WorldWideScience

Sample records for second-generation liquid transportation

  1. Analysis and identification of gaps in the research for the production of second-generation liquid transportation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwietzke, S.; Ladisch, M.; Russo, L.; Kwant, K.; Maekinen, T.; Kavalov, B.; Maniatis, K.; Zwart, R.; Shahanan, G.; Sipila, K.; Grabowski, P.; Telenius, B.; White, M.

    2008-08-01

    from biomass and used for catalytic formation of diesel or other fuels. Pre-treatment of cellulosic materials so that they are more efficiently converted to fermentable sugars is one form of feedstock preparation, and research that addresses the fundamental science and process development of pre-treatments should be viewed as a research gap. Clean-up of gases derived from biomass before the gases enter a catalytic step is another important research gap. Both areas impact on the efficiency, longevity, and cost of biocatalysts and catalysts. Systems integration and the integration of bioengineering with chemical engineering for cost-effective production and use of second-generation fuels represents a third research gap. This area encompasses gaps that must be addressed in better understanding the infrastructure required to deliver second-generation fuels and policies that would accelerate their introduction to the market place

  2. A second-generation supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, W.; Grayson, G.; Gump, J.; Hutko, G.; Kubicko, R.; Obrien, J.; Orndorff, R.; Oscher, R.; Polster, M.; Ulrich, C.

    1989-01-01

    already existing technology. This is of particular importance with respect to support technology such as airport terminals and runways. Based on the above introductory remarks, a possible approach to the design of a second-generation supersonic civil transport is presented here. The design Mach number for this aircraft is 3.5. This value was chosen as it represents the limiting Mach number in the absence of active cooling. The ensuing design attempts to deal with the particular problems that are the most demanding, while relying on proven technology where it is adequate. The report clearly does not solve, or even deal with, every aspect of the aircraft design. Rather, a general direction is suggested and supported with initial, approximate calculations.

  3. Second-generation endometrial ablation technologies: the hot liquid balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilos, George A; Edris, Fawaz

    2007-12-01

    Hysteroscopic endometrial ablation (HEA) was introduced in the 1980s to treat menorrhagia. Its use required additional training, surgical expertise and specialized equipment to minimize emergent complications such as uterine perforations, thermal injuries and excessive fluid absorption. To overcome these difficulties and concerns, thermal balloon endometrial ablation (TBEA) was introduced in the 1990s. Four hot liquid balloons have been introduced into clinical practice. All systems consist of a catheter (4-10mm diameter), a silicone balloon and a control unit. Liquids used to inflate the balloons include internally heated dextrose in water (ThermaChoice, 87 degrees C), and externally heated glycine (Cavaterm, 78 degrees C), saline (Menotreat, 85 degrees ) and glycerine (Thermablate, 173 degrees C). All balloons require pressurization from 160 to 240 mmHg for treatment cycles of 2 to 10 minutes. Prior to TBEA, preoperative endometrial thinning, including suction curettage, is optional. Several RCTs and cohort studies indicate that the advantages of TBEA include portability, ease of use and short learning curve. In addition, small diameter catheters requiring minimal cervical dilatation (5-7 mm) and short duration of treatment cycles (2-8 min) allow treatment under minimal analgesia/anesthesia requirements in a clinic setting. Following TBEA serious adverse events, including thermal injuries to viscera have been experienced. To minimize such injuries some surgeons advocate the use of routine post-dilatation hysteroscopy and/or ultrasonography to confirm correct intrauterine placement of the balloon prior to initiating the treatment cycle. After 10 years of clinical practice, TBEA is thought to be the preferred first-line surgical treatment of menorrhagia in appropriately selected candidates. Economic modeling also suggested that TBEA may be more cost-effective than HEA.

  4. Evaluation of alternatives for a second-generation transportation system for Department of Energy transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) waste storage sites will ship their contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) beginning FY 1989. The CH-TRU waste will be shipped in the Transuranic Package Transported (TRUPACT-I), a new packaging being developed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque/Transportation Technology Center. Some of the DOE TRU waste, however, might be unsuitable for shipment in TRUPACT-I, and is designated special-shipped (SS) TRU waste. The purposes of this study were to: (1) identify the quantity and characteristics of SS-TRU waste stored and generated at DOE facilities; (2) identify alternatives for managing the SS-TRU waste; and (3) make overall recommendations for managing the SS-TRU waste. Data on quantity and characteristics were gathered through coordinating visits to the sites and extracting information from each site's records. Representatives of DOE organizations and contractors set objectives for managing the SS-TRU waste. Alternative shipping systems were then identified for CH SS-TRU waste and RH SS-TRU waste. Evaluations of these alternatives considered how well they would satisfy each objective, and associated potential problems. The study recommends delaying the decision on how best to transport the CH SS-TRU waste to WIPP until the amount of SS-TRU processed waste in heavy drums is known. These conditions and choices are presented: a relatively small number of processed, heavy drums could be shipped most economically via TRUPACT-I, mixed with lighter drums of unprocessed waste. If a large number of heavy drums is to be shipped, a shorter and narrower version of TRUPACT-I would be preferred alternative. The Defense High-Level Waste cask is the recommended alternative system for shipping RH SS-TRU waste. 12 references, 15 figures, 22 tables

  5. Preparation of Second Generation Ionic Liquids by Efficient Solvent-Free Alkylation of N-Heterocycles with Chloroalkanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Bonrath

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional techniques, such as microwave (MW and power ultrasound(US as well as combined MW/US irradiation, have been used to promote one-potsynthesis of second-generation ionic liquids (ILs, cutting down reaction times andimproving yields. However, the use of chloroalkanes in the alkylation of N-heterocyclesrequires more drastic conditions if results are to match those obtained with more reactivealkyl halides. The present paper describes a series of MW- or MW/US-promoted ILpreparations starting from chloroalkanes and classic heterocycles (1-methylimidazole,pyridine and 1-methylpyrrolidine. When reactions were carried out under conventionalheating in an oil bath they required longer reaction times and gave poorer yields. 1H-NMRanalysis and ion-exchange chromatography showed that the present solventless procedureafforded ILs of satisfactory purity. The observed high yields (usually 70-98% isolated,and short reaction times showed that a straightforward access to ILs can be also achievedwith the use of alkyl chlorides, resulting in a considerable reduction of costs.

  6. Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Development and Global Competitiveness of US Space Transportation Industry: Critical Success Factors Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyinda, Chris I.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the unrelenting call in both public and private sectors fora to reduce the high cost associated with space transportation, many innovative partially or fully RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicles) designs (X-34-37) were initiated. This call is directed at all levels of space missions including scientific, military, and commercial and all aspects of the missions such as nonrecurring development, manufacture, launch, and operations. According to Wertz, tbr over thirty years, the cost of space access has remained exceedingly high. The consensus in the popular press is that to decrease the current astronomical cost of access to space, more safer, reliable, and economically viable second generation RLVs (SGRLV) must be developed. Countries such as Brazil, India, Japan, and Israel are now gearing up to enter the global launch market with their own commercial space launch vehicles. NASA and the US space launch industry cannot afford to lag behind. Developing SGRLVs will immeasurably improve the US's space transportation capabilities by helping the US to regain the global commercial space markets while supporting the transportation capabilities of NASA's space missions, Developing the SGRLVs will provide affordable commercial space transportation that will assure the competitiveness of the US commercial space transportation industry in the 21st century. Commercial space launch systems are having difficulty obtaining financing because of the high cost and risk involved. Access to key financial markets is necessary for commercial space ventures. However, public sector programs in the form of tax incentives and credits, as well as loan guarantees are not yet available. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussion and assess the critical success factors germane for RLVs development and US global competitiveness.

  7. Second generation registry framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellgard, Matthew I; Render, Lee; Radochonski, Maciej; Hunter, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Information management systems are essential to capture data be it for public health and human disease, sustainable agriculture, or plant and animal biosecurity. In public health, the term patient registry is often used to describe information management systems that are used to record and track phenotypic data of patients. Appropriate design, implementation and deployment of patient registries enables rapid decision making and ongoing data mining ultimately leading to improved patient outcomes. A major bottleneck encountered is the static nature of these registries. That is, software developers are required to work with stakeholders to determine requirements, design the system, implement the required data fields and functionality for each patient registry. Additionally, software developer time is required for ongoing maintenance and customisation. It is desirable to deploy a sophisticated registry framework that can allow scientists and registry curators possessing standard computing skills to dynamically construct a complete patient registry from scratch and customise it for their specific needs with little or no need to engage a software developer at any stage. This paper introduces our second generation open source registry framework which builds on our previous rare disease registry framework (RDRF). This second generation RDRF is a new approach as it empowers registry administrators to construct one or more patient registries without software developer effort. New data elements for a diverse range of phenotypic and genotypic measurements can be defined at any time. Defined data elements can then be utilised in any of the created registries. Fine grained, multi-level user and workgroup access can be applied to each data element to ensure appropriate access and data privacy. We introduce the concept of derived data elements to assist the data element standards communities on how they might be best categorised. We introduce the second generation RDRF that

  8. Transport properties of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, K.

    1976-07-01

    The transport coefficients, self diffusivity, dinamical viscosity,total viscosity (i.e., the first and second viscosity coefficient) and thermal conductivity, are calculated at several temperatures and saturation pressures for the Argon, Krypton and Xenon liquids, from the Mie otential and the hard sphere theory. (L.C.) [pt

  9. Web Tools: The Second Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascopella, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools and technologies, or second generation tools, help districts to save time and money, and eliminate the need to transfer or move files back and forth across computers. Many Web 2.0 tools help students think critically and solve problems, which falls under the 21st-century skills. The second-generation tools are growing in popularity…

  10. Comparison of second-generation processes for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse to liquid biofuels in terms of energy efficiency, pinch point analysis and Life Cycle Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, A.M.; Melamu, Rethabi; Knoetze, J.H.; Görgens, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Process evaluation of thermochemical and biological routes for bagasse to fuels. • Pinch point analysis increases overall efficiencies by reducing utility consumption. • Advanced biological route increased efficiency and local environmental impacts. • Thermochemical routes have the highest efficiencies and low life cycle impacts. - Abstract: Three alternative processes for the production of liquid transportation biofuels from sugar cane bagasse were compared, on the perspective of energy efficiencies using process modelling, Process Environmental Assessments and Life Cycle Assessment. Bio-ethanol via two biological processes was considered, i.e. Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (Process 1) and Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (Process 2), in comparison to Gasification and Fischer Tropsch synthesis for the production of synthetic fuels (Process 3). The energy efficiency of each process scenario was maximised by pinch point analysis for heat integration. The more advanced bio-ethanol process was Process 2 and it had a higher energy efficiency at 42.3%. Heat integration was critical for the Process 3, whereby the energy efficiency was increased from 51.6% to 55.7%. For both the Process Environmental and Life Cycle Assessment, Process 3 had the least potential for detrimental environmental impacts, due to its relatively high energy efficiency. Process 2 had the greatest Process Environmental Impact due to the intensive use of processing chemicals. Regarding the Life Cycle Assessments, Process 1 was the most severe due to its low energy efficiency

  11. Second Generation Waste Package Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.; Misra, M.; Kar, Piyush

    2007-01-01

    The following describes the objectives of Project Activity 023 ''Second Generation Waste Package Design Study'' under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232. The objectives of this activity are: to review the current YMP baseline environment and establish corrosion test environments representative of the range of dry to intermittently wet conditions expected in the drifts as a function of time; to demonstrate the oxidation and corrosion resistance of A588 weathering steel and reference Alloy 22 samples in the representative dry to intermittently dry conditions; and to evaluate backfill and design features to improve the thermal performance analyses of the proposed second-generation waste packages using existing models developed at the University of Nevada, Reno(UNR). The work plan for this project activity consists of three major tasks: Task 1. Definition of expected worst-case environments (humidity, liquid composition and temperature) at waste package outer surfaces as a function of time, and comparison with environments defined in the YMP baseline; Task 2. Oxidation and corrosion tests of proposed second-generation outer container material; and Task 3. Second Generation waste package thermal analyses. Full funding was not provided for this project activity

  12. Second-generation HTS conductors

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in 1986 by two IBM scientists led to an unprecedented explosion of research and development efforts world-wide because of the significant potential for practical applications offered by these materials. However, the early euphoria created by the exciting prospects was dampened by the daunting task of fabricating these materials into useful forms with acceptable superconducting properties. Progress towards this goal has been hindered by many intrinsic materials problems, such as weak-links, flux-creep, and poor mechanical properties. The above problems led to the development of the Second-Generation of HTS wires. Three methods were invented to produce flexible metallic substrates, which were also crystallographically biaxially textured, and resembled a long, mosaic single crystal. The first method invented is the Ion-Beam-Assisted-Deposition (IBAD). The second method developed was the Inclined-Substrate-Deposition (ISD). The third method invented is calle...

  13. The second generation of biofuels aims at 2015; La seconde generation de biocarburants vise 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orliac, A

    2008-12-15

    Research work is intensifying on the second generation of biofuels in order to optimize the processes and to reduce the production costs. Poorly valorized vegetable resources are targeted in order to avoid conflicts with other agricultural processes. Two ways are explored since several years: the biological way (bio-ethanol) and the thermochemical way (bio-diesel). So far, no method allows to recover oils with a satisfactory energy efficiency but several pilot-plants are under study or already in operation (Futurol, BTL (biomass-to-liquid)..). Short paper. (J.S.)

  14. Transport properties of organic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Latini, G; Passerini, G

    2006-01-01

    The liquid state is possibly the most difficult and intriguing state of matter to model. Organic liquids are required, mainly as working fluids, in almost all industrial activities and in most appliances (e.g. in air conditioning). Transport properties (namely dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity) are possibly the most important properties for the design of devices and appliances. The aim of this book is to present both theoretical approaches and the latest experimental advances on the issue, and to merge them into a wider approach. It concentrates on applicability of models.This book is organized into five chapters plus a data collection. The chapters discuss the following topics: the liquid state and some well-know theories able to explain the behaviour of liquids; a rather complete review of models, based on theoretical assumptions and/or upon physical paradigms, to evaluate heat transfer in organic liquids; a review of several well-known semi-empirical methods to predict the thermal conductivity coe...

  15. The second generation biofuels from the biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The author takes stock on the second generation biofuels in the world, the recent technologies, their advantages, the research programs and the economical and environmental impacts of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  16. Second generation biofuels, an accelerator of the transition toward an economy driven by energy drawn from hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delabroy, O.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of the bio economy, especially in transportation, involves developing a bio-fuel industry. First generation bio-fuels were produced from plant sugars like starch or from plant oils. Second generation bio fuels use as raw materials the whole plant and especially agricultural and forestry wastes which extend the resource considerably and limit the competition between food use and fuel use. Second generation bio-fuels can be made with not only biological methods but also biomass-to-liquid processes borrowed from thermochemistry. Players in this field, including 'Air Liquide' company, are drawing up a technical and economic road-map for competitiveness in this emerging branch of industry. Since the thermochemical approach for gasifying a biomass also yields large quantities of hydrogen, the industrialization of this branch and concomitant production of bio-hydrogen at competitive prices provide leverage for accelerating the transition toward using H 2 for transportation

  17. Second generation biofuels: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriquiry, Miguel A.; Du Xiaodong; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2011-01-01

    This study reviews economics of production of second generation biofuels from various feedstocks, including crop and wood/forestry residues, lignocellulosic energy crops, jatropha, and algae. The study indicates that while second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix, cost is a major barrier to its commercial production in the near to medium term. Depending upon type of biofuels, feedstock prices and conversion costs, the cost of cellulosic ethanol is found to be two to three times higher than the current price of gasoline on an energy equivalent basis. The median cost (across the studies reviewed) of biodiesel produced from microalgae, a prospective feedstock, is seven times higher than the current price of diesel, although much higher cost estimates have been reported. As compared with the case of first generation biofuels, in which feedstock can account for over two-thirds of the total costs, the share of feedstock in the total costs is relatively lower (30-50%) in the case of second generation biofuels. While significant cost reductions are needed for both types of second generation biofuels, the critical barriers are at different steps of the production process. For cellulosic ethanol, the biomass conversion costs needs to be reduced. On the other hand, feedstock cost is the main issue for biodiesel. At present, policy instruments, such as fiscal incentives and consumption mandates have in general not differentiated between the first and second generation biofuels except in the cases of the US and EU. The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different types of biofuels. - Highlights: → Second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix. → Cost is a major barrier to its the commercial production in the near to medium term. → The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different biofuels.

  18. Second generation biofuels: Economics and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriquiry, Miguel A., E-mail: miguelc@iastate.edu [Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University (United States); Du Xiaodong, E-mail: xdu23@wisc.edu [Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Timilsina, Govinda R., E-mail: gtimilsina@worldbank.org [Development Research Group, The World Bank (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This study reviews economics of production of second generation biofuels from various feedstocks, including crop and wood/forestry residues, lignocellulosic energy crops, jatropha, and algae. The study indicates that while second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix, cost is a major barrier to its commercial production in the near to medium term. Depending upon type of biofuels, feedstock prices and conversion costs, the cost of cellulosic ethanol is found to be two to three times higher than the current price of gasoline on an energy equivalent basis. The median cost (across the studies reviewed) of biodiesel produced from microalgae, a prospective feedstock, is seven times higher than the current price of diesel, although much higher cost estimates have been reported. As compared with the case of first generation biofuels, in which feedstock can account for over two-thirds of the total costs, the share of feedstock in the total costs is relatively lower (30-50%) in the case of second generation biofuels. While significant cost reductions are needed for both types of second generation biofuels, the critical barriers are at different steps of the production process. For cellulosic ethanol, the biomass conversion costs needs to be reduced. On the other hand, feedstock cost is the main issue for biodiesel. At present, policy instruments, such as fiscal incentives and consumption mandates have in general not differentiated between the first and second generation biofuels except in the cases of the US and EU. The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different types of biofuels. - Highlights: > Second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix. > Cost is a major barrier to its the commercial production in the near to medium term. > The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different biofuels.

  19. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  20. Herbert: A Second Generation Mobile Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    PROJECT. TASK S Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A WORK UNIT NUMBERS ’ ~ 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME...AD-AI93 632 WMRT: A SECOND GENERTION MOBILE ROWT(U) / MASSACHUSETTS IMST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB R BROOKS ET AL .JAN l8 Al-M...MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A. I. Memo 1016 January, 1988 HERBERT: A SECOND GENERATION MOBILE ROBOT Rodney A

  1. Electrophoretic transport of biomolecules across liquid-liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Thomas; Hardt, Steffen [Center of Smart Interfaces, TU Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 32, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Muenchow, Goetz, E-mail: hardt@csi.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 18-20, D-55129 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-05-11

    The mass transfer resistance of a liquid-liquid interface in an aqueous two-phase system composed of poly(ethylene glycol) and dextran is investigated. Different types of proteins and DNA stained with fluorescent dyes serve as probes to study the transport processes close to the interface. A microfluidic device is employed to enable the electrophoretic transport of biomolecules from one phase to another. The results obtained for proteins can be explained solely via the different electrophoretic mobilities and different affinities of the molecules to the two phases, without any indications of a significant mass transfer resistance of the liquid-liquid interface. By contrast, DNA molecules adsorb to the interface and only desorb under an increased electric field strength. The desorption process carries the signature of a thermally activated escape from a metastable state, as reflected in the exponential decay of the fluorescence intensity at the interface as a function of time.

  2. Thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.Y.; Jhon, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The significant structure theory of liquids has been successfully applied to liquid gallium. In this work, we have assumed that two structures exist simultaneously in liquid gallium. One is considerec as loosely close packed β-Ga-like structure and the other is remainder of solid α-Ga or α-Ga-like structure. This two structural model is introduced to construct the liquid partition function. Using the partition function, the thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated ever a wide temperature range. The calculated results are quite satisfactory when compared with the experimental results. (Author)

  3. A "second generation" of ministry leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammalvo, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Catholic health care leaders differ from others in the field in that "they are expected to serve as Jesus served, teach as Jesus taught, and lead as Jesus led, in order to heal as Jesus healed." The Catholic health ministry today is led largely by laypeople-what might be called the "first generation" of lay leaders. This first generation was privileged in that it was tutored by and worked alongside women and men religious. Those religious are now mostly gone from the ministry, and that first generation of lay leaders will also be retiring in the not too distant future. Leadership will then pass to a "second generation," laypeople who have not worked alongside religious. How is this new generation to learn "to heal as Jesus healed"? Catholic Health East (CHE), Newtown Square, PA, has developed a program explicitly directed at the recruitment and development of second-generation leaders. In its efforts to fill a position, the system first assembles a preferred-candidate profile, based on 15 competencies, including seven core competencies. CHE then employs a recruitment process based on behavioral event interviewing. All involved stakeholders participate in the interviews.

  4. Second generation PMR polyimide/fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A second generation polymerization monomeric reactants (PMR) polyimdes matrix system (PMR 2) was characterized in both neat resin and composite form with two different graphite fiber reinforcements. Three different formulated molecular weight levels of laboratory prepared PMR 2 were examined, in addition to a purchased experimental fully formulated PMR 2 precurser solution. Isothermal aging of graphite fibers, neat resin samples and composite specimens in air at 316 C were investigated. Humidity exposures at 65 C and 97 percent relative humidity were conducted for both neat resin and composites for eight day periods. Anaerobic char of neat resin and fire testing of composites were conducted with PMR 15, PMR 2, and an epoxy system. Composites were fire tested on a burner rig developed for this program. Results indicate that neat PMR 2 resins exhibit excellent isothermal resistance and that PMR 2 composite properties appear to be influenced by the thermo-oxidative stability of the reinforcing fiber.

  5. Progress toward Brazilian cesium fountain second generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Caio; Rodriguez Salas, Andrés; Torres Müller, Stella; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Varela Magalhães, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    The operation of a Cesium fountain primary frequency standard is strongly influenced by the characteristics of two important subsystems. The first is a stable frequency reference and the second is the frequency-transfer system. A stable standard frequency reference is key factor for experiments that require high accuracy and precision. The frequency stability of this reference has a significant impact on the procedures for evaluating certain systematic biases in frequency standards. This paper presents the second generation of the Brazilian Cesium Fountain (Br-CsF) through the opto-mechanical assembly and vacuum chamber to trap atoms. We used a squared section glass profile to build the region where the atoms are trapped and colled by magneto-optical technique. The opto-mechanical system was reduced to increase stability and robustness. This newest Atomic Fountain is essential to contribute with time and frequency development in metrology systems.

  6. AC application of second generation HTS wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, C. L. H.; Gagnon, K.; Voccio, J.; Aized, D.; Claassen, J.

    2008-02-01

    For the production of Second Generation (2G) YBCO High Temperature Superconductor wire American Superconductor uses a wide-strip MOD-YBCO/RABiTSTM process, a low-cost approach for commercial manufacturing. It can be engineered with a high degree of flexibility to manufacture practical 2G conductors with architectures and properties tailored for specific applications and operating conditions. For ac applications conductor and coil design can be geared towards low hysteretic losses. For applications which experience high frequency ac fields, the stabilizer needs to be adjusted for low eddy current losses. For these applications a stainless-steel laminate is used. An example is a Low Pass Filter Inductor which was developed and built in this work.

  7. Methodology toward second generation expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    So-called First Generation Expert Systems were aimed at capturing the expert's know-how. Though providing remarkable achievements, this first wave did not give the expected outcome. A new generation is getting out from the laboratories. Instead of remaining at a shallow level of knowledge - that is the unmotivated reasoning processes expressed by an expert when he is forced to tell them - one attempts to re-build this level of knowledge from the first principles which constitute the basis of an expert's knowledge. These systems are called deep knowledge-based, or second generation expert systems. Discussion in the three first parts rests on two examples: A first generation and a half system for process control in nuclear powers plants, than the system EXTRA for alarm processing in nuclear plants, wherein fonctional knowledge is explicitely represented. We show how deep knowledge can be implemented, and the advantages that can be expected from this methodology. Qualitative Physics is discussed in the next part. Future research developments as well as potential payoffs are mentioned [fr

  8. Transport of Liquid Phase Organic Solutes in Liquid Crystalline Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Sangil

    2010-01-01

    Porous cellulose nitrate membranes were impregnated with 8CB and PCH5 LCs (liquid crystals) and separations of solutes dissolved in aqueous phases were performed while monitoring solute concentration via UV-VIS spectrometry. The diffusing organic solutes, which consist of one aromatic ring and various functional groups, were selected to exclude molecular size effects on the diffusion and sorption. We studied the effects on solute transport of solute intra-molecular hydrogen bonding and so...

  9. The sonic window: second generation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William F.; Fuller, Michael I.; Brush, Edward V.; Eames, Matthew D. C.; Owen, Kevin; Ranganathan, Karthik; Blalock, Travis N.; Hossack, John A.

    2006-03-01

    Medical Ultrasound Imaging is widely used clinically because of its relatively low cost, portability, lack of ionizing radiation, and real-time nature. However, even with these advantages ultrasound has failed to permeate the broad array of clinical applications where its use could be of value. A prime example of this untapped potential is the routine use of ultrasound to guide intravenous access. In this particular application existing systems lack the required portability, low cost, and ease-of-use required for widespread acceptance. Our team has been working for a number of years to develop an extremely low-cost, pocket-sized, and intuitive ultrasound imaging system that we refer to as the "Sonic Window." We have previously described the first generation Sonic Window prototype that was a bench-top device using a 1024 element, fully populated array operating at a center frequency of 3.3 MHz. Through a high degree of custom front-end integration combined with multiplexing down to a 2 channel PC based digitizer this system acquired a full set of RF data over a course of 512 transmit events. While initial results were encouraging, this system exhibited limitations resulting from low SNR, relatively coarse array sampling, and relatively slow data acquisition. We have recently begun assembling a second-generation Sonic Window system. This system uses a 3600 element fully sampled array operating at 5.0 MHz with a 300 micron element pitch. This system extends the integration of the first generation system to include front-end protection, pre-amplification, a programmable bandpass filter, four sample and holds, and four A/D converters for all 3600 channels in a set of custom integrated circuits with a combined area smaller than the 1.8 x 1.8 cm footprint of the transducer array. We present initial results from this front-end and present benchmark results from a software beamformer implemented on the Analog Devices BF-561 DSP. We discuss our immediate plans for further

  10. Promon's participation in the Brasilsat program: first & second generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaiva, Ricardo N.

    This paper presents an overview of the Brasilsat program, space and ground segments, developed by Hughes and Promon. Promon is a Brazilian engineering company that has been actively participating in the Brasilsat Satellite Telecommunications Program since its beginning. During the first generation, as subcontractor of the Spar/Hughes/SED consortium, Promon had a significant participation in the site installation of the Ground Segment, including the antennas. During the second generation, as partner of a consortium with Hughes, Promon participated in the upgrade of Brasilsat's Ground Segment systems: the TT&C (TCR1, TCR2, and SCC) and the COCC (Communications and Operations Control Center). This upgrade consisted of the design and development of hardware and software to support the second generation requirements, followed by integration and tests, factory acceptance tests, transport to site, site installation, site acceptance tests and warranty support. The upgraded systems are distributed over four sites with remote access to the main ground station. The solutions adopted provide a high level of automation, and easy operator interaction. The hardware and software technologies were selected to provide the flexibility to incorporate new technologies and services from the demanding satellite telecommunications market.

  11. Panorama 2014 - Overview of second-generation biofuel projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouter, Anne; Lorne, Daphne

    2013-12-01

    Second-generation biofuels produced from lingo-cellulosic biomass are now one of the main technological options for reducing the climatic impacts imposed by fuels used in transportation. These processes are designed to significantly boost the quantities of biofuels available and to take over from their first-generation counterparts, given the ready availability of raw materials and their excellent environmental performances. They are already the subject of multiple pre-industrial scale projects in many regions of the world as part of R and D programs, and the first industrial installations are already operational or under construction, the majority of them in Europe and the United States. They now require a stable regulatory framework in order to progress to the industrial learning stage required for them to become fully competitive. This is why the current uncertainties surrounding regulations in Europe and to a lesser extent in the United States could delay their development. (authors)

  12. Electron scattering and transport in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.; White, R. D.; McEachran, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    The transport of excess electrons in liquid argon driven out of equilibrium by an applied electric field is revisited using a multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation together with ab initio liquid phase cross-sections calculated using the Dirac-Fock scattering equations. The calculation of liquid phase cross-sections extends previous treatments to consider multipole polarisabilities and a non-local treatment of exchange, while the accuracy of the electron-argon potential is validated through comparison of the calculated gas phase cross-sections with experiment. The results presented highlight the inadequacy of local treatments of exchange that are commonly used in liquid and cluster phase cross-section calculations. The multi-term Boltzmann equation framework accounting for coherent scattering enables the inclusion of the full anisotropy in the differential cross-section arising from the interaction and the structure factor, without an a priori assumption of quasi-isotropy in the velocity distribution function. The model, which contains no free parameters and accounts for both coherent scattering and liquid phase screening effects, was found to reproduce well the experimental drift velocities and characteristic energies

  13. Electron scattering and transport in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.; White, R. D. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville 4810 (Australia); McEachran, R. P. [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-04-21

    The transport of excess electrons in liquid argon driven out of equilibrium by an applied electric field is revisited using a multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation together with ab initio liquid phase cross-sections calculated using the Dirac-Fock scattering equations. The calculation of liquid phase cross-sections extends previous treatments to consider multipole polarisabilities and a non-local treatment of exchange, while the accuracy of the electron-argon potential is validated through comparison of the calculated gas phase cross-sections with experiment. The results presented highlight the inadequacy of local treatments of exchange that are commonly used in liquid and cluster phase cross-section calculations. The multi-term Boltzmann equation framework accounting for coherent scattering enables the inclusion of the full anisotropy in the differential cross-section arising from the interaction and the structure factor, without an a priori assumption of quasi-isotropy in the velocity distribution function. The model, which contains no free parameters and accounts for both coherent scattering and liquid phase screening effects, was found to reproduce well the experimental drift velocities and characteristic energies.

  14. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisentraut, A

    2010-02-15

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  15. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.

    2010-02-01

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  16. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisentraut, A.

    2010-02-15

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  17. Nuclear Energy and Synthetic Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2012-10-01

    This talk will propose a plan to combine nuclear reactors with the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process to produce synthetic carbon-neutral liquid transportation fuels from sea water. These fuels can be formed from the hydrogen and carbon dioxide in sea water and will burn to water and carbon dioxide in a cycle powered by nuclear reactors. The F-T process was developed nearly 100 years ago as a method of synthesizing liquid fuels from coal. This process presently provides commercial liquid fuels in South Africa, Malaysia, and Qatar, mainly using natural gas as a feedstock. Nuclear energy can be used to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen as well as to extract carbon dioxide from sea water using ion exchange technology. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen react to form synthesis gas, the mixture needed at the beginning of the F-T process. Following further refining, the products, typically diesel and Jet-A, can use existing infrastructure and can power conventional engines with little or no modification. We can then use these carbon-neutral liquid fuels conveniently long into the future with few adverse environmental impacts.

  18. The ASAC Air Carrier Investment Model (Second Generation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Johnson, Jesse P.; Sickles, Robin C.; Good, David H.

    1997-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. To link the economics of flight with the technology of flight, ASAC requires a parametrically based mode with extensions that link airline operations and investments in aircraft with aircraft characteristics. This model also must provide a mechanism for incorporating air travel demand and profitability factors into the airlines' investment decisions. Finally, the model must be flexible and capable of being incorporated into a wide-ranging suite of economic and technical models that are envisioned for ASAC. We describe a second-generation Air Carrier Investment Model that meets these requirements. The enhanced model incorporates econometric results from the supply and demand curves faced by U.S.-scheduled passenger air carriers. It uses detailed information about their fleets in 1995 to make predictions about future aircraft purchases. It enables analysts with the ability to project revenue passenger-miles flown, airline industry employment, airline operating profit margins, numbers and types of aircraft in the fleet, and changes in aircraft manufacturing employment under various user-defined scenarios.

  19. Second-generation migrants: Europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.; Schneider, J.; Ness, I.; Bellwood, P.

    2013-01-01

    The public debate about the second generation in Europe has taken a dramatic shift in the last five years. The riots in the banlieues in France, involving mostly Algerian and Moroccan second-generation youth, pitched the cherished republican model into deep crisis. In the Netherlands, arguments

  20. Climate regulation enhances the value of second generation biofuel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, T. W.; Steinbuks, J.; Tyner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Commercial scale implementation of second generation (2G) biofuels has long been 'just over the horizon - perhaps a decade away'. However, with recent innovations, and higher oil prices, we appear to be on the verge of finally seeing commercial scale implementations of cellulosic to liquid fuel conversion technologies. Interest in this technology derives from many quarters. Environmentalists see this as a way of reducing our carbon footprint, however, absent a global market for carbon emissions, private firms will not factor this into their investment decisions. Those interested in poverty and nutrition see this as a channel for lessening the biofuels' impact on food prices. But what is 2G technology worth to society? How valuable are prospective improvements in this technology? And how are these valuations affected by future uncertainties, including climate regulation, climate change impacts, and energy prices? This paper addresses all of these questions. We employ FABLE, a dynamic optimization model for the world's land resources which characterizes the optimal long run path for protected natural lands, managed forests, crop and livestock land use, energy extraction and biofuels over the period 2005-2105. By running this model twice for each future state of the world - once with 2G biofuels technology available and once without - we measure the contribution of the technology to global welfare. Given the uncertainty in how these technologies are likely to evolve, we consider a range cost estimates - from optimistic to pessimistic. In addition to technological uncertainty, there is great uncertainty in the conditions characterizing our baseline for the 21st century. For each of the 2G technology scenarios, we therefore also consider a range of outcomes for key drivers of global land use, including: population, income, oil prices, climate change impacts and climate regulation. We find that the social valuation of 2G technologies depends critically on climate change

  1. Carrier mediated transport through supported liquid membranes; determination of transport parameters from a single transport experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrisstoffels, L.A.J.; Struijk, Wilhelmina; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a time-dependent transport model for carrier assisted cation transport through supported liquid membranes. The model describes the flux of salt as a function of time and two parameters viz. the diffusion coefficient of the cation complex (D), and the extraction constant (Kex).

  2. TADIR: a second-generation 480 x 4 TDI FLIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarusi, Gabby

    1997-08-01

    'TADIR' is an El-Op's new second generation thermal imager based on 480 by 4 TDI MCT detector operated in the 8 - 10.5 micrometer spectral range. Although the prototype configuration design of TADIR is aimed toward the light weight low volume applications, TADIR is a generic modular technology of which the future El-Op second generation FLIR applications will be derived from. Beside the detector, what put the system in the second generation category are the state of the art features implemented in every component. This paper describes the system concept and design consideration have been taken during the development of its components.

