dominance of internal pressure, the process of construction, and human factors.

  16. Endometrial ablation: first- vs. second-generation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Stefano; Pontis, Alessandro; Nappi, Luigi; Sedda, Federica; Sorrentino, Felice; Litta, Pietro; Haimovich, Sergio; Melis, Gian B

    2016-04-01

    Endometrial ablation is a procedure that surgically destroys (ablates) the lining of the uterus (endometrium). The goal of endometrial ablation is to reduce menstrual flow. In some women, menstrual flow may stop completely. In some cases, endometrial ablation may be an alternative to hysterectomy. There are several techniques used to perform endometrial ablation, including electrical or electrocautery ablation, in which an electric current travels through a wire loop or rollerball is applied to the endometrial lining to cauterize the tissue; hydrothermal ablation, in which heated fluid is pumped into the uterus and destroys the endometrial lining via high temperatures; balloon therapy ablation, in which a balloon at the end of a catheter is inserted into the uterus and filled with fluid, which is then heated to the point that the endometrial tissues are eroded away; radiofrequency ablation in which a triangular mesh electrode is expanded to fill the uterine cavity, at which point the electrode delivers an electrical current and destroys the endometrial lining; cryoablation (freezing), in which a probe uses extremely low temperatures to freeze and destroy the endometrial tissues; and microwave ablation, in which microwave energy is delivered through a slender probe inserted into the uterus and destroys the endometrial lining. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of endometrial ablation performed with first- and second-generation techniques. A literature search in PubMed from January 2000 to September 2015 was performed using the keywords endometrial ablation, menorrhagia, and heavy menstrual bleeding. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials (RCT)/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies written in English from January 2000 to September 2015. There is no evidence that either broad category is more effective than the other in reducing HMB, and there is no evidence that

  17. Multicenter performance evaluation of a second generation cortisol assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeser, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Ju Bae, Yoon; Bruegel, Mathias; Ceglarek, Uta; Fiers, Tom; Gaudl, Alexander; Kurka, Hedwig; Milczynski, Christoph; Prat Knoll, Cristina; Suhr, Anna C; Teupser, Daniel; Zahn, Ingrid; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-05-01

    Untreated disorders of the adrenocortical system, such as Cushing's or Addison's disease, can be fatal, and accurate quantification of a patient's cortisol levels is vital for diagnosis. The objective of this study was to assess the analytical performance of a new fully-automated Elecsys® Cortisol II assay (second generation) to measure cortisol levels in serum and saliva. Four European investigational sites assessed the intermediate precision and reproducibility of the Cortisol II assay (Roche Diagnostics) under routine conditions. Method comparisons of the Cortisol II assay vs. liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the gold standard for cortisol measurement, were performed. Cortisol reference ranges from three US sites were determined using samples from self-reported healthy individuals. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for repeatability, intermediate precision, and reproducibility for serum samples were ≤2.6%, ≤5.8%, and ≤9.5%, respectively, and for saliva were ≤4.4% and ≤10.9%, and ≤11.4%, respectively. Agreement between the Cortisol II assay and LC-MS/MS in serum samples was close, with a slope of 1.02 and an intercept of 4.473 nmol/L. Reference range samples were collected from healthy individuals (n=300) and serum morning cortisol concentrations (5-95th percentile) were 166.1-507 nmol/L and afternoon concentrations were 73.8-291 nmol/L. Morning, afternoon, and midnight saliva concentrations (95th percentile) were 20.3, 6.94, and 7.56 nmol/L, respectively. The Cortisol II assay had good precision over the entire measuring range and had excellent agreement with LC-MS/MS. This test was found suitable for routine diagnostic application and will be valuable for the diagnosis of adrenocortical diseases.

  18. Designing for second generation value - future proofing constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Søren Munch; Wandahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Lifecycle consideration in terms of environmental impact and total cost of buildings attract increased focus in construction. Here, total cost and environmental impact both involves: erection, operation, maintenance, demolition, and disposal of the building. The mindset of Lean Construction...

  19. Designing for second generation value – Future proofing construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Søren; Wandahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Lifecycle consideration in terms of environmental impact and total cost of buildings attract increased focus in construction. Here total cost and environmental impact both involves: erection, operation, maintenance, demolition, and disposal of the building. The mindset of Lean Construction...

  20. Total synthesis of epoxyquinols A, B, and C and epoxytwinol A and the reactivity of a 2H-pyran derivative as the diene component in the Diels-Alder reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Mitsuru; Imai, Hiroki; Mukaida, Makoto; Sakai, Ken; Kakeya, Hideaki; Osada, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yujiro

    2005-01-07

    Full details of two versions of the total synthesis of epoxyquinols A, B, and C and epoxytwinol A (RKB-3564D) are described. In the first-generation synthesis, the HfCl(4)-mediated diastereoselective Diels-Alder reaction of furan with Corey's chiral auxiliary has been developed. In the second-generation synthesis, a chromatography-free preparation of an iodolactone, by using acryloyl chloride as the dienophile in the Diels-Alder reaction of furan, and the lipase-mediated kinetic resolution of a cyclohexenol derivative have been developed. This second-generation synthesis is suitable for large-scale preparation. A biomimetic cascade reaction involving oxidation, 6pi-electrocyclization, and then Diels-Alder dimerization is the key reaction in the formation of the complex heptacyclic structure of epoxyquinols A, B, and C. Epoxytwinol A is synthesized by the cascade reaction composed of oxidation, 6pi-electrocyclization, and formal [4 + 4] cycloaddition reactions. A 2H-pyran, generated by oxidation/6pi-electrocyclization, acts as a good diene, reacting with several dienophiles to afford polycyclic compounds in one step. An azapentacyclic compound is synthesized by a similar cascade reaction composed of the four successive steps: oxidation, imine formation, 6pi-azaelectrocyclization, and Diels-Alder dimerization.

  1. Total synthesis of starfish saponin goniopectenoside B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guozhi; Yu, Biao

    2013-06-10

    Star quality: Goniopectenoside B, a minor asterosaponin from starfish Goniopecten demonstrans with antifouling activity, has been synthesized in a convergent 21 steps and in 4.3 % overall yield starting from adrenosterone. This represents the first synthesis of a complex asterosaponin, which are ubiquitous and characteristic in starfish as defense chemicals (see figure). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. First total synthesis of a guanidine alkaloid Nitensidine D using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Crivos M, Martinez M R, Pochettino M L, Remorini C,. Sy A and Teves L 2007 J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 3 2 (1). 10. Bolzani V D S, Gunatilaka A A L and Kingston ... (a) Miller CE and Bischoff JJ 1986 Synthesis 777; (b). Meryanoff C A, Stanzione R C, Plampin J N and Mills. J E 1986 J. Org. Chem. 51 1882. 29. Walter W 1955 ...

  3. Second-generation antipsychotics for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komossa, Katja; Depping, Anna M; Meyer, Magdalena; Kissling, Werner; Leucht, Stefan

    2010-12-08

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder which has been shown to affect 2 to 3.5% of people during their lifetimes. Inadequate response occurs in 40% to 60% of people that are prescribed first line pharmaceutical treatments (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)). To date not much is known about the efficacy and adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in people suffering from OCD. To evaluate the effects of SGAs (monotherapy or add on) compared with placebo or other forms of pharmaceutical treatment for people with OCD. The Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group's controlled trial registers (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) were searched up to 21 July 2010. The author team ran complementary searches on ClinicalTrials.gov and contacted key authors and drug companies. We included double-blind randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral SGAs (monotherapy or add on) in adults with other forms of pharmaceutical treatment or placebo in people with primary OCD. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated the odds ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. We included 11 RCTs with 396 participants on three SGAs. All trials investigated the effects of adding these SGAs to antidepressants (usually SSRIs). The duration of all trials was less than six months. Only 13% of the participants left the trials early. Most trials were limited in terms of quality aspects.Two trials examined olanzapine and found no difference in the primary outcome (response to treatment) and most other efficacy-related outcomes but it was associated with more weight gain than monotherapy with antidepressants.Quetiapine combined with antidepressants was also not any more efficacious than placebo combined with antidepressants in terms

  4. SECOND GENERATION MOSAIC:A NOVEL MECHANISM BASED ON REFERENCE DATABASE FOR MAP UPDATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A totally new automatic workflow mechanism, named Second generation Mosaic module, based on the well-known Pixel Factory system, will be introduced here, which enables existing digital orthoimages and mosaics to be quickly updated. The process extracts all required parameters from the reference database to be able to perform automatic bundle adjustment and radiometric adaptation.In this paper, two examples for both satellite data and aerial data processed based on this mechanism will be presented here and discussed. Finally, the cost reduction will also be analysed according to the real mapping updating project.In a final statement, this paper will present an integrated solution named second generation mosaic module based on the well-known Pixel Factory system which is completely dedicated to fast processing of photogrammetric products Thanks to this integrated hardware and software solution, it is even possible to manage large data volume quickly in order to have precise map updating information as soon as possible after acquisition.

  5. Total synthesis and allelopathic activity of cytosporones A-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamberlam, Charles E.M.; Meza, Alisson; Lima, Denis P. de; Beatriz, Adilson [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Leite, Carla Braga; Marques, Maria Rita [Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The search for efficient, environmentally friendly herbicides has been the focus of numerous studies on the organic synthesis of compounds isolated from natural sources. Cytosporones, which are phenolic lipids isolated from fungi, exhibit noteworthy biological properties. This paper reports the preparation of cytosporones A-C from the same starting material through a short synthetic route, with good yields. All compounds were tested for allelopathic activity on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) seeds. Cytosporone A and its methylated precursor showed remarkable allelopathic activity, inhibiting seed germination and plantule growth. (author)

  6. Total Synthesis of Kealiinines A-C, Kealiiquinone, 2-Deoxy-2-aminokealiiquinone and Study Towards Total Synthesis of Spirocalcaridines A-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayanta Kumar

    Our group is mainly interested in the total synthesis of imidazole-containing alkaloids along with other kinds of alkaloids. A new family of imidazole alkaloids, the Leucetta alkaloids, is a group of 60 or so 2-aminoimidazole natural products found in marine sponges, which have received substantial attention recently because of their challenging structures and strong biological activities. Over the past few years, our laboratory has developed several synthetic methods for the total synthesis of 2-aminoimidazole alkaloids using site selective functionalization of polyhaloimidazoles. By using the above synthetic strategy, the development of high yielding and protecting group-free total syntheses of the reported structures of the Leucetta alkaloids kealiinine A-C has been accomplished. In addition to the challenging syntheses of these, our data unequivocally prove that the reported structures of those natural products did not match synthetic material due to discrepancies in the interpretation of spectroscopic data during initial isolation and characterization. Finally, the correct structure assignment was achieved with the help of extensive experimentation using 2D NMR spectroscopy (HMBC, HSQC and ROESY) and X-ray crystallography of these synthetic natural products. A second set of targets was accessed using a biosynthetic guided strategy according to which, kealiinine C would serve as a precursor to kealiiquinone and 2-deoxy-2-aminokealiiquinone. The synthesis of both alkaloids was completed from a late stage intermediate from the kealiinine C synthesis by oxidation. Although the first total synthesis of kealiiquinone was accomplished by Ohta et al. in 1995, the current method was protecting group-free and required only 6 steps in comparison to 12 steps by the Japanese group. The first total synthesis of the 2-amino congener was also accomplished. After successful syntheses of those natural products, in collaboration with Dr. Mandal's group, the cytotoxicity of these

  7. Designing for second generation value – Future proofing construction

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhard, Søren; Wandahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Lifecycle consideration in terms of environmental impact and total cost of buildings attract increased focus in construction. Here total cost and environmental impact both involves: erection, operation, maintenance, demolition, and disposal of the building. The mindset of Lean Construction is focusing on eliminating waste and adding costumer value to both the design and build phases. But in this aspect waste and value is only viewed in the first generation owner perspective with fixt usage. T...

  8. Total synthesis, structure, and oral absorption of a thiazole cyclic peptide, sanguinamide A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel S; Hoang, Huy N; Lohman, Rink-Jan

    2012-01-01

    The first total synthesis and three-dimensional solution structure are reported for sanguinamide A, a thiazole-containing cyclic peptide from the sea slug H. sanguineus. Solution phase fragment synthesis, solid phase fragment assembly, and solution macrocyclization were combined to give (1) in 10...

  9. Total synthesis and biological evaluation of amphidinolide V and analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstner, Alois; Flügge, Susanne; Larionov, Oleg; Takahashi, Yohei; Kubota, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2009-01-01

    The awesome power of metathesis is illustrated by a concise synthesis of the extremely scarce marine natural product amphidinolide V, which hinges on a sequence of ring-closing alkyne metathesis followed by intermolecular enyne metathesis with ethylene (see scheme). As a complete set of conceivable stereoisomers was prepared, the constitution and absolute configuration of this macrolide could be established and first insights into structure-activity relationships governing its cytotoxicity were obtained.A sequence of ring-closing alkyne metathesis followed by an intermolecular enyne metathesis of the resulting cycloalkyne with ethene was used to forge the macrocyclic skeleton and to set the vicinal exo-methylene branches characteristic for the cytotoxic marine natural product amphidinolide V (1). Comparison of the synthetic material with an authentic sample of this extremely scarce metabolite isolated from a dinoflagellate of the Amphidinium sp. eliminated any doubts about its structure and allowed the absolute configuration of amphidinolide V to be determined as 8R,9S,10S,13R. Moreover, the flexibility inherent to the underlying synthesis blueprint also opened access to a comprehensive set of diastereomers of 1 as well as to synthetic analogues differing from the natural lead in the lipophilic chains appended to the macrocyclic core. This set of designed analogues gave first insights into structure-activity relationships, which revealed that the stereostructure of the macrolactone is a highly critical parameter, whereas the examined alterations of the side chain did not diminish the cytotoxicity of the compounds to any notable extent.

  10. Total synthesis of (-)-brevenal: a concise synthetic entry to the pentacyclic polyether core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebine, Makoto; Fuwa, Haruhiko; Sasaki, Makoto

    2008-06-05

    Total synthesis of (-)-brevenal, a novel marine polycyclic ether natural product, is described. Highly efficient and scalable entries to the AB-ring exo-olefin and the DE-ring enol phosphate and a rapid construction of the C-ring by means of our Suzuki-Miyaura coupling-based strategy realized a concise synthesis of the pentacyclic skeleton of (-)-brevenal. The present synthesis is considerably more efficient than our previous synthesis (longest linear sequence: 50 steps from 2-deoxy-d-ribose).

  11. Total Synthesis of Enantiopure (+)-γ -Lycorane Using Highly Efficient Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapsal, Bruno D.; Ojima, Iwao

    2008-01-01

    Highly efficient short total synthesis of γ -lycorane (>99% ee, 41% overall yield) was achieved by using the asymmetric allylic alkylation in the key step catalyzed by palladium complexes with novel chiral biphenol-based monodentate phosphoramidite ligands. PMID:16562900

  12. Total Synthesis of Enantiopure (+)-γ -Lycorane Using Highly Efficient Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation

    OpenAIRE

    Chapsal, Bruno D.; OJIMA, IWAO

    2006-01-01

    Highly efficient short total synthesis of γ -lycorane (>99% ee, 41% overall yield) was achieved by using the asymmetric allylic alkylation in the key step catalyzed by palladium complexes with novel chiral biphenol-based monodentate phosphoramidite ligands.

  13. A bibliometric study of scientific research conducted on second-generation antipsychotic drugs in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Sim, Kang; Shen, Winston Wu; Huelves, Lorena; Moreno, Raquel; Molina, Juan de Dios; Rubio, Gabriel; Noriega, Concha; Ángel Miguel, Pérez-Nieto; Álamo, Cecilio

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A bibliometric study was carried out to ascertain the volume and impact of scientific literature published on second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in Singapore from 1997 to 2011. METHODS A search of the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases was performed to identify articles originating from Singapore that included the descriptors ‘atypic* antipsychotic*’, ‘second-generation antipsychotic*’, ‘clozapine’, ‘risperidone’, ‘olanzapine’, ‘ziprasidone’, ‘quetiapine’, ‘sertindole’, ‘aripiprazole’, ‘paliperidone’, ‘amisulpride’, ‘zotepine’, ‘asenapine’, ‘iloperidone’, ‘lurasidone’, ‘perospirone’ and ‘blonanserin’ in the article titles. Certain bibliometric indicators of production and dispersion (e.g. Price's Law on the increase of scientific literature, and Bradford's Law) were applied, and the participation index of various countries was calculated. The bibliometric data was also correlated with some social and health data from Singapore, such as the total per capita expenditure on health and gross domestic expenditure on research and development. RESULTS From 1997 to 2011, a total of 51 articles on SGAs in Singapore were published. Our results suggested non-fulfilment of Price's Law (r = 0.0648 after exponential adjustment vs. r = 0.2140 after linear adjustment). The most widely studied drugs were clozapine (21 articles), risperidone (16 articles) and olanzapine (8 articles). Division into Bradford zones yielded a nucleus occupied by the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (6 articles) and the Singapore Medical Journal (4 articles). The analysed material was published in a total of 30 journals, with the majority from six journals. Four of these six journals have an impact factor greater than 2. CONCLUSION Publications on SGAs in Singapore are still too few to confirm an exponential growth of scientific literature. PMID:24452974

  14. Migration Background and School Tracking: Is there a Double Disadvantage for Second-Generation Immigrants?

    OpenAIRE

    Lüdemann, Elke; Schwerdt, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Research on educational disadvantages of second-generation immigrants largely focuses on differences in student achievement tests. Exploiting data from the German PIRLS Extension, we provide evidence that second-generation immigrants face an additional disadvantage when tracked into different types of secondary school. We find that second-generation immigrants are less likely to receive a teacher recommendation for a higher school track. This difference cannot be attributed to differences in ...

  15. Engineering model activity of the Second-generation Global Imager(SGLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Haruhisa; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2010-10-01

    The Second-generation Global Imager (SGLI) on the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) is a multi-band optical imaging radiometer in the wavelength range from near-UV to thermal infrared. SGLI will provide high accuracy measurements of Ocean, Atmosphere, Land and Cryosphere. SGLI project is under Engineering Model (EM) phase to design and verify the overall sensor system prior to the Proto Flight Model (PFM) manufacturing. Based on previous Bread Board Model (BBM) results[1], the Scanning Radiometer Unit (SRU) and the Electronical Unit (ELU) are under development. The total sensor system verification is planned including not only optical test but also environmental test, such as rocket vibration environment and thermal vacuum environment, so on. This paper describes the current status of the SGLI instrument development.

  16. Total Synthesis and Pharmacological Investigation of Cordyheptapeptide A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation reports the synthesis of a phenylalanine-rich N-methylated cyclopeptide, cordyheptapeptide A (8, previously isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps sp. BCC 1788, accomplished through the coupling of N-methylated tetrapeptide and tripeptide fragments followed by cyclization of the linear heptapeptide unit. Structure elucidation of the newly synthesized cyclopolypeptide was performed by means of FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS, and screened for its antibacterial, antidermatophytic, and cytotoxic potential. According to the antimicrobial activity results, the newly synthesized N-Methylated cyclopeptide exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae and antifungal activity against dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii at a concentration of 6 μg/mL, in comparison to the reference drugs, gatifloxacin and griseofulvin. In addition, cyclopolypeptide 8 displayed suitable levels of cytotoxicity against Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA and Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma (EAC cell lines.

  17. Total synthesis and biological evaluation of grassypeptolide A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Yuqing; Wang, Zhuo; Xing, Xiangyou; Maguire, Anita R; Luesch, Hendrik; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Zhengshuang; Ye, Tao

    2013-05-17

    Herein, we describe in full our investigations into the synthesis of grassypeptolide A (1) in 17 linear steps with an overall yield of 11.3 %. In particular, this work features the late-stage introduction of sensitive bis(thiazoline) heterocycles and 31-membered macrocyclization conducted at the sterically congested secondary amide site in superb conversion (72 % yield). Biological evaluation indicated that grassypeptolide A significantly inhibited cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. It induced cancer cell apoptosis, which was associated with increased cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and decreased expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xL. Furthermore, grassypeptolide A also caused cell cycle redistribution by increasing cells in the G1 phase and decreasing cells in the S and G2 phases. In addition, cell cycle arrest was correlated with downregulation of cyclin D and upregulation of p27 and p21. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Resonant second generation slepton production at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autermann, Christian Tobias [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2006-12-01

    A search for R-parity violating supersymmetry with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p$\\bar{p}$-collider is presented. Assuming a non-zero LQ$\\bar{d}$ coupling λ$'\\atop{2jk}$ leads to final state with two muons and jets. A total integrated luminosity of 375 pb-1 collected between April 2002 and August 2004 is utilized. The observed number of events is in agreement with the Standard Model expectation, and limits on Rp supersymmetry are derived.

  19. Assessing uncertainties in a second-generation dynamic vegetation model caused by ecological scale limitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosie Fisher; Nate McDowell; Drew Purves; Paul Moorcroft; Stephen Sitch; Peter Cox; Chris Huntingford; Patrick Meir; F. Ian Woodward

    2010-01-01

    Second-generation Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) have recently been developed that explicitly represent the ecological dynamics of disturbance, vertical competition for light, and succession...

  20. Biomechanical Comparison of a First- and a Second-Generation All-Soft Suture Glenoid Anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John; Chiarappa, Frank; Haskel, Jonathan; Rice, Justin; Hyatt, Adam; Monica, James; Dhawan, Aman

    2017-07-01

    All-soft tissue suture anchors provide advantages of decreased removal of bone and decreased glenoid volume occupied compared with traditional tap or screw-in suture anchors. Previous published data have led to biomechanical concerns with the use of first-generation all-soft suture anchors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the load to 2-mm displacement and ultimate load to failure of a second-generation all-soft suture anchor, compared with a first-generation anchor and a traditional PEEK (polyether ether ketone) anchor. The null hypothesis was that the newer second-generation anchor will demonstrate no difference in loads to 2-mm displacement after cycling compared with first-generation all-soft suture anchors. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty human cadaveric glenoids were utilized to create 97 total suture anchor sites, and 1 of 3 anchors were randomized and placed into each site: (1) first-generation all-soft suture anchor (Juggerknot; Biomet), (2) second-generation all-soft suture anchor (Suturefix; Smith & Nephew), and (3) a control PEEK anchor (Bioraptor; Smith & Nephew). After initial cyclic loading, load to 2 mm of displacement and ultimate load to failure were measured for each anchor. After cyclic loading, the load to 2-mm displacement was significantly less in first-generation anchors compared with controls (P anchors compared with controls (P suture anchors (P > .05). The newer generation all-soft suture anchors with a theoretically more rigid construct and deployment configuration demonstrate biomechanical characteristics (specifically, with load to 2-mm displacement after cyclic loading) that are improved over first-generation all-soft suture anchors and similar to a traditional solid tap-in anchor. The configuration of these newer generation all-soft suture anchors appears to mitigate the biomechanical concerns of decreased load to failure with first-generation all-soft tissue suture anchors. The theoretical advantages of all-soft anchors

  1. Perennial grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for second-generation bioethanol production in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Scordia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the suitability of three perennial, herbaceous, lignocellulosic grasses (Arundo donax, Saccharum spontaneous spp. aegyptiacum and Miscanthus x giganteus for the production of second-generation bioethanol in semi-arid Mediterranean environment was studied. Crops were established in spring 2002, supplying irrigation and nitrogen fertilization up to 2004/2005 growing season. Subsequently, crops were grown without any agronomic input and harvested annually. Data reported in this paper refers to 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 growing seasons. Aboveground dry matter (DM yield was higher in Arundo (35.4±2.1 Mg ha–1 in 2009 and 32.2±1.9 Mg ha–1 in 2010 harvest than in Saccharum (27.3±2.0 and 23.9±1.9 Mg ha–1, respectively and Miscanthus (19.6±2.8 and 17.2±1.6 Mg ha–1, respectively. Structural polysaccharides of the raw material were higher in Miscanthus (63.4% w/w followed by Saccharum (61.5% w/w and Arundo (57.6% w/w. The same trend was identified for the cellulose content (41.0%, 36.8% and 34.6%, respectively. The highest values in the total hemicellulose complex were observed in Saccharum (24.7%, followed by Arundo (23.1% and Miscanthus (22.4%. The composition of structural polysaccharides leads to a higher theoretical ethanol yield (TEY from one dry ton of Miscanthus feedstock (kg DM Mg–1, followed by Saccharum and Arundo. On the other hand, the TEY per unit surface (Mg ha–1 was greater in Arundo than in Saccharum and Miscanthus. When compared to other lignocellulosic sources used in the second-generation bioethanol technology, such as agricultural residues, woody species and other herbaceous perennial crops, Arundo, Saccharum and Miscanthus showed a great potential in terms of TEY ha–1. Given the high levels of biomass yield and composition of structural polysaccharides, the three species might be introduced into the Mediterranean cropping systems to supply lignocellulosic biomass for second-generation industrial plants

  2. Differences in the labour market entry of second-generation immigrants and ethnic Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kromann, Lene

    2014-01-01

    to their ethnic Danish twins according to parental characteristics and informal network quality. We find that second-generation immigrants with a high-school or primary school education, in particular females, perform as well or better than their ethnic counterparts. Second generation immigrants with vocational...

  3. The Kids Are (Mostly) Alright: Second-Generation Assimilation--Comments on Haller, Portes and Lynch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Richard; Kasinitz, Philip; Waters, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the authors' comments on "Dreams Fulfilled, Dreams Shattered: Determinants of Segmented Assimilation in the Second Generation" by William Haller, Alejandro Portes and Scott M. Lynch. The overall well-being and integration of second-generation immigrant youth constitute an important topic for researchers and policy makers, one…

  4. The interaction between EU biofuel policy and first- and second-generation biodiesel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutesteijn, C.; Drabik, D.; Venus, T.J.

    2017-01-01

    We build a tractable partial equilibrium model to study the interactions between the EU biofuel policies (mandate and double-counting of second-generation biofuels) and first- and second-generation biodiesel production. We find that increasing the biodiesel mandate results in a higher share of

  5. Constructing Molecular Complexity and Diversity: Total Synthesis of Natural Products of Biological and Medicinal Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Hale, Christopher R. H.; Nilewski, Christian; Ioannidou, Heraklidia A.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of organic synthesis and the understanding of the molecule as they occurred in the nineteenth century and were refined in the twentieth century constitute two of the most profound scientific developments of all time. These discoveries set in motion a revolution that shaped the landscape of the molecular sciences and changed the world. Organic synthesis played a major role in this revolution through its ability to construct the molecules of the living world and others like them whose primary element is carbon. Although the early beginnings of organic synthesis came about serendipitously, organic chemists quickly recognized its potential and moved decisively to advance and exploit it in myriad ways for the benefit of mankind. Indeed, from the early days of the synthesis of urea and the construction of the first carbon-carbon bond, the art of organic synthesis improved to impressively high levels of sophistication. Through its practice, today chemists can synthesize organic molecules—natural and designed—of all types of structural motifs and for all intents and purposes. The endeavor of constructing natural products—the organic molecules of nature—is justly called both a creative art and an exact science. Often called simply total synthesis, the replication of nature’s molecules in the laboratory reflects and symbolizes the state of the art of synthesis in general. In the last few decades a surge in total synthesis endeavors around the world led to a remarkable collection of achievements that covers a wide ranging landscape of molecular complexity and diversity. In this article, we present highlights of some of our contributions in the field of total synthesis of natural products of biological and medicinal importance. For perspective, we also provide a listing of selected examples of additional natural products synthesized in other laboratories around the world over the last few years. PMID:22743704

  6. Integrated versus stand-alone second generation ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse and trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marina O S; Junqueira, Tassia L; Cavalett, Otávio; Cunha, Marcelo P; Jesus, Charles D F; Rossell, Carlos E V; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Bonomi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is often conceived considering independent, stand-alone production plants; in the Brazilian scenario, where part of the potential feedstock (sugarcane bagasse) for second generation ethanol production is already available at conventional first generation production plants, an integrated first and second generation production process seems to be the most obvious option. In this study stand-alone second generation ethanol production from surplus sugarcane bagasse and trash is compared with conventional first generation ethanol production from sugarcane and with integrated first and second generation; simulations were developed to represent the different technological scenarios, which provided data for economic and environmental analysis. Results show that the integrated first and second generation ethanol production process from sugarcane leads to better economic results when compared with the stand-alone plant, especially when advanced hydrolysis technologies and pentoses fermentation are included. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Total Synthesis of Ionic Liquid Systems for Dissolution of Lunar Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Robert J.; Karr, Laurel J.; Paley, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    For purposes of Space Resource Utilization, work in the total synthesis of a new ionic liquid system for the extraction of oxygen and metals from lunar soil is studied and described. Reactions were carried out according to procedures found in the chemical literature, analyzed via Thin-Layer Chromatography and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and purified via vacuum distillation and rotary evaporation. Upon final analysis via 1H NMR, it was found that while the intermediates of the synthesis had been achieved, unexpected side products were also present. The mechanisms and constraints of the synthesis are described as well as the final results of the project and recommendations for continued study

  8. Stereoselective total synthesis of the potent anti-asthmatic compound CMI-977 (LDP-977)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luiz Carlos; Farina, Lui Strambi; Ferreira, Marco Antonio Barbosa, E-mail: ldias@iqm.unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-02-15

    A short and efficient stereoselective total synthesis of CMI-977 (LDP-977), a potent and orally active anti-asthmatic compound, was developed. The key steps involve a highly diastereoselective Mukaiyama oxidative cyclization, which provides the trans-THF (tetrahydrofuran) unit and a Seyferth-Gilbert homologation to construct the triple bond in the target molecule. The synthesis of the key chiral building block was performed using Jacobsen hydrolytic kinetic resolution. (author)

  9. Total synthesis of (-)-tubingensin B enabled by the strategic use of an aryne cyclization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsello, Michael A.; Kim, Junyong; Garg, Neil K.

    2017-10-01

    Tubingensin B is an indole diterpenoid that bears a daunting chemical structure featuring a disubstituted carbazole unit, five stereogenic centres—three of which are quaternary—and a decorated [3.2.2]-bridged bicycle. We describe our synthetic design toward a concise and enantiospecific total synthesis of tubingensin B, which hinges on the strategic use of a transient aryne intermediate. Although initial studies led to unexpected reaction outcomes, we ultimately implemented a sequence of carbazolyne cyclization followed by Rh-catalysed fragmentation to install the seven-membered ring and vicinal quaternary stereocentres of the natural product. Coupled with a late-stage radical cyclization to construct the [3.2.2]-bridged bicycle, these efforts have enabled the total synthesis of tubingensin B. The design and evolution of our succinct total synthesis underscores the utility of long-avoided aryne intermediates for the introduction of structural motifs that have conventionally been viewed as challenging.

  10. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisentraut, A.

    2010-02-15

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  11. Chemistry of Renieramycins. Part 14: Total Synthesis of Renieramycin I and Practical Synthesis of Cribrostatin 4 (Renieramycin H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Yokoya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The first total synthesis of (±-renieramycin I, which was isolated from the Indian bright blue sponge Haliclona cribricutis, is described. The key step is the selenium oxide oxidation of pentacyclic bis-p-quinone derivative (3 stereo- and regioselectively. We also report a large-scale synthesis of cribrostatin 4 (renieramycin H via the C3-C4 double bond formation in an early stage based on the Avendaño’s protocol, from readily available 1-acetyl-3-(3-methyl-2,4,5-trimethylphenylmethyl-piperazine-2,5-dione (8 in 18 steps (8.3% overall yield. The synthesis provides unambiguous evidence supporting the original structure of renieramycin I.

  12. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hardip R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing genome sequence assembly and gene ordering in this species. Results A second-generation anchored tammar wallaby genetic linkage map has been constructed based on a total of 148 loci. The linkage map contains the original 64 loci included in the first-generation map, plus an additional 84 microsatellite loci that were chosen specifically to increase coverage and assist with the anchoring and orientation of linkage groups to chromosomes. These additional loci were derived from (a sequenced BAC clones that had been previously mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, (b End sequence from BACs subsequently FISH-mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes, and (c tammar wallaby genes orthologous to opossum genes predicted to fill gaps in the tammar wallaby linkage map as well as three X-linked markers from a published study. Based on these 148 loci, eight linkage groups were formed. These linkage groups were assigned (via FISH-mapped markers to all seven autosomes and the X chromosome. The sex-pooled map size is 1402.4 cM, which is estimated to provide 82.6% total coverage of the genome, with an average interval distance of 10.9 cM between adjacent markers. The overall ratio of female/male map length is 0.84, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.78 obtained for the first-generation map. Conclusions Construction of this second-generation genetic linkage map is a significant step towards complete coverage of the tammar wallaby

  13. Radiographic fit and fill analysis of a new second-generation proximally coated cementless stem compared to its predicate design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Kimona; Pivec, Robert; Wuestemann, Thies; Tatevossian, Tiffany; Nevelos, Jim; Mont, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare in vivo fit and fill analysis of a new second-generation proximally coated cementless stem compared to its predicate design. This prospective trial of 100 total hip arthroplasties compared specific radiographic "Fit and Fill" parameters between the two designs. Fit type was assessed by comparing the type of canal fill. Post-operative fill parameters such as mean stem-to-canal ratios and mean minimum and maximum gaps between the stems to the cortical bone in different sections and areas were compared. A significantly higher proportion of the second-generation stems had Type I fit (82% vs. 54%), had better stem to canal fill ratio in the middle (90.6% vs. 85.3%) and distal sections (88.1% vs. 78.6%) compared to the older design. The new second-generation stem design had a significantly better canal fit and distal canal fill in the medial and lateral portions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. First- versus second-generation electronic cigarettes: predictors of choice and effects on urge to smoke and withdrawal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Lynne; Kimber, Catherine; Puwanesarasa, Yasothani; Soar, Kirstie

    2015-04-01

    To (1) estimate predictors of first- versus second-generation electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) choice; and (2) determine whether a second-generation device was (i) superior for reducing urge to smoke and withdrawal symptoms (WS) and (ii) associated with enhanced positive subjective effects. Mixed-effects experimental design. Phase 1: reason for e-cigarette choice was assessed via questionnaire. Phase 2: participants were allocated randomly to first- or second-generation e-cigarette condition. Urge to smoke and WS were measured before and 10 minutes after taking 10 e-cigarette puffs. University of East London, UK. A total of 97 smokers (mean age 26; standard deviation 8.7; 54% female). Single-item urge to smoke scale to assess craving and the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale (MPSS) to assess WS. Subjective effects included: satisfaction, hit, 'felt like smoking' and 'would use to stop smoking' (yes versus no response). Equal numbers chose each device, but none of the predictor variables (gender, age, tobacco dependence, previous e-cigarette use) accounted for choice. Only baseline urge to smoke/WS predicted urge to smoke/WS 10 minutes after use (B =0.38; P Addiction.

  15. Enzalutamide as a second generation antiandrogen for treatment of advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenas J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Julius Semenas,1 Nishtman Dizeyi,2 Jenny Liao Persson1 1Division of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre, Malmö, Sweden; 2Division of Urological Research, Department of Clinical Science, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre, Malmö, Sweden Abstract: Prostate cancer (PCa is the most common malignancy, and the third leading cancer-related cause of death among men of the Western world. Upon PCa progression into metastatic disease, androgen deprivation therapy is applied as the first-line treatment, and has been shown to be effective in most patients, leading to a decrease in serum prostate-specific antigen and relief of disease-related symptoms. However, advanced PCa almost inevitably progresses to a castration-resistant state, and is currently regarded as incurable. The large body of evidence indicates that PCa cells remain dependent on androgen receptor (AR signaling even in an androgen-deprived environment. As such, development of drugs that target AR and AR signaling pathways have become one of the major milestones in treatment of castration-resistant PCa (CRPC. Nevertheless, currently available therapies that target AR signaling are still regarded as palliative and more potent therapies are in great need. Over the past few years, a wide range of novel therapies has entered clinical trial for treatment of CRPC, including androgen synthesis inhibitors (abiraterone acetate, chemotherapeutic agents (docetaxel and cabazitaxel, and immunotherapies (sipuleucel-T. In this context, enzalutamide (previously referred to as MDV3100 is a novel second generation antiandrogen that has been demonstrated to significantly improve survival in men with metastatic CRPC in several clinical trials. In this paper we summarize recently completed and ongoing clinical trials of enzalutamide, and briefly discuss the efficacy of the novel antiandrogen therapy and its limitations for treatment of

  16. The second generation biofuels from the biomass; Les biocarburants de deuxieme generation issus de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The author takes stock on the second generation biofuels in the world, the recent technologies, their advantages, the research programs and the economical and environmental impacts of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  17. GPM GROUND VALIDATION AIRBORNE SECOND GENERATION PRECIPITATION RADAR (APR-2) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2) is a dual-frequency (13 GHz and 35 GHz), Doppler, dual-polarization radar system. It has a downward...

  18. Sugar cane bagasse as feedstock for second generation ethanol production. Part II: Hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Betancur, Gabriel J. Vargas; Pereira Jr., Nei

    2011-01-01

    .... This lignocellulosic material is a potential source for second-generation ethanol production; however a pretreatment stage is essential, which aims at removing the hemicellulose component by disorganizing the lignocellulosic complex...

  19. Trust of second-generation immigrants: intergenerational transmission or cultural assimilation?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moschion, Julie; Tabasso, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    .... Focusing on second generation immigrants in Australia and the United States, we exploit the variation in the home country and in the host country to separate the effect of cultural transmission...

  20. Selective bromochlorination of a homoallylic alcohol for the total synthesis of (−-anverene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick J. Seidl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The scope of a recently reported method for the catalytic enantioselective bromochlorination of allylic alcohols is expanded to include a specific homoallylic alcohol. Critical factors for optimization of this reaction are highlighted. The utility of the product bromochloride is demonstrated by the first total synthesis of an antibacterial polyhalogenated monoterpene, (−-anverene.

  1. Stereoselective total synthesis of some insect pheromones: (±-serricornine and (±-invictolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Pilli

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient (12 steps, 12% overallyield and stereoselective total synthesis of (±-serricornine (1 the sex pheromone of the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricornine F is described. The preparation of intermediate 5, which encompasses the proper relative configuration of three contiguous chiral centers of (±-invictolide, (3, is discussed.

  2. Total synthesis of the sesquiterpene (+/-)-illudin C via an intramolecular nitrile oxide cycloaddition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungst, R A; Chan, C; Funk, R L

    2001-08-09

    [reaction: see text] A convergent total synthesis of illudin C is described. The tricyclic ring system of the natural product was quickly assembled from cyclopropane and cyclopentene precursors via a novel oxime dianion coupling reaction and a subsequent intramolecular nitrile oxide-olefin cycloaddition.

  3. Total synthesis of (−-epimyrtine by a gold-catalyzed hydroamination approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Huyen Trinh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to the total synthesis of (−-epimyrtine has been developed from D-alanine. The key step to access the enantiopure pyridone intermediate was achieved by a gold-mediated cyclization. Finally, various transformations afforded the natural product in a few steps and good overall yield.

  4. First Total Synthesis of an Analogue of (±)-Hypargenin B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    First total synthesis of (±)-hypargenin B methyl ether 2 was accomplished via a  strategy of AC→ABC, in which CrO3/H2O/NaOAc/HOAc system was utilized for introducing  7-keto group in order to avoid dehydration of benzyl tertiary alcohol.

  5. Total Synthesis and Complete Stereostructure of a Marine Macrolide Glycoside, (-)-Lyngbyaloside B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuwa, Haruhiko; Yamagata, Naoya; Okuaki, Yuta; Ogata, Yuya; Saito, Asami; Sasaki, Makoto

    2016-05-10

    We have described in detail the total synthesis of both the proposed and correct structures of (-)-lyngbyaloside B, which facilitated the elucidation of the complete stereostructure of this natural product. Our study began with the total synthesis of 13-demethyllyngbyaloside B, in which an esterification/ring-closing metathesis (RCM) strategy was successfully used for the efficient construction of the macrocycle. We also established reliable methods for the introduction of the conjugated diene side chain and the l-rhamnose residue onto the macrocyclic framework. However, the esterification/RCM strategy proved ineffective for the parent natural product because of the difficulties in acylating the sterically encumbered C-13 tertiary alcohol; macrolactionization of a seco-acid was also extensively investigated under various conditions without success. We finally completed the total synthesis of the proposed structure of (-)-lyngbyaloside B by means of a macrolactonization that involves an acyl ketene as the reactive species. However, the NMR spectroscopic data of our synthetic material did not match those of the authentic material, which indicated that the proposed structure must be re-examined. Inspection of the NMR spectroscopic data of the natural product and molecular mechanics calculations led us to postulate that the configuration of the C-10, C-11, and C-13 stereogenic centers had been incorrectly assigned in the proposed structure. Finally, our revised structure of (-)-lyngbyaloside B was unambiguously verified through total synthesis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Stereoselective total synthesis of Oxylipin from open chain gluco-configured building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkar, Santosh Ramdas; Aidhen, Indrapal Singh

    2017-04-18

    Total synthesis of naturally occurring Oxylipin has been achieved from open chain gluco-configured building block which is readily assembled from inexpensive and commercially available D-(+)-gluconolactone. Grignard reaction and Wittig olefination reactions are key steps for the requisite CC bond formation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Total Synthesis of Septocylindrin B and C-Terminus Modified Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Jo; Nuyts, Koen; De Zotti, Marta; Lavigne, Rob; Lamberigts, Chris; De Borggraeve, Wim M.

    2012-01-01

    The total synthesis is reported of the peptaibol Septocylindrin B which is related to the well documented channel forming peptaibol antibiotic Alamethicin. Several analogues were synthesized with a modified C-terminus, to investigate the SAR of the terminal residue Phaol. All these peptides were tested for their membrane perturbation properties by fluorescent dye leakage assay and for their antibacterial activity. PMID:23284749

  8. Total synthesis of Septocylindrin B and C-terminus modified analogues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Nelissen

    Full Text Available The total synthesis is reported of the peptaibol Septocylindrin B which is related to the well documented channel forming peptaibol antibiotic Alamethicin. Several analogues were synthesized with a modified C-terminus, to investigate the SAR of the terminal residue Phaol. All these peptides were tested for their membrane perturbation properties by fluorescent dye leakage assay and for their antibacterial activity.

  9. Asymmetric total synthesis of an iboga-type indole alkaloid, voacangalactone, newly isolated from Voacanga africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Masaya; Asaba, Ken Nunettsu; Iwai, Masumi; Kogure, Noriyuki; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2012-11-16

    A new hexacyclic iboga-type indole alkaloid, voacangalactone (1), was isolated from Voacanga africana , and its structure including the absolute configuration was established by asymmetric total synthesis involving such key steps as the asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction using an aminodiene and the construction of an isoquinuclidine ring and an indole skeleton.

  10. Wood Quality of Acacia Hybrid and Second-Generation Acacia mangium

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Jusoh; Farawahida Abu Zaharin; Nur Syazni Adam

    2013-01-01

    Two new tree variants, namely Acacia hybrid and second-generation Acacia mangium, have been introduced in plantation forests in Sarawak, Malaysia, and their wood qualities were examined. The mean basic density of Acacia hybrid was comparable with Acacia mangium. However basic density and strength properties of second-generation A. mangium were significantly lower compared to Acacia hybrid. The mean fibre length and fibre wall thickness in the hybrid were found to be greater than that of secon...

  11. The number needed to treat for second-generation biologics when treating established rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Jakobsen, A. K.; Bartels, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the number needed to treat (NNT) and the number needed to harm (NNH) of the second-generation biologics abatacept, certolizumab, golimumab, rituximab, and tocilizumab in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) taking concomitant methotrexate (MTX).......To evaluate the number needed to treat (NNT) and the number needed to harm (NNH) of the second-generation biologics abatacept, certolizumab, golimumab, rituximab, and tocilizumab in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) taking concomitant methotrexate (MTX)....

  12. Intentional Recreational Abuse of Quetiapine Compared to Other Second-generation Antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Klein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Case reports and poison center data have demonstrated that the second-generation antipsychotic quetiapine is being obtained and used for recreational abuse. The purpose of this study was to describe the relative rates of single-substance abuse for different atypical antipsychotics and compare their demographic and clinical features. Methods: We conducted a 10-year retrospective analysis of the National Poison Data System (NPDS database (2003 – 2013. Trained nurses and pharmacists with specialty training in toxicology prospectively collect all NPDS data at poison control centers around the United States. We queried the NPDS for all cases of single-substance second-generation antipsychotic exposures coded as “intentional abuse.” The data provided by the NPDS regarding rates and clinical features of quetiapine abuse and the abuse of all other second-generation antipsychotics were compared and described descriptively. Results: During the study period, 2,118 cases of quetiapine abuse and 1,379 cases of other secondgeneration antipsychotic abuse were identified. Quetiapine abuse was more common than the abuse of other second-generation antipsychotics, compromising 60.6% of all abuse cases during the study period. After quetiapine, the next most frequently abused medications were risperidone (530 cases, 15.2% and olanzapine (246 cases, 7.0%. For all second-generation antipsychotics including quetiapine, central nervous system clinical effects were most common, including drowsiness, confusion, and agitation. Other serious clinical effects observed with second-generation antipsychotic abuse included hypotension, respiratory depression, and seizures. Conclusion: Quetiapine abuse is relatively common, and is abused far more often than any other second-generation antipsychotic. Emergency physicians should be aware of the clinical effects that may occur after second-generation antipsychotic abuse. [West J Emerg Med. 2017;18(2243-250.