  3. Second generation waste package design and storage concept for the Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, Joseph Sam; Kar, Piyush; Misra, Manoranjan

    2006-01-01

    The reference waste package design and operating mode to be used in the Yucca Mountain Repository is reviewed. An alternate (second generation) operating concept and waste package design is proposed to reduce the risk of localized corrosion of waste packages and to reduce repository costs. The second generation waste package design and storage concept is proposed for implementation after the initial licensing and operation of the reference repository design. Implementation of the second generation concept at Yucca Mountain would follow regulatory processes analogous to those used successfully to extend the design life and uprate the power of commercial light water nuclear reactors in the United States. The second generation concept utilizes the benefits of hot dry storage to minimize the potential for localized corrosion of the waste package by liquid electrolytes. The second generation concept permits major reductions in repository costs by increasing the number of fuel assemblies stored in each waste package, by eliminating the need for titanium drip shields and by fabricating the outer container from corrosion resistant low alloy carbon steel

  4. Second-Generation Prisoners and the Transmission of Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Joanna L; Loper, Ann B; Jackson, Shelly L

    2016-01-01

    Adult inmates who experienced the incarceration of a parent, known as "second-generation prisoners," experience unique challenges and are at heightened risk for experiencing other adversities throughout the life span. Our study investigated one specific, and previously unexplored, type of adversity--domestic violence--within a sample of 293 incarcerated adults. We examined the relation between generation status (first- or second-generation prisoners), childhood exposure to domestic violence, and participation in adult relationship violence prior to incarceration. Results indicate that prisoners who had been exposed to domestic violence in childhood were more likely to engage in intimate partner violence resulting in inflicted and received injury. Relative to first-generation prisoners, second-generation prisoners reported more childhood domestic violence exposure and were more likely to have been injured by a relationship partner. However, this relation between second-generation status and injury victimization was mediated by domestic violence exposure. These results support an intergenerational pattern of domestic violence and suggest that second-generation prisoners are a unique population worthy of future investigation and mental health intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Search for second generation leptoquarks with ATLAS at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krobath, Gernot

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider will collide protons with protons at a center-of-mass energy of up to 14 TeV. New physics phenomena and new particles are predicted to be detectable with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. One of these predicted new particles beyond the Standard Model are leptoquarks. This thesis deals with the search for scalar second generation leptoquarks produced in pairs. Second generation leptoquarks decay into a muon-type lepton and a quark. In this thesis the decay of both second generation leptoquarks into a muon and a quark is considered. Since pair production is studied the final state consists of two high-energetic muons and two high-energetic jets. This thesis studies second generation leptoquarks with masses of m LQ =300 GeV, m LQ =400 GeV, m LQ =600 GeV and m LQ =800 GeV. The best cut variables for the discrimination between the signal and the main Standard Model backgrounds t anti t and Z/γ * found in this analysis are the p T of the muons, S T (the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of the two selected muons and the transverse energies of the two selected jets), the mass of the selected dimuon system and the reconstructed leptoquark mass. The latter three cut variables have been optimized for a discovery with a 5σ significance including the systematic uncertainties and trigger efficiencies. Second generation leptoquarks have been excluded up to the mass of 300 GeV with a 95% confidence level at present experiments. The expected integrated luminosities needed for a 5σ discovery of the tested second generation leptoquark masses with the ATLAS detector have been calculated. This thesis shows that for a discovery with 5σ significance of a second generation leptoquark with m LQ =300 GeV and m LQ =400 GeV an expected integrated luminosity of 1.51 pb -1 and 7.42 pb -1 is needed respectively; this corresponds to a very early phase, i.e. the first few months, of the Large Hadron Collider run. For the discovery with a 5

  6. Interfacial transport characteristics in a gas-liquid or an immiscible liquid-liquid stratified flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Aoki, S.; Aritomi, M.; Kozawa, Y.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a review for an interfacial transport characteristics of mass, momentum and energy in a gas-liquid or a immiscible liquid-liquid stratified flow with wavy interface which have been studied in our division. In the experiment, a characteristic of wave motion and its effect to the turbulence near the interface as well as overall flow characteristics like pressure drop, position of the interface were investigated in an air-water, an air-mercury and a water-liquid metal stratified flow. On the other hand, several models based on the mixing length model and a two-equation model of turbulence, with special interfacial boundary conditions in which the wavy surface was regarded as a rough surface correspond to the wavy height, a source of turbulent energy equal to the wave energy and a damped-turbulence due to the surface tension, were proposed to predict the flow characteristics and the interfacial heat transfer in a fully developed and an undeveloped stratified flow and examined by the experimental data. (author)

  7. Search for Second Generation Leptoquarks with ATLAS at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Krobath, Gernot

    The Large Hadron Collider will collide protons with protons at a center-of-mass energy of up to 14 TeV. New physics phenomena and new particles are predicted to be detectable with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. One of these predicted new particles beyond the Standard Model are leptoquarks. This thesis deals with the search for scalar second generation leptoquarks produced in pairs. Second generation leptoquarks decay into a muon-type lepton and a quark. In this thesis the decay of both second generation leptoquarks into a muon and a quark is considered. Since pair production is studied the final state consists of two high-energetic muons and two high-energetic jets. This thesis studies second generation leptoquarks with masses of mLQ = 300 GeV, mLQ = 400 GeV, mLQ = 600 GeV and mLQ = 800 GeV. The best cut variables for the discrimination between the signal and the main Standard Model backgrounds ttbar and Z/gamma* found in this analysis are the pT of the muons, ST (the scalar sum of the trans...

  8. Panorama 2015 - Second generation biofuels: a new milestone reached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagnes, Charlene; Chabrelie, Marie-Francoise

    2015-01-01

    The commissioning of several commercial lignocellulosic ethanol production units worldwide marks a new stage in the development of second generation biofuels. Certainly many obstacles, both technological and economic, still remain to be overcome, and considerable investment amounts will have to be mobilized to develop and sustain these sectors. Favorable evolution of the regulatory environment in the markets remains the key to their future. (authors)

  9. Second Generation Dutch Pulsar Machine - PuMa-II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Stappers, Ben; Slump, Cornelis H.; van der Klis, Michiel

    2004-01-01

    The Second Generation Pulsar Machine (PuMa- II) is under development for the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. This is a summary of th e system design and architecture. We show that state of the art pulsar research is possible with commercially available hardware components. This approach

  10. Evolution to 3G Mobile Communication - Second Generation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 9. Evolution to 3G Mobile Communication - Second Generation Cellular Systems. R Ramachandran. General Article Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 60-72 ... Keywords. Wireless communication; cellular networks; GSM; CdmaOne; TDMA ...

  11. Design of second generation Hanford tank corrosion monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgemon, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    small amplitude signals that are spontaneously generated by electrochemical reactions occurring at corroding or other surfaces. Laboratory studies and recent reports on field applications have reported that EN analysis is well suited for monitoring and identifying the onset of localized corrosion, and for measuring uniform corrosion rates. A two year laboratory study was started at Hanford in 1995 to provide a technical basis for using EN in Hanford nuclear waste tanks. Based on this study, a prototype system was constructed and deployed in DST 241-AZ-101 in August, 1996. Based on the successful demonstration of this prototype for more than a year, a first-generation full-scale system was designed and installed into DST 241-AN-107 in September 1997. This document summarizes the design and operational requirements of the second-generation full-scale system scheduled for deployment into 241-AY-102

  12. Transport Powder and Liquid Samples by Surface Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Louyeh, Sahar

    2009-01-01

    Sample transport is an important requirement for In-situ analysis of samples in NASA planetary exploration missions. Tests have shown that powders or liquid drops on a surface can be transported by surface acoustic waves (SAW) that are generated on the surface using interdigital transducers. The phenomena were investigated experimentally and to generate SAWs interdigital electrodes were deposited on wafers of 128 deg rotated Y-cut LiNbO?. Transporting capability of the SAW device was tested using particles of various sizes and drops of various viscosities liquids. Because of different interaction mechanisms with the SAWs, the powders and the liquid drops were observed to move in opposite directions. In the preliminary tests, a speed of 180 mm/s was achieved for powder transportation. The detailed experimental setup and results are presented in this paper. The transporting mechanism can potentially be applied to miniaturize sample analysis system or " lab-on-chip" devices.

  13. Search for second generation leptoquarks with ATLAS at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krobath, Gernot

    2008-07-18

    The Large Hadron Collider will collide protons with protons at a center-of-mass energy of up to 14 TeV. New physics phenomena and new particles are predicted to be detectable with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. One of these predicted new particles beyond the Standard Model are leptoquarks. This thesis deals with the search for scalar second generation leptoquarks produced in pairs. Second generation leptoquarks decay into a muon-type lepton and a quark. In this thesis the decay of both second generation leptoquarks into a muon and a quark is considered. Since pair production is studied the final state consists of two high-energetic muons and two high-energetic jets. This thesis studies second generation leptoquarks with masses of m{sub LQ}=300 GeV, m{sub LQ}=400 GeV, m{sub LQ}=600 GeV and m{sub LQ}=800 GeV. The best cut variables for the discrimination between the signal and the main Standard Model backgrounds t anti t and Z/{gamma}{sup *} found in this analysis are the p{sub T} of the muons, S{sub T} (the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of the two selected muons and the transverse energies of the two selected jets), the mass of the selected dimuon system and the reconstructed leptoquark mass. The latter three cut variables have been optimized for a discovery with a 5{sigma} significance including the systematic uncertainties and trigger efficiencies. Second generation leptoquarks have been excluded up to the mass of 300 GeV with a 95% confidence level at present experiments. The expected integrated luminosities needed for a 5{sigma} discovery of the tested second generation leptoquark masses with the ATLAS detector have been calculated. This thesis shows that for a discovery with 5{sigma} significance of a second generation leptoquark with m{sub LQ}=300 GeV and m{sub LQ}=400 GeV an expected integrated luminosity of 1.51 pb{sup -1} and 7.42 pb{sup -1} is needed respectively; this corresponds to a very early phase, i.e. the first few months

  14. Dynamics of carbon abatement in the Second Generation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sands, Ronald D.

    2004-01-01

    The Second Generation Model (SGM) is a collection of computable-general-equilibrium models developed for analysis of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Behavior of the Second Generation Model, with respect to changes in carbon prices, can be summarized using marginal abatement cost curves. Marginal abatement costs vary over time, as capital stocks adjust to a new set of prices, and across countries, depending in part on the mix of fuels in the existing energy system. This paper documents the production structure in SGM, marginal abatement cost curves derived from SGM with constant-carbon-price experiments, an application to several Energy Modeling Forum scenarios, and a methodology for including carbon capture and disposal in SGM

  15. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, \\tau, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical poi...

  16. Ballistic thermoelectric transport in a Luttinger liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Y V

    2010-01-01

    The Seebeck and Peltier coefficients of a homogeneous Luttinger liquid are calculated in the ballistic regime. Nonlinearity of the electron spectrum is taken into account. It is shown that, in the framework of the defined approximations, the thermoelectric power of a Luttinger liquid is equal to zero, in agreement with the exponentially small thermopower of a one-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas. The Peltier coefficient is controlled by a nonequilibrium state of the system. It is finite and renormalized by the interaction in the case of a convective flow of a Luttinger liquid. The zero modes of bosonic excitations and the dispersion-induced contribution to the electric current operator are taken into account in calculations.

  17. Development of a second generation rolling contact fatigue tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Satyam U.

    Contact fatigue failure has been in research since the early twentieth century. The need for a second generation sliding-rolling contact fatigue tester was proposed by Gregory Dvorak and Dr. Marcellin Zahui. The first generation RCF tester was used for testing super finishing processes for gear surfaces. The second generation RCF tester was funded by the Advanced Engineering Materials lab of University of North Dakota. Verification of the second generation Rolling Contact Fatigue Tester will be discussed in this thesis including the design details, assembly and testing procedure and to discuss its different parameters. The tester will have the capability of testing hollow specimens using a bobbin eddy current testing probe. This tester will allow a wide range of experiments and is not built for one specific purpose. An eddy current device is used for detecting cracks. The loading force is applied using hydraulic cylinders and a hydraulic power unit. Before testing began, the machine was run for some time at full speed. A lot of minor problems were detected and fixed. Three specimens of AISI 8620 were tested in this tester. All tests gave results matching with some of the other well-known RCF testers. These tests were performed to evaluate mechanical limits of the tester and to evaluate the software performance of the tester.

  18. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive overview. Written by an expert of this topic. Provides the reader with current developments in the field. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, τ, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical point using a uniform approach. We also discuss spin related transport phenomena in strongly correlated systems. In many d- and f-electron systems, the spin current induced by the spin Hall effect is considerably greater because of the orbital degrees of freedom. This fact attracts much attention due to its potential application in spintronics. We discuss various novel charge, spin and heat transport phenomena in strongly correlated metals.

  19. Correlations and transport in vortex liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of the vortex line liquids which arise in the copper oxide high temperature superconductors is described. The author discusses correlations in the presence of weak disorder, and the viscous electricity which results when entangled flux liquids attempt to flow past a few strong pins. He shows, using an analogy with single particle quantum mechanics, that thermal fluctuations lead to a large renormalization of the binding energy of an isolated line to planar or linear pins. A related mapping of the statistical mechanics of many flux lines onto the physics of two-dimensional boson superfluids is reviewed, with an emphasis on the physical meaning of phase coherence. He argues that boson localization provides an appropriate description of flux lines when many planar or linear ping are present. A number of experimental tests of the theory are proposed

  20. Liquid water transport mechanism in the gas diffusion layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, P.; Wu, C.W. [State Key Laboratory of Structure Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2010-03-01

    We developed an equivalent capillary model of a microscale fiber-fence structure to study the microscale evolution and transport of liquid in a porous media and to reveal the basic principles of water transport in gas diffusion layer (GDL). Analytical solutions using the model show that a positive hydraulic pressure is needed to drive the liquid water to penetrate through the porous GDL even consisting of the hydrophilic fibers. Several possible contributions for the water configuration, such as capillary pressure, gravity, vapor condensation, wettability and microstructures of the GDL, are discussed using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). It is found that the distribution manners of the fibers and the spatial mixed-wettability in the GDL also play an important role in the transport of liquid water. (author)

  1. Acalabrutinib (ACP-196: a selective second-generation BTK inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More and more targeted agents become available for B cell malignancies with increasing precision and potency. The first-in-class Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK inhibitor, ibrutinib, has been in clinical use for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia. More selective BTK inhibitors (ACP-196, ONO/GS-4059, BGB-3111, CC-292 are being explored. Acalabrutinib (ACP-196 is a novel irreversible second-generation BTK inhibitor that was shown to be more potent and selective than ibrutinib. This review summarized the preclinical research and clinical data of acalabrutinib.

  2. Second generation wave energy device - the clam concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, N.W.

    1981-01-01

    A device concept is presented which has arisen from a system approach adopted by a research group with considerable experience in the discipline of wave energy. The Clam, which can be classified as a spine-based pneumatic terminator, is deemed to be a second generation wave energy device in that it tries to utilize system components already identified as attractive, while at the same time avoiding known problem areas. A working model of this wave power device at an engineering scale is discussed for trials in real waves. 3 refs.

  3. Comparative study of wavelets of the first and second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ososkov, G.A.; Shitov, A.B.; Stadnik, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    In order to compare efficiency a comprehensive set of benchmarking tests is developed, which is used to compare abilities of continuous wavelet transform of the vanishing momenta type as well as the second generation wavelets constructed on the basis of the lifting scheme. It is based on processing of various types of pure and contaminated harmonic signals, delta-function, study of the signal phase dependence and the gain-frequency characteristics. The results of a comparative multiscale analysis allow one to reveal advantages and flaws of the considered types of wavelets

  4. Second generation superconducting super collider dipole magnet cryostat design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R.C.; Bossert, R.C.; Carson, J.A.; Engler, N.H.; Gonczy, J.D.; Larson, E.T.; Nicol, T.H.; Ohmori, T.

    1988-12-01

    The SSC Magnet Development Program is developing accelerator dipole magnets in successive iterations. The initial iteration is complete with six full length model magnets and a thermal model having been built and tested. This initial experience along with the evolving SSC Magnet System Requirements have resulted in the second generation magnet cryostat design. It is this configuration that will be employed for the near term ongoing magnetic, thermal, string and accelerated life testing and will be the design considered for Phase I; i.e., Technology Orientation, of the SSC Magnet Industrialization Program. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  5. Isomerization of Second-Generation Isoprene Peroxy Radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ambro, Emma L.; Møller, Kristian Holten; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.

    2017-01-01

    kinetics box model, we find that to explain the behavior of low-volatility products and SOA mass yields relative to input H2O2 concentrations, the second-generation dihydroxy hydroperoxy peroxy radical (C5H11O6·) must undergo an intramolecular H-shift with a net forward rate constant of order 0.1 s-1...... products under atmospheric conditions and, thus, on the importance of nonreactive gas-particle partitioning of isoprene oxidation products as an SOA source....

  6. A second-generation superconducting undulator cryostat for the APS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, J.; Hasse, Q.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Kasa, M.; Shiroyanagi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A second-generation cryocooler-based cryostat has been designed and built to support a new helically wound superconducting undulator (SCU) magnet for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The design represents an evolution of existing SCU cryostats currently in operation in the APS storage ring. Value engineering and lessons learned have resulted in a smaller, cheaper, and simpler cryostat design compatible with existing planar magnets as well as the new helically wound device. We describe heat load and quench response results, design and operational details, and the “build-to-spec” procurement strategy.

  7. Search for first and second generation leptoquarks at D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.

    1995-07-01

    A search for first and second generation pair produced scalar leptoquarks has been done with the DO detector at Fermilab's p bar p machine with √s = 1.8 TeV. Leptoquarks are assumed to be strictly generational; for example, a first generation leptoquark couples only to the electron, its neutrino, and the u and d quarks. 95% C.L. mass limits of 133 GeV/c 2 and 120 GeV/c 2 for respective 100% and 50% decay branching ratios to electron plus quark for first generation scalar leptoquarks have been published. The preliminary results of a search for second generation scalar leptoquarks in the absence of a signal are mass limits of 111 GeV/c 2 and 89 GeV/c 2 for 100% and 50% decay branching ratios to muon plus quark. A feature of these mass limits is that they are independent of the unknown coupling of the leptoquark to leptons and quarks. The detection for e + e - and e-p machines depends on the strength of this coupling

  8. UrtheCast Second-Generation Earth Observation Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, K.

    2015-04-01

    UrtheCast's Second-Generation state-of-the-art Earth Observation (EO) remote sensing platform will be hosted on the NASA segment of International Space Station (ISS). This platform comprises a high-resolution dual-mode (pushbroom and video) optical camera and a dual-band (X and L) Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) instrument. These new sensors will complement the firstgeneration medium-resolution pushbroom and high-definition video cameras that were mounted on the Russian segment of the ISS in early 2014. The new cameras are expected to be launched to the ISS in late 2017 via the Space Exploration Technologies Corporation Dragon spacecraft. The Canadarm will then be used to install the remote sensing platform onto a CBM (Common Berthing Mechanism) hatch on Node 3, allowing the sensor electronics to be accessible from the inside of the station, thus limiting their exposure to the space environment and allowing for future capability upgrades. The UrtheCast second-generation system will be able to take full advantage of the strengths that each of the individual sensors offers, such that the data exploitation capabilities of the combined sensors is significantly greater than from either sensor alone. This represents a truly novel platform that will lead to significant advances in many other Earth Observation applications such as environmental monitoring, energy and natural resources management, and humanitarian response, with data availability anticipated to begin after commissioning is completed in early 2018.

  9. Bioinspired one-dimensional materials for directional liquid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jie; Zheng, Yongmei; Jiang, Lei

    2014-08-19

    One-dimensional materials (1D) capable of transporting liquid droplets directionally, such as spider silks and cactus spines, have recently been gathering scientists' attention due to their potential applications in microfluidics, textile dyeing, filtration, and smog removal. This remarkable property comes from the arrangement of the micro- and nanostructures on these organisms' surfaces, which have inspired chemists to develop methods to prepare surfaces with similar directional liquid transport ability. In this Account, we report our recent progress in understanding how this directional transport works, as well our advances in the design and fabrication of bioinspired 1D materials capable of transporting liquid droplets directionally. To begin, we first discuss some basic theories on droplet directional movement. Then, we discuss the mechanism of directional transport of water droplets on natural spider silks. Upon contact with water droplets, the spider silk undergoes what is known as a wet-rebuilt, which forms periodic spindle-knots and joints. We found that the resulting gradient of Laplace pressure and surface free energy between the spindle-knots and joints account for the cooperative driving forces to transport water droplets directionally. Next, we discuss the directional transport of water droplets on desert cactus. The integration of multilevel structures of the cactus and the resulting integration of multiple functions together allow the cactus spine to transport water droplets continuously from tip to base. Based on our studies of natural spider silks and cactus spines, we have prepared a series of artificial spider silks (A-SSs) and artificial cactus spines (A-CSs) with various methods. By changing the surface roughness and chemical compositions of the artificial spider silks' spindle-knots, or by introducing stimulus-responsive molecules, such as thermal-responsive and photoresponsive molecules, onto the spindle-knots, we can reversibly manipulate

  10. Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

  11. 49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide is chemically compatible with both...

  12. Temperature dependence of transport coefficients of 'simple liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... has been investigated. The study carried out at two densities, r* = 0.60 and r* = 0.95. Result shows erratic variations of the shear viscosity in the two lattices structures. KeyWords: Temperature effect, face centred, simple cubic, transport properties, simple liquid. [Global Jnl Pure & Appl. Sci. Vol.9(3) 2003: 403-406] ...

  13. Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium liquid and vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

    1995-01-01

    Data have been reviewed to obtain thermodynamically consistent equations for thermodynamic and transport properties of saturated sodium liquid and vapor. Recently published Russian recommendations and results of equation of state calculations on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in this critical assessment. Thermodynamic properties of sodium liquid and vapor that have been assessed include: enthalpy, heat capacity at constant pressure, heat capacity at constant volume, vapor pressure, boiling point, enthalpy of vaporization, density, thermal expansion, adiabatic and isothermal compressibility, speed of sound, critical parameters, and surface tension. Transport properties of liquid sodium that have been assessed include: viscosity and thermal conductivity. For each property, recommended values and their uncertainties are graphed and tabulated as functions of temperature. Detailed discussions of the analyses and determinations of the recommended equations include comparisons with recommendations given in other assessments and explanations of consistency requirements. The rationale and methods used in determining the uncertainties in the recommended values are also discussed

  14. Relaxation and transport properties of liquid n-triacontane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, N D; Lankin, A V; Norman, G E; Stegailov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Molecular modelling is used to calculate transport properties and to study relaxation of liquid n-triacontane (C 30 H 62 ). The problem is important in connection with the behavior of liquid isolators in a pre-breakdown state. Two all-atom models and a united-atom model are used. Shear viscosity is calculated using the Green-Kubo formula. The force fields are compared with each other using the following criteria: the required time for one molecular dynamics step, the compliance of the main physical and transport properties with experimental values. The problem of the system equilibration is considered. The united-atom potential is used to model the n-triacontane liquid with an initial directional orientation. The time of relaxation to the disordered state, when all molecules orientations are randomized, are obtained. The influence of the molecules orientations on the shear viscosity value and the shear viscosity relaxation are treated. (paper)

  15. Second-generation 1024-channel portable gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGibbon, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    Following the successful design in 1974 of a 256-channel battery-powered pulse-height analyzer system, we have completed a second-generation analyzer with advanced features, lighter weight, and more rugged construction. The 17-kg analyzer includes a NaI detector and is packaged as a small suitcase; it has high stability and accuracy to allow use over the temperature range from --30 to +70 0 C. The waterproof unit has many features not found on any commercial unit to allow sophisticated analysis by non-electronics oriented personnel. Its 36-button keyboard will allow manipulation of multiple spectra, integrations, and expanded energy scale with readout in keV. If its self-contained SX70 display camera is not sufficient for record keeping, the unit will telemeter all data onto analog tape or send to a remote computer via phone coupler

  16. Search for Second Generation Leptoquarks in the dimuon channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiaofei [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2005-08-01

    A search for second generation leptoquarks in p$\\bar{p}$ collision s at the Fermilab Teva- tron is presented using DØ data with an integrated luminosit y of 370 pb -1 collected in Run II between September 2002 and August 2004 at a center of mass energy of √ s =1.96 TeV. Leptoquarks are assumed to be pair produced, and e ach decays into a muon and a quark with a branching ratio of β . The number of events in data after the selection cuts is consistent with the expected Standard Model background. No evidence for leptoquark production is found; a lower limit o f 247 GeV (NN based), 236 GeV (cut based) for β = 1 and 184 GeV (NN based), 174 GeV (cut based) for β = 1 / 2 on the leptoquark mass at the 95% confidence level is obtained.

  17. Use of extremophilic bacteria for second generation bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    production from food crops, such as corn (starch) or sugar cane (sucrose) is already an established process, with the USA and Brazil supplying 86% of the market. The major challenge remains in the use of different waste sources – agricultural, forestry, animal and household waste - as a feedstock....... The recalcitrance of these materials and their diverse sugar composition make the industrial yeast strains currently used unsuitable for a second generation bioethanol production process. One of the alternative strategies is the use of extreme thermophilic microorganisms. Currently, selected members from the genera...... Clostridium, Thermoanaerobacter, Geobacillus and Thermoanaerobacterium are among the best candidates. A new strain of Thermoanaerobacter, closely related to T. italicus and T. mathranii, has achieved 0.43 gethanol/gxylose, which is 83% of the theoretical yield of ethanol based on xylose and the highest value...

  18. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bonk, D. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  19. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.

    2015-01-01

    on the economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary.......In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...

  20. Second-generation Holocaust survivors: Psychological, theological, and moral challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from trauma theory, psychodynamic conceptualization, developmental psychology, clinical data, and personal experience, this article portrays a life haunted by tragedy predating its victims. Healthy child development is outlined, with particular attention to socialization and theological perspectives. Key characteristics of trauma are delineated, highlighting the nuances of trauma that are most harmful. As is the case with general trauma, Holocaust survivors are described as evincing survivor's guilt and paranoia in response to their experiences. Divergent disorders resulting from the Holocaust are described for 1st-generation and 2nd-generation survivors, respectively. Primary trauma responses and pervasive attitudes of survivors are shown to have harmful ramifications on their children's personality and worldview as well as on their interpersonal and theistic object relations. These limitations translate into problems in the adult lives of second generation survivors.

  1. Development of second-generation PFB combustion plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Horazak, D. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fueled plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant--called an Advanced or Second-generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) plant--offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 45 percent (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. This paper summarizes the pilot-plant R&D work being conducted to develop this new type of plant and discusses a proposed design that should reduce demonstration-plant risks and costs.

  2. Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, B. E.; Boggess, A.; Gull, T. R.; Heap, S. R.; Krueger, V. L.; Maran, S. P.; Melcher, R. W.; Rebar, F. J.; Vitagliano, H. D.; Green, R. F.; Wolff, S. C.; Hutchings, J. B.; Jenkins, E. B.; Linsky, J. L.; Moos, H. W.; Roesler, F.; Shine, R. A.; Timothy, J. G.; Weistrop, D. E.; Bottema, M.; Meyer, W.

    1986-01-01

    The preliminary design for the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), which has been selected by NASA for definition study for future flight as a second-generation instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is presented. STIS is a two-dimensional spectrograph that will operate from 1050 A to 11,000 A at the limiting HST resolution of 0.05 arcsec FWHM, with spectral resolutions of 100, 1200, 20,000, and 100,000 and a maximum field-of-view of 50 x 50 arcsec. Its basic operating modes include echelle model, long slit mode, slitless spectrograph mode, coronographic spectroscopy, photon time-tagging, and direct imaging. Research objectives are active galactic nuclei, the intergalactic medium, global properties of galaxies, the origin of stellar systems, stelalr spectral variability, and spectrographic mapping of solar system processes.

  3. The Safety of Second-Generation Antipsychotics During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkier, Per; Videbech, Poul

    2018-01-01

    The issue of antipsychotic treatment during pregnancy is subject to substantial uncertainty and some controversy among healthcare providers, specifically pertaining to second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) that are subject to a large gap in safety data during pregnancy compared...... with antidepressants. The amount of safety data for the use of SGAs during pregnancy is rapidly increasing, thus constantly changing the level of evidence. We performed a clinically focused review on the safety of SGA during pregnancy. Twenty-three studies provided various pregnancy outcomes for 14,382 pregnant women...... exposed to an SGA during pregnancy. In utero exposure to aripiprazole, olanzapine, and quetiapine is not associated with increased risks of major congenital malformations, whereas risperidone and paliperidone may be associated with a very minor increased risk of congenital malformations. Safety data...

  4. Superconducting super collider second generation dipole magnet cryostat design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R.C.; Bossert, R.C.; Carson, J.A.; Engler, N.H.; Gonczy, J.D.; Larson, E.T.; Nicol, T.H.; Ohmori, T.

    1988-12-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider, a planned colliding beam particle physics research facility, requires /approximately/10,000 superconducting devices for the control of high energy particle beams. The /approximately/7,500 collider ring superconducting dipole magnets require cryostats that are functional, cryogenically efficient, mass producible and cost effective. A second generation cryostat design has been developed utilizing the experiences gained during the construction, installation and operation of several full length first generation dipole magnet models. The nature of the cryostat improvements is presented. Considered are the connections between the magnet cold mass and its supports, cryogenic supports, cold mass axial anchor, thermal shields, insulation, vacuum vessel and interconnections. The details of the improvements are enumerated and the abstracted results of available component and system evaluations are presented. 8 refs., 11 figs

  5. Evaluation of second-generation central receiver technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, G.L.; Chavez, J.M.; Klimas, P.; Meinecke, W.; Becker, M.; Kiera, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study performed by the US and Germany to assess the technical and economic potential of central receiver power plants and to identify the necessary research and development (R ampersand D) activities required to reach demonstration and commercialization. Second generation power plant designs, employing molten-salt and volumetric-air receivers, were assessed at the size of 30 and 100 MWe. The study developed a common guideline and used data from previous system tests and studies. The levelized-energy costs for the second generation plants were estimated and found to be competitive with costs from fossil-fueled power plants. Potential for further cost reductions exists if technical improvements can be introduced successfully in the long term. Additionally, the study presents results of plant reliability and uncertainty analyses. Mid- and long-term technical potentials are described, as well as recommendations for the R ampersand D activities needed to reach the goal of large-scale commercialization. The results of this study have already helped direct research in the US and Europe. For example, the favorable potential for these technologies has led to the Solar Two molten-salt project in the US and the TSA volumetric receiver test in Spain. In addition, early analysis conducted within this study indicated that an advanced thermal storage medium was necessary to achieve favorable economics for the air plant. This led to the design of the thermal storage system currently being tested in Spain. In summary, each of the investigated receiver technologies has mid- and long-term potential for improving plant performance and reducing capital and energy costs (resulting in less than 10 cts/kWh given excellent insolation conditions) in an environmentally safe way and largely independent of fossil-fuel prices

  6. Second generation sequencing of the mesothelioma tumor genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Bueno

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The current paradigm for elucidating the molecular etiology of cancers relies on the interrogation of small numbers of genes, which limits the scope of investigation. Emerging second-generation massively parallel DNA sequencing technologies have enabled more precise definition of the cancer genome on a global scale. We examined the genome of a human primary malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM tumor and matched normal tissue by using a combination of sequencing-by-synthesis and pyrosequencing methodologies to a 9.6X depth of coverage. Read density analysis uncovered significant aneuploidy and numerous rearrangements. Method-dependent informatics rules, which combined the results of different sequencing platforms, were developed to identify and validate candidate mutations of multiple types. Many more tumor-specific rearrangements than point mutations were uncovered at this depth of sequencing, resulting in novel, large-scale, inter- and intra-chromosomal deletions, inversions, and translocations. Nearly all candidate point mutations appeared to be previously unknown SNPs. Thirty tumor-specific fusions/translocations were independently validated with PCR and Sanger sequencing. Of these, 15 represented disrupted gene-encoding regions, including kinases, transcription factors, and growth factors. One large deletion in DPP10 resulted in altered transcription and expression of DPP10 transcripts in a set of 53 additional MPM tumors correlated with survival. Additionally, three point mutations were observed in the coding regions of NKX6-2, a transcription regulator, and NFRKB, a DNA-binding protein involved in modulating NFKB1. Several regions containing genes such as PCBD2 and DHFR, which are involved in growth factor signaling and nucleotide synthesis, respectively, were selectively amplified in the tumor. Second-generation sequencing uncovered all types of mutations in this MPM tumor, with DNA rearrangements representing the dominant type.

  7. A second generation genetic map for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gahr Scott A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic maps characterizing the inheritance patterns of traits and markers have been developed for a wide range of species and used to study questions in biomedicine, agriculture, ecology and evolutionary biology. The status of rainbow trout genetic maps has progressed significantly over the last decade due to interest in this species in aquaculture and sport fisheries, and as a model research organism for studies related to carcinogenesis, toxicology, comparative immunology, disease ecology, physiology and nutrition. We constructed a second generation genetic map for rainbow trout using microsatellite markers to facilitate the identification of quantitative trait loci for traits affecting aquaculture production efficiency and the extraction of comparative information from the genome sequences of model fish species. Results A genetic map ordering 1124 microsatellite loci spanning a sex-averaged distance of 2927.10 cM (Kosambi and having 2.6 cM resolution was constructed by genotyping 10 parents and 150 offspring from the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA reference family mapping panel. Microsatellite markers, representing pairs of loci resulting from an evolutionarily recent whole genome duplication event, identified 180 duplicated regions within the rainbow trout genome. Microsatellites associated with genes through expressed sequence tags or bacterial artificial chromosomes produced comparative assignments with tetraodon, zebrafish, fugu, and medaka resulting in assignments of homology for 199 loci. Conclusion The second generation NCCCWA genetic map provides an increased microsatellite marker density and quantifies differences in recombination rate between the sexes in outbred populations. It has the potential to integrate with cytogenetic and other physical maps, identifying paralogous regions of the rainbow trout genome arising from the evolutionarily recent genome duplication event, and

  8. Uncertainty, irreversibility, and investment in second-generation biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Tanner Joseph

    The present study formalizes and quantifies the importance of uncertainty for investment in a corn-stover based cellulosic biofuel plant. Using a real options model we recover prices of gasoline that would trigger entry into the market and calculate the portion of that entry trigger price required to cover cost and the portion that corresponds to risk premium. We then discuss the effect of managerial flexibility on the entry risk premium and the prices of gasoline that would trigger mothballing, reactivation, and exit. Results show that the risk premium required by plants to enter the second-generation biofuel market is likely to be substantial. The analysis also reveals that a break-even approach (which ignores the portion of entry price composed of risk premium), and the traditional Marshallian approach (which ignores the portion of entry price composed of both the risk premium and the drift rate), would significantly underestimate the gasoline entry trigger price and the magnitude of that underestimation increases as both volatility and mean of gasoline prices increase. Results also uncover a great deal of hysteresis (i.e. a range of gasoline prices for which there is neither entry nor exit in the market) in entry/exit behavior by plants. Hysteresis increases as gasoline prices become more volatile. Hysteresis suggests that, at the industry level, positive (negative) demand shocks will have a significant impact on prices (production) and a limited impact on production (prices). In combination all of these results suggest that policies supporting second generation biofuels may have fallen short of their targets because of their failure to alleviate uncertainty.

  9. Anomalous transport phenomena in Fermi liquids with strong magnetic fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent developments in the theory of transport phenomena based on the Fermi liquid theory. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticles relaxation time, τ, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems. The most famous example would be high-T c superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. This issue has been one of the most significant unresolved problems in HTSCs for a long time. Similar anomalous transport phenomena have been observed in metals near their antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum critical point (QCP). The main goal of this study is to demonstrate whether the anomalous transport phenomena in HTSC is evidence of a non-Fermi liquid ground state, or just RTA violation in strongly correlated Fermi liquids. Another goal is to establish a unified theory of anomalous transport phenomena in metals with strong magnetic fluctuations. For these purposes, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. In a Fermi liquid, an excited quasiparticle induces other excited quasiparticles by collision, and current due to these excitations is called a current vertex correction (CVC). Landau noticed the existence of CVC first, which is indispensable for calculating transport coefficients in accord with the conservation laws. Here, we develop a transport theory involving resistivity and the Hall coefficient on the basis of the microscopic Fermi liquid theory, by considering the CVC. In nearly AF Fermi liquids, we find that the strong backward scattering due to AF fluctuations induces the CVC with prominent momentum dependence. This feature of the CVC can account for the significant enhancement in the Hall coefficient, magnetoresistance

  10. Second generation of TELEPERM XS applications successful in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.

    2008-01-01

    Safety I and C plays an important part in safety and availability of nuclear power plants. AREVA NP, the nuclear technology enterprise, recently began delivery of the second generation TELEPERM XS digital safety I and C technology. Qinshan 1, the first Chinese-built reactor, had its reactor protection system replaced. The plant has been back on the grid since January 12, 2008. Moreover, the Swedish Ringhals 1 nuclear generating unit has operated a neutron flux measuring system of the second-generation TELEPERM XS since October 2007. Both systems are running to their users' full satisfaction. TELEPERM XS has meanwhile been employed in 49 plants in twelve countries. This safety I and C system by AREVA NP can be used with nearly all reactor lines, for both new reactor designs and upgrading nuclear power plants in operation. Here are some examples of successful installations of reactor protection, reactor control and limiting, neutron flux measurement and Diesel power control systems with TELEPERM XS: the Tianwan 1 and 2 units in China (VVER plants), Oskarsham 2 in Sweden (boiling water reactor), and Neckarwestheim 1 and 2 in Germany (pressurized water reactors). TELEPERM XS systems are being planned for the new plants of Olkiluoto 3 in Finland (EPR), Flamanville 3 in France (EPR), Taishan 1 and 2 in China (EPR), and Ling Ao 3 and 4 in China (CPR 1000). For quick and unproblematic implementation of TELEPERM XS in a plant, the system with all subassemblies, functions, and input/output signals is fully tested in a testing station. For this purpose, AREVA NP built one of the largest testing stations in the world for I and C cabinets, the 'TELEPERM XS Integration Center', at its German location in Erlangen. More than 200 I and C cabinets can be tested simultaneously in these installations. The 'I and C and Electrical Systems' Forum is attached to the testing station. This is where the company presents to its customers and partner firms realistic solutions, in combination

  11. Second-Generation Outcomes of the Great Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J Trent; Leibbrand, Christine; Massey, Catherine; Tolnay, Stewart

    2017-12-01

    The mass migration of African Americans out of the South during the first two-thirds of the twentieth century represents one of the most significant internal migration flows in U.S. Those undertaking the Great Migration left the South in search of a better life, and their move transformed the cultural, social, and political dynamics of African American life specifically and U.S. society more generally. Recent research offers conflicting evidence regarding the migrants' success in translating their geographic mobility into economic mobility. Due in part to the lack of a large body of longitudinal data, almost all studies of the Great Migration have focused on the migrants themselves, usually over short periods of their working lives. Using longitudinally linked census data, we take a broader view, investigating the long-term economic and social effects of the Great Migration on the migrants' children. Our results reveal modest but statistically significant advantages in education, income, and poverty status for the African American children of the Great Migration relative to the children of southerners who remained in the South. In contrast, second-generation white migrants experienced few benefits from migrating relative to southern or northern stayers.

  12. Decoloring hemoglobin as a feedstock for second-generation bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Aaron; Lay, Mark; Verbeek, Johan; Swan, Janis

    2012-01-01

    The color of red blood cell concentrate (RBCC) limits its application in human food, but there is potential to use it for second-generation bioplastics. Several methods have been developed to remove color from RBCC, but they are expensive or may produce difficult-to-remove toxic residues. Hydrogen peroxide treatment is a cheaper alternative. The effects of RBCC concentration, pH, and reaction temperature were the most important factors influencing the decolorizing process. They were investigated with the aim of developing a method that could be scaled to commercial level for producing a bioplastic feedstock. Initial trials showed pH was an important factor for decolorization and foaming. At pH 15 there was a 96% reduction in solution color and 8.4% solids were lost due to foaming. There was a 76% reduction in solution color at pH 2 and only 2.6% solids were lost due to foaming. The optimal reaction conditions were to centrifuge 9% w/w, pH 2 aqueous RBCC solution to remove aggregates. The solution was reacted at 30°C with 7.5 g of 30% (w/w) hydrogen peroxide. These conditions achieved a 93% reduction in solution color after 3 hr and the molecular weight of the decolored protein was not significantly reduced.

  13. ADMAP-2: The second generation Antarctic crustal magnetic anomaly map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Golynsky, A.; Golynsky, D.; Young, D. A.; Eagles, G.; Damaske, D.; Finn, C.; Aitken, A.; von Frese, R. R. B.; Ghidella, M. E.; Kim, H. R.; Hong, J.

    2017-12-01

    ADMAP-2 is the second generation crustal magnetic anomaly compilation for the Antarctic region south of 60°S. It was produced from more than 3.5 million line-km of near-surface terrestrial, airborne and marine magnetic observations collected since the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 through 2013. The data were edited, IGRF corrected, profile levelled and gridded at a 1.5-km interval on a polar stereographic projection using the minimum curvature technique. Given the ubiquitous polar cover of snow, ice and sea water, the magnetic anomaly compilation offers important constraints on the global tectonic processes and crustal properties of the Antarctic. It also links widely separated areas of outcrop to help unify disparate geologic studies, and provides insights on the lithospheric transition between Antarctica and adjacent oceans, as well as the geodynamic evolution of the Antarctic lithosphere in the assembly and break-up of the Gondwana, Rodinia, and Columbia supercontinents and key piercing points for reconstructing linkages between the protocontinents. The magnetic data together with ice-probing radar and gravity information greatly facilitate understanding the evolution of fundamental large-scale geological processes such as continental rifting, intraplate mountain building, subduction and terrane accretion processes, and intraplate basin formation.

  14. SAT's infrared equipment using second-generation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriex, Michel B.

    1995-09-01

    In 1982 SAT proposed for the first time a second generation detector in the design of FLIRs for the TRIGAT program, since then different types of IR equipment have been developed on the basis of this technology: (1) An infra-red seeker for the MICA missile. (2) Three types of IRST: VAMPIR MB for naval applications, SIRENE for the Army and OSF for the Rafale aircraft. (3) Three thermal imagers: Condor 1 for the mast mounted sight equipping the long range anti tank system, Tiger installed on the sight of the medium range antitank system, and Condor 2 for the pilot sight of the TRIGAT French-German helicopter. Infra-red detectors are MCT IR-CCD focal plane arrays developed by SOFRADIR with the objective of the best standardization possible in spite of different configurations and specifications for each program. In this paper, we intend to present the main features of this technology for these programs and the advantages obtained by comparison with the first generation in terms of performance. Industrialization of these products is starting now, and a specific effort has been made to standardize the components, especially the driving and read out electronics. A set of ASICs has been developed to make compact detection modules including a detector in his dewar, a cooling machine, and a proximity electronic.

  15. Specific equipment for the transfer and transport of radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblais, R.

    1983-01-01

    Safety regulations impose a system of transport high-level radioactive liquids which excludes all risk of accidental projections. Ets. LEMER have collaborated with the A.E.C. for the industrial manufacture of more than 250 pieces of equipment for FRANCE and for 13 nuclear centres abroad. This equipment can be classified in two categories: - CENDRILLON containers which must be placed in special shock-proof and fire-proof shells for transport on public roads; - containers mounted on trailors provided with their own shock-proof and fire-proof protection

  16. Transport of phosphoric acid through supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayzafoon, G.; Yassine, T.; Baidoun, R.

    2003-01-01

    The transport of phosphhoric acid through liquid membranes of amylalkohol, 1-octanol and 2-octanol was studied. It was found that phosphoric acid is transfered from feed side to strip side and the transport increased with the concentration of phosphoric acid up to 5M. The permeability in each membrane was determined for 5M phosphoic acid. It was found that the permeability values are 1.45 x 10 1 0 m 2 s 1 for amylakohol and ∼ 1x10 1 0 m 2 s 1 for each of 1-octanol and 2-octanol

  17. Modeling CO2-facilitated transport across a diethanolamine liquid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lihong Bao; Michael C. Trachtenberg [Carbozyme Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States)

    2005-12-15

    We compared experimental and model data for the facilitated transport of CO2 from a CO2-air mixture across an aqueous solution of diethanolamine (DEA) via a hollow fiber, contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) permeator. A two-step carbamate formation model was devised to analyze the data instead of the one-step mechanism used by previous investigators. The effects of DEA concentration, liquid membrane thickness and feed CO2 concentration were also studied. With a 20% (wt) DEA liquid membrane and feed of 15% CO2 in CO2-air mixture at atmosphere pressure, the permeance reached 1.51E-8 mol/m{sup 2} s Pa with a CO2/N2 selectivity of 115. Model predictions compared well with the experimental results at CO2 concentrations of industrial importance. Short-term stability of the HFCLM permeator performance was examined. The system was stable during 5-days of testing.

  18. Effective interactions, elementary excitations, and transport in the helium liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pines, D.

    1986-01-01

    Polarization potentials, the self-consistent fields which describe the primary consequences of the strong atom-atom interaction in the helium liquids, are developed for liquid 4 He and 3 He. Emphasis is placed on the common physical origin of the effective interactions in all helium liquids, and the hierarchy of physical effects (very short-range atomic correlations, zero point motion, and the Pauli principle) which determine their strength is reviewed. An overview is then given of the application of polarization potential theory to experiment, including the phonon-maxon-roton spectra of 4 He and 3 He- 4 He mixtures, the phonon-maxon spectrum of normal and spin-polarized 3 He, and the transport properties of superfluid 4 He and of normal and spin-polarized 3 He

  19. Network simulation of nonstationary ionic transport through liquid junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilla, J.; Horno, J.

    1993-01-01

    Nonstationary ionic transport across the liquid junctions has been studied using Network Thermodynamics. A network model for the time-dependent Nernst-Plack-Poisson system of equation is proposed. With this network model and the electrical circuit simulation program PSPICE, the concentrations, charge density, and electrical potentials, at short times, have been simulated for the binary system NaCl/NaCl. (Author) 13 refs

  20. Renewable liquid transport fuels from microbes and waste resources

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhodri

    2014-01-01

    In order to satisfy the global requirement for transport fuel sustainably, renewable liquid biofuels must be developed. Currently, two biofuels dominate the market; bioethanol for spark ignition and biodiesel for compression ignition engines. However, both fuels exhibit technical issues such as low energy density, poor low temperature performance and poor stability. In addition, bioethanol and biodiesel sourced from first generation feedstocks use arable land in competition with food producti...

  1. Thaw flow control for liquid heat transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpich, Aaron S.

    1989-01-01

    In a liquid metal heat transport system including a source of thaw heat for use in a space reactor power system, the thaw flow throttle or control comprises a fluid passage having forward and reverse flow sections and a partition having a plurality of bleed holes therein to enable fluid flow between the forward and reverse sections. The flow throttle is positioned in the system relatively far from the source of thaw heat.

  2. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years

  3. Progress in second-generation HTS wire development and manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Chen, Y.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, X.; Rar, A.; Martchevskii, M.; Schmidt, R.; Lenseth, K.; Herrin, J.

    2008-01-01

    2007 has marked yet another year of continued rapid progress in developing and manufacturing high-performance, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS wires at high speeds. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and associated buffer sputtering processes, SuperPower has now exceeded piece lengths of 1000 m of fully buffered tape reproducibly with excellent in-plane texture of 6-7 degrees and uniformity of about 2%. These kilometer lengths are produced at high speeds of about 350 m/h of 4 mm wide tape. In combination with metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), 2G wires up to single piece lengths to 790 m with a minimum critical current value of 190 A/cm corresponding to a Critical current x Length performance of 150,100 Am have been achieved. Tape speeds up to 180 m/h have been reached MOCVD while maintaining critical currents above 200 A/cm in 100+ m lengths. Thick film MOCVD technology has been transitioned to Pilot manufacturing system where a minimum critical current of 320 A/cm has been demonstrated over a length of 155 m processed at a speed of 70 m/h in 4 mm width. Finally, nearly 10,000 m of 2G wire has been produced, exhaustively tested, and delivered to the Albany Cable project. The average minimum critical current of the wire delivered in 225 segments of 43-44 m is 70 A in 4 mm widths. A 30 m cable has been fabricated with this wire by Sumitomo Electric and has been installed in the power grid of National Grid in downtown Albany and is the world's first 2G device installed in the grid

  4. Progress in second-generation HTS wire development and manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower, Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)], E-mail: vselva@superpower-inc.com; Chen, Y.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, X.; Rar, A.; Martchevskii, M.; Schmidt, R.; Lenseth, K.; Herrin, J. [SuperPower, Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    2007 has marked yet another year of continued rapid progress in developing and manufacturing high-performance, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS wires at high speeds. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and associated buffer sputtering processes, SuperPower has now exceeded piece lengths of 1000 m of fully buffered tape reproducibly with excellent in-plane texture of 6-7 degrees and uniformity of about 2%. These kilometer lengths are produced at high speeds of about 350 m/h of 4 mm wide tape. In combination with metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), 2G wires up to single piece lengths to 790 m with a minimum critical current value of 190 A/cm corresponding to a Critical current x Length performance of 150,100 Am have been achieved. Tape speeds up to 180 m/h have been reached MOCVD while maintaining critical currents above 200 A/cm in 100+ m lengths. Thick film MOCVD technology has been transitioned to Pilot manufacturing system where a minimum critical current of 320 A/cm has been demonstrated over a length of 155 m processed at a speed of 70 m/h in 4 mm width. Finally, nearly 10,000 m of 2G wire has been produced, exhaustively tested, and delivered to the Albany Cable project. The average minimum critical current of the wire delivered in 225 segments of 43-44 m is 70 A in 4 mm widths. A 30 m cable has been fabricated with this wire by Sumitomo Electric and has been installed in the power grid of National Grid in downtown Albany and is the world's first 2G device installed in the grid.

  5. Application of human reliability analysis methodology of second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz S, T. de J.; Nelson E, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    The human reliability analysis (HRA) is a very important part of probabilistic safety analysis. The main contribution of HRA in nuclear power plants is the identification and characterization of the issues that are brought together for an error occurring in the human tasks that occur under normal operation conditions and those made after abnormal event. Additionally, the analysis of various accidents in history, it was found that the human component has been a contributing factor in the cause. Because of need to understand the forms and probability of human error in the 60 decade begins with the collection of generic data that result in the development of the first generation of HRA methodologies. Subsequently develop methods to include in their models additional performance shaping factors and the interaction between them. So by the 90 mid, comes what is considered the second generation methodologies. Among these is the methodology A Technique for Human Event Analysis (ATHEANA). The application of this method in a generic human failure event, it is interesting because it includes in its modeling commission error, the additional deviations quantification to nominal scenario considered in the accident sequence of probabilistic safety analysis and, for this event the dependency actions evaluation. That is, the generic human failure event was required first independent evaluation of the two related human failure events . So the gathering of the new human error probabilities involves the nominal scenario quantification and cases of significant deviations considered by the potential impact on analyzed human failure events. Like probabilistic safety analysis, with the analysis of the sequences were extracted factors more specific with the highest contribution in the human error probabilities. (Author)

  6. Search for second generation scalar leptoquarks using the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Jason

    2014-07-24

    Leptoquarks are hypothetical particles that attempt to explain the coincidental similarities between leptons and quarks included in SM. Their exact properties vary between different theoretical models, and there are no strong theoretical constraints on their possible mass values. They can possibly be produced from particle collisions, and there have already been searching efforts at previous collider experiments. Their presence have not yet been observed, and this fact has been translated into lower bound exclusions on their possible mass values. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) being the most recently constructed particle collider with the highest collision energies ever achieved experimentally, provides a new platform to continue the search for Leptoquarks at even higher mass ranges. This thesis describes a search for pair-produced second-generation Leptoquarks using 20.3 fb{sup -1} of data recorded by the ATLAS detector of LHC at √(s) = 8 TeV. Events with two oppositely charged muons and two or more jets in the final state were used. Candidate leptoquark events were selected with the help of four observables: the di-muon invariant mass (M{sub μμ}), the sum of the p{sub T} of the two muons (L{sub T}), the sum of the p{sub T} of the two leading jets (H{sub T}) and the average Leptoquark mass (M{sub LQ}). Monte Carlo simulations of SM background processes have shown to be in good agreement with data, both in the region constructed using selection requirements for candidate leptoquark events and in the designated control regions. Since no significant excess of events was observed in data, a exclusion limit was set as a function of the Leptoquark mass.

  7. Universal Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) second generation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneman, J.L.; Baumann, M.J.; Fox, L.J.; Jenkins, C.D.; Perlinsk, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is in the final stages of developing a Universal Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS). When completed, AIMS will provide applicable agencies in the US government, and those in the International arena, with a secure and convenient method of monitoring the physical status of selected items. The benefit derived from this development activity will be the commercial availability of an item monitoring system with the capability for ''quick set-up'' monitoring, as well as long-term unattended monitoring. The AIMS includes a variety of sensors, a robust and authenticated radio frequency (RF) communication link, a Receiver Processing Unit (RPU), and an inspector-friendly personal computer (PC) interface for collecting, sorting, viewing and archiving pertinent event histories. The system will provide the capability to monitor selected items in a real-time mode, a remotely interrogated mode, and a stand-alone, unattended data collection mode. The sensor suite under development includes advanced motion sensors, interior volumetric intrusion sensors, Re-usable, In-situ Verifiable Authenticated (RIVA) fiber-optic seal sensors, generic utility sensors (to accommodate contact closure inputs), and radiation and environmental sensors. A new generation authentication algorithm recently has been developed that provides a high degree of system security 121. The AIMS has potential safeguards applications in the areas of arms control and treaty verification military asset control, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Euratom safeguards verification activities, as well as domestic nuclear safeguard activities. Commercial applications could include high-value inventory control and security systems. This paper describes the second-generation AIMS along with its recently expanded sensor suite and enhanced data collection capabilities

  8. Current status of the UCSF second-generation PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of the second generation PACS at UCSF commenced in October 1992. The UCSF PACS is designed in-house as a hospital-integrated PACS based on an open architecture concept using industrial standards including UNIX operating system, C programming language, X-Window user interface, TCP/IP communication protocol, DICOM 3.0 image standard and HL7 health data format. Other manufacturer's PACS components which conform with these standards can be easily integrated into the system. Relevant data from HIS and RIS is automatically incorporated into the PACS using HL7 data format and TCP/IP communication protocol. The UCSF system also takes advantage of state-of-the-art communication, storage, and software technologies in ATM, multiple storage media, automatic programming, multilevel processes for a better cost-performance system. The primary PACS network is the 155 Mbits/sec OC3 ATM with the Ethernet as the back-up. The UCSF PACS also connects Mt. Zion Hospital and San Francisco VA Medical Center in the San Francisco Bay area via an ATM wide area network with a T1 line as the back-up. Currently, five MR and five CT scanners from multiple sites, two computed radiography systems, two film digitizers, one US PACS module, the hospital HIS and the department RIS have been connected to the PACS network. The image data is managed by a mirrored database (Sybase). The PACS controller, with its 1.3 terabyte optical disk library, acquires 2.5 gigabytes digital data daily. Four 2K, five, 1,600-line multiple monitor display workstations are on line in neuroradiology, pediatric radiology and intensive care units for clinical use. In addition, the PACS supports over 100 Macintosh users in the department and selected hospital sites for both images and textual retrieval through a client/server mechanism. We are also developing a computation and visualization node in the PACS network for advancing radiology research.

  9. Investigation of electronic transport properties of some liquid transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, H. P.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.

    2018-04-01

    We investigated electronic transport properties of some liquid transition metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Pt) using Ziman formalism. Our parameter free model potential which is realized on ionic and atomic radius has been incorporated with the Hard Sphere Yukawa (HSY) reference system to study the electronic transport properties like electrical resistivity (ρ), thermal conductivity (σ) and thermo electrical power (Q). The screening effect on aforesaid properties has been studied by using different screening functions. The correlations of our results and others data with in addition experimental values are profoundly promising to the researchers working in this field. Also, we conclude that our newly constructed parameter free model potential is capable to explain the aforesaid electronic transport properties.

  10. The second generation in Europe and the United States : How is the transatlantic debate relevant for further research on the European second generation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, Mark; Crul, Maurice

    This introductory paper to the special issue of JEMS on the second generation in Europe reviews some of the key themes underpinning the growing interest in the second generation, and asks what 'integration' actually means in contemporary debates about immigration and settlement. The authors attempt

  11. The second generation in Europe and the United States. How is the transatlantic debate relevant for further research on the European second generation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.; Thomsen, M.

    2007-01-01

    This introductory paper to the special issue of JEMS on the second generation in Europe reviews some of the key themes underpinning the growing interest in the second generation, and asks what 'integration' actually means in contemporary debates about immigration and settlement. The authors attempt

  12. OSSA. A second generation of severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvage, E.C.; Musoyan, G.; Ducros, V.D.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays the severe accident and their management are an integrated part of the new generation of power plants. The EPR, as the third generation of nuclear plants, includes both systems and instrumentation to mitigate a severe accident, but also a new generation of severe accident management guidelines: the OSSA. Severe accident management guidelines are highly dependent on human means available: emergency organization actors, training and knowledge shall be taken in consideration in an innovative way. Their impacts on ergonomy and content of the document lead to a new generation of guidelines with several innovative features. This second generation of severe accident management guidelines was developed in parallel with the PSA level 2, the human reliability analyses, the validation and verification process, the severe accident simulator progresses. By taking in consideration this variety of input the OSSA were developed in a user aspect orientation. For example in the OSSA a larger responsibility is given to the operational crew to better support the technical support group evaluation. Their existing knowledge of the plant and of the systems and instrumentation is used. This collaboration work implies a strong communication tool that has been developed to enhance the permanent communication within the emergency organization, but although to ensure the main up-to-date information for evaluation will be available where required. The entry condition is based on a strong and stand alone diagnostic for all plant states, that uses in particular a curve of core exit temperature as a function of primary pressure for a fixed core cladding temperature, or its equivalent in term of containment conditions. It ensures relatively consistent core conditions on entry. A first criterion for ultimate final primary depressurization is provided, ensuring all attempts to reflood the core with the available means have been ensured before the OSSA entry condition is reached. This

  13. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamansky, Vladimir M.; Maly, Peter M.; Sheldon, Mark; Seeker, W. Randall; Folsom, Blair A.

    1997-01-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation is developing a family of high efficiency and low cost NO x control technologies for coal fired utility boilers based on Advanced Reburning (AR), a synergistic integration of basic reburning with injection of an N-agent. In conventional AR, injection of the reburn fuel is followed by simultaneous N-agent and overfire air injection. The second generation AR systems incorporate several components which can be used in different combinations. These components include: (1) Reburning Injection of the reburn fuel and overfire air. (2) N-agent Injection The N-agent (ammonia or urea) can be injected at different locations: into the reburning zone, along with the overfire air, and downstream of the overfire air injection. (3) N-agent Promotion Several sodium compounds can considerably enhance the NO x control from N-agent injection. These ''promoters'' can be added to aqueous N-agents. (4) Two Stages of N-agent Injection and Promotion Two N-agents with or without promoters can be injected at different locations for deeper NO x control. AR systems are intended for post-RACT applications in ozone non-attainment areas where NO x control in excess of 80% is required. AR will provide flexible installations that allow NO x levels to be lowered when regulations become more stringent. The total cost of NO x control for AR systems is approximately half of that for SCR. Experimental and kinetic modeling results for development of these novel AR systems are presented. Tests have been conducted in a 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility with coal as the main fuel and natural gas as the reburning fuel. The results show that high efficiency NO x control, in the range 84-95%, can be achieved with various elements of AR. A comparative byproduct emission study was performed to compare the emissions from different variants of AR with commercial technologies (reburning and SNCR). For each technology sampling included: CO, SO 2 , N 2 O, total

  14. Determination of circumsolar radiation from Meteosat Second Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, B.; Buras, R.; Bugliaro, L.; Wilbert, S.; Mayer, B.

    2014-03-01

    Reliable data on circumsolar radiation, which is caused by scattering of sunlight by cloud or aerosol particles, is becoming more and more important for the resource assessment and design of concentrating solar technologies (CSTs). However, measuring circumsolar radiation is demanding and only very limited data sets are available. As a step to bridge this gap, a method was developed which allows for determination of circumsolar radiation from cirrus cloud properties retrieved by the geostationary satellites of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) family. The method takes output from the COCS algorithm to generate a cirrus mask from MSG data and then uses the retrieval algorithm APICS to obtain the optical thickness and the effective radius of the detected cirrus, which in turn are used to determine the circumsolar radiation from a pre-calculated look-up table. The look-up table was generated from extensive calculations using a specifically adjusted version of the Monte Carlo radiative transfer model MYSTIC and by developing a fast yet precise parameterization. APICS was also improved such that it determines the surface albedo, which is needed for the cloud property retrieval, in a self-consistent way instead of using external data. Furthermore, it was extended to consider new ice particle shapes to allow for an uncertainty analysis concerning this parameter. We found that the nescience of the ice particle shape leads to an uncertainty of up to 50%. A validation with 1 yr of ground-based measurements shows, however, that the frequency distribution of the circumsolar radiation can be well characterized with typical ice particle shape mixtures, which feature either smooth or severely roughened particle surfaces. However, when comparing instantaneous values, timing and amplitude errors become evident. For the circumsolar ratio (CSR) this is reflected in a mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 0.11 for both employed particle shape mixtures, and a bias of 4 and 11%, for the

  15. HVRM: a second generation ACE-FTS instrument concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Jean-François; Larouche, Martin; Dupont, Fabien; Girard, Guillaume; Veilleux, James; Buijs, Henry; Desbiens, Raphaël.; Perron, Gaétan; Grandmont, Frédéric; Paradis, Simon; Moreau, Louis; Bourque, Hugo

    2017-11-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) is the main instrument on-board the SCISAT-1 satellite, a mission mainly supported by the Canadian Space Agency [1]. It is in Low- Earth Orbit at an altitude of 650 km with an inclination of 74E. Its data has been used to track the vertical profile of more than 30 atmospheric species in the high troposphere and in the stratosphere with the main goal of providing crucial information for the comprehension of chemical and physical processes controlling the ozone life cycle. These atmospheric species are detected using high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) spectra in the 750-4400 cm-1 spectral region. This leads to more than 170 000 spectral channels being acquired in the IR every two seconds. It also measures aerosols and clouds to reduce the uncertainty in their effects on the global energy balance. It is currently the only instrument providing such in-orbit high resolution measurements of the atmospheric chemistry and is often used by international scientists as a unique data set for climate understanding. The satellite is in operation since 2003, exceeding its initially planned lifetime of 2 years by more than a factor of 5. Given its success, its usefulness and the uniqueness of the data it provides, the Canadian Space Agency has founded the development of technologies enabling the second generation of ACE-FTS instruments through the High Vertical Resolution Measurement (HVRM) project but is still waiting for the funding for a mission. This project addresses three major improvements over the ACE-FTS. The first one aims at improving the vertical instantaneous field-of-view (iFoV) from 4.0 km to 1.5 km without affecting the SNR and temporal precision. The second aims at providing precise knowledge on the tangent height of the limb observation from an external method instead of that used in SCISAT-1 where the altitude is typically inferred from the monotonic CO2 concentration seen in the spectra. The

  16. Damping of liquid sloshing by foams: from everyday observations to liquid transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauret, Alban; Boulogne, Francois; Cappello, Jean; Stone, Howard

    2014-11-01

    When a liquid-filled container is set in motion, the free surface of the liquid starts to slosh, i.e. oscillate. Such effects can be observed when a glass of water is handled carelessly and the fluid sloshes or even spills over the rim of the container. However, beer does not slosh as readily, which suggests that the presence of foam could be used to damp sloshing. In this work, we study experimentally the effect on sloshing of liquid foam placed on top of a liquid bath in a Hele-Shaw cell. We generate a monodisperse 2D liquid foam and track its motion. The influence of the foam on the sloshing dynamics is characterized: 2 to 3 layers of bubbles are sufficient to significantly damp the oscillations. For more than 5 layers of bubbles, the original vertical motion of the foam becomes mainly horizontal. We rationalize our experimental findings with a model that describes the foam contribution to the damping coefficient. This study motivated by everyday observations has promising applications in numerous industrial applications such as the transport of liquid in cargoes.

  17. Liquid-fueled SOFC power sources for transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, K. M.; Doshi, R.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    Traditionally, fuel cells have been developed for space or stationary terrestrial applications. As the first commercial 200-kW systems were being introduced by ONSI and Fuji Electric, the potentially much larger, but also more challenging, application in transportation was beginning to be addressed. As a result, fuel cell-powered buses have been designed and built, and R&D programs for fuel cell-powered passenger cars have been initiated. The engineering challenge of eventually replacing the internal combustion engine in buses, trucks, and passenger cars with fuel cell systems is to achieve much higher power densities and much lower costs than obtainable in systems designed for stationary applications. At present, the leading fuel cell candidate for transportation applications is, without question, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Offering ambient temperature start-up and the potential for a relatively high power density, the polymer technology has attracted the interest of automotive manufacturers worldwide. But the difficulties of fuel handling for the PEFC have led to a growing interest in exploring the prospects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating on liquid fuels for transportation applications. Solid oxide fuel cells are much more compatible with liquid fuels (methanol or other hydrocarbons) and are potentially capable of power densities high enough for vehicular use. Two SOFC options for such use are discussed in this report.

  18. Transport and magnetic resonance in normal and superfluid Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.

    1976-10-01

    This thesis provides a framework for a series of 19 papers published by the author in a study of transport and magnetic resonance in normal and superfluid Fermi liquids. The Boltzmann equation and methods for its solution are discussed. Electron-electron scattering in metals, with particular emphasis on alkali metals, is considered. Transport in a normal uncharged Fermi liquid such as pure 3 He at temperatures well below its degeneracy temperature of approximately 1 K or mixtures of 3 He in 4 He with degeneracy temperatures ranging typically from 100 to 200 mk is discussed with emphasis on comparison with experiments with the aim of testing models of the particle-particle scattering amplitude. Transport and magnetic resonance in superfluid 3 He is considered. The phenomenological treatment of relaxation is reviewed and the magnitude of the phenomenlogical relaxation time close to Tsub(c) is derived for the case of longitudinal resonance. Comments are made on non-linear magnetic resonance and textures and spin waves. (B.R.H.)