  13. Physio-chemical assessment of beauty leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum) as second-generation biodiesel feedstock

    OpenAIRE

    M.I. Jahirul; R.J. Brown; W. Senadeera; N. Ashwath; M.G. Rasul; M.M. Rahman; Farhad M. Hossain; Lalehvash Moghaddam; M.A. Islam; I.M. O’Hara

    2015-01-01

    Recently, second-generation (non-vegetable oil) feedstocks for biodiesel production are receiving significant attention due to the cost and social effects connected with utilising food products for the production of energy products. The Beauty leaf tree (Calophyllum inophyllum) is a potential source of non-edible oil for producing second-generation biodiesel because of its suitability for production in an extensive variety of atmospheric condition, easy cultivation, high fruit production rate...

  14. Migration Background and Educational Tracking: Is there a Double Disadvantage for Second-Generation Immigrants?

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Lüdemann; Guido Schwerdt

    2010-01-01

    Research on immigrants’ educational disadvantages largely focuses on differences in student achievement tests. Exploiting data from the German PIRLS extension, we find that second-generation immigrants face additional disadvantages with respect to grades and teacher recommendations for secondary school tracks that cannot be explained by differences in student achievement tests and general intelligence. Second-generation immigrations are disproportionately affected by prevailing social inequ...

  15. First- versus second-generation endometrial ablation devices for treatment of menorrhagia: a systematic review, meta-analysis and appraisal of economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroft, Jamie; Liu, Grace

    2013-11-01

    To estimate the clinical and economic effect of using second-generation endometrial ablation devices compared to first-generation devices for treatment of menorrhagia in pre-menopausal women. The secondary objective was to compare the second-generation devices with one another. We searched Medline and EMBASE, and other sources of unpublished literature, and screened references from relevant articles. We included only randomized controlled trials or full economic evaluations of premenopausal women with menorrhagia undergoing endometrial ablation using first-generation compared with second-generation devices. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment was carried out for all clinical studies, and data were pooled using the random effects model. A qualitative narrative synthesis was used to combine results from the economic review. Eleven studies met eligibility criteria (n = 1679). There was no difference in the rate of amenorrhea between first- and second-generation ablation (5 studies with 998 patients, rate ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.38; P = 0.14), but second-generation devices had a lower complication rate (7 studies with 1272 patients, rate ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.76; P < 0.001), decreased operating time by 16.6 minutes (3 studies with 486 patients, 95% CI 12.1 to 21.2 minutes; P < 0.001), and could more commonly be used with local anaesthesia (3 studies with 558 patients, rate ratio 1.87, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.37; P = 0.04). There was a higher rate of amenorrhea in patients treated with Novasure than with other second-generation devices (4 studies with 407 patients, rate ratio 2.60, 95% CI 1.63 to 4.14; P < 0.001). Three European studies were included in the economic synthesis, which found that second-generation devices were more cost-effective than first-generation devices. Second-generation endometrial ablation devices seem to be as effective as first-generation devices but likely reduce operating time, can be used more often with local anaesthesia, and

  16. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine induustrial plant study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100[degrees]F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600[degrees]F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  17. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  18. Duodenal juice total protein and pancreatic enzyme synthesis, turnover, and secretion in patients after acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, J M; O'Keefe, S J; Louw, J A; Adams, G; Marks, I N

    1993-09-01

    It is controversial whether acute pancreatitis has longterm effects on pancreatic function. Pancreatic enzyme synthesis, turnover, and secretion were measured in 10 patients in clinical remission who had had one or more (one to six) attacks of acute alcoholic pancreatitis. The studies were done between two and 29 months after the most recent attack. A control group included five patients with no evidence of pancreatic disease. A four hour primed/continuous intravenous infusion of [14C]L-leucine tracer was given with secretin (2 U/kg/h) and cholecystokinin (0.5 U/kg/h) and secreted duodenal juice aspirated. Amylase and trypsin were extracted from duodenal juice by affinity chromatography, permitting measurement of the rate of isotope incorporation into total protein, amylase, and trypsin. The results showed non-parallel changes in enzyme synthesis and turnover with decreases in total enzyme protein and amylase synthesis and turnover but preservation of trypsin synthesis and turnover. The low turnover rates may be ascribed to continuing pancreatic cell malfunction after recovery from acute alcoholic pancreatitis and suggest that the decreased amylase secretion rates are partly a consequence of impaired amylase synthesis and not simply because of loss of pancreatic tissue.

  19. Energy assessment of second generation (2G) ethanol production from wheat straw in Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Archana; Kumar, Akash; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2018-03-01

    Impact of second-generation ethanol (2G) use in transportation sector mainly depends upon energy efficiency of entire production process. The objective of present study was to determine energy efficiency of a potential lignocellulosic feedstock; wheat straw and its conversion into cellulosic ethanol in Indian scenario. Energy efficiency was determined by calculating Net energy ratio (NER), i.e. ratio of output energy obtained by ethanol and input energy used in ethanol production. Energy consumption and generation at each step is calculated briefly (11,837.35 MJ/ha during Indian dwarf irrigated variety of wheat crop production and 7.1148 MJ/kg straw during ethanol production stage). Total energy consumption is calculated as 8.2988 MJ/kg straw whereas energy generation from ethanol is 15.082 MJ/kg straw; resulting into NER > 1. Major portion of agricultural energy input is contributed by diesel and fertilisers whereas refining process of wheat straw feedstock to ethanol and by-products require mainly in the form of steam and electricity. On an average, 1671.8 kg water free ethanol, 930 kg lignin rich biomass (for combustion), and 561 kg C5-molasses (for fodder) per hectare are produced. Findings of this study, net energy ratio (1.81) and figure of merit (14.8028 MJ/nil kg carbon) proves wheat straw as highest energy efficient lignocellulosic feedstock for the country.

  20. Characterization of the Second Generation Cryopreserved Dendrobium Bobby Messina Using Histological and RAPD Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Jeyanthi James Antony

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to detect the morphological, histological and molecular diff erences in the second generation of the PVS2 cryopreserved Dendrobium Bobby Messina [DBM] (18 months old culture plantlets. Morphological analyses indicated that similarities and diff erences in cryopreserved DBM plantlets comparing to control stock culture based on selected morphological criteria. Morphological criteria, such as root length, number of shoot per explant and shoot length displayed diff erences, while the other three criteria, leaf diameter, leaf length and PLBs size were similar in cryopreserved compared to the control stock culture plant. Higher amount of homogenous cell population and denser cytoplasm were observed in cryopreserved PLBs compared to control stock culture PLBs based on histological analysis. This suggests the existance of somatic embryogenesis development mechanism taking place during the recovery and regeneration of the cryopreserved PLBs. However, RAPD analyses based on 10 primers indicated that cryopreserved DBM regenerated from vitrifi cation method generated a total of 20 to 39.9% polymorphic bands as compared to stock culture indicating potential somaclonal variation. Hence, an increase percentage of polymorphics bands in cryopreserved plantlets 18 months post cryopreservation as compared to previous report of 10% polymorphic bands in cryopreserved DBM 3 months post cryopreservation.

  1. Non-uniform phenotyping of D12S391 resolved by second generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S; Rockenbauer, E; Buchard, A

    2014-01-01

    Non-uniform phenotyping of five case work samples were observed in the D12S391 locus. The samples were typed at least twice with the AmpFℓSTR(®) NGM SElect™ PCR Amplification Kit and different alleles were called with GeneMapper(®) ID-X in the different experiments. Detailed analyses of the elect......Non-uniform phenotyping of five case work samples were observed in the D12S391 locus. The samples were typed at least twice with the AmpFℓSTR(®) NGM SElect™ PCR Amplification Kit and different alleles were called with GeneMapper(®) ID-X in the different experiments. Detailed analyses...... of the electropherograms suggested that the individuals were heterozygous with two alleles that differed in size by one nucleotide. This was confirmed by amplifying the samples with the PowerPlex(®) ESX 17 system. D12S391 is a complex STR with variable numbers of AGAT and AGAC repeats. Second generation sequencing...... revealed that separation of two alleles differing by one nucleotide in length was poor if the number of AGAT repeats in the short allele was higher than in the long allele. A total of 45 individuals with microvariants or off-ladder alleles in D12S391 were sequenced. Thirty different alleles were detected...

  2. Total synthesis of (+)-cocaine via desymmetrization of a meso-dialdehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Douglas M; Pearson, William H

    2004-09-16

    [reaction: see text] The total synthesis of (+)-cocaine is described. An extension of the recently reported proline catalyzed intramolecular enol-exo-aldol reaction to a meso-dialdehyde provided the tropane ring skeleton directly with good enantiomeric excess. The meso-dialdehyde was prepared using a 2-azaallyllithium [3 + 2] cycloaddition to generate a cis-2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidine. Overall, the synthesis proceeded in 6.5% yield and 86% ee over 14 linear steps starting from commercially available 3-benzyloxy-1-propanol.

  3. Nonlinear multivariable design by total synthesis. [of gas turbine engine control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, M. K.; Peczkowski, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The Nominal Design Problem (NDP) is extended to nonlinear cases, and a new case study of robust feedback synthesis for gas turbine control design is presented. The discussion of NDP extends and builds on earlier Total Synthesis Problem theory and ideas. Some mathematical preliminaries are given in which a bijection from a set S onto a set T is considered, with T admitting the structure of an F-vector space. NDP is then discussed for a nonlinear plant, and nonlinear nominal design is defined and characterized. The design of local controllers for a turbojet and the scheduling of these controls into a global control are addressed.

  4. Total synthesis of pancratistatin relying on the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyojin; Kim, Eunkyung; Park, Jae Eun; Kim, Deukjoon; Kim, Sanghee

    2004-01-09

    A new total synthesis of the antitumor alkaloid, pancratistatin (1), has been accomplished from readily available starting materials. Claisen rearrangement of the racemic dihydropyranethylene 17 was employed to construct the A and C rings with the appropriate stereochemistry. In addition, the Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of the enantiomerically pure 9 followed by ring-closing metathesis provided the important intermediate 24, thus implying that our approach could yield the enantioselective synthesis of (+)-pancratistatin. With the appropriately functionalized cyclohexene 24, stereo- and regiocontrolled functional group interchanges, such as iodolactonization, dihydroxylations, and a cyclic sulfate elimination reaction, facilitated the production of the target natural product.

  5. Variations of total protein content and protein synthesis during microsporogenesis in Larix europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława B. Chwirot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of the total protein content and protein synthesis were analyzed in successive stages of microsporogenesis in Larix europaea L. Pure fractions of microsporocytes containing the cells in successive phases of meiosis and fractions of the anther wall cells were used to perform the assays. It was revealed, that the protein content and the intensity of protein synthesis undergo considerable changes in the course of meiosis. It was proved also, by means of electrophoretic separation of protein fractions, that no new proteins are synthesised during differentiation of microsporocytes of larch, and that the microsporogenesis process is related rather to disappearance of some protein fractions.

  6. Risk of schizophrenia in second-generation immigrants: a Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2007-01-01

    Background. Urban birth, a risk factor for schizophrenia, is more frequent among second-generation immigrants. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the increased risk for schizophrenia found in second-generation immigrants is explained by the degree of urbanization of birthplace...... and/or factors related to parentage, such as geographic origin or history of residence abroad during upbringing.Method. Using data from the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS), we established a population-based cohort of 2.0 million Danes (persons born in Denmark). Schizophrenia in cohort members...... for urbanization of birthplace and parental characteristics reduced these risks slightly. However, urbanization had a lesser effect in second-generation immigrants than in Danes. History of residence abroad was a risk factor for schizophrenia, regardless of whether parents were foreign-born or native Danes...

  7. Total synthesis of exiguamines A and B inspired by catecholamine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiyev, Vladimir; Lumb, Jean-Philip; Volgraf, Matthew; Trauner, Dirk

    2012-04-16

    The evolution of a total synthesis of the exiguamines, two structurally unusual natural products that are highly active inhibitors of indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), is described. The ultimately successful strategy involves advanced cross-coupling methodology and features a potentially biosynthetic tautomerization/electrocyclization cascade reaction that forms two heterocycles and installs a quaternary ammonium ion in a single synthetic operation. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Total Synthesis of Eleutherobin and Analogs and Study of Anti-Cancer Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    instead of a methyl group, was used for the protection of phenol, cf. reference 21S. 33) a) T. Ishiyama , M. Murata, N. Miyaura, J. Org. Chem. 1995, 60...Reactions and Synthesis in Surfactant Syntems John Texter G. Oehme ......................... 517 New Advances in Analytical Chemistry Atta-ur-Rahman U...deprotected with [10] a) T. Ishiyama , M. Murata, N. Miyaura, J Org. Chem. 1995,60, 7508- pyridine-buffered HF/pyridine to afford a mixture of our total

  9. Navigating the Chiral Pool in the Total Synthesis of Complex Terpene Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Zachary G; Condakes, Matthew L; Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2017-09-27

    The pool of abundant chiral terpene building blocks (i.e., "chiral pool terpenes") has long served as a starting point for the chemical synthesis of complex natural products, including many terpenes themselves. As inexpensive and versatile starting materials, such compounds continue to influence modern synthetic chemistry. This review highlights 21st century terpene total syntheses which themselves use small, terpene-derived materials as building blocks. An outlook to the future of research in this area is highlighted as well.

  10. Harnessing Quinone Methides: Total Synthesis of (±)‐Vaticanol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Tue Heesgaard; Thomas, Stephen; Yunqing, lin

    2014-01-01

    Although quinone methides are often postulated as intermediates in the biosynthesis of many polyphenolic natural products, deploying their power in a laboratory setting to achieve similar bond constructions has sometimes proven challenging. Herein, a total synthesis of the resveratrol trimer...... vaticanol A has been achieved through three instances of quinone methide chemistry. These operations, one of which succeeded only under very specific conditions, expediently generated its [7,5]-carbocyclic core, afforded a unique sequence for dihydrobenzofuran formation, and concurrently generated...

  11. Total Synthesis of Ellagitannins via Sequential Site-Selective Functionalization of Unprotected D-Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hironori; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Furuta, Takumi; Kawabata, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    A short-step total synthesis of the natural glycosides pterocarinin C and tellimagrandin II (eugeniin) has been performed by sequential and site-selective functionalization of free hydroxy groups of unprotected D-glucose. The key reactions are β-selective glycosidation of a gallic acid derivative using unprotected D-glucose as a glycosyl donor and catalyst-controlled site-selective introduction of a galloyl group into the inherently less reactive hydroxy group of the glucoside.

  12. Hydroprocessing of Fischer-Tropsch biowaxes to second-generation biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schablitzky, Harald Walter; Hafner, C. [OMV Refining and Marketing, Centre of Excellence-Fuels, Innovation and Quality, Schwechat (Austria); Lichtscheidl, J.; Hutter, K. [OMV Refining and Marketing, New Technology, Schwechat (Austria); Rauch, R. [Bioenergy, Graz (Austria); Hofbauer, H. [Bioenergy, Graz (Austria); Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-03-15

    Upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) biowaxes to second-generation biofuels via hydroprocessing is the final step for increasing the fuel amount of the overall biomass conversion route: gasification of lignocellulosic biomass, FT synthesis, and hydroprocessing. The typical FT product portfolio consists of high molecular weight paraffinic waxes as the main product and FT fuels in the diesel and naphtha boiling range. OMV's objective and contribution to the project focus on achieving coprocessing of FT biowaxes with fossil feedstock using existing hydrotreating plants of crude oil refineries. Various test runs have been examined with a conventional refining catalyst under mild conditions (380-390 C, 5.8 MPa; WHSV, 0.7-1.3 h{sup -1}) in a pilot plant. Pure FT biowax is converted to gases, fuels, and an oil/waxy residue in a fixed-bed reactor with a porous catalyst layer technology. The presence of hydrogen in the reaction chamber reduces the fast deactivation of the catalyst caused by the formation of a coke layer around the catalyst particle surface and saturates cracked hydrocarbon fragments. Another approach is the creation of synthetic biodiesel components with excellent fuel properties for premium fuel application. Basically, premium diesel fuel differs from standard diesel quality by cetane number and cold flow properties. Hydroprocessed synthetic biodiesel (HPFT diesel) has compared to conventional diesel advantages in many aspects. Depending on the catalyst selected, premium diesel quality can be obtained by shifting cold flow operability properties of HPFT fuels to a range capable even under extreme cold conditions. In addition, a high-quality kerosene fraction is obtained to create bio jet fuels with an extremely deep freezing point, as low as -80 C. The isomerization degree, as well as the carbon number distribution of high paraffinic profile, and the branching degree have a major impact on the cold flow properties and cetane number. FT diesel has

  13. Total synthesis approaches to natural product derivatives based on the combination of chemical synthesis and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschning, Andreas; Taft, Florian; Knobloch, Tobias

    2007-10-21

    Secondary metabolites are an extremely diverse and important group of natural products with industrial and biomedical implications. Advances in metabolic engineering of both native and heterologous secondary metabolite producing organisms have allowed the directed synthesis of desired novel products by exploiting their biosynthetic potentials. Metabolic engineering utilises knowledge of cellular metabolism to alter biosynthetic pathways. An important technique that combines chemical synthesis with metabolic engineering is mutasynthesis (mutational biosynthesis; MBS), which advanced from precursor-directed biosynthesis (PDB). Both techniques are based on the cellular uptake of modified biosynthetic intermediates and their incorporation into complex secondary metabolites. Mutasynthesis utilises genetically engineered organisms in conjunction with feeding of chemically modified intermediates. From a synthetic chemist's point of view the concept of mutasynthesis is highly attractive, as the method combines chemical expertise with Nature's synthetic machinery and thus can be exploited to rapidly create small libraries of secondary metabolites. However, in each case, the method has to be critically compared with semi- and total synthesis in terms of practicability and efficiency. Recent developments in metabolic engineering promise to further broaden the scope of outsourcing chemically demanding steps to biological systems.

  14. The use of a second generation star tracker in the control loop of the pointing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this note is to propose the use of a second generation star tracker to guide the UVISS pointing system.As UVISS is mounted on the International Space Station the time to observe a specific star is limited by the orbital motion, therefore it is crucial to reduce as much as possible...... the pointing and acquisition time.Due to the limited resources, primarily power and mass, and the attitude perturbations, the traditional pointing systems do not seem suitable.However, a star tracker of the second generation might be the key to find an elegant solution to the above points....

  15. Second generation diffusion model of interacting gravity waves on the surface of deep fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pushkarev

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a second generation phenomenological model for nonlinear interaction of gravity waves on the surface of deep water. This model takes into account the effects of non-locality of the original Hasselmann diffusion equation still preserving important properties of the first generation model: physically consistent scaling, adherence to conservation laws and the existence of Kolmogorov-Zakharov solutions. Numerical comparison of both models with the original Hasselmann equation shows that the second generation models improves the angular distribution in the evolving wave energy spectrum.

  16. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, D. N.; Smith, P.; Davies, C.; McNamara, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and likely to play a major role in transitioning to a lower CO2 energy system. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on broader sustainability encompassed by ecosystem services, further enhanced by ongoing climate change. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers ecosystem services at a continental scale including biodiversity and pollination, water and air security, erosion control and soil security, GHG emissions, soil C and cultural services like tourism value. The technical distribution potential and likely yield of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC; willow and poplar) was modelled using ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor models. In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models are utilised. We will present results for synergies and trade-offs between land use change and ecosystem services, impact on food security and land management. Further, we will show modelled yield maps for different cultivars of Miscanthus, willow and poplar in Europe and constraint/opportunity maps based on projected yield and other factors e.g. total economic value, technical potential, current land use, climate change and trade-offs and synergies. It will be essential to include multiple ecosystem services when assessing the potential for bioenergy production/expansion that does not impact other land uses or provisioning services. Considering that the soil GHG balance is dominated by change in soil organic carbon (SOC) and the difference among Miscanthus and SRC is largely determined by yield, an important target for management of perennial energy crops is to achieve the best possible yield using the most appropriate energy crop and cultivar for the local situation. This research could inform future policy decisions on bioenergy crops in

  17. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. - Highlights: • Caffeine-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming of HPA has hereditary effect. • Caffeine

  18. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng; Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan; Ma, Lu; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The first insight into the tissue specific taxus transcriptome via Illumina second generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Cheng Hao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Illumina second generation sequencing is now an efficient route for generating enormous sequence collections that represent expressed genes and quantitate expression level. Taxus is a world-wide endangered gymnosperm genus and forms an important anti-cancer medicinal resource, but the large and complex genomes of Taxus have hindered the development of genomic resources. The research of its tissue-specific transcriptome is absent. There is also no study concerning the association between the plant transcriptome and metabolome with respect to the plant tissue type. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed the de novo assembly of Taxus mairei transcriptome using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. In a single run, we produced 13,737,528 sequencing reads corresponding to 2.03 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 36,493 unique sequences. Based on similarity search with known proteins, 23,515 Unigenes were identified to have the Blast hit with a cut-off E-value above 10⁻⁵. Furthermore, we investigated the transcriptome difference of three Taxus tissues using a tag-based digital gene expression system. We obtained a sequencing depth of over 3.15 million tags per sample and identified a large number of genes associated with tissue specific functions and taxane biosynthetic pathway. The expression of the taxane biosynthetic genes is significantly higher in the root than in the leaf and the stem, while high activity of taxane-producing pathway in the root was also revealed via metabolomic analyses. Moreover, many antisense transcripts and novel transcripts were found; clusters with similar differential expression patterns, enriched GO terms and enriched metabolic pathways with regard to the differentially expressed genes were revealed for the first time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data provides the most comprehensive sequence resource available for Taxus study and will help define mechanisms of tissue

  20. Natural Product Total Synthesis in the Organic Laboratory: Total Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE), a Potent 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor from Honeybee Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touaibia, Mohamed; Guay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Natural products play a critical role in modern organic synthesis and learning synthetic techniques is an important component of the organic laboratory experience. In addition to traditional one-step organic synthesis laboratories, a multistep natural product synthesis is an interesting experiment to challenge students. The proposed three-step…

  1. Feasibility and safety of the second-generation, frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT): a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Joo Heung; Di Vito, Luca; Moses, Jeffrey W; Fearon, William F; Yeung, Alan C; Zhang, Shaosong; Bezerra, Hiram G; Costa, Marco A; Jang, Ik-Kyung

    2012-05-01

    This study sought to assess the effectiveness and safety of the second-generation frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system. The second-generation FD-OCT was recently developed, with simplified imaging technique and faster acquisition time compared to the first-generation time-domain OCT. However, the safety and effectiveness of the FD-OCT has not been evaluated, and this study was conceived as a preapproval study for Food and Drug Administration clearance for clinical use in the United States. A total of 50 patients were enrolled from 3 institutions. Following stent implantation, the FD-OCT was performed with contrast injection through the guiding catheter to acquire pullback images with the pressure-triggered automatic pullback device. The primary endpoint was to achieve a median clear image length of more than 24 mm. Serious procedure-related or postprocedural adverse events (death, myocardial infarction, or ventricular arrhythmia) were recorded to assess safety of the device. The primary endpoint of obtaining >24 mm of median clear image length (CIL) was achieved in 94% of the subjects (47 out of 50), with measured CIL of 43.2 mm. In 5 patients (10.6%), a second attempt was necessary due to suboptimal image quality of the first pullback. In 36 patients (76.6%), a full stent length was obtained during the first attempt. There were no serious procedure-related or postprocedural adverse events. The new second-generation FD-OCT system provides fast and reliable resolution images of the coronary artery. The pullback can be safely performed over long segments of the artery without serious adverse events.

  2. Systematic review: second-generation vs. conventional corticosteroids for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Haens, G.

    2016-01-01

    Oral corticosteroids are the mainstay treatment for induction of ulcerative colitis remission in patients failing or intolerant to aminosalicylate therapy, but the poor tolerability profile of these drugs limits their usefulness. Second-generation, gut-selective corticosteroids may offer a safe

  3. Writing and Reading Knowledge of Spanish/English Second-Generation Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Garcia, Krystal; Garcia, Melissa; Mejia, Joselyn; Vado, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Written bilingualism represents a particular type of bilingualism that is not frequently approached. The aim of this study was to investigate the writing and reading abilities of second-generation immigrants, Spanish-English bilinguals in South Florida. 58 participants (36 females, 22 males; 18-39 years of age) were selected. Both parents were…

  4. Contextual Factors Contributing to Ethnic Identity Development of Second-Generation Iranian American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daha, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    The data drawn from interviews with 55 second-generation Iranian American adolescents revealed that pride in ancient Persian culture, the adolescents' physical characteristics, perceived stereotypes, and community point of reference all combined to affect ethnic identity as well as to reinforce a sense of ethnic loyalty. The contextual factors…

  5. Is the antidepressive effect of second-generation antidepressants a myth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P

    2010-01-01

    Two recent meta-analyses on second-generation antidepressants versus placebo in mild to moderate forms of major depression, based on data on all randomized clinical trials using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) submitted to FDA, have shown an effect size of approximately 0.30 in favour...

  6. Body fluid identification of blood, saliva and semen using second generation sequencing of micro-RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christel H.; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Tvedebrink, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We report a new second generation sequencing method for identification micro-RNA (miRNA) that can be used to identify body fluids and tissues. Principal component analysis of 10 miRNAs with high expression in 16 samples of blood, saliva and semen showed clear differences in the expression of mi...

  7. Dreams Fulfilled, Dreams Shattered: Determinants of Segmented Assimilation in the Second Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    We summarize prior theories on the adaptation process of the contemporary immigrant second generation as a prelude to presenting additive and interactive models showing the impact of family variables, school contexts and academic outcomes on the process. For this purpose, we regress indicators of educational and occupational achievement in early…

  8. Human Capital Background and the Educational Attainment of Second-Generation Immigrants in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Manon Domingues; Wolff, Francois-Charles

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the impact of parental human capital background on ethnic educational gaps between second-generation immigrants using a large data set conducted in France in 2003. Estimates from censored random effect ordered Probit regressions show that the skills of immigrants explain in the most part, the ethnic educational gap between…

  9. Choices and Enrollments in French Secondary and Higher Education: Repercussions for Second-Generation Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinbaum, Yael; Guegnard, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In France, the proportion of second-generation immigrants enrolling in tertiary education has increased as education has undergone a process of "democratization." This article analyzes their postsecondary choices, access to tertiary programs, dropout, and transition to the labor market, compared to those of students of French origin.…

  10. Attractive Noncovalent Interactions in the Mechanism of Grubbs Second-Generation Ru Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yan; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2007-05-10

    Second-generation ruthenium carbenoid catalysts for olefin metathesis are a hundred to a thousand times more active than first-generation catalysts, despite a slower initiation step. A new density functional capable of treating medium-range correlation energy shows that the relative rates of generation of the catalyst are determined by attractive noncovalent interactions.

  11. Olefin Ring Closing Metathesis and Hydrosilylation Reaction in Aqueous Medium by Grubbs Second Generation Ruthenium Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grubbs second generation ruthenium catalyst was shown to catalyze various olefin ring closing metathesis and hydrosilylation reactions in aqueous medium. Reactions proceeded in pure water without any additives or co-solvents, in a short period of time. We found that inhomogen...

  12. Fast and Robust pointing and tracking using a second-generation star tracker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Pickles, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    Second generation star trackers work by taking wide-angle optical pictures of star fields, correlating the image against a star catalogue in ROM, centroiding many stars to derive an accurate position and orientation. This paper describes a miniature instrument(10cm cube), fast and lightweight (850g...

  13. Moving up the Education Ladder: Second-Generation Dominicans in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Second-generation Dominicans have been able to make remarkable gains in college completion rates over the last twenty years, and have higher rates of obtaining a bachelor's degree than native-born Blacks and Puerto Ricans who live within their same under-resourced communities (Hernandez and Stevens-Acevedo, 2004). Also, Dominicans are known to…

  14. The remittances behaviour of the second generation in Europe: altruism or self-interest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrosetti, E.; Cela, E.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Whereas most research on remittances focuses on first-generation migrants, the aim of this paper is to investigate the remitting behaviour of the host country-born children of migrants - the second generation - in various European cities. Some important studies found that migrant transnationalism is

  15. The Performance of a Second Generation Service Discovery Protocol In Response to Message Loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; van de Glind, G.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Scholten, Johan

    We analyze the behavior of FRODO, a second generation service discovery protocol, in response to message loss in the network. First generation protocols, like UPnP and Jini rely on underlying network layers to enhance their failure recovery. A comparison with UPnP and Jini shows that FRODO performs

  16. Reinvention of ethnic identification among second generation Moroccan and Turkish Dutch social climbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootman, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, a trajectory of immigrant incorporation is identified among ethnic minority social climbers that is characterized by reassertion and reinvention of ethnic identity in early adulthood. In-depth interviews with university-educated, second generation Moroccan and Turkish Dutch show

  17. Second-Generation Turkish Youth in Europe: Explaining the Academic Disadvantage in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of…

  18. Biliteracy and Bilingual Development in a Second-Generation Korean Child: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Yeonsun Ellie; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Through case study methodology, this study examined how a second-generation bilingual child developed his two languages and associated literacies, the role of the parents' and child's goals as well as the family's daily effort to attain those goals, and the influences of environmental, social, and cultural factors. Based on sociocultural…

  19. A Fast Component-Tree Algorithm for High Dynamic-Range Images and Second Generation Connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, Michael H. F.

    2011-01-01

    Component trees are important data structures for computation of connected attribute filters. Though some of the available algorithms are suitable for high-dynamic range, and in particular floating point data, none are suitable for computation of component trees for so-called second-generation, and

  20. Second generation bioethanol production from Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Consentino; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2010-01-01

    Saccharum (Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.), is a rapidly growing, wide ranging high-yield perennial, suitable for second generation bioethanol production. This study evaluated oxalic acid as a pretreatment for bioconversion. Overall sugar yields, sugar degradation products, enzymatic glucan hydrolysis and ethanol production were studied as...

  1. Acculturation preferences of the Turkish second generation in 11 European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Valk, H.A.G.; van Ginneken, J.K.S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines acculturation preferences of the Turkish second generation in 11 European cities and compares these with expectations of national society comparison group members. Multiple classification analysis (MCA) was used to examine the effects of city of residence, exposure to national

  2. Attempted suicide and violent criminality among Danish second generation immigrants according to parental place of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Roger T; Antonsen, Sussie; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mok, Pearl LH; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Agerbo, Esben

    2016-01-01

    Background Immigrant populations in Western European countries have grown in their size and diversity, but little is known about risks of self-directed and externalised violence among second generation immigrants. Aims To compare risks for attempted suicides and violent offending among second generation immigrants to Denmark according to parental region of origin versus the native Danish population. Methods Data from interlinked national Danish registers were used (N=1,973,614). Parental origin outside Denmark was categorised thus: Asia, Africa, Middle East, Greenland, other Scandinavian countries, elsewhere in Europe, and all other regions. We estimated gender-specific cumulative incidence and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) versus native Danes. Results In virtually all subgroups of second generation immigrants, risk was elevated for the two adverse outcomes in both genders. Females generally had greater elevations in attempted suicide risk, and males had greater elevations in violent offending risk. For attempted suicide, especially large IRRs were observed for males and females whose parents emigrated from Greenland; for violent offending, risks were particularly raised for males and females of Middle Eastern, Greenlandic and African origin. Adjustment for socioeconomic status partially explained these associations. Conclusions Western European nations should develop preventive programmes tailored toward specific second generation immigrant populations, with integrated approaches jointly tackling suicidality and violence. PMID:26613752

  3. Second-generation Muslims in European societies: Comparative perspectives on education and religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleischmann, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304847917

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to describe and explain individual and contextual variation in educational attainment and religiosity of second-generation Turkish and Moroccan Muslims in North-West Europe. The two minority groups are compared across local and national receiving contexts in Belgium,

  4. Is the Holocaust implicated in posttraumatic growth in second-generation Holocaust survivors? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Sharon; Mandl, Christine; Solomon, Zahava

    2013-08-01

    With the growing interest in posttraumatic growth (PTG), and the ongoing debate on the implications of transgenerational transmission of trauma, this longitudinal study examined PTG among Holocaust survivor offspring following their own exposure to trauma. Using self-report questionnaires, we assessed PTG over time in middle aged (age: M = 53 years) Israeli male combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War whose parents were (n = 43) and were not (n = 156) second-generation survivors of the Nazi Holocaust at 2 time points: 30 and 35 years following the war (in 2003 and 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and trauma exposure were also assessed in 1991. We hypothesized that second-generation survivors would report more PTG than controls. However, repeated measures design revealed that the second-generation veterans reported less PTG than veterans who were not second generation, which was evident in the PTG domains of relations to others, personal strength, and appreciation of life. Our findings suggest that transmission of trauma from one generation to the next is possibly implicated in the offspring's propensity for growth following subsequent trauma. Future research is warranted to examine the link between transmission of trauma and positive outcomes following trauma. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  5. Development of an in-orbit refocusing mechanism for the meteosat second generation weather satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, P.; Mierlo, H.A. van; Braam, B.C.; Hopman, J.; Werkhoven, W.P. van; Kluse, M. le

    1998-01-01

    A Refocusing Mechanism (REM) has been designed and built for the SEVIRI instrument, the imager in the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. The purpose of the mechanism is in-orbit focal adjustment of a mirror assembly which forms part of SEVIRI. As the MSG satellite observes the earth and its

  6. Second-generation H1-antihistamines in chronic urticaria: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavosh, Eric R; Khan, David A

    2011-12-01

    The effects of urticaria are predominantly mediated by histamine release; therefore, H1-antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Second-generation H1-antihistamines, compared with their first-generation counterparts, have demonstrated improved peripheral H1-receptor selectivity and decreased lipophilicity (which minimizes CNS adverse effects), and antiallergic properties in addition to being histamine inverse agonists. Evidence of clinical efficacy and tolerability of second-generation H1-antihistamines available in the US for the treatment of chronic urticaria (CU) was analyzed using the GRADE system to develop the strength of recommendations for particular therapies. The evidence for the safety and efficacy of the majority of second-generation H1-antihistamines available in the US is of high quality and leads to a strong recommendation for their use in CU. There is a limited amount of data of variable quality comparing the efficacy between various second-generation H1-antihistamines in CU leading to weak recommendations for using cetirizine over fexofenadine and levocetirizine over desloratadine. Limited data of variable quality exist for the efficacy of higher doses of second-generation H1-antihistamines in CU patients not responsive to standard doses. These limited data lead to a strong recommendation that higher than recommended doses of fexofenadine do not offer greater efficacy in control of CU and a weak recommendation that higher doses of levocetirizine and desloratadine are more effective in CU unresponsive to standard doses. More studies of higher quality are required to make any firm recommendations regarding second-generation H1-antihistamines in the treatment of physical urticarias. All second-generation H1-antihistamines appear to be very well tolerated in CU patients, with rare reports of adverse effects. Due to the relatively large gaps in the quantity and quality of evidence, particularly for choice of H1-antihistamines, use of higher doses

  7. A convergent total synthesis of the telomerase inhibitor (±)-γ-rubromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsdorf, Michael; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-04-22

    The total synthesis of the human telomerase inhibitor γ-rubromycin in its racemic form was accomplished in 3.8 % overall yield. The key feature of this synthesis is an efficient acid-catalyzed spiroketalization for the construction of the spiroketal core. The required electronically well-balanced spiroketal precursor was obtained by the convergent assembly of a naphthyl-substituted aldehyde, an α-methoxyallyl-γ-silyl-substituted phosphonate as the central C3 building block, and a highly functionalized aryl Grignard reagent. Another key feature is the late-stage construction of the isocoumarin moiety and a simultaneous protodesilylation furnishing the known methyl aryl ether protected precursor of γ-rubromycin. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Total synthesis of a Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS repeating unit hexasaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Seeberger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae causes severe disease globally. Vaccines that prevent S. pneumoniae infections induce antibodies against epitopes within the bacterial capsular polysaccharide (CPS. A better immunological understanding of the epitopes that protect from bacterial infection requires defined oligosaccharides obtained by total synthesis. The key to the synthesis of the S. pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS hexasaccharide repeating unit that is not contained in currently used glycoconjugate vaccines is the assembly of the trisaccharide β-D-GalpNAc-(1→4-[α-D-Glcp-(1→3]-β-D-ManpNAcA, in which the branching points are equipped with orthogonal protecting groups. A linear approach relying on the sequential assembly of monosaccharide building blocks proved superior to a convergent [3 + 3] strategy that was not successful due to steric constraints. The synthetic hexasaccharide is the starting point for further immunological investigations.

  9. Total synthesis of TMG-chitotriomycin based on an automated electrochemical assembly of a disaccharide building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Yuta; Sasaki, Norihiko; Kitamura, Kei; Takahashi, Shuji; Manmode, Sujit; Takeda-Okuda, Naoko; Tamura, Jun-Ichi; Nokami, Toshiki; Itoh, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    The total synthesis of TMG-chitotriomycin using an automated electrochemical synthesizer for the assembly of carbohydrate building blocks is demonstrated. We have successfully prepared a precursor of TMG-chitotriomycin, which is a structurally-pure tetrasaccharide with typical protecting groups, through the methodology of automated electrochemical solution-phase synthesis developed by us. The synthesis of structurally well-defined TMG-chitotriomycin has been accomplished in 10-steps from a disaccharide building block.

  10. Total Synthesis, Proof of Absolute Configuration, and Biosynthetic Origin of Stylopsal, the First Isolated Sex Pheromone of Strepsiptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lagoutte, Roman; Šebesta, Petr; Jiroš, Pavel; Kalinová, Blanka; Jirošová, Anna; Straka, J.; Černá, K.; Šobotník, Jan; Cvačka, Josef; Jahn, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 26 (2013), s. 8515-8524 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1466 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : asymmetric synthesis * configuration determination * pheromones * total synthesis * Wittig reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.696, year: 2013

  11. Changes in smoking prevalence among first- and second-generation Turkish migrants in Germany – an analysis of the 2005 Microcensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spallek Jacob

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to the majority population of a host country, migrants tend to have different health risks and health behaviour. We have hypothesised that these differences diminish with time passed since migration. We tested this hypothesis by examining smoking behaviour among Turkish migrants and their children born in Germany (second-generation migrants, stratified by educational level and, for the first generation, length of residence. Methods We estimated the prevalence of smoking based on the representative 2005 Mikrozensus, an annual survey including 1% of Germany's households. The 2005 Microcensus was the first to provide information that makes it possible to differentiate between first- and second-generation Turkish migrants. In total, 12,288 Turkish migrants and 421,635 native-born Germans were included in our study. The unit non-response is generally low (about 6% in 2005 because participation in the Microcensus is obligatory. Results We found the prevalence of smoking in second-generation male Turkish migrants to be lower than in the first-generation group: 47.0% of first-generation Turkish migrants with a high level of education were smokers, in contrast to only 37.6% in the second generation. Within the German reference population, 29.9% were smokers. The percentage of Turkish women in our sample who smoked was generally smaller, but was not significantly lower in the second generation. In fact, the prevalence of smoking was highest among Turkish women of the second generation with a low level of education (40.9%, similar to younger second-generation German women with the same level of education. Conclusion We present the first representative data on changes in the prevalence of a risk factor for many chronic diseases among Turkish migrants in Germany. Male Turkish migrants (with a high level of education showed a decrease over the generations while smoking prevalences of female Turkish migrants increased. In the

  12. Total synthesis of the endogenous inflammation resolving lipid resolvin D2 using a common lynchpin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total synthesis of the endogenous inflammation resolving eicosanoid resolvin D2 (1 is described. The key steps involved a Wittig reaction between aldehyde 5 and the ylide derived from phosphonium salt 6 to give enyne 17 and condensation of the same ylide with aldehyde 7 to afford enyne 11. Desilylation of 11 followed by hydrozirconation and iodination gave the vinyl iodide 4 and Sonogashira coupling between this compound and enyne 3 provided alkyne 18. Acetonide deprotection, partial reduction and ester hydrolysis then gave resolvin D2 (1.

  13. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Acylfulvene and (−)-Irofulven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Dustin S.; Piizzi, Grazia; Piersanti, Giovanni; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    We report our full account of the enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-acylfulvene (1) and (−)-irofulven (2), which features metathesis reactions for the rapid assembly of the molecular framework of these antitumor agents. We discuss (1) the application of an Evans’ Cu-catalyzed aldol addition reaction using a strained cyclopropyl ketenethioacetal, (2) an efficient enyne ring-closing metathesis (EYRCM) cascade reaction in a challenging setting, (3) the reagent IPNBSH for a late stage reductive allylic transposition reaction, and (4) the final RCM/dehydrogenation sequence for the formation of (−)-acylfulvene (1) and (−)-irofulven (2). PMID:19938810

  14. Recent Advances in the Total Synthesis of Tetramic Acid-Containing Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ju Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With incredible bioactivities and fascinating structural complexities, tetramic acid- (TA- containing natural products have attracted favorable attention among the organic chemistry community. Although the construction of the TA core is usually straightforward, the intricate C3-side chain sometimes asks for some deliberative strategy so as to fulfill an elegant total synthesis. This review mainly covers some exceptional synthetic examples for each type of natural product in recent years, showcasing the great achievements as well as unsettled obstacles in this area, in the hope of accelerating the synthetic and biological investigations for this unique type of natural product.

  15. Total Synthesis of Fellutamide B and Deoxy-Fellutamides B, C, and D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Payne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The total syntheses of the marine-derived lipopeptide natural product fellutamide B and deoxy-fellutamides B, C, and D are reported. These compounds were accessed through a novel solid-phase synthetic strategy using Weinreb amide-derived resin. As part of the synthesis, a new enantioselective route to (3R-hydroxy lauric acid was developed utilizing a Brown allylation reaction followed by an oxidative cleavage-oxidation sequence as the key steps. The activity of these natural products, and natural product analogues was also assessed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro.

  16. Catalytic Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (+)- and (-)-Paeoveitol via a Hetero-Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Ze; Geng, Chang-An; Yin, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Tong-Hua; Chen, Xing-Long; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Yun-Bao; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2017-02-03

    The first catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of (+)- and (-)-paeoveitol has been accomplished in 42% overall yield via a biomimetic hetero-Diels-Alder reaction. The chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed hetero-Diels-Alder reaction showed excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity (>99:1 dr and 90% ee); two rings and three stereocenters were constructed in a single step to produce (-)-paeoveitol on a scale of 452 mg. This strategy enabled us to selectively synthesize both paeoveitol enantiomers from the same substrates by simply changing the enantiomer of the catalyst.

  17. Expedient total synthesis of small to medium-sized membrane proteins via Fmoc chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ji-Shen; Yu, Mu; Qi, Yun-Kun; Tang, Shan; Shen, Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Longhua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Liu, Lei

    2014-03-05

    Total chemical synthesis provides a unique approach for the access to uncontaminated, monodisperse, and more importantly, post-translationally modified membrane proteins. In the present study we report a practical procedure for expedient and cost-effective synthesis of small to medium-sized membrane proteins in multimilligram scale through the use of automated Fmoc chemistry. The key finding of our study is that after the attachment of a removable arginine-tagged backbone modification group, the membrane protein segments behave almost the same as ordinary water-soluble peptides in terms of Fmoc solid-phase synthesis, ligation, purification, and mass spectrometry characterization. The efficiency and practicality of the new method is demonstrated by the successful preparation of Ser64-phosphorylated M2 proton channel from influenza A virus and the membrane-embedded domain of an inward rectifier K(+) channel protein Kir5.1. Functional characterizations of these chemically synthesized membrane proteins indicate that they provide useful and otherwise-difficult-to-access materials for biochemistry and biophysics studies.

  18. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMICS OF A NOMINAL 500 MWe SECOND-GENERATION PFB COMBUSTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Robertson; H. Goldstein; D. Horazak; R. Newby

    2003-09-01

    Research has been conducted under United States Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called a Second Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Plant (2nd Gen PFB), offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 48 percent, with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than those of conventional pulverized coal-fired (PC) plants with wet flue gas desulfurization. The 2nd Gen PFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed boiler, and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a gas turbine combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2300 F and higher. A conceptual design and an economic analysis was previously prepared for this plant. When operating with a Siemens Westinghouse W501F gas turbine, a 2400psig/1000 F/1000 F/2-1/2 in. Hg. steam turbine, and projected carbonizer, PCFB, and topping combustor performance data, the plant generated 496 MWe of power with an efficiency of 44.9 percent (coal higher heating value basis) and a cost of electricity 22 percent less than a comparable PC plant. The key components of this new type of plant have been successfully tested at the pilot plant stage and their performance has been found to be better than previously assumed. As a result, the referenced conceptual design has been updated herein to reflect more accurate performance predictions together with the use of the more advanced Siemens Westinghouse W501G gas turbine. The use of this advanced gas turbine, together with a conventional 2400 psig/1050 F/1050 F/2-1/2 in. Hg. steam turbine increases the plant efficiency to 48.2 percent and yields a total plant cost of $1,079/KW (January 2002 dollars). The cost of electricity is 40.7 mills/kWh, a value 12 percent less than a comparable PC plant.