  19. Transport processes in partially saturate concrete: Testing and liquid properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Chiara

    The measurement of transport properties of concrete is considered by many to have the potential to serve as a performance criterion that can be related to concrete durability. However, the sensitivity of transport tests to several parameters combined with the low permeability of concrete complicates the testing. Gas permeability and diffusivity test methods are attractive due to the ease of testing, their non-destructive nature and their potential to correlate to in-field carbonation of reinforced concrete structures. This work was aimed at investigating the potential of existing gas transport tests as a way to reliably quantify transport properties in concrete. In this study gas permeability and diffusivity test methods were analyzed comparing their performance in terms of repeatability and variability. The influence of several parameters was investigated such as moisture content, mixture proportions and gas flow. A closer look to the influence of pressure revealed an anomalous trend of permeability with respect to pressure. An alternative calculation is proposed in an effort to move towards the determination of intrinsic material properties that can serve as an input for service life prediction models. The impact of deicing salts exposure was also analyzed with respect to their alteration of the degree of saturation as this may affect gas transport in cementitious materials. Limited information were previously available on liquid properties over a wide range of concentrations. To overcome this limitation, this study quantified surface tension, viscosity in presence of deicing salts in a broad concentration range and at different temperatures. Existing models were applied to predict the change of fluid properties during drying. Vapor desorption isotherms were obtained to investigate the influence of deicing salts presence on the non-linear moisture diffusion coefficient. Semi-empirical models were used to quantify the initiation and the rate of drying using liquid

  20. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski; Mark S. Sheldon; David Moyeda; Roy Payne

    2001-06-30

    This project develops a family of novel Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) NO{sub x} control technologies, which can achieve 95% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The conventional Advanced Reburning (AR) process integrates basic reburning and N-agent injection. The SGAR systems include six AR variants: (1) AR-Lean--injection of the N-agent and promoter along with overfire air; (2) AR-Rich--injection of N-agent and promoter into the reburning zone; (3) Multiple Injection Advanced Reburning (MIAR)--injection of N-agents and promoters both into the reburning zone and with overfire air; (4) AR-Lean + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters with overfire air and into the temperature zone at which Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) is effective; (5) AR-Rich + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters into the reburning zone and into the SNCR zone; and (6) Promoted Reburning + Promoted SNCR--basic or promoted reburning followed by basic or promoted SNCR process. The project was conducted in two phases over a five-year period. The work included a combination of analytical and experimental studies to confirm the process mechanisms, identify optimum process configurations, and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. Phase I was conducted from October, 1995 to September, 1997 and included both analytical studies and tests in bench and pilot-scale test rigs. Phase I moved AR technology to Maturity Level III-Major Subsystems. Phase II is conducted over a 45 month period (October, 1997-June, 2001). Phase II included evaluation of alternative promoters, development of alternative reburning fuel and N-Agent jet mixing systems, and scale up. The goal of Phase II was to move the technology to Maturity Level I-Subscale Integrated System. Tests in combustion facility ranging in firing rate from 0.1 x 10{sup 6} to 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr demonstrated the

  1. Second-generation antipsychotics for major depressive disorder and dysthymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komossa, Katja; Depping, Anna M; Gaudchau, Andrea; Kissling, Werner; Leucht, Stefan

    2010-12-08

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common condition with a lifetime prevalence of 15% to 18%, which leads to considerable suffering and disability. Some antipsychotics have been reported to induce remission in major depression, when added to an antidepressant. To evaluate the effects of second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) drugs (alone or augmentation) compared with placebo or antidepressants for people with MDD or dysthymia. The Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group's controlled trial registers (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) were searched up to 21 July 2010. The author team ran complementary searches on clinicaltrials.gov and contacted key authors and drug companies. We included all randomised, double-blind trials comparing oral SGA treatment (alone or augmentation) with other forms of pharmaceutical treatment or placebo in people with MDD or dysthymia. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, and for continuous data the mean difference (MD), based on a random-effects model. We presented each comparison separately; we did not perform a pooled data analysis. We included 28 trials with 8487 participants on five SGAs: amisulpride, aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone.Three studies (1092 participants) provided data on aripiprazole augmentation in MDD. All efficacy data (response n = 1092, three RCTs, OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.63), (MADRS n = 1077, three RCTs, MD -3.04; 95% CI -4.09 to -2) indicated a benefit for aripiprazole but  more side effects (weight gain, EPS) .Seven trials (1754 participants) reported data on olanzapine. Compared to placebo fewer people discontinued treatment due to inefficacy; compared to antidepressants there were no efficacy differences, olanzapine augmentation showed symptom reduction (MADRS n = 808, five RCTs, MD -2.84; 95% CI -5.48 to -0.20), but also more weight or prolactin increase

  2. TESTING OF THE SECOND GENERATION SPINTEK ROTARY FILTER -11357

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Keefer, M.; Huff, T.

    2011-02-02

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter has been developed under the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) for the purpose of deployment in radioactive service in the DOE complex. The unit that was fabricated and tested is the second generation of the filter that incorporates recommended improvements from previous testing. The completion of this test satisfied a key milestone for the EM technology development program and technology readiness for deployment by Savannah River Remediation in the Small Column Ion Exchange and Sludge Washing processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) contracted SpinTek Filtration to fabricate a full scale 25 disk rotary filter and perform a 1000 hour endurance test with a simulated SRS sludge. Over 1500 hours of operation have been completed with the filter. SpinTek Filtration fabricated a prototypic 25 disk rotary filter including updates to manufacturing tolerances, an updated design to the rotary joint, improved cooling to the bottom journal, decreases in disk and filter shaft hydraulic resistances. The filter disks were fabricated with 0.5 {micro} pore size, sintered-metal filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation (M050). After fabrication was complete, the filter passed acceptance tests demonstrating rejection of solids and clean water flux with a 50% improvement over the previous filters. Once the acceptance test was complete, a 1000 hour endurance test was initiated simulating a sludge washing process. The test used a simulated SRS Sludge Batch 6 recipe. The insoluble solids started at 5 wt% and were raised to 10 and 15 wt% insoluble solids to simulate the concentration of a large volume tank. The filter system was automated and set up for 24 hour unattended operation. To facilitate this, process control logic was written to operate the filter. During the development it was demonstrated that the method of starting and stopping the filter can affect the build

  3. Neutron and gamma-ray transport experiments in liquid air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Accurate estimates of neutron and gamma radiations from a nuclear explosion and their subsequent transport through the atmosphere are vital to nuclear-weapon employment studies: i.e., for determining safety radii for aircraft crews, casualty and collateral-damage risk radii for tactical weapons, and the kill range from a high-yield defensive burst for a maneuvering reentry vehicle. Radiation transport codes, such as the Laboratory's TARTNP, are used to calculate neutron and gamma fluences. Experiments have been performed to check and update these codes. Recently, a 1.3-m-radius liquid-air (21 percent oxygen) sphere, with a pulsed source of 14-MeV neutrons at its center, was used to measure the fluence and spectra of emerging neutrons and secondary gamma rays. Comparison of measured radiation dose with TARTNP showed agreement within 10 percent

  4. Muonium formation via charge transport in solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storchak, Vyacheslav G.; Brewer, Jess H.; Cox, Stephen F.J.

    1997-01-01

    We review our recent experimental studies on delayed muonium formation in insulators and semiconductors. This involves the positive muon capturing one of the excess electrons liberated in its own ionization track and competes with recombination or escape of the electrons. The muon is generally found to thermalise well 'downstream' from the center of the electron distribution, so that the transport mechanism of the electrons is a crucial factor. This is discussed in terms of the different tendencies to localization (as polarons in solids or in bubbles in liquids) vs. band-like propagation. Studies of Van der Waals cryocrystals and cryoliquids are reviewed and some preliminary results reported for sapphire and silicon. Transport distances and times are determined from the variation of μSR signal amplitudes with applied electric and magnetic fields, respectively, enabling the development of a new technique for measuring electron mobilities on a microscopic scale

  5. Simulating liquid water for determining its structural and transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arismendi-Arrieta, Daniel; Medina, Juan S.; Fanourgakis, George S.; Prosmiti, Rita; Delgado-Barrio, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for calculating structural and transport properties of pure liquid water, such as radial distribution functions and self-diffusion and viscosity coefficients, respectively. We employed reparameterized versions of the ab initio water potential by Niesar, Clementi and Corongiu (NCC). In order to investigate the role of the electrostatic contribution, the partial charges of the NCC model are adjusted so that to reproduce the dipole moment values of the SPC/E, SPC/Fw and TIP4P/2005 water models. The single and collective transport coefficients are obtained by employing the Green–Kubo relations at various temperatures. Additionally, in order to overcome convergence difficulties arising from the long correlation times of the stress-tensor autocorrelation functions, a previously reported fitting scheme was employed. The present results indicate that there is a significant relationship between the dipole moment value of the model, and the calculated transport coefficients. We found that by adjusting the molecular dipole moment of the NCC to the value of the TIP4P/2005, the obtained values for the self-diffusion and viscosity coefficients are in better agreement with experiment, compared to the values obtained with the original NCC model. Even though the predictions of the present model exhibits an overall correct behavior, we conclude that further improvements are still required. In order to achieve that, a careful reparameterization of the repulsion–dispersion terms of the potential model is proposed. Also, the effect of the inclusion of many-body effects such as polarizability, should also be investigated. - Highlights: ► Transport properties of liquid water are important in bio-simulations. ► Self-diffusion coefficient, shear and bulk viscosities calculations from NVE molecular dynamics simulations. ► Their comparison with experimental data provides information on intermolecular forces, and serve to develop water

  6. Intrinsic frame transport for a model of nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzini, S.; Rull, L. F.; Ciccotti, G.; Paolini, G. V.

    1997-02-01

    We present a computer simulation study of the dynamical properties of a nematic liquid crystal model. The diffusional motion of the nematic director is taken into account in our calculations in order to give a proper estimate of the transport coefficients. Differently from other groups we do not attempt to stabilize the director through rigid constraints or applied external fields. We instead define an intrinsic frame which moves along with the director at each step of the simulation. The transport coefficients computed in the intrinsic frame are then compared against the ones calculated in the fixed laboratory frame, to show the inadequacy of the latter for systems with less than 500 molecules. Using this general scheme on the Gay-Berne liquid crystal model, we evidence the natural motion of the director and attempt to quantify its intrinsic time scale and size dependence. Through extended simulations of systems of different size we calculate the diffusion and viscosity coefficients of this model and compare our results with values previously obtained with fixed director.

  7. Second-generation speed limit map updating applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tradisauskas, Nerius; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent Speed Adaptation is an Intelligent Transport System developed to significantly improve road safety in helping car drivers maintain appropriate driving behaviour. The system works in connection with the speed limits on the road network. It is thus essential to keep the speed limit map...... used in the Intelligent Speed Adaptation scheme updated. The traditional method of updating speed limit maps on the basis of long time interval observations needed to be replaced by a more efficient speed limit updating tool. In a Danish Intelligent Speed Adaptation trial a web-based tool was therefore...... for map updating should preferably be made on the basis of a commercial map provider, 2 such as Google Maps and that the real challenge is to oblige road authorities to carry out updates....

  8. Development of industrial yeast for second generation bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X

    2012-01-15

    in furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) reductions by this yeast have both cofactor preferences for NADH. Due to the low inhibitor tolerance, the growth of S. passalidarum was completely inhibited in the liquid fraction of pretreated corn stover and wheat straw. The inhibitor tolerance of S. passalidarum was improved by the method of genome shuffling including UV mutagenesis and protoplast fusion. The protoplast of a UV-induced furfural-resistant mutant of S. passalidarum (S. passalidarum M7) was fused with the protoplast of a robust yeast S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581. The finally selected hybrid strain (FS22) has desired phenotypes derived from both parents, namely the ability to ferment xylose from S. passalidarum and an increased tolerance to inhibitors from S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581. Phenotypic and molecular analysis indicated that S. passalidarum M7 was the dominant parental contributor to the hybrid. Rearrangement of DNA segments from the other parental strain S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581 possibly occurred in FS22. The inhibitor tolerance of the robust yeast S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581 was further improved by sequentially adapting this strain into media with increasing amounts of the liquid fraction of pretreated corn stover (CSLQ). The adapted strain completely fermented glucose in 100% CSLQ and the ethanol yield was 0.48 g/g glucose, while the parental strain was unable to ferment under this condition. Co-fermentation of this adapted strain with the selected protoplast fused hybrids (FS2 or FS22) in the pretreated wheat straw hydrolysate improved the final ethanol yield by 11% and 26%, respectively, due to partial conversion of xylose in the hydrolysate by the xylose-fermenting hybrids. Co-fermentation with one robust C6 fermenting yeast for detoxification and one C5 fermenting yeast for converting xylose into ethanol could be a viable strategy for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. (Author)

  9. Development of industrial yeast for second generation bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X.

    2012-01-15

    involved in furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) reductions by this yeast have both cofactor preferences for NADH. Due to the low inhibitor tolerance, the growth of S. passalidarum was completely inhibited in the liquid fraction of pretreated corn stover and wheat straw. The inhibitor tolerance of S. passalidarum was improved by the method of genome shuffling including UV mutagenesis and protoplast fusion. The protoplast of a UV-induced furfural-resistant mutant of S. passalidarum (S. passalidarum M7) was fused with the protoplast of a robust yeast S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581. The finally selected hybrid strain (FS22) has desired phenotypes derived from both parents, namely the ability to ferment xylose from S. passalidarum and an increased tolerance to inhibitors from S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581. Phenotypic and molecular analysis indicated that S. passalidarum M7 was the dominant parental contributor to the hybrid. Rearrangement of DNA segments from the other parental strain S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581 possibly occurred in FS22. The inhibitor tolerance of the robust yeast S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581 was further improved by sequentially adapting this strain into media with increasing amounts of the liquid fraction of pretreated corn stover (CSLQ). The adapted strain completely fermented glucose in 100% CSLQ and the ethanol yield was 0.48 g/g glucose, while the parental strain was unable to ferment under this condition. Co-fermentation of this adapted strain with the selected protoplast fused hybrids (FS2 or FS22) in the pretreated wheat straw hydrolysate improved the final ethanol yield by 11% and 26%, respectively, due to partial conversion of xylose in the hydrolysate by the xylose-fermenting hybrids. Co-fermentation with one robust C6 fermenting yeast for detoxification and one C5 fermenting yeast for converting xylose into ethanol could be a viable strategy for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. (Author)

  10. Balanced discussion of second-generation antihistamines' data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boev R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rossen Boev,1 Jürgen WG Bentz2 1UCB Pharma, Bulle, Switzerland; 2UCB Pharma, Brussels, Belgium It is with interest that we read the paper “Treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria: a review of the newest antihistamine drug bilastine” by Wang et al1, in which the authors provide insights into the burden of allergic diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. Unfortunately, we found that the review provides some unsubstantiated information, incorrect statements, and/or data inconsistencies as listed below.The abstract states that bilastine “has very low potential for drug–drug interactions”; however, the drug label lists interactions with ketoconazole, erythromycin, diltiazem, and other intestinal efflux transporters, leading to 2–3-fold increases in drug maximum serum concentration and area under the curve2. Also, food interactions decrease bilastine’s bioavailability by 30%, and the label recommendation is that it is taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after intake of food or fruit juice2. View the original article by Wang et al.

  11. Use of second-generation antipsychotic agents for sleep and sedation: a provider survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Eric D A; Sernyak, Michael; Rosenheck, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that second-generation antipsychotic agents are increasingly used to treat sleep problems. This study sought to quantify the proportion of new prescriptions for second-generation antipsychotic agents started for sleep/sedation and the correlates of such use. A cross-sectional survey of provider decision making at the time second-generation antipsychotic agents were prescribed, documenting the reasons for the medication, patient demographics, psychiatric and medical diagnoses, patient health characteristics, and provider background. A single Veterans Affairs Medical Center over a 20-month period. Prescribers of second-generation antipsychotic agents. N/A. Seven hundred seven (32.2%) of 2,613 surveys indicated sleep/sedation was at least one reason for using a second-generation anti-psychotic agent, whereas for 266 (12.1%) it was the only reason. Quetiapine was most frequently prescribed overall as well as for sleep/sedation (47.0% and 73.6% respectively). Second-generation antipsychotic agent use for sleep/sedation was unrelated to sociodemographic characteristics, least likely in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and most likely as a newly started second-generation antipsychotic agent. Sleep/sedation is a common reason given for new prescriptions of second-generation antipsychotic agents. Quetiapine is most frequently used for this purpose. A greater understanding of why providers use second-generation antipsychotic agents rather than safer and less costly alternatives for sleep problems may advance the development of interventions to reduce adverse effects.

  12. The fluid transport in inkjet-printed liquid rivulets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singler, Timothy; Liu, Liang; Sun, Xiaoze; Pei, Yunheng; Microfluidic; Interfacial Transport Lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Inkjet printing holds significant potential for the controlled deposition of solution-processed functional materials spanning applications from microelectronics to biomedical sciences. Although theoretical and experimental investigations addressing the stability criteria of the inkjet-printed liquid rivulets have been discussed in the literature, the associated transport phenomena have received little attention. This study focuses on the experimental investigation of printed rivulets, stable with respect to Rayleigh-Plateau, but exhibiting bulge instability. The morphological evolution and the depth-resolved flow field of the rivulets were assessed via high-speed imaging in conjunction with micro-PIV. We discuss in detail effects of repetitive wave motion induced by periodic drop impact at the leading edge and the associated pulsatile flow, as well as the persistent nonuniform mass distribution in the ridge region of the rivulet. The results provide an experimental foundation for more detailed theoretical modelling of printed rivulet flows.

  13. Time-Dependent Liquid Transport on a Biomimetic Topological Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cunlong; Li, Chuxin; Gao, Can; Dong, Zhichao; Wu, Lei; Jiang, Lei

    2018-05-02

    Liquid drops impacting on a solid surface is a familiar phenomenon. On rainy days, it is quite important for leaves to drain off impacting raindrops. Water can bounce off or flow down a water-repellent leaf easily, but with difficulty on a hydrophilic leaf. Here, we show an interesting phenomenon in which impacting drops on the hydrophilic pitcher rim of Nepenthes alata can spread outward to prohibit water filling the pitcher tank. We mimic the peristome surface through a designed 3D printing and replicating way and report a time-dependently switchable liquid transport based on biomimetic topological structures, where surface curvature can work synergistically with the surface microtextures to manipulate the switchable spreading performance. Motived by this strange behavior, we construct a large-scaled peristome-mimetic surface in a 3D profile, demonstrating the ability to reduce the need to mop or to squeegee drops that form during the drop impacting process on pipes or other curved surfaces in food processing, moisture transfer, heat management, etc.

  14. Liquid gating elastomeric porous system with dynamically controllable gas/liquid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zhizhi; Wang, Honglong; Tang, Yongliang; Wang, Miao; Huang, Lizhi; Min, Lingli; Meng, Haiqiang; Chen, Songyue; Jiang, Lei; Hou, Xu

    2018-02-01

    The development of membrane technology is central to fields ranging from resource harvesting to medicine, but the existing designs are unable to handle the complex sorting of multiphase substances required for many systems. Especially, the dynamic multiphase transport and separation under a steady-state applied pressure have great benefits for membrane science, but have not been realized at present. Moreover, the incorporation of precisely dynamic control with avoidance of contamination of membranes remains elusive. We show a versatile strategy for creating elastomeric microporous membrane-based systems that can finely control and dynamically modulate the sorting of a wide range of gases and liquids under a steady-state applied pressure, nearly eliminate fouling, and can be easily applied over many size scales, pressures, and environments. Experiments and theoretical calculation demonstrate the stability of our system and the tunability of the critical pressure. Dynamic transport of gas and liquid can be achieved through our gating interfacial design and the controllable pores' deformation without changing the applied pressure. Therefore, we believe that this system will bring new opportunities for many applications, such as gas-involved chemical reactions, fuel cells, multiphase separation, multiphase flow, multiphase microreactors, colloidal particle synthesis, and sizing nano/microparticles.

  15. A model for calculating the AC losses of second-generation high temperature superconductor pancake coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Weijia; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A [Electronic, Power and Energy Conversion Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: wy215@cam.ac.uk

    2009-07-15

    A model is presented for calculating the AC losses of a stack of second-generation high temperature superconductor tapes. This model takes as a starting point the model of Clem and co-workers for a stack in which each tape carries the same current. It is based on the assumption that the magnetic flux lines lie parallel to the tapes within the part of the stack where the flux has not penetrated. In this paper we allow for the depth of penetration of field to vary across the stack, and use the Kim model to allow for the variation of J{sub c} with B. The model is applied to the cases of a transport current and an applied field. For a transport current the calculated result differs from the Norris expression for a single tape carrying a uniform current and it does not seem possible to define a suitable average J{sub c} which could be used. Our method also gives a more accurate value for the critical current of the stack than other methods. For an applied field the stack behaves as a solid superconductor with the J{sub c} averaged locally over several tapes, but still allowed to vary throughout the stack on a larger scale. For up to about ten tapes the losses rise rapidly with the number of tapes, but in thicker stacks the tapes shield each other and the losses become that of a slab with a field parallel to the faces.

  16. Transient peristaltic transport of grains in a liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconati, Marco; Rault, Sharvari; Charkhi, Farshad; Burbidge, Adam; Engmann, Jan; Ramaioli, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Pumping suspensions and pastes has always been a significant technological challenge in a number of industrial applications ranging from food processing to mining. Peristaltic pumps have become popular to pump and/or dose complex fluids, due to their robustness. During the transport of suspensions with peristaltic pumps, clogging issues may arise, particularly during transient operations. That is a matter of particular concern whenever the pumping device is used intermittently to generate flow only on demand. Further understanding of the transient dynamics of such systems and of the conditions that can lead to jamming would result in more robust peristaltic pump design. To achieve these goals, an experimental setup that simplifies the statorrotor assembly of a peristaltic hose pump was used. In this setup, a roller transfers momentum to a liquid suspension, upon application of a constant load. The evolution of the velocity of the roller was recorded for different concentrations of mono-dispersed spheres of different diameters. The flow is found not to be strongly dependent on the dispersed particle volume fraction, if the size of the suspended phase is comparable with the hose diameter. Conversely, the flow is strongly slowed down when their size is small and the particle concentration is increased. These findings could help improving the design of peristaltic pumps by a more appropriate sizing, given the diameter of the hose and that of the particles to be transported.

  17. Transient peristaltic transport of grains in a liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconati Marco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumping suspensions and pastes has always been a significant technological challenge in a number of industrial applications ranging from food processing to mining. Peristaltic pumps have become popular to pump and/or dose complex fluids, due to their robustness. During the transport of suspensions with peristaltic pumps, clogging issues may arise, particularly during transient operations. That is a matter of particular concern whenever the pumping device is used intermittently to generate flow only on demand. Further understanding of the transient dynamics of such systems and of the conditions that can lead to jamming would result in more robust peristaltic pump design. To achieve these goals, an experimental setup that simplifies the statorrotor assembly of a peristaltic hose pump was used. In this setup, a roller transfers momentum to a liquid suspension, upon application of a constant load. The evolution of the velocity of the roller was recorded for different concentrations of mono-dispersed spheres of different diameters. The flow is found not to be strongly dependent on the dispersed particle volume fraction, if the size of the suspended phase is comparable with the hose diameter. Conversely, the flow is strongly slowed down when their size is small and the particle concentration is increased. These findings could help improving the design of peristaltic pumps by a more appropriate sizing, given the diameter of the hose and that of the particles to be transported.

  18. Wood Quality of Acacia Hybrid and Second-Generation Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Jusoh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new tree variants, namely Acacia hybrid and second-generation Acacia mangium, have been introduced in plantation forests in Sarawak, Malaysia, and their wood qualities were examined. The mean basic density of Acacia hybrid was comparable with Acacia mangium. However basic density and strength properties of second-generation A. mangium were significantly lower compared to Acacia hybrid. The mean fibre length and fibre wall thickness in the hybrid were found to be greater than that of second-generation A. mangium. Fibre diameter and fibre lumen diameter of Acacia hybrid were smaller compared to second-generation A. mangium. Runkel and slenderness ratios of Acacia hybrid and second-generation A. mangium fibres showed that they were suitable for pulp and paper production. Acacia hybrid was more resistant to Coptotermes curvignathus attack than second-generation A. mangium. A laboratory soil block test showed that Acacia hybrid and second-generation A. mangium were moderately durable timbers. In summary, marked differences in wood properties and qualities were observed between Acacia hybrid and second-generation A. mangium.

  19. The interaction between EU biofuel policy and first- and second-generation biodiesel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutesteijn, C.; Drabik, D.; Venus, T.J.

    2017-01-01

    We build a tractable partial equilibrium model to study the interactions between the EU biofuel policies (mandate and double-counting of second-generation biofuels) and first- and second-generation biodiesel production. We find that increasing the biodiesel mandate results in a higher share of

  20. Transport and spectroscopic studies of liquid and polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopege, Dharshani Nimali

    Liquid and polymer electrolytes are interesting and important materials to study as they are used in Li rechargeable batteries and other electrochemical devices. It is essential to investigate the fundamental properties of electrolytes such as ionic conductivity, diffusion, and ionic association to enhance battery performance in different battery markets. This dissertation mainly focuses on the temperature-dependent charge and mass transport processes and ionic association of different electrolyte systems. Impedance spectroscopy and pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to measure the ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficients of ketone and acetate based liquid electrolytes. In this study, charge and mass transport in non-aqueous liquid electrolytes have been viewed from an entirely different perspective by introducing the compensated Arrhenius formalism. Here, the conductivity and diffusion coefficient are written as an Arrhenius-like expression with a temperature-dependent static dielectric constant dependence in the exponential prefactor. The compensated Arrhenius formalism reported in this dissertation very accurately describes temperature-dependent conductivity data for acetate and ketone-based electrolytes as well as temperature-dependent diffusion data of pure solvents. We found that calculated average activation energies of ketone-based electrolytes are close to each other for both conductivity and diffusion data (in the range 24-26 kJ/mol). Also, this study shows that average activation energies of acetate-based electrolytes are higher than those for the ketone systems (in the range 33-37 kJ/mol). Further, we observed higher dielectric constants and ionic conductivities for both dilute and concentrated ketone solutions with temperature. Vibrational spectroscopy (Infrared and Raman) was used to probe intermolecular interactions in both polymer and liquid electrolytes, particularly those which contain lithium

  1. IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement's Second Generation R and D and the Hydrogen Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, N.; Garcia-Conde, A. G.; Riis, T. U.; Luzzi, A.; Valladares, M. R. de

    2005-07-01

    Since its creation by the International Energy Agency in the late 1970's, the IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (HIA) has been at the forefront of collaborative international hydrogen research and development (R and D) (http://www.ieahia.org. ) The collective body of HIA hydrogen R and D will contribute to definition of the hydrogen economy. The five-year [2004-2009) mission of the IEA HIA is to advance the adoption of a Hydrogen Economy through strategic implementation of collaborative R and D and outreach programs that address key issues and barriers. The three goals for the Second Generation HIA are: Advancement of science and technology via pre-commercial collaborative RD and D programs; Assessment of market environment, including the non-energy sector; and Implementation of outreach program, aimed at community acceptance and support. The HIA launched its Second Generation of hydrogen R and D in the latter part of 2004. The HIA's anniversary report: In Pursuit of the Future: 25 Years of IEA Research towards the realization of Hydrogen Energy Systems (http://ieahia.org/pdfs/IEA_AnniversaryReport_HIA.pdf) chronicles its contributions to hydrogen R and D. As the hydrogen economy takes shape, the HIA is pleased to share highlights of its R and D history together with progress on planned activities and its six current annexes, listed below: Task 15 Photobiological Production of Hydrogen Task 16 Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials Task 17 Solid and Liquid Storage Task 18 Integrated Systems Evaluation Task 19 Safety Task 20 Hydrogen from Waterphotolysis Planned successor annexes in storage and photobiological hydrogen production will also be discussed, along with a task on high temperature hydrogen production that is now in the definition phase. Over 250 experts from the sixteen member HIA countries and the European Union contribute to this portfolio of cutting edge hydrogen R and D and analysis activities. Several other countries are expected to

  2. Packaging and transportation of radioactive liquid at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.J.

    1995-02-01

    Beginning in the 1940's, radioactive liquid waste has been generated at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site as a result of defense material production. The liquid waste is currently stored in 177 underground storage tanks. As part of the tank remediation efforts, Type B quantity packagings for the transport of large volumes of radioactive liquids are required. There are very few Type B liquid packagings in existence because of the rarity of large-volume radioactive liquid payloads in the commercial nuclear industry. Development of aboveground transport systems for large volumes of radioactive liquids involves institutional, economic, and technical issues. Although liquid shipments have taken place under DOE-approved controlled conditions within the boundaries of the Hanford Site for many years, offsite shipment requires compliance with DOE, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and US Department of Transportation (DOT) directives and regulations. At the present time, no domestic DOE nor NRC-certified Type B packagings with the appropriate level of shielding are available for DOT-compliant transport of radioactive liquids in bulk volumes. This paper will provide technical details regarding current methods used to transport such liquids on and off the Hanford Site, and will provide a status of packaging development programs for future liquid shipments

  3. Energy assessment of second generation (2G) ethanol production from wheat straw in Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Archana; Kumar, Akash; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2018-03-01

    Impact of second-generation ethanol (2G) use in transportation sector mainly depends upon energy efficiency of entire production process. The objective of present study was to determine energy efficiency of a potential lignocellulosic feedstock; wheat straw and its conversion into cellulosic ethanol in Indian scenario. Energy efficiency was determined by calculating Net energy ratio (NER), i.e. ratio of output energy obtained by ethanol and input energy used in ethanol production. Energy consumption and generation at each step is calculated briefly (11,837.35 MJ/ha during Indian dwarf irrigated variety of wheat crop production and 7.1148 MJ/kg straw during ethanol production stage). Total energy consumption is calculated as 8.2988 MJ/kg straw whereas energy generation from ethanol is 15.082 MJ/kg straw; resulting into NER > 1. Major portion of agricultural energy input is contributed by diesel and fertilisers whereas refining process of wheat straw feedstock to ethanol and by-products require mainly in the form of steam and electricity. On an average, 1671.8 kg water free ethanol, 930 kg lignin rich biomass (for combustion), and 561 kg C5-molasses (for fodder) per hectare are produced. Findings of this study, net energy ratio (1.81) and figure of merit (14.8028 MJ/nil kg carbon) proves wheat straw as highest energy efficient lignocellulosic feedstock for the country.

  4. Promoting Second Generation Biofuels: Does the First Generation Pave the Road?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Eggert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The U.S., Brazil and a number of European and other countries worldwide have introduced various support schemes for bioethanol and biodiesel. The advantage of these biofuels is that they are relatively easily integrated with the current fossil fuel-based transport sector, at least up to a certain point. However, recent studies point to various negative effects of expanding the production of first generation (1G biofuels further. 1G biofuels’ problems can be overcome by a transition to second generation (2G biofuels. So far, 2G biofuels are much more costly to produce. We therefore ask: to what extent is targeted support to 2G biofuels likely to bring costs down? Additionally, are current support schemes for biofuels well designed in order to promote the development of 2G biofuels? We find that the prospects for cost reduction look better for 2G bioethanol than for 2G biodiesel. Bioethanol made from cellulose is far from a ripe technology, with several cost-reducing opportunities yet to be developed. Hence, targeted support to cellulosic ethanol might induce a switch from 1G to 2G biofuels. However, we find little evidence that production and use of 1G bioethanol will bridge the conversion to 2G bioethanol. Hence, to the extent that private investment in the development of 2G bioethanol is too low, current support schemes for 1G biofuels may block 2G bioethanol instead of promoting it.

  5. Fermionic renormalization group methods for transport through inhomogeneous Luttinger liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meden, V; Schoeller, H; Andergassen, S; Enss, T; Schoenhammer, K

    2008-01-01

    We compare two fermionic renormalization group (RG) methods which have been used to investigate the electronic transport properties of one-dimensional metals with two-particle interaction (Luttinger liquids) and local inhomogeneities. The first one is a poor man's method set-up to resum 'leading-log' divergences of the effective transmission at the Fermi momentum. Generically the resulting equations can be solved analytically. The second approach is based on the functional RG (fRG) method and leads to a set of differential equations which can only for certain set-ups and in limiting cases be solved analytically, while in general it must be integrated numerically. Both methods are claimed to be applicable for inhomogeneities of arbitrary strength and to capture effects of the two-particle interaction, such as interaction dependent exponents, up to leading order. We critically review this for the simplest case of a single impurity. While on first glance the poor man's approach seems to describe the crossover from the 'perfect' to the 'open chain fixed point' we collect evidence that difficulties may arise close to the 'perfect chain fixed point'. Due to a subtle relation between the scaling dimensions of the two fixed points this becomes apparent only in a detailed analysis. In the fRG method the coupling of the different scattering channels is kept which leads to a better description of the underlying physics

  6. Calculation of alternating current losses in stacks and coils made of second generation high temperature superconducting tapes for large scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zermeno, Victor M. R.; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    A homogenization method to model a stack of second generation High Temperature Superconducting tapes under AC applied transport current or magnetic field has been obtained. The idea is to find an anisotropic bulk equivalent for the stack such that the geometrical layout of the internal alternatin...

  7. Fleet Composition of Rail Tank Cars That Transport Flammable Liquids: 2013-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    Section 7308 of the Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act; P. L. 114-94; December 4, 2015) requires the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to assemble and collect data on rail tank cars transporting Class 3 flammable liquids (box...

  8. ROAD TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS SUBSTANCE WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON LIQUID FUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Salomon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the characteristics of the transport of dangerous goods by road transport. It contains issues relating to the legal aspects, the risk to traffic and transport requirements for participants in force in the European Union and Poland. Particular emphasis has been placed on issues related to the carriage of liquid fuels.

  9. GPM GROUND VALIDATION AIRBORNE SECOND GENERATION PRECIPITATION RADAR (APR-2) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Airborne Second Generation Precipitation Radar (APR-2) GCPEx dataset was collected during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment...

  10. The number needed to treat for second-generation biologics when treating established rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Jakobsen, A. K.; Bartels, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the number needed to treat (NNT) and the number needed to harm (NNH) of the second-generation biologics abatacept, certolizumab, golimumab, rituximab, and tocilizumab in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) taking concomitant methotrexate (MTX)....

  11. The second generation biofuels from the biomass; Les biocarburants de deuxieme generation issus de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The author takes stock on the second generation biofuels in the world, the recent technologies, their advantages, the research programs and the economical and environmental impacts of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  12. GPM GROUND VALIDATION AIRBORNE SECOND GENERATION PRECIPITATION RADAR (APR-2) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2) is a dual-frequency (13 GHz and 35 GHz), Doppler, dual-polarization radar system. It has a downward...

  13. Differences in the labour market entry of second-generation immigrants and ethnic Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kromann, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Our study is one of the first to take search friction and cross-firm differences in factor productivity into account when investigating firm behavior towards second-generation immigrants in Denmark. We ensure sub-sample homogeneity in search models by matching second-generation immigrants to thei...... education, in particular males, face lower arrival rates when unemployed and higher layoff rates than those of their twins....... to their ethnic Danish twins according to parental characteristics and informal network quality. We find that second-generation immigrants with a high-school or primary school education, in particular females, perform as well or better than their ethnic counterparts. Second generation immigrants with vocational...

  14. Gender, Culture, and the Educational Choices of Second Generation Hmong American Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Bao

    2017-01-01

    Research on the educational achievement of racialized minorities and immigrants have largely discussed culture as either a deficit or an advantage for academic success. This paper explores gender differences in educational achievement and how the educational choices of second-generation Hmong American girls are impacted by racially constructed gender norms. In response to hegemonic and subordinated femininities, second-generation Hmong American girls pursue education to enter mainstream Ameri...

  15. The number needed to treat for second-generation biologics when treating established rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L E; Jakobsen, A K; Bartels, E M

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the number needed to treat (NNT) and the number needed to harm (NNH) of the second-generation biologics abatacept, certolizumab, golimumab, rituximab, and tocilizumab in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) taking concomitant methotrexate (MTX).......To evaluate the number needed to treat (NNT) and the number needed to harm (NNH) of the second-generation biologics abatacept, certolizumab, golimumab, rituximab, and tocilizumab in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) taking concomitant methotrexate (MTX)....

  16. Transportation of liquid mixed waste in the US: Is it really a problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborti, S.; DeBiase, T.

    1993-01-01

    The transportation of liquid radioactive wastes has often been perceived to be a problem because of the potential consequences from hypothetical accident scenarios and the difficulties that may be encountered in the handling and containment of liquids. This paper focuses specifically to determine if the transportation of these wastes are severely restricted by the regulations. The paper also compares current practices for the transportation of liquid mixed waste in the US with that of France to provide an international perspective on the issue. The review of the regulations and current practices shows that the transportation of liquid mixed waste is by no means prohibited, and also that the majority of the regulations do not impose any additional restrictions because of the physical form of the waste. Rather, the selection of an authorized package primarily depends on the quantity of radioactivity and the specific radionuclides involved. Although the selection process for an authorized package for liquid mixed wastes is fairly straightforward, it seems that the difficulties in transporting liquid mixed waste can be attributed to the lack of readily available Type A packages designed for transporting liquids

  17. Economic and environmental assessment of n-butanol production in an integrated first and second generation sugarcane biorefinery: Fermentative versus catalytic routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.G.; Dias, M.O.S.; Mariano, A.P.; Maciel Filho, R.; Bonomi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Financial and environmental impacts of n-butanol production were investigated. • Analysis showed promising economic results for ABE fermentation scenarios. • Ethanol catalysis to butanol presented discouraging figures. • n-Butanol use as fuel demonstrated favorable GHG emissions results. - Abstract: n-Butanol produced from renewable resources has attracted increasing interest, mostly for its potential use as liquid biofuel for transportation. Process currently used in the industry (Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol fermentation – ABE) faces major technical challenges, which could be overcome by an alternative production through ethanol catalysis. In this study, both routes are evaluated by means of their financial viabilities and environmental performance assessed through the Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery methodological framework. Comparative financial analysis of the routes integrated to a first and second generation sugarcane biorefinery shows that, despite the drawbacks, ABE process for fermentation of the pentoses liquor is more attractive than the catalysis of ethanol to n-butanol and co-products. n-Butanol use as fuel demonstrated favorable environmental results for climate change as figures showed over 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared with gasoline.

  18. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating an ionic liquid into one block copolymer microphase provides a platform for combining the outstanding electrochemical properties of ionic liquids with a number of favorable attributes provided by block copolymers. In particular, block copolymers thermodynamically self-assemble into well-ordered nanostructures, which can be engineered to provide a durable mechanical scaffold and template the ionic liquid into continuous ion-conducting nanochannels. Understanding how the additio...

  19. Transport of uranium by supported liquid membrane containing bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogenphosphate and 1-octanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Kenichi; Kanno, Takuji; Takahashi, Toshihiko.

    1984-01-01

    Carrier-mediated transport of uranium(VI) has been studied by means of liquid membranes impregnated in a microporous polymer. Liquid membranes containing bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogenphosphate (DEHPA) alone yielded inadequate stripping of uranium. The addition of 1-octanol to DEHPA solutions resulted in a decrease in extractability, and made it possible to control the distribution ratio of uranium. Uranium in the feed solution was sufficiently transported across the liquid membrane containing this DEHPA-1-octanol mixture into the product solution. The apparent rate constant (ksub(obs)) of transport increased slightly with an increase in carrier concentrations. Variations in acid concentrations of the feed solution (pH 2.5--3.2) and the product solution (0.1--1.0 M H 2 SO 4 ) had little effect on the transport rate. A large excess of uranium, more than the carrier content in the liquid membrane, was finally concentrated in the stripping acid. (author)

  20. Transport evaluation of a gas-liquid scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodner, A.J.; Bistline, J.E.; Weber, S.E.

    1982-10-01

    The hydraulics and the mass-transfer behavior of a five-tray, single-bubble-cap, single-downcomer, gas-liquid contactor were studied for use as a gas scrubber. Flooding was not observed at the maximum available liquid and gas flow rates of 0.32 and 464 L/min, respectively. The maximum liquid entrainment was 33% at a gross liquid flow rate of 0.05 L/min. The Murphree-tray efficiencies for absorption of CO 2 (5000 ppM in air) into demineralized water ranged from 0.14 to 0.74 for volumetric liquid-to-gas ratios of 4 x 10 -4 and 2 x 10 -4 , respectively, for k/sub L/a values ranging from 0.088 to 0.36 min -1 . 12 figures, 10 tables

  1. Safety evaluation for packaging transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-09-11

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities.

  2. Transport électronique dans l'alliage liquide binaire Or–Argent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic transport in liquid binary alloys Gold-Silver. The electrical resistivity of the liquid alloy Gold-Silver was measured on the totality of the diagram of phase since the melting point until 1150°C. Our measurements, made in a quartz cell equipped with tungsten electrodes, were compared with those obtained by Roll and ...

  3. Safety evaluation for packaging (Onsite) transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities

  4. Evaluation of the Use of Second Generation Wavelets in the Coherent Vortex Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, D. E.; Vasilyev, O. V.; Wray, A. A.; Rogallo, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the use of the second generation bi-orthogonal wavelet transform for the field decomposition in the Coherent Vortex Simulation of turbulent flows. The performances of the bi-orthogonal second generation wavelet transform and the orthogonal wavelet transform using Daubechies wavelets with the same number of vanishing moments are compared in a priori tests using a spectral direct numerical simulation (DNS) database of isotropic turbulence fields: 256(exp 3) and 512(exp 3) DNS of forced homogeneous turbulence (Re(sub lambda) = 168) and 256(exp 3) and 512(exp 3) DNS of decaying homogeneous turbulence (Re(sub lambda) = 55). It is found that bi-orthogonal second generation wavelets can be used for coherent vortex extraction. The results of a priori tests indicate that second generation wavelets have better compression and the residual field is closer to Gaussian. However, it was found that the use of second generation wavelets results in an integral length scale for the incoherent part that is larger than that derived from orthogonal wavelets. A way of dealing with this difficulty is suggested.

  5. Observations of mass transport phenomena in multicomponent liquid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mruzek, M.T.; Musinski, D.L.; Jacobs, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Examples of surface tension effects on liquid behavior are common, such as liquid rising in a capillary tube or the beading of rain drops on a freshly waxed car. Usually through, the surface tension forces are small compared to other forces such as gravity. Situations exist, however, where the simple statement attributed to Marangoni can explain striking and unexpected observations. ''If for any reason difference of surface tension exist along a free liquid surface, liquid will flow toward the region of higher surface tension''. Such flows are called Marangoni flows. Observations of isotopic hydrogen fuel mixtures in cryogenic Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets can be explained on the basis of Marangoni flows. Additional experiments at KMS with common room temperature mixtures have produced similar results

  6. Risk of schizophrenia in second-generation immigrants: a Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2007-01-01

    Background. Urban birth, a risk factor for schizophrenia, is more frequent among second-generation immigrants. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the increased risk for schizophrenia found in second-generation immigrants is explained by the degree of urbanization of birthplace...... for urbanization of birthplace and parental characteristics reduced these risks slightly. However, urbanization had a lesser effect in second-generation immigrants than in Danes. History of residence abroad was a risk factor for schizophrenia, regardless of whether parents were foreign-born or native Danes...... and/or factors related to parentage, such as geographic origin or history of residence abroad during upbringing.Method. Using data from the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS), we established a population-based cohort of 2.0 million Danes (persons born in Denmark). Schizophrenia in cohort members...

  7. Second generation diffusion model of interacting gravity waves on the surface of deep fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pushkarev

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a second generation phenomenological model for nonlinear interaction of gravity waves on the surface of deep water. This model takes into account the effects of non-locality of the original Hasselmann diffusion equation still preserving important properties of the first generation model: physically consistent scaling, adherence to conservation laws and the existence of Kolmogorov-Zakharov solutions. Numerical comparison of both models with the original Hasselmann equation shows that the second generation models improves the angular distribution in the evolving wave energy spectrum.

  8. Automatic inspection Pads second generation; Inspeccion automatica de pastillas de segunda generacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo-Lancho gonzalez, J. F.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, development has addressed Enusa a second generation robot for automatic inspection of tablets incorporating the following advances: more advanced systems that improve vision quality inspection equipment, conducting the inspection in line with the grinding operation, increased productivity of the inspection process to be unnecessary pills buildup in trays and lay-out of the most rational equipment allowing cleaning it easier and faster. This second generation machine is already part of the automatic inspection equipment developed by Enusa and is an example of the ongoing commitment to the development Enusa and innovation in nuclear technology.

  9. The second generation of Slovene Americans and the youth magazine Mladinski list - Juvenile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Milanič

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available From the start the Slovene benefit societies in the United States had a dual purpose: to provide their members with sickness and death benefits and to unite the immigrants by promoting cultural activities. With the growth of the second generation the Slovene benefit societies were faced with a new challenge: how to preserve their role not only as insurance companies, but also as cultural centers. New ways of involving the immigrants' daughters and sons- the second generation of Slovene-Americans - became a central issue for the future existence of these societies.

  10. Preparation and transport properties of novel lithium ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobukawa, Hitoshi; Tokuda, Hiroyuki; Tabata, Sei-Ichiro; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2004-01-01

    Novel lithium salts of borates having two electron-withdrawing groups (either 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propoxy or pentafluorophenoxy group) and two methoxy-oligo(ethylene oxide) groups (number of repeating unit: n = 3, 4, 7.2) were prepared by successive substitution-reactions from LiBH 4 . The obtained lithium salts were clear and colorless liquids at room temperature. The density, thermal property, viscosity, and ionic conductivity were measured for the lithium ionic liquids. The pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR (PGSE-NMR) method was used to independently determine self-diffusion coefficients of the lithium cation ( 7 Li NMR) and the anion ( 19 F NMR) in the bulk. The ionic conductivity of the new lithium salts was 10 -5 to 10 -4 S cm -1 at 30 deg. C, which was lower than that of typical ionic liquids by two orders of magnitude. However, the degree of self-dissociation of the lithium ionic liquids; the ratio of the molar conductivity determined by the complex impedance method to that calculated from the self-diffusion coefficients and the Nernst-Einstein equation, ranged from 0.1 to 0.4, which are comparable values to those of a highly dissociable salt in an aprotic polar solvent and of typical ionic liquids. The main reason for the meager conductivity was high viscosities of the lithium ionic liquids. It should be noted that the lithium ionic liquids have self-dissociation ability and conduct the ions in the absence of organic solvents

  11. Study on Orbital Liquid Transport and Interface Behavior in Vane Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qi; Rui, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Liquid propellant tank is used to supply gas free liquid for spacecraft as an important part of propulsion system. The liquid behavior dominated by surface tension in microgravity is obviously different with that on the ground, which put forward a new challenge to the liquid transport and relocation. The experiments which are investigated at drop tower in National Microgravity Lab have concentrated on liquid relocation following thruster firing. Considered that the liquid located at the bottom in the direction of the acceleration vector, a sphere scale vane tank is used to study the liquid-gas interface behaviors with different acceleration vector and different filling independently and we obtain a series of stable equilibrium interface and relocation time. We find that there is an obvious sedimentation in the direction of acceleration vector when fill rate greater than 2% fill. Suggestions have been put forward that outer vanes transferring liquid to the outlet should be fixed and small holes should be dogged at the vane close to the center post to improve the liquid flow between different vanes when B0 is greater than 2.5. The research about liquid transport alone ribbon vanes is simulated though software Flow3D. The simulation process is verified by comparing the liquid lip and vapor-liquid interface obtained from drop tower experiment and simulation result when fill rate is 15%. Then the influence of fill rate, numbers of vanes and the gap between vane and wall is studied through the same simulate process. Vanes' configurations are also changed to study the effect on the lip and liquid volume below some section. Some suggestions are put forward for the design of vanes.

  12. Fundamental investigation on electrostatic travelling-wave transport of a liquid drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Basic research has been carried out on the transport of a liquid drop and a soft body in an electrostatic travelling field. A conveyer consisting of parallel electrodes was constructed and a four-phase electrostatic travelling wave was applied to the electrodes to transport the drop on the conveyer. The following were clarified by the experiment. (1) Drops and soft bodies can be transported by virtue of the travelling wave in an insulative liquid that is insoluble to the drop, because the drop was charged on the conveyer by friction and driven by the Coulomb force. (2) A drop that covered less than three arrays of the parallel electrode can be transported in the travelling wave field. (3) A threshold voltage exists for the transport. (4) Although the transport was possible not only for insulative but also for conductive drops, the insulative drop can be transported efficiently. (5) The modes of transport can be classified into three categories, namely, a synchronous region where the motion of the liquid drop is in synchrony with the travelling wave, a delayed response regime, and a regime where transport does not occur. (6) Mixing of drops for a chemical reaction was demonstrated on the conveyer with scroll electrodes. A simple model was proposed to simulate the dynamics of the drop in the electrostatic travelling field

  13. Exploring the potential of second-generation sequencing in diverse biological contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise

    Second generation sequencing (SGS) has revolutionized the study of DNA, allowing massive parallel sequencing of nucleic acids with unprecedented depths of coverage. The research undertaken in this thesis occurred in parallel with the increased accessibility of SGS platforms for routine genetic...

  14. Current and future economic performance of first and second generation biofuels in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijck, Janske|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297954296; Batidzirai, Batidzirai|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341355909; Faaij, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Net Present Value (NPV) and total production cost calculations aremade for first and second generation biofuels in 74 settings, covering 5 fuel output types, 8 feedstock types, 12 countries and 8 combinations of agricultural management systems between 2010 and 2030. Yields are assumed to increase

  15. Second generation bioethanol production from Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Consentino; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2010-01-01

    Saccharum (Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.), is a rapidly growing, wide ranging high-yield perennial, suitable for second generation bioethanol production. This study evaluated oxalic acid as a pretreatment for bioconversion. Overall sugar yields, sugar degradation products, enzymatic glucan hydrolysis and ethanol production were studied as...

  16. Is the antidepressive effect of second-generation antidepressants a myth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P

    2010-01-01

    Two recent meta-analyses on second-generation antidepressants versus placebo in mild to moderate forms of major depression, based on data on all randomized clinical trials using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) submitted to FDA, have shown an effect size of approximately 0.30 in favour...

  17. Using Phenomenology to Understand Experiences of Racism for Second-Generation South Asian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharry, Pauline; Crozier, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe the lived experiences of racism for second-generation Canadian women of South Asian descent and how this affected their identity. Six adult co-researchers shared their experiences of what occurred when faced with racism. A phenomenological approach was employed, out of which five categories…

  18. The Performance of a Second Generation Service Discovery Protocol In Response to Message Loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; van de Glind, G.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Scholten, Johan

    We analyze the behavior of FRODO, a second generation service discovery protocol, in response to message loss in the network. Earlier protocols, like UPnP and Jini rely on underlying network layers to enhance their failure recovery. A comparison with UPnP and Jini shows that FRODO performs more

  19. The Performance of a Second Generation Service Discovery Protocol In Response to Message Loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; van de Glind, G.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Scholten, Johan

    We analyze the behavior of FRODO, a second generation service discovery protocol, in response to message loss in the network. First generation protocols, like UPnP and Jini rely on underlying network layers to enhance their failure recovery. A comparison with UPnP and Jini shows that FRODO performs

  20. Rapid Urbanization and the Aspiration and Challenge of Second-Generation Urban-Rural Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jialing, Han

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the features of second-generation rural migrants and the challenges facing them in terms of schooling and employment. There is a gap that is hard for them to step over: barriers against social inclusion. The article concludes that poverty tends to pass on to the next generation and fossilize. Therefore, it is vital to…

  1. Home Language Policy of Second-Generation Turkish Families in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezcioglu-Goktolga, Irem; Yagmur, Kutlay

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the family language policy of second-generation Turkish immigrant families in the Netherlands by exploring their language ideologies, practices, and management strategies. Using an ethnographic approach, data were collected through a set of observations and interviews with 20 families. Transcriptions of interviews and memos…

  2. Early antihepatitis C virus response with second-generation C200/C22 ELISA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, C. L.; Bresters, D.; Reesink, H. W.; Plaisier, A. A.; Schaasberg, W.; Leentvaar-Kuypers, A.; Choo, Q. L.; Quan, S.; Polito, A.; Houghton, M.

    1992-01-01

    Detection of early antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV) by a new second-generation C200/C22 anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a four-antigen recombinant immunoblot assay (4-RIBA) was compared with the first-generation anti-HCV C100 ELISA using sequential serum samples of 9

  3. Discovering Shared Experiences of Second Generation Community College Employees: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studebaker, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The second generation community college employee had not been a target population of any previous research in the field of higher education. This study added to a broader understanding of employees, their various characteristics, and the implications of those characteristics. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory defining the…

  4. Body fluid identification of blood, saliva and semen using second generation sequencing of micro-RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christel H.; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Tvedebrink, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We report a new second generation sequencing method for identification micro-RNA (miRNA) that can be used to identify body fluids and tissues. Principal component analysis of 10 miRNAs with high expression in 16 samples of blood, saliva and semen showed clear differences in the expression of mi...

  5. The Urban Growth Potential of Second-Generation Migrant Entrepreneurs: A Sectoral Study on Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baycan, T.; Nijkamp, P.; Sahin, M.

    2012-01-01

    A rise in second-generation migrant entrepreneurs and an increasing focus on modern economic sectors have become new trends in migrant entrepreneurship in recent years. Although traditional sectors are still the most popular among the first-generation migrant entrepreneurs, because of the increasing

  6. Is the Holocaust implicated in posttraumatic growth in second-generation Holocaust survivors? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Sharon; Mandl, Christine; Solomon, Zahava

    2013-08-01

    With the growing interest in posttraumatic growth (PTG), and the ongoing debate on the implications of transgenerational transmission of trauma, this longitudinal study examined PTG among Holocaust survivor offspring following their own exposure to trauma. Using self-report questionnaires, we assessed PTG over time in middle aged (age: M = 53 years) Israeli male combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War whose parents were (n = 43) and were not (n = 156) second-generation survivors of the Nazi Holocaust at 2 time points: 30 and 35 years following the war (in 2003 and 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and trauma exposure were also assessed in 1991. We hypothesized that second-generation survivors would report more PTG than controls. However, repeated measures design revealed that the second-generation veterans reported less PTG than veterans who were not second generation, which was evident in the PTG domains of relations to others, personal strength, and appreciation of life. Our findings suggest that transmission of trauma from one generation to the next is possibly implicated in the offspring's propensity for growth following subsequent trauma. Future research is warranted to examine the link between transmission of trauma and positive outcomes following trauma. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  7. A Second Generation Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Combustion Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Chang, Clarence T.; He, Zhuohui Joe; Lee, Phil; Dam, Bidhan; Mongia, Hukam

    2014-01-01

    A low-NO (sub x) aircraft gas turbine engine combustion concept was developed and tested. The concept is a second generation swirl-venturi lean direct injection (SV-LDI) concept. LDI is a lean-burn combustion concept in which the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone. Three second generation SV-LDI configurations were developed. All three were based on the baseline 9-point SV-LDI configuration reported previously. These second generation configurations had better low power operability than the baseline 9-point configuration. Two of these second generation configurations were tested in a NASA Glenn Research Center flametube; these two configurations are called the at dome and 5-recess configurations. Results show that the 5-recess configuration generally had lower NO (sub x) emissions than the flat dome configuration. Correlation equations were developed for the flat dome configuration so that the landing-takeoff NO (sub x) emissions could be estimated. The flat dome landing-takeoff NO (sub x) is estimated to be 87-88 percent below the CAEP/6 standards, exceeding the ERA project goal of 75 percent reduction.

  8. Second-Generation Turkish Youth in Europe: Explaining the Academic Disadvantage in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of…

  9. Writing and Reading Knowledge of Spanish/English Second-Generation Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Garcia, Krystal; Garcia, Melissa; Mejia, Joselyn; Vado, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Written bilingualism represents a particular type of bilingualism that is not frequently approached. The aim of this study was to investigate the writing and reading abilities of second-generation immigrants, Spanish-English bilinguals in South Florida. 58 participants (36 females, 22 males; 18-39 years of age) were selected. Both parents were…

  10. Second-generation Muslims in European societies: Comparative perspectives on education and religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleischmann, F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to describe and explain individual and contextual variation in educational attainment and religiosity of second-generation Turkish and Moroccan Muslims in North-West Europe. The two minority groups are compared across local and national receiving contexts in Belgium,

  11. Study on specificity of leukemia among the second generation of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The title specificity was studied and discussed for the leukemia (L) of 5 cases of the second generation who had lived in Osaka (Report 1977) in comparison with published statistic data of the second generation's 15 L cases in a life-span investigation (2003) and of 5,098 L cases in a nationwide report (2003). The A-bomb survivors were exposed in either Hiroshima or Nagasaki. The Osaka cases (4/5 boys) were morbid during 1958-1975, had acute L (myeloid L 3 cases, and unidentified type L 2) and died at ages of 10-19 y. Their parents were exposed to A-bomb directly (2 cases) or due to entrance in the city (3), and 1 father, 3 mothers and 1 couple of parents were exposed. Parent(s) in the life-span investigation were classified in high dose exposure (within 2 km distance from the city) and zero exposure (2.5 km afar from the city and other) groups. Their second generation (13/20 boys) were morbid during 1952-1969 at average age of 9.7 y (high dose group) and 8.3-7.2 y (zero group), and had acute myeloid L (8 cases), acute lymphocytic L (5) and other L. Exposure was to their 12 mothers, 4 fathers and 4 both parents. The nationwide statistics showed L of <18 years old pediatric patients (1986-2000) involving 56.7% boys, of morbid age peak of 3-4 y and of acute lymphocytic L in 68.8%. As above, it seemed that, in the second generation, their mothers were mostly exposed relative to fathers, the morbid sex ratio was higher in boys, morbid age was higher than general, and acute myeloid L was more frequent than general. L of the second generation thus seemed to be somehow specific, particularly in the higher age of morbidity and frequency of acute myeloid L. (T.T.)

  12. Calixarene-mediated liquid membrane transport of choline conjugates 3: The effect of handle variation on neurotransmitter transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James L; Fujii, Ayu; Roshandel, Sahar; To, Cuong-Alexander; Schramm, Michael P

    2017-07-01

    Upper rim phosphonic acid functionalized calix[4]arene affects selective transport of multiple molecular payloads through a liquid membrane. The secret is in the attachment of a receptor-complementary handle to the payload. We find that the trimethylammonium ethylene group present in choline is one of several general handles for the transport of drug and drug-like species. Herein we compare the effect of handle variation against the transport of serotonin and dopamine. We find that several ionizable amine termini handles are sufficient for transport and identify two ideal candidates. Their performance is significantly enhanced in HEPES buffered solutions. This inquiry completes a series of 3 studies aimed at optimization of this strategy. In completion a new approach towards synthetic receptor mediated selective small molecule transport has emerged; future work in vesicular and cellular systems will follow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling of nanoscale liquid mixture transport by density functional hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinariev, Oleg Yu.; Evseev, Nikolay V.

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of multiphase compositional hydrodynamics at nanoscale is performed by means of density functional hydrodynamics (DFH). DFH is the method based on density functional theory and continuum mechanics. This method has been developed by the authors over 20 years and used for modeling in various multiphase hydrodynamic applications. In this paper, DFH was further extended to encompass phenomena inherent in liquids at nanoscale. The new DFH extension is based on the introduction of external potentials for chemical components. These potentials are localized in the vicinity of solid surfaces and take account of the van der Waals forces. A set of numerical examples, including disjoining pressure, film precursors, anomalous rheology, liquid in contact with heterogeneous surface, capillary condensation, and forward and reverse osmosis, is presented to demonstrate modeling capabilities.

  14. Description of the Gas Transport through Dynamic Liquid Membrane.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uchytil, Petr; Setničková, Kateřina; Tseng, H.-H.; Šíma, Vladimír; Petričkovič, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 184, AUG 31 (2017), s. 152-157 ISSN 1383-5866 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) MOST-16-04 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : gas separation * liquid membrane * solurion-diffusion model Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 3.359, year: 2016

  15. Maximum overpressure in gastight containers of the storage and transport of dangerous liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, H.

    1977-11-01

    For a design of containers suitable under safety aspects for the transport and storage of dangerous liquids the maximum overpressure to be expected is an important value. The fundamentals for the determination of the internal pressure are pointed out for the simplified model of a rigid (i.e. not elastically or plastically deforming) and gastight container. By assuming of extreme storage and transport conditions (e.g. for the maximum liquid temperatures due to sun radiation) the figures of the maximum overpressure are calculated for about hundred liquids being of practical interest. The results show a significant influence of the compression of air in the ullage space caused by liquid expansion due to temperature rise (compression effect), particularly for liquids with a higher boiling point. The influence of the solubility of air in the liquid on the internal pressure can be neglected under the assumed transport conditions. The estimation of the volume increase of the container due to the effect of the internal pressure leads to the limitation, that the assumption of a rigid container is only justified for cylindrical and spherical steel tanks. The enlargement of the container volume due to a heating of the container shell does play no significant roll for all metal containers under the assumed conditions of storage and transport. The results obtained bear out essentially the stipulations for the test pressure and the filling limits laid down in the older German regulations for the transport of dangerous liquids in rail tank waggons and road tank vehicles without pressure relief valves. For the recently fixed and internationally harmonized regulations for tankcontainers the considerations and the results pointed out in this paper give rise to a review. (orig.) [de

  16. Tanker for the transport of very low temperature liquids at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messer, E S

    1968-02-08

    This tanker for the transport of very low temperature liquids, especially liquefied methane or natural gas, has a large capacity reservoir insulated on the outside. A second reservoir in the bottom of the hull, below the main reservoir, collects liquid leaking out from the main reservoir and is equipped with a drain pipe. The pipe serving to fill and to empty the main reservoir passes through this second reservoir. (4 claims)

  17. Comparison of the renewable transportation fuels, liquid hydrogen and methanol, with gasoline - energetic and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, M.; Staiss, F.; Bandi, A.; Weimer, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the renewable energy vectors liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) and methanol generated from atmospheric CO 2 are compared with the conventional crude oil-gasoline system. Both renewable concepts, liquid hydrogen and methanol, lead to a drastic CO 2 reduction compared to the fossil-based system. The comparison between the LH 2 and methanol vector for the transport sector shows nearly the same fuel cost and energy efficiency but strong infrastructure advantages for methanol. (author)

  18. Reduced Gravity Studies of Soret Transport Effects in Liquid Fuel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2004-01-01

    Soret transport, which is mass transport driven by thermal gradients, can be important in practical flames as well as laboratory flames by influencing transport of low molecular weight species (e.g., monatomic and diatomic hydrogen). In addition, gas-phase Soret transport of high molecular weight fuel species that are present in practical liquid fuels (e.g., octane or methanol) can be significant in practical flames (Rosner et al., 2000; Dakhlia et al., 2002) and in high pressure droplet evaporation (Curtis and Farrell, 1992), and it has also been shown that Soret transport effects can be important in determining oxygen diffusion rates in certain classes of microgravity droplet combustion experiments (Aharon and Shaw, 1998). It is thus useful to obtain information on flames under conditions where Soret effects can be clearly observed. This research is concerned with investigating effects of Soret transport on combustion of liquid fuels, in particular liquid fuel droplets. Reduced-gravity is employed to provide an ideal (spherically-symmetrical) experimental model with which to investigate effects of Soret transport on combustion. The research will involve performing reduced-gravity experiments on combustion of liquid fuel droplets in environments where Soret effects significantly influence transport of fuel and oxygen to flame zones. Experiments will also be performed where Soret effects are not expected to be important. Droplets initially in the 0.5 to 1 mm size range will be burned. Data will be obtained on influences of Soret transport on combustion characteristics (e.g., droplet burning rates, droplet lifetimes, gas-phase extinction, and transient flame behaviors) under simplified geometrical conditions that are most amenable to theoretical modeling (i.e., spherical symmetry). The experiments will be compared with existing theoretical models as well as new models that will be developed. Normal gravity experiments will also be performed.

  19. Price dynamics in the market for Liquid Petroleum Gas transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adland, Roar; Jia Haiying; Lu Jing

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dynamics of the spot freight rate in the Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) shipping market. The spot freight rate process is nonparametrically specified so that the model allows for maximal flexibility in fitting the data. The model is estimated using data for the Very Large Gas Carrier (VLGC) sector and the estimation results are compared to those of crude oil tankers available in the literature. The empirical results suggest that the LPG spot freight rate can be appropriately described by a simple linear stochastic model and does not exhibit the non-linearity found in other bulk shipping sectors

  20. Fault diagnosis of rolling bearing based on second generation wavelet denoising and morphological filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Lingjie; Xiang, Jiawei; Zhong, Yongteng; Song, Wenlei

    2015-01-01

    Defective rolling bearing response is often characterized by the presence of periodic impulses. However, the in-situ sampled vibration signal is ordinarily mixed with ambient noises and easy to be interfered even submerged. The hybrid approach combining the second generation wavelet denoising with morphological filter is presented. The raw signal is purified using the second generation wavelet. The difference between the closing and opening operator is employed as the morphology filter to extract the periodicity impulsive features from the purified signal and the defect information is easily to be extracted from the corresponding frequency spectrum. The proposed approach is evaluated by simulations and vibration signals from defective bearings with inner race fault, outer race fault, rolling element fault and compound faults, espectively. Results show that the ambient noises can be fully restrained and the defect information of the above defective bearings is well extracted, which demonstrates that the approach is feasible and effective for the fault detection of rolling bearing.

  1. Alcohol consumption among first- and second-generation immigrant and native adolescents in 23 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barsties, Lisa S.; Walsh, Sophie D.; Huijts, Tim

    2017-01-01

    and proportions of heavy episodic drinkers (HED) are associated with immigrant adolescents’ alcohol consumption. Design and Methods: We used cross-sectional survey data from the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Applying multilevel regression analyses, we investigated the lifetime......Introduction and Aims: This internationally comparative study examines differences in alcohol consumption between first- and second-generation immigrant and native adolescents. We also investigate to what extent origin and receiving country alcohol per capita consumption (APCC) rates...... frequency of alcohol use and drunkenness in 69 842 13- to 15-year-olds in 23 receiving countries, with immigrants from over 130 origin countries (82% natives, 6% first-generation immigrants and 12% second-generation immigrants). Results: The lifetime frequency of alcohol use was higher among natives than...

  2. [Eating disorders in psychiatric patients during treatment with second generation antipsychotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, L M; Gorobets, L N; Bulanov, V S; Litvinov, A V; Ivanova, G P; Tsarenko, M A; Polyakovskaya, T P

    2015-01-01

    To identify the frequency and characteristics of eating disorders in patients with schizophrenia treated with second generation antipsychotics. A sample included 56 patients (48 women and 8 men, mean age 28 ± 4.5 years) with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Patients received risperidone, quetiapine and olanzapine. The study employed clinical-anamnestic, endocrinological methods and assessment of eating behavior with DEBQ (The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire). All of the patients had extra Body mass or obesity: extra Body mass of the 1st grade was found in 18 patients (BMIobesity grade 2-3 in 38 patients (BMI>30 kg/m²). Authors identified different types of eating disorders: external, restrictive and emotiogenic as well as the relationship of their prevalence and severity with sex, drug, presence and grade of obesity. Based on these we developed recommendations for management of patients treated with second generation antipsychotics.

  3. Microvascular pressure responses of second-generation rats chronically exposed to 2 g centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D. R.; Knapp, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a study aimed at a quantitative comparison of microvascular dynamics in second-generation rats reared in a 2-g force field produced by centrifugation with similar data from animals reared in a centrifuge that produced only a 1-g force. It is shown that the pressure distribution in the mesenteric microvasculature of the second generation of rats reared in a 2-g environment, as well as the animals' blood pressure response to epinephrine, are significantly different compared to their 1-g counterparts. In particular, 1-g and 2-g chronic centrifugation enhances the arterial blood pressure, and the 2-g force field attenuates the pressor effects of norepinephrine.

  4. Effect of excess air on second-generation PFB combustion plant performance and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, A.; Garland, R.; Newby, R.; Rehmat, A.; Rubow, L.; Bonk, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design of a 1.4-MPa (14-atm) coal-fired second-generation pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) combustion plant and identifies the performance and economic changes that result as the excess air and thus gas turbine-to-steam turbine power ratio, is changed. The performance of these plants, another second- generation PFB combustion plant, and a conventional pulverized-coal (PC)-fired plant with wet limestone flue gas desulfurization is compared. Depending upon the conditions selected, the PFB combustion plant can achieve a 45 percent efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the coal used as fuel) and a cost of electricity at least 20 percent lower than that of the conventional PC-fired plant

  5. Preparing for Life: Gender, Religiosity and Education Amongst Second Generation Hindus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Holtmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of Hinduism is its respect for religious diversity. Amidst religious pluralism in a multicultural Canadian society this strength poses challenges for the second generation. Drawing on qualitative interview data from 57 ‘1.5’ and second generation university students, this article examines the roles that Hinduism and gender play in the process of identity construction in visible minority groups. These young people were raised in families where traditional Hindu religious and cultural practices were valued by immigrants as they creatively adjusted to Canadian society. Parents tried to actively involve their children in their way of life but were largely unable to assist them in articulating the meaning of Hindu rituals and beliefs. As a result, young men and women are caught between the values of their parent’s generation and those implicit in Canadian educational institutions. The secularism of this educational system, permeated by religious illiteracy, contributes to tensions and ambiguities in identity construction.

  6. Biases in medication prescribing: the case of second-generation antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhinson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The shift from first-generation antipsychotic medications to second-generation antipsychotic medications initially caused a wave of excitement about the potential for improved and broader efficacy of these medications concurrent with an improved side-effect profile. Recent data from high-quality research analyses have subsequently raised significant questions about these claims. This research evidence has, however, not altered prescribing behavior in a way that would be expected from fully rational evaluation of the evidence. Prescribing decisions represent poorly understood, complex behaviors influenced by a number of external and internal forces, some of which may be elucidated by advances in social and cognitive psychology. In this article, the decision to prescribe first- versus second-generation antipsychotic medications is examined, and specific social psychological biases and individual cognitive biases are hypothesized to be significant influences on clinicians. These biases may perpetuate disparity between research evidence and clinical practice.