  19. Effectiveness of second generation antipsychotics: A systematic review of randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Hugo A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews based on efficacy trials are inconclusive about which second generation antipsychotic drug (SGA should be preferred in normal clinical practice, and studies with longer duration and more pragmatic designs are called for. Effectiveness studies, also known as naturalistic, pragmatic, practical or real life studies, adhere to these principles as they aim to mimic daily clinical practice and have longer follow-up. Objective To review the head-to-head effectiveness of SGAs in the domains of global outcomes, symptoms of disease, and tolerability. Methods Searches were made in Embase, PubMED, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials for effectiveness studies published from 1980 to 2008, week 1. Different combinations of the keywords antipsychotic*, neuroleptic* AND open, pragmatic, practical, naturalistic, real life, effectiveness, side effect*, unwanted effect*, tolera* AND compar* AND random* were used. Results Sixteen different reports of randomized head-to-head comparisons of SGA effectiveness were located. There were differences regarding sample sizes, inclusion criteria and follow-up periods, as well as sources of financial sponsorship. In acute-phase and first-episode patients no differences between the SGAs were disclosed regarding alleviating symptoms of disease. Olanzapine was associated with more weight gain and adverse effects on serum lipids. In the chronic phase patients olanzapine groups had longer time to discontinuation of treatment and better treatment adherence compared to other SGAs. The majority of studies found no differences between the SGAs in alleviating symptoms of psychosis in chronically ill patients. Olanzapine was associated with more metabolic adverse effects compared to the others SGAs. There were surprisingly few between-drug differences regarding side effects. First generation antipsychotics were associated with lower total mental health care costs in 2 of 3 studies

  20. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Dagmar; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy with higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on ecosystem services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by the unpredictable climate change currently going on. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers high impact, policy relevant ecosystem services at a Continental scale including biodiversity and pollination, water and air security, erosion control and soil security, GHG emissions, soil C and cultural services like tourism value. The technical distribution potential and likely yield of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) with willow, poplar, eucalyptus and other broadleaf species and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF), is currently being modelled using ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor, and ecosystem models will be used to examine the impacts of these crops on ecosystem services. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecosystem services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate ecosystem valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ecosystem Services Framework) will be utilised. Research will focus on optimisation of land use change feedbacks on above named ecosystem services, impact on food security, land management practices and impacts from climate change. We will present results for GHG emissions and soil organic carbon change after different land use change scenarios (e.g. arable to Miscanthus, forest to SRF), and

  1. The effect of protons on the performance of second generation Swept Charge Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gow, Jason P.D., E-mail: j.p.d.gow@open.ac.uk [e2v Centre for Electronic Imaging, Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Holland, Andrew D. [e2v Centre for Electronic Imaging, Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Pool, Peter J. [e2v Technologies PLC, 106 Waterhouse Lance, Chelmsford, Essex CM1 2QU (United Kingdom); Smith, David R. [Centre for Sensors and Instrumentation, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-11

    The e2v technologies Swept Charge Device (SCD) was developed as a large area detector for X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis, achieving near Fano-limited spectroscopy at -15 Degree-Sign C. The SCD was flown in the XRF instruments onboard the European Space Agency's SMART-1 and the Indian Space Research Organisation's Chandrayaan-1 lunar missions. The second generation SCD, proposed for use in the soft X-ray Spectrometer on the Chandrayaan-2 lunar orbiter and the soft X-ray imager on China's HXMT mission, was developed, in part, using the findings of the radiation damage studies performed for the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer. This paper discusses the factor of two improvements in radiation tolerance achieved in the second generation SCD, the different SCD sizes produced and their advantages for future XRF instruments, for example through reduced shielding mass or higher operating temperatures.

  2. Improved Metathesis Lifetime: Chelating Pyridinyl-Alcoholato Ligands in the Second Generation Grubbs Precatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean I. du Toit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemilabile ligands can release a free coordination site “on demand” of an incoming nucleophilic substrate while occupying it otherwise. This is believed to increase the thermal stability and activity of catalytic systems and therefore prevent decomposition via free coordination sites. In this investigation chelating pyridinyl-alcoholato ligands were identified as possible hemilabile ligands for incorporation into the second generation Grubbs precatalyst. The O,N-alcoholato ligands with different steric bulk could be successfully incorporated into the precatalysts. The incorporation of the sterically hindered, hemilabile O,N-ligands improved the thermal stability, activity, selectivity and lifetime of these complexes towards the metathesis of 1-octene. A decrease in the activity of the second generation Grubbs precatalyst was additionally observed after incorporating a hemilabile O,N-ligand with two phenyl groups into the system, while increasing their lifetime.

  3. MALVAC 2012 scientific forum: accelerating development of second-generation malaria vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) convened a malaria vaccines committee (MALVAC) scientific forum from 20 to 21 February 2012 in Geneva, Switzerland, to review the global malaria vaccine portfolio, to gain consensus on approaches to accelerate second-generation malaria vaccine development, and to discuss the need to update the vision and strategic goal of the Malaria Vaccine Technology Roadmap. This article summarizes the forum, which included reviews of leading Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidates for pre-erythrocytic vaccines, blood-stage vaccines, and transmission-blocking vaccines. Other major topics included vaccine candidates against Plasmodium vivax, clinical trial site capacity development in Africa, trial design considerations for a second-generation malaria vaccine, adjuvant selection, and regulatory oversight functions including vaccine licensure. PMID:23140365

  4. Preparing for Life: Gender, Religiosity and Education Amongst Second Generation Hindus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Holtmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of Hinduism is its respect for religious diversity. Amidst religious pluralism in a multicultural Canadian society this strength poses challenges for the second generation. Drawing on qualitative interview data from 57 ‘1.5’ and second generation university students, this article examines the roles that Hinduism and gender play in the process of identity construction in visible minority groups. These young people were raised in families where traditional Hindu religious and cultural practices were valued by immigrants as they creatively adjusted to Canadian society. Parents tried to actively involve their children in their way of life but were largely unable to assist them in articulating the meaning of Hindu rituals and beliefs. As a result, young men and women are caught between the values of their parent’s generation and those implicit in Canadian educational institutions. The secularism of this educational system, permeated by religious illiteracy, contributes to tensions and ambiguities in identity construction.

  5. The development and clinical evaluation of second-generation leishmaniasis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Malcolm S; Raman, Vanitha S; Piazza, Franco M; Reed, Steven G

    2012-01-05

    Infection with Leishmania parasites results in a range of clinical manifestations and outcomes. Control of Leishmania parasite transmission is extremely difficult due to the large number of vectors and potential reservoirs, and none of the current treatments are ideal. Vaccination could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. In this review, the current global situation with regard to leishmaniasis, the immunology of Leishmania infection and various efforts to identify second generation vaccine candidates are briefly discussed. The variety of clinical trials conducted using the only current second generation vaccine approved for clinical use, LEISH-F1+MPL-SE, are described. Given that epidemiological evidence suggests that reducing the canine reservoir also positively impacts human incidence, efforts at providing a vaccine for leishmaniasis in dogs are highlighted. Finally, potential refinements and surrogate markers that could expedite the introduction of a vaccine that can limit the severity and incidence of leishmaniasis are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of intelligence quotients of first- and second-generation deaf children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraei, K; Amirsalari, S; Ajalloueyan, M

    2017-01-01

    Hearing impairment is a common type of sensory loss in children. Studies indicate that children with hearing impairment are deficient in social, cognitive and communication skills. This study compared the intelligence quotients of first- and second-generation deaf children with cochlear implants. This research is causal-comparative. All 15 deaf children investigated had deaf parents and were selected from Baqiyatallah Cochlear Implant Center. The 15 children with cochlear implants were paired with similar children with hearing parents using purposive sampling. The findings show that the Hotelling trace of multivariate analysis of variance (F = 6.78, p intelligence scales except knowledge. It can be assumed that second-generation children joined their family in the use of sign language as the primary experience before a cochlear implant. The use of sign language before cochlear implants is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Shift in Dharma : Changes in Conceptualisations of Faith Among Second-Generation Hindus in Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ram Eivind

    2002-01-01

    This is a study of a Hindu community in diaspora. Based on analysis of fieldwork data that was collected among second-generation North Indian Hindus in the city of Oslo, the thesis identifies various tendencies among informants that are described as changes in their conceptualisation of religion. The thesis argues that these changes amount to a convergence with conceptualisations of religion that are common in their Norwegian host society. The way that informants think about religion, in othe...

  8. Study of second-generation Proximity Gap Suction Development System (PGSD-II) for mask fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hideaki; Terayama, Masatoshi; Sakai, Mari; Itoh, Masamitsu; Ikenaga, Osamu; Funakoshi, Hideo; Sato, Norifumi; Nakamizo, Kenji; Nomura, Masato; Saito, Yoshihiko; Nakao, Junji; Hayashi, Naoya

    2008-10-01

    Development process for 3x nm node devices and beyond is becoming a great issue in mask fabrication. The following items, such as uniformity, repeatability, loading effect and defect must be improved. To evolve the development process, TEL, DNP Omron and Toshiba have been jointly developed next generation equipment which is called "Second-generation PGSD (Gen.2)". In this paper, PGSD Gen.2 concept is introduced and its performance is reported.

  9. Report on the ''2017 ESO Calibration Workshop: The Second-Generation VLT Instruments and Friends''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smette, A.; Kerber, F.; Kaufer, A.

    2017-03-01

    The participants at the 2017 ESO Calibration Workshop shared their experiences and the challenges encountered in calibrating VLT second-generation instruments and the upgraded first-generation instruments, and discussed improvements in the characterisation of the atmosphere and data reduction. A small group of ESO participants held a follow-up retreat and identified possible game changers in the future operations of the La Silla Paranal Observatory: feedback on the proposals is encouraged.

  10. Accuracy and safety of second-generation PillCam COLON capsule for colorectal polyp detection

    OpenAIRE

    Spada, Cristiano; De Vincentis, Fabio; Cesaro, Paola; Hassan, Cesare; Riccioni, Maria Elena; Minelli Grazioli, Leonardo; Bolivar, Santiago; Zurita, Andrade; Costamagna, Guido

    2012-01-01

    PillCam COLON capsule endoscopy (CCE) (Given Imaging Ltd, Yoqneam, Israel) is one of the most recent diagnostic, endoscopic technologies designed to explore the colon. CCE is a noninvasive, patient-friendly technique that is able to explore the colon without requiring sedation and air insufflation. The first generation of CCE was released onto the market in 2006 and although it generated great enthusiasm, it showed suboptimal accuracy. Recently, a second-generation system (PillCam COLON 2) (C...

  11. Hydrodeoxygenation of aliphatic and aromatic oxygenates on sulphided catalysts for production of second generation biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Şenol, Osman İlke

    2007-01-01

    Environmental concerns and diminishing petroleum reserves have increased the importance of biofuels for traffic fuel applications. Second generation biofuels produced from wood, vegetable oils and animal fats have been considered promising for delivering biofuels in large amount with low production cost. The abundance of oxygen in the form of various aliphatic and aromatic oxygenates decreases the quality of biofuels, however, and therefore the oxygen content of biofuels must be reduced. Upgr...

  12. Percutaneous transfemoral-transseptal implantation of a second-generation CardiAQ™ mitral valve bioprosthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussia, Gian Paolo; Quadri, Arshad; Cammalleri, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Transcatheter mitral valve implantation for mitral valve regurgitation is in the very early phase of development because of challenging anatomy and device dimensions. We describe the procedure of a transfemoral-transseptal implantation of the second-generation CardiAQ mitral valve bioprosth....... CONCLUSIONS: This procedure shows that percutaneous transfemoral transcatheter mitral valve implantation is feasible, safe and successful. Further experience is needed to render this procedure clinically available....

  13. The Second Generation Hypernuclear Spectroscopy at JLab Hall C (E01-011 experiment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Akihiko [TOHOKU

    2008-11-01

    The second generation Λ hypernuclear spectroscopy by (e,e’K{sup +}) reaction has been carried out successfully at JLab in 2005. New configurations, HKS and Tilt method, significantly improved both energy resolution and statistics. Systematic error depend on tuning procedure was estimated by the blind analysis. Analysis is in the final stage. Third generation experiment (JLab E05-115) will be performed in the summer of 2009 w/ new e’ spectrometer (HES).

  14. Status Update on the Second-Generation ILC Marx Modulator Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Benwell, Andrew; Burkhart, Craig; Larsen, Ray; MacNair, David; Nguyen, Minh; Olsen, Jeff; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    This paper is a status update of the SLAC P2 Marx. This Marx-topology klystron modulator is a second-generation modulator which builds upon experience gained from the SLAC P1 Marx. There are several fundamental differences between these modulators including the correction scheme, bus voltages, and the control system architecture. These differences, along with preliminary experimental results and the schedule for further development, are detailed in this paper.

  15. The quest for a 'better life': Second-generation Turkish-Germans 'return' to 'paradise'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Kılınç

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper uses a lifestyle-migration lens to analyse the 'return' of the Turkish-German second generation to their parents' homeland, Turkey. It focuses on a scenically attractive touristic region, Antalya on the south coast, where second-generation 'returnees' find a highly congenial environment to pursue their project of living a 'better life' in the ancestral homeland. Methods: Thirty in-depth interviews with second-generation Turkish-Germans, mostly in their 30s and 40s, were carried out in and around Antalya in 2014. Narratives were coded and prepared for thematic analysis using NVivo. Results: According to thematic analysis of interview narratives, many respondents were seeking to 'escape' from difficult personal, family, and economic situations. They mobilised their human capital of educational qualifications, language skills, and life experience to set up or get jobs in hotels, restaurants, and other tourist services, combining work with a relaxed attitude to life in what they saw as a 'paradise' of natural beauty and social open-mindedness. Alongside these practical considerations of seeking a better work-life balance were more existential themes of rediscovering their 'true selves' and reinventing the meaning of 'home' in this cosmopolitan niche. Contribution: The first contribution relates to the use of the concept of lifestyle migration to explain the experiences of second-generation Turkish-German 'returnees' who resettle in Turkey. Secondly we focus on a particular place in Turkey - Antalya - which offers a particular 'space' for the study population to achieve what they perceive as a 'better life'.

  16. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC CONFLICTS: AGRICULTURAL USE OR CULTIVATION BIOMASS SECOND GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Trohlyuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To negotiate the consequences of agricultural modernization as an example of nature Polissya areas in Ukraine. Studies addressing the conceptual foundations of ecological and economic conflict over agricultural use or cultivation of second generation biomass due to the transformation of land use during the economic reforms in the country. Proposed to solve it through socio-ecological-economic assessment of environmental audit procedure in the context of the strategy of "green" economy.

  17. Development status of the Second-Generation Global Imager (SGLI) on GCOM-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Yoshihiko; Amano, Takahiro; Hiramatsu, Masaru; Shiratama, Koichi

    2009-09-01

    The Second-generation Global Imager (SGLI) on the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) is a multi-band imaging radiometer in the wavelength range of near-UV to thermal infrared. SGLI will provide high accuracy measurements of Ocean, Atmosphere, Land and Cryosphere. SGLI project successfully completed its Bread Board Model (BBM) evaluation last year and currently under Engineering Model (EM) development phase. This paper describes current development status of the SGLI instrument.

  18. I. Total Synthesis of Smenochromene B and Halenaquinone and II. Studies on the Chemical and Biological Properties of Azobenzene Photoswitches

    OpenAIRE

    Kienzler, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Part one of this dissertation describes synthetic efforts toward two separate but structurally related groups of marine sesquiterpene quinone natural products, the smenochromene/likonide family and halenaquinone, and culminates in the total synthesis of smenochromene B and halenaquinone. The total synthesis of smenochromene B and efforts towards likonide A centered around the use of smenochromene D as a synthetic intermediate. A macrocyclic ring contraction and double bond isomerization was...

  19. Second-Generation central venous catheter in the prevention of bloodstream infection: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janislei Gislei Dorociaki Stocco

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness and safety in the use of second-generation central venous catheters impregnated in clorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine when compared with other catheters, being them impregnated or not, in order to prevent the bloodstream infection prevention. Method: systematic review with meta-analysis. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS/SciELO, Cochrane CENTRAL; search in Congress Proceedings and records from Clinical Trials. Results: 1.235 studies were identified, 97 were pre-selected and 4 were included. In catheter-related bloodstream infection, there was no statistical significance between second-generation impregnated catheter compared with the non-impregnated ones, absolute relative risk 1,5% confidence interval 95% (3%-1%, relative risk 0,68 (confidence interval 95%, 0,40-1,15 and number needed to treat 66. In the sensitivity analysis, there was less bloodstream infection in impregnated catheters (relative risk 0,50, confidence interval 95%, 0,26-0,96. Lower colonization, absolute relative risk 9,6% (confidence interval 95%, 10% to 4%, relative risk 0,51 (confidence interval 95% from 0,38-0,85 and number needed to treat 5. Conclusion: the use of second-generation catheters was effective in reducing the catheter colonization and infection when a sensitivity analysis is performed. Future clinical trials are suggested to evaluate sepsis rates, mortality and adverse effects.

  20. Reflections of Low Income, Second Generation Latinas about Experiences in Depression Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilemann, MarySue V.; Pieters, Huibrie C.; Dornig, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Depression is higher among second generation Latinas compared to immigrants but mental health treatment is stigmatized. Therefore, second generation Latinas were interviewed after completing an eight-session depression treatment program to gain insight on what they found valuable about their therapy experiences. Constructivist Grounded Theory guided data collection and analysis which showed that women valued treatment more when they recognized their needs were being met, the therapist was a worthy co-pilot, and the program’s structure had flexibility. Four processes were considered important to their work in therapy: understanding feelings about past events, seeing patterns, accepting self, and changing family patterns but still being “family”. Post therapy, women valued their enhanced confidence and a “toolbelt” of techniques they gained for self-treatment. These findings have implications for designing future depression treatment programs that are more likely to be desirable and effective for the growing subgroup of underserved second generation Latinas in the U.S. PMID:26825479

  1. Segmented assimilation on the ground: the new second generation in early adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Portes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the literature on segmented assimilation and alternative theoretical models on the adaptation of the second generation; summarize the theoretical frame work developed in the course of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study; and present evidence from its third survey in South Florida bearing on alternative hypotheses. We find that the majority of second generation youths are moving ahead educationally and occupationally, but that a significant minority is being left behind. The latter group is not distributed randomly across nationalities, but corresponds closely to predictions based on immigrant parents’ human capital, family type, and modes of incorporation. While it is clear that members of the second generation, whether successful or unsuccessful will assimilate – in the sense of learning English and American culture – it makes a great deal of difference whether they do so by joining the main stream middle-class or the marginalized, and largely racialized, population at the bottom. Narratives drawn from the ethnographic module accompanying the survey put into perspective quantitative results and high light the realities of segmented assimilation as it takes place today in U.S. society.

  2. Processing Practice of Second Generation Tempeh Recipein Centre of Tempeh Home Industry in Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Kristianto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malang still faces nutrition problems that need to be solved with the use of local potential in the form of tempeh. More nutritious and attractive tempeh productsmay be produced by introducing new way of processing known as second generation of tempeh. This study was aimed to explore second generation tempe consumption pattern of in Malang. Methods: This study was descriptive qualitative. Tempeh consumption pattern was obtained from group of mother of 6-59 months child with malnutrition and pregnant with chronic energy deficiency in Kendalkerep health care center in which tempeh industry is localised and Arjowinangun health centers as a comparison. Data collection was conducted through FGD and tempeh cooking contest. Results: In general, respondents consumed tempeh almost every day. Tempe products were prepared traditionally in form of snack or protein source side dish. Tempeh processing is generally done by frying. Respondents have recognized the new way of processing tempeh in form of second generations.Respondents living in the tempeh industry area usedmore various ingredients and more complex methods of cooking. They also indicated the ability to adopt new way of tempeh processing. Conclusion: People in Malang consumes tempeh in two forms, ie. side dishes and snack traditionally processed mainly by frying. They may adopt new way of tempeh processing. Recommendation: Futher research is needed to prove the benefit in reducing the malnutrition.

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for second-generation ethanol production: from academic exploration to industrial implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mickel L A; Bracher, Jasmine M; Papapetridis, Ioannis; Verhoeven, Maarten D; de Bruijn, Hans; de Waal, Paul P; van Maris, Antonius J A; Klaassen, Paul; Pronk, Jack T

    2017-08-01

    The recent start-up of several full-scale 'second generation' ethanol plants marks a major milestone in the development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates of agricultural residues and energy crops. After a discussion of the challenges that these novel industrial contexts impose on yeast strains, this minireview describes key metabolic engineering strategies that have been developed to address these challenges. Additionally, it outlines how proof-of-concept studies, often developed in academic settings, can be used for the development of robust strain platforms that meet the requirements for industrial application. Fermentation performance of current engineered industrial S. cerevisiae strains is no longer a bottleneck in efforts to achieve the projected outputs of the first large-scale second-generation ethanol plants. Academic and industrial yeast research will continue to strengthen the economic value position of second-generation ethanol production by further improving fermentation kinetics, product yield and cellular robustness under process conditions. © FEMS 2017.

  4. Incidence of Schizophrenia Among Second-Generation Immigrants in the Jerusalem Perinatal Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Cheryl; Perrin, Mary; Harlap, Susan; Deutsch, Lisa; Fennig, Shmuel; Manor, Orly; Nahon, Daniella; Kimhy, David; Malaspina, Dolores; Susser, Ezra

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Increased incidence of schizophrenia is observed among some immigrant groups in Europe, with the offspring of immigrants, ie “second-generation” immigrants particularly vulnerable. Few contemporary studies have evaluated the risk of schizophrenia among second-generation immigrants in other parts of the world. Methods: We studied the incidence of schizophrenia in relation to parental immigrant status in a population-based cohort of 88 829 offspring born in Jerusalem in 1964–1976. Parental countries of birth were obtained from birth certificates and grouped together as (1) Israel, (2) Other West Asia, (3) North Africa, and (4) Europe and industrialized countries. Cox proportional hazards methods were used in adjusting for sex, parents’ ages, maternal education, social class, and birth order. Results: Linkage with Israel's Psychiatric Registry identified 637 people admitted to psychiatric care facilities with schizophrenia-related diagnoses, before 1998. Incidence of schizophrenia was not increased among second-generation immigrants in this birth cohort, neither overall nor by specific group. Conclusions: The difference in risk of schizophrenia among second-generation immigrants in Europe and in this Israeli birth cohort suggests that the nature of the immigration experience may be relevant to risk, including reasons for migration, the nature of entry, and subsequent position in the host country for immigrants and their offspring. Minority status may be of importance as, in later studies, immigrants to Israel from Ethiopia had increased risk of schizophrenia. PMID:18648022

  5. Synthesis of derivatives of tetronic acid and pulvinic acid. Total synthesis of norbadione A; Synthese de derives de l'acide tetronique et de l'acide pulvinique. Synthese totale de la norbadione A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallinger, A

    2008-11-15

    When vegetables like mushrooms are contaminated by radioactive caesium 137, this radioactive caesium is associated to norbadione A, a natural pigment present in two mushroom species and which can be used as a caesium decorporation agent or maybe as protection agent against ionizing radiations. Within this perspective, this research report describes the biosynthesis and the structure and properties of the norbadione A and of pulvinic acids (physicochemical properties, anti-oxidizing properties). Then, it presents the various tetronic acids (3-acyl-, 3-alkyl-, 3-alkoxy-, 3-aryl-tetronic acids and non 3-substituted tetronic acids), their synthesis path as they are described in the literature, and presents a new synthesis approach using a tandem reaction (with different esters or hydroxy esters) and the synthesis of tetronic acids. The author also proposes a new synthesis way for methyl pulvinates, and finally reports the work on the development of a total synthesis of the norbadione A.

  6. Decision-making regarding total knee replacement surgery: A qualitative meta-synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Bie

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent condition that can result in disability and reduced quality of life. The evidence suggests that total knee replacement surgery (TKR is an effective intervention for patients with severe knee problems, but there is also an unmet need for this treatment in the UK. To help understand the reason for this unmet need, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence the decision-making process of TKR surgery by synthesising the available evidence from qualitative research on this topic. Methods A meta-synthesis was undertaken. This involved sevens steps: getting started, deciding what is relevant to the initial interest, reading the studies, determining how the studies are related, translating the studies into one another, synthesising translations, and finally, expressing the synthesis. Second-order and third-order interpretations regarding decision-making in TKR surgery were drawn from the literature. Results Ten qualitative studies were found and are included in the synthesis. The evidence suggests that social and cultural categories of aging have shaped the expectation of knee osteoarthritis, and this in turn shapes patients' expectations of treatment options. The role of the health care professional was the strongest theme to emerge across all ten studies. Coping strategies and life context determine short and longer-term outcomes of TKR. Conclusion The decision-making process regarding TKR surgery is extremely complex, as patients have weigh up numerous considerations before they can make a decision about surgery. By synthesising ten qualitative studies, we have illuminated the importance of the health care professional during this process.

  7. Comparative Effectiveness of Second-Generation Antidepressants in Reducing the Risk of Dementia in Elderly Nursing Home Residents with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Vishal; Holmes, Holly M; Johnson, Michael L; Chen, Hua; Fleming, Marc L; Aparasu, Rajender R

    2016-01-01

    Second-generation antidepressants have been shown to improve cognition and depression symptomatology, which are the major risk factors for dementia; however, little is known about the comparative effectiveness of antidepressants in reducing the risk of dementia. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term comparative effectiveness of different antidepressant classes in reducing the risk of dementia in elderly nursing home residents with depression. Propensity score-adjusted retrospective cohort study. Multistate Minimum Data Set-linked Medicare Parts A, B, and D data files. A total of 25,108 nursing home residents (65 years and older) with a diagnosis of depression and without a dementia diagnosis who were Medicare beneficiaries and new users of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; 19,952 [79.5%]), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs; 2381 [9.5%]), or tetracyclic antidepressants (2775 [11.1%]) between 2007 and 2010. New users of SSRIs, SNRIs, and tetracyclics were followed over a 2-year period for the occurrence of dementia. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of SNRIs and tetracyclics in reducing the risk of dementia, with the SSRI class used as the reference category after controlling for propensity scores and their interactions terms. The unadjusted incidence of dementia was 8.2% for SSRI users, 6.0% for SNRI users, and 7.2% for tetracyclic users. The propensity score-adjusted Cox model did not find any significant difference in the risk of dementia in elderly nursing home residents who used SNRIs (hazard ratio [HR] 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-1.19) or tetracyclics (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.87-1.17) compared with the SSRI users. This study did not find any significant differences in reducing the risk of dementia among the new users of second-generation antidepressant classes. Further studies are needed to evaluate the profiles of second-generation

  8. Total Synthesis of Δ(12) -Prostaglandin J3 : Evolution of Synthetic Strategies to a Streamlined Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C; Pulukuri, Kiran Kumar; Yu, Ruocheng; Rigol, Stephan; Heretsch, Philipp; Grove, Charles I; Hale, Christopher R H; ElMarrouni, Abdelatif

    2016-06-13

    The total synthesis of Δ(12) -prostaglandin J3 (Δ(12) -PGJ3 , 1), a reported leukemia stem cell ablator, through a number of strategies and tactics is described. The signature cross-conjugated dienone structural motif of 1 was forged by an aldol reaction/dehydration sequence from key building blocks enone 13 and aldehyde 14, whose lone stereocenters were generated by an asymmetric Tsuji-Trost reaction and an asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reaction, respectively. During this program, a substituent-governed regioselectivity pattern for the Rh-catalyzed C-H functionalization of cyclopentenes and related olefins was discovered. The evolution of the synthesis of 1 from the original strategy to the final streamlined process proceeded through improvements in the construction of both fragments 13 and 14, exploration of the chemistry of the hitherto underutilized chiral lactone synthon 57, and a diastereoselective alkylation of a cyclopentenone intermediate. The described chemistry sets the stage for large-scale production of Δ(12) -PGJ3 and designed analogues for further biological and pharmacological studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Stereoselective synthesis of (E)-beta-tributylstannyl-alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones: Construction of a key intermediate for the total synthesis of zoanthamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Eiland; Tanner, David Ackland

    2002-01-01

    (E)-beta-Trialkylstannyl-alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones are readily available from secondary propargylic alcohols via a two-step sequence involving highly regio- and stereoselective Pd(0)-catalyzed hydrostannation followed by mild oxidation (TPAP). The methodology has been applied to the synthesis...... of enantiomerically pure enone 12 which is a key intermediate for the total synthesis of zoanthamine, a structurally complex marine natural product....

  10. No improvement in long-term wear and revision rates with the second-generation Biomet cup (RingLoc) in young patients

    OpenAIRE

    Boesenach, Bart; van der Heide, Huub JL; Nelissen, Rob GHH

    2011-01-01

    Background A number of excellent results with the cementless titanium femoral component of the Mallory Head Total Hip Replacement have been published. Unfortunately, these excellent results have been counteracted by the poor performance of the cementless titanium acetabular components. In 1994, the HexLoc acetabular component was replaced with a second-generation design, the RingLoc. We hypothesized that the new generation would have improved the results. Methods We retrospectively studied 11...

  11. Preparation of second generation ionic liquids by efficient solvent-free alkylation of N-heterocycles with chloroalkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Gaudino, Emanuela Calcio; Boffa, Luisa; Lévêque, Jean-Marc; Estager, Julien; Bonrath, Werner

    2008-01-25

    Non-conventional techniques, such as microwave (MW) and power ultrasound (US) as well as combined MW/US irradiation, have been used to promote one-pot synthesis of second-generation ionic liquids (ILs), cutting down reaction times and improving yields. However, the use of chloroalkanes in the alkylation of N-heterocycles requires more drastic conditions if results are to match those obtained with more reactive alkyl halides. The present paper describes a series of MW- or MW/US-promoted IL preparations starting from chloroalkanes and classic heterocycles (1-methylimidazole, pyridine and 1-methylpyrrolidine). When reactions were carried out under conventional heating in an oil bath they required longer reaction times and gave poorer yields. (1)H-NMR analysis and ion-exchange chromatography showed that the present solventless procedure afforded ILs of satisfactory purity. The observed high yields (usually 70-98% isolated), and short reaction times showed that a straightforward access to ILs can be also achieved with the use of alkyl chlorides, resulting in a considerable reduction of costs.

  12. Comparative Cognitive Profile of Second-Generation Antidepressants in Elderly Nursing Home Residents With Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Vishal; Johnson, Michael L; Chen, Hua; Fleming, Marc L; Holmes, Holly M; Aparasu, Rajender R

    2016-02-01

    Past literature suggests that the use of second-generation antidepressants improves cognition in depressed elderly patients. This study assessed the comparative cognitive profile of commonly used second-generation antidepressant classes in elderly residents with depression. A multiple propensity score adjusted retrospective cohort study was conducted using 2007-2010 Medicare Part D claims and Minimum Data Set (MDS). Elderly nursing home residents (65 years or older) with depression using a new prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and tetracyclics constituted the study cohort. The outcome of interest was cognition, measured using the MDS Cognition Scale. Cognition was measured at each quarterly assessment after antidepressant initiation for a maximum of 1 year. The propensity score-adjusted repeated-measures mixed model was used to evaluate the comparative profile of SSRIs, SNRIs, and tetracyclics with respect to cognition. The study cohort comprised 1518 elderly nursing home residents. Of these, 1081 received SSRIs (71.21%), 320 received tetracyclics (21.08%), and 117 received SNRIs (7.71%). The propensity score-adjusted repeated-measures mixed model did not show any statistically significant difference in cognition with the use of SSRIs (β = -0.14; 95% CI = -0.53, 0.25) or tetracyclics (β = -0.36; 95% CI = -0.80, 0.08) when compared with SNRIs, after controlling for other factors. The cognitive effect of SSRIs, SNRIs, and tetracyclics was similar in elderly nursing home residents with depression. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term cognitive effects of second-generation antidepressants in this vulnerable population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Selecting optimal second-generation antihistamines for allergic rhinitis and urticaria in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recto, Marysia Tiongco; Gabriel, Ma Teresita; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn; Aw, Derrick Chen-Wee; Lee, Tak Hong; Chwen, Ch'ng Chin; Mutusamy, Somasundran; Hao, Nguyen Trong; Quang, Vo Thanh; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2017-01-01

    Allergic diseases are on the rise in many parts of the world, including the Asia-Pacific (APAC) region. Second-generation antihistamines are the first-line treatment option in the management of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. International guidelines describe the management of these conditions; however, clinicians perceive the additional need to tailor treatment according to patient profiles. This study serves as a consensus of experts from several countries in APAC (Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam), which aims to describe the unmet needs, practical considerations, challenges, and key decision factors when determining optimal second-generation antihistamines for patients with allergic rhinitis and/or urticaria. Specialists from allergology, dermatology, and otorhinolaryngology were surveyed on practical considerations and key decision points when treating patients with allergic rhinitis and/or urticaria. Clinicians felt the need for additional tools for diagnosis of these diseases and a single drug with all preferred features of an antihistamine. Challenges in treatment include lack of clinician and patient awareness and compliance, financial constraints, and treatment for special patient populations such as those with concomitant disease. Selection of optimal second-generation antihistamines depends on many factors, particularly drug safety and efficacy, impact on psychomotor abilities, and sedation. Country-specific considerations include drug availability and cost-effectiveness. Survey results reveal bilastine as a preferred choice due to its high efficacy and safety, suitability for special patient populations, and the lack of sedative effects. Compliance to the international guidelines is present among allergists, dermatologists and otorhinolaryngologists; however, this is lower amongst general practitioners (GPs). To increase awareness, allergy education programs targeted at GPs and patients may be beneficial. Updates to

  14. Second generation locked plating for complex proximal humerus fractures in very elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaskar, Ashok S; Karthik B, Bhupesh; Tummala, Naveen C; Srinivasan, Parthasarathy; Gopalan, Hitesh

    2016-11-01

    Humeral head sacrificing procedures are more favored in elderly patients with complex proximal humerus fractures because of high incidence of failures and complications with osteosynthesis. The purpose of this study is to assess the outcome of second generation locked plating techniques in 3 and 4 part fractures in active elderly patients >70years with an emphasis on function and complications. 29 patients with displaced 3 and 4 part proximal humerus fractures were treated using the principles of second-generation proximal humerus locked plating. Fixed angle locked plating (PHILOS) using the anterolateral deltoid spilt approach augmented with traction cuff sutures was performed. Minimum of 7 locking head screws including 2 calcar screws were used. In cases with a comminuted medial calcar, an endosteal fibular strut was used. Subchondral metaphyseal bone voids were filled with injectable calcium phosphate cement. Radiological outcome (union, head - shaft angle, tuberosity reduction), functional outcome assessment (Constant and ASES scores) and complications (loss of reduction, nonunion and osteonecrosis) were assessed. The fracture united in 24 of the 26 patients available for follow up at a mean of 27 months (12-40 months). 3 patients developed complications that required arthroplasty (fixation failure in 2 patients and osteonecrosis in 1 patient). Follow up age adjusted Constant (63.1±11.9) and ASES scores (62.58±7.5) showed the extent of functional improvement post surgery. Patients with fractures having a non-comminuted medial calcar and valgus displacement of the humeral head had better functional scores and fewer complications. Osteosynthesis with second generation locked plating techniques provide satisfactory outcome in very elderly patients with complex proximal humerus fractures with minimal complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metatranscriptomic profiles of Eastern subterranean termites, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) fed on second generation feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Shreve, Jacob T; Bhide, Ketaki P; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Scharf, Michael E

    2015-04-22

    Second generation lignocellulosic feedstocks are being considered as an alternative to first generation biofuels that are derived from grain starches and sugars. However, the current pre-treatment methods for second generation biofuel production are inefficient and expensive due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulose. In this study, we used the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), as a model to identify potential pretreatment genes/enzymes specifically adapted for use against agricultural feedstocks. Metatranscriptomic profiling was performed on worker termite guts after feeding on corn stover (CS), soybean residue (SR), or 98% pure cellulose (paper) to identify (i) microbial community, (ii) pathway level and (iii) gene-level responses. Microbial community profiles after CS and SR feeding were different from the paper feeding profile, and protist symbiont abundance decreased significantly in termites feeding on SR and CS relative to paper. Functional profiles after CS feeding were similar to paper and SR; whereas paper and SR showed different profiles. Amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism pathways were downregulated in termites feeding on SR relative to paper and CS. Gene expression analyses showed more significant down regulation of genes after SR feeding relative to paper and CS. Stereotypical lignocellulase genes/enzymes were not differentially expressed, but rather were among the most abundant/constitutively-expressed genes. These results suggest that the effect of CS and SR feeding on termite gut lignocellulase composition is minimal and thus, the most abundantly expressed enzymes appear to encode the best candidate catalysts for use in saccharification of these and related second-generation feedstocks. Further, based on these findings we hypothesize that the most abundantly expressed lignocellulases, rather than those that are differentially expressed have the best potential as pretreatment enzymes for CS and SR feedstocks.

  16. Search for pair production of second generation scalar leptoquarks in ppbar collisions at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calfayan, Philippe [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany)

    2008-05-07

    As predicted by numerous extensions of the Standard Model, leptoquarks (LQ) are hypothetical bosons allowing lepton-quark transitions. Under the assumption that they couple only to quarks and leptons of the same generation, three generations of leptoquarks can be distinguished. The search for the pair production of second generation scalar leptoquarks has been carried out in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96TeV, using an integrated luminosity of 1 fb-1 collected by the D0 experiment at the Tevatron collider between August 2002 and February 2006. Topologies arising from the LQ$\\bar{LQ}$ → μqvq and LQ$\\bar{LQ}$ → μqμq decay modes have been investigated. In order to maximize the available statistics, a method for the combination of various prescaled triggers with an inclusive OR has been developed. Since no excess of data over the Standard Model prediction has been observed, upper limits on the leptoquark pair production cross section have been derived at 95% confidence level as function of the leptoquark mass and the branching fraction β = Br(LQ →μq), and are interpreted as lower limits on the leptoquark mass as function of β. For β = 1, β = 1/2 and β = 0.1, the combination of the two channels excludes scalar second generation leptoquarks with masses up to 309GeV, 262GeV, and 174GeV, respectively. The lower bounds on the scalar second generation leptoquark mass obtained for β ≥ 0.1 are the best exclusion limits to date.

  17. Design of Heterogeneous Hoveyda–Grubbs Second-Generation Catalyst–Lipase Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Neville

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous catalysts have been synthesized by the conjugation of Hoveyda–Grubbs second-generation catalyst with a lipase. The catalytic properties of the organometallic compound in solution were firstly optimized, evaluating the activity of Ru in the ring-closing metathesis of diethyldiallymalonate at 25 °C at different solvents and in the presence of different additives. The best result was found using tetrahydrofuran as a solvent. Some additives such as phenylboronic acid or polyetheneglycol slightly improved the activity of the Ru catalyst whereas others, such as pyridine or dipeptides affected it negatively. The organometallic compound immobilized on functionalized-surface materials activated with boronic acid or epoxy groups (around 50–60 µg per mg support and showed 50% conversion at 24 h in the ring-closing metathesis. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA’s of the Hoveyda–Grubbs second-generation catalyst with Candida antarctica lipase (CAL-B were prepared, although low Ru catalyst was found to be translated in low conversion. Therefore, a sol–gel preparation of the Hoveyda–Grubbs second-generation and CAL-B was performed. This catalyst exhibited good activity in the metathesis of diethyldiallymalonate in toluene and in aqueous media. Finally, a new sustainable approach was used by the conjugation lipase–Grubbs in solid phase in aqueous media. Two strategies were used: one using lipase previously covalently immobilized on an epoxy-Sepharose support (hydrophilic matrix and then conjugated with grubbs; and in the second, the free lipase was incubated with organometallic in aqueous solution and then immobilized on epoxy-Sepharose. The different catalysts showed excellent conversion values in the ring-closing metathesis of diethyldiallymalonate in aqueous media at 25 °C.

  18. Total Synthesis of Flocoumafen via Knoevenagel Condensation and Intramolecular Ring Cyclization: General Access to Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankil Jung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The total synthesis and structure determination of cis- and trans-flocoumafen was described. The key synthetic steps involve Knoevenagel condensation with p-methoxybenzaldehyde, in situ decarboxylation and intramolecular ring cyclization to construct the tetralone skeleton. Stereospecific reduction of the O-alkylated ketone 13 afforded good yield of precusor alcohol 5. Final coupling of alcohol 5 with 4-hydroxy-coumarin yielded flocoumafen (1. Separation and structure determination of cis- and trans-flocoumafen through 2D NMR analyses-assisted computer simulation techniques for the evaluation of anticoagulant activities are reported for the first time. This method is useful for generating the core tetralone skeleton of 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives and provides a generalized access to various warfarin type anticoagulants.

  19. Discovery and Total Synthesis of Natural Cystobactamid Derivatives with Superior Activity against Gram-Negative Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttel, Stephan; Testolin, Giambattista; Herrmann, Jennifer; Planke, Therese; Gille, Franziska; Moreno, Maria; Stadler, Marc; Brönstrup, Mark; Kirschning, Andreas; Müller, Rolf

    2017-10-02

    Antibiotic discovery and development is challenging as chemical scaffolds of synthetic origin often lack the required pharmaceutical properties, and the discovery of novel ones from natural sources is tedious. Herein, we report the discovery of new cystobactamids with a significantly improved antibacterial profile in a detailed screening of myxobacterial producer strains. Some of these new derivatives display antibacterial activities in the low-μg mL-1 range against Gram-negative pathogens, including clinical isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, which were not observed for previously reported cystobactamids. Our findings provide structure-activity relationships and show how pathogen resistance can be overcome by natural scaffold diversity. The most promising derivative 861-2 was prepared by total synthesis, enabling further chemical optimization of this privileged scaffold. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Bisquinolizidine Alkaloids: A Modular 'Inside-Out' Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnagel, Dagmar; Goller, Jessica; Deibl, Nicklas; Milius, Wolfgang; Breuning, Matthias

    2018-01-23

    Bisquinolizidine alkaloids are characterized by a chiral bispidine core (3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane) to which combinations of an alpha,N-fused 2-pyridone, an endo- or exo-alpha,N-annulated piperidin(on)e, and an exo-allyl substituent are attached. We developed a modular 'inside-out' approach that permits access to most members of this class. Its applicability was proven in the asymmetric synthesis of 21 natural bisquinolizidine alkaloids, among them more than ten first enantioselective total syntheses. Key steps are the first successful preparation of both enantiomers of C2-symmetric 2,6-dioxobispidine by desymmetrization of a 2,4,6,8-tetraoxo precursor, the construction of the alpha,N-fused 2-pyridone by using an enamine-bromoacrylic acid strategy, and the installation of endo- or, optionally, exo-annulated piperidin(on)es. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Total Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Palmarumycin CP17 and Its Methoxy Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruina Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Total synthesis of naturally occurring spirobisnaphthalene palmarumycin CP17 and its methoxy analogues was first achieved through Friedel-Crafts acylation, Wolff-Kishner reduction, intramolecular cyclization, ketalization, benzylic oxidation, and demethylation using the inexpensive and readily available methoxybenzene, 1,2-dimethoxybenzene and 1,4-dimethoxybenzene and 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene as raw materials. Demethylation with (CH33SiI at ambient temperature resulted in ring A aromatization and acetal cleavage to give rise to binaphthyl ethers. The antifungal activities of these spirobisnaphthalene derivatives were evaluated, and the results revealed that 5 and 9b exhibit EC50 values of 9.34 µg/mL and 12.35 µg/mL, respectively, against P. piricola.

  2. Total Synthesis of Disciformycin A and B: Unusually Exigent Targets of Biological Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yonghoon; Schulthoff, Saskia; Dao, Quang Minh; Wirtz, Conny; Fürstner, Alois

    2018-01-02

    The first total synthesis of the potent antibiotic disciformycin B (2) is described, which is exceptionally isomerization-prone and transforms into disciformycin A (1) even under notably mild conditions. To outweigh this bias, the approach to 2 hinged on the use of a silyl residue at C4 to lock the critical double bond in place and hence insure the integrity of the synthetic intermediates en route to 2. This tactic was instrumental for the preparation of the building blocks and formation of the macrocyclic ring via ring closing alkyne metathesis (RCAM). To make the end game successful, however, it proved necessary to cleave the C-silyl protecting group off; it was at this stage that the exceptional sensitivity of the target became fully apparent. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Total Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of a Natural Cycloheptapeptide of Marine Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemendra Gautam

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the first total synthesis of the proline-rich cyclopolypeptide stylisin 2 via a solution phase technique by coupling of the Boc-l-Pro-l-Ile-l-Pro-OH tripeptide unit with the l-Phe-l-Pro-l-Pro-l-Tyr-OMe tetrapeptide unit, followed by cyclization of the resulting linear heptapeptide fragment. The chemical structure of the finally synthesized peptide was elucidated by FTIR, 1H/13C-NMR and FAB MS spectral data, as well as elemental analyses. The newly synthesized peptide was subjected to antimicrobial screening against eight pathogenic microbes and found to exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans, in addition to moderate antidermatophyte activity against pathogenic Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii when compared to standard drugs—gatifloxacin and griseofulvin.