  7. Parental styles in second generation effects of genocide stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nigel P; Om, Chariya; Kim, Thida; Vorn, Sin

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the impact of parental styles on second generation effects of trauma among adolescent offspring of survivors of the Khmer Rouge (KR) genocide in Cambodia. Two hundred high school students completed measures addressing their parents' trauma stemming from the KR regime, parental styles (role reversing, overprotective), depression and anxiety. Parents' role reversing parental style and mothers' overprotective parenting were shown to mediate the impact of their trauma symptoms on the child's depression and anxiety. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  8. The quest for a 'better life': Second-generation Turkish-Germans 'return' to 'paradise'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Kılınç

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper uses a lifestyle-migration lens to analyse the 'return' of the Turkish-German second generation to their parents' homeland, Turkey. It focuses on a scenically attractive touristic region, Antalya on the south coast, where second-generation 'returnees' find a highly congenial environment to pursue their project of living a 'better life' in the ancestral homeland. Methods: Thirty in-depth interviews with second-generation Turkish-Germans, mostly in their 30s and 40s, were carried out in and around Antalya in 2014. Narratives were coded and prepared for thematic analysis using NVivo. Results: According to thematic analysis of interview narratives, many respondents were seeking to 'escape' from difficult personal, family, and economic situations. They mobilised their human capital of educational qualifications, language skills, and life experience to set up or get jobs in hotels, restaurants, and other tourist services, combining work with a relaxed attitude to life in what they saw as a 'paradise' of natural beauty and social open-mindedness. Alongside these practical considerations of seeking a better work-life balance were more existential themes of rediscovering their 'true selves' and reinventing the meaning of 'home' in this cosmopolitan niche. Contribution: The first contribution relates to the use of the concept of lifestyle migration to explain the experiences of second-generation Turkish-German 'returnees' who resettle in Turkey. Secondly we focus on a particular place in Turkey - Antalya - which offers a particular 'space' for the study population to achieve what they perceive as a 'better life'.

  9. Design for a second-generation proton storage ring at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a second-generation proton storage ring complex at LAMPF. The facility would consist of two stacked racetrack-shaped machines. These machines would deliver a 1.2-mA beam of 1.6-GeV protons at 48 Hz. The pulse length would be 1.75 μsec which represents a time compression of 570. 1 ref., 8 figs., 1 tab

  10. An Enhanced Multi-Pager Environment Support for Second Generation Microkernels

    OpenAIRE

    Klimiankou, Yauhen

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present a mechanism of enhanced paging support for the second generation microkernels in the form of explicit support of multi-pager environment for the tasks running in the system. Proposed mechanism is based on the intra-kernel high granularity pagers assignments per virtual address space, which allow efficient and simple dispatching of page faults to the appropriate pagers. The paging is one of the major features of the virtual memory, which is extens...

  11. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC CONFLICTS: AGRICULTURAL USE OR CULTIVATION BIOMASS SECOND GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Trohlyuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To negotiate the consequences of agricultural modernization as an example of nature Polissya areas in Ukraine. Studies addressing the conceptual foundations of ecological and economic conflict over agricultural use or cultivation of second generation biomass due to the transformation of land use during the economic reforms in the country. Proposed to solve it through socio-ecological-economic assessment of environmental audit procedure in the context of the strategy of "green" economy.

  12. Wentzel-Bardeen singularity in coupled Luttinger liquids: Transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.

    1994-01-01

    The recent progress on 1 D interacting electrons systems and their applications to study the transport properties of quasi one dimensional wires is reviewed. We focus on strongly correlated elections coupled to low energy acoustic phonons in one dimension. The exponents of various response functions are calculated, and their striking sensitivity to the Wentzel-Bardeen singularity is discussed. For the Hubbard model coupled to phonons the equivalent of a phase diagram is established. By increasing the filling factor towards half filling the WB singularity is approached. This in turn suppresses antiferromagnetic fluctuations and drives the system towards the superconducting regime, via a new intermediate (metallic) phase. The implications of this phenomenon on the transport properties of an ideal wire as well as the properties of a wire with weak or strong scattering are analyzed in a perturbative renormalization group calculation. This allows to recover the three regimes predicted from the divergence criteria of the response functions

  13. Mass transport thermodynamics in nonisothermal molecular liquid mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Semen N [Institute for Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schimpf, M E [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Boise State University, Boise, ID (United States)

    2009-10-31

    Mass transport in a nonisothermal binary molecular mixture is systematically discussed in terms of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, which for the first time allows a consistent and unambiguous description of the process. The thermodynamic and hydrodynamic approaches are compared, revealing that nonequilibrium thermodynamics and physicochemical hydrodynamics yield essentially the same results for molecular systems. The applicability limits for the proposed version of the thermodynamic approach are determined for large particles. (methodological notes)

  14. Processing Practice of Second Generation Tempeh Recipein Centre of Tempeh Home Industry in Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Kristianto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malang still faces nutrition problems that need to be solved with the use of local potential in the form of tempeh. More nutritious and attractive tempeh productsmay be produced by introducing new way of processing known as second generation of tempeh. This study was aimed to explore second generation tempe consumption pattern of in Malang. Methods: This study was descriptive qualitative. Tempeh consumption pattern was obtained from group of mother of 6-59 months child with malnutrition and pregnant with chronic energy deficiency in Kendalkerep health care center in which tempeh industry is localised and Arjowinangun health centers as a comparison. Data collection was conducted through FGD and tempeh cooking contest. Results: In general, respondents consumed tempeh almost every day. Tempe products were prepared traditionally in form of snack or protein source side dish. Tempeh processing is generally done by frying. Respondents have recognized the new way of processing tempeh in form of second generations.Respondents living in the tempeh industry area usedmore various ingredients and more complex methods of cooking. They also indicated the ability to adopt new way of tempeh processing. Conclusion: People in Malang consumes tempeh in two forms, ie. side dishes and snack traditionally processed mainly by frying. They may adopt new way of tempeh processing. Recommendation: Futher research is needed to prove the benefit in reducing the malnutrition.

  15. Incidence of Schizophrenia Among Second-Generation Immigrants in the Jerusalem Perinatal Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Cheryl; Perrin, Mary; Harlap, Susan; Deutsch, Lisa; Fennig, Shmuel; Manor, Orly; Nahon, Daniella; Kimhy, David; Malaspina, Dolores; Susser, Ezra

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Increased incidence of schizophrenia is observed among some immigrant groups in Europe, with the offspring of immigrants, ie “second-generation” immigrants particularly vulnerable. Few contemporary studies have evaluated the risk of schizophrenia among second-generation immigrants in other parts of the world. Methods: We studied the incidence of schizophrenia in relation to parental immigrant status in a population-based cohort of 88 829 offspring born in Jerusalem in 1964–1976. Parental countries of birth were obtained from birth certificates and grouped together as (1) Israel, (2) Other West Asia, (3) North Africa, and (4) Europe and industrialized countries. Cox proportional hazards methods were used in adjusting for sex, parents’ ages, maternal education, social class, and birth order. Results: Linkage with Israel's Psychiatric Registry identified 637 people admitted to psychiatric care facilities with schizophrenia-related diagnoses, before 1998. Incidence of schizophrenia was not increased among second-generation immigrants in this birth cohort, neither overall nor by specific group. Conclusions: The difference in risk of schizophrenia among second-generation immigrants in Europe and in this Israeli birth cohort suggests that the nature of the immigration experience may be relevant to risk, including reasons for migration, the nature of entry, and subsequent position in the host country for immigrants and their offspring. Minority status may be of importance as, in later studies, immigrants to Israel from Ethiopia had increased risk of schizophrenia. PMID:18648022

  16. Quality of Life and Stressful Life Events in First and Second Generation Immigrant Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lemos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine differences in quality of life and stressful life events, in first and second generation immigrant adolescents living in Algarve. A total of 172 immigrant adolescents participated in the study, completing the kidscreen-52, the stressful and negative life events inventory and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Results suggest that younger immigrant adolescents report more physical well-being and a higher mood level. Concerning gender differences, girls scored higher than boys in physical well-being, mood and self-perception, but no differences were found on the other kidscreen subscales. First generation immigrants scored significantly higher than second generation ones on the general quality of life index, psychological well-being, autonomy, financial resources and school environment. However, the second-generation immigrants did not seem to be more exposed to stressful life events than the first-generation group. When selecting relevant variables for well-being promotion and for intervention, we must consider that immigrants are more exposed to economic vulnerability, may experience difficulties in adapting to a different school context, and are at higher risk of social exclusion.

  17. A Comparison of Three Second-generation Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Combustor Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Podboy, Derek P.; He, Zhuohui Joe; Lee, Phil; Dam, Bidhan; Mongia, Hukam

    2016-01-01

    Three variations of a low emissions aircraft gas turbine engine combustion concept were developed and tested. The concept is a second generation swirl-venturi lean direct injection (SV-LDI) concept. LDI is a lean-burn combustion concept in which the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone. All three variations were based on the baseline 9- point SV-LDI configuration reported previously. The three second generation SV-LDI variations are called the 5-recess configuration, the flat dome configuration, and the 9- recess configuration. These three configurations were tested in a NASA Glenn Research Center medium pressure flametube. All three second generation variations had better low power operability than the baseline 9-point configuration. All three configurations had low NO(sub x) emissions, with the 5-recess configuration generally having slightly lower NO(x) than the flat dome or 9-recess configurations. Due to the limitations of the flametube that prevented testing at pressures above 20 atm, correlation equations were developed for the at dome and 9-recess configurations so that the landing-takeoff NO(sub x) emissions could be estimated. The flat dome and 9-recess landing-takeoff NO(x) emissions are estimated to be 81-88% below the CAEP/6 standards, exceeding the project goal of 75% reduction.

  18. Electromyographic monitoring for prevention of phrenic nerve palsy in second-generation cryoballoon procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Frédéric; Koutbi, Linda; Gitenay, Edouard; Hourdain, Jérome; Maille, Baptiste; Trévisan, Lory; Deharo, Jean-Claude

    2015-04-01

    Electromyography-guided phrenic nerve (PN) monitoring using a catheter positioned in a hepatic vein can aid in preventing phrenic nerve palsy (PNP) during cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation. We wanted to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of PN monitoring during procedures using second-generation cryoballoons. This study included 140 patients (43 women) in whom pulmonary vein isolation was performed using a second-generation cryoballoon. Electromyography-guided PN monitoring was performed by pacing the right PN at 60 per minute and recording diaphragmatic compound motor action potential (CMAP) via a quadripolar catheter positioned in a hepatic vein. If a 30% decrease in CMAP amplitude was observed, cryoapplication was discontinued with forced deflation to avoid a PNP. Monitoring was unfeasible in 8 of 140 patients (5.7%), PNP occurred in 1. Stable CMAP amplitudes were achieved before ablation in 132 of 140 patients (94.3%). In 18 of 132 patients (13.6%), a 30% decrease in CMAP amplitude occurred and cryoablation was discontinued. Each time, recovery of CMAP amplitude took <60 s. In 9 of 18 cases, a second cryoapplication in the same pulmonary vein was safely performed. We observed no PNP or complication related to electromyography-guided PN monitoring. Electromyography-guided PN monitoring using a catheter positioned in a hepatic vein seems feasible and effective to prevent PNP during cryoballoon ablation using second-generation cryoballoon. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Recent Progress on the Second Generation CMORPH: A Prototype Operational Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pingping; Joyce, Robert; Wu, Shaorong

    2016-04-01

    As reported at the EGU General Assembly of 2015, a conceptual test system was developed for the second generation CMORPH to produce global analyses of 30-min precipitation on a 0.05deg lat/lon grid over the entire globe from pole to pole through integration of information from satellite observations as well as numerical model simulations. The second generation CMORPH is built upon the Kalman Filter based CMORPH algorithm of Joyce and Xie (2011). Inputs to the system include both rainfall and snowfall rate retrievals from passive microwave (PMW) measurements aboard all available low earth orbit (LEO) satellites, precipitation estimates derived from infrared (IR) observations of geostationary (GEO) as well as LEO platforms, and precipitation simulations from numerical global models. Sub-systems were developed and refined to derive precipitation estimates from the GEO and LEO IR observations and to compute precipitating cloud motion vectors. The results were reported at the EGU of 2014 and the AGU 2015 Fall Meetings. In this presentation, we report our recent work on the construction of a prototype operational processing system for the second generation CMORPH. The second generation CMORPH prototype operational processing system takes in the passive microwave (PMW) retrievals of instantaneous precipitation rates from all available sensors, the full-resolution GEO and LEO IR data, as well as the hourly precipitation fields generated by the NOAA/NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) Reanalysis (CFS). First, a combined field of PMW based precipitation retrievals (MWCOMB) is created on a 0.05deg lat/lon grid over the entire globe through inter-calibrating retrievals from various sensors against a common reference. For this experiment, the reference field is the GMI based retrievals with climatological adjustment against the TMI retrievals using data over the overlapping period. Precipitation estimation is then derived from the GEO and LEO IR data through calibration against

  20. Interfacial transport phenomena and stability in liquid-metal/water systems: scaling considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulla, S.; Liu, X.; Anderson, M.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.; Cho, D.

    2001-01-01

    One concept being considered for steam generation in innovative nuclear reactor applications, involves water coming into direct contact with a circulating molten metal. The vigorous agitation of the two fluids, the direct liquid-liquid contact and the consequent large interfacial area give rise to very high heat transfer coefficients and rapid steam generation. For an optimum design of such direct contact heat exchange and vaporization systems, detailed knowledge is necessary of the various flow regimes, interfacial transport phenomena, heat transfer and operational stability. In this paper we describe current results from the first year of this research that studies the transport phenomena involved with the injection of water into molten metals (e.g., lead alloys). In particular, this work discusses scaling considerations related to direct contact heat exchange, our experimental plans for investigation and a test plan for the important experimental parameters; i.e., the water and liquid metal mass flow rates, the liquid metal pool temperature and the ambient pressure of the direct contact heat exchanger. Past experimental work and initial scaling results suggest that our experiments can directly represent the proper liquid metal pool temperature and the water subcooling. The experimental variation in water and liquid metal flow rates and system pressure (1-10 bar), although smaller than the current conceptual system designs, is sufficient to verify the expected scale effects to demonstrate the phenomena. (authors)

  1. Dielectric response and transport properties of alkylammonium formate ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazet, Andreas; Buchner, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Dielectric relaxation spectra of three members of the alkylammonium formate family of protic ionic liquids (PILs), namely, ethylammonium formate (EAF), n-butylammonium formate (BuAF), and n-pentylammonium formate (PeAF), as well as the pseudo-PIL triethylamine + formic acid (molar ratio 1:2; TEAF) have been studied over a wide frequency (50 MHz to 89 GHz) and temperature range (5-65 °C), complemented by measurements of their density, viscosity, and conductivity. It turned out that the dominating relaxation of EAF, BuAF, and PeAF arises from both cation and anion reorientations which are synchronized in their dynamics due to hydrogen bonding. Amplitudes and relaxation times of this mode reflect the—compared to nitrate—different nature of H bonding between the formate anion and ethylammonium cation, as well as increasing segregation of the PIL structure into polar and non-polar domains. The TEAF data suggest that its dominating relaxation is due to the rotation of the complex triethylamineṡ(formic acid)2 in which no significant proton transfer to an ion pair occurred. Weak dissociation of this complex into ions was postulated to account for the high conductivity of TEAF.

  2. Investigation of thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid transition metals using Wills-Harrison potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleque, M.A.; Bhuiyan, G.M.; Rashid, R.I.M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties such as entropy, specific heat capacity at constant pressure and isothermal compressibility have been calculated for liquid 3d, 4d and 5d transition metals near melting temperature. The hard sphere diameter for all such systems is estimated from the potential profile generated from the Wills and Harrison's prescription using linearized WCA theory of liquid. Evaluated values of entropy and specific heat capacity are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Transport property like shear viscosity for these liquid metals is obtained using the same potential profile. Lack of experimental data at melting temperatures hampers detailed comparison for all such systems. However, for the case of transport property, the results obtained are found to compare qualitatively well with the available experimental data. (author)

  3. Dynamics of topological solitons, knotted streamlines, and transport of cargo in liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Hayley R. O.; Ackerman, Paul J.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Sheetah, Ghadah H.; Fornberg, Bengt; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2018-05-01

    Active colloids and liquid crystals are capable of locally converting the macroscopically supplied energy into directional motion and promise a host of new applications, ranging from drug delivery to cargo transport at the mesoscale. Here we uncover how topological solitons in liquid crystals can locally transform electric energy to translational motion and allow for the transport of cargo along directions dependent on frequency of the applied electric field. By combining polarized optical video microscopy and numerical modeling that reproduces both the equilibrium structures of solitons and their temporal evolution in applied fields, we uncover the physical underpinnings behind this reconfigurable motion and study how it depends on the structure and topology of solitons. We show that, unexpectedly, the directional motion of solitons with and without the cargo arises mainly from the asymmetry in rotational dynamics of molecular ordering in liquid crystal rather than from the asymmetry of fluid flows, as in conventional active soft matter systems.

  4. Analysis of contamination in liquids hydrocarbons transport for pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Ricardo Zárate Neira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline contamination is usually understood to mean both the mixing effect produced when two different products transported by the same pipeline come into contact qith each other and often product of such mixing as well. This product os often referred to as "contamination" or as "interface" Cleary such intermixing is generally less serious in crude carrying, pipelines where each batch can become somewhat polluted by the batches inmediately preceding and immediately following without significant damage. However, the situation is different in a finished products pipeline, which may carry products as different as aircraft gasoline and light fuel oils. This article presents a brief description of the main factors influencing contamination with the objective of optimize conditions operating and to drive the more important respects about them.

  5. High liquid fuel yielding biofuel processes and a roadmap for the future transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet R.

    In a fossil-fuel deprived world when crude oil will be scarce and transportation need cannot be met with electricity and transportation liquid fuel must be produced, biomass derived liquid fuels can be a natural replacement. However, the carbon efficiency of the currently known biomass to liquid fuel conversion processes ranges from 35-40%, yielding 90 ethanol gallon equivalents (ege) per ton of biomass. This coupled with the fact that the efficiency at which solar energy is captured by biomass (hydrodeoxygenation is proposed which can achieve liquid fuel yield of 215 ege/ton consuming 0.11 kg hydrogen per liter of oil. Due to the lower hydrogen consumption of the H2Bioil process, synergistically integrated transition pathways are feasible where hot syngas derived from coal gasification (H2Bioil-C) or a natural gas reformer (H 2Bioil-NG) is used to supply the hydrogen and process heat for the biomass fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation. Another off-shoot of the H2Bioil process is the H2Bioil-B process, where hydrogen required for the hydropyrolysis is obtained from gasification of a fraction of the biomass. H2Bioil-B achieves the highest liquid fuel yield (126-146 ege/ton of biomass) reported in the literature for any self-contained conversion of biomass to biofuel. Finally, an integration of the H2Bioil process with the H2CAR process is suggested which can achieve 100% carbon efficiency (330 ege/ton of biomass) at the expense of 0.24 kg hydrogen/liter of oil. A sun-to-fuel efficiency analysis shows that extracting CO2 from air and converting it to liquid fuel is at least two times more efficient than growing dedicated fuel crops and converting them to liquid fuel even for the highest biomass growth rates feasible by algae. This implies that liquid fuel should preferably be produced from sustainably available waste (SAW) biomass first and if the SAW biomass is unable to meet the demand for liquid fuel, then, CO2 should be extracted from air and converted to

  6. Electronic transport properties of 4f shell elements of liquid metal using hard sphere Yukawa system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, H. P.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.

    2018-04-01

    The electronic transport properties are analyzed for 4f shell elements of liquid metals. To examine the electronic transport properties like electrical resistivity (ρ), thermal conductivity (σ) and thermo electrical power (Q), we used our own parameter free model potential with the Hard Sphere Yukawa (HSY) reference system. The screening effect on aforesaid properties has been examined by using different screening functions like Hartree (H), Taylor (T) and Sarkar (S). The correlations of our resultsand other data with available experimental values are intensely promising. Also, we conclude that our newly constructed parameter free model potential is capable of explaining the above mentioned electronic transport properties.

  7. Atomistic Force Field for Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids: Reliable Transport Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voroshylova, I. V.; Chaban, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable force field (FF) is a central issue in successful prediction of physical chemical properties via computer simulations. This work introduces refined FF parameters for six popular ionic liquids (ILs) of the pyridinium family (butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)......Reliable force field (FF) is a central issue in successful prediction of physical chemical properties via computer simulations. This work introduces refined FF parameters for six popular ionic liquids (ILs) of the pyridinium family (butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, bis......(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, dicyanamide, hexafluorophosphate, triflate, chloride). We elaborate a systematic procedure, which allows accounting for specific cationanion interactions in the liquid phase. Once these interactions are described accurately, all experimentally determined transport properties can be reproduced. We prove...... and elevated temperature. The developed atomistic models provide a systematic refinement upon the well-known Canongia LopesPadua (CL&P) FF. Together with the original CL&P parameters the present models foster a computational investigation of ionic liquids....

  8. Separation of some metal ions using coupled transport supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Liquid membrane extraction processes has become very popular due to their superiority in many ways over other separation techniques. In coupled transport membranes the metal ions can be transported across the membrane against their concentration gradient under the influence of chemical potential difference. Liquid membranes consisting of a carrier-cum-diluent, supported in microporous polymeric hydrophobic films have been studied for transport of metal ions like U(VI), Cr(VI), Be(II), V(V), Ti(IV), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hf(IV), W(VI), and Co(II). The present paper presents basic data with respect to flux and permeabilities of these metal ions across membranes based on experimental results and theoretical equations, using different carriers and diluents and provides a brief reference to possibility of such membranes for large scale applications. (author)

  9. Bioethanol and power from integrated second generation biomass: A Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, Márcia R.; Seleghim, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The impacts of integrating new sugarcane conversion using bagasse and straw. • Industrial conversion of sugarcane into energy carriers: ethanol and electricity. • A reference sugarcane industrial was simulated by the Monte Carlo method. • Simultaneously optimal ethanol production and electricity generation occur at low burning bagasse rates. - Abstract: The main objective of this work is to assess the impacts of integrating new biomass conversion technologies into an existing sugarcane industrial processing plant in terms of its multi-objective optimal operating conditions. A typical sugarcane mill is identified and a second generation ethanol production pathway is incorporated to give the operator the possibility of controlling the ratio between the rates of burning bagasse and straw (sugarcane tops and leaves) to their second generation processing to achieve optimal ethanol and electricity outputs. A set of equations describing the associated conversion unit operations and chemical reactions is simulated by the Monte Carlo method and the corresponding operating envelope is constructed and statistically analyzed. These equations permit to calculate ethanol production and electricity generation in terms of a virtually infinite number of scenarios characterized by two controlled variables (burning bagasse and straw mass flow rates) and several uncontrolled variables (biomass composition, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin yields, fermentation efficiencies, etc.). Results reveal that the input variables have specific statistical characteristics when the corresponding operating states lay near the maximum energy limit (Pareto frontier). For example, since the objectives being optimized are intrinsically antagonistic, i.e. the increase of one dictates the decrease of the other, it is better to convert bagasse to ethanol via second generation pathway because of the high energy requirements of its dewatering prior to combustion and low heat

  10. Testicular cancer risk in first- and second-generation immigrants to Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrup, Charlotte; Westergaard, Tine; Schnack, Tine; Oudin, Anna; Ritz, Christian; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2008-01-02

    Immigrant studies offer insights into the relative importance of environment and genes in disease etiology. There is considerable variation in testicular cancer incidence worldwide. We investigated testicular cancer risk in first- and second-generation immigrants to Denmark, a high-incidence country, to evaluate the relative influence of genes and environment and the potential timing of action of environmental factor(s). A cohort of 2.1 million men who were born since 1930 and lived in Denmark between 1968 and 2003 was established based on information in the Danish Civil Registration System, which included their immigration histories. Cancer histories were obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. Testicular cancer risk was estimated as rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on log-linear Poisson regression. Overall, 4216 testicular cancer cases occurred during 43 million person-years of follow-up in 2.1 million men. These included 166 cases among 344,444 direct immigrants to Denmark and 13 cases among 56,189 men born in Denmark to immigrant parents. These first- and second-generation immigrants had RRs of testicular cancer of 0.37 (95% CI = 0.31 to 0.43) and 0.88 (95% CI = 0.51 to 1.53), respectively, compared with men born in Denmark of parents born in Denmark. The rate in first-generation immigrants was not modified by age at immigration or duration of stay and reflected that in the country of origin. The testicular cancer risk in first-generation immigrants was lower than that in native-born Danes and reflected that in the countries of origin, whereas the risk in second-generation immigrants was similar to that in natives of Denmark. Together these findings argue for a substantial influence of environmental factors limited to the period early in life, most probably to the period in utero.

  11. Statmaster and HEROS - web-based courses first and second generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pia Veldt; Rootzen, Helle

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing focus on life-long learning, and with the convenience and accessibility of the Internet, the market for web-based courses has expanded vastly in recent times–in particular in connection with continuing education. However, teaching web-based courses presents various technical...... as well as pedagogical challenges. Some of these challenges are addressed, and means to dealing with them are suggested. A second generation of web-based courses is comprised of learning objects, which allows for tailoring courses for specialized groups of students, and accommodate individualized learning....... The concept of learning objects and how they are used to form new courses are discussed....

  12. Progress in AMSC scale-up of second generation HTS wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Rupich, M.W.; Schoop, U.; Verebelyi, D.T.; Thieme, C.L.H.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Huang, Y.; Siegal, E.; Buczek, D.; Carter, W.; Nguyen, N.; Schreiber, J.; Prasova, M.; Lynch, J.; Tucker, D.; Fleshler, S.

    2007-01-01

    American Superconductor has successfully scaled up its low-cost, high volume second generation (2G) HTS wire process into pre-pilot scale production, with performance approaching first generation (1G) HTS wire. AMSC's manufacturing approach is based on RABiTS TM /MOD wide strip technology, with metal organic deposition (MOD) process for the YBCO layer and the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) process for the template. In this paper, we review the status of the 2G manufacturing scale up at AMSC and describe the properties and architecture of the 2G wire being manufactured and developed for various applications

  13. Progress in AMSC scale-up of second generation HTS wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W. [American Superconductor Corporation, 2 Technology Drive, Westborough, MA 01545 (United States)], E-mail: wzhang@amsuper.com; Rupich, M.W.; Schoop, U.; Verebelyi, D.T.; Thieme, C.L.H.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Huang, Y.; Siegal, E.; Buczek, D.; Carter, W.; Nguyen, N.; Schreiber, J.; Prasova, M.; Lynch, J.; Tucker, D.; Fleshler, S. [American Superconductor Corporation, 2 Technology Drive, Westborough, MA 01545 (United States)

    2007-10-01

    American Superconductor has successfully scaled up its low-cost, high volume second generation (2G) HTS wire process into pre-pilot scale production, with performance approaching first generation (1G) HTS wire. AMSC's manufacturing approach is based on RABiTS{sup TM}/MOD wide strip technology, with metal organic deposition (MOD) process for the YBCO layer and the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) process for the template. In this paper, we review the status of the 2G manufacturing scale up at AMSC and describe the properties and architecture of the 2G wire being manufactured and developed for various applications.

  14. Whole system analysis of second generation bioenergy production and Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Dagmar; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall

    2017-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy that has higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on ecosystem services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by current climate change. It is important to establish how second generation bioenergy crops (Miscanthus, SRC willow and poplar) can contribute by closing the gap between reducing fossil fuel use and increasing the use of other renewable sources in a sustainable way. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecosystem services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). We will present estimated yields for the above named crops in Europe using the ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor models. These yields will be brought into context with a whole system analysis, detailing trade-offs and synergies for land use change, food security, GHG emissions and soil and water security. Methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate ecosystem valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ecosystem Services Framework) will be used to estimate and visualise the impacts of increased use of second generation bioenergy crops on the above named ecosystem services. The results will be linked to potential yields to generate "inclusion or exclusion areas" in Europe in order to establish suitable areas for bioenergy crop production and the extent of use possible. Policy is an important factor for using second generation bioenergy crops in a sustainable way. We will present how whole system analysis can be used to create scenarios for countries or on a continental scale. As an

  15. Development of the Second-Generation Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter with Variable Geometry: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Michael [South Dakota School of Mines

    2017-07-25

    This study investigates the effect of design changes on the hydrodynamics of a novel oscillating surge wave energy converter being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The design utilizes controllable geometry features to shed structural loads while maintaining a rated power over a greater number of sea states. The second-generation design will seek to provide a more refined control of performance because the first-generation design demonstrated performance reductions considered too large for smooth power output. Performance is evaluated using frequency domain analysis with consideration of a nonideal power-take-off system, with respect to power absorption, foundation loads, and power-take-off torque.

  16. Platelet-rich fibrin: Evolution of a second-generation platelet concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha Raja V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is a platelet concentrate that has been used widely to accelerate soft-tissue and hard-tissue healing. The preparation of PRP has been described by several authors. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF was first described by Choukroun et al. in France. It has been referred to as a second-generation platelet concentrate, which has been shown to have several advantages over traditionally prepared PRP. Its chief advantages include ease of preparation and lack of biochemical handling of blood, which makes this preparation strictly autologous. This article describes the evolution of this novel platelet concentrate, referred to as PRF.

  17. Aesthetic guidelines for second-generation indirect inlay and onlay composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, P

    1998-05-01

    Recent innovations in indirect composite technology and adhesive bonding procedures have resulted in the development of advanced materials particularly suited for inlay and onlay restorations. Microhybrid composite resins are characterized by a filler/matrix ratio that is significantly greater than that of earlier materials. This article reviews the physical properties and clinical application of these "second-generation" composite resins, with emphasis on a system that utilizes a heat-curing process in conjunction with nitrogen pressure to fabricate a material with improved mechanical and aesthetic properties.

  18. Second-Generation System for Three-Dimensional Imaging Using a Single Laser Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-23

    Welford and t. Winston , The Optics of Nonimaging Concentrators , Academic Press, New York, 1978. 14. N. F. Borelli, D. L. Morse, R. H. Bellman, and W. L...inserting such an optical concentrator , we can use a practical- 9ber layout for the converter with moderate ratio of fiber core to unit cell area and...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words)15 199t This paper describes the design of a second-generation version of an optical detector capable of producing a 3-D

  19. Density scaling of the transport properties of molecular and ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Enriqueta R; Pensado, Alfonso S; Comuñas, María J P; Pádua, Agílio A H; Fernández, Josefa; Harris, Kenneth R

    2011-04-14

    Casalini and Roland [Phys. Rev. E 69, 062501 (2004); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 3936 (2007)] and other authors have found that both the dielectric relaxation times and the viscosity, η, of liquids can be expressed solely as functions of the group (TV (γ)), where T is the temperature, V is the molar volume, and γ a state-independent scaling exponent. Here we report scaling exponents γ, for the viscosities of 46 compounds, including 11 ionic liquids. A generalization of this thermodynamic scaling to other transport properties, namely, the self-diffusion coefficients for ionic and molecular liquids and the electrical conductivity for ionic liquids is examined. Scaling exponents, γ, for the electrical conductivities of six ionic liquids for which viscosity data are available, are found to be quite close to those obtained from viscosities. Using the scaling exponents obtained from viscosities it was possible to correlate molar conductivity over broad ranges of temperature and pressure. However, application of the same procedures to the self-diffusion coefficients, D, of six ionic and 13 molecular liquids leads to superpositioning of poorer quality, as the scaling yields different exponents from those obtained with viscosities and, in the case of the ionic liquids, slightly different values for the anion and the cation. This situation can be improved by using the ratio (D∕T), consistent with the Stokes-Einstein relation, yielding γ values closer to those of viscosity.

  20. Incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction following stent implantation: Comparison between first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tandjung, Kenneth; Basalus, Mounir W.Z.; Muurman, Esther; Louwerenburg, Hans W.; van Houwelingen, Gert K.; Stoel, Martin G.; de Man, Frits H.A.F.; Jansen, Hanneke; Huisman, Jennifer; Linssen, Gerard C.M.; Droste, Herman T.; Nienhuis, Mark B.; von Birgelen, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    Background: First- and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) differ in coating materials, which may influence the incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI). Objective: To compare the incidence of PMI between first- and second-generation DES, using the current Academic Research

  1. Immobilized High-Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Alternative Generation and analysis and Decision Report - second Generation Implementing Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Two alternative approaches were previously identified to provide second-generation interim storage of Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). One approach was retrofit modification of the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) to accommodate IHLW. The results of the evaluation of the FMEF as the second-generation IHLW interim storage facility and subsequent decision process are provided in this document

  2. Transdiaphragmatic transport of tracer albumin from peritoneal to pleural liquid measured in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai-Fook, Stephen J; Houtz, Pamela K; Jones, Philip D

    2005-12-01

    In conscious Wistar-Kyoto rats, we studied the uptake of radioactive tracer (125)I-albumin into the pleural space and circulation after intraperitoneal (IP) injections with 1 or 5 ml of Ringer solution (3 g/dl albumin). Postmortem, we sampled pleural liquid, peritoneal liquid, and blood plasma 2-48 h after IP injection and measured their radioactivity and protein concentration. Tracer concentration was greater in pleural liquid than in plasma approximately 3 h after injection with both IP injection volumes. This behavior indicated transport of tracer through the diaphragm into the pleural space. A dynamic analysis of the tracer uptake with 5-ml IP injections showed that at least 50% of the total pleural flow was via the diaphragm. A similar estimate was derived from an analysis of total protein concentrations. Both estimates were based on restricted pleural capillary filtration and unrestricted transdiaphragmatic transport. The 5-ml IP injections did not change plasma protein concentration but increased pleural and peritoneal protein concentrations from control values by 22 and 30%, respectively. These changes were consistent with a small (approximately 8%) increase in capillary filtration and a small (approximately 20%) reduction in transdiaphragmatic flow from control values, consistent with the small (3%) decrease in hydration measured in diaphragm muscle. Thus the pleural uptake of tracer via the diaphragm with the IP injections occurred by the near-normal transport of liquid and protein.

  3. Protecting innovation: genomics-based intellectual property for the development of feedstock for second-generation biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfouche, Antoine; Grant, Kannan; Selig, Marcus; Tsai, Daniel; Meilan, Richard

    2010-06-01

    One of the many controversies surrounding large-scale biofuel production is the diversion of land and other resources that might otherwise be used for food crops. Recent innovations will lead to a second generation of biofuel crops that can co-exist with food crops with little or no competition. Feedstocks from these bio-energy crops will be used to produce liquid fuel from cellulose, the most abundant polymer on the planet. Cell walls of higher plants are mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin polymers. Cellulose and hemicellulose are polysaccharides with obvious value for biofuel production. However, lignin, while vital for plant growth and development, is widely known to negatively impact conversion efficiencies. Biomass pre-treatment, which is aimed at lignin removal, is not straightforward, and presents one of the major scientific and technical challenges and expenses associated with secondgeneration biofuel production. Scientific breakthroughs associated with altering the expression of key genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of biomass crops is a promising path toward solving this problem, and will likely impact the feedstock patent landscape in the near future. This review summarizes some of the recent and most important issued patents and patent applications associated with lignin-modification genes and methods of developing transgenic plants with altered lignin content and composition.

  4. Technetium-99m extraction and transport across tri-n-octylamine-xylene based supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf Chaudry, M.; Ahmad, B.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear properties of 99m Tc radionuclide are ideal for organ imaging. Study of the technetium transport across supported liquid membranes has been performed to get data for its separation from other elements. Tri-n-octylamine diluted in xylene was used to constitute the liquid membranes, supported in polypropylene microporous films. Stripping on the product solution side was performed with dilute NaOH solutions. The effect of sulphuric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid in the feed on transport of 99m Tc as TcO 4 - ions has been studied. The permeability of the given ions determined from kinetic activity data has been found to be in the order of PH 2 SO 4 >PHCl>PHNO 3 . The flux values have been calculated based on this permeability data. The increase in carrier concentration has shown an increase in flux and permeability values to a given optimum concentration. The increase in temperature has been found to reduce the transport of Tc ions. The optimum conditions for transport of 99m Tc for the given acid concentration have been determined. Mechanism of Tc ion transport has also been provided based on chemical reactions involved at the membrane interfaces and uptake of Tc ions by the membrane. MoO 4 2- ions do not permeate through membrane under optimum conditions of transport for TcO 4 2 - ions from H 2 SO 4 solution. (author). 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  5. Replacement of the cross-site transfer system liquid waste transport alternatives evaluation, Project W-058

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, D.V.; Epperson, E.M.

    1995-05-01

    This document examines high-/low-level radioactive liquid waste transport alternatives. Radioactive liquid waste will be transported from the 200 West Area to the 200 East Area and within the 200 East Areas for safe storage and disposal. The radioactive waste transport alternatives are the Aboveground Transport System (French LR-56 Cask System [3,800 L (1,000 gal)]), 19,000-L (5,000-gal) trailer tanker system, 75,700-L (20,000-gal) rail tanker system and Underground Transport System (buried pipe [unlimited transfer volume capability]). The evaluation focused on the following areas: initial project cost, operational cost, secondary waste generation, radiation exposure, and final decommissioning. The evaluation was based on the near term (1995 to 2005) estimated volume of 49.509 million L (13.063 million gal) and long term (1995 to 2028) estimated volume of 757.1 million L (200 million gal). The conclusion showed that the buried pipe (Underground Transport System) resulted in the lowest overall total cost for near and long term, the trailer container resulted in the highest total cost for near and long term, and the French truck was operationally impractical and cost prohibitive

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF RAW MATERIAL ON THE LIQUID MOISTURE TRANSPORT THROUGH KNITTED FABRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COLDEA Alina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The comfort is undoubtedly the most important human attribute depends upon the moisture transport which in turn depends on the moisture transport behavior of the knitted fabric. Moisture transport is the transfer of liquid water capillary interstices of the yarns and depends on the wettability of fiber surfaces, as well as the structure of the yarn and fabric. Because of its good water absorption property, cotton is often used for next-to-skin wear such as t-shirts, underwear, socks. All these are known as ``moisture management`` which means the ability of a textile fabric to transport moisture away from the skin to the garment’s outer surface in multi-dimensions and it is one of the key performance criteria in today’s apparel industry since it has a significant effect on the human perception of moisture sensations. In order to study, plated knitted fabric for socks were knitted as plated single jersey in the same production conditions, from different types of yarns, produced in different yarn counts (Ne 20, Ne 24, Ne 30 and different raw material. (cotton, bamboo, soybean, polyester, viscose. Were chose two different density on circular knitting machine. The liquid moisture management of the samples was measured in order to determinate moisture transport index. Was study also the influence of raw material and fabric structure related to the moisture transport index. According to the obtained results, it was found that some of the knitted fabrics used in this study have goodmoisture management capability.

  7. Possibility of material cost reduction toward development of low-cost second-generation superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Ataru; Horii, Shigeru; Doi, Toshiya

    2017-10-01

    Two approaches to reducing the material cost of second-generation superconducting wires are proposed in this paper: (1) instead of the electrical stabilizing layers of silver and copper presently used on the superconducting layer, a Nb-doped SrTiO3 conductive buffer layer and cube-textured Cu are proposed as an advanced architecture, and (2) the use of an electromagnetic (EM) steel tape as a metal substrate of coated conductors in a conventional architecture. In structures fabricated without using electrical stabilizing layers on the superconducting layer, the critical current density achieved at 77 K in a self-field was approximately 2.6 MA/cm2. On the other hand, in the case of using EM steel tapes, although the critical current density was far from practical at the current stage, the biaxial alignment of YBa2Cu3O y (YBCO) and buffer layers was realized without oxidation on the metal surface. In this study, the possibility of material cost reduction has been strongly indicated toward the development of low-cost second-generation superconducting wires in the near future.

  8. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Hardy, Robin C.; Willey, Cliff E.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations, while meeting crew and vehicle safety requirements. The analyses and associated testing presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, building off of relevant first-generation design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley s Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility in Hampton, Virginia. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, develop the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  9. Study on the Tribological Characteristics of Australian Native First Generation and Second Generation Biodiesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mofijur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesels are a renewable energy source, and they have the potential to be used as alternatives to diesel fuel. The aim of this study is to investigate the wear and friction characteristics of Australian native first generation and second generation biodiesels using a four-ball tribo tester. The biodiesel was produced through a two-step transesterification process and characterized according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standards. The tribological experiment was carried out at a constant 1800 rpm and different loads and temperatures. In addition, the surface morphology of the ball was tested by scanning electron microscope (SEM/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX analysis. The test results indicated that biodiesel fuels have a lower coefficient of frictions (COF and lower wear scar diameter (WSD up to 83.50% and 41.28%, respectively, compared to conventional diesel fuel. The worn surface area results showed that biodiesel fuel has a minimum percentage of C and O, except Fe, compared to diesel. In addition, the worn surface area for diesel was found (2.20%–27.92% to be higher than biodiesel. The findings of this study indicated that both first and second generation biodiesel fuels have better tribological performance than diesel fuel, and between the biodiesel fuels, macadamia biodiesel showed better lubrication performance.

  10. The Pharmacokinetics of Second-Generation Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics: Limitations of Monograph Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lik Hang N; Choi, Charles; Collier, Abby C; Barr, Alasdair M; Honer, William G; Procyshyn, Ric M

    2015-12-01

    Product monographs (also known by terms such as Summary of Product Characteristics and Highlights of Prescribing Information, depending on the jurisdiction) provide essential information to ensure the safe and effective use of a drug. Medical practitioners often rely on these monographs for guidance on matters related to pharmacokinetics as well as indications, contraindications, clinical pharmacology, and adverse reactions. The clinical and scientific information found within these documents, forming the basis for decision making, are presumed to be derived from well-designed studies. The objective of this review is to examine the source and validity of the pharmacokinetic data used in establishing the half-lives and times to steady-state reported in the product monographs of second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics. Thus, we have critically evaluated the clinical trials from which the pharmacokinetic parameters listed in the product monographs were determined. In many cases, the pharmacokinetic information presented in product monographs is of limited use to clinicians wishing to optimize the effectiveness and tolerability of second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics. Under such circumstances, off-label prescribing practices may actually produce better clinical outcomes than if decisions were made based on the product monographs alone.

  11. Transnationalism among Second-Generation Muslim Americans: Being and Belonging in Their Transnational Social Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Byng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An increase in transnationalism, the ability of individuals and families to travel and maintain relationships across national borders, has led to questions about its impact on identity especially for the children of migrants. When combined with concerns about global and national security such as those that are associated with Muslims and Islam, then questions about the strength national identity are particularly pertinent. This analysis uses the theories of transnational social fields and intersectionality to examine the transnational experiences of second-generation Muslim Americans. It relies on qualitative interview data. The data show the intersection of their national, religious, and gender identities. It demonstrates that they experience transnational being in their parents’ country of origin and belonging in the United States. Nationality, religion, and gender influence what they experience in each location. The analysis demonstrates the stability and centrality of American national identity in what second-generation Muslims experience in both locations. Moreover, their belonging in the United States rests squarely on their perceptions of themselves as Americans and their construction of their Muslim identity as an American religious identity.

  12. Second generation bioethanol potential from selected Malaysia's biodiversity biomasses: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditiya, H B; Chong, W T; Mahlia, T M I; Sebayang, A H; Berawi, M A; Nur, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Rising global temperature, worsening air quality and drastic declining of fossil fuel reserve are the inevitable phenomena from the disorganized energy management. Bioethanol is believed to clear out the effects as being an energy-derivable product sourced from renewable organic sources. Second generation bioethanol interests many researches from its unique source of inedible biomass, and this paper presents the potential of several selected biomasses from Malaysia case. As one of countries with rich biodiversity, Malaysia holds enormous potential in second generation bioethanol production from its various agricultural and forestry biomasses, which are the source of lignocellulosic and starch compounds. This paper reviews potentials of biomasses and potential ethanol yield from oil palm, paddy (rice), pineapple, banana and durian, as the common agricultural waste in the country but uncommon to be served as bioethanol feedstock, by calculating the theoretical conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose and starch components of the biomasses into bioethanol. Moreover, the potential of the biomasses as feedstock are discussed based on several reported works. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Post-Dictatorship Documentary in Chile: Conversations with Three Second-Generation Film Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Traverso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available No other medium has rejected the restorative narrative of Chile’s democratic state’s memory discourse as vigorously as documentary cinema. After the several democratic governments that succeeded the civic-military dictatorial alliance that ruled this nation uninterruptedly between 1973 and 1990, documentary films have resisted monumental versions of historical memory by confronting the ambivalent nuances of the traumatic legacy of the dictatorship. Chilean documentarians have investigated, uncovered, and depicted the dictatorial state’s crimes, while offering testimonial space to survivors, and have also interrogated the perspectives of the dictatorship’s supporters, collaborators, and perpetrators while wrestling with an open dialectic of confrontational and reconciliatory gestures. More recently, this interest has intensified and combined with what is often described as a “boom” in second-generation personal-narration memory films. The present article includes the author’s conversations with the directors of three recent Chilean second-generation documentaries that explore the perspectives of former secret service collaborators: Adrian Goycoolea’s ¡Viva Chile Mierda! [Long Live Chile, Damn It!] (2014, Andrés Lübbert’s El color del camaleón [The Color of the Chameleon] (2017, and Lissette Orozco’s El pacto de Adriana [Adriana’s Pact] (2017.

  14. Design, development, and evaluation of a second generation interactive Simulator for Engineering Ethics Education (SEEE2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Michael; Chung, Christopher A

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes a second generation Simulator for Engineering Ethics Education. Details describing the first generation activities of this overall effort are published in Chung and Alfred (Sci Eng Ethics 15:189-199, 2009). The second generation research effort represents a major development in the interactive simulator educational approach. As with the first generation effort, the simulator places students in first person perspective scenarios involving different types of ethical situations. Students must still gather data, assess the situation, and make decisions. The approach still requires students to develop their own ability to identify and respond to ethical engineering situations. However, were as, the generation one effort involved the use of a dogmatic model based on National Society of Professional Engineers' Code of Ethics, the new generation two model is based on a mathematical model of the actual experiences of engineers involved in ethical situations. This approach also allows the use of feedback in the form of decision effectiveness and professional career impact. Statistical comparisons indicate a 59 percent increase in overall knowledge and a 19 percent improvement in teaching effectiveness over an Internet Engineering Ethics resource based approach.

  15. Anticonvulsant use after formulary status change for brand-name second-generation anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hemal; Toe, Diana C; Burke, Shawn; Rasu, Rafia S

    2010-08-01

    Anticonvulsant medications are commonly used for off-label indications. However, managed care organizations can restrict utilization of medication to indicated uses only. To evaluate the pattern of off-label use of second-generation anticonvulsants after implementing a formulary change. We did a retrospective analysis of an administrative pharmacy claims database for a managed care plan with more than 1 million members continuously enrolled during 2004-2005. The study evaluated off-label use and explored pharmacy utilization patterns (by physician specialty, region, plan type, age, sex, copayment) across the study population following the formulary change. A total of 10,185 patients had at least 1 pharmacy claim (total of 137,638 claims) for a second-generation anticonvulsant during the study period. Most members were female (68%), and 4.9% were anticonvulsants prescribed for off-label use in 2004 and 2005, respectively (P = .162). The off-label usage pattern varied for individual anticonvulsants in 2004 and 2005 (P anticonvulsants for off-label uses, followed by neurologists (9.4%), psychiatrists (2.8%), and other (46.5%). The coverage change resulted in cost savings for the plan of $0.16 per member per month. The off-label usage pattern varied for individual anticonvulsants in 2004 and 2005. Future considerations for controlling off-label use may include requiring prior authorization and provider education.

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for second-generation ethanol production: from academic exploration to industrial implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mickel L. A.; Bracher, Jasmine M.; Papapetridis, Ioannis; Verhoeven, Maarten D.; de Bruijn, Hans; de Waal, Paul P.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Klaassen, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The recent start-up of several full-scale ‘second generation’ ethanol plants marks a major milestone in the development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates of agricultural residues and energy crops. After a discussion of the challenges that these novel industrial contexts impose on yeast strains, this minireview describes key metabolic engineering strategies that have been developed to address these challenges. Additionally, it outlines how proof-of-concept studies, often developed in academic settings, can be used for the development of robust strain platforms that meet the requirements for industrial application. Fermentation performance of current engineered industrial S. cerevisiae strains is no longer a bottleneck in efforts to achieve the projected outputs of the first large-scale second-generation ethanol plants. Academic and industrial yeast research will continue to strengthen the economic value position of second-generation ethanol production by further improving fermentation kinetics, product yield and cellular robustness under process conditions. PMID:28899031

  17. First- and second-generation total synthesis of ciguatoxin CTX3C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Keisuke; Uehara, Hisatoshi; Maruyama, Megumi; Hirama, Masahiro

    2004-08-17

    More than 20,000 people suffer annually from ciguatera seafood poisoning in subtropical and tropical regions. The extremely low content of the causative neurotoxins, designated as ciguatoxins, in fish has hampered isolation, detailed biological studies, and preparation of anti-ciguatoxin antibodies for detecting these toxins. Furthermore, the large (3 nm in length) and complex molecular structure of ciguatoxins has impeded chemists from completing their total synthesis. In this article, the full details of studies leading to the total synthesis of ciguatoxin CTX3C are provided. The key elements of the first-generation approach include O,O-acetal formation from the right and left wing fragments, conversion from O,O-acetal to O,S-acetal, a radical reaction to cyclize the G ring, a ring-closing metathesis reaction to close the F ring, and final removal of the 2-naphtylmethyl protective groups. Subsequent studies provided a second-generation total synthesis, which is more concise and results in a higher yield. Second-generation synthesis was accomplished by using a direct method of constructing the key intermediate O,S-acetal from alpha-chlorosulfide and a secondary alcohol. These syntheses ensure a practical supply of ciguatoxin for biological applications.

  18. Mood, anxiety, and personality disorders among first and second-generation immigrants to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Kagotho, Njeri; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    A careful examination of the multigenerational relationship between immigrant status and mental disorders can provide important information about the robustness and nature of the immigrant-mental health link. We examine immigrant status as a protective factor against mental illness, assess intergenerational effects, examine differences across race/ethnicity, and report the prevalence of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders of immigrants across major world regions. We employ data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare first (n = 5,363) and second-generation (n = 4826) immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans (n = 24,461) with respect to mental disorders. First-generation immigrants are significantly less likely than native-born Americans to be diagnosed with a mood, anxiety, or personality disorder, though the prevalence of mental health diagnoses increases among second generation immigrants. Similar results were observed for immigrants from major world regions as the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among immigrants from Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Asia compared to native-born Americans. Findings provide evidence in support of the notion that the immigrant paradox may be extended to include mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in the United States. PMID:25223256

  19. Enhanced protein loading on a planar Si(111)-H surface with second generation NTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Han, Huan-Mei; Liu, Hong-Bo; Xiao, Shou-jun

    2010-08-01

    A Si(111)-H surface was modified via a direct reaction between Si-H and 1-undecylenic acid (UA) under microwave irradiation to form molecular monolayers with terminal carboxyl groups. After esterifying carboxylic acid being esterified with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), aminobutyl nitrilotriacetic acid (ANTA) was bound to the silicon surface through amidation (pH = 8.0) between its primary amino group and NHS-ester, producing nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) anions. Then hexa-histidine tagged thioredoxin-urodilatin (his-tagged protein) and FITC-labeled hexa-histidine tagged thioredoxin-urodilatin (FITC-his-tagged protein) can be anchored after NTA was coordinated with Ni 2+. Furthermore, the NTA-terminated chip was acidified with 0.1 M HCl and subsequently esterified with NHS and then amidated with ANTA again to produce a second generation NTA. Thus the surface density of nitrilotriacetic acid anions was improved and resultantly that of anchored proteins was also enhanced through the iterative reactions. Both multiple transmission-reflection infrared spectroscopy (MTR-IR) and fluorescence scanning measurements demonstrated a proximate 1.63 times of anchored proteins on the second generation NTA/Ni 2+ as that on the first generation NTA/Ni 2+ monolayer.

  20. Role of energy policy in renewable energy accomplishment: The case of second-generation bioethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Kok Tat; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Renewable energy has been in the limelight ever since the price of crude petroleum oil increases to the unprecedented height of US$96 per barrel recently. This is due to the diminishing oil reserves in the world and political instabilities in some oil-exporting countries. The advantages of renewable energy compared to fossil fuels are enormous in terms of environment and availability. Biofuels like bioethanol and biodiesel are currently being produced from agricultural products such as sugarcane and rapeseed oil, respectively. Collectively, these biofuels from food sources are known as first-generation biofuels. Although first-generation biofuels have the potential to replace fossil fuels as the main source of energy supply, its production is surrounded by certain issues like tropical forests' destruction. Instead, second-generation bioethanol, which utilizes non-edible sources such as lignocellulose biomass to produce ethanol, has been shown to be more suitable as the source of renewable energy. However, there are challenges and obstacles such as cost, technology and environmental issues that need to be overcome. Hence, the introduction of energy policy is crucial in promoting and implementing second-generation bioethanol effectively and subsequently become a major source of renewable energy

  1. Ground-based gravitational wave interferometric detectors of the first and second generation: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losurdo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The era of first-generation gravitational wave interferometric detectors is ending. No signals have been detected so far. However, remarkable results have been achieved: the design sensitivity has been approached (and in some cases even exceeded) together with the achievement of robustness and reliability; a world-wide network of detectors has been established; the data collected so far has allowed upper limits to be put on several types of sources; some second-generation technologies have been tested on these detectors. The scenario for the next few years is very exciting. The projects to upgrade LIGO and Virgo to second-generation interferometers, capable of increasing the detection rate by a factor of ∼1000, have been funded. The construction of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has started. GEO600 has started the upgrade to GEO HF, introducing light squeezing for the first time on a large detector. LCGT has been partly funded and the construction of the vacuum system is underway. There is a possibility that the third Advanced LIGO interferometer will be constructed in India. So, a powerful worldwide network could be in operation by the end of the decade. In this paper, we review the results achieved so far and the perspectives for the advanced detectors. (paper)

  2. Second-generation mobile satellite system. A conceptual design and trade-off study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, M. K.; Park, Y. H.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, interest has grown in the mobile satellite (MSAT) system, a satellite-based communications system capable of providing integrated voice and data services to a large number of users. To explore the potential of a commercial mobile satellite system (MSS) beyond the horizon of the first generation, using technologies of the 1990's and to assist MSAT-X in directing its efforts, a conceptual design has been performed for a second-generation system to be launched around the mid-1990's. The design goal is to maximize the number of satellite channels and/or minimize the overall life-cycle cost, subject to the constraint of utilizing a commercial satellite bus with minimum modifications. To provide an optimal design, a series of trade-offs are performed, including antenna sizing, feed configurations, and interference analysis. Interference is a serious problem for MSAT and often an overlapping feed design is required to reduce interbeam interference. The trade-off studies will show that a simple non-overlapping feed is sufficient for the second-generation system, thus avoiding the need for the complicated beam-forming network that is associated with the overlapping feed designs. In addition, a system that operates at L-band, an alternative frequency band that is being considered by some for possible MSAT applications, is also presented.

  3. Cold flame on Biofilm - Transport of Plasma Chemistry from Gas to Liquid Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Michael

    2014-10-01

    One of the most active and fastest growing fields in low-temperature plasma science today is biological effects of gas plasmas and their translation in many challenges of societal importance such as healthcare, environment, agriculture, and nanoscale fabrication and synthesis. Using medicine as an example, there are already three FDA-approved plasma-based surgical procedures for tissue ablation and blood coagulation and at least five phase-II clinical trials on plasma-assisted wound healing therapies. A key driver for realizing the immense application potential of near room-temperature ambient pressure gas plasmas, commonly known as cold atmospheric plasmas or CAP, is to build a sizeable interdisciplinary knowledge base with which to unravel, optimize, and indeed design how reactive plasma species interact with cells and their key components such as protein and DNA. Whilst a logical objective, it is a formidable challenge not least since existing knowledge of gas discharges is largely in the gas-phase and therefore not directly applicable to cell-containing matters that are covered by or embedded in liquid (e.g. biofluid). Here, we study plasma inactivation of biofilms, a jelly-like structure that bacteria use to protect themselves and a major source of antimicrobial resistance. As 60--90% of biofilm is made of water, we develop a holistic model incorporating physics and chemistry in the upstream CAP-generating region, a plasma-exit region as a buffer for as-phase transport, and a downstream liquid region bordering the gas buffer region. A special model is developed to account for rapid chemical reactions accompanied the transport of gas-phase plasma species through the gas-liquid interface and for liquid-phase chemical reactions. Numerical simulation is used to illustrate how key reactive oxygen species (ROS) are transported into the liquid, and this is supported with experimental data of both biofilm inactivation using plasmas and electron spin spectroscopy (ESR

  4. Accidents on vessels transporting liquid gases and responder's concerns : the Galerne Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabioc'h, F.; De Castelet, D.; Penelon, T.; Pagnon, S.; Peuch, A.; Bonnardot, F.; Duhart, J.; Drevet, D.; Estiez, C.; Dernat, M.; Hermand, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the French Ministry of Research financed the Galerne project to provide responders at sea with relevant information on the hazards posed by liquid gas chemicals on vessels disabled at sea. Thirty-one chemicals are transported as liquids in order to facilitate handling and lower transport costs. Temperature and pressure parameters are manipulated in order to generate the liquefaction of the gases. Members of the Galerne project are producers and handlers of liquefied gases and are experts in atmospheric modelling, ship structure, risk assessment, hazards assessment and operations. Several simulations and experiments were performed in an effort to produce operational information for responders and headquarters. For practical and financial reasons, it was not possible to consider all 31 chemicals described in the IGC code. Only 4 liquid gases were chosen for the Galerne project, notably methane liquefied natural gas (LNG); propane LNG; ammonia; and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). They were chosen on the basis of their transport characteristics and behaviour. This paper outlined the physical characteristics of the transported products verses their volume in standard conditions; the type of ship dedicated to transporting gases in liquid forms; and various response phases. It also included a brief review of several ship incidents and accidents. It was concluded that as far as the LNG carriers are concerns, a few accidents at sea have occurred in more than 28 years, but no major accidents involving the cargo have been reported. Handling LNG at terminals can lead to serious accidents. Accidents have occurred at sea, but without any accidental spillage of cargo. It was concluded that response teams on-board disabled liquefied gas carriers need to know the main characteristics of the cargo and the potential hazards. 3 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Accidents on vessels transporting liquid gases and responder's concerns : the Galerne Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabioc' h, F. [Centre de Documentation, de Recherche et d' Experimentations, Brest (France); De Castelet, D. [Veritas, Paris (France); Penelon, T.; Pagnon, S. [Ineris, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Peuch, A.; Bonnardot, F. [Meteo France, Toulouse (France); Duhart, J. [GdF-Suez, Paris (France); Drevet, D. [French Ministry of Transport, Paris (France). Sea Accident Investigation Bureau; Cerutti, C. [French Navy, Brest (France); Estiez, C. [French Civil Security, Paris (France); Dernat, M. [Total Gaz and New Energy, Paris (France); Hermand, J.C. [Total PetroChemicals, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    In 2006, the French Ministry of Research financed the Galerne project to provide responders at sea with relevant information on the hazards posed by liquid gas chemicals on vessels disabled at sea. Thirty-one chemicals are transported as liquids in order to facilitate handling and lower transport costs. Temperature and pressure parameters are manipulated in order to generate the liquefaction of the gases. Members of the Galerne project are producers and handlers of liquefied gases and are experts in atmospheric modelling, ship structure, risk assessment, hazards assessment and operations. Several simulations and experiments were performed in an effort to produce operational information for responders and headquarters. For practical and financial reasons, it was not possible to consider all 31 chemicals described in the IGC code. Only 4 liquid gases were chosen for the Galerne project, notably methane liquefied natural gas (LNG); propane LNG; ammonia; and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). They were chosen on the basis of their transport characteristics and behaviour. This paper outlined the physical characteristics of the transported products verses their volume in standard conditions; the type of ship dedicated to transporting gases in liquid forms; and various response phases. It also included a brief review of several ship incidents and accidents. It was concluded that as far as the LNG carriers are concerns, a few accidents at sea have occurred in more than 28 years, but no major accidents involving the cargo have been reported. Handling LNG at terminals can lead to serious accidents. Accidents have occurred at sea, but without any accidental spillage of cargo. It was concluded that response teams on-board disabled liquefied gas carriers need to know the main characteristics of the cargo and the potential hazards. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Second generation H1 - antihistamines interaction with food and alcohol-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paśko, Paweł; Rodacki, Tomasz; Domagała-Rodacka, Renata; Palimonka, Krzysztof; Marcinkowska, Monika; Owczarek, Danuta

    2017-09-01

    Histamine is a mediator of many physiological processes. It plays an important role in modulating allergy reactions and immune system responses. H1 receptor is a therapeutic target for drugs applied in allergic diseases such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, urticarial, or atopic dermatitis. H1-antihistamines display different chemical structures, pharmacokinetics and a potential for drug-drug and drug-food interactions. Drug-food interactions are known to reduce therapeutic effects of the medicine, as well as to induce a potent adverse drug reactions. Considering it all, a systematic review was conducted to investigate the importance of drug-food interaction for H1-antihistamine drugs. As non-sedating second generation H1-antihistamines remain to be drugs of choice in treating allergic conditions, the review has been focused on this particular class of medicines. The aim of this paper is to examine the evidence of food-drug and food-alcohol interactions for second generation H1-antihistamine drugs. A systematic literature queries were performed in the following databases: Medline (via PubMed), Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science (all from their inception date till October 2016). The queries covered nine specific names of second generation anthistamine drugs, namely bilastine, cetirizine, desloratadine, ebastine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, loratadine, mizolastine, and rupatadine, in combinations with such terms as "food", "juice", "grapefruit", "fruits", "alcohol", "pharmacokinetics", and "meal". Additional publications were found by checking all the reference lists. Where none data on drug-food interaction could be found within the investigated databases, a specific drug prescribing information was used. 2326 publications were identified with the database queries. Articles were subjected to analysis by reviewing their title, abstract and full text; duplicated papers were removed. Having collected a complete set of data, a critical review was undertaken

  7. Second Generation Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Vape Pen Exposure Generalizes as a Smoking Cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrea C; Smith, Lia J; McNamara, Patrick J; Cao, Dingcai

    2018-01-05

    Second generation electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; also known as e-cigarettes, vaporizers or vape pens) are designed for a customized nicotine delivery experience and have less resemblance to regular cigarettes than first generation "cigalikes." The present study examined whether they generalize as a conditioned cue and evoke smoking urges or behavior in persons exposed to their use. Data were analyzed in N = 108 young adult smokers (≥5 cigarettes per week) randomized to either a traditional combustible cigarette smoking cue or a second generation ENDS vaping cue in a controlled laboratory setting. Cigarette and e-cigarette urge and desire were assessed pre- and post-cue exposure. Smoking behavior was also explored in a subsample undergoing a smoking latency phase after cue exposure (N = 26). The ENDS vape pen cue evoked both urge and desire for a regular cigarette to a similar extent as that produced by the combustible cigarette cue. Both cues produced similar time to initiate smoking during the smoking latency phase. The ENDS vape pen cue elicited smoking urge and desire regardless of ENDS use history, that is, across ENDS naїve, lifetime or current users. Inclusion of past ENDS or cigarette use as covariates did not significantly alter the results. These findings demonstrate that observation of vape pen ENDS use generalizes as a conditioned cue to produce smoking urge, desire, and behavior in young adult smokers. As the popularity of these devices may eventually overtake those of first generation ENDS cigalikes, exposure effects will be of increasing importance. This study shows that passive exposure to a second generation ENDS vape pen cue evoked smoking urge, desire, and behavior across a range of daily and non-daily young adult smokers. Smoking urge and desire increases after vape pen exposure were similar to those produced by exposure to a first generation ENDS cigalike and a combustible cigarette, a known potent cue. Given the increasing

  8. Harmonic US imaging of vesicoureteric reflux in children: usefulness of a second generation US contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenti, Giorgio; Zimbaro, Giovanni; Mazziotti, Silvio; Chimenz, Roberto; Fede, Carmelo; Visalli, Carmela; Scribano, Emanuele

    2004-06-01

    Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (VUS) is largely accepted both for the diagnosis and follow-up of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) in children. To evaluate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced second-harmonic VUS in the diagnosis and grading of VUR, using a second-generation contrast agent. Eighty consecutive children were prospectively studied with contrast-enhanced second-harmonic VUS. All children received a second-generation contrast medium, constituted by phospholipid-stabilized microbubbles of sulphur-hexafluoride (SonoVue, Bracco, Milan, Italy). US monitoring of the bladder, of the retrovesical space and of the kidneys was performed using, alternatively, both tissue-harmonic and contrast-harmonic modes. In those young boys where VUR was depicted at VUS, examination was completed with transperineal, sagittal urethral exploration during micturition. VUR was graded in five steps and diagnoses were compared with voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). VUR was diagnosed in 52 reno-ureteral units with VUS. In 49 of these reno-ureteral units, VCUG confirmed the presence of VUR. In comparison to VUS, sensitivity and negative predictive value of VCUG were inferior. The grade of VUR detected at VUS was higher than that detected at VCUG in three units. In no case was the grade of VUR detected at VCUG higher than the one detected at VUS. The differences between VUS and VCUG in grading VUR were statistically significant (p=0.02). Imaging of the normal posterior urethra was skilfully demonstrated with US in 15 young boys with VUR. No statistically significant differences were found between tissue-harmonic and contrast-harmonic mode (p=0.102). Contrast-enhanced second-harmonic VUS is a sensitive and easy technique for the evaluation of VUR. A second-generation US contrast medium such as SonoVue, if available, should be the first choice as the dose required for one examination is much lower and consequently significant reduction of contrast agent cost is possible. Copyright

  9. Studies on the transport of actinides and lanthanides through DHDECMPO based supported liquid membranes (SLM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudwadkar, N.L.; Tripathi, S.C.; Gandhi, P.M. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Fuel Reprocessing Div.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes our studies on the partitioning of actinides from high level liquid waste of PUREX origin employing a supported liquid membrane technique. The process uses a solution of DHDECMPO in n-dodecane as a carrier with poly tetra fluoro ethylene support and a mixture of citric acid, formic acid and hydrazine hydrate as a receiving phase. Transport studies are carried out for {sup 241}Am under different experimental conditions to optimize the transport parameters such as feed acidity, carrier concentration and effect of uranium, Nd(III) and salt concentration in the feed. Studies indicated good transport of neptunium, americium and plutonium across the membrane from a nitric acid medium. Under the optimized conditions the transport of {sup 241}Am has been studied for uranium depleted synthetic PHWR-HLW and finally the technique is used for the partitioning of alpha emitters from an actual HLW after reprocessing. A high concentration of uranium in the feed is found to retard the transport of americium, suggesting the need of prior removal of uranium from the waste. Separation of actinides from uranium-lean simulated as well as actual HLW has been found to be feasible using the above described technique. (orig.)

  10. Interfacial tension-induced transport of nonaqueous phase liquids in model aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as organic solvents and fuel are common contaminants in soils and groundwater. Spills, leaking underground storage tanks, and improper disposal practices all result in the release and movement of NAPLs through soils. Movement of NAPLs through soil is considered to result from gravity- and /or capillarity-driven immiscible phase flow. Dispersive and convective transport of dissolved components, volatilization, sorption, and degradation are also considered important processes in NAPL contamination. An additional transport mechanism in which NAPLs spread on water surfaces due to differential adhesive and cohesive attractive forces is demonstrated in this study. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Required momentum, heat, and mass transport experiments for liquid-metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillack, M.S.; Sze, D.K.; Abdou, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Through the effects on fluid flow, many aspects of blanket behavior are affected by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects, including pressure drop, heat transfer, mass transfer, and structural behavior. In this paper, a set of experiments is examined that could be performed in order to reduce the uncertainties in the highly related set of issues dealing with momentum, heat, and mass transport under the influence of a strong magnetic field (i.e., magnetic transport phenomena). By improving our basic understanding and by providing direct experimental data on blanket behavior, these experiments will lead to improved designs and an accurate assessment of the attractiveness of liquid-metal blankets

  12. First experiment on liquid hydrogen transportation by ship inside Osaka bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, K.; Takeda, M.; Hamaura, T.; Suzuki, K.; Miyake, Y.; Matsuno, Y.; Fujikawa, S.; Kumakura, H.

    2017-12-01

    A project to import a large amount of liquid hydrogen (LH2) from Australia by a cargo carrier, which is equipped with two 1250 m3 tanks, is underway in Japan. It is important to understand sloshing and boil-off characteristics inside the LH2 tank during marine transportation. However, the LH2 sloshing and boil-off characteristics on the sea have not yet been clarified. First experiment on the LH2 transportation of 20 liter with magnesium diboride (MgB2) level sensors by the training ship “Fukae-maru”, which has 50 m long and 449 ton gross weight, was carried out successfully inside Osaka bay on February 2, 2017. In the experiment, synchronous measurements of liquid level, temperature, pressure, ship motions, and accelerations as well as the rapid depressurization test were done. The increase rate of the temperature and the pressure inside the LH2 tank were discussed under the rolling and the pitching conditions.

  13. Two-color Fermi-liquid theory for transport through a multilevel Kondo impurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, D. B.; Mora, Christophe; von Delft, Jan; Kiselev, Mikhail N.