  4. Maintenance therapy with second generation antipsychotics for bipolar disorder - A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Leif; Lindström, Eva; Nilsson, Mikael; Höistad, Malin

    2017-04-15

    Second generations antipsychotics (SGA) are frequently used for maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder. We systematically reviewed the efficacy and long-term effects of treatment with SGA, regardless of treatment strategy (SGA administered either as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy), in comparison to placebo, lithium or valproate. Primary outcomes were relapses (mood episode recurrence) and discontinuation. Clinical studies were identified through database searching in PubMed, Embase, PsychInfo and Cochrane Library and critically appraised based on the Cochrane Handbook. Full data extraction of raw data was performed and analyzed with meta-analyses, and level of evidence graded using GRADE. Only randomized controlled studies (RCT) and observational studies were included, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Comparators used were restricted to placebo, lithium, valproate or other anti-epileptic drugs. We identified 15 RCTs on SGA in bipolar disorder with follow-up-time of 6 months up to 2 years, and one observational study reporting long-term effects of up to 4 years. A total of 6142 patients were included in the randomized trials. No long-term RCTs beyond 2 years follow-up was identified. All RCTs except for one included patients with bipolar disorder type I only. All RCTs except for two included patients pre-stabilized on the drug under investigation prior to randomization (enrichment design). For SGA as adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate, meta-analyses showed that treatment with either aripiprazole (RR: 0.65, 95% CI 0.50-0.85), quetiapine (RR: 0.38, 95% CI 0.32-0.46) or ziprasidone (RR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.40-0.96) reduced the overall risk of relapses in patients that had responded during the stabilization phase. Adjunctive therapy with quetiapine was the only drug that reduced both manic and depressive episodes. For SGA as monotherapy, only quetiapine was shown to be better than lithium/ valproate for both manic and depressive relapses, but only for

  5. Biomechanical Comparison of a First- and a Second-Generation All-Soft Suture Glenoid Anchor

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, John; Chiarappa, Frank; Haskel, Jonathan; Rice, Justin; Hyatt, Adam; Monica, James; Dhawan, Aman

    2017-01-01

    Background: All?soft tissue suture anchors provide advantages of decreased removal of bone and decreased glenoid volume occupied compared with traditional tap or screw-in suture anchors. Previous published data have led to biomechanical concerns with the use of first-generation all-soft suture anchors. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the load to 2-mm displacement and ultimate load to failure of a second-generation all-soft suture anchor, compared with a first-gen...

  6. Second generation of BACE-1 inhibitors. Part 1: The need for improved pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Nicolas; Clarke, Brian; Cutler, Leanne; Demont, Emmanuel; Dingwall, Colin; Dunsdon, Rachel; Hawkins, Julie; Howes, Colin; Hubbard, Julia; Hussain, Ishrut; Maile, Graham; Matico, Rosalie; Mosley, Julie; Naylor, Alan; O'Brien, Alistair; Redshaw, Sally; Rowland, Paul; Soleil, Virginie; Smith, Kathrine J; Sweitzer, Sharon; Theobald, Pam; Vesey, David; Walter, Daryl S; Wayne, Gareth

    2009-07-01

    Inhibition of the aspartyl protease BACE-1 has the potential to deliver a disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer's disease. We have recently disclosed a series of transition-state mimetic BACE-1 inhibitors showing nanomolar potency in cell-based assays. Amongst them, GSK188909 (compound 2) had favorable pharmacokinetics and was the first orally bioavailable inhibitor reported to demonstrate brain amyloid lowering in an animal model. In this Letter, we describe the reasons that led us to favor a second generation of inhibitors for further in vivo studies.

  7. Second generation of BACE-1 inhibitors part 3: Towards non hydroxyethylamine transition state mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Nicolas; Clarke, Brian; Cutler, Leanne; Demont, Emmanuel; Dingwall, Colin; Dunsdon, Rachel; Hawkins, Julie; Howes, Colin; Hubbard, Julia; Hussain, Ishrut; Maile, Graham; Matico, Rosalie; Mosley, Julie; Naylor, Alan; O'Brien, Alistair; Redshaw, Sally; Rowland, Paul; Soleil, Virginie; Smith, Kathrine J; Sweitzer, Sharon; Theobald, Pam; Vesey, David; Walter, Daryl S; Wayne, Gareth

    2009-07-01

    Our first generation of hydroxyethylamine BACE-1 inhibitors proved unlikely to provide molecules that would lower amyloid in an animal model at low oral doses. This observation led us to the discovery of a second generation of inhibitors having nanomolar activity in a cell-based assay and with the potential for improved pharmacokinetic profiles. In this Letter, we describe our successful strategy for the optimization of oral bioavailability and also give insights into the design of compounds with the potential for improved brain penetration.

  8. Whole system analysis of second generation bioenergy production and Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Dagmar; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall

    2017-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy that has higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on ecosystem services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by current climate change. It is important to establish how second generation bioenergy crops (Miscanthus, SRC willow and poplar) can contribute by closing the gap between reducing fossil fuel use and increasing the use of other renewable sources in a sustainable way. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecosystem services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). We will present estimated yields for the above named crops in Europe using the ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor models. These yields will be brought into context with a whole system analysis, detailing trade-offs and synergies for land use change, food security, GHG emissions and soil and water security. Methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate ecosystem valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ecosystem Services Framework) will be used to estimate and visualise the impacts of increased use of second generation bioenergy crops on the above named ecosystem services. The results will be linked to potential yields to generate "inclusion or exclusion areas" in Europe in order to establish suitable areas for bioenergy crop production and the extent of use possible. Policy is an important factor for using second generation bioenergy crops in a sustainable way. We will present how whole system analysis can be used to create scenarios for countries or on a continental scale. As an

  9. Platelet-rich fibrin: Evolution of a second-generation platelet concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha Raja V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is a platelet concentrate that has been used widely to accelerate soft-tissue and hard-tissue healing. The preparation of PRP has been described by several authors. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF was first described by Choukroun et al. in France. It has been referred to as a second-generation platelet concentrate, which has been shown to have several advantages over traditionally prepared PRP. Its chief advantages include ease of preparation and lack of biochemical handling of blood, which makes this preparation strictly autologous. This article describes the evolution of this novel platelet concentrate, referred to as PRF.

  10. Development of the Second-Generation Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter with Variable Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Abbas, Nikhar [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Michael [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

    2017-06-03

    This study investigates the effect of design changes on the hydrodynamics of a novel oscillating surge wave energy converter being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The design utilizes controllable geometry features to shed structural loads while maintaining a rated power over a greater number of sea states. The second-generation design will seek to provide a more refined control of performance because the first-generation design demonstrated performance reductions considered too large for smooth power output. Performance is evaluated using frequency domain analysis with consideration of a nonideal power-take-off system, with respect to power absorption, foundation loads, and power-take-off torque.

  11. Development of the Second-Generation Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter with Variable Geometry: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Michael [South Dakota School of Mines

    2017-07-25

    This study investigates the effect of design changes on the hydrodynamics of a novel oscillating surge wave energy converter being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The design utilizes controllable geometry features to shed structural loads while maintaining a rated power over a greater number of sea states. The second-generation design will seek to provide a more refined control of performance because the first-generation design demonstrated performance reductions considered too large for smooth power output. Performance is evaluated using frequency domain analysis with consideration of a nonideal power-take-off system, with respect to power absorption, foundation loads, and power-take-off torque.

  12. X-Shooter: The First of the VLT Second Generation Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehner, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    "X-shooter is the first of the VLT second generation instruments. It is in operation since 2009. I will give a short overview of the instrument and its calibration plan. A broad selection of data quality concerns will be presented, including instrumental and pipeline issues. Several of these issues could have been detected and solved faster, if the raw data and reduced data products were better monitored. For some of the currently known problems no solution could be found yet or resources are too limited."

  13. Mitochondrial Genome Variation after Hybridization and Differences in the First and Second Generation Hybrids of Bream Fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Zhuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Hybridization plays an important role in fish breeding. Bream fishes contribute a lot to aquaculture in China due to their economically valuable characteristics and the present study included five bream species, Megalobrama amblycephala, Megalobrama skolkovii, Megalobrama pellegrini, Megalobrama terminalis and Parabramis pekinensis. As maternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome (mitogenome involves species specific regulation, we aimed to investigate in which way the inheritance of mitogenome is affected by hybridization in these fish species. With complete mitogenomes of 7 hybrid groups of bream species being firstly reported in the present study, a comparative analysis of 17 mitogenomes was conducted, including representatives of these 5 bream species, 6 first generation hybrids and 6 second generation hybrids. The results showed that these 17 mitogenomes shared the same gene arrangement, and had similar gene size and base composition. According to the phylogenetic analyses, all mitogenomes of the hybrids were consistent with a maternal inheritance. However, a certain number of variable sites were detected in all F1 hybrid groups compared to their female parents, especially in the group of M. terminalis (♀ × M. amblycephala (♂ (MT×MA, with a total of 86 variable sites between MT×MA and its female parent. Among the mitogenomes genes, the protein-coding gene nd5 displayed the highest variability. The number of variation sites was found to be related to phylogenetic relationship of the parents: the closer they are, the lower amount of variation sites their hybrids have. The second generation hybrids showed less mitogenome variation than that of first generation hybrids. The non-synonymous and synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS were calculated between all the hybrids with their own female parents and the results indicated that most PCGs were under negative selection.

  14. Incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction following stent implantation: Comparison between first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tandjung, Kenneth; Basalus, Mounir W.Z.; Muurman, Esther; Louwerenburg, Hans W.; van Houwelingen, Gert K.; Stoel, Martin G.; de Man, Frits H.A.F.; Jansen, Hanneke; Huisman, Jennifer; Linssen, Gerard C.M.; Droste, Herman T.; Nienhuis, Mark B.; von Birgelen, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    Background: First- and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) differ in coating materials, which may influence the incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI). Objective: To compare the incidence of PMI between first- and second-generation DES, using the current Academic Research

  15. One-pot synthesis of 2-substituted indoles from 2-aminobenzyl phosphonium salts. A formal total synthesis of arcyriacyanin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, George A; Guo, Haitao

    2008-07-17

    The reaction of (2-aminobenzyl) triphenylphosphonium bromide with aromatic aldehydes or alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes under microwave-assisted conditions constitutes a new synthesis of 2-substituted indoles in high yields (81-97%) in a one-pot reaction. The adduct from indole-4-carboxaldehyde was an advanced intermediate in the synthesis of arcyriacyanin A.

  16. Second-generation stars in globular clusters from rapid radiative cooling of pre-supernova massive star winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Thompson, Todd A.

    2017-09-01

    Following work by Wünsch and collaborators, we investigate a self-enrichment scenario for second-generation star formation in globular clusters wherein wind material from the first-generation massive stars rapidly radiatively cools. Radiative energy loss allows retention of fast winds within the central regions of clusters, where it fuels star formation. Secondary star formation occurs in ˜3-5 Myr, before supernovae, producing uniform iron abundances in both populations. We derive the critical criteria for radiative cooling of massive star winds and the second-generation mass as a function of cluster mass, radius and metallicity. We derive a critical condition on M/R, above which second-generation star formation can occur. We speculate that above this threshold the strong decrease in the cluster wind energy and momentum allows ambient gas to remain from the cluster formation process. We reproduce large observed second-generation fractions of ˜30-80 per cent if wind material mixes with ambient gas. Importantly, the mass of ambient gas required is only of order the first generation's stellar mass. Second-generation helium enrichment ΔY is inversely proportional to mass fraction in the second generation; a large second generation can form with ΔY ˜ 0.001-0.02, while a small second generation can reach ΔY ˜ 0.16. Like other self-enrichment models for the second generation, we are not able to simultaneously account for both the full range of the Na-O anticorrelation and the second-generation fraction.

  17. Design, development, and evaluation of a second generation interactive Simulator for Engineering Ethics Education (SEEE2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Michael; Chung, Christopher A

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes a second generation Simulator for Engineering Ethics Education. Details describing the first generation activities of this overall effort are published in Chung and Alfred (Sci Eng Ethics 15:189-199, 2009). The second generation research effort represents a major development in the interactive simulator educational approach. As with the first generation effort, the simulator places students in first person perspective scenarios involving different types of ethical situations. Students must still gather data, assess the situation, and make decisions. The approach still requires students to develop their own ability to identify and respond to ethical engineering situations. However, were as, the generation one effort involved the use of a dogmatic model based on National Society of Professional Engineers' Code of Ethics, the new generation two model is based on a mathematical model of the actual experiences of engineers involved in ethical situations. This approach also allows the use of feedback in the form of decision effectiveness and professional career impact. Statistical comparisons indicate a 59 percent increase in overall knowledge and a 19 percent improvement in teaching effectiveness over an Internet Engineering Ethics resource based approach.

  18. Study on the Tribological Characteristics of Australian Native First Generation and Second Generation Biodiesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mofijur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesels are a renewable energy source, and they have the potential to be used as alternatives to diesel fuel. The aim of this study is to investigate the wear and friction characteristics of Australian native first generation and second generation biodiesels using a four-ball tribo tester. The biodiesel was produced through a two-step transesterification process and characterized according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standards. The tribological experiment was carried out at a constant 1800 rpm and different loads and temperatures. In addition, the surface morphology of the ball was tested by scanning electron microscope (SEM/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX analysis. The test results indicated that biodiesel fuels have a lower coefficient of frictions (COF and lower wear scar diameter (WSD up to 83.50% and 41.28%, respectively, compared to conventional diesel fuel. The worn surface area results showed that biodiesel fuel has a minimum percentage of C and O, except Fe, compared to diesel. In addition, the worn surface area for diesel was found (2.20%–27.92% to be higher than biodiesel. The findings of this study indicated that both first and second generation biodiesel fuels have better tribological performance than diesel fuel, and between the biodiesel fuels, macadamia biodiesel showed better lubrication performance.

  19. Transnationalism among Second-Generation Muslim Americans: Being and Belonging in Their Transnational Social Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Byng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An increase in transnationalism, the ability of individuals and families to travel and maintain relationships across national borders, has led to questions about its impact on identity especially for the children of migrants. When combined with concerns about global and national security such as those that are associated with Muslims and Islam, then questions about the strength national identity are particularly pertinent. This analysis uses the theories of transnational social fields and intersectionality to examine the transnational experiences of second-generation Muslim Americans. It relies on qualitative interview data. The data show the intersection of their national, religious, and gender identities. It demonstrates that they experience transnational being in their parents’ country of origin and belonging in the United States. Nationality, religion, and gender influence what they experience in each location. The analysis demonstrates the stability and centrality of American national identity in what second-generation Muslims experience in both locations. Moreover, their belonging in the United States rests squarely on their perceptions of themselves as Americans and their construction of their Muslim identity as an American religious identity.

  20. The Relationship between Integration Dimensions among Second Generation Russians in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerli Nimmerfeldt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between structural, cultural, social and identificational integration dimensions among second generation Russians in Estonia on the basis of TIES data. The relationship between structural integration and other dimensions is established through cluster analysis, which involves the analysis of the diff erence between means across clusters. In addition, a bivariate correlation analysis is used to determine the relationship between cultural, social, and identificational dimensions. The results raise questions regarding the pertinence of linear assimilation theory in the Estonian case. While the cluster analysis reveals a positive relationship between structural and cultural integration, higher levels of social and identificational integration are not correlated with higher levels of structural and cultural integration. Second generation Russians retain a strong ethnic identity and socialise primarily with other Russians. A bivariate correlation analysis reveals that there is a relationship between cultural, social and identity-related dimensions. Feelings of belonging to Estonia and distance from both Russia and Russians in Russia are stronger among those with good Estonian language proficiency. Respondents with strong Estonian language skills also tend to be more socially integrated and to have more Estonian friends.

  1. Dreams Fulfilled and Shattered: Determinants of Segmented Assimilation in the Second Generation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    We summarize prior theories on the adaptation process of the contemporary immigrant second generation as a prelude to presenting additive and interactive models showing the impact of family variables, school contexts and academic outcomes on the process. For this purpose, we regress indicators of educational and occupational achievement in early adulthood on predictors measured three and six years earlier. The Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), used for the analysis, allows us to establish a clear temporal order among exogenous predictors and the two dependent variables. We also construct a Downward Assimilation Index (DAI), based on six indicators and regress it on the same set of predictors. Results confirm a pattern of segmented assimilation in the second generation, with a significant proportion of the sample experiencing downward assimilation. Predictors of the latter are the obverse of those of educational and occupational achievement. Significant interaction effects emerge between these predictors and early school contexts, defined by different class and racial compositions. Implications of these results for theory and policy are examined. PMID:24223437

  2. Dreams Fulfilled and Shattered: Determinants of Segmented Assimilation in the Second Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M

    2011-03-01

    We summarize prior theories on the adaptation process of the contemporary immigrant second generation as a prelude to presenting additive and interactive models showing the impact of family variables, school contexts and academic outcomes on the process. For this purpose, we regress indicators of educational and occupational achievement in early adulthood on predictors measured three and six years earlier. The Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), used for the analysis, allows us to establish a clear temporal order among exogenous predictors and the two dependent variables. We also construct a Downward Assimilation Index (DAI), based on six indicators and regress it on the same set of predictors. Results confirm a pattern of segmented assimilation in the second generation, with a significant proportion of the sample experiencing downward assimilation. Predictors of the latter are the obverse of those of educational and occupational achievement. Significant interaction effects emerge between these predictors and early school contexts, defined by different class and racial compositions. Implications of these results for theory and policy are examined.

  3. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Eficiency NO(x) Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamansky, V.M.; Maly, P.M.; Sheldon, M.S.; Moyeda, D.; Gardiner, W.C., Jr.; Lissianski, V.V.

    1997-04-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The sixth reporting period (January I - March 31, 1997) included both experimental and modeling activities. New kinetic experimental data for high-temperature decomposition of sodium carbonate were obtained in a flow reactor at the University of Texas in Austin. Pilot scale combustion tests in a 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility were continued with firing coal and using natural gas as reburn fuel. The results demonstrate that over 90% NO control is achievable by injecting one or two N-agents with sodium promoters into the reburning zone and with the overfire air. Advanced reburning technologies does not cause significant byproduct emissions. The AR kinetic model was updated to include chemical reactions of sodium carbonate decomposition. Modeling was conducted on evaluation of the effect of sodium on process kinetics in the rebuming zone. This study revealed that increasing or decreasing radical concentrations in the presence of sodium can significantly affect the reactions responsible for NO reduction under fuel-rich conditions. The effect of mixing time on performance with sodium was also evaluated. Initial activities on engineering design methodology for second generation AR improvements are described.

  4. Implications of the licensure of a partially efficacious malaria vaccine on evaluating second-generation vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, Freya J I; Simpson, Julie A; Beeson, James G

    2013-10-30

    Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, with approximately 225 million clinical episodes and >1.2 million deaths annually attributed to malaria. Development of a highly efficacious malaria vaccine will offer unparalleled possibilities for disease prevention and remains a key priority for long-term malaria control and elimination. The Malaria Vaccine Technology Roadmap's goal is to 'develop and license a first-generation malaria vaccine that has protective efficacy of more than 50%'. To date, malaria vaccine candidates have only been shown to be partially efficacious (approximately 30% to 60%). However, licensure of a partially effective vaccine will create a number of challenges for the development and progression of new, potentially more efficacious, malaria vaccines in the future. In this opinion piece we discuss the methodological, logistical and ethical issues that may impact on the feasibility and implementation of superiority, non-inferiority and equivalence trials to assess second generation malaria vaccines in the advent of the licensure of a partially efficacious malaria vaccine. Selecting which new malaria vaccines go forward, and defining appropriate methodology for assessment in logistically challenging clinical trials, is crucial. It is imperative that the scientific community considers all the issues and starts planning how second-generation malaria vaccines will advance in the advent of licensure of a partially effective vaccine.

  5. Rapidly rotating second-generation progenitors for the 'blue hook' stars of ω Centauri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailo, Marco; D'Antona, Francesca; Vesperini, Enrico; Di Criscienzo, Marcella; Ventura, Paolo; Milone, Antonino P; Bellini, Andrea; Dotter, Aaron; Decressin, Thibaut; D'Ercole, Annibale; Caloi, Vittoria; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    2015-07-16

    Horizontal branch stars belong to an advanced stage in the evolution of the oldest stellar galactic population, occurring either as field halo stars or grouped in globular clusters. The discovery of multiple populations in clusters that were previously believed to have single populations gave rise to the currently accepted theory that the hottest horizontal branch members (the 'blue hook' stars, which had late helium-core flash ignition, followed by deep mixing) are the progeny of a helium-rich 'second generation' of stars. It is not known why such a supposedly rare event (a late flash followed by mixing) is so common that the blue hook of ω Centauri contains approximately 30 per cent of the horizontal branch stars in the cluster, or why the blue hook luminosity range in this massive cluster cannot be reproduced by models. Here we report that the presence of helium core masses up to about 0.04 solar masses larger than the core mass resulting from evolution is required to solve the luminosity range problem. We model this by taking into account the dispersion in rotation rates achieved by the progenitors, whose pre-main-sequence accretion disk suffered an early disruption in the dense environment of the cluster's central regions, where second-generation stars form. Rotation may also account for frequent late-flash-mixing events in massive globular clusters.

  6. Post-Dictatorship Documentary in Chile: Conversations with Three Second-Generation Film Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Traverso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available No other medium has rejected the restorative narrative of Chile’s democratic state’s memory discourse as vigorously as documentary cinema. After the several democratic governments that succeeded the civic-military dictatorial alliance that ruled this nation uninterruptedly between 1973 and 1990, documentary films have resisted monumental versions of historical memory by confronting the ambivalent nuances of the traumatic legacy of the dictatorship. Chilean documentarians have investigated, uncovered, and depicted the dictatorial state’s crimes, while offering testimonial space to survivors, and have also interrogated the perspectives of the dictatorship’s supporters, collaborators, and perpetrators while wrestling with an open dialectic of confrontational and reconciliatory gestures. More recently, this interest has intensified and combined with what is often described as a “boom” in second-generation personal-narration memory films. The present article includes the author’s conversations with the directors of three recent Chilean second-generation documentaries that explore the perspectives of former secret service collaborators: Adrian Goycoolea’s ¡Viva Chile Mierda! [Long Live Chile, Damn It!] (2014, Andrés Lübbert’s El color del camaleón [The Color of the Chameleon] (2017, and Lissette Orozco’s El pacto de Adriana [Adriana’s Pact] (2017.

  7. Mood, anxiety, and personality disorders among first and second-generation immigrants to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Kagotho, Njeri; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    A careful examination of the multigenerational relationship between immigrant status and mental disorders can provide important information about the robustness and nature of the immigrant-mental health link. We examine immigrant status as a protective factor against mental illness, assess intergenerational effects, examine differences across race/ethnicity, and report the prevalence of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders of immigrants across major world regions. We employ data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare first (n = 5,363) and second-generation (n = 4826) immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans (n = 24,461) with respect to mental disorders. First-generation immigrants are significantly less likely than native-born Americans to be diagnosed with a mood, anxiety, or personality disorder, though the prevalence of mental health diagnoses increases among second generation immigrants. Similar results were observed for immigrants from major world regions as the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among immigrants from Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Asia compared to native-born Americans. Findings provide evidence in support of the notion that the immigrant paradox may be extended to include mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in the United States. PMID:25223256

  8. Search for second generation scalar leptoquarks in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendel, Markus; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dean, Simon; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kennedy, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Plotnikova, Elena; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuler, Georges; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-09-13

    The results of a search for the production of second generation scalar leptoquarks are presented for final states consisting of either two oppositely charged muons and at least two jets or a muon plus missing transverse momentum and at least two jets. A total of 1.03/fb integrated luminosity of proton-proton collision data produced by the Large Hadron Collider at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector is used for the search. The event yields in the signal regions are found to be consistent with the Standard Model background expectations. The production of second generation leptoquarks is excluded for a leptoquark mass $m_{LQ}$ < 594 (685) GeV at 95% confidence level, for a branching ratio of 0.5 (1.0) for leptoquark decay to a muon and a quark.

  9. Second generation H1 - antihistamines interaction with food and alcohol-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paśko, Paweł; Rodacki, Tomasz; Domagała-Rodacka, Renata; Palimonka, Krzysztof; Marcinkowska, Monika; Owczarek, Danuta

    2017-09-01

    Histamine is a mediator of many physiological processes. It plays an important role in modulating allergy reactions and immune system responses. H1 receptor is a therapeutic target for drugs applied in allergic diseases such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, urticarial, or atopic dermatitis. H1-antihistamines display different chemical structures, pharmacokinetics and a potential for drug-drug and drug-food interactions. Drug-food interactions are known to reduce therapeutic effects of the medicine, as well as to induce a potent adverse drug reactions. Considering it all, a systematic review was conducted to investigate the importance of drug-food interaction for H1-antihistamine drugs. As non-sedating second generation H1-antihistamines remain to be drugs of choice in treating allergic conditions, the review has been focused on this particular class of medicines. The aim of this paper is to examine the evidence of food-drug and food-alcohol interactions for second generation H1-antihistamine drugs. A systematic literature queries were performed in the following databases: Medline (via PubMed), Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science (all from their inception date till October 2016). The queries covered nine specific names of second generation anthistamine drugs, namely bilastine, cetirizine, desloratadine, ebastine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, loratadine, mizolastine, and rupatadine, in combinations with such terms as "food", "juice", "grapefruit", "fruits", "alcohol", "pharmacokinetics", and "meal". Additional publications were found by checking all the reference lists. Where none data on drug-food interaction could be found within the investigated databases, a specific drug prescribing information was used. 2326 publications were identified with the database queries. Articles were subjected to analysis by reviewing their title, abstract and full text; duplicated papers were removed. Having collected a complete set of data, a critical review was undertaken

  10. Second Generation Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Vape Pen Exposure Generalizes as a Smoking Cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrea C; Smith, Lia J; McNamara, Patrick J; Cao, Dingcai

    2018-01-05

    Second generation electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; also known as e-cigarettes, vaporizers or vape pens) are designed for a customized nicotine delivery experience and have less resemblance to regular cigarettes than first generation "cigalikes." The present study examined whether they generalize as a conditioned cue and evoke smoking urges or behavior in persons exposed to their use. Data were analyzed in N = 108 young adult smokers (≥5 cigarettes per week) randomized to either a traditional combustible cigarette smoking cue or a second generation ENDS vaping cue in a controlled laboratory setting. Cigarette and e-cigarette urge and desire were assessed pre- and post-cue exposure. Smoking behavior was also explored in a subsample undergoing a smoking latency phase after cue exposure (N = 26). The ENDS vape pen cue evoked both urge and desire for a regular cigarette to a similar extent as that produced by the combustible cigarette cue. Both cues produced similar time to initiate smoking during the smoking latency phase. The ENDS vape pen cue elicited smoking urge and desire regardless of ENDS use history, that is, across ENDS naїve, lifetime or current users. Inclusion of past ENDS or cigarette use as covariates did not significantly alter the results. These findings demonstrate that observation of vape pen ENDS use generalizes as a conditioned cue to produce smoking urge, desire, and behavior in young adult smokers. As the popularity of these devices may eventually overtake those of first generation ENDS cigalikes, exposure effects will be of increasing importance. This study shows that passive exposure to a second generation ENDS vape pen cue evoked smoking urge, desire, and behavior across a range of daily and non-daily young adult smokers. Smoking urge and desire increases after vape pen exposure were similar to those produced by exposure to a first generation ENDS cigalike and a combustible cigarette, a known potent cue. Given the increasing

  11. Thermal stability of second generation carbosilane dendrimers with peripheral ammonia groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina, E-mail: cpopescu@icmpp.ro [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Romanian Academy (Romania); Gomez, Rafael; Mata, Fco Javier de la; Rasines, Beatriz [Campus Universitario, Universidad de Alcala, Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica (Spain); Simionescu, Bogdan C. [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Romanian Academy (Romania)

    2013-10-15

    Thermal analysis has a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical industry, in designing new molecules, control of raw materials, stability, compatibility studies, and development of new formulations. This paper evaluates the thermodynamic properties of two second generation G2 carbosilane dendrimers with peripheral ammonia groups by differential scanning calorimetry and TG/FTIR coupled techniques. The physical transformations have been detected and their thermodynamic characteristics have been estimated and analyzed. Both dendrimers are stable up to 150 Degree-Sign C, have the Tg at 75 and 59 Degree-Sign C and melting temperatures at 113 and 128 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The decomposition process proved to be very complex and takes place in three steps in nitrogen atmosphere and four steps in air, for both types of dendrimers. IR spectroscopic analysis was used to observe the evolution of the gaseous products versus temperature.

  12. Organization development: a role for your second-generation clinical nurse specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, A M; Lipkis-Orlando, R

    1993-09-01

    The demands of today's busy health care environment, coupled with economic constraints, are challenging health organizations more than ever before. The quality of the care we deliver will be jeopardized unless we shift to a more proactive approach, in which we create change, rather than react to it. The systems that will prevail and the individuals who make up those systems will develop the necessary skills, resources, and psychological stamina to succeed in the future. This will be accomplished through attention to people, for it is through people that all change occurs. Second-generation CNSs with advanced skills in process consultation, systems diagnosis, and human relations can assist in the achievement of these goals. The success of the CNS and the benefits to the nursing organization may be strongly influenced by nurse executives who embrace the concept of organization development, choose a skilled CNS for this purpose, and adequately prepare the organization for the utilization of this invaluable resource.

  13. Congenital Chagas disease of second generation in Santiago, Chile. Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHENONE Hugo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Chagas disease (CChD has been reported in different countries, mostly in Latin America. In 1987 a fatal case of CChD of second generation (CChDSG was published. Within a period of six months - 1989-1990 - two cases of CChDSG were diagnosed and studied in the city of Santiago. Two premature newborns, sons of two sisters, with moderate liver and spleen enlargement, were found to have positive serology for Chagas disease and xenodiagnoses. The mothers, urban residents all their lives, without antecedents of triatomine bugs contact or blood transfusions, showed positive serology and xenodiagnoses. Their mother (grandmother of the infants, lived 20 years in a Northern rural Chagas disease endemic locality, in a triatomine infested house. Afterwards, she moved to Santiago, where she married and has resided up to now. Serology and xenodiagnoses were also positive. All the Trypanosoma cruzi infected individuals were successfully treated with nifurtimox.

  14. SunnyTALEN: a second-generation TALEN system for human genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Bao, Zehua; Xiong, Xiong; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have rapidly emerged as a powerful genome editing tool. The site-specific DNA double-strand breaks generated by TALENs in the human chromosome can induce homologous recombination or non-homologous end joining, resulting in desired genetic modifications. In this study, we report the development of a TALEN variant, SunnyTALEN, with >2.5-fold improved genome editing efficacy in human cells. The corresponding scaffold increases the rate of genetic modification at all the 13 tested loci of human genome and is compatible with heterodimer TALEN architectures. This enhanced and high-efficiency TALEN variant represents a novel second-generation TALEN system and has great potential for biological and therapeutic applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. SEVIRI, the imaging radiometer on Meteosat second generation: in-orbit results and first assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, P.; Pasternak, F.; Faure, F.; Jacquet, B.; Bianchi, S.; Aminou, Donny M. A.; Luhmann, H. J.; Hanson, C.; Pili, P.; Fowler, G.

    2017-11-01

    Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) is a series of 3 geo-stationary satellites developed and procured by the European Space Agency (ESA) on behalf of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). The first satellite (MSG-1) was launched on August 29, 2002 by an Ariane 5 rocket. SEVIRI is the main MSG payload and produces 12 channels imaging in visible and IR range. The 8 Infrared Channels in the 3.9-13.4 mm band benefit from high radiometric performances thanks to the use of detectors operating at 95K and cooled by specifically designed passive radiator. During the commissioning phase, dedicated tests have been conducted to verify the SEVIRI functionality and performances. This paper presents briefly the SEVIRI design and highlights the correlation of data obtained in-flight by EUMETSAT with the ground predictions. A particular emphasis is put on the in-orbit evolution of the IR channel gains and on the instrument decontamination.

  16. Second Generation Youth in Canada, Their Mobilities and Identifications: Relevance to Citizenship Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrunnisa Ali

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on narrative data recently collected from youth’s in three Canadian cities, our paper focuses on second generation perceptions of youth’s identifications in a society increasingly influenced by the forces of globalization and how these perceptions may or may not be reflected in programs of study dealing with citizenship education. We utilize a framework consisting of a continuum of mobilities of mind, body, and boundaries to situate their sense of self. The façade of globalisation is examined in terms of its impact on identity formation and these youths’ impressions of diversity and multiculturalism. Finally, we consider the relevance of the findings for citizenship education in Ontario, Manitoba, and Alberta.

  17. Distinct pharmacological properties of second generation HDAC inhibitors with the benzamide or hydroxamate head group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Thomas; Burkhardt, Carmen; Wieland, Heike; Gimmnich, Petra; Ciossek, Thomas; Maier, Thomas; Sanders, Karl

    2007-09-01

    Advanced second generation inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC) are currently used in clinical development. This study aimed at comparing the pharmacological properties of selected second generation HDAC inhibitors with the hydroxamate and benzamide head group, namely SAHA, LAQ824/LBH589, CI994, MS275 and MGCD0103. In biochemical assays using recombinant HDAC1, 3, 6 and 8 isoenzymes, SAHA and LAQ824/LBH589 behave as quite unselective HDAC inhibitors. In contrast, the benzamides CI994, MS275 and MGCD0103 are more selective, potent inhibitors of at least HDAC1 and HDAC3. All HDAC inhibitors induce histone H3 hyperacetylation, correlating with inhibition of proliferation, induction of cell differentiation and apoptosis. A broad cytotoxicity is seen across cell lines from different tumor entities with LAQ824/LBH589 being the most potent agents. The apoptosis inducing activity is evident in arrested and proliferating RKO colon cancer cells with inducible, heterologous p21(waf1) expression, indicative for a cell-cycle independent mode-of-action. Differentiation of MDA-MB468 breast cancer cells is induced by benzamide and hydroxamate analogs. The reversibility of drug action was evaluated by pulse treatment of A549 lung cancer cells. Whereas paclitaxel induced irreversible cell cycle alterations already after 6 hr treatment, HDAC inhibitor action was retarded and irreversible after >16 hr treatment. Interestingly, pulse treatment was equally effective as continous treatment. Finally, the efficacy of LAQ824, SAHA and MS275 in A549 nude mice xenografts was comparable to that of paclitaxel at well tolerated doses. We conclude that despite a different HDAC isoenzyme inhibition profile, hydroxamate and benzamide analogs as studied display similar cellular profiles. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Meta-analysis: Risk of dry mouth with second generation antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappetta, Kiley; Beyer, Chad; Johnson, Jessica A; Bloch, Michael H

    2017-12-20

    The goal of this meta-analysis was to quantify the risk of dry mouth associated with commonly prescribed antidepressant agents and examine the potential implications of medication class, dose, and pharmacodynamics and dose on risk of treatment-induced dry mouth. A PubMed search was conducted to identify double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy and tolerability of second generation antidepressant medications for adults with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and OCD. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to quantify the pooled risk ratio of treatment-emergent dry mouth with second generation antidepressants compared to placebo. Stratified subgroup analysis and meta-regression was utilized to further examine the effects antidepressant agent, class, dosage, indication, and receptor affinity profile on the measured risk of dry mouth. 99 trials involving 20,868 adults. SNRIs (Relative Risk (RR)=2.24, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.95-2.58, z=11.2, pz=5.8, pz=10.32, pz=5.85, pz=3.26, p=0.001) and Alpha-2 (PE=0.49, 95% CI: 0.22-0.75, z=3.64, pz=2.10, p<0.05) was significantly associated with increased risk of dry mouth. The current meta-analysis suggests that SSRIs, SNRIs, and atypical antidepressants are all associated with varying degrees of increased risk of dry mouth. SNRIs were associated with a significantly greater risk of dry mouth compared to SSRIs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The Second-Generation Exportin-1 Inhibitor KPT-8602 Demonstrates Potent Activity against Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Thomas; De Bie, Jolien; Neggers, Jasper E; Jacquemyn, Maarten; Vanstreels, Els; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L; Hornung, Veit; Baloglu, Erkan; Landesman, Yosef; Senapedis, William; Shacham, Sharon; Dagklis, Antonis; Cools, Jan; Daelemans, Dirk

    2017-05-15

    Purpose: Human exportin-1 (XPO1) is the key nuclear-cytoplasmic transport protein that exports different cargo proteins out of the nucleus. Inducing nuclear accumulation of these proteins by inhibiting XPO1 causes cancer cell death. First clinical validation of pharmacological inhibition of XPO1 was obtained with the Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compound selinexor (KPT-330) demonstrating activity in phase-II/IIb clinical trials when dosed 1 to 3 times weekly. The second-generation SINE compound KPT-8602 shows improved tolerability and can be dosed daily. Here, we investigate and validate the drug-target interaction of KPT-8602 and explore its activity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).Experimental Design: We examined the effect of KPT-8602 on XPO1 function and XPO1-cargo as well as on a panel of leukemia cell lines. Mutant XPO1 leukemia cells were designed to validate KPT-8602's drug-target interaction. In vivo, anti-ALL activity was measured in a mouse ALL model and patient-derived ALL xenograft models.Results: KPT-8602 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in a panel of leukemic cell lines in vitro Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we demonstrated the specificity of KPT-8602 for cysteine 528 in the cargo-binding groove of XPO1 and validated the drug target interaction. In vivo, KPT-8602 showed potent anti-leukemia activity in a mouse ALL model as well as in patient-derived T- and B-ALL xenograft models without affecting normal hematopoiesis.Conclusions: KPT-8602 is highly specific for XPO1 inhibition and demonstrates potent anti-leukemic activity supporting clinical application of the second-generation SINE compound for the treatment of ALL. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2528-41. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. From molecular clusters to nanoparticles: second-generation ion-mediated nucleation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ions, which are generated in the atmosphere by galactic cosmic rays and other ionization sources, may play an important role in the formation of atmospheric aerosols. In the paper, a new second-generation ion-mediated nucleation (IMN model is presented. The new model explicitly treats the evaporation of neutral and charged clusters and it describes the evolution of the size spectra and composition of both charged and neutral clusters/particles ranging from small clusters of few molecules to large particles of several micrometers in diameter. Schemes used to calculate the evaporation coefficients for small neutral and charged clusters are consistent with the experimental data within the uncertainty range. The present IMN model, which is size-, composition-, and type-resolved, is a powerful tool for investigating the dominant mechanisms and key parameters controlling the formation and subsequent growth of nanoparticles in the atmosphere. This model can be used to analyze simultaneous measurements of the ion-mobility spectra and particle size distributions, which became available only recently. General features of the spectra for ions smaller than the critical size, size-dependent fractions of charged nanoparticles, and asymmetrical charging of freshly nucleated particles predicted by the new IMN model are consistent with recent measurements. Results obtained using the second generation IMN model, in which the most recent thermodynamic data for neutral and charged H2SO4-H2O clusters were used, suggest that ion-mediated nucleation of H2SO4-H2O can lead to a significant production of new particles in the lower atmosphere (including the boundary layer under favorable conditions. It has been shown that freshly nucleated particles of few nanometers in size can grow by the condensation of low volatile organic compounds to the size of cloud condensation nuclei. In such cases, the chemical composition of nucleated particles larger than ~10 nm is dominated

  1. Amor y Salud (Love and Health): a preconception health campaign for second-generation Latinas in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Gray, Lesa A; Mobley, Allison; McFarlane, Julie M; Rosenberg, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    To develop, and implement, a social marketing campaign to increase preconception health knowledge among second-generation Latinas in Oregon. Social marketing demonstration project. Latino communities in five Oregon counties. Target populations included young Latinas (18-29 years old) born in the United States of immigrant parents in five Oregon counties, and their family members. Intervention. A radionovela, Amor y Salud, was developed that featured a Latina and her fiancé preparing for marriage and family. Social media, Web sites, and culturally relevant print materials promoted the radio campaign. Process data, social media metrics, Google analytics, online and intercept surveys were collected. Basic frequencies and descriptive statistics were used. Twelve episodes were produced in English and Spanish and played on nine radio stations a total of 2098 times. The Facebook page was viewed 11,000 times, and radionovela episodes were played a total of 776 times. Amor y Salud used mixed media--radio, social media, print materials--to encourage Latinas to consider their preconception health. Anecdotally, we heard positive comments from community members and local media regarding the radionovela; however, evaluation challenges prevent us from saying conclusively that knowledge on this topic increased.

  2. Scope and Limitations of Fmoc Chemistry SPPS-Based Approaches to the Total Synthesis of Insulin Lispro via Ester Insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayalan, Balamurugan; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Rege, Nischay; Weiss, Michael A; Eitel, Simon H; Meier, Thomas; Schoenleber, Ralph O; Kent, Stephen B H

    2017-01-31

    We have systematically explored three approaches based on 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) chemistry solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) for the total chemical synthesis of the key depsipeptide intermediate for the efficient total chemical synthesis of insulin. The approaches used were: stepwise Fmoc chemistry SPPS; the "hybrid method", in which maximally protected peptide segments made by Fmoc chemistry SPPS are condensed in solution; and, native chemical ligation using peptide-thioester segments generated by Fmoc chemistry SPPS. A key building block in all three approaches was a Glu[O-β-(Thr)] ester-linked dipeptide equipped with a set of orthogonal protecting groups compatible with Fmoc chemistry SPPS. The most effective method for the preparation of the 51 residue ester-linked polypeptide chain of ester insulin was the use of unprotected peptide-thioester segments, prepared from peptide-hydrazides synthesized by Fmoc chemistry SPPS, and condensed by native chemical ligation. High-resolution X-ray crystallography confirmed the disulfide pairings and three-dimensional structure of synthetic insulin lispro prepared from ester insulin lispro by this route. Further optimization of these pilot studies could yield an efficient total chemical synthesis of insulin lispro (Humalog) based on peptide synthesis by Fmoc chemistry SPPS. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Factors Influencing the Use of Second-Generation Antipsychotics in Children with Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sujith; Banahan, Benjamin F; Bentley, John P; West-Strum, Donna S; Patel, Amit S

    2016-08-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services sent a letter to state Medicaid directors explaining the need for oversight of psychiatric prescriptions for children with mental health disorders. The National Committee for Quality Alliance proposed 3 quality measures for rating managed care organizations (MCOs) that involve use of second-generation or atypical antipsychotics in children. In order to ensure appropriate use and to effectively manage the use of second-generation antipsychotics in children, MCOs need to better understand the factors that influence medication treatment decisions for children. To (a) determine how patient-level and physician-level factors influence decisions to prescribe second-generation antipsychotics to children (aged under 18 years) diagnosed with psychosis and (b) evaluate how the influence of these factors may differ between primary care providers and psychiatrists. This study employed a cross-sectional survey of 193 primary care providers and psychiatrists. A web-based patient simulation survey using a fractional factorial design was administered via a commercial vendor. Respondents were presented with simulated patient profiles described by various levels of factors considered to be essential to decision making. Respondents were asked to make treatment recommendations for each profile evaluated. In addition to treatment recommendations, demographics and beliefs about products were measured. Modified Poisson regression accounting for multilevel data was used to identify the factors that significantly affect treatment recommendations. Psychiatrists were more likely to recommend second-generation antipsychotics than primary care practitioners (unadjusted RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.23-1.51). Social factors such as foster status or parental concern were not found to be significant predictors of prescribing second-generation antipsychotics. The percentage of a provider's patients using second-generation antipsychotics (RR = 1

  4. Transcriptome sequencing of lentil based on second-generation technology permits large-scale unigene assembly and SSR marker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhjiwan; Cogan, Noel O I; Pembleton, Luke W; Shinozuka, Maiko; Savin, Keith W; Materne, Michael; Forster, John W

    2011-05-25

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a cool-season grain legume which provides a rich source of protein for human consumption. In terms of genomic resources, lentil is relatively underdeveloped, in comparison to other Fabaceae species, with limited available data. There is hence a significant need to enhance such resources in order to identify novel genes and alleles for molecular breeding to increase crop productivity and quality. Tissue-specific cDNA samples from six distinct lentil genotypes were sequenced using Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, generating c. 1.38 × 106 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). De novo assembly generated a total of 15,354 contigs and 68,715 singletons. The complete unigene set was sequence-analysed against genome drafts of the model legume species Medicago truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify 12,639, and 7,476 unique matches, respectively. When compared to the genome of Glycine max, a total of 20,419 unique hits were observed corresponding to c. 31% of the known gene space. A total of 25,592 lentil unigenes were subsequently annoated from GenBank. Simple sequence repeat (SSR)-containing ESTs were identified from consensus sequences and a total of 2,393 primer pairs were designed. A subset of 192 EST-SSR markers was screened for validation across a panel 12 cultivated lentil genotypes and one wild relative species. A total of 166 primer pairs obtained successful amplification, of which 47.5% detected genetic polymorphism. A substantial collection of ESTs has been developed from sequence analysis of lentil genotypes using second-generation technology, permitting unigene definition across a broad range of functional categories. As well as providing resources for functional genomics studies, the unigene set has permitted significant enhancement of the number of publicly-available molecular genetic markers as tools for improvement of this species.