    2018-05-01

    We consider a quantum dot with K ≥2 orbital levels occupied by two electrons connected to two electric terminals. The generic model is given by a multilevel Anderson Hamiltonian. The weak-coupling theory at the particle-hole symmetric point is governed by a two-channel S =1 Kondo model characterized by intrinsic channels asymmetry. Based on a conformal field theory approach we derived an effective Hamiltonian at a strong-coupling fixed point. The Hamiltonian capturing the low-energy physics of a two-stage Kondo screening represents the quantum impurity by a two-color local Fermi liquid. Using nonequilibrium (Keldysh) perturbation theory around the strong-coupling fixed point we analyze the transport properties of the model at finite temperature, Zeeman magnetic field, and source-drain voltage applied across the quantum dot. We compute the Fermi-liquid transport constants and discuss different universality classes associated with emergent symmetries.

  14. Electrical and thermal transport in the quasiatomic limit of coupled Luttinger liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Aaron; Ilan, Roni; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a new model for quasi-one-dimensional materials, motivated by intriguing but not yet well-understood experiments that have shown two-dimensional polymer films to be promising materials for thermoelectric devices. We consider a two-dimensional material consisting of many one-dimensional systems, each treated as a Luttinger liquid, with weak (incoherent) coupling between them. This approximation of strong interactions within each one-dimensional chain and weak coupling between them is the "quasiatomic limit." We find integral expressions for the (interchain) transport coefficients, including the electrical and thermal conductivities and the thermopower, and we extract their power law dependencies on temperature. Luttinger liquid physics is manifested in a violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law; the Lorenz number is larger than the Fermi liquid value by a factor between γ2 and γ4, where γ ≥1 is a measure of the electron-electron interaction strength in the system.

  15. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for ground water contamination as compared to application of raw slurry.......The potential for transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a four week period......, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method although recovery rates were low (liquid slurry leached 73% and 90% more oocysts compared with columns with injected and surface applied raw slurry, respectively...

  16. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Heidi H; Enemark, Heidi L; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M G Mostofa; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-09-01

    The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry.

  17. Liquid Water Transport in the Reactant Channels of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak

    Water management has been identified as a critical issue in the development of PEM fuel cells for automotive applications. Water is present inside the PEM fuel cell in three phases, i.e. liquid phase, vapor phase and mist phase. Liquid water in the reactant channels causes flooding of the cell and blocks the transport of reactants to the reaction sites at the catalyst layer. Understanding the behavior of liquid water in the reactant channels would allow us to devise improved strategies for removing liquid water from the reactant channels. In situ fuel cell tests have been performed to identify and diagnose operating conditions which result in the flooding of the fuel cell. A relationship has been identified between the liquid water present in the reactant channels and the cell performance. A novel diagnostic technique has been established which utilizes the pressure drop multiplier in the reactant channels to predict the flooding of the cell or the drying-out of the membrane. An ex-situ study has been undertaken to quantify the liquid water present in the reactant channels. A new parameter, the Area Coverage Ratio (ACR), has been defined to identify the interfacial area of the reactant channel which is blocked for reactant transport by the presence of liquid water. A parametric study has been conducted to study the effect of changing temperature and the inlet relative humidity on the ACR. The ACR decreases with increase in current density as the gas flow rates increase, removing water more efficiently. With increase in temperature, the ACR decreases rapidly, such that by 60°C, there is no significant ACR to be reported. Inlet relative humidity of the gases does change the saturation of the gases in the channel, but did not show any significant effect on the ACR. Automotive powertrains, which is the target for this work, are continuously faced with transient changes. Water management under transient operating conditions is significantly more challenging and has not

  18. SEVIRI, the imaging radiometer on Meteosat second generation: in-orbit results and first assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, P.; Pasternak, F.; Faure, F.; Jacquet, B.; Bianchi, S.; Aminou, Donny M. A.; Luhmann, H. J.; Hanson, C.; Pili, P.; Fowler, G.

    2017-11-01

    Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) is a series of 3 geo-stationary satellites developed and procured by the European Space Agency (ESA) on behalf of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). The first satellite (MSG-1) was launched on August 29, 2002 by an Ariane 5 rocket. SEVIRI is the main MSG payload and produces 12 channels imaging in visible and IR range. The 8 Infrared Channels in the 3.9-13.4 mm band benefit from high radiometric performances thanks to the use of detectors operating at 95K and cooled by specifically designed passive radiator. During the commissioning phase, dedicated tests have been conducted to verify the SEVIRI functionality and performances. This paper presents briefly the SEVIRI design and highlights the correlation of data obtained in-flight by EUMETSAT with the ground predictions. A particular emphasis is put on the in-orbit evolution of the IR channel gains and on the instrument decontamination.

  19. Second-generation PVCC design with a dielectric light injector and polyhedron interior cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortabasi, Ugur; Winston, Roland; Ellis, Scott

    2006-08-01

    The Photovoltaic Cavity Converter (PVCC) under development is a novel approach to convert highly concentrated solar radiation into electricity via a photon entrapment process and subsequent spectral stripping. Equipped with a multi-bandgap, single junction cell system PVCC circumvents most of the present limitations of the four (or more)-junction cell systems with vertical architecture. Our previous studies have shown that the PVCC concept has the potential to reach a collective conversion efficiency of 50% in the near term. Based on our past experiences regarding the cavity geometry and the light injection method we have developed a second generation design for the PVCC that overcomes the limitations of the first generation prototype.

  20. Self-assembly of the second-generation of nitroaryl-ended dendrons onto carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farías, E.D.; Paez, J.I.; Strumia, M.C.; Baruzzi, A.M.; Passeggi Jr, M.C.G.; Brunetti, V.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: We report the self-assembly of the second-generation of nitroaryl-ended dendrons onto carbon surfaces. The immobilized layer was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The response was analyzed in comparison to the first-generation dendron behavior. Reduction of both layers generates the hydroxylamine product. The resulting redox-active layer exhibits a well-behaved redox response for the adsorbed nitroso/hydroxylamine couple. The thermodynamic of the adsorption of both dendrons on glassy carbon electrodes was also studied by CV. The Frumkin adsorption isotherm was the best to describe the specific interactions. The AFM images showed a network film formation with embedded aggregates that completely covered the carbon surface. The average height suggests a tilted preferential adsorption for both molecules

  1. A second generation 50 Mbps VLSI level zero processing system prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jonathan C.; Shi, Jeff; Speciale, Nick; Bennett, Toby

    1994-01-01

    Level Zero Processing (LZP) generally refers to telemetry data processing functions performed at ground facilities to remove all communication artifacts from instrument data. These functions typically include frame synchronization, error detection and correction, packet reassembly and sorting, playback reversal, merging, time-ordering, overlap deletion, and production of annotated data sets. The Data Systems Technologies Division (DSTD) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been developing high-performance Very Large Scale Integration Level Zero Processing Systems (VLSI LZPS) since 1989. The first VLSI LZPS prototype demonstrated 20 Megabits per second (Mbp's) capability in 1992. With a new generation of high-density Application-specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) and a Mass Storage System (MSS) based on the High-performance Parallel Peripheral Interface (HiPPI), a second prototype has been built that achieves full 50 Mbp's performance. This paper describes the second generation LZPS prototype based upon VLSI technologies.

  2. TADIR: ElOp's high-resolution second-generation 480 x 4 TDI thermal imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarusi, Gabby; Ziv, Natan; Zioni, O.; Gaber, J.; Shechterman, Mark S.; Wiess, I.; Friedland, Igor V.; Lerner, M.; Friedenberg, Abraham

    1998-10-01

    'TADIR' is a new high-end thermal imager, developed in El-Op under contract with the Israeli MOD during the last three years. This new second generation thermal imager is based on 480 X 4 TDI MCT detector operated in the 8 - 12 micrometer spectral range. Although the prototype configuration of TADIR was design for the highly demanded light weight low volume and low power air applications, TADIR can be considered as a generic modular technology of which the future El-Op's FLIR applications such as ground fire control system and surveillance systems will be derived from. Besides the detector, what puts the system in the high-end category are the state of the art features implemented in each system's components. This paper describes the system concept and design considerations as well as the anticipated performances. TADIRs fist prototype was demonstrated at the beginning of 1998 and is currently under evaluation.

  3. Second-Generation Non-Covalent NAAA Inhibitors are Protective in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, Marco; Pontis, Silvia; Fuentes de Arriba, Angel Luis; Realini, Natalia; Torrente, Esther; Armirotti, Andrea; Romeo, Elisa; Di Martino, Simona; Russo, Debora; Pizzirani, Daniela; Summa, Maria; Lanfranco, Massimiliano; Ottonello, Giuliana; Busquet, Perrine; Jung, Kwang-Mook; Garcia-Guzman, Miguel; Heim, Roger; Scarpelli, Rita; Piomelli, Daniele

    2016-09-05

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) are endogenous lipid mediators that suppress inflammation. Their actions are terminated by the intracellular cysteine amidase, N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA). Even though NAAA may offer a new target for anti-inflammatory therapy, the lipid-like structures and reactive warheads of current NAAA inhibitors limit the use of these agents as oral drugs. A series of novel benzothiazole-piperazine derivatives that inhibit NAAA in a potent and selective manner by a non-covalent mechanism are described. A prototype member of this class (8) displays high oral bioavailability, access to the central nervous system (CNS), and strong activity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). This compound exemplifies a second generation of non-covalent NAAA inhibitors that may be useful in the treatment of MS and other chronic CNS disorders. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Second Generation Youth in Canada, Their Mobilities and Identifications: Relevance to Citizenship Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrunnisa Ali

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on narrative data recently collected from youth’s in three Canadian cities, our paper focuses on second generation perceptions of youth’s identifications in a society increasingly influenced by the forces of globalization and how these perceptions may or may not be reflected in programs of study dealing with citizenship education. We utilize a framework consisting of a continuum of mobilities of mind, body, and boundaries to situate their sense of self. The façade of globalisation is examined in terms of its impact on identity formation and these youths’ impressions of diversity and multiculturalism. Finally, we consider the relevance of the findings for citizenship education in Ontario, Manitoba, and Alberta.

  5. Second-generation antipsychotic and diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ripoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Second generation antipsychotics (SGA are used in children for the treatment of various psychiatric diseases, including pervasive developmental disorders. These drugs can cause metabolic effects as hyperglycemia and diabetes. A 16-year-old young-boy, diagnosed with autism, developed diabetes mellitus type 1 whilst he was on treatment with olanzapine (started 4 months before, clomipramine, valproic acid and lithium. The hypothesis of druginduced diabetes imposed olanzapine interruption and clozapine initiation. Insulin therapy was practiced, with progressive dosage reduction, until complete cessation of treatment after 13 months. Blood sugar and HbA1c levels remained stable for about a year and then increased again, requiring the introduction of metformin that improved glycemia. In children and adolescents assuming SGA serum glucose and lipid profile should always be assessed before therapy and then frequently monitored. Drug selection must consider family history and the individual risk. Molecule final choice remains equilibrium between efficacy and safety.

  6. Second-Generation High-Temperature Superconductor Wires for the Electric Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malozemoff, A. P.

    2012-08-01

    Superconductors offer major advantages for the electric power grid, including high current and power capacity, high efficiency arising from the lossless current flow, and a unique current-limiting functionality arising from a superconductor-to-resistive transition. These advantages can be brought to bear on equipment such as underground power cables, fault current limiters, rotating machinery, transformers, and energy storage. The first round of significant commercial-scale superconductor power-equipment demonstrations, carried out during the past decade, relied on a first-generation high-temperature superconductor (HTS) wire. However, during the past few years, with the recent commercial availability of high-performance second-generation HTS wires, power-equipment demonstrations have increasingly been carried out with these new wires, which bring important advantages. The foundation is being laid for commercial expansion of this important technology into the power grid.

  7. Second Generation Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Min; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Jun, Tae-Youn; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Prakash S

    2016-01-01

    Less than one third of patients who suffer from major depressive disorder (MDD) report remission following antidepressant treatments requiring more diverse treatment approaches. Augmentation of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) has been increasingly recognized as an important treatment option. The authors have previously provided a comprehensive review of SGAs for the treatment of MDD in 2013. Since then, numerous additional clinical trials have been conducted to investigate diverse issues regarding the utility of SGAs in MDD. Moreover, a new SGA, brexpiprazole, was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration in July 2015 for the treatment of MDD as an augmentation agent to antidepressants. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide a concise update of all the available SGAs for the treatment of MDD, in particular on the additional clinical trials which have been published since 2013. PMID:27689026

  8. Second-generation nanofiltered plasma-derived mannan-binding lectin product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, I.; Houen, G.; Højrup, P.

    2007-01-01

    infections. Substitution therapy with plasma-derived MBL is a promising treatment of diseases associated with MBL deficiency. A first-generation MBL product has been shown to be safe and well tolerated, and patients have benefited from MBL treatment. Following is a description of the development...... of a nanofiltered second-generation MBL product from Cohn fraction III, with the use of a new affinity matrix for MBL purification and the characteristics of this improved product. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Carbohydrate-based gels were comparatively screened as affinity matrices. MBL was extracted from fraction III......, and affinity purified on a Superdex 200 pg column. The eluted material underwent two virus reduction steps: filtration through Planova 20N and solvent/detergent treatment. It was further purified by anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The affinity eluate and the final MBL fraction were...

  9. Magnetic Modulation of the Transport of Organophilic Solutes through Supported Magnetic Ionic Liquid Membranes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daniel, C.L.; Rubio, A.M.; Sebastião, P.J.; Afonso, C.A.M.; Storch, Jan; Izák, Pavel; Portugal, C.A.M.; Crespo, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 505, MAY 1 (2016), s. 36-43 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0569 Grant - others:ERANET(PT) ERA-CHEM/0001/2008; EUI(ES) 2008- 03857; FCT-MCTES(PT) SFRH/BD/81552/2011 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) * solute transport modulation * magnetic field Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 6.035, year: 2016

  10. Steady-state coupled transport of HNO3 through a hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.D.; Danesi, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Nitric acid removal from an aqueous stream was accomplished by continuously passing the fluid through a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (SLM). The nitric acid was extracted through the membrane wall by coupled transport. The system was modeled as a series of (SLM)-continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) pairs. An approximate technique was used to predict the steady state nitric acid concentration in the system. The comparison with experimental data was very good

  11. A bibliometric study of scientific research conducted on second-generation antipsychotic drugs in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Sim, Kang; Shen, Winston Wu; Huelves, Lorena; Moreno, Raquel; Molina, Juan de Dios; Rubio, Gabriel; Noriega, Concha; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel; Alamo, Cecilio

    2014-01-01

    A bibliometric study was carried out to ascertain the volume and impact of scientific literature published on second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in Singapore from 1997 to 2011. A search of the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases was performed to identify articles originating from Singapore that included the descriptors 'atypic* antipsychotic*', 'second-generation antipsychotic*', 'clozapine', 'risperidone', 'olanzapine', 'ziprasidone', 'quetiapine', 'sertindole', 'aripiprazole', 'paliperidone', 'amisulpride', 'zotepine', 'asenapine', 'iloperidone', 'lurasidone', 'perospirone' and 'blonanserin' in the article titles. Certain bibliometric indicators of production and dispersion (e.g. Price's Law on the increase of scientific literature, and Bradford's Law) were applied, and the participation index of various countries was calculated. The bibliometric data was also correlated with some social and health data from Singapore, such as the total per capita expenditure on health and gross domestic expenditure on research and development. From 1997 to 2011, a total of 51 articles on SGAs in Singapore were published. Our results suggested non-fulfilment of Price's Law (r = 0.0648 after exponential adjustment vs. r = 0.2140 after linear adjustment). The most widely studied drugs were clozapine (21 articles), risperidone (16 articles) and olanzapine (8 articles). Division into Bradford zones yielded a nucleus occupied by the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (6 articles) and the Singapore Medical Journal(4 articles). The analysed material was published in a total of 30 journals, with the majority from six journals. Four of these six journals have an impact factor greater than 2. Publications on SGAs in Singapore are still too few to confirm an exponential growth of scientific literature.

  12. Meta-analysis: Risk of dry mouth with second generation antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappetta, Kiley; Beyer, Chad; Johnson, Jessica A; Bloch, Michael H

    2018-06-08

    The goal of this meta-analysis was to quantify the risk of dry mouth associated with commonly prescribed antidepressant agents and examine the potential implications of medication class, dose, and pharmacodynamics and dose on risk of treatment-induced dry mouth. A PubMed search was conducted to identify double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy and tolerability of second generation antidepressant medications for adults with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and OCD. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to quantify the pooled risk ratio of treatment-emergent dry mouth with second generation antidepressants compared to placebo. Stratified subgroup analysis and meta-regression was utilized to further examine the effects antidepressant agent, class, dosage, indication, and receptor affinity profile on the measured risk of dry mouth. 99 trials involving 20,868 adults. SNRIs (Relative Risk (RR)=2.24, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.95-2.58, z=11.2, pz=5.8, pz=10.32, pz=5.85, pz=3.26, p=0.001) and Alpha-2 (PE=0.49, 95% CI: 0.22-0.75, z=3.64, pz=2.10, p<0.05) was significantly associated with increased risk of dry mouth. The current meta-analysis suggests that SSRIs, SNRIs, and atypical antidepressants are all associated with varying degrees of increased risk of dry mouth. SNRIs were associated with a significantly greater risk of dry mouth compared to SSRIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomechanical evaluation of a second generation headless compression screw for ankle arthrodesis in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somberg, Andrew Max; Whiteside, William K; Nilssen, Erik; Murawski, Daniel; Liu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Many types of screws, plates, and strut grafts have been utilized for ankle arthrodesis. Biomechanical testing has shown that these constructs can have variable stiffness. More recently, headless compression screws have emerged as an evolving method of achieving compression in various applications but there is limited literature regarding ankle arthrodesis. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical stability provided by a second generation fully threaded headless compression screw compared to a standard headed, partially threaded cancellous screw in a cadaveric ankle arthrodesis model. Twenty fresh frozen human cadaver specimens were subjected to simulated ankle arthrodesis with either three standard cancellous-bone screws (InFix 7.3mm) or with three headless compression screws (Acumed Acutrak 2 7.5mm). The specimens were subjected to cyclic loading and unloading at a rate of 1Hz, compression of 525 Newtons (N) and distraction of 20N for a total of 500 cycles using an electromechanical load frame (Instron). The amount of maximum distraction was recorded as well as the amount of motion that occurred through 1, 10, 50, 100, and 500 cycles. No significant difference (p=0.412) was seen in the amount of distraction that occurred across the fusion site for either screw. The average maximum distraction after 500 cycles was 201.9μm for the Acutrak 2 screw and 235.4μm for the InFix screw. No difference was seen throughout each cycle over time for the Acutrak 2 screw (p-value=0.988) or the InFix screw (p-value=0.991). Both the traditional InFix type screw and the second generation Acumed Acutrak headless compression screws provide adequate fixation during ankle arthrodesis under submaximal loads. There is no demonstrable difference between traditional cannulated partially threaded screws and headless compression screws studied in this model. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. From molecular clusters to nanoparticles: second-generation ion-mediated nucleation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ions, which are generated in the atmosphere by galactic cosmic rays and other ionization sources, may play an important role in the formation of atmospheric aerosols. In the paper, a new second-generation ion-mediated nucleation (IMN model is presented. The new model explicitly treats the evaporation of neutral and charged clusters and it describes the evolution of the size spectra and composition of both charged and neutral clusters/particles ranging from small clusters of few molecules to large particles of several micrometers in diameter. Schemes used to calculate the evaporation coefficients for small neutral and charged clusters are consistent with the experimental data within the uncertainty range. The present IMN model, which is size-, composition-, and type-resolved, is a powerful tool for investigating the dominant mechanisms and key parameters controlling the formation and subsequent growth of nanoparticles in the atmosphere. This model can be used to analyze simultaneous measurements of the ion-mobility spectra and particle size distributions, which became available only recently. General features of the spectra for ions smaller than the critical size, size-dependent fractions of charged nanoparticles, and asymmetrical charging of freshly nucleated particles predicted by the new IMN model are consistent with recent measurements. Results obtained using the second generation IMN model, in which the most recent thermodynamic data for neutral and charged H2SO4-H2O clusters were used, suggest that ion-mediated nucleation of H2SO4-H2O can lead to a significant production of new particles in the lower atmosphere (including the boundary layer under favorable conditions. It has been shown that freshly nucleated particles of few nanometers in size can grow by the condensation of low volatile organic compounds to the size of cloud condensation nuclei. In such cases, the chemical composition of nucleated particles larger than ~10 nm is dominated

  15. Second generation γ-secretase modulators exhibit different modulation of Notch β and Aβ production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanngren, Johanna; Ottervald, Jan; Parpal, Santiago; Portelius, Erik; Strömberg, Kia; Borgegård, Tomas; Klintenberg, Rebecka; Juréus, Anders; Blomqvist, Jenny; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Lundkvist, Johan; Rosqvist, Susanne; Karlström, Helena

    2012-09-21

    The γ-secretase complex is an appealing drug target when the therapeutic strategy is to alter amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregation in Alzheimer disease. γ-Secretase is directly involved in Aβ formation and determines the pathogenic potential of Aβ by generating the aggregation-prone Aβ42 peptide. Because γ-secretase mediates cleavage of many substrates involved in cell signaling, such as the Notch receptor, it is crucial to sustain these pathways while altering the Aβ secretion. A way of avoiding interference with the physiological function of γ-secretase is to use γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) instead of inhibitors of the enzyme. GSMs modify the Aβ formation from producing the amyloid-prone Aβ42 variant to shorter and less amyloidogenic Aβ species. The modes of action of GSMs are not fully understood, and even though the pharmacology of GSMs has been thoroughly studied regarding Aβ generation, knowledge is lacking about their effects on other substrates, such as Notch. Here, using immunoprecipitation followed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis, we found that two novel, second generation GSMs modulate both Notch β and Aβ production. Moreover, by correlating S3-specific Val-1744 cleavage of Notch intracellular domain (Notch intracellular domain) to total Notch intracellular domain levels using immunocytochemistry, we also demonstrated that Notch intracellular domain is not modulated by the compounds. Interestingly, two well characterized, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), R-flurbiprofen and sulindac sulfide, affect only Aβ and not Notch β formation, indicating that second generation GSMs and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-based GSMs have different modes of action regarding Notch processing.

  16. Numerical Study of the Influence of Cavity on Immiscible Liquid Transport in Varied-Wettability Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Dou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field evidence indicates that cavities often occur in fractured rocks, especially in a Karst region. Once the immiscible liquid flows into the cavity, the cavity has the immiscible liquid entrapped and results in a low recovery ratio. In this paper, the immiscible liquid transport in cavity-fractures was simulated by Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM. The interfacial and surface tensions were incorporated by Multicomponent Shan-Chen (MCSC model. Three various fracture positions were generated to investigate the influence on the irreducible nonwetting phase saturation and displacement time. The influences of fracture aperture and wettability on the immiscible liquid transport were discussed and analyzed. It was found that the cavity resulted in a long displacement time. Increasing the fracture aperture with the corresponding decrease in displacement pressure led to the long displacement time. This consequently decreased the irreducible nonwetting phase saturation. The fracture positions had a significant effect on the displacement time and irreducible saturation. The distribution of the irreducible nonwetting phase was strongly dependent on wettability and fracture position. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the LBM was very effective in simulating the immiscible two-phase flow in the cavity-fracture.

  17. Directional Transport of a Liquid Drop between Parallel-Nonparallel Combinative Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao; Hu, Liang; Chen, Wenyu; Fu, Xin; Ruan, Xiaodong; Xie, Haibo

    2018-04-17

    Liquids confined between two parallel plates can perform the function of transmission, support, or lubrication in many practical applications, due to which to maintain liquids stable within their working area is very important. However, instabilities may lead to the formation of leaking drops outside the bulk liquid, thus it is necessary to transport the detached drops back without overstepping the working area and causing destructive leakage to the system. In this study, we report a novel and facile method to solve this problem by introducing the wedgelike geometry into the parallel gap to form a parallel-nonparallel combinative construction. Transport performances of this structure were investigated. The criterion for self-propelled motion was established, which seemed more difficult to meet than that in the nonparallel gap. Then, we performed a more detailed investigation into the drop dynamics under squeezing and relaxing modes because the drops can surely return in hydrophilic combinative gaps, whereas uncertainties arose in gaps with a weak hydrophobic character. Therefore, through exploration of the transition mechanism of the drop motion state, a crucial factor named turning point was discovered and supposed to be directly related to the final state of the drops. On the basis of the theoretical model of turning point, the criterion to identify whether a liquid drop returns to the parallel part under squeezing and relaxing modes was achieved. These criteria can provide guidance on parameter selection and structural optimization for the combinative gap, so that the destructive leakage in practical productions can be avoided.

  18. Study of thermodynamic and transport properties of phosphonium-based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deive, Francisco J.; Rivas, Miguel A.; Rodríguez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Physical and transport properties of three hydrophilic phoshonium ILs were determined. ► Experimental density, viscosity, refractive index and speed of sound were correlated. ► Predictive equations were successfully employed to predict density of the three ILs. -- Abstract: In this work, the experimental values of density, speed of sound, refractive index and dynamic viscosity have been obtained from T = (293.15 to 343.15) K for the three phosphonium-based ionic liquids: tributyl methyl phoshponium methylsulfate (P 4441 C 1 SO 4 ), tributyl ethyl phosphonium diethylphosphate (P 4442 (C 2 ) 2 PO 4 ) and tributyl octyl phosphonium chloride (P 4448 Cl). The isentropic compressibility has been calculated by means of the Laplace equation from the experimental speed of sound results for the three ionic liquids at different temperatures. Density, speed of sound, refractive index and isentropic compressibility have been correlated by polynomial equations. The Lorentz–Lorenz, Dale–Gladstone, Eykman, Oster, Arago–Biot, Newton and modified Eykman equations were the empirical models used to correlate satisfactorily the relationship between the densities and refractive indices of the ionic liquids selected. The temperature dependence of the experimental dynamic viscosities for the ionic liquids selected can be described by an Arrhenius-like law and by VFT equations. The Riedel, Narsimham, Bradford–Thodos, Yen–Woods, Rackett, Spencer–Danner, Gunn–Yamada, Hankinson–Thomson (COSTALD model), VSY, VSD, MH and LGM equations were employed to predict the densities of the pure ionic liquids

  19. Uranyl ion transport across tri-n-butyl phosphate/n-dodecane liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, J.P.; Misra, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Carrier-facilitated transport of uranium (VI) against its concentration gradient from aqueous nitrate acidic solutions across organic bulk liquid membranes (BLM) and supported liquid membranes (SLM) containing TBP as the mobile carrier and n-dodecane as the membrane solvent was investigated. Extremely dilute uranyl nitrate solutions in about 2.5 M nitric acid generally constituted as the source phase. Uranyl transport appreciably increased with both stirring of the receiving phase and the carrier concentration in the organic membrane, while enhanced acidity of the strip side adversely affected the partioning of the cation into this phase. Among the several reagents tested, diluted ammonium carbonate (∼1M) solutions served efficiently as the stripant. Besides Accurel polypropylene (PP) film as the solid support for SLM, some silicon flat-sheet membranes with different inorganic fillers like silica, calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, chromium oxide, zinc oxide etc. and teflon membranes transported about 70% of uranium in nearly 7-8 hr employing 1 M ammonium carbonate as the strippant. Specifically, 30% TBP supported on Accurel flat-sheet supports transfered better than 70% of uranium from moderate acid feeds (2.5M) under similar conditions. Membranes supporting Aliquat-336, TLA, TOPO etc. yielded somewhat poor uranium recoveries. The feed : strip volume ratio showed an inverse relationship to the fraction of cation transported. (author). 9 refs., 2 tab s

  20. Experimental Investigation of Vortex Shedding in Flow Over Second-Generation, Controlled-Diffusion, Compressor Blades in Cascade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Peter

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of vortex shedding downstream of a cascade of second-generation, controlled-diffusion, compressor stator blades, at off-design inlet-flow angles of 31, 33 and 35 degrees and Reynolds...

  1. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF THE TURBULENT emf AND TRANSPORT OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN A LIQUID SODIUM EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbarnia, Kian; Brown, Benjamin P.; Clark, Mike M.; Kaplan, Elliot J.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Rasmus, Alex M.; Taylor, Nicholas Zane; Forest, Cary B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Jenko, Frank; Limone, Angelo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pinton, Jean-Francois; Plihon, Nicolas; Verhille, Gautier, E-mail: kian.rahbarnia@ipp.mpg.de [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, CNRS and Universite de Lyon, F-69364 Lyon (France)

    2012-11-10

    For the first time, we have directly measured the transport of a vector magnetic field by isotropic turbulence in a high Reynolds number liquid metal flow. In analogy with direct measurements of the turbulent Reynolds stress (turbulent viscosity) that governs momentum transport, we have measured the turbulent electromotive force (emf) by simultaneously measuring three components of velocity and magnetic fields, and computed the correlations that lead to mean-field current generation. Furthermore, we show that this turbulent emf tends to oppose and cancel out the local current, acting to increase the effective resistivity of the medium, i.e., it acts as an enhanced magnetic diffusivity. This has important implications for turbulent transport in astrophysical objects, particularly in dynamos and accretion disks.

  2. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF THE TURBULENT emf AND TRANSPORT OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN A LIQUID SODIUM EXPERIMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbarnia, Kian; Brown, Benjamin P.; Clark, Mike M.; Kaplan, Elliot J.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Rasmus, Alex M.; Taylor, Nicholas Zane; Forest, Cary B.; Jenko, Frank; Limone, Angelo; Pinton, Jean-François; Plihon, Nicolas; Verhille, Gautier

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, we have directly measured the transport of a vector magnetic field by isotropic turbulence in a high Reynolds number liquid metal flow. In analogy with direct measurements of the turbulent Reynolds stress (turbulent viscosity) that governs momentum transport, we have measured the turbulent electromotive force (emf) by simultaneously measuring three components of velocity and magnetic fields, and computed the correlations that lead to mean-field current generation. Furthermore, we show that this turbulent emf tends to oppose and cancel out the local current, acting to increase the effective resistivity of the medium, i.e., it acts as an enhanced magnetic diffusivity. This has important implications for turbulent transport in astrophysical objects, particularly in dynamos and accretion disks.

  3. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  4. Transport of particles in liquid foams: a multi-scale approach; Etude multi-echelles du transport de particules dans les mousses liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvet, N.

    2009-11-15

    Foam is used for the decontamination of radioactive tanks since foam is a system that has a large surface for a low amount of liquid and as a consequence requires less water to be decontaminated. We study experimentally different particle transport configurations in fluid micro-channels network (Plateau borders) of aqueous foam. At first, foam permeability is measured at the scale of a single channel and of the whole foam network for 2 soap solutions known for their significant different interface mobility. Experimental data are well described by a model that takes into account the real geometry of the foam and by considering a constant value of the Boussinesq number of each soap solutions. Secondly, the velocity of one particle convected in a single foam channel is measured for different particle/channel aspect ratio. For small aspect ratio, a counterflow that is taking place at the channel's corners slows down the particle. A recirculation model in the channel foam films is developed to describe this effect. To do this, the Gibbs elasticity is introduced. Then, the threshold between trapped and released of one particle in liquid foam are carried out. This threshold is deduced from hydrodynamic and capillary forces equilibrium. Finally, the case of a clog foam node is addressed. (author)

  5. Multi-Criteria Optimisation of Liquid Cargo Transport According to Linguistic Approach to the Route Selection Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guze Sambor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the possibility of use of the multi-criteria optimization method Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to liquid cargo transportation by sea. Finding the optimal solution is not simple. There are many factors influencing the shipping process. In the case of liquid cargo, the most important thing is the safety of the crew, ship, and environment. Therefore, the Mathematical Theory of Evidence is introduced and used to determine the optimal path in terms of time and safety of transport. Moreover, the details of liquid cargo transport process are described with particular attention to ship to ship operations. Besides, the basic concept of the AHP method, steps of the algorithm are introduced. Finally, the multicriteria optimization of the transport of the liquid cargo from the Persian Gulf to Port of Gdansk is done. It is based on the experts′ opinions.

  6. Carrier-mediated transport of actinides and rare earth elements through liquid and plasticized membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopunec, R.; Ngo Manh, Th.

    1994-01-01

    The first works in this field were realized approximately 25 years ago, when BLOCK et al. reported their studies about carrier-mediated transport (also called pertraction or membrane extraction) of uranium through plasticized membranes with neutral esters derived from phosphoric acid. At this time, the methodical principles of selective pertraction of ionic compounds through so-called bulk liquid membranes containing carriers were known. However, these membranes, similarly as plasticized membranes, have not achieved a broader use. This is probably because bulk liquid membranes are from a technical point of view fairly distant from the idea of a typical membrane system, and plasticized membranes (sometimes also called gel membranes) present great resistance. By the end of the 1960's and at the beginning of the 1970's, LI and CUSSLER worked out the principles for two widely used pertraction techniques, called pertraction through emulsion liquid and supported liquid membranes (ELM and SLM). These two techniques not only have greatest significance in laboratory practice, but they also are interesting for technological aims because of the attainable large phase boundaries, e.g. 10 3 -10 4 m 2 /m 3 . Many ways to arrange membrane systems are described in papers. Recently, the significance of carrier-mediated transport through liquid membranes has grown to have (since 1980) separate section at the International Solvent Extraction Conference. This paper does not deal with mathematical models and the mechanism of pertraction in general, but it gives an overview of results obtained in publications referring to pertraction of two related element groups - actinoids and rare earth elements - using various membrane types. (author) 154 refs

  7. High impact biowastes from South European agro-industries as feedstock for second-generation biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoma, Alberto; Rebecchi, Stefano; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Availability of bio-based chemicals, materials and energy at reasonable cost will be one of the forthcoming issues for the EU economy. In particular, the development of technologies making use of alternative resources to fossil fuels is encouraged by the current European research and innovation strategy to face the societal challenge of natural resource scarcity, fossil resource dependence and sustainable economic growth. In this respect, second- generation biorefineries, i.e. biorefineries fed with biowastes, appear to be good candidates to substitute and replace the present downstream processing scheme. Contrary to first-generation biorefineries, which make use of dedicated crops or primary cultivations to achieve such a goal, the former employ agricultural, industrial, zootechnical, fishery and forestry biowastes as the main feedstock. This leaves aside any ethical and social issue generated by first-generation approaches, and concomitantly prevents environmental