  5. Transcriptome sequencing of lentil based on second-generation technology permits large-scale unigene assembly and SSR marker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Materne Michael

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. is a cool-season grain legume which provides a rich source of protein for human consumption. In terms of genomic resources, lentil is relatively underdeveloped, in comparison to other Fabaceae species, with limited available data. There is hence a significant need to enhance such resources in order to identify novel genes and alleles for molecular breeding to increase crop productivity and quality. Results Tissue-specific cDNA samples from six distinct lentil genotypes were sequenced using Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, generating c. 1.38 × 106 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. De novo assembly generated a total of 15,354 contigs and 68,715 singletons. The complete unigene set was sequence-analysed against genome drafts of the model legume species Medicago truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify 12,639, and 7,476 unique matches, respectively. When compared to the genome of Glycine max, a total of 20,419 unique hits were observed corresponding to c. 31% of the known gene space. A total of 25,592 lentil unigenes were subsequently annoated from GenBank. Simple sequence repeat (SSR-containing ESTs were identified from consensus sequences and a total of 2,393 primer pairs were designed. A subset of 192 EST-SSR markers was screened for validation across a panel 12 cultivated lentil genotypes and one wild relative species. A total of 166 primer pairs obtained successful amplification, of which 47.5% detected genetic polymorphism. Conclusions A substantial collection of ESTs has been developed from sequence analysis of lentil genotypes using second-generation technology, permitting unigene definition across a broad range of functional categories. As well as providing resources for functional genomics studies, the unigene set has permitted significant enhancement of the number of publicly-available molecular genetic markers as tools for improvement of this species.

  6. Protecting-group-free and catalysis-based total synthesis of the ecklonialactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickmann, Volker; Alcarazo, Manuel; Fürstner, Alois

    2010-08-18

    A concise and protecting-group-free total synthesis of optically pure ecklonialactones A (1) and B (2) is described. The successful route to these oxylipins isolated from various brown algae involves five transition-metal-catalyzed transformations in the longest linear sequence of 13 steps. The first chiral center was set by a rhodium-catalyzed 1,4-addition of an alkenyl boronate to the commercial butenolide 11, which was controlled by Carreira's carvone-derived diene ligand 21. Other key steps involve a ring-closing olefin metathesis effected by the ruthenium indenylidene complex 22 for the formation of the five-membered carbocycle, a vanadium-catalyzed, hydroxy-directed epoxidation, and a ring-closing alkyne metathesis (RCAM) to forge the macrocyclic ring. Because of the unusually high propensity of the oxirane of the ecklonialactones for ring-opening, this transformation was best achieved with [(Ph(3)SiO)(3)Mo[triple bond]CPh].OEt(2) (34) as the catalyst, which is a representative of a new generation of highly tolerant yet remarkably efficient molybdenum alkylidyne complexes. The ancillary triphenylsilanolate ligands in 34 temper the Lewis acidity of the molybdenum center and are not able to nucleophilically open the fragile epoxide ring. The final reduction of the cycloalkyne formed in the RCAM step to the required (Z)-alkene was accomplished either by Lindlar reduction or with the aid of nickel boride.

  7. First Stereoselective Total Synthesis of a Dimeric Naphthoquinonopyrano-γ-lactone: (+)-γ-Actinorhodin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Markus; Brückner, Reinhard

    2017-03-13

    We have accomplished the first total synthesis of an isomerically pure naphthoquinonopyrano-γ-lactone dimer, γ-actinorhodin, in eleven steps. Two steps exploit pairs of peri-MeO groups as unusual selectivity controls. The respective MeO groups convey the steric bulk of a bromo or iodo substituent located ortho to one MeO group as steric hindrance into the vicinity of the second MeO group. This relay effect was indispensable for exerting regiocontrol in an aromatic bromination and diastereocontrol in an oxa-Pictet-Spengler cyclization. The absolute configuration of our target compound was established in an asymmetric Sharpless dihydroxylation of a β,γ-unsaturated ester, which was synthesized in a Heck coupling of a bromoiodonaphthalene with ethyl vinylacetate. The dihydroxylation provided the γ-hydroxylactone moiety of the bromonaphthalene that was used as the substrate in the oxa-Pictet-Spengler cyclization. Dimerization to the core of γ-actinorhodin occurred by two Suzuki couplings. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Trends in Off-Label Use of Second-Generation Antipsychotics in the Medicare Population From 2006 to 2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driessen, Julia; Baik, Seo Hyon; Zhang, Yuting

    2016-01-01

    Objective:The study evaluated trends in the off-label use of second-generation antipsychotics in the Medicare population, a practice that has been identified as lacking adequate supporting evidence for many...

  9. Asymmetric Construction of All-Carbon Quaternary Stereocenters by Chiral-Auxiliary-Mediated Claisen Rearrangement and Total Synthesis of (+-Bakuchiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin-ichi Tadano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An asymmetric Claisen rearrangement using Oppolzer’s camphorsultam was developed. Under thermal conditions, a geraniol-derived substrate underwent the rearrangement with good stereoselectivity. The absolute configuration of the newly formed all-carbon quaternary stereocenter was confirmed by the total synthesis of (+-bakuchiol from the rearrangement product.

  10. Direct C-glycosylation of organotrifluoroborates with glycosyl fluorides and its application to the total synthesis of (+)-varitriol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jing; Vedachalam, Seenuvasan; Xiang, Shaohua; Liu, Xue-Wei

    2011-01-07

    A mild, stereoselective, and quick approach to accessing alkynyl and alkenyl C-glycosides via BF(3)·Et(2)O promoted coupling of organotrifluoroborates and glycosyl fluorides is reported. The application of this method was further demonstrated by the concise and efficient total synthesis of (+)-varitriol in only seven steps.

  11. Application of cyclic phosphonamide reagents in the total synthesis of natural products and biologically active molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Focken

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the synthesis of natural products and bioactive compounds adopting phosphonamide anion technology is presented highlighting the utility of phosphonamide reagents in stereocontrolled bond-forming reactions. Methodologies utilizing phosphonamide anions in asymmetric alkylations, Michael additions, olefinations, and cyclopropanations will be summarized, as well as an overview of the synthesis of the employed phosphonamide reagents.

  12. Economic feasibility of second generation ethanol with and without indirect greenhouse gas reduction benefits : a simulation for Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lagares Tavora, F.; Bakker, R.R.; Stojanovic, M.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the economic feasibility of second generation ethanol from sugar cane, whereby traditional ethanol production is combined with the use of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production. By applying cost-benefit analysis, this study evaluated the viability of the second generation ethanol technology as an alternative to conventional sugarcaneto- ethanol, both in terms of processing technology, and of land use impacts. Furthermore, an attempt is made to ana...

  13. Individualism vs. Collectivism - How inherited cultural values affect the labor market outcomes of second generation immigrants in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Höckel, Lisa Sofie

    2016-01-01

    The cultural diversity induced by migration has been proven beneficial to host countries economies and the labor market performance of second generation immigrants is a crucial determinant of integration. Labor market returns to different cultural traits, however, have been rarely studied within the economic literature. Therefore, this study provides insights on the link between the level of collectivsm at the country of ancestry and labor market outcome of second generation immigrants in the...

  14. Streamlined Total Synthesis of Trioxacarcins and Its Application to the Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Analogues Thereof. Discovery of Simpler Designed and Potent Trioxacarcin Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C; Chen, Pengxi; Zhu, Shugao; Cai, Quan; Erande, Rohan D; Li, Ruofan; Sun, Hongbao; Pulukuri, Kiran Kumar; Rigol, Stephan; Aujay, Monette; Sandoval, Joseph; Gavrilyuk, Julia

    2017-11-01

    A streamlined total synthesis of the naturally occurring antitumor agents trioxacarcins is described, along with its application to the construction of a series of designed analogues of these complex natural products. Biological evaluation of the synthesized compounds revealed a number of highly potent, and yet structurally simpler, compounds that are effective against certain cancer cell lines, including a drug-resistant line. A novel one-step synthesis of anthraquinones and chloro anthraquinones from simple ketone precursors and phenylselenyl chloride is also described. The reported work, featuring novel chemistry and cascade reactions, has potential applications in cancer therapy, including targeted approaches as in antibody-drug conjugates.

  15. Total synthesis of the cyclopeptide alkaloid abyssenine A. Application of inter- and intramolecular copper-mediated coupling reactions in organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Mathieu; Couty, François; Evano, Gwilherm

    2007-11-23

    The first total synthesis of the 15-membered ring cyclopeptide alkaloid abyssenine A 1 has been achieved with a longest linear sequence of 15 steps. Central to the synthetic approach was an efficient copper-mediated Ullmann coupling/Claisen rearrangement sequence allowing for both ipso and ortho functionalization of aromatic iodide 4. This sequence was used for the synthesis of the aromatic core. The synthetic utility of copper-catalyzed coupling reactions was further demonstrated to install the enamide with a concomitant straightforward macrocyclization starting from acyclic alpha-amido-omega-vinyl iodide 13.

  16. Comparative risk of seizure with use of first- and second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Shin; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Yeh, I-Jin; Liu, Shi-Kai

    2016-05-01

    To compare the risk of antipsychotic-related seizure (ARS) by identifying seizures first diagnosed within 12 months after starting new antipsychotics, using a 12-year total population health claims database from Taiwan. Seizure events were identified through emergency department visits or hospitalization with a diagnosis of convulsion (ICD-9-CM: 780.3) or epilepsy (ICD-9-CM: 345). Subjects had an ICD-9-CM diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, or major depressive disorders. Incidence rates of ARS were calculated by person-years of exposure. The ARS risk, adjusted for patient characteristics and medical conditions, of individual antipsychotics versus risperidone was examined by high-dimensional propensity score stratification analyses, followed by sensitivity analyses. The overall 1-year incidence rate of ARS was 9.6 (95% CI, 8.8-10.4) per 1,000 person-years (550 ARS events among 288,397 new antipsychotic users). First-generation antipsychotics were marginally associated with a higher ARS risk than second-generation antipsychotics (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.99-1.81; P = .061). Most antipsychotics, first- or second-generation, had comparable ARS risks versus risperidone. Notably, clozapine (aHR = 3.06; 95% CI, 1.40-6.71), thioridazine (aHR = 2.90; 95% CI, 1.65-5.10), chlorprothixene (aHR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.04-6.49), and haloperidol (aHR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.48-3.71) had higher ARS risks than risperidone, whereas aripiprazole (aHR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-1.00; P = .050) had a marginally lower ARS risk. Sensitivity analyses largely confirmed such findings. Higher vigilance for ARS is warranted during use of clozapine, chlorprothixene, thioridazine, and haloperidol. The possible lower ARS risk associated with aripiprazole can be clinically significant but needs to be confirmed by larger-scale systematic studies. The comparative ARS risks of antipsychotics supplement empirical knowledge for making judicious choices in prescribing antipsychotics.

  17. Sexual function of patients with schizophrenia receiving first-generation (FGA) or second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed; Hayhurst, Karen P; Drake, Richard J; Lewis, Shôn W

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate sexual function in patients with schizophrenia receiving treatment with a first-generation antipsychotic (FGA) or a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) drug. Sexual function is an important aspect of human experience, which can be affected by antipsychotic drug treatment. Sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia may be less prevalent with SGA than with FGA drug treatment. A cross-sectional prevalence study assessed sexual function in a sample of 144 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia aged between 18 and 65, using the Derogatis Interview for Sexual Functioning (self-report version: DISF-SR). Two equal-sized groups (N = 72) received treatment with an FGA or an SGA drug for at least 12 weeks. No significant differences were seen on DISF-SR total score or subscale score between the two treatment groups. There are no differences in measured sexual function of non-randomised patients with schizophrenia treated with an FGA compared with SGA-treated patients.

  18. Successful treatment of follicular lymphoma with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors administered for coexisting chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Shirato, Yuya; Ikeda, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Shin-Ichiro; Toda, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko; Ochi, Shin-Ichi; Nagayama, Takashi; Mashima, Kiyomi; Umino, Kento; Minakata, Daisuke; Nakano, Hirofumi; Morita, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Yasufumi; Sugimoto, Miyuki; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Hatano, Kaoru; Sato, Kazuya; Oh, Iekuni; Ohmine, Ken; Muroi, Kazuo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2017-11-28

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are standard therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, the effects of these agents on mature B cell lymphoma are not well known. We describe a 50-year-old man who was diagnosed with CML in the chronic phase and treated with imatinib. After 3 years of imatinib therapy that achieved a complete cytogenetic response of CML, he developed Philadelphia-negative follicular lymphoma (FL). Rituximab monotherapy induced a partial response of FL, and he subsequently achieved a major molecular response (MMR) of CML. Three years later, however, the MMR was lost, followed by the progression of FL. Imatinib was switched to nilotinib for the treatment of CML, while we chose watchful waiting for FL. He achieved MMR again under treatment with nilotinib for 8 months including one month of substitutional use of dasatinib due to adverse events, but thereafter nilotinib was switched to bosutinib due to hyperbilirubinemia. With the administration of second-generation TKIs (2G-TKIs) for a total of 18 months, he achieved a complete response to FL without antilymphoma treatment. This is the first report to suggest that 2G-TKIs may have direct or indirect effects on FL.

  19. Second-generation autologous chondrocyte transplantation: MRI findings and clinical correlations at a minimum 5-year follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kon, E. [Biomechanics Laboratory, III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Di Martino, A., E-mail: a.dimartino@biomec.ior.it [Biomechanics Laboratory, III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Filardo, G. [Biomechanics Laboratory, III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Tetta, C.; Busacca, M. [Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna (Italy); Iacono, F. [Biomechanics Laboratory, III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Delcogliano, M. [Orthopaedic Departement San Carlo di Nancy Hospital, Rome (Italy); Albisinni, U. [Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna (Italy); Marcacci, M. [Biomechanics Laboratory, III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome of hyaluronan-based arthroscopic autologous chondrocyte transplantation at a minimum of 5 years of follow-up and to correlate it with the MRI evaluation parameters. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients were included in the study and evaluated clinically using the Cartilage Standard Evaluation Form as proposed by ICRS and the Tegner score. Forty lesions underwent MRI evaluation at a minimum 5-year follow-up. For the description and evaluation of the graft, we employed the MOCART-scoring system. Results: A statistically significant improvement in all clinical scores was observed at 2 and over 5 years. The total MOCART score and the signal intensity (3D-GE-FS) of the repair tissue were statistically correlated to the IKDC subjective evaluation. Larger size of the treated cartilage lesions had a negative influence on the degree of defect repair and filling, the integration to the border zone and the subchondral lamina integrity, whereas more intensive sport activity had a positive influence on the signal intensity of the repair tissue, the repair tissue surface, and the clinical outcome. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the durability of the clinical results obtained with Hyalograft C and the usefulness of MRI as a non-invasive method for the evaluation of the repaired tissue and the outcome after second-generation autologous transplantation over time.

  20. Evaluation of monitoring for metabolic effects in children treated with second generation antipsychotics in a pediatric clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Brooke L; Ramos, Lourdes; Brahm, Nancy C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to identify the frequency of recommended metabolic monitoring and follow-up in pediatric patients on second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) medications from a pediatric clinic. A retrospective review of electronic medical records of all patients on antipsychotics from an academic medical center pediatric clinic was conducted. Inclusion criteria required patients to be established members of the pediatric clinic, monitoring. A total of 67 patients on antipsychotics were identified. After the application of inclusion criteria, 32 patients qualified for review. The average age was 13.5 ± 4 years and gender distribution included 72% males. Only 4 (13%) patients had documented baseline monitoring that included weight, blood pressure, and fasting lipid panel. No patient had a fasting plasma glucose recorded at any point during antipsychotic therapy. Follow-up monitoring decreased over time, with the exception of quarterly weight and annual blood pressure. The results of this study highlight the lack of baseline and periodic monitoring that occur when pediatric patients are prescribed antipsychotic medications, putting the patient at risk for adverse events. The marked increase in antipsychotic prescribing and concerns related to their safety emphasize the need for improvement in monitoring of antipsychotic medications. This gap in patient care and safety opens an excellent opportunity for a clinical pharmacy team to provide education and assistance with SGA monitoring for the purpose of providing optimal patient care.

  1. High impact biowastes from South European agro-industries as feedstock for second-generation biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoma, Alberto; Rebecchi, Stefano; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Availability of bio-based chemicals, materials and energy at reasonable cost will be one of the forthcoming issues for the EU economy. In particular, the development of technologies making use of alternative resources to fossil fuels is encouraged by the current European research and innovation strategy to face the societal challenge of natural resource scarcity, fossil resource dependence and sustainable economic growth. In this respect, second- generation biorefineries, i.e. biorefineries fed with biowastes, appear to be good candidates to substitute and replace the present downstream processing scheme. Contrary to first-generation biorefineries, which make use of dedicated crops or primary cultivations to achieve such a goal, the former employ agricultural, industrial, zootechnical, fishery and forestry biowastes as the main feedstock. This leaves aside any ethical and social issue generated by first-generation approaches, and concomitantly prevents environmental and economical issues associated with the disposal of the aforementioned leftovers. Unfortunately, to date, a comprehensive and updated mapping of the availability and potential use of bioresources for second-generation biorefineries in Europe is missing. This is a lack that severely limits R&D and industrial applications in the sector. On the other hand, attempts at valorizing the most diverse biowastes dates back to the nineteenth century and plenty of information in the literature on their sustainable exploitation is available. However, the large majority of these investigations have been focused on single fractions of biowastes or single steps of biowaste processing, preventing considerations on an integrated and modular (cascade) approach for the whole valorization of organic leftovers. This review aims at addressing these issues by gathering recent data on (a) some of the main high-impact biowastes located in Europe and in particular in its Southern part, and (b) the bio-based chemicals, materials

  2. Scope & Limitations of Fmoc Chemistry SPPS-Based Approaches to the Total Synthesis of Insulin Lispro via Ester Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayalan, Balamurugan; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Rege, Nischay; Weiss, Michael A.; Eitel, Simon H.; Meier, Thomas; Schoenleber, Ralph O.; Kent, Stephen B.H.

    2017-01-01

    We have systematically explored three approaches based on Fmoc chemistry SPPS for the total chemical synthesis of the key depsipeptide intermediate for the efficient total chemical synthesis of insulin. The approaches used were: stepwise Fmoc chemistry SPPS; the ‘hybrid method’, in which maximally-protected peptide segments made by Fmoc chemistry SPPS are condensed in solution; and, native chemical ligation using peptide-thioester segments generated by Fmoc chemistry SPPS. A key building block in all three approaches was a Glu[Oβ(Thr)] ester-linked dipeptide equipped with a set of orthogonal protecting groups compatible with Fmoc chemistry SPPS. The most effective method for the preparation of the 51 residue ester-linked polypeptide chain of ester insulin was the use of unprotected peptide-thioester segments, prepared from peptide-hydrazides synthesized by Fmoc chemistry SPPS, and condensed by native chemical ligation. High resolution X-ray crystallography confirmed the disulfide pairings and three-dimensional structure of synthetic insulin lispro prepared from ester insulin lispro by this route. Further optimization of these pilot studies should yield an effective total chemical synthesis of insulin lispro (Humalog) based on peptide synthesis by Fmoc chemistry SPPS. PMID:27905149

  3. The basis for a second-generation highly cross-linked UHMWPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbleton, John H; D'Antonio, James A; Manley, Michael T; Capello, William N; Wang, Aiguo

    2006-12-01

    Highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) decreases wear at the hip by more than 50% compared with conventional UHMWPE. However, melted highly cross-linked polyethylene may be susceptible to fatigue cracking, and annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene may be susceptible to in vivo oxidation. The second-generation highly cross-linked UHMWPE (X3 HXPE) uses a sequential irradiation and annealing process. It preserves mechanical strength properties and has the highest survivorship in functional fatigue testing. The free radical content is low, and its performance under accelerated aging is the same as virgin UHMWPE. Hip simulator studies with 32-mm acetabular components demonstrated 97% wear reduction compared with conventional UHMWPE, and 62% compared with a clinically successful first-generation annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene. The crystallinity, density, and tensile strength of the X3 HXPE material was unchanged by oxidative challenge. X3 HXPE material articulating on cobalt-chromium alloy yields a volumetric wear rate very similar to that of metal-on-metal articulations, but eliminates the concerns of metal ion release. Wear particles generated from the X3 HXPE were the same size as those produced from conventional UHMWPE. Preliminary results suggest X3 HXPE can be used for cups larger than 36 mm.

  4. The educational integration of second generation southern Italian migrants to the north

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ballarino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: After WW2 Italy experienced a huge internal migration from the south to the northern Italian regions. More than two million individuals moved up north, and the majority of them settled down permanently. How were southern internal migrants integrated into northern Italian society? Despite the theoretical and substantial relevance of the topic, there has been little systematic research on it. Objective: This work studies the assimilation of this migration flux from a long-term perspective, comparing the school outcomes of the children of southern migrants to those of both northerners' children and children of southern families who did not move. Methods: To this aim, logit models of three different school transitions are applied to data from the Italian Longitudinal Household Survey (ILHS, a retrospective panel survey that includes detailed life-course information on a representative sample of roughly 11,000 Italians. Results: There is no difference between the educational performance of both generation 2 and the mix generation and that of the northerners. However, strong and significant disadvantages were found with regard to generation 1.5, due to the disruption in individual school experience caused by the migration itself. Conclusions: The Italian educational system played an important role in facilitating the integration of the second generation of Southern immigrants, but it was less able to assimilate those who had already begun their studies in the south before following their parents to the north.

  5. Influence of Grapevine Cultivar on the Second Generations of Lobesia botrana and Eupoecilia ambiguella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Francesco; Stefanelli, Giorgio; Villani, Alberto; Cargnus, Elena

    2018-01-19

    Grapevine cultivar can affect susceptibility to Lobesia botrana and Eupoecilia ambiguella with important implications on control strategies. A four-year study was carried out in north-eastern Italy on 10 cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère, Chardonnay, Merlot, Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso, Rhine Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Terrano, Tocai Friulano and Verduzzo Friulano) grown in the same vineyard to assess whether the cultivar affects second-generation population levels of the two vine moths and L. botrana larval age composition. The influence of bunch traits measured at the peak of egg hatching on demographic parameters was also evaluated. Over the four years, L. botrana significantly prevailed over E. ambiguella in nine cultivars. Chardonnay and Tocai Friulano were the most infested cultivars and Merlot was the least infested. At the sampling date, the age composition of L. botrana varied with cultivar, with the larvae being significantly older on Chardonnay and younger on Carménère, Merlot and Verduzzo Friulano. Older larval age was significantly associated with higher bunch compactness. Larval infestation was not significantly influenced by either bunch compactness or berry volume, which suggested a more important role for contact and volatile substances mostly originating from the berries. These results allow for the improvement of Integrated Pest Management strategy against vine moths.

  6. Comparison of third and second generation parathyroid hormone assays and their use in chronic hemdialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Muryan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This work’s objective is to compare third and second generation assays in patients with normal kidney function and in chronic hemodialysis patients, and the implications on the latter. Methods: 60 chronic hemodialysis patients and 40 patients with normal kidney function were studied and their PTH levels were measured for both assays. Results: In patients population with normal kidney function the average on PTH was 51.8 and 45.6 pg/ml with second and third generation assays respectively. In chronic hemodialysis patients the average PTH was 193.9 and 137.1 pg/ml with second and third generation assays respectively. The difference between assays was 11.3% and 29.3% in patients with normal kidney function and in hemodialysis patients respectively. Third generation assay caused a variation in the amount of patients that fall over seve ral PTH ranges according to KDIGO guidelines, for a lesser value of 2 times the reference upper limit: it changes from 20 to 25 patients, between 2 and 9 times: it changes from 31 to 32 patients, and more than 9 times: it changes from 9 to 3 patients. Conclusions: When PTH concentration increases the difference between both assays also increases, for this reason we cannot use them indiscriminately in a chronic hemodialysis patient population. With third generation assays 11 patients (18.3% changed their classification according to KDIGO guidelines, which will result in a change of treatment.

  7. Development of the second generation Berry Impact Recording Device (BIRD II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Li, Changying

    2015-02-05

    To quantitatively measure the impacts during blueberry harvesting and post-harvest handling, this study designed the second generation Berry Impact Recording Device (BIRD II) sensor with a size of 21 mm in diameter and a weight of 3.9 g, which reduced the size by 17% and the weight by 50% compared to the previous prototype. The sensor was able to measure accelerations up to 346 g at a maximum frequency of 2 KHz. Universal Serial Bus (USB) was used to directly connect the sensor with the computer, removing the interface box used previously. LabVIEW-based PC software was designed to configure the sensor, download and process the data. The sensor was calibrated using a centrifuge. The accuracy of the sensor was between -1.76 g to 2.17 g, and the precision was between 0.21 g to 0.81 g. Dynamic drop tests showed that BIRD II had smaller variance in measurements than BIRD I. In terms of size and weight, BIRD II is more similar to an average blueberry fruit than BIRD I, which leads to more accurate measurements of the impacts for blueberries.

  8. Improvement of metabolic risk profile under second-generation antipsychotics: a pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Mélissa; Binet, Mario; Bouchard, Roch-Hugo; Roy, Marc-André; Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie

    2009-04-01

    To assess the impact of a weight management program on metabolic health of second-generation antipsychotic (SGA)-treated patients. A prospective 12-week intervention program including individual exercise training and nutritional group sessions was performed as a pilot study. An intervention group of 6 SGA-treated patients (5 men and 1 woman; mean 15.0, SD 11.8 months) was compared with 10 reference patients under SGAs (8 men and 2 women; mean 14.0, SD 14.2 months), presenting similar age and baseline weekly levels of physical activity. For patients of both groups, anthropometric measurements and basic fasting lipid profile were assessed. For patients in the intervention group, an adapted Rockport Test was performed to evaluate their aerobic fitness and compliance to training sessions, and was recorded. After the 12-week period, reference patients significantly gained weight (P = 0.001), whereas intervention patients showed significant weight loss and decreased body mass index (P = 0.02); interaction between groups: P < 0.01. This weight loss was accompanied by a decreased cholesterol-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (P = 0.04). Overall, the intervention patients' adherence to exercise prescription was 95.1 %, and this adherence induced a significant improvement of their aerobic fitness (P = 0.05). This pilot study suggests that patients under SGAs may benefit from a weight management program and improve their metabolic health, as well as their aerobic fitness.

  9. Bioprospecting of functional cellulases from metagenome for second generation biofuel production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rameshwar; Nain, Lata; Labrou, Nikolaos E; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2017-06-13

    Second generation biofuel production has been appeared as a sustainable and alternative energy option. The ultimate aim is the development of an industrially feasible and economic conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel molecules. Since, cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer and also represented as the photosynthetically fixed form of carbon, the efficient hydrolysis of cellulose is the most important step towards the development of a sustainable biofuel production process. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by suites of hydrolytic enzymes underlines the importance of cellulase enzyme system in whole hydrolysis process. However, the selection of the suitable cellulolytic enzymes with enhanced activities remains a challenge for the biorefinery industry to obtain efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. The present review focuses on deciphering the novel and effective cellulases from different environmental niches by unculturable metagenomic approaches. Furthermore, a comprehensive functional aspect of cellulases is also presented and evaluated by assessing the structural and catalytic properties as well as sequence identities and expression patterns. This review summarizes the recent development in metagenomics based approaches for identifying and exploring novel cellulases which open new avenues for their successful application in biorefineries.

  10. Mapping the AAV capsid host antibody response towards the development of second generation gene delivery vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan eTseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant Adeno-associated virus (rAAV gene delivery system is entering a crucial and exciting phase with the promise of more than 20 years of intense research now realized in a number of successful human clinical trials. However, as a natural host to AAV infection, anti-AAV antibodies are prevalent in the human population. For example, ~70% of human sera samples are positive for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2. Furthermore, low levels of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in the circulation are detrimental to the efficacy of corrective therapeutic AAV gene delivery. A key component to overcoming this obstacle is the identification of regions of the AAV capsid that participate in interactions with host immunity, especially neutralizing antibodies, to be modified for neutralization escape. Three main approaches have been utilized to map antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids. The first is directed evolution in which AAV variants are selected in the presence of monoclonal antibodies or pooled human sera. This results in AAV variants with mutations on important neutralizing epitopes. The second is epitope searching, achieved by peptide scanning, peptide insertion or site-directed mutagenesis. The third, a structure biology-based approach, utilizes cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of AAV capsids complexed to fragment antibodies, which are generated from monoclonal antibodies, to directly visualize the epitopes. In this review, the contribution of these three approaches to the current knowledge of AAV epitopes and success in their use to create second generation vectors will be discussed.

  11. Mapping the AAV Capsid Host Antibody Response toward the Development of Second Generation Gene Delivery Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Shan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2014-01-01

    The recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene delivery system is entering a crucial and exciting phase with the promise of more than 20 years of intense research now realized in a number of successful human clinical trials. However, as a natural host to AAV infection, anti-AAV antibodies are prevalent in the human population. For example, ~70% of human sera samples are positive for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2). Furthermore, low levels of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in the circulation are detrimental to the efficacy of corrective therapeutic AAV gene delivery. A key component to overcoming this obstacle is the identification of regions of the AAV capsid that participate in interactions with host immunity, especially neutralizing antibodies, to be modified for neutralization escape. Three main approaches have been utilized to map antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids. The first is directed evolution in which AAV variants are selected in the presence of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) or pooled human sera. This results in AAV variants with mutations on important neutralizing epitopes. The second is epitope searching, achieved by peptide scanning, peptide insertion, or site-directed mutagenesis. The third, a structure biology-based approach, utilizes cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of AAV capsids complexed to fragment antibodies, which are generated from MAbs, to directly visualize the epitopes. In this review, the contribution of these three approaches to the current knowledge of AAV epitopes and success in their use to create second generation vectors will be discussed.

  12. Analysis of quality raw data of second generation sequencers with Quality Assessment Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Maria PC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second generation technologies have advantages over Sanger; however, they have resulted in new challenges for the genome construction process, especially because of the small size of the reads, despite the high degree of coverage. Independent of the program chosen for the construction process, DNA sequences are superimposed, based on identity, to extend the reads, generating contigs; mismatches indicate a lack of homology and are not included. This process improves our confidence in the sequences that are generated. Findings We developed Quality Assessment Software, with which one can review graphs showing the distribution of quality values from the sequencing reads. This software allow us to adopt more stringent quality standards for sequence data, based on quality-graph analysis and estimated coverage after applying the quality filter, providing acceptable sequence coverage for genome construction from short reads. Conclusions Quality filtering is a fundamental step in the process of constructing genomes, as it reduces the frequency of incorrect alignments that are caused by measuring errors, which can occur during the construction process due to the size of the reads, provoking misassemblies. Application of quality filters to sequence data, using the software Quality Assessment, along with graphing analyses, provided greater precision in the definition of cutoff parameters, which increased the accuracy of genome construction.

  13. Second-generation antipsychotics and risk of cerebrovascular accidents in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percudani, Mauro; Barbui, Corrado; Fortino, Ida; Tansella, Michele; Petrovich, Lorenzo

    2005-10-01

    Concern has been recently raised for risperidone and olanzapine, possibly associated with cerebrovascular events in placebo-controlled trials conducted in elderly subjects with dementia. We investigated the relationship between exposure to second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and occurrence of cerebrovascular accidents in the elderly. From the regional database of hospital admissions of Lombardy, Italy, we extracted all patients aged 65 or older with cerebrovascular-related outcomes for the year 2002. From the regional database of prescriptions reimbursed by the National Health Service, we extracted all patients aged 65 or older who received antipsychotic prescriptions during 2001. The 2 databases were linked anonymously using the individual patient code. The proportions of cerebrovascular accidents were 3.31% (95% confidence interval, 2.95-3.69) in elderly subjects exclusively exposed to SGAs and 2.37% (95% confidence interval, 2.19-2.57) in elderly subjects exclusively exposed to first-generation antipsychotics. After background group differences were controlled for, exposure to SGAs significantly increased the risk of accidents. The analysis of cerebrovascular events in elderly subjects exposed to each individual SGA, in comparison with exposure to haloperidol, showed a significantly increased risk for risperidone only (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.93). These data provide preliminary epidemiological evidence that exposure to SGAs, in comparison with exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, significantly increased the risk of cerebrovascular accidents in the elderly.

  14. Parenting and toddler aggression in second-generation immigrant families: the moderating role of child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ayşe; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the influence of parenting practices in the prediction of child physical aggression in 94 second-generation Turkish immigrant families with 2-year-old toddlers, and the moderating role of child temperament. In a longitudinal study we tested both a dual-risk model and a differential susceptibility model. Observational data were obtained for mothers' positive parenting and authoritarian discipline, and maternal reports for child temperament and physical aggression. All measures were repeated 1 year later. Child temperament at age 2 years was a significant predictor of child aggression 1 year later. We found no main effects of positive parenting or of authoritarian discipline for the prediction of child aggression. However, we found support for the dual-risk hypothesis: Toddlers with difficult temperaments were more adversely affected by a lack of positive parenting than other children, but they did not benefit more from high levels of positive parenting than toddlers with more easy temperaments. We found no interaction effects with child temperament for authoritarian discipline. These findings provide support for the generalizability of the dual-risk model of parenting and temperament to non-Western immigrant families with young children. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Second-generation bioethanol from industrial wood waste of South American species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Vallejos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a global interest in replacing fossil fuels with renewable sources of energy. The present review evaluates the significance of South-American wood industrial wastes for bioethanol production. Four countries have been chosen for this review, i.e., Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay, based on their current or potential forestry industry. It should be noted that although Brazil has a global bioethanol market share of 25%, its production is mainly first-generation bioethanol from sugarcane. The situation in the other countries is even worse, in spite of the fact that they have regulatory frameworks in place already allowing the substitution of a percentage of gasoline by ethanol. Pines and eucalyptus are the usually forested plants in these countries, and their industrial wastes, as chips and sawdust, could serve as promising raw materials to produce second-generation bioethanol in the context of a forest biorefinery. The process to convert woody biomass involves three stages: pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation. The operational conditions of the pretreatment method used are generally defined according to the physical and chemical characteristics of the raw materials and subsequently determine the characteristics of the treated substrates. This article also reviews and discusses the available pretreatment technologies for eucalyptus and pines applicable to South-American industrial wood wastes, their enzymatic hydrolysis yields, and the feasibility of implementing such processes in the mentioned countries in the frame of a biorefinery.

  16. A lightweight fault-tolerant middleware for a Subaru Telescope second generation observation control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Eric; Bon, Bruce; Inagaki, Takeshi; Streeper, Sam

    2008-08-01

    Subaru Telescope is developing a second-generation Observation Control System that specifically addresses some of the deficiencies of the current Subaru OCS. Two areas of concern are complexity and failure handling. The current system has over 1000 dedicated OCS processes spread across a dozen hosts and provides nothing in the way of automated failover. Furthermore, manual failover is so fraught with difficulty that it is rarely attempted. Our Generation 2 OCS is written almost entirely in Python and builds upon a Subaru-developed middleware based on the XML-RPC protocol. This framework offers the following benefits: - has very few dependences outside of standard Python - provides a nearly seamless remote proxy object-oriented interface - provides optional user/password authentication and/or SSL encryption - is extremely simple to use from client applications - is connectionless, and assists transparent failover of communications and services on a cluster of hosts - has reasonable performance for a wide range of needs - allows multiple language bindings - for dynamic languages, requires no interface stub files The "back end" (service side) of the OCS is nearing completion, and has already been used successfully during two separate OCS engineering runs. It is comprised of only a couple dozen processes, and provides automated failover capabilities on a rack of commodity x86 Linux servers. We provide an overview of the middleware design and its failover capabilities. Some data on the performance of communications using the middleware protocol is included.

  17. Human papillomavirus first and second generation vaccines-current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyanfard, Somayeh; Müller, Martin

    2017-07-26

    It has been more than 10 years that the first prophylactic papillomavirus vaccine became available, although distribution has been mainly limited to the more affluent countries. The first two vaccines have been a great success, hundreds of millions of women and a much smaller number of men have been vaccinated ever since. In a few countries with high vaccination coverage, in particular Australia but also parts of Great Britain and others, clinical impact of vaccination programs is already visible and there are indications for herd immunity as well. Vaccine efficacy is higher than originally estimated and the vaccines have an excellent safety profile. Gardasil9 is a second generation HPV virus-like particle vaccine that was licensed in 2015 and there are more to come in the near future. Currently, burning questions in respect to HPV vaccination are the duration of protection - especially in regard to cross-protection - reduction of the three-dose regimen and its impact on cross-protection; and duration of response, as well as protection against oropharyngeal HPV infections. Furthermore, researchers are seeking to overcome limitations of the VLP vaccines, namely low thermal stability, cost, invasive administration, limited coverage of non-vaccine HPV types, and lack of therapeutic efficacy. In this review we summarize the current status of licensed VLP vaccines and address questions related to second and third generation HPV vaccines.

  18. Weight gain with add-on second-generation antipsychotics in bipolar disorder: a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, H; Joas, E; Kardell, M; Pålsson, E; Landén, M

    2017-06-01

    Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and magnitude of weight gain in-patients with bipolar disorder when treated with a second-generation antipsychotic as an add-on treatment to a mood stabilizer in routine clinical practice. Data were derived from the quality register for bipolar disorder in Sweden (BipoläR). Patients with bipolar disorder who started add-on treatment with a SGA (n = 575) were compared at next yearly follow-up with age and sex matched patients who were only treated with a mood stabilizer (n = 566). The primary outcome measure was change in body weight and body mass index (BMI). We also assessed the prevalence of clinically significant weight gain defined as ≥7% gain in body weight. The group that received add-on treatment with antipsychotics neither gained more weight nor were at higher risk for a clinically significant weight gain than the reference group. Instead, factors associated with clinically significant weight gain were female sex, young age, low-baseline BMI, and occurrence of manic/hypomanic episodes. We found no evidence of an overall increased risk of weight gain for patients with bipolar disorder after receiving add-on SGA to a mood stabilizer in a routine clinical setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Identification of Anthropogenic Climate Change Using a Second-Generation Reanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santer, B; Wiglet, T; Simmons, A; Kallberg, P; Kelly, G; Uppala, S; Ammann, C; Boyle, J; Bruggemann, W; Doutriaux, C; Fiorino, M; Mears, C; Meehl, G; Sausen, R

    2004-06-02

    Changes in the height of the tropopause provide a sensitive indicator of human effects on climate. A previous attempt to identify human effects on tropopause height relied on information from 'first-generation' reanalyses of past weather observations. Climate data from these initial model-based reanalyses have well-documented deficiencies, raising concerns regarding the robustness of earlier detection work that employed these data. Here, we address these concerns using information from the new second-generation ERA-40 reanalysis. Over 1979 to 2001, tropopause height increases by nearly 200 meters in ERA-40, partly due to tropospheric warming. The spatial pattern of height increase is consistent with climate model predictions of the expected response to anthropogenic influences alone, significantly strengthening earlier detection results. Atmospheric temperature changes in two different satellite datasets are more highly correlated with changes in ERA-40 than with those in a first-generation reanalysis, thus illustrating the improved quality of temperature information in ERA-40. Our results provide support for claims that human activities have warmed the troposphere and cooled the lower stratosphere over the last several decades of the 20th century, and that both of these changes in atmospheric temperature have contributed to an overall increase in tropopause height.

  20. Quantifying second generation ethanol inhibition: Design of Experiments approach and kinetic model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Steven J; Johnson, Roger W; Menkhaus, Todd J; Gilcrease, Patrick C

    2015-03-01

    While softwoods represent a potential feedstock for second generation ethanol production, compounds present in their hydrolysates can inhibit fermentation. In this study, a novel Design of Experiments (DoE) approach was used to identify significant inhibitory effects on Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A for the purpose of guiding kinetic model development. Although acetic acid, furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) were present at potentially inhibitory levels, initial factorial experiments only identified ethanol as a significant rate inhibitor. It was hypothesized that high ethanol levels masked the effects of other inhibitors, and a subsequent factorial design without ethanol found significant effects for all other compounds. When these non-ethanol effects were accounted for in the kinetic model, R¯(2) was significantly improved over an ethanol-inhibition only model (R¯(2)=0.80 vs. 0.76). In conclusion, when ethanol masking effects are removed, DoE is a valuable tool to identify significant non-ethanol inhibitors and guide kinetic model development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimised metrics for CRISPR-KO screens with second-generation gRNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Swee Hoe; Li, Yilong; Koike-Yusa, Hiroko; Yusa, Kosuke

    2017-08-07

    Genome-wide CRISPR-based knockout (CRISPR-KO) screening is an emerging technique which enables systematic genetic analysis of a cellular or molecular phenotype in question. Continuous improvements, such as modifications to the guide RNA (gRNA) scaffold and the development of gRNA on-target prediction algorithms, have since been made to increase their screening performance. We compared the performance of three available second-generation human genome-wide CRISPR-KO libraries that included at least one of the improvements, and examined the effect of gRNA scaffold, number of gRNAs per gene and number of replicates on screen performance. We identified duplicated screens using a library with 6 gRNAs per gene as providing the best trade-off. Despite the improvements, we found that each improved library still has library-specific false negatives and, for the first time, estimated the false negative rates of CRISPR-KO screens, which are between 10% and 20%. Our newly-defined optimal screening parameters would be helpful in designing screens and constructing bespoke gRNA libraries.

  2. Second generation automated anti-CCP test better predicts the clinical diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrefaei, Mohamed; Boose, Kristie; McGee, Martha; Tarrant, Teresa K; Lin, Feng-Chang; Fine, Jason P; Schmitz, John L

    2012-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common systemic autoimmune diseases. The presence of antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) is better at discriminating RA patients and is also associated with significantly more disease activity compared to serum rheumatoid factor. In this study, we assessed two new automated second generation tests to detect the presence of anti-CCP antibodies in 226 serum samples submitted to the Clinical Immunology Laboratory for anti-CCP antibody testing. We compared CCP antibody results on these samples obtained using the ImmunoCAP 250 (Phadia) and the Architect i2000SR (Abbott Laboratories) instruments to our currently used CCP IgG third generation manual ELISA (Inova Diagnostics). One hundred and fifty-four samples were negative while 52 were positive by all three tests. Eighteen samples were negative by the automated tests but weakly/moderately positive by manual ELISA yielding an overall concordance of 79%. When we compared the discordant test results to patient diagnosis, we observed a better correlation with clinical RA diagnosis for the new automated tests compared to the manual ELISA. These two new anti-CCP antibody tests have the benefit of automation and may have better positive predictive value for the diagnosis of RA than our current manual ELISA.

  3. Refractory testicular germ cell tumors are highly sensitive to the second generation DNA methylation inhibitor guadecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albany, Costantine; Hever-Jardine, Mary P; von Herrmann, Katherine M; Yim, Christina Y; Tam, Janice; Warzecha, Joshua M; Shin, Leah; Bock, Sarah E; Curran, Brian S; Chaudhry, Aneeq S; Kim, Fred; Sandusky, George E; Taverna, Pietro; Freemantle, Sarah J; Christensen, Brock C; Einhorn, Lawrence H; Spinella, Michael J

    2017-01-10

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common cancers of young males. A substantial portion of TGCT patients are refractory to cisplatin. There are no effective therapies for these patients, many of whom die from progressive disease. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) are the stem cells of TGCTs. In prior in vitro studies we found that EC cells were highly sensitive to the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza deoxycytidine (5-aza). Here, as an initial step in bringing demethylation therapy to the clinic for TGCT patients, we evaluated the effects of the clinically optimized, second generation demethylating agent guadecitabine (SGI-110) on EC cells in an animal model of cisplatin refractory testicular cancer. EC cells were exquisitely sensitive to guadecitabine and the hypersensitivity was dependent on high levels of DNA methyltransferase 3B. Guadecitabine mediated transcriptional reprogramming of EC cells included induction of p53 targets and repression of pluripotency genes. As a single agent, guadecitabine completely abolished progression and induced complete regression of cisplatin resistant EC xenografts even at doses well below those required to impact somatic solid tumors. Low dose guadecitabine also sensitized refractory EC cells to cisplatin in vivo. Genome-wide analysis indicated that in vivo antitumor activity was associated with activation of p53 and immune-related pathways and the antitumor effects of guadecitabine were dependent on p53, a gene rarely mutated in TGCTs. These preclinical findings suggest that guadecitabine alone or in combination with cisplatin is a promising strategy to treat refractory TGCT patients.

  4. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Second-Generation System Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Robertson; D. Horazak; R. Newby; H. Goldstein

    2002-11-01

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant--called a Second-Generation or Advanced Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (APCFB) plant--offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 45% (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. The APCFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed boiler (PCFB), and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2300 F and higher. A conceptual design was previously prepared for this new type of plant and an economic analysis presented, all based on the use of a Siemens Westinghouse W501F gas turbine with projected carbonizer, PCFB, and topping combustor performance data. Having tested these components at the pilot plant stage, the referenced conceptual design is being updated to reflect more accurate performance predictions together with the use of the more advanced Siemens Westinghouse W501G gas turbine and a conventional 2400 psig/1050 F/1050 F/2-1/2 in. steam turbine. This report describes the updated plant which is projected to have an HHV efficiency of 48% and identifies work completed for the October 2001 through September 2002 time period.

  5. Flocculation causes inhibitor tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for second-generation bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Johan O; Mapelli, Valeria; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Franzén, Carl Johan

    2014-11-01

    Yeast has long been considered the microorganism of choice for second-generation bioethanol production due to its fermentative capacity and ethanol tolerance. However, tolerance toward inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic materials is still an issue. Flocculating yeast strains often perform relatively well in inhibitory media, but inhibitor tolerance has never been clearly linked to the actual flocculation ability per se. In this study, variants of the flocculation gene FLO1 were transformed into the genome of the nonflocculating laboratory yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D. Three mutants with distinct differences in flocculation properties were isolated and characterized. The degree of flocculation and hydrophobicity of the cells were correlated to the length of the gene variant. The effect of different strength of flocculation on the fermentation performance of the strains was studied in defined medium with or without fermentation inhibitors, as well as in media based on dilute acid spruce hydrolysate. Strong flocculation aided against the readily convertible inhibitor furfural but not against less convertible inhibitors such as carboxylic acids. During fermentation of dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, the most strongly flocculating mutant with dense cell flocs showed significantly faster sugar consumption. The modified strain with the weakest flocculation showed a hexose consumption profile similar to the untransformed strain. These findings may explain why flocculation has evolved as a stress response and can find application in fermentation-based biorefinery processes on lignocellulosic raw materials. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Effect of first and second generation biodiesel blends on engine performance and emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, A. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Islam, Rubayat

    2016-07-01

    The biodiesel is a potential source of alternative fuel which can be used at different proportions with diesel fuel. This study experimentally investigated the effect of blend percentage on diesel engine performance and emission using first generation (soybean) and second generation (waste cooking) biodiesel. The characterization of the biodiesel was done according to ASTM and EN standards and compared with ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. A multi-cylinder test bed engine coupled with electromagnetic dynamometer and 5 gas analyzer were used for engine performance and emission test. The investigation was made using B5, B10 and B15 blends for both biodiesels. The study found that brake power (BP) and brake torque (BT) slightly decreases and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) slightly increases with an increase in biodiesel blends ratio. Besides, a significant reduction in exhaust emissions (except NOx emission) was found for both biodiesels compared to ULSD. Soybean biodiesel showed better engine performance and emissions reduction compared with waste cooking biodiesel. However, NOx emission for B5 waste cooking biodiesel was lower than soybean biodiesel.

  7. Development of a second generation SiLC-based Laue lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girou, David; Wade, Colin; Barrière, Nicolas; Collon, Maximilien; Günther, Ramses; Hanlon, Lorraine; Tomsick, John; Uliyanov, Alexey; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    For more than a decade, cosine has been developing silicon pore optics (SPO), lightweight modular X-ray optics made of stacks of bent and directly bonded silicon mirror plates. This technology, which has been selected by ESA to realize the optics of ATHENA, can also be used to fabricate soft gamma-ray Laue lenses where Bragg diffraction through the bulk silicon is exploited, rather than grazing incidence reflection. Silicon Laue Components (SiLCs) are made of stacks of curved, polished, wedged silicon plates, allowing the concentration of radiation in both radial and azimuthal directions. This greatly increases the focusing properties of a Laue lens since the size of the focal spot is no longer determined by the size of the individual single crystals, but by the accuracy of the applied curvature. After a successful proof of concept in 2013, establishing the huge potential of this technology, a new project has been launched in Spring 2017 at cosine to further develop and test this technique. Here we present the latest advances of the second generation of SiLCs made from even thinner silicon plates stacked by a robot with dedicated tools in a class-100 clean room environment.

  8. Interpretation of hemolysis tests following administration of a second-generation hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieghe, S; Stove, V; Decruyenaere, J; Delanghe, J

    2013-01-01

    Hemoglobin released into the circulation during hemolysis or therapy with chemically modified hemoglobins, exert oxidative and NO-scavenging toxic effects. Pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene conjugate (PHP) is one of the second-generation hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). We wanted to investigate the metabolism of PHP with a special focus on its consequences for interpreting hemolysis-related diagnostic parameters in PHP-treated patients. Clinical samples were analyzed from 3 patients, who received PHP (as part of the PHOENIX phase III trial) for treatment of catecholamine-resistant distributive shock. In contrast to expectations, clearance of PHP by hemopexin, instead of haptoglobin was documented by increased hemolysis indices, absence of decreased haptoglobin values, presence of free PHP-hemoglobin and exhausted hemopexin concentrations. The present case report is important for both clinicians and laboratorians since it nicely illustrates that a hemolytic aspect of plasma is not necessarely synonymous with hemolysis. A hemolytic aspect of plasma or serum (high hemolysis index) in combination with normal or increased haptoglobin values should draw the attention; additional determination of lactate dehydrogenase and hemopexin may then be useful to distinguish the condition from in vitro hemolysis and to monitor the in vivo elimination of the heme compounds.

  9. Nanoscale surface analysis on second generation advanced high strength steel after hot dip galvanizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, M; Duchoslav, J; Preis, K; Samek, L; Stifter, D

    2013-09-01

    Second generation advanced high strength steel is one promising material of choice for modern automotive structural parts because of its outstanding maximal elongation and tensile strength. Nonetheless there is still a lack of corrosion protection for this material due to the fact that cost efficient hot dip galvanizing cannot be applied. The reason for the insufficient coatability with zinc is found in the segregation of manganese to the surface during annealing and the formation of manganese oxides prior coating. This work analyses the structure and chemical composition of the surface oxides on so called nano-TWIP (twinning induced plasticity) steel on the nanoscopic scale after hot dip galvanizing in a simulator with employed analytical methods comprising scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAES), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and focused ion beam (FIB) for cross section preparation. By the combination of these methods, it was possible to obtain detailed chemical images serving a better understanding which processes exactly occur on the surface of this novel kind of steel and how to promote in the future for this material system galvanic protection.

  10. Effect of first and second generation biodiesel blends on engine performance and emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, A. K., E-mail: azad.cqu@gmail.com, E-mail: a.k.azad@cqu.edu.au; Rasul, M. G., E-mail: m.rasul@cqu.edu.au; Bhuiya, M. M. K., E-mail: m.bhuiya@cqu.edu.au [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD 4702 (Australia); Islam, Rubayat, E-mail: rubayat12@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    The biodiesel is a potential source of alternative fuel which can be used at different proportions with diesel fuel. This study experimentally investigated the effect of blend percentage on diesel engine performance and emission using first generation (soybean) and second generation (waste cooking) biodiesel. The characterization of the biodiesel was done according to ASTM and EN standards and compared with ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. A multi-cylinder test bed engine coupled with electromagnetic dynamometer and 5 gas analyzer were used for engine performance and emission test. The investigation was made using B5, B10 and B15 blends for both biodiesels. The study found that brake power (BP) and brake torque (BT) slightly decreases and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) slightly increases with an increase in biodiesel blends ratio. Besides, a significant reduction in exhaust emissions (except NO{sub x} emission) was found for both biodiesels compared to ULSD. Soybean biodiesel showed better engine performance and emissions reduction compared with waste cooking biodiesel. However, NO{sub x} emission for B5 waste cooking biodiesel was lower than soybean biodiesel.

  11. Second-generation supramolecular dendrimer with a defined structure due to orthogonal binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelmann, Jens; Dethlefs, Christiane; Brammer, Stefan; Doğan, Ahmet; Uphoff, Andreas; Lüning, Ulrich

    2012-07-02

    A second-generation supramolecular dendrimer has been prepared by orthogonal multiple hydrogen bonding. In the first (inner) recognition domain, the interaction of one bis-isocyanuric acid (25) with two branching units (21) that carry complementary Hamilton receptors has been exploited. In the second (outer) generation, the two ADDA (A=hydrogen-bond acceptor, D=donor) receptors of each branching unit (21) have bound complementary DAAD units (4). The problem of limited solubility of the building blocks has been overcome by the introduction of branched ethylhexyl residues and by the use of flexible alkylene or oligo(ethylene glycol) linking chains. The orthogonal binding of the two hydrogen-bonding pairs was elucidated by chemical induced shift NMR titrations, which proved that the two pairs, isocyanuric acid with the Hamilton receptor and ADDA with DAAD, bind preferentially. The formation of the supramolecular self-assembled 1:2:4 dendrimer with a molecular weight of 5065 g mol(-1) was investigated by diffusion NMR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The role of ghrelin signalling in second-generation antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingsheng; Deng, Chao; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2013-11-01

    Based on clinical and animal studies, this review suggests a tri-phasic effect of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) on circulating ghrelin levels: an initial increase exerted by the acute effect of SGAs; followed by a secondary decrease possibly due to the negative feedback from the SGA-induced body weight gain or hyperphagia; and a final re-increase to reach the new equilibrium. Moreover, the results can also vary depending on individual SGAs, other hormonal states, dietary choices, and other confounding factors including medical history, co-treatments, age, gender, and ghrelin measurement techniques. Interestingly, rats treated with olanzapine, an SGA with high weight gain liabilities, are associated with increased hypothalamic ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) levels. In addition, expressions of downstream ghrelin signalling parameters at the hypothalamus, including neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) are also altered under SGA treatments. Thus, understanding the role of ghrelin signalling in antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain should offer potential novel pharmacological targets for tackling the obesity side-effect of SGAs and its associated metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Health Information Preference among Youth and Caregivers related to Second-Generation Antipsychotic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Nguyen, Duc; Davidson, Jana; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2012-11-01

    To determine the health information-seeking preferences of youth with mental health challenges and their caregivers, focusing on health literacy needs related to second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). One hundred fifty two youth and 158 caregivers attending outpatient psychiatry clinics at BC Children's Hospital between February 2009 and December 2010 completed a SGA health literacy survey. Youth and caregivers placed emphasis on understanding the benefits and side effects of SGA-treatment, along with strategies to prevent potential side effects. While psychiatrists were viewed as a crucial source of information by both groups, pharmacists were an under-utilized resource by youth. Both youth and caregivers preferred brochures from healthcare providers, websites, and support groups to access health information; however, preferences diverged among other activities. Specifically, youth favoured practical, "hands-on" programs such as cooking and exercise classes, whereas caregivers showed greater interest in didactic presentations and conferences. Sex differences were observed in receptiveness towards certain programs and resources. The findings from this study support the inclusion of caregivers and youth of both sexes with mental health conditions in the future development of educational resources related to medications such as SGAs. Health literacy strategies need to be multi-faceted, and utilize mixed methods to ensure broad reach and applicability.

  14. Total synthesis of (-)-reidispongiolide A, an actin-targeting macrolide isolated from the marine sponge Reidispongia coerulea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Ian; Ashton, Kate; Britton, Robert; Cecere, Giuseppe; Chouraqui, Gaëlle; Florence, Gordon J; Knust, Henner; Stafford, Jonathan

    2008-02-01

    A stereocontrolled total synthesis of the microfilament-destabilizing cytotoxic macrolide (-)-reidispongiolide A, isolated from the New Caledonian marine sponge Reidispongia coerulea, is described. This synthesis utilizes a convergent aldol-based strategy to construct the 26-membered macrolactone, followed by the late-stage coupling of a derived aldehyde with an N-vinylformamide-containing ketone subunit to install the full side chain. Two alternative routes were examined for the introduction of the 2E,4E-dienoate region, and a complex Mukaiyama aldol coupling was used to connect the northern and southern hemispheres to install the C13 stereocenter. This constitutes the first chemical synthesis of any member of the reidispongiolide/sphinxolide family of marine macrolides and unequivocally establishes the relative and absolute configuration.

  15. Chronic Kidney Disease in the Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stent Era: Pooled Analysis of the Korean Multicenter Drug-Eluting Stent Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Myung; Kang, Jeehoon; Lee, Euijae; Hwang, Doyeon; Rhee, Tae-Min; Park, Jonghanne; Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Lee, Sang Eun; Han, Jung-Kyu; Yang, Han-Mo; Park, Kyung Woo; Na, Sang-Hoon; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-10-24

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on clinical outcomes in contemporary practice of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES). Although second-generation DES have improved the safety and efficacy issues in PCI, data regarding the performance of second-generation DES in patients with CKD are still limited. We performed a patient-level pooled analysis on 12,426 patients undergoing PCI using second-generation DES from the Korean Multicenter Drug-Eluting Stent Registry. Endpoints were stent-oriented outcomes (target lesion failure [TLF]) and patient-oriented composite outcomes (POCO) during a median follow-up of 35 months. CKD patients were stratified by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from mild CKD to end-stage renal disease patients, and by the coexistence of diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 2,927 patients had CKD (23.6%), who showed a significantly higher risk of TLF (adjusted hazard ratio [HR adjust ]: 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21 to 1.86) and POCO (HR adjust 1.34; 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.55) compared to patients with preserved renal function. Stratified analysis by eGFR showed that TLF was not increased in the mild to moderate CKD, whereas severe CKD and dialysis-dependent patients showed significantly higher risk of TLF (HR adjust 2.44; 95% CI: 1.54 to 3.86; HR adjust 3.58; 95% CI: 2.52 to 5.08, respectively). The eGFR threshold of increased clinical events was 40 to 45 ml/min/1.73 m 2 . Among CKD patients, DM CKD patients showed a higher incidence of TLF compared to non-DM CKD patients (HR adjust : 1.82; 95% CI: 1.32 to 2.52), driven by the increase in target vessel-related events. In the era of second-generation DES, CKD patients were at a significantly higher risk of clinical outcomes only in severe CKD and end-stage renal disease patients. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Second-Generation Antipsychotic Utilization and Metabolic Parameter Monitoring in an Inpatient Pediatric Population: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolt, Valerie D; Kibler, Alexandra Victoria; Wilkening, G Lucy; Fabian, Tanya J

    2017-04-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are prescribed for a variety of indications and are strongly associated with adverse metabolic effects. Studies of pediatric outpatients have revealed several deficiencies in monitoring practices for adverse effects associated with SGAs. Our objective was to characterize SGA prescribing and metabolic parameter monitoring (MPM) in an inpatient pediatric population. Patients aged parameters used by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) to define metabolic syndrome: waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and blood pressure. The primary outcome was the percent of patients with completed MPM, defined as all parameters being available within the patient's EMR in any form, except estimates. Secondary outcomes included percent of patients with existing metabolic syndrome or obesity according to IDF criteria, average total daily dose of individual SGAs, and frequency of individual SGA utilization. Data were analyzed utilizing univariate descriptive statistics. A total of 243 patients met inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. For the primary outcome, 13.2% (n = 32) of patients had completed MPM for all parameters. Blood pressure was the most frequently documented parameter (n = 241; 99.2%), whereas waist circumference was the least (n = 67; 28%). Risperidone was the most commonly prescribed SGA (n = 99; 41%; average daily dose 1.92 mg). Compared with outpatient studies, rates of documented MPM for certain parameters (i.e., fasting blood glucose, lipids) is higher for pediatric inpatients treated with SGAs. However, several monitoring deficiencies are still noted.

  17. Time-to-First Discontinuation, Adherence and Persistence in New Users of Second-Generation Antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndukwe, Henry C; Nishtala, Prasad S

    2016-12-01

    Consensus guidelines which are applicable in New Zealand and worldwide recommend that the duration of exposure to antipsychotics not exceed 12 weeks, unless justified for mental illnesses like schizophrenia and severe psychotic symptoms which require longer treatment. There has been limited information on time-to-first discontinuation (TTFD) for second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in a real world population setting in older people. The study objective was to compare TTFD, adherence, and persistence for individual SGA new users among people 65 years and older. A cohort of 30,297 SGA new users was followed up for antipsychotic discontinuation from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2012. Data for oral formulations were extracted using health care databases from the New Zealand Ministry of Health. The TTFD, adherence, and persistence were defined using (dispensing gap ≥ 91 days, variable medication possession ratio ≥ 0.8, and gap duration new users was 192.3 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 177.6-206.9), mean age at dispensing was 80.9 years (SD, 8.1 years), and 60.3% were women. The TTFD for was shortest for risperidone, 101.3 days (95% CI, 85.0-117.7; P = 0.03) compared with clozapine, 68.3 days (95% CI: 43.7, 92.9). The adjusted all-cause TTFD risk for risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or ziprasidone (hazard ratios, 0.54, 0.29, 0.22, and 0.08, respectively) was significantly lower than clozapine. The TTFD risk in the nonadherent compared with the adherent group was more than 3 times.

  18. Glucose monitoring in new users of second-generation antipsychotics in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndukwe, Henry C; Nishtala, Prasad S

    Treatment guidelines published world-wide have highlighted concerns of increased metabolic risks associated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). The aim of the study was to evaluate blood glucose monitoring rates for SGA new users in older people aged 65 years and above during the study period 2006-2012, and investigate the pre-post 2007 Best Practice Advocacy Centre's (bpac(nz)) glucose monitoring recommendation in New Zealand. The study was a population-based retrospective cohort of SGA new users (365days without pre-exposure to antipsychotics). Pharmaceutical collections data were extracted and used to identify older people dispensed SGAs and linked to the National Minimum Dataset and Laboratory Claims collection. WHO Methodology's Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical method's classification was used to characterise the SGAs dispensed. Of the 25,603 new users dispensed SGAs, 63.5% received glycaemic control monitoring at least once during the study period. Of these, only 20.1% were monitored at baseline, 38.7% were monitored for glycaemic control within the first 90 days. Glycaemic control monitoring within the first 180days increased to more than half (57.5%) of the SGA new users. Proportion of individuals monitored were independent (χ(2)=6.1; P=0.4) of pre-post bpac(nz) recommendation. Blood glucose monitoring was underutilized in new SGA users. No significant improvement in glycaemic control monitoring was observed after the 2007 bpac(nz) consensus statement release at baseline, 90days and at 180 days. Prescribers must be cautioned about the metabolic risks posed by SGAs and recommend glycaemic control monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Second-generation high-throughput forward genetic screen in mice to isolate subtle behavioral mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Kim, Kyungin; Joseph, Chryshanthi; Thomas, Lisa C; Hong, Heekyung; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2011-09-13

    Forward genetic screens have been highly successful in revealing roles of genes and pathways in complex biological events. Traditionally these screens have focused on isolating mutants with the greatest phenotypic deviance, with the hopes of discovering genes that are central to the biological event being investigated. Behavioral screens in mice typically use simple activity-based assays as endophenotypes for more complex emotional states of the animal. They generally set the selection threshold for a putative mutant at 3 SDs (z score of 3) from the average behavior of normal animals to minimize false-positive results. Behavioral screens using a high threshold for detection have generally had limited success, with high false-positive rates and subtle phenotypic differences that have made mapping and cloning difficult. In addition, targeted reverse genetic approaches have shown that when genes central to behaviors such as open field behavior, psychostimulant response, and learning and memory tasks are mutated, they produce subtle phenotypes that differ from wild-type animals by 1 to 2 SDs (z scores of 1 to 2). We have conducted a second-generation (G2) dominant N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) screen especially designed to detect subtle behavioral mutants for open field activity and psychostimulant response behaviors. We successfully detect mutant lines with only 1 to 2 SD shifts in mean response compared with wild-type control animals and present a robust statistical and methodological framework for conducting such forward genetic screens. Using this methodology we have screened 229 ENU mutant lines and have identified 15 heritable mutant lines. We conclude that for screens in mice that use activity-based endophenotypic measurements for complex behavioral states, this G2 screening approach yields better results.

  20. Design and breadboarding activities of the second-generation Global imager (SGLI) on GCOM-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Amano, Takahiro; Hiramatsu, Masaru; Shiratama, Koichi

    2017-11-01

    The Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) is the next generation earth observation project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). GCOM concept will take over the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) and develop into long-term monitoring of global climate change. The GCOM observing system consists of two series of medium size satellites: GCOM-W (Water) and GCOM-C (Climate). The Second-generation Global Imager (SGLI) on GCOM-C is a multi-band imaging radiometer with 19 spectral bands in the wavelength range of near-UV to thermal infrared. SGLI will provide high-accuracy measurements of Ocean, Atmosphere, Land and Cryosphere. These data will be utilized for studies to understand the global climate change, especially human activity influence on earth environments. SGLI is a suite of two radiometers called Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNR) and Infrared Scanner (IRS). VNR is a pushbroom-type radiometer with 13 spectral bands in 380nm to 865nm range. While having quite wide swath (1150km), instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of most bands is set to 250m comparing to GLI's 1km requirement. Unique observation function of the VNR is along-track +/-45deg tilting and polarization observation for 670nm and 865nm bands mainly to improve aerosol retrieval accuracy. IRS is a wiskbroom-type infrared radiometer that has 6 bands in 1μm to 12μm range. Swath and IFOV are 1400km and 250m to 1km, respectively. This paper describes design and breadboarding activities of the SGLI instrument.

  1. [Measurement of thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAK) with a second generation assay in patients with Graves' disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöphel, K; Wunderlich, G; Koch, R; Franke, W G

    2000-01-01

    The detection of TSH-receptor-antibodies (TRAb) in patients (pts) with Graves' disease (GD) is routinely used in nuclear medicine laboratories. It is performed by commercial, porcine radioreceptorassays (RRA) measuring TSH binding inhibitory activity. A second generation assay using the human, recombinant TSH-receptor was developed during the last years. The manufacturer composed this new assay as a coated tube RRA (CT RRA) and claimed a higher sensitivity for GD. TRAb was measured in 207 pts with various thyroid disorders and 205 healthy controls using the new coated tube RRA (Fa. B.R.A.H.M.S. Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin, Germany) as well as a conventional RRA (Fa. Medipan Diagnostica GmbH, Selchow, Germany): 60 pts suffering from GD showing a relapse after antithyroid drug treatment and before radioiodine therapy, 109 pts with disseminated autonomia (DA) and 38 pts suffering from Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A ROC-analysis was performed to find the optimal decision threshold level for positivity. We found 42/60 TRAb-positive pts with GD in the established RRA (threshold 6 U/L) and 52/60 in the CT RRA, respectively. The sensitivity increased from 70% (RRA) to 86.7% (CT RRA). The CT RRA found 2 false positives (one Hashimoto's and one healthy control) and the RRA detected 3 Hashimoto's and 2 healthy controls as false positive. The increased sensitivity of CT RRA for GD provides an advantage compared to conventional RRA, especially in GD-patients relapsing after antithyroid drug treatment. Functional sensitivity and Interassay-variation of CT RRA are very precisely compared to conventional RRA. Handling of the new assay is also improved.

  2. MOD Buffer/YBCO Approach to Fabricate Low-Cost Second Generation HTS Wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [ORNL; Bhuiyan, Md S [ORNL; Martin, Patrick M [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Kim, Kyunghoon [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Li, Jing [ORNL; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Rupich, Marty [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA

    2007-01-01

    The metal organic deposition (MOD) of buffer layers on RABiTS substrates is considered a potential, low-cost approach to manufacturing high performance Second Generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires. The typical architecture used by American Superconductor in their 2G HTS wire consists of a Ni-W (5 at.%) substrate with a reactively sputtered Y2O3 seed layer, YSZ barrier layer and a CeO2 cap layer. This architecture supports critical currents of over 300 A/cm-width (77 K, self-field) with 0.8 mum YBCO films deposited by the TFA-MOD process. The main challenge in the development of the MOD buffers is to match or exceed the performance of the standard vacuum deposited buffer architecture. We have recently shown that the texture and properties of MOD - La2Zr2Ogamma (LZO) barrier layers can be improved by inserting a thin sputtered Y2O3 seed layer and prepared MOD deposited LZO layers followed by MOD or RF sputtered CeO2 cap layers that support MOD-YBCO films with Ic's of 200 and 255 A/cm-width, respectively. Detailed X-ray and microstructural characterizations indicated that MOD - CeO2 cap reacted completely with MOD YBCO to form BaCeOs. However, sputtered CeO2 cap/MOD YBCO interface remains clean. By further optimizing the coating conditions and reducing the heat-treatment temperatures, we have demonstrated an Ic of 336 A/cm with improved LZO layers and sputtered CeO2 cap and exceeded the performance of that of standard vacuum deposited buffers.

  3. Effect of second-generation antipsychotics on caregiver burden in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Somaia; Rosenheck, Robert; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Kaczynski, Richard; Sultzer, David L; Schneider, Lon S

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) imposes a severe burden upon patients and their caregivers. Severity of psychiatric symptoms and behavioral disturbances is an important determinant of caregivers' experience of burden. These symptoms may be improved with atypical antipsychotic treatment. Data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness-Alzheimer's Disease (CATIE-AD) trial were used to evaluate the effect of atypical antipsychotics versus placebo on the experiences of caregivers of outpatients with AD. We compared the effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs (olanzapine, risperidone, or quetiapine-considered together as a group) versus placebo on the experiences of caregivers of AD outpatients (diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR). We also evaluated whether improvement in patients' psychiatric and behavioral symptoms mediated the relationship between drug treatment and caregiver burden. The CATIE-AD trial, conducted from April 2001 through November 2004, included outpatients (mean age = 77.9 years [SD = 7.5 years]) in usual care settings and assessed treatment effectiveness over a 9-month period at 42 US sites. In a set of secondary analyses, data from CATIE-AD participants who had at least 1 postbaseline outcome assessment and data from their caregivers were examined in an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis (N = 361). A phase 1-only analysis was conducted including only observations while patients were receiving the initially randomized drug (N = 153). The Burden Interview, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) Caregiver Distress Scale were used to evaluate caregiver burden. In both ITT and phase 1-only analyses, caregivers of patients treated with second-generation antipsychotics scored significantly lower than caregivers of patients receiving placebo on both the Burden Interview (P = .0090) and the NPI Caregiver Distress Scale (P = .0209). These differences appeared to have been mediated by lower levels of agitation

  4. Bosutinib: a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor for chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Lindsay; Hughes, Thomas E; Walsh-Chocolaad, Tracey L

    2013-12-01

    To review clinical trials and main characteristics of bosutinib, a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) for treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Pertinent data were identified through a search of PubMed (January 1990-April 2013) using the primary search terms SKI-606, bosutinib, and CML. Additionally, preliminary reports published in abstract form by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and American Society of Hematology (January 1990-April 2013) were screened for inclusion. Clinical Phase 1, 2, and 3 studies reported in English evaluating the safety and efficacy of bosutinib in patients with CML were reviewed. Bosutinib is a TKI of the breakpoint cluster region/Abelson murine leukemia (BCR-ABL) gene approved by the Food and Drug Administration on September 4, 2012, for second-line treatment of chronic phase, accelerated phase, and blast phase CML. In the second-line setting, bosutinib is effective in some patients with CML resistant or intolerant to imatinib, dasatinib, and/or nilotinib, but it is not effective in patients whose disease expresses the T315I point mutation in BCR-ABL. Bosutinib also has been compared with imatinib, the standard first-line treatment, in 502 patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase CML in a Phase 3 trial. Complete cytogenetic response at 12 months, the primary efficacy end point, is similar between bosutinib and imatinib (p = 0.601); therefore, bosutinib is not indicated in the first-line setting. Common adverse events associated with bosutinib include diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events reported in at least 5% of bosutinib-treated patients include elevated serum lipase and liver aminotransferases, anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and diarrhea. Currently available clinical trials suggest that bosutinib is generally a safe and effective treatment option for patients with CML who have failed first-line TKIs and who do not express the T315I mutation; however, tolerability

  5. Validation of a Meteosat Second Generation solar radiation dataset over the northeastern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation plays a key role in the Earth's energy balance and is used as an essential input data in radiation-based evapotranspiration (ET models. Accurate gridded solar radiation data at high spatial and temporal resolution are needed to retrieve ET over large domains. In this work we present an evaluation at hourly, daily and monthly time steps and regional scale (Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula of a satellite-based solar radiation product developed by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA SAF using data from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI. Product performance and accuracy were evaluated for datasets segmented into two terrain classes (flat and hilly areas and two atmospheric conditions (clear and cloudy sky, as well as for the full dataset as a whole. Evaluation against measurements made with ground-based pyranometers yielded good results in flat areas with an averaged model RMSE of 65 W m−2 (19%, 34 W m−2 (9.7% and 21 W m−2 (5.6%, for hourly, daily and monthly-averaged solar radiation and including clear and cloudy sky conditions and snow or ice cover. Hilly areas yielded intermediate results with an averaged model RMSE (root mean square error of 89 W m−2 (27%, 48 W m−2 (14.5% and 32 W m−2 (9.3%, for hourly, daily and monthly time steps, suggesting the need of further improvements (e.g., terrain corrections required for retrieving localized variability in solar radiation in these areas. According to the literature, the LSA SAF solar radiation product appears to have sufficient accuracy to serve as a useful and operative input to evaporative flux retrieval models.

  6. Second-Generation central venous catheter in the prevention of bloodstream infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Janislei Gislei Dorociaki; Hoers, Hellen; Pott, Franciele Soares; Crozeta, Karla; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida; Meier, Marineli Joaquim

    2016-08-08

    to evaluate the effectiveness and safety in the use of second-generation central venous catheters impregnated in clorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine when compared with other catheters, being them impregnated or not, in order to prevent the bloodstream infection prevention. systematic review with meta-analysis. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS/SciELO, Cochrane CENTRAL; search in Congress Proceedings and records from Clinical Trials. 1.235 studies were identified, 97 were pre-selected and 4 were included. In catheter-related bloodstream infection, there was no statistical significance between second-generation impregnated catheter compared with the non-impregnated ones, absolute relative risk 1,5% confidence interval 95% (3%-1%), relative risk 0,68 (confidence interval 95%, 0,40-1,15) and number needed to treat 66. In the sensitivity analysis, there was less bloodstream infection in impregnated catheters (relative risk 0,50, confidence interval 95%, 0,26-0,96). Lower colonization, absolute relative risk 9,6% (confidence interval 95%, 10% to 4%), relative risk 0,51 (confidence interval 95% from 0,38-0,85) and number needed to treat 5. the use of second-generation catheters was effective in reducing the catheter colonization and infection when a sensitivity analysis is performed. Future clinical trials are suggested to evaluate sepsis rates, mortality and adverse effects. evaluar la efectividad y seguridad del uso de catéteres venosos centrales de segunda generación, impregnados en clorhexidina y sulfadiazina de plata, comparados con otros catéteres impregnados o no impregnados, para prevención de infección de la corriente sanguínea. revisión sistemática con metaanálisis. La búsqueda fue realizada en las bases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS/SciELO, Cochrane CENTRAL; fueron consultados anales de congresos y registros de ensayos clínicos. fueron identificados 1.235 estudios, 97 preseleccionados y cuatro incluidos. En la infección de la

  7. [3,3]-Sigmatropic rearrangements: recent applications in the total synthesis of natural products†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilardi, Elizabeth A.; Stivala, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Among the fundamental chemical transformations in organic synthesis, the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement occupies a unique position as a powerful, reliable, and well-defined method for the stereoselective construction of carbon–carbon or carbon–heteroatom bonds. While many other reactions can unite two subunits and create a new bond, the strengths of sigmatropic rearrangements derive from their ability to enable structural reorganization with unmatched build-up of complexity. Recent applications that illustrate [3,3]-sigmatropic processes as a key concept in the synthesis of complex natural products are described in this tutorial review, covering literature from about 2001 through early 2009. PMID:19847347

  8. [3,3]-Sigmatropic rearrangements: recent applications in the total synthesis of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilardi, Elizabeth A; Stivala, Craig E; Zakarian, Armen

    2009-11-01

    Among the fundamental chemical transformations in organic synthesis, the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement occupies a unique position as a powerful, reliable, and well-defined method for the stereoselective construction of carbon-carbon or carbon-heteroatom bonds. While many other reactions can unite two subunits and create a new bond, the strengths of sigmatropic rearrangements derive from their ability to enable structural reorganization with unmatched build-up of complexity. Recent applications that illustrate [3,3]-sigmatropic processes as a key concept in the synthesis of complex natural products are described in this tutorial review, covering literature from about 2001 through early 2009.

  9. Total synthesis and evaluation of C25-benzyloxyepothilone C for tubulin assembly and cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, Oliver E; Reddy, Bollu S; Nair, Sajiv K; Reiff, Emily A; Henri, John T; Greiner, Jack F; Chiu, Ting-Lan; Vandervelde, David G; Amin, Elizabeth A; Himes, Richard H; Georg, Gunda I

    2008-09-01

    The total synthesis of C25-benzyloxy epothilone C is described. A sequential Suzuki-Aldol-Yamaguchi macrolactonization strategy was utilized employing a novel derivatized C8-C12 fragment. The C25-benzyloxy analog exhibited significantly reduced biological activity in microtubule assembly and cytotoxicity assays. Molecular modeling simulations indicated that excessive steric bulk in the C25 position may reduce activity by disrupting key hydrogen bonds that are crucial for epothilone binding to beta-tubulin.

  10. A 11-Steps Total Synthesis of Magellanine through a Gold(I)-Catalyzed Dehydro Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Philippe; Bétournay, Geneviève; Barabé, Francis; Barriault, Louis

    2017-05-22

    We have developed an innovative strategy for the formation of angular carbocycles via a gold(I)-catalyzed dehydro Diels-Alder reaction. This transformation provides rapid access to a variety of complex angular cores in excellent diastereoselectivities and high yields. The usefulness of this AuI -catalyzed cycloaddition was further demonstrated by accomplishing a 11-steps total synthesis of (±)-magellanine. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Total Synthesis of γ-Indomycinone and Kidamycinone by Means of Two Regioselective Diels-Alder Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabit, Thibaud; Siard, Aymeric; Pantin, Mathilde; Zon, Doumadé; Foulgoc, Laura; Sissouma, Drissa; Guingant, André; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Carreaux, François; Dujardin, Gilles; Collet, Sylvain

    2017-06-02

    An efficient access for the synthesis of pluramycinones is described. Total syntheses of racemic γ-indomycinone and kidamycinone were achieved by means of two Diels-Alder reactions. A first Diels-Alder condensation followed by a Stille cross-coupling is used for the elaboration of the desired substituted dienes which will be involved in the second pericyclic reaction with juglone to construct the tetracyclic core of pluramycinones.

  12. Higher Rate of Tuberculosis in Second Generation Migrants Compared to Native Residents in a Metropolitan Setting in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Florian M.; Fiebig, Lena; Hauer, Barbara; Brodhun, Bonita; Glaser-Paschke, Gisela; Haas, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western Europe, migrants constitute an important risk group for tuberculosis, but little is known about successive generations of migrants. We aimed to characterize migration among tuberculosis cases in Berlin and to estimate annual rates of tuberculosis in two subsequent migrant generations. We hypothesized that second generation migrants born in Germany are at higher risk of tuberculosis compared to native (non-migrant) residents. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. All tuberculosis cases reported to health authorities in Berlin between 11/2010 and 10/2011 were eligible. Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire including demographic data, migration history of patients and their parents, and language use. Tuberculosis rates were estimated using 2011 census data. Results Of 314 tuberculosis cases reported, 154 (49.0%) participated. Of these, 81 (52.6%) were first-, 14 (9.1%) were second generation migrants, and 59 (38.3%) were native residents. The tuberculosis rate per 100,000 individuals was 28.3 (95CI: 24.0–32.6) in first-, 10.2 (95%CI: 6.1–16.6) in second generation migrants, and 4.6 (95%CI: 3.7–5.6) in native residents. When combining information from the standard notification variables country of birth and citizenship, the sensitivity to detect second generation migration was 28.6%. Conclusions There is a higher rate of tuberculosis among second generation migrants compared to native residents in Berlin. This may be explained by presumably frequent contact and transmission within migrant populations. Second generation migration is insufficiently captured by the surveillance variables country of birth and citizenship. Surveillance systems in Western Europe should allow for quantifying the tuberculosis burden in this important risk group. PMID:26061733

  13. First total synthesis of justicidone, a p-quinone-lignan derivative from Justicia hyssopifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda, Carlos J; López, Hermelo; Pérez, José A; Trujillo, Juan M

    2005-08-01

    The first synthesis of justicidone (4-(1',3'-Benzodioxol-5'-yl)-6-methoxynaphtho[2,3-c]furan-1,5,8(3H)-trione) was carried out from piperonal, as a starting compound, through a lineal process using well known reactions.

  14. A Facile Total Synthesis of ent-17β-Estradiol and Structurally–Related Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zu Yun; Covey, Douglas F.

    2013-01-01

    A facile six-step synthesis (15.2% yield) of ent-17β-estradiol from readily accessible precursors is described. The preparation of analogues with 2-alkyl substitutents, double bond unsaturation in the C-ring, a cis C, D-ring fusion and modified substituents at C17 is also reported. PMID:17257636

  15. Total Synthesis of Linckosides A and B, the Representative Starfish Polyhydroxysteroid Glycosides with Neuritogenic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dapeng; Yu, Biao

    2015-12-09

    Linckosides A and B, two starfish metabolites with promising neuritogenic activities, are synthesized in a longest linear sequence of 32 steps and 0.5% overall yield; this represents the first synthesis of members of the polyhydroxysteroid glycoside family, which occur widely in starfishes.

  16. ortho-Quinone methides from para-quinones: total synthesis of rubioncolin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Jean-Philip; Choong, Kevin C; Trauner, Dirk

    2008-07-23

    A concise synthesis of rubioncolin B is described, which features an unprecedented intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction involving an ortho-quinone methide and a naphthofuran moiety. The ortho-quinone methide is generated through a surprisingly facile tautomerization of a para-quinone.

  17. Total Synthesis of (-)-Doliculide, Structure-Activity Relationship Studies and Its Binding to F-Actin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matcha, Kiran; Madduri, Ashoka V. R.; Roy, Sayantani; Ziegler, Slava; Waldmann, Herbert; Hirsch, Anna K. H.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2012-01-01

    Actin, an abundant protein in most eukaryotic cells, is one of the targets in cancer research. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to the synthesis and function of actin-targeting compounds and their use as effective molecular probes in chemical biology. In this study, we have

  18. Asymmetric total synthesis of a putative sex pheromone component from the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, D.; Buter, J.; Beek, van T.A.; Minnaard, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Virgin females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce minute amounts of a sex pheromone, the identity of which has not been fully established. The enantioselective synthesis of a putative component of this pheromone, (6S,8S,10S)-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2E,4E-dien-1-ol (2), is

  19. Total synthesis of (-)-fumiquinazolines A, B, C, E, H, and I. Approaches to the synthesis of fiscalin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Barry B; Zeng, Hongbo

    2003-01-24

    The first syntheses of (-)-fumiquinazolines A, B, and I, which proceed in 14 steps from protected tryptophan, anthranilic acid, leucine, and alanine in 7% overall yield, are described. Tricycle 30 was formed by a palladium-catalyzed cyclization. Oxidation of 30a with saccharine-derived oxaziridine 21 for fumiquinazolines A and B and oxidation of 30b with dimethyldioxirane for fumiquinazoline I selectively formed the appropriate imidazoindolone stereoisomers. Application of the Ganesan-Mazurkiewicz cyclization completed the syntheses. Efficient 14-step syntheses of (-)-fumiquinazolines C (7) and E (3) and a 15-step synthesis of (-)-fumiquinazoline H (8) using FmocNHCH(CH2SePh)CO2H as a dehydroalanine precursor that spontaneously eliminated benzeneselenol without oxidation under the cyclization conditions are also reported. Model 86 for fiscalins A with the H and OH anti to each other has been prepared, but the procedure that worked for the model failed with the fully functionalized side chain.

  20. Second-Generation Linkage Maps for the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Reveal Errors in Assembly of Genome Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgecock, Dennis; Shin, Grace; Gracey, Andrew Y; Den Berg, David Van; Samanta, Manoj P

    2015-08-06

    The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, a widely cultivated marine bivalve mollusc, is becoming a genetically and genomically enabled model for highly fecund marine metazoans with complex life-histories. A genome sequence is available for the Pacific oyster, as are first-generation, low-density, linkage and gene-centromere maps mostly constructed from microsatellite DNA makers. Here, higher density, second-generation, linkage maps are constructed from more than 1100 coding (exonic) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as 66 previously mapped microsatellite DNA markers, all typed in five families of Pacific oysters (nearly 172,000 genotypes). The map comprises 10 linkage groups, as expected, has an average total length of 588 cM, an average marker-spacing of 1.0 cM, and covers 86% of a genome estimated to be 616 cM. All but seven of the mapped SNPs map to 618 genome scaffolds; 260 scaffolds contain two or more mapped SNPs, but for 100 of these scaffolds (38.5%), the contained SNPs map to different linkage groups, suggesting widespread errors in scaffold assemblies. The 100 misassembled scaffolds are significantly longer than those that map to a single linkage group. On the genetic maps, marker orders and intermarker distances vary across families and mapping methods, owing to an abundance of markers segregating from only one parent, to widespread distortions of segregation ratios caused by early mortality, as previously observed for oysters, and to genotyping errors. Maps made from framework markers provide stronger support for marker orders and reasonable map lengths and are used to produce a consensus high-density linkage map containing 656 markers. Copyright © 2015 Hedgecock et al.

  1. Quality of care in European home care programs using the second generation interRAI Home Care Quality Indicators (HCQIs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foebel, Andrea D; van Hout, Hein P; van der Roest, Henriëtte G; Topinkova, Eva; Garms-Homolova, Vjenka; Frijters, Dinnus; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Jónsson, Pálmi V; Hirdes, John P; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

    2015-11-14

    Evaluating the quality of care provided to older individuals is a key step to ensure that needs are being met and to target interventions to improve care. To this aim, interRAI's second-generation home care quality indicators (HCQIs) were developed in 2013. This study assesses the quality of home care services in six European countries using these HCQIs as well as the two derived summary scales. Data for this study were derived from the Aged in Home Care (AdHOC) study - a cohort study that examined different models of community care in European countries. The current study selected a sub-sample of the AdHOC cohort from six countries whose follow-up data were complete (Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands). Data were collected from the interRAI Home Care instrument (RAI-HC) between 2000 and 2002. The 23 HCQIs of interest were determined according to previously established methodology, including risk adjustment. Two summary measures, the Clinical Balance Scale and Independence Quality Scale were also determined using established methodology. A total of 1,354 individuals from the AdHOC study were included in these analyses. Of the 23 HCQIs that were measured, the highest proportion of individuals experienced declines in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) (48.4 %). Of the clinical quality indicators, mood decline was the most prevalent (30.0 %), while no flu vaccination and being alone and distressed were the most prevalent procedural and social quality indicators, respectively (33.4 and 12.8 %). Scores on the two summary scales varied by country, but were concentrated around the median mark. The interRAI HCQIs can be used to determine the quality of home care services in Europe and identify areas for improvement. Our results suggest functional declines may prove the most beneficial targets for interventions.

  2. Clouds over the summertime Sahara: an evaluation of Met Office retrievals from Meteosat Second Generation using airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, John C.; Marenco, Franco; Marsham, John H.; Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Francis, Pete N.; Cooke, Michael C.; Hocking, James

    2017-05-01

    Novel methods of cloud detection are applied to airborne remote sensing observations from the unique Fennec aircraft dataset, to evaluate the Met Office-derived products on cloud properties over the Sahara based on the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on-board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. Two cloud mask configurations are considered, as well as the retrievals of cloud-top height (CTH), and these products are compared to airborne cloud remote sensing products acquired during the Fennec campaign in June 2011 and June 2012. Most detected clouds (67 % of the total) have a horizontal extent that is smaller than a SEVIRI pixel (3 km × 3 km). We show that, when partially cloud-contaminated pixels are included, a match between the SEVIRI and aircraft datasets is found in 80 ± 8 % of the pixels. Moreover, under clear skies the datasets are shown to agree for more than 90 % of the pixels. The mean cloud field, derived from the satellite cloud mask acquired during the Fennec flights, shows that areas of high surface albedo and orography are preferred sites for Saharan cloud cover, consistent with published theories. Cloud-top height retrievals however show large discrepancies over the region, which are ascribed to limiting factors such as the cloud horizontal extent, the derived effective cloud amount, and the absorption by mineral dust. The results of the CTH analysis presented here may also have further-reaching implications for the techniques employed by other satellite applications facilities across the world.

  3. Second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics in schizophrenia: patient functioning and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montemagni C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cristiana Montemagni,1,2 Tiziana Frieri,1,2 Paola Rocca1,2 1Department of Neuroscience, Unit of Psychiatry, University of Turin, 2Department of Mental Health, Azienda Sanitaria Locale (ASL Torino 1 (TO1, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Turin, Italy Abstract: Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs were developed to make treatment easier, improve adherence, and/or signal the clinician when nonadherence occurs. Second-generation antipsychotic LAIs (SGA-LAIs combine the advantages of SGA with a long-acting formulation. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the available literature concerning the impact of SGA-LAIs on patient functioning and quality of life (QOL. Although several studies regarding schizophrenia patients’ functioning and QOL have been performed, the quantity of available data still varies greatly depending on the SGA-LAI under investigation. After reviewing the literature, it seems that SGA-LAIs are effective in ameliorating patient functioning and/or QOL of patients with schizophrenia, as compared with placebo. However, while methodological design controversy exists regarding the superiority of risperidone LAI versus oral antipsychotics, the significant amount of evidence in recently published research demonstrates the beneficial influence of risperidone LAI on patient functioning and QOL in stable patients and no benefit over oral treatment in unstable patients. However, the status of the research on SGA-LAIs is lacking in several aspects that may help physicians in choosing the correct drug therapy. Meaningful differences have been observed between SGA-LAIs in the onset of their clinical efficacy and in the relationships between symptoms and functioning scores. Moreover, head-to-head studies comparing the effects of SGA-LAIs on classical measures of psychopathology and functioning are available mainly on risperidone LAI, while those comparing olanzapine LAI with other

  4. Tardive Dyskinesia Prevalence in the Period of Second-Generation Antipsychotic Use: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Maren; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsi; Kane, John M; Correll, Christoph U

    2017-03-01

    Comparison of tardive dyskinesia (TD) prevalence during contemporaneous treatment with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and/or second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). PubMed/MEDLINE/Google Scholar search (January 1, 2000-September 30, 2015) without language restriction using (tardive dyskinesia OR tardive) AND (antipsychotic*) plus specific names of SGAs. Of 8,895 hits, we screened 203 full-text articles for cross-sectional, rating scale-based TD rates during SGA, FGA, or FGA+SGA treatment. Forty-one studies were used for random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. Two authors independently extracted data on overall and antipsychotic class-wise TD rates and on TD moderators. The global mean TD prevalence was 25.3% (95% CI = 22.7%-28.1%) across all 41 studies (N = 11,493, mean age = 42.8 years, male = 66.4%, schizophrenia-spectrum disorders = 77.1%). TD prevalence varied greatly: Rates were lower with current SGA treatment (20.7%; 95% CI = 16.6%-25.4%, N = 5,103) vs current FGA treatment (30.0%; 95% CI = 26.4%-33.8%, N = 5,062; Q = 9.17, P = .002). This difference remained significant after controlling for moderators: higher age (Z = 2.85, P = .004; number of studies = 39 ) and region (39 studies; Asia vs Europe, Z = 1.55, P = .12; Asia lower than United States, Z = 2.6, P = .009; Asia lower than other regions, Z = 2.42, P = .015). Additional moderators of TD prevalence included longer illness duration (R² = 0.15; P = .03; 21 studies) and frequency of parkinsonism (R² = 0.23, P = .017; number of studies = 19). Particularly low TD prevalence (7.2%; number of studies = 4) was found in the treatment arms with FGA-naive subjects relative to SGA-treated cohorts with likely prior FGA exposure (23.4%; P Z = -2.55, P = .011) and FGA + SGA vs FGAs (risk ratio = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.71-0.90, Z = -3.56, P < .001). Reports on TD severity, provided by 10 studies, were of insufficient quality for meta-analysis. Rating scale-based TD remains highly prevalent, with

  5. Early evaluation of a second generation information monitoring and diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Bourassa, Norman; Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Kinney, Kristopher; Shockman, Christine

    2002-03-25

    Private sector commercial office buildings are challenging environments for energy efficiency projects. This challenge is related to the complexity of business environments that involve ownership, operation, and tenant relationships. Whether it is poor quality design, inefficient operations, degradation of equipment over time, or merely the increasing use of energy by tenants and inattention from landlords, commercial office building energy use continues to increase. This research project was developed to examine the environment for building operations and identify causes of inefficient use of energy related to technical and organizational issues. This report discusses a second-generation Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS) installed at a leased office building in Sacramento, California. The report begins with a brief summary of the IMDS research at the previous building, followed by a discussion of the building selection process, the IMDS design and installation, recent use of the IMDS, costs and benefits, and fault detection and diagnostic research using the IMDS. A web site describes the IMDS in detail (see imds.lbl.gov). The underlying principle of this research project is that high quality building performance data can help show where energy is being used and how buildings systems actually perform is an important first step toward improving building energy efficiency. The project utilizes a high-quality monitoring system that has been developed during the past decade by a partnership between LBNL and private industry. This research project has been successful in demonstrating that the IMDS is tremendously valuable to the building operators at the Sacramento site. The building operators not only accept the technology, but it has become the core of their day-to-day building control concepts. The innovative property management company, Jones Lang LaSalle, is interested in installing more sites to determine if the system could provide an economic

  6. Second-Generation Triple Reporter for Bioluminescence, Micro–Positron Emission Tomography, and Fluorescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna H. Kesarwala

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioluminescence, positron emission tomography (PET, and fluorescence modalities are currently available for noninvasive imaging in vivo, each with its own merits. To exploit the combined strengths of each and facilitate multimodality imaging, we engineered a dual-reporter construct in which firefly luciferase (FLuc and a 12–amino acid nonstructural linker were fused in frame to the N-terminus of a mutant herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (mNLS-SR39TK kinetically enhanced for positron emission tomography (PET. Furthermore, a triple-reporter construct was developed in which monster green fluorescent protein (MGFP, a recently available enhanced fluorescent protein, was introduced into the fusion vector downstream of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES to allow analysis by fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry without compromising the specific activities of the upstream fusion components. FLuc bioluminescence was measured with a cooled charge-coupled device camera and mNLS-SR39TK activity by 9-[4-[18F]fluoro-3-(hydroxymethyl butyl guanine (18F-FHBG microPET or 3H-penciclovir net accumulation. Importantly, HeLa cells transiently transfected with the FLuc-mNLS-SR39TK-IRES-MGFP triple reporter retained the same specific activities of the FLuc-mNLS-SR39TK heteroenzyme and the individual unfused enzymes with no change in protein half-lives. The presence of the IRES-MGFP modestly decreased upstream heteroprotein expression. In living mice, somatic gene transfer of a ubiquitin promoter-driven FLuc-mNLS-SR39TK-IRES-MGFP plasmid showed a > 1,000-fold increase in liver photon flux and a > 2-fold increase in liver retention of 18F-FHBG by microPET compared with mice treated with control plasmid. Multifocal hepatocellular fluorescence was readily observed by standard confocal microscopy. This second-generation triple reporter incorporating enhanced components enables bioluminescence, PET, and fluorescence imaging of cells and living animals.

  7. Second-generation antidepressants for preventing seasonal affective disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartlehner, Gerald; Nussbaumer, Barbara; Gaynes, Bradley N; Forneris, Catherine A; Morgan, Laura C; Kaminski-Hartenthaler, Angela; Greenblatt, Amy; Wipplinger, Jörg; Lux, Linda J; Sonis, Jeffrey H; Hofmann, Julia; Van Noord, Megan G; Winkler, Dietmar

    2015-11-08

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes that most commonly occurs during autumn or winter and remits in spring. The prevalence of SAD ranges from 1.5% to 9%, depending on latitude. The predictable seasonal aspect of SAD provides a promising opportunity for prevention. This review - one of four reviews on efficacy and safety of interventions to prevent SAD - focuses on second-generation antidepressants (SGAs). To assess the efficacy and safety of second-generation antidepressants (in comparison with other SGAs, placebo, light therapy, melatonin or agomelatine, psychological therapies or lifestyle interventions) in preventing SAD and improving patient-centred outcomes among adults with a history of SAD. A search of the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neuorosis Review Group (CCDANCTR) included all years to 11 August 2015. The CCDANCTR contains reports of randomised controlled trials derived from EMBASE (1974 to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date), PsycINFO (1967 to date) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Furthermore, we searched the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Knowledge, The Cochrane Library and the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (to 26 May 2014). We also conducted a grey literature search and handsearched the reference lists of included studies and pertinent review articles. For efficacy, we included randomised controlled trials on adults with a history of winter-type SAD who were free of symptoms at the beginning of the study. For adverse events, we planned to include non-randomised studies. Eligible studies compared an SGA versus another SGA, placebo, light therapy, psychological therapy, melatonin, agomelatine or lifestyle changes. We also intended to compare SGAs in combination with any of the comparator interventions versus the same comparator intervention as monotherapy. Two review authors screened

  8. Impact of PCI Appropriateness in the Long-Term Outcomes of Consecutive Patients Treated With Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Ana Cristina; Sousa, Amanda; de Ribamar Costa, Jose; Costa Moreira, Adriana; Costa, Ricardo; Damiani, Lucas; Campos Neto, Cantídio; Maldonado, Galo; Cano, Manuel; Sousa, J Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    Appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization were developed to deliver high-quality care; however, the prognostic impact of these criteria remains unclear. We sought to assess the outcomes of patients treated with second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) classified according to the updated American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association/Society for Cardiac Angiography and Intervention AUC for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Between January 2012 and December 2013, a total of 1108 consecutive patients treated only with second-generation DES were categorized according to the AUC in three groups, using the new proposed terminology: appropriate ("A"); uncertain ("U"); and inappropriate ("I"). Major adverse cardiac event (MACE, defined as cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and ischemia-driven target-lesion revascularization) and stent thrombosis up to 3 years were compared. PCI was categorized as A in 33.8%, U in 46.8%, and I in 19.4% of all cases. PCI-A patients had a higher prevalence of acute coronary syndromes, while PCI-I involved the treatment of more diabetics and patients with stable coronary disease. There were no differences in procedural complications among the three groups, with comparable rates of in-hospital MACE (9.3% for A vs 9.0% for U vs 7.0% for I; P=.70) and 2-year MACE (13.9% for A vs 9.0% for U vs 8.6% for I; P=.40). In the multivariable analysis, AUC classification was not associated with adverse outcomes. In this contemporary cohort of patients treated with second-generation DES implantation, AUC did not impact 3-year clinical follow-up.

  9. Total solid-phase synthesis of the azathiocoraline class of symmetric bicyclic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayó-Puxan, Núria; Fernández, Ariadna; Tulla-Puche, Judit; Riego, Estela; Cuevas, Carmen; Alvarez, Mercedes; Albericio, Fernando

    2006-12-04

    Thiocoraline is a potent antitumor agent isolated from the marine organism Micromonospora sp. This symmetric bicyclic depsipeptide binds the minor groove of DNA. Here we report two solid-phase strategies for the syntheses of azathiocoraline and its analogues. The thioester linkage was replaced by an amide bond to improve the compound's pharmacokinetic properties. The first strategy is based on a convergent (4+4) approach, whilst the second is a stepwise synthesis, cyclizations in both approaches occurring on the solid support. These two strategies were designed to overcome problems caused by the presence of consecutive noncommercial N-methyl amino acids, to avoid epimerization during cyclization and/or fragment condensation, and to form the disulfide bridge under solid-phase conditions. The heterocyclic moiety was added in the last step of the synthesis to assist the preparation of libraries of new compounds with potential therapeutic applications.

  10. Total synthesis of ulocladol A and analogues alternariol 0-methyl ether and alternariol

    OpenAIRE

    Sudlow, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Ulocladol A is a natural product which has been shown to exhibit tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity against the enzyme Lck. It was isolated from the marine sponge Callyspongia vaginalis in 1999. Prior to the commencement of this project there had been three reported syntheses of ulocladol A, all of which started from intermediates prepared in the synthesis of graphislactones C and D. The routes were relatively long and did not provide much scope for analogous compounds.We proposed it would b...

  11. [3,3]-Sigmatropic rearrangements: recent applications in the total synthesis of natural products†

    OpenAIRE

    Ilardi, Elizabeth A.; Stivala, Craig E.; Zakarian, Armen

    2009-01-01

    Among the fundamental chemical transformations in organic synthesis, the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement occupies a unique position as a powerful, reliable, and well-defined method for the stereoselective construction of carbon–carbon or carbon–heteroatom bonds. While many other reactions can unite two subunits and create a new bond, the strengths of sigmatropic rearrangements derive from their ability to enable structural reorganization with unmatched build-up of complexity. Recent applicati...

  12. Second-generation ethanol from non-detoxified sugarcane hydrolysate by a rotting wood isolated yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazoti, Suzana F; Golunski, Simone; Pereira Siqueira, Diego; Scapini, Thamarys; Barrilli, Évelyn T; Alex Mayer, Diego; Barros, Katharina O; Rosa, Carlos A; Stambuk, Boris U; Alves, Sérgio L; Valério, Alexsandra; de Oliveira, Débora; Treichel, Helen

    2017-11-01

    This work aims to evaluate the production of second-generation ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate without acetic acid (inhibitor) detoxification. Three isolated yeast strains from lignocellulosic materials were evaluated, and one strain (UFFS-CE-3.1.2), identified using large subunit rDNA sequences as Wickerhamomyces sp., showed satisfactory results in terms of ethanol production without acetic acid removal. A Plackett-Burman design was used to evaluate the influence of hydrolysate composition and nutrients supplementation in the fermentation medium for the second-generation ethanol production. Two fermentation kinetics were performed, with controlled pH at 5.5, or keeping the initial pH at 4.88. The fermentation conducted without pH adjustment and supplementation of nutrients reported the best result in terms of second-generation ethanol production. Wickerhamomyces sp., isolated as UFFS-CE-3.1.2, was considered promising in the production of second-generation ethanol by using crude (non-detoxified) sugarcane hydrolysate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality of care in European home care programs using the second generation interRAI Home Care Quality Indicators (HCQIs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foebel, A.D.; van Hout, H.P.J.; van der Roest, H.G.; Topinkova, E.; Garms-Homolova, V.; Frijters, D.H.M.; Finne-Soveri, H.; Jonsson, P.V.; Hirdes, J.P.; Bernabei, R.; Onder, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the quality of care provided to older individuals is a key step to ensure that needs are being met and to target interventions to improve care. To this aim, interRAI's second-generation home care quality indicators (HCQIs) were developed in 2013. This study assesses the

  14. Second Generational Effects of War-Induced Separations: Comparing the Adjustment of Children in Reunited and Non-Reunited Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Barbara B.; And Others

    The present study, based on data gathered after the first year of a longitudinal investigation, was designed to compare the second generational effects of long-term father absence on children whose fathers are classified as "missing in action" and children whose fathers were held prisoners during the Vietnam War but returned to their…

  15. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing…

  16. A comparison of the effectiveness of 6S and SMAC in correcting for atmospheric interference of meteosat second generation images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proud, Simon Richard; Fensholt, R.; Rasmussen, M.O.

    2010-01-01

    by the Spinning Enhanced Visible & InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In order to examine the accuracy of the SMAC we compare its results to those computed by the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV1.1), a highly accurate radiative transfer code...

  17. Lower switch rate in depressed patients with bipolar II than bipolar I disorder treated adjunctively with second-generation antidepressants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altshuler, LL; Suppes, T; Nolen, WA; Leverich, G; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Kupka, R; McElroy, SL; Grunze, H; Kitchen, CMR; Post, R; Black, D.O.

    Objectives: The authors compared the switch rate into hypomania/mania in depressed patients treated with second-generation antidepressants who had either bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Method: In a 10-week trial, 184 outpatients with bipolar depression (134 with bipolar I disorder, 48 with

  18. First or second generation biofuel crops in Brandenburg, Germany? A model-based comparison of their production-ecological sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.C.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed and compared the production-ecological sustainability of first and second generation biofuel production systems in the state of Brandenburg, Germany. Production ecological sustainability was defined by a limited set of sustainability indicators including net energy yield per hectare, GHG

  19. Gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks: the role of partner choice, gender ideology and societal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huschek, D.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores and compares gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks in six European countries. On the individual level, we study the role of gender ideology and consequences of (transnational) partner choice on four aspects of gender-role behavior; childcare, routine household tasks,

  20. Economic feasibility of second generation ethanol with and without indirect greenhouse gas reduction benefits : a simulation for Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagares Tavora, F.; Bakker, R.R.; Stojanovic, M.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the economic feasibility of second generation ethanol from sugar cane, whereby traditional ethanol production is combined with the use of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production. By applying cost-benefit analysis, this study evaluated the viability of the

  1. Overweight and obesity in young Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese migrants of the second generation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Nicolaou, Mary; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanne K.; Schouten, Gea M.; Bouwman-Notenboom, Arianne J.; Berns, Mary P. H.; Verhoeff, Arnoud P.

    2014-01-01

    To examine differences in overweight and obesity of second-generation Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese migrants v. first-generation migrants and the ethnic Dutch. We also studied the influence of sociodemographic factors on this association. Data were collected in 2008 in a cross-sectional postal

  2. Overweight and obesity in young Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese migrants of the second generation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, H.; Nicolaou, M.; Ujcic-Voortman, J.K.; Schouten, G.M.; Bouwman-Notenboom, A.J.; Berns, M.P.H.; Verhoeff, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in overweight and obesity of second-generation Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese migrants v. first-generation migrants and the ethnic Dutch. We also studied the influence of sociodemographic factors on this association. Design: Data were collected in 2008 in a

  3. Evaluation of second-generation multistage wastewater treatment system for the removal of malodorous compounds from liquid swine waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reductions in wastewater malodor that were effected by a second generation implementation of Environmentally Superior Technology (EST) were monitored over a 15 month period that encompassed three cycles of pig production. The wastewater treatment system consisted of three modules: solids separation,...

  4. Is Education the Pathway to Success? A Comparison of Second Generation Turkish Professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crul, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Education is often seen as the most important mobility channel for children of immigrants. To what extent is this true? In this article, we look at successful second generation Turkish professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and The Netherlands. What kind of pathways did they take to become a professional? Based on the large quantitative…

  5. Attempted suicide and violent criminality among Danish second-generation immigrants according to parental place of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Roger T; Antonsen, Sussie; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mok, Pearl L H; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Agerbo, Esben

    2016-03-01

    Immigrant populations in Western European countries have grown in their size and diversity, but little is known about risks of self-directed and externalised violence among second-generation immigrants. To compare risks for attempted suicides and violent offending among second-generation immigrants to Denmark according to parental region of origin versus the native Danish population. Data from interlinked national Danish registers were used (N = 1,973,614). Parental origin outside Denmark was categorised thus: Asia, Africa, Middle East, Greenland, other Scandinavian countries, elsewhere in Europe and all other regions. We estimated gender-specific cumulative incidence and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) versus native Danes. In virtually all subgroups of second-generation immigrants, risk was elevated for the two adverse outcomes in both genders. Females generally had greater elevations in attempted suicide risk, and males had greater elevations in violent offending risk. For attempted suicide, especially large IRRs were observed for males and females whose parents emigrated from Greenland; for violent offending, risks were particularly raised for males and females of Middle Eastern, Greenlandic and African origin. Adjustment for socioeconomic status partially explained these associations. Western European nations should develop preventive programmes tailored towards specific second-generation immigrant populations, with integrated approaches jointly tackling suicidality and violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. The NOVA Fringe Tracker: A second generation cophasing facility for up tósix telescopes at the VLTI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisner, J.A.; Jaffe, W.J.; Poole, R.S. le

    2012-01-01

    The NOVA Fringe Tracker (NFT) is a proposed solution tóthe call by ESO for a second generation fringe tracking facility. This instrument at the VLTI will enable the cophasing of up tó6 telescopes simultaneously. Using broad band optics with detection from 1.2 tó2.4 microns, a unique configuration is

  7. Snakes and Ladders in Educational Systems: Access to Higher Education for Second-Generation Turks in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the first international standardised survey on the second generation in Europe, I compare the school trajectories of youth from the same origin group (parents born in Turkey), with the same starting position (born in Europe) and the same socio-economic status (parents with only modest

  8. Techno-economic evaluation of integrated first- and second-generation ethanol production from grain and straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joelsson, Elisabeth; Erdei, Borbála; Galbe, Mats; Wallberg, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Integration of first- and second-generation ethanol production can facilitate the introduction of second-generation lignocellulosic ethanol production. Consolidation of the second-generation with the first-generation process can potentially reduce the downstream processing cost for the second-generation process as well as providing the first-generation process with energy. This study presents novel experimental results from integrated first- and second-generation ethanol production from grain and wheat straw in a process development unit. The results were used in techno-economic evaluations to investigate the feasibility of the plant, in which the main co-products were distiller's dried grains with solubles and biogas. An overall glucose to ethanol yield, of 81 % of the theoretical, based on glucose available in the raw material, was achieved in the experiments. A positive net present value was found for all the base case scenarios and the minimal ethanol selling price varied between 0.45 and 0.53 EUR/L ethanol. The revenue increased with combined xylose and glucose fermentation and biogas upgrading to vehicle fuel quality. A decrease in the biogas yield from 80 to 60 % also largely affects the net present value. The energy efficiency for the energy content in products available for sale compared with the incoming energy content varied from 74 to 80 %. One of the two main configurations can be chosen when designing an integrated first- and second-generation ethanol production plant from grain and straw: that producing biogas or that producing distiller's dried grains with solubles from the xylose sugars. The choice depends mainly on the local market and prices for distiller's dried grains with solubles and biogas, since the prices for both co-products have fluctuated a great deal in recent years. In the current study, however, distiller's dried grains with solubles were found to be a more promising co-product than biogas, if the biogas was not upgraded to

  9. Suicide among first-generation and second-generation immigrants in Sweden: association with labour market marginalisation and morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Thiene, Domitilla; Alexanderson, K; Tinghög, P; La Torre, G; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that first-generation immigrants have a lower suicide risk than those both born in Sweden and with both parents born in Sweden (natives), while the suicide risk in the second generation seems higher. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent suicide risk in first-generation and second-generation (both parents born abroad) and intermediate-generation (only one parent born abroad) immigrants compared with natives is associated with sociodemographic factors, labour market marginalisation and morbidity. A prospective population-based cohort study of 4 034 728 individuals aged 16-50 years was followed from 2005 to 2010. HRs for suicide were calculated for first-generation, intermediate-generation and second-generation immigrants compared with natives. Analyses were controlled for sociodemographic factors, morbidity and labour market marginalisation. The HR of suicide was significantly lower in first-generation immigrants (HR 0.83 CI 0.76 to 0.91), and higher in second-generation (HR 1.32, CI 1.15 to 1.52) and intermediate-generation immigrants (HR 1.20, CI 1.08 to 1.33) in comparison to natives. The excess risk was explained by differences in sociodemographics, morbidity and labour market marginalisation. In the fully adjusted models, a higher HR remained only for the Nordic second generation (HR 1.29, CI 1.09 to 1.52). There were no sex differences in HRs. The risk of suicide was shown to be lower in the first generation and higher in the second generation compared with natives. The higher HR in the Nordic second generation was not explained by differences in sociodemographics, labour market marginalisation and morbidity. Further research is warranted to investigate factors underlying this excess risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Synthesis of a highly Mg2+-selective fluorescent probe and its application to quantifying and imaging total intracellular magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargenti, Azzurra; Farruggia, Giovanna; Zaccheroni, Nelsi; Marraccini, Chiara; Sgarzi, Massimo; Cappadone, Concettina; Malucelli, Emil; Procopio, Alessandra; Prodi, Luca; Lombardo, Marco; Iotti, Stefano

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium plays a crucial role in many physiological functions and pathological states. Therefore, the evolution of specific and sensitive tools capable of detecting and quantifying this element in cells is a very desirable goal in biological and biomedical research. We developed a Mg2+-selective fluorescent dye that can be used to selectively detect and quantify the total magnesium pool in a number of cells that is two orders of magnitude smaller than that required by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (F-AAS), the reference analytical method for the assessment of cellular total metal content. This protocol reports itemized steps for the synthesis of the fluorescent dye based on diaza-18-crown-6-hydroxyquinoline (DCHQ5). We also describe its application in the quantification of total intracellular magnesium in mammalian cells and the detection of this ion in vivo by confocal microscopy. The use of in vivo confocal microscopy enables the quantification of magnesium in different cellular compartments. As an example of the sensitivity of DCHQ5, we studied the involvement of Mg2+ in multidrug resistance in human colon adenocarcinoma cells sensitive (LoVo-S) and resistant (LoVo-R) to doxorubicin, and found that the concentration was higher in LoVo-R cells. The time frame for DCHQ5 synthesis is 1-2 d, whereas the use of this dye for total intracellular magnesium quantification takes 2.5 h and for ion bioimaging it takes 1-2 h.

  11. Study on the academic future of second-generation immigrants in Setubal and Faro (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Llorent

    2015-05-01

    research we gather information from all the Luso-African secondary schools in two cities with the largest number of Portuguese immigrants (Setúbal and Faro. Data collection was performed using a questionnaire developed, aimed at the students of Portuguese-speaking Africa and was divided into seven major groups of scales: characteristics of parents, school career, self-motivation to continue studying, professional expectations about the future, characterization and evaluation of the school setting, and characterization of expectations after secondary school. The extracted data includes social, familial, economic, educational and school children of immigrants, called second-generation immigrants or Luso-Africans. Thus, we find relations between their prospects and their social and family situation variables that influence school and their school and their social integration. After interpretation and analysis of extracted data, we conclude that the most influential factor in expectations, with the Luso-African students who complete their secondary school studies, is the interest of the parents regarding the formation of the children.

  12. Project Overview: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    This fact sheet describes UPS second generation hybrid-electric delivery vehicles as compared to conventional delivery vehicles. Medium-duty commercial vehicles such as moving trucks, beverage-delivery trucks, and package-delivery vans consume almost 2,000 gal of fuel per year on average. United Parcel Service (UPS) operates hybrid-electric package-delivery vans to reduce the fuel use and emissions of its fleet. In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team evaluated the first generation of UPS' hybrid delivery vans. These hybrid vans demonstrated 29%-37% higher fuel economy than comparable conventional diesel vans, which contributed to UPS' decision to add second-generation hybrid vans to its fleet. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team is now evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 second-generation hybrid vans and 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operated by UPS in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The evaluation also includes testing fuel economy and emissions at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory and comparing diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. In addition, a followup evaluation of UPS' first-generation hybrid vans will show how those vehicles performed over three years of operation. One goal of this project is to provide a consistent comparison of fuel economy and operating costs between the second-generation hybrid vans and comparable conventional vans. Additional goals include quantifying the effects of hybridization on DPF regeneration and helping UPS select delivery routes for its hybrid vans that maximize the benefits of hybrid technology. This document introduces the UPS second-generation hybrid evaluation project. Final results will be available in mid-2012.

  13. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Antibiotic CJ-16,264, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Designed Analogues, and Discovery of Highly Potent and Simpler Antibacterial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C; Pulukuri, Kiran Kumar; Rigol, Stephan; Buchman, Marek; Shah, Akshay A; Cen, Nicholas; McCurry, Megan D; Beabout, Kathryn; Shamoo, Yousif

    2017-11-08

    An improved and enantioselective total synthesis of antibiotic CJ-16,264 through a practical kinetic resolution and an iodolactonization reaction to form the iodo pyrrolizidinone fragment of the molecule is described. A series of racemic and enantiopure analogues of CJ-16,264 was designed and synthesized through the developed synthetic technologies and tested against drug-resistant bacterial strains. These studies led to interesting structure-activity relationships and the identification of a number of simpler, and yet equipotent, or even more potent, antibacterial agents than the natural product, thereby setting the foundation for further investigations in the quest for new anti-infective drugs.

  14. A solid-phase approach to the phallotoxins: total synthesis of [Ala7]-phalloidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc O; Shelat, Anang A; Guy, R Kiplin

    2005-06-10

    Herein we report a solid-phase synthetic approach to [Ala7]-phalloidin (1). Prior syntheses of phallotoxins were carried out using solution-phase routes that required large scale and preclude library production. The route presented here consists of solution-phase preparation of key orthogonally protected amino acid building blocks, followed by a solid-phase peptide synthesis sequence, featuring two resin-bound macro-cyclization reactions. The final product mixture was composed of two atropisomeric compounds, one designated "natural" (1) and the other designated "non-natural" (1'). The structures of these species were modeled using restrained energy minimization with NMR-derived restraints.

  15. Modification of Silica Rice Husk Ash to Solid Ammonium Sulphate for Second Generation Biofuels Productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Mohammed Hello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been demonstrated for the synthesis of solid ammonium sulphate attached to silica rice husk ash. The 3-(aminopropyltriethoxysilane was immobilized onto silica at room temperature to functionalize the silica with ammine end groups (–NH2. The amine group was sulphated with sulphuric acid to produce a novel micro-rod-like shaped acidic catalyst (as seen with TEM designated RHNH3SO4H (RH = rice husk. The TGA analysis shows that the catalyst is stable at temperatures below 200°C. The acidity measurement of the catalyst indicates that it has Brønsted acid sites. Cellulose extracted from waste of rice husk and cellulose extracted from office paper were hydrolysed to glucose in 6 h, and the glucose was hydrolysed afterwards to other products within 13 h. The catalyst is reusable many times without a significant loss of catalytic activity.

  16. Influence of the Total Gas Flow at Different Reaction Times for CVD-Graphene Synthesis on Polycrystalline Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Lavin-Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the total gas flow (CH4+H2 during the reaction step for different reaction times for CVD-graphene synthesis on polycrystalline nickel foil using an atmospheric pressure set-up is reported. A thickness value related to number of graphene layers in each of the synthesized samples was determined using an Excel-VBA application. This method assigned a thickness value between 1 and 1000 and provided information on the percentage of each type of graphene (monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer deposited onto the polycrystalline nickel sheet. The influence of the total gas flow during the reaction step and the reaction time was studied in detail. Optical microscopy showed that samples were covered with different types of graphene, such as multilayer, few-layer, bilayer, and monolayer graphene. The synthesis variables were optimized according to the thickness value and the results were verified by Raman spectroscopy. The best conditions were obtained with a reaction temperature of 980°C, a CH4/H2 flow rate ratio of 0.07 v/v, a reaction time of 1 minute, and a total gas flow of 80 NmL/min. In the sample obtained under the optimized conditions, 80% of the area was covered with monolayer graphene and less than 1% with multilayer graphene.

  17. Tanjungides A and B: New Antitumoral Bromoindole Derived Compounds from Diazona cf formosa. Isolation and Total Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Murcia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tanjungides A (1 (Z isomer and B (2 (E isomer, two novel dibrominated indole enamides, have been isolated from the tunicate Diazona cf formosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, and extensive 1D and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of the cyclised cystine present in both compounds was determined by Marfey’s analysis after chemical degradation and hydrolysis. We also report the first total synthesis of these compounds using methyl 1H-indole-3-carboxylate as starting material and a linear sequence of 11 chemical steps. Tanjungides A and B exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines.

  18. Tanjungides A and B: new antitumoral bromoindole derived compounds from Diazona cf formosa. isolation and total synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Carmen; Coello, Laura; Fernández, Rogelio; Martín, María Jesús; Reyes, Fernando; Francesch, Andrés; Munt, Simon; Cuevas, Carmen

    2014-02-21

    Tanjungides A (1) (Z isomer) and B (2) (E isomer), two novel dibrominated indole enamides, have been isolated from the tunicate Diazona cf formosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, and extensive 1D and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of the cyclised cystine present in both compounds was determined by Marfey's analysis after chemical degradation and hydrolysis. We also report the first total synthesis of these compounds using methyl 1H-indole-3-carboxylate as starting material and a linear sequence of 11 chemical steps. Tanjungides A and B exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines.

  19. A diversity-oriented approach to indolocarbazoles via Fischer indolization and olefin metathesis: total synthesis of tjipanazole D and I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotha, Sambasivarao; Saifuddin, Mohammad; Aswar, Vikas R

    2016-10-18

    New synthetic strategies to indolocarbazoles have been reported via two-fold Fischer indolization under green conditions using l-(+)-tartaric acid and N,N-dimethyl urea. Starting with cyclohexanone, a bench-top starting material, this methodology has been extended to the total synthesis of natural products such as tjipanazoles D and I as well as the core structure of asteropusazole and racemosin B. Here, atom economical reactions like ring-closing metathesis, enyne-metathesis, and the Diels-Alder reaction have been used as key steps. Diverse strategies demonstrated here are useful in medicinal chemistry and materials science to design a library of decorated indoles.

  20. Total synthesis of feglymycin based on a linear/convergent hybrid approach using micro-flow amide bond formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Shinichiro; Mifune, Yuto; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Feglymycin is a naturally occurring, anti-HIV and antimicrobial 13-mer peptide that includes highly racemizable 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycines (Dpgs). Here we describe the total synthesis of feglymycin based on a linear/convergent hybrid approach. Our originally developed micro-flow amide bond formation enabled highly racemizable peptide chain elongation based on a linear approach that was previously considered impossible. Our developed approach will enable the practical preparation of biologically active oligopeptides that contain highly racemizable amino acids, which are attractive drug candidates.

  1. Total synthesis of (-)-aritasone via the ultra-high pressure hetero-Diels-Alder dimerisation of (-)-pinocarvone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroos, Maliha; Pitt, Phillip; Harwood, Laurence M; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Hayes, Christopher J

    2017-10-18

    This paper describes a total synthesis of the terpene-derived natural product aritasone via the hetero-Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cyclodimerisation of pinocarvove, which represents the proposed biosyntheic route. The hetero-Diels-Alder dimerisation of pinocarvone did not proceed under standard conditions, and ultra-high pressure (19.9 kbar) was required. As it seems unlikely that these ultra-high pressures are accessible within a plant cell, we suggest that the original biosynthetic hypothesis be reconsidered, and alternatives are discussed.

  2. Heronapyrrole D: A case of co-inspiration of natural product biosynthesis, total synthesis and biodiscovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schmidt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The heronapyrroles A–C have first been isolated from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. (CMB-0423 in 2010. Structurally, these natural products feature an unusual nitropyrrole system to which a partially oxidized farnesyl chain is attached. The varying degree of oxidation of the sesquiterpenyl subunit in heronapyrroles A–C provoked the hypothesis that there might exist other hitherto unidentified metabolites. On biosynthetic grounds a mono-tetrahydrofuran-diol named heronapyrrole D appeared a possible candidate. We here describe a short asymmetric synthesis of heronapyrrole D, its detection in cultivations of CMB-0423 and finally the evaluation of its antibacterial activity. We thus demonstrate that biosynthetic considerations and the joint effort of synthetic and natural product chemists can result in the identification of new members of a rare class of natural products.

  3. Total synthesis of marinomycin A using salicylate as a molecular switch to mediate dimerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, P. Andrew; Huang, Mu-Hua; Lawler, Michael J.; Maroto, Sergio

    2012-08-01

    Antibiotics play a significant role in human health because of their ability to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. The growing problems with antibiotic resistance have made the development of new antibiotics a World Health Organization priority. Marinomycin A is a member of a new class of bis-salicylate-containing polyene macrodiolides, which have potent antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Herein, we describe a triply convergent synthesis of this agent using the salicylate as a novel molecular switch for the chemoselective construction of the macrodiolide. This strategy raises new questions regarding the biosynthetic role of the salicylate and its potential impact on the mechanism of action of these types of agents. For instance, in contrast to penicillin, which enhances the electrophilicity of the cyclic amide through ring strain, salicylates reduce the electrophilicity of the aryl ester through an intramolecular resonance-assisted hydrogen bond to provide an amide surrogate.

  4. Highly concise routes to epothilones: the total synthesis and evaluation of epothilone 490.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kaustav; Lin, Hong; Njardarson, Jon T; Chappell, Mark D; Chou, Ting-Chao; Guan, Yongbiao; Tong, William P; He, Lifeng; Horwitz, Susan B; Danishefsky, Samuel J

    2002-08-21

    A concise modular laboratory construction of the epothilone class of promising antitumor agents has been accomplished. For the first time in the epothilone area, the new synthesis exploits the power of ring-closing olefin metathesis (RCM) in a stereospecific way. Previous attempts at applying RCM to epothilone syntheses have been repeatedly plagued by complete lack of stereocontrol in the generation of the desired 12,13-olefin geometry in the products. The isolation of epothilone 490 (3) prompted us to reevaluate the utility of the RCM procedure for fashioning the 10,11-olefin, with the Z-12,13-olefin geometry already in place. Olefin metathesis of the triene substrate 12 afforded the product diene macrolide in stereoselective fashion. For purposes of greater synthetic convergency, the C3-(S)-alcohol was fashioned late in the synthesis, using chiral titanium-mediated aldol conditions with the entire O-alkyl fragment as a C15 acetate as the enolate component. Examination of the effects of protecting groups on the RCM process showed that deprotection of the C7 alcohol has a beneficial effect on the reaction yield. Performing the RCM as the last synthetic step in the sequence afforded a 64% yield of only the desired E-olefin. Selective diimide reduction of the new 10,11-olefin yielded 12,13-desoxyepothilone B, our current clinical candidate, demonstrating the utility of this new RCM-reduction protocol in efficiently generating the epothilone framework. Furthermore, the new olefin was selectively funtionalized to demonstrate the advantage conferred by this route for the construction of new analogues for SAR studies, in cytoxicity and microtubule affinity screens. Also described is the surprisingly poor in vivo performance of epothilone 490 in xenografts in the light of very promising in vitro data. This disappointing outcome was traced to unfavorable pharmacokinetic features of the drug in murine plasma. By the pharmacokinetic criteria, the prognosis for the

  5. Culture and postpartum mood problems: similarities and differences in the experiences of first- and second-generation Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamisachvili, Lana; Ardiles, Paola; Mancewicz, Grazyna; Thompson, Sherry; Rabin, Kapri; Ross, Lori E

    2013-04-01

    Few studies have examined the role of culture in a woman's experience of postpartum mood problems (PPMP). This study explored differences and similarities in experiences of PPMP between first- and second-generation Canadian women. In this exploratory qualitative study, we interviewed nine first-generation and eight second-generation women who were clients of the Women's Health Centre at St. Joseph's Health Centre in Toronto, Canada. Using semistructured interviews, we explored how women perceived and experienced PPMP. Four themes reflected cultural issues: PPMP stigma, relationship with parents/in-laws, internalization of society's expectations of motherhood, and identity issues/relationship with self. The results of this study contribute to a limited literature on possible contributing factors to PPMP and can inform development of resources for delivering culturally appropriate mental health care for women dealing with PPMP.

  6. The long-term effects of extreme war-related trauma on the second generation of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangi, Sarah; Talamo, Alessandra; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The psychological consequences of intergenerational trauma on the second generation of Holocaust survivors were studied in a sample of 40 nonimmigrant Italian Jews and compared to a control group. Differences between offspring of Holocaust survivors (HSO) and a comparison group were assessed by the Adjective Check List, Anxiety Questionnaire Scale, Defence Mechanism Inventory, and Family Environment Scale. Although the HSO displayed no serious psychological consequences, they had higher anxiety levels than controls, low self-esteem, inhibition of aggression, and relational ambivalence. These data partially confirm previous research on the topic, although the level of psychological distress seems to be lower in the Italian sample than in other samples of second-generation Holocaust survivors.

  7. Supply chain optimization of sugarcane first generation and eucalyptus second generation ethanol production in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J. G G; Junginger, H. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Verstegen, J. A.; Lin, T.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Ting, K. C.; Faaij, A. P C; van der Hilst, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314099905

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of the ethanol industry in Brazil faces two important challenges: to reduce total ethanol production costs and to limit the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity of the ethanol produced. The objective of this study is to economically optimize the scale and location of ethanol

  8. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Bilastine, a Second-Generation Antihistamine, in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Togawa, Michinori; Yamaya, Hidetoshi; Rodr?guez, M?nica; Nagashima, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Bilastine is a novel second-generation antihistamine for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of bilastine following single and multiple oral doses in healthy Japanese subjects. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles were compared with those reported in Caucasian subjects. Methods In a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, pa...

  9. Simplified Novel Application (SNApp) framework: a guide to developing and implementing second-generation mobile applications for behavioral health research

    OpenAIRE

    Fillo, Jennifer; Staplefoote-Boynton, B. Lynette; Martinez, Angel; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Shadel, William G.; Martino, Steven C.; Setodji, Claude M.; Meeker, Daniella; Scharf, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Advances in mobile technology and mobile applications (apps) have opened up an exciting new frontier for behavioral health researchers, with a “second generation” of apps allowing for the simultaneous collection of multiple streams of data in real time. With this comes a host of technical decisions and ethical considerations unique to this evolving approach to research. Drawing on our experience developing a second-generation app for the simultaneous collection of text message, voice, and sel...

  10. The comparative efficacy of first- versus second-generation electronic cigarettes in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, William V; Meier, Ellen; Wiener, Josh L; Grant, DeMond M; Gilmore, Jenna; Judah, Matt R; Mills, Adam C; Wagener, Theodore L

    2015-05-01

    Currently, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are studied as though they are a homogeneous category. However, there are several noteworthy differences in the products that fall under this name, including potential differences in the efficacy of these products as smoking cessation aids. The current study examined the comparative efficacy of first- and second-generation e-cigarettes in reducing nicotine withdrawal symptoms in a sample of current smokers with little or no experience of using e-cigarettes. Twenty-two mildly to moderately nicotine-dependent individuals were randomized to a cross-over design in which they used first- and second-generation e-cigarettes on separate days with assessment of withdrawal symptoms directly prior to and after product use. A community-based sample recruited in the Midwest region of the United States reported a mean age of 28.6 [standard deviation (SD) = 12.9]. The majority were male (56.5%), Caucasian (91.3%), reported smoking an average of 15.2 (SD = 9.6) tobacco cigarettes per day, and a mean baseline carbon monoxide (CO) level of 18.7 parts per million (p.p.m.). Symptoms of withdrawal from nicotine were measured via the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale. Analysis of changes in withdrawal symptoms revealed a significant time × product interaction F(1, 21)  = 5.057, P = 0.036, n(2) P  = 0.202. Participants experienced a larger reduction in symptoms of nicotine withdrawal after using second-generation compared with first-generation e-cigarettes. Second-generation e-cigarettes seem to be more effective in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal than do first-generation e-cigarettes. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants’ racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized ove...

  12. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W

    2013-10-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants' racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development.

  13. Preparation of Second Generation Ionic Liquids by Efficient Solvent-Free Alkylation of N-Heterocycles with Chloroalkanes

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Bonrath; Julien Estager; Jean-Marc Lévêque; Luisa Boffa; Emanuela Calcio Gaudino; Giancarlo Cravotto

    2008-01-01

    Non-conventional techniques, such as microwave (MW) and power ultrasound(US) as well as combined MW/US irradiation, have been used to promote one-potsynthesis of second-generation ionic liquids (ILs), cutting down reaction times andimproving yields. However, the use of chloroalkanes in the alkylation of N-heterocyclesrequires more drastic conditions if results are to match those obtained with more reactivealkyl halides. The present paper describes a series of MW- or MW/US-promoted ILpreparati...

  14. Reconciling social psychology and socio-linguistics can have some benefits: language and identity among second generation British Asians

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspal, Rusi; Coyle, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Given the pervasiveness of language in social life and the implications that language use can have for one’s individual and collective identities, attempts were made to explore the theoretical and empirical advantages in connecting social psychological theories of identity and sociolinguistics in order to explore language and identity among second generation British Asians. This paper features a brief overview of the sociological background of British Asians and a detailed consideration of tw...

  15. Simplified Novel Application (SNApp) framework: a guide to developing and implementing second-generation mobile applications for behavioral health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, Jennifer; Staplefoote-Boynton, B Lynette; Martinez, Angel; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Shadel, William G; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude M; Meeker, Daniella; Scharf, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    Advances in mobile technology and mobile applications (apps) have opened up an exciting new frontier for behavioral health researchers, with a "second generation" of apps allowing for the simultaneous collection of multiple streams of data in real time. With this comes a host of technical decisions and ethical considerations unique to this evolving approach to research. Drawing on our experience developing a second-generation app for the simultaneous collection of text message, voice, and self-report data, we provide a framework for researchers interested in developing and using second-generation mobile apps to study health behaviors. Our Simplified Novel Application (SNApp) framework breaks the app development process into four phases: (1) information and resource gathering, (2) software and hardware decisions, (3) software development and testing, and (4) study start-up and implementation. At each phase, we address common challenges and ethical issues and make suggestions for effective and efficient app development. Our goal is to help researchers effectively balance priorities related to the function of the app with the realities of app development, human subjects issues, and project resource constraints.

  16. Comparative study of treatment continuation using second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azekawa T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Takaharu Azekawa, Shizuko Ohashi, Akira ItamiShioiri Mental Clinic, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa-ken, JapanBackground: Effectiveness of a drug is a key concept dependent on efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Time to discontinuation of treatment is also representative of effectiveness. We investigated differences in treatment discontinuation among newly started second-generation antipsychotics in the clinical setting.Methods: Using a retrospective cohort study design, we screened all outpatients (n = 7936 who visited the Shioiri Mental Clinic between July 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010. We identified a cohort of patients (n = 703 diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and calculated the time to discontinuation of each second-generation antipsychotic.Results: Of the 703 patients, 149 were newly treated with aripiprazole, 67 with blonanserin, 95 with olanzapine, 36 with quetiapine, 74 with perospirone, and 120 with risperidone. The time to discontinuation for all causes was significantly longer for aripiprazole than for blonanserin, olanzapine, and risperidone. In addition, aripiprazole tended to be continued for longer than quetiapine and perospirone, but these differences were not significant.Conclusion: Aripiprazole may be considered the best available option for long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.Keywords: retrospective study, second-generation antipsychotics, effectiveness, treatment continuation, schizophrenia, aripiprazole

  17. Readiness to Use Psychoactive Substances Among Second-Generation Adolescent Immigrants and Perceptions of Parental Immigration-Related Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviad-Wilchek, Yael; Levy, Inna; Ben-David, Sarah

    2017-10-15

    This research explores the relationship between parental immigration-related trauma and second-generation adolescent substance abuse. To examine this relationship, we focused on Ethiopian adolescents in Israel who are at risk for substance abuse. Many immigrants from Ethiopia experienced severe immigration trauma and research indicates the existence of transgenerational trauma transmission. The current research focuses on the connection between Ethiopian adolescents' perceptions of their parents' immigration trauma and their readiness to use psychoactive substances. Five hundred and ten second-generation Ethiopian adolescents (Israeli-born children of Ethiopian immigrants) filled out questionnaires examining socio-demographic characteristics, immigration impact and readiness to consume alcoholic beverages and use illegal drugs. Our findings show that readiness levels among Ethiopian adolescents to use psychoactive substances are relatively low, and that parental trauma only affects the readiness to consume alcohol. The levels of readiness to consume drugs were partially related to parental trauma. Conclusions/Importance: Transgenerational trauma transmission should be considered when implementing alcohol and substance abuse treatment and prevention policies among second generation immigrants. This should be done on all levels including personal, interpersonal and community levels.

  18. The role of minority stress in second-generation Black emerging adult college students' high-risk drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Delishia M; Cho Kim, Sara; Hunter, Carla D; Obasi, Ezemenari M

    2017-07-01

    This study used a minority stress framework to investigate the relationships between multiple stressors (e.g., general life stress, race related stress, and acculturative stress) and high-risk drinking behaviors in a sample of second-generation Black emerging adult college students across the United States. Participants (n = 148) were recruited from U.S. colleges and universities as part of a large, multiwave cross-sectional study. Findings from this study mirrored those in the extant literature: the positive relationship between race-related stress and high-risk drinking behaviors found in other marginalized groups. However, when all stressors were entered into the model, acculturative stress accounted for significant variance in high-risk drinking behaviors above and beyond general life and race-related stressors in second generation Black emerging adult college students. Findings underscore the need to better understand the influence of acculturative stress on high-risk drinking behaviors among second-generation Black emerging adult college students: an understudied population in both the acculturation and alcohol use literatures. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Monitoring the catalytic synthesis of glycerol carbonate by real-time attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvino-Casilda, V.; Mul, Guido; Fernandez, J.F.; Rubio-Marcos, F.; Banares, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In situ Attenuated Total Reflectance FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the carbonylation of glycerol with urea. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles, Co3O4, hierarchically dispersed on zinc oxide microparticles, ZnO, were used as catalysts. The present work demonstrates that in situ real-time attenuated

  20. Logistics cost analysis of rice residues for second generation bioenergy production in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay Ramamurthi, Pooja; Cristina Fernandes, Maria; Sieverts Nielsen, Per; Pedro Nunes, Clemente

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana's energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70-90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5 MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89 USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25 MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10 km) was 2.64 USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66-72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46-48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic costs. Transport distance of husks has considerable impact on logistic costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Logistics cost analysis of rice residues for second generation bioenergy production in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijay Ramamurthi, Pooja; Cristina Fernandes, Maria; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana’s energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70–90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made...... for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10km) was 2.64USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66......–72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46–48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic...

  2. Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-09-01

    A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

  3. Total synthesis and structural validation of cyclodepsipeptides solonamide A and B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitir, Betül; Baldry, Mara; Ingmer, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are an attractive source of new natural products with antimicrobial properties, and the marine environment constitutes a prolific resource of bioactive microorganisms. During a global research expedition (Galathea III), two depsipeptides, solonamide A and solonamide B, were isolated...... conditions. Thus, the first total syntheses of the solonamides corroborated the originally assigned structures, and by changing the stereochemistry of the auxiliary in the aldol steps we gained access to the natural products as well as their β3-epimers....

  4. Comparison of pure Holsteins to crossbred Holsteins with Norwegian Red cattle in first and second generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, E; Van Straten, M; Weller, J I

    2016-08-01

    A total of 1922 first generation crossbred cows born between 2005 and 2012 produced by inseminating purebred Israeli Holstein cows with Norwegian Red semen, and 7487 purebred Israeli Holstein cows of the same age in the same 50 herds were analyzed for production, calving traits, fertility, calving diseases, body condition score, abortion rate and survival under intensive commercial management conditions. Holstein cows were higher than crossbreds for 305-day milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 764, 1244, 1231 for kg milk; 23.4, 37.4, 35.6 for kg fat, and 16.7, 29.8, 29.8 for kg protein; for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant; while crossbred cows were higher for protein concentration by 0.06% to 0.08%. Differences for somatic cells counts were not significant. Milk production persistency was higher for Holstein cows by 5, 8.3 and 8% in parities 1 through 3. Crossbred cows were higher for conception status by 3.1, 3.6 and 4.7% in parities 1 through 3. Rates of metritis for Holsteins were higher than the crossbred cows by 7.8, 4.6 and 3.4% in parities 1 to 3. Differences for incidence of abortion, dystocia, ketosis and milk fever were not significant. Holstein cows were lower than crossbred cows for body condition score for all three parities, with differences of 0.2 to 0.4 units. Contrary to comparisons in other countries, herd-life was higher for Holsteins by 79 days. A total of 6321 Holstein cows born between 2007 and 2011 were higher than 765 progeny of crossbred cows backcrossed to Israeli Holsteins of the same ages for milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 279, 537, 542 kg milk; 10.5, 17.7, 17.0 kg fat and 6.2, 12.9, 13.2 kg protein for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant, while backcross cows were higher for protein percentage by 0.02% to 0.04%. The differences for somatic cell score, conception rate, and calving diseases other than metritis, were not

  5. Synthesis of hydrochloric acid solution for total mercury determination in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-Sorrentino, Nathalie; Benaim, Jean-Yves; Cossa, Daniel; Lucas, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg(T)) determination requires the addition of concentrated hydrochloric acid solution (≥10 mol L(-1) HCl) in relatively high amounts to preserve the samples and to prepare reagent solutions. A method for the preparation of concentrated HCl with Hg(T) concentration of lower than 5 ng L(-1) is described in this article. It is based on the well-known chemical reaction: 2 NH(4)Cl + H(2)SO(4) → (NH(4))(2)SO(4) + 2 HCl. This method is validated thanks to the US Environmental Protection Agency method 1631 and standard reference materials BCR-579 (mercury in coastal seawater).

  6. Second-generation de novo design: a view from a medicinal chemist perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaliani, Andrea; Boda, Krisztina; Seidel, Thomas; Herwig, Achim; Schwab, Christof H.; Gasteiger, Johann; Claußen, Holger; Lemmen, Christian; Degen, Jörg; Pärn, Juri; Rarey, Matthias

    2009-08-01

    For computational de novo design, a general retrospective validation work is a very challenging task. Here we propose a comprehensive workflow to de novo design driven by the needs of computational and medicinal chemists and, at the same time, we propose a general validation scheme for this technique. The study was conducted combining a suite of already published programs developed within the framework of the NovoBench project, which involved three different pharmaceutical companies and four groups of developers. Based on 188 PDB protein-ligand complexes with diverse functions, the study involved the ligand reconstruction by means of a fragment-based de-novo design approach. The structure-based de novo search engine FlexNovo showed in five out of eight total cases the ability to reconstruct native ligands and to rank them in four cases out of five within the first five candidates. The generated structures were ranked according to their synthetic accessibilities evaluated by the program SYLVIA. This investigation showed that the final candidate molecules have about the same synthetic complexity as the respective reference ligands. Furthermore, the plausibility of being true actives was assessed through literature searches.

  7. Second-generation de novo design: a view from a medicinal chemist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaliani, Andrea; Boda, Krisztina; Seidel, Thomas; Herwig, Achim; Schwab, Christof H; Gasteiger, Johann; Claussen, Holger; Lemmen, Christian; Degen, Jörg; Pärn, Juri; Rarey, Matthias

    2009-08-01

    For computational de novo design, a general retrospective validation work is a very challenging task. Here we propose a comprehensive workflow to de novo design driven by the needs of computational and medicinal chemists and, at the same time, we propose a general validation scheme for this technique. The study was conducted combining a suite of already published programs developed within the framework of the NovoBench project, which involved three different pharmaceutical companies and four groups of developers. Based on 188 PDB protein-ligand complexes with diverse functions, the study involved the ligand reconstruction by means of a fragment-based de-novo design approach. The structure-based de novo search engine FlexNovo showed in five out of eight total cases the ability to reconstruct native ligands and to rank them in four cases out of five within the first five candidates. The generated structures were ranked according to their synthetic accessibilities evaluated by the program SYLVIA. This investigation showed that the final candidate molecules have about the same synthetic complexity as the respective reference ligands. Furthermore, the plausibility of being true actives was assessed through literature searches.

  8. Isolation and Total Synthesis of Stolonines A–C, Unique Taurine Amides from the Australian Marine Tunicate Cnemidocarpa stolonifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong D. Tran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cnemidocarpa stolonifera is an underexplored marine tunicate that only occurs on the tropical to subtropical East Coast of Australia, with only two pyridoacridine compounds reported previously. Qualitative analysis of the lead-like enhanced fractions of C. stolonifera by LC-MS dual electrospray ionization coupled with PDA and ELSD detectors led to the identification of three new natural products, stolonines A–C (1–3, belonging to the taurine amide structure class. Structures of the new compounds were determined by NMR and MS analyses and later verified by total synthesis. This is the first time that the conjugates of taurine with 3-indoleglyoxylic acid, quinoline-2-carboxylic acid and β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid present in stolonines A–C (1–3, respectively, have been reported. An immunofluorescence assay on PC3 cells indicated that compounds 1 and 3 increased cell size, induced mitochondrial texture elongation, and caused apoptosis in PC3 cells.

  9. Extending the Glucosyl Ceramide Cassette Approach: Application in the Total Synthesis of Ganglioside GalNAc-GM1b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miku Konishi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a novel cyclic glucosyl ceramide cassette acceptor for efficient glycolipid syntheses was investigated. p-Methoxybenzyl (PMB groups were selected as protecting groups at C2 and C3 of the glucose residue with the aim of improving the functionality of the cassette acceptor. The choice of the PMB group resulted in a loss of β-selectivity, which was corrected by using an appropriate tether to control the spatial arrangement and the nitrile solvent effect. To investigate the effect of linker structure on the β-selectivity of intramolecular glycosylation, several linkers for tethering the glucose and ceramide moiety were designed and prepared, namely, succinyl, glutaryl, dimethylmalonyl, and phthaloyl esters. The succinyl ester linker was the best for accessing the cassette form. The newly designed glucosyl ceramide cassette acceptor was then applied in the total synthesis of ganglioside GalNAc-GM1b.

  10. Increased use of second-generation macrolide antibiotics for children in nine health plans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stille, Christopher J; Andrade, Susan E; Huang, Susan S; Nordin, James; Raebel, Marsha A; Go, Alan S; Chan, K Arnold; Finkelstein, Jonathan A

    2004-11-01

    Widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics contributes to increasing rates of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Second-generation macrolides have become popular for use among children because of their broad spectrum and favorable dosing and side-effect profiles, although experts do not generally recommend them for use as initial treatment of infections among younger children. To assess trends in second-generation macrolide use from 1996 to 2000 among children treated as outpatients in 9 US health plans, including associated diagnoses and use as initial treatment. We sampled claims data for 25000 children, 3 months to macrolide use increased from 0.022 to 0.063 dispensings per person-year. Use as a proportion of all antibiotic dispensings increased from 1.9% to 6.9%, and use as initial therapy increased from 1.4% to 6%. For children macrolide use as initial therapy increased from 0.9% to 5.0% for otitis media and from 5.2% to 24.0% for pneumonia. There was a wide range of prescribing rates among health plans during the last year of the study, from 0.006 to 0.135 dispensings per person-year. Despite recent trends toward decreased antibiotic use among children, the use of second-generation macrolides among children has increased dramatically, even among younger children, for whom use for initial treatment of illness is not recommended. Large differences in prescribing rates exist among health plans. Continued efforts to promote the use of narrower-spectrum agents when appropriate are needed.

  11. Autonomic nervous system modulation and clinical outcome after pulmonary vein isolation using the second-generation cryoballoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Hachiya, Hitoshi; Kajiyama, Takatsugu; Watanabe, Tomonori; Igarashi, Miyako; Ichijo, Sadamitsu; Hirao, Kenzo; Iesaka, Yoshito

    2017-09-01

    The intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a significant role in atrial fibrillation (AF) mechanisms. This study evaluated the incidence and impact of intraprocedural vagal reactions and ANS modulation by pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) using second-generation cryoballoons on outcomes. One hundred three paroxysmal AF patients underwent PVI with one 28-mm second-generation balloon. The median follow-up was 15.0 (12.0-18.0) months. ANS modulation was defined as a >20% cycle length decrease on 3-minute resting electrocardiograms at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postindex procedure relative to baseline if sinus rhythm was maintained. Marked sinus arrests/bradycardia and atrioventricular block (intraprocedural vagal reaction) occurred in 14 and 2 patients, and all sinus arrest/bradycardia occurred in 44 patients with left superior pulmonary veins (PVs) targeted before right PVs. ANS modulation was identified in 66 of 95 (69.5%) patients, and it persisted 12-month postprocedure in 36 (37.9%) patients. Additional β-blocker administration was required in 9 patients for sinus tachycardia. ANS modulation was similarly observed in patients with and without intraprocedural vagal reactions (P = 0.443). Forty-eight (46.6%) patients experienced early recurrences, and the single procedure success at 12 months was 72.7%. Neither intraprocedural vagal reactions nor ANS modulation predicted AF freedom within or after the blanking period. Thirty-three patients underwent second procedures, and reconnections were detected in 39 of 130 (30.0%) PVs among 23 (69.7%) patients. The incidence of reconnections was similar in patients with and without ANS modulation. Increased heart rate persisted in 37.9% of patients even at 12-month post-second-generation cryoballoon PVI. Neither intraprocedural vagal reactions nor increased heart rate predicted a single procedure clinical outcome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A strategy for complex dimer formation when biomimicry fails: total synthesis of ten coccinellid alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Trevor C; Trotta, Adam H; Snyder, Scott A

    2014-07-09

    Although dimeric natural products can often be synthesized in the laboratory by directly merging advanced monomers, these approaches sometimes fail, leading instead to non-natural architectures via incorrect unions. Such a situation arose during our studies of the coccinellid alkaloids, when attempts to directly dimerize Nature's presumed monomeric precursors in a putative biomimetic sequence afforded only a non-natural analogue through improper regiocontrol. Herein, we outline a unique strategy for dimer formation that obviates these difficulties, one which rapidly constructs the coccinellid dimers psylloborine A and isopsylloborine A through a terminating sequence of two reaction cascades that generate five bonds, five rings, and four stereocenters. In addition, a common synthetic intermediate is identified which allows for the rapid, asymmetric formal or complete total syntheses of eight monomeric members of the class.

  13. Solid-Phase Synthesis for the Construction of Biologically Interesting Molecules and the Total Synthesis of Trioxacarcin DC-45-A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Remi Jacob Thomsen

    This thesis covers three research projects in addition to a literature survey on solid-phase organic synthesis and photolabile linkers. Synthesis of Doxorubicin Derivatives on Photolabile Solid Support. The synthesis of doxorubicin derivatives on photolabile solid support, compatible with bead-ba...

  14. Total observed organic carbon (TOOC in the atmosphere: a synthesis of North American observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Heald

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of organic carbon compounds in both the gas and particle phases made upwind, over and downwind of North America are synthesized to examine the total observed organic carbon (TOOC in the atmosphere over this region. These include measurements made aboard the NOAA WP-3 and BAe-146 aircraft, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown, and at the Thompson Farm and Chebogue Point surface sites during the summer 2004 ICARTT campaign. Both winter and summer 2002 measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study are also included. Lastly, the spring 2002 observations at Trinidad Head, CA, surface measurements made in March 2006 in Mexico City and coincidentally aboard the C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO campaign and later during the IMPEX campaign off the northwestern United States are incorporated. Concentrations of TOOC in these datasets span more than two orders of magnitude. The daytime mean TOOC ranges from 4.0 to 456 μgC m−3 from the cleanest site (Trinidad Head to the most polluted (Mexico City. Organic aerosol makes up 3–17% of this mean TOOC, with highest fractions reported over the northeastern United States, where organic aerosol can comprise up to 50% of TOOC. Carbon monoxide concentrations explain 46 to 86% of the variability in TOOC, with highest TOOC/CO slopes in regions with fresh anthropogenic influence, where we also expect the highest degree of mass closure for TOOC. Correlation with isoprene, formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein also indicates that biogenic activity contributes substantially to the variability of TOOC, yet these tracers of biogenic oxidation sources do not explain the variability in organic aerosol observed over North America. We highlight the critical need to develop measurement techniques to routinely detect total gas phase VOCs, and to deploy comprehensive suites of TOOC instruments in diverse environments to quantify the ambient evolution of organic carbon from source

  15. A second generation genetic linkage map of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Hiroyuki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is one of the most economically important marine species in Northeast Asia. Information on genetic markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL can be used in breeding programs to identify and select individuals carrying desired traits. Commercial production of Japanese flounder could be increased by developing disease-resistant fish and improving commercially important traits. Previous maps have been constructed with AFLP markers and a limited number of microsatellite markers. In this study, improved genetic linkage maps are presented. In contrast with previous studies, these maps were built mainly with a large number of codominant markers so they can potentially be used to analyze different families and populations. Results Sex-specific genetic linkage maps were constructed for the Japanese flounder including a total of 1,375 markers [1,268 microsatellites, 105 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and two genes]; 1,167 markers are linked to the male map and 1,067 markers are linked to the female map. The lengths of the male and female maps are 1,147.7 cM and 833.8 cM, respectively. Based on estimations of map lengths, the female and male maps covered 79 and 82% of the genome, respectively. Recombination ratio in the new maps revealed F:M of 1:0.7. All linkage groups in the maps presented large differences in the location of sex-specific recombination hot-spots. Conclusions The improved genetic linkage maps are very useful for QTL analyses and marker-assisted selection (MAS breeding programs for economically important traits in Japanese flounder. In addition, SNP flanking sequences were blasted against Tetraodon nigroviridis (puffer fish and Danio rerio (zebrafish, and synteny analysis has been carried out. The ability to detect synteny among species or genera based on homology analysis of SNP flanking sequences may provide opportunities to complement initial QTL experiments

  16. Second generation sequencing and morphological faecal analysis reveal unexpected foraging behaviour by Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hope, Paul R; Bohmann, Kristine; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    is studied infrequently. Although microscopic analyses of faeces have traditionally been used to characterise bat diet, recently the coupling of PCR with second generation sequencing has offered the potential to further advance our understanding of animal dietary composition and foraging behaviour...... the abundance of flying insects may be substantially reduced. Interesting questions arise as to how M. nattereri might successfully locate and capture some of the non-volant prey species encountered in its faeces. The consumption of lepidopteran larvae such as cutworms suggests that M. nattereri eats...

  17. Adverse Effects of Second-Generation Antipsychotics as Adjuncts to Antidepressants: Are the Risks Worth the Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thase, Michael E

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decades, several adjunctive therapies have been introduced for treatment-resistant depression (TRD), and these strategies have ebbed and flowed in popularity. Currently, adjunctive therapy with the second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) is most commonly used by psychiatrists. Four SGAs are FDA approved for indications related to TRD (aripiprazole, brexpiprazole, olanzapine, and quetiapine extended release); some evidence also supports use of risperidone and ziprasidone as adjunctive therapies. This article briefly reviews the role of adjunctive therapy with SGAs in contemporary algorithms for TRD, considering both the evidence of benefit and the adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of Metabolic Syndrome in Drug-Naive Adolescents After 12 Months of Second-Generation Antipsychotic Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjo, Christina Power; Stenstrøm, Anne Dorte; Bojesen, Anders Bo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mental illness is often accompanied by poor physical health and shorter life expectancy. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are suspected of increasing cardiovascular risk, possibly through development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the risk of adverse outcome is even higher...... if obesity or metabolic aberration starts in childhood or adolescence. METHODS: Drug-naive adolescents were recruited after contact with an outpatient Psychosis Team. Changes relative to baseline in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose (FBG...

  19. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Fairburn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health.

  20. Search for second generation leptoquarks in $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8-TeV $p^-$ pbar at CDF and silicon detector readout electronics development with ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambara, Hisanori [Geneva U.

    1998-02-01

    In this thesis, a search for second generation leptoquark is presented. It is based on the data collected at the Collider Detector at Fermilab with the Tevatron proton-antiproton collisions of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8 TeV. A total integrated luminosity of 110 pb-1 collected during runs in 1992-1995 is used. The search was performed on the charged dimuon plus dijet channel. No evidence for existence of leptoquark was found, and a new production cross section limit is set as a result of this analysis. Using the most recent theoretical calculation of pair leptoquark production [1], a new lower mass limit for second generation scalar leptoquark is extracted. The new limit excludes M(LQ2)< 202 GeV/c2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider with a center of mass energy ($\\sqrt{s}$) of 14 TeV, is currently under the construction at CERN. It will be utilised to extend the searches for the leptoquarks to higher mass regions. As in CDF, tracking detectors are essential to identify charged leptons decaying from leptoquarks. A silicon strip tracking detector is being developed for the ATLAS experiment. A dense and fast readout system with a good signal to noise ratio and low power consumption are required with high luminosity and short event collision interval (25 ns) expected at the LHC. A description of a prototype front-end micro-electronic chip, the ADAM, for silicon strip detector readout application is presented. Results from a complete laboratory test as well as its performance on a test beam at CERN are reported.

  1. Improved visualisation of real-time recordings during third generation cryoballoon ablation: a comparison between the novel short-tip and the second generation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Giacomo; de Asmundis, Carlo; Hünük, Burak; Ströker, Erwin; Moran, Darragh; Hacioglu, Ebru; Ruggiero, Diego; Poelaert, Jan; Verborgh, Christian; Umbrain, Vincent; Beckers, Stefan; Coutino-Moreno, Hugo Enrique; Takarada, Ken; de Regibus, Valentina; Brugada, Pedro; Chierchia, Gian-Battista

    2016-09-01

    The third-generation Cryoballoon Advance Short-tip (CB-ST) has been designed with a 40 % shortened tip length compared with the former second generation CB advance device (CB-A). Ideally, a shorter tip should permit an improved visualisation of real-time recordings in the pulmonary vein (PV) due to a more proximal positioning of the inner lumen mapping catheter. We sought to compare the incidence of visualisation of real-time recordings in patients having undergone ablation with the CB-ST with patients having received CB-A ablation. All patients having undergone CB ablation using CB-ST technology and the last 500 consecutive patients having undergone CB-A ablation were analysed. Exclusion criteria were the presence of an intracavitary thrombus, uncontrolled heart failure, moderate or severe valvular disease, and contraindications to general anaesthesia. A total of 600 consecutive patients (58.1 ± 12.9 years, 64 % males) were evaluated (100 CB-ST and 500 CB-A ablations). Real-time recordings were significantly more prevalent in the CB-ST population compared with CB-A group (85.7 vs 67.2 %, p visualised in the CB-ST group in all types of veins (LSPV 89 vs 73.4 %, p = 0.0005; LIPV 84 vs 65.6 %, p = 0.0002; RSPV 87 vs 67.4 %, p visualisation of real-time recordings is significantly higher during third-generation CB-ST ablation if compared to the second-generation CB-A device. Real-time recordings can be visualised in approximately 85.7 % of veins with this novel cryoballoon.

  2. "Return" migration intentions among second-generation Turks in Europe: the effect of integration and transnationalism in a cross-national perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Data from The Integration of the European Second Generation (TIES) project were used to examine the determinants of ‘return’ intentions among the Turkish second generation in several European cities. Theory-derived hypotheses on the effects of economic and socio-cultural integration and

  3. Identification of an Unexpected 2-Oxonia[3,3]sigmatropic Rearrangement/Aldol Pathway in the Formation of Oxacyclic Rings. Total Synthesis of (+)-Aspergillin PZ

    OpenAIRE

    Canham, Stephen M.; Overman, Larry E.; Tanis, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the first unambiguous evidence that the cascade synthesis of tetrahydrofuran-containing oxacyclic molecules depicted in Scheme 12 can take place by a 2-oxonia[3,3]sigmatropic/aldol mechanism rather than by a Prins cyclization/pinacol rearrangement sequence. The 8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octyl aldehyde products of this reaction, 20 and 29, were employed to complete the first total synthesis of the structurally remarkable isoindolone alkaloid (+)-aspergillin PZ (1). The lack of acti...

  4. A hybrid fault diagnosis method based on second generation wavelet de-noising and local mean decomposition for rotating machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwen; He, Zhengjia; Guo, Wei; Tang, Zhangchun

    2016-03-01

    In order to extract fault features of large-scale power equipment from strong background noise, a hybrid fault diagnosis method based on the second generation wavelet de-noising (SGWD) and the local mean decomposition (LMD) is proposed in this paper. In this method, a de-noising algorithm of second generation wavelet transform (SGWT) using neighboring coefficients was employed as the pretreatment to remove noise in rotating machinery vibration signals by virtue of its good effect in enhancing the signal-noise ratio (SNR). Then, the LMD method is used to decompose the de-noised signals into several product functions (PFs). The PF corresponding to the faulty feature signal is selected according to the correlation coefficients criterion. Finally, the frequency spectrum is analyzed by applying the FFT to the selected PF. The proposed method is applied to analyze the vibration signals collected from an experimental gearbox and a real locomotive rolling bearing. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has better performances such as high SNR and fast convergence speed than the normal LMD method. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative study of treatment continuation using second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azekawa, Takaharu; Ohashi, Shizuko; Itami, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness of a drug is a key concept dependent on efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Time to discontinuation of treatment is also representative of effectiveness. We investigated differences in treatment discontinuation among newly started second-generation antipsychotics in the clinical setting. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we screened all outpatients (n = 7936) who visited the Shioiri Mental Clinic between July 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010. We identified a cohort of patients (n = 703) diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and calculated the time to discontinuation of each second-generation antipsychotic. Of the 703 patients, 149 were newly treated with aripiprazole, 67 with blonanserin, 95 with olanzapine, 36 with quetiapine, 74 with perospirone, and 120 with risperidone. The time to discontinuation for all causes was significantly longer for aripiprazole than for blonanserin, olanzapine, and risperidone. In addition, aripiprazole tended to be continued for longer than quetiapine and perospirone, but these differences were not significant. Aripiprazole may be considered the best available option for long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  6. Second-generation Micro-Spec: a medium-resolution spectrometer-on-a-chip for submillimeter astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Barrentine, Emily M.; Bulcha, Berhanu T.; Ehsan, Negar; Hess, Larry A.; Noroozian, Omid; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Samuel Harvey

    2018-01-01

    This work reports on the design of a second-generation Micro-Spec (µ-Spec), a direct-detection spectrometer which integrates all the components of a diffraction-grating spectrometer onto a ~10-cm2 chip by means of superconducting microstrip transmission lines on a monocrystalline silicon substrate. The second-generation µ-Spec is designed to operate with a resolving power of 512 over the 500-1000 µm (300-600 GHz) wavelength range, a band of interest for several spectroscopic applications in astrophysics and the study of the early (z > 8) Universe. High-altitude balloon missions would provide the first testbed to demonstrate the µ-Spec technology in a space-like environment and would represent an economically viable venue for multiple observation campaigns.A brief overview of each instrument subsystem will be provided. Emphasis will be given to the design of the spectrometer’s two-dimensional diffractive region, through which the light of different wavelengths is focused on the kinetic inductance detectors along the focal plane. An optical design optimized for balloon missions through an optimization process that satisfies specific requirements on spectrometer’s size, operating spectral range and optical performance is presented in terms of geometric layout, spectral purity and efficiency.

  7. Second generation OLED devices and systems: inline evaporation, highly efficient OLED devices, and novel driver/controller ASICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelung, Joerg; Toerker, Michael; Luber, Claus; Eritt, Michael; Tomita, Yuto; Cholewa, Harald; Hermann, Ruediger; Loeffler, Frank; May, Christian; Vogel, Uwe; Bunk, Gerd; Heinig, Andreas; Jeroch, Werner; Holland, Hans-Jürgen; Leo, Karl

    2005-07-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) have to be improved to achieve new market segments in displays and lighting applications. We present important steps towards achieving this goal in a combination of highly efficient devices, manufacturing and new driving aspects. It is generally expected that the manufacturing methods have to be made more efficient to achieve large market penetration. We firstly present results on a highly efficient RGB-OLED-system with doped transport layer, manufactured in the worldwide first vertical In-Line set-up. Additionally a second-generation passive matrix OLED controller/driver IC was developed. Though the design was application-specifically directed for the onto integration into an OLED minidisplay panel module (e.g., by pad layout design being closely related to display connection schemes), versatile service in various applications was focused on. Therefore, in general they may also act as application-specific standard products (ASSP), if their built-in functions provide compatibility to a wide range of passive-matrix OLED panels. Additionally, the second generation supports various PMOLED display resolutions, area or full-color (RGB) operating modes and circuit techniques for OLED devices lifetime improvement.

  8. Paths to citizenship? Public views on the extension of rights to legal and second-generation immigrants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceobanu, Alin M; Escandell, Xavier

    2011-06-01

    This study uses variations in the legal-institutional frameworks of citizenship to explore cross-nationally public views about granting equal rights to legal immigrants and citizenship status to second-generation immigrants in 20 European countries. We link the literatures on citizenship regimes and attitudes toward immigrants to construct a conceptual model that is tested using ISSP data from 2003 and a set of matching contextual measures. Results from hierarchical linear regression analyses indicate that (1) opposition to the extension of rights to legal immigrants is augmented by shorter periods of required residency for naturalization and (2) granting citizenship status to second-generation immigrants is not sensitive to whether a regime consents or not to citizenship by birth. Net of individual and contextual controls, the findings also show that resistance to the expansion of rights to legal immigrants is higher in countries consenting to dual citizenship. Furthermore, our analyses reveal that Eastern European respondents do not differ significantly from their Western counterparts with respect to extending rights to either category of immigrants. These results are discussed in reference to the diversity of citizenship regimes in Europe and in light of the existing debates on harmonizing immigration policies. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  9. "Hard to crack": experiences of community integration among first- and second-generation Asian MSM in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nadine; Chan, Elic; Fischer, Benedikt

    2013-07-01

    Asians are the largest racial minority in Canada making up 11% of the population and represented over 60% of new immigrants between 2001 and 2006. We examined the experiences of community integration for first-generation (n = 27) and second-generation (n = 22) Asian Canadian men who have sex with men (MSM) in their ethnic and gay communities. Through focus group interviews, we explored their level of connectedness and the level of discrimination they experienced in the two communities. Findings indicate that Asian MSM in general perceived their ethnic community as homophobic, stemming from a combination of seeing sex as taboo, stereotypes about being gay, and the affiliation with religion. Although the literature indicates that immigrants rely on the support of their ethnic communities, our finding suggest that this is not the case for Asian immigrant MSM, who in our sample reported feeling less connected compared to their second-generation counterparts. For the gay community, our sample reported mixed experiences as some regarded it as welcoming, whereas others described it as racist. However, these experiences did not differ by generational status. Many were aware of explicit messages stating "No Asians" in dating contexts, while at the same time being aware that some older White men were interested in dating Asians exclusively. Barriers to integration in both communities may contribute to feelings of isolation. Theoretical implications are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Voiding urosonography including urethrosonography: high-quality examinations with an optimised procedure using a second-generation US contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Carmina; del Riego, Javier; Riera, Luis; Martin, Cesar; Serrano, Carlos; Palaña, Pau

    2012-06-01

    Voiding urosonography (VUS) is established as a technique for detecting vesicoureteral reflux in children. To evaluate the quality of images of the entire urinary tract when using a second-generation US contrast agent and a modified VUS technique. We evaluated 307 VUS examinations performed using SonoVue® in 591 pelvi-ureter units in 295 children of mean age, 27.1 (S.D., 42.5) months, with 154 (50.2%) of the examinations performed in boys; 58 children also underwent VUS using Levovist®. Three criteria were used for quality assessment of the bladder image: (1) progressive incorporation of contrast material in the bladder, (2) homogeneous bladder-filling to maximum capacity, and (3) visualisation of the posterior bladder wall. Criterion 1 was fulfilled in 305 (99.3%), criterion 2 in 304 (99%) and criterion 3 in 304 (99%) studies. In children who underwent VUS with both contrast agents, the concordance between the two techniques was moderate for findings in the bladder (Cohen K = 0.487; P < 0001) and perfect for findings in the male urethra. By a modified technique we obtained high-quality images of the bladder with the second-generation contrast agent.

  11. Conflict and healing in family experience of second-generation emigrants from India living in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugsin, R

    2001-01-01

    In this article, I describe a study that generates a substantive theory of healing from the conflict experienced by second-generation emigrants from India living in North America. Qualitative methodology, specifically, the Grounded Theory method of data analysis and theory building, was used. Literature elucidating the differences between North American and Indian cultural values was used as a basis for exploration. Results suggest that cultural conflict stems from areas such as education and success, pressure from parents to maintain traditional cultural values, family bonds and lack of boundaries, parental control and abuse, and dating and marriage. The results of the conflict are discussed by participants in terms of loneliness and pain, lying, rebellion, or acceptance of cultural values. The factors that mediate the conflict and that determine the degree to which participants rebel or accept the cultural values seem to be linked to the approval and acceptance individuals received from their family or community and their level of self-esteem. Finally, I discuss how individuals can heal from the conflict. Methods of healing include communication with and education for parents, therapy in the areas of anger, resentment, and self-esteem, and developing an alternative support system, which may include other second-generation individuals.

  12. The challenges of commercializing second-generation transgenic crop traits necessitate the development of international public sector research infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Steven J; Bi, Yong-Mei; Coneva, Viktoriya; Han, Mei; Good, Allen

    2014-10-01

    It has been 30 years since the first transformation of a gene into a plant species, and since that time a number of biotechnology products have been developed, with the most important being insect- and herbicide-resistant crops. The development of second-generation products, including nutrient use efficiency and tolerance to important environmental stressors such as drought, has, up to this time, been less successful. This is in part due to the inherent complexities of these traits and in part due to limitations in research infrastructure necessary for public sector researchers to test their best ideas. Here we discuss lessons from previous work in the generation of the first-generation traits, as well as work from our labs and others on identifying genes for nitrogen use efficiency. We then describe some of the issues that have impeded rapid progress in this area. Finally, we propose the type of public sector organization that we feel is necessary to make advances in important second-generation traits such as nitrogen use efficiency. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Schema therapy, motivational interviewing, and collaborative-mapping as treatment for depression among low income, second generation Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilemann, MarySue V; Pieters, Huibrie C; Kehoe, Priscilla; Yang, Qing

    2011-12-01

    US-born Latinos report significantly more depression than foreign-born Latinos in the US, and Latinas have twice the rate of depression than Latino men. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of an innovative, short-term program of Schema Therapy (ST) combined with Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques to reduce depression and increase resilience among second generation Latinas of low income in the US. In addition to blending ST and MI strategies with a focus on resilience, a novel technique called collaborative-mapping was a crucial strategy within treatment. Scheduling for sessions was flexible and patients had unlimited cell phone access to the therapist outside of sessions, although few used it. A mixed linear regression model for BDI-II scores of 8 women who completed all eight 2-h sessions demonstrated that the treatment significantly decreased BDI-II scores during the course of treatment (p = .0003); the average decreasing rate in BDI-II scores was 2.8 points per visit. Depression scores remained sub-threshold for 12 months after treatment completion. Resilience scores significantly increased after treatment completion and remained high at all follow-up visits through 1 year (p therapy, which resulted in an appealing, desirable, and accessible depression treatment for this severely understudied, underserved sample of low income, second generation Latinas in the US. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Total flavonoid aglycones extract in Radix scutellariae inhibits lung carcinoma and lung metastasis by affecting cell cycle and DNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Cao, Hui-Juan; Sun, Shu-Jun; Dai, Jian-Ye; Fang, Jun-Wei; Li, Qian-Hua; Yan, Chao; Mao, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Yong-Yu

    2016-12-24

    Radix Scutellariae (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, RS), a traditional herbal medicine commonly used to treat inflammation, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, bacterial and viral infections, is reported to treat lung cancer by supplements of modern medicine. The total flavonoid aglycones extract (TFAE) from RS is the most important composition for the pharmacodynamic effects. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-lung tumor effect of TFAE on A549 cells and A549 cell nude mice xenografts. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect and mechanism of TFAE treating non-small cell lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor activity of TFAE in vitro was investigated using the MTT assay. The changes of cell invasion and migration were detected by Transwell assay and tube formation experiments were used to detect the anti-angiogenic effect. The anti-tumor effects of TFAE in vivo were evaluated in A549 cell nude mice xenografts. The mechanism of TFAE was detected by flow cytometry technology, western blot assay and immuno-histochemistry assay. In vitro, TFAE inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In vivo, TFAE by oral administration at 100mg/kg for 30 days decreased the tumor volume and tumor weight in A549 cell xenograft by 25.5% with no statistical significance (P<0.05) compared to the cis-platinum positive control group (30.0%). The cell cycle and DNA synthesis experiment illustrated that TFAE could induce A549 cell cycle to arreste in S phase and DNA synthesis in A549 cells be inhibited, while TFAE had no influence on apoptosis of A549 cells. Western Blot assay demonstrated that the treatment of TFAE could make Cyclin D1 decrease and p53 increase both in vitro and in vivo. TFAE displayed the inhibition effects of non-small cell lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo and the underlying mechanism might be related to the increased p53 protein expression and decreased Cyclin D1

  15. Statistical experimental design guided optimization of a one-pot biphasic multienzyme total synthesis of amorpha-4,11-diene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixian Chen

    Full Text Available In vitro synthesis of chemicals and pharmaceuticals using enzymes is of considerable interest as these biocatalysts facilitate a wide variety of reactions under mild conditions with excellent regio-, chemo- and stereoselectivities. A significant challenge in a multi-enzymatic reaction is the need to optimize the various steps involved simultaneously so as to obtain high-yield of a product. In this study, statistical experimental design was used to guide the optimization of a total synthesis of amorpha-4,11-diene (AD using multienzymes in the mevalonate pathway. A combinatorial approach guided by Taguchi orthogonal array design identified the local optimum enzymatic activity ratio for Erg12:Erg8:Erg19:Idi:IspA to be 100∶100∶1∶25∶5, with a constant concentration of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (Ads, 100 mg/L. The model also identified an unexpected inhibitory effect of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (IspA, where the activity was negatively correlated with AD yield. This was due to the precipitation of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP, the product of IspA. Response surface methodology was then used to optimize IspA and Ads activities simultaneously so as to minimize the accumulation of FPP and the result showed that Ads to be a critical factor. By increasing the concentration of Ads, a complete conversion (∼100% of mevalonic acid (MVA to AD was achieved. Monovalent ions and pH were effective means of enhancing the specific Ads activity and specific AD yield significantly. The results from this study represent the first in vitro reconstitution of the mevalonate pathway for the production of an isoprenoid and the approaches developed herein may be used to produce other isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP/dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP based products.

  16. The second generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, Maurice; Mollenkopf, John

    2012-01-01

    The children of immigrants are central to the future of the large cities of western Europe and the United States and of the countries surrounding these cities.1 Not only do young people from immigrant backgrounds make up a large and growing share of their populations, they will also steadily replace

  17. Total Synthesis of Zoanthamine Alkaloids, Part 2. Construction of the C1-C5, C6-C10 and C11-C24 Fragments of Zoanthamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Tedenborg, Lars; Somfai, Peter

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of three key intermediates for a projected total synthesis of the marine alkaloid zoanthamine. These building blocks, corresponding to the C1-C5, C6-C10 and C11-C24 fragments of the target molecule, are synthesised efficiently form (R)-hydroxymethyl-butyrolac......This paper describes the construction of three key intermediates for a projected total synthesis of the marine alkaloid zoanthamine. These building blocks, corresponding to the C1-C5, C6-C10 and C11-C24 fragments of the target molecule, are synthesised efficiently form (R...

  18. First-generation versus second-generation autologous chondrocyte implantation for treatment of cartilage defects of the knee: a matched-pair analysis on long-term clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Philipp; Salzmann, Gian; Feucht, Matthias; Pestka, Jan; Porichis, Stella; Ogon, Peter; Südkamp, Norbert; Schmal, Hagen

    2014-10-01

    Since the introduction of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for the treatment of cartilage defects, the initial technique has undergone several modifications. Whereas an autologous periosteum flap was used for defect coverage in first generation ACI, a standardized collagen membrane was utilized in second generation ACI. To date, however, no study has proven the superiority of this modification in terms of long-term clinical outcome. The purpose of this matched-pair analysis was therefore to compare the clinical long-term outcome of first and second generation ACI with a minimum follow-up of ten years. A total of 23 patients treated with second generation ACI for isolated cartilage defects of the knee were evaluated after a minimum follow-up of ten years using Lysholm and IKDC scores. The results of these patients were compared to those of 23 matched patients treated with first generation ACI. Pair wise matching was performed by defect location, patient age, and defect size. While all patient characteristics such as age (31.7 years SD 6.9 vs. 31.4 years SD 7.8), defect size (5.1 cm² SD 2.3 vs. 4.9 cm² SD 1.5), and follow-up time (10.7 months SD 1.0 vs. 10.5 months SD 0.6) were distributed homogenously in both treatment groups, significant better Lysholm (82.7 SD 9.9 versus 75.6 SD 11.8; p = 0.031) and IKDC scores (76.4 SD 12.8 versus 68.0 SD 12.0, p = 0.023) were found in the group of patients treated with second generation ACI compared to those treated with first generation ACI. In both groups, four patients (17.4%) received surgical reintervention during follow-up. The use of a collagen membrane in combination with autologous chondrocytes (second generation ACI) leads to superior clinical long-term outcome compared to first generation ACI. Based on these results, second generation ACI should be preferred over first generation ACI.

  19. WW LCI v2: A second-generation life cycle inventory model for chemicals discharged to wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Muñoz, Ivan; Birkved, Morten

    2017-01-01

    We present a second-generation wastewater treatment inventory model, WW LCI 2.0, which on many fronts represents considerable advances compared to its previous version WW LCI 1.0. WW LCI 2.0 is a novel and complete wastewater inventory model integrating WW LCI 1.0, i.e. a complete life cycle....... Higher treatment levels lead to lower CC and FET burden compared to direct discharge. WW LCI 2.0 makes it possible to generate complete detailed life cycle inventories and fate analyses for chemicals released to wastewater systems. Our test of the WW LCI 2.0 model with five chemicals illustrates how...... inventory, including infrastructure requirement, energy consumption and auxiliary materials applied for the treatment of wastewater and disposal of sludge and SewageLCI, i.e. fate modelling of chemicals released to the sewer. The model is expanded to account for different wastewater treatment levels, i...

  20. Second generation antihistamines: assessment of the efficacy of treatment and tolerance of some preparations of this group (preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata A. Czarny-Działak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Second generation antihistamines are key medicines in the treatment of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. Aim of the research: To compare the effectiveness of selected antihistamines and frequency of side effects in the course of their therapy in the patient opinion. Material and methods : The study was conducted on a group of 40 patients taking rupatadine, bilastine, levocetirizine and fexofenadine. The method of diagnostic survey was used, having the character of a preliminary examination in view of the small number of people involved in the study. Results: Among the 40 patients, side effects of the medicines only appeared in 3 respondents, which is 1.2%. Conclusions : The new generation antihistamines in light of our studies appear to be safe and associated with few side effects. Due to the small number of surveyed people we treat these tests as preliminary to further analysis of the effectiveness of selected antihistamines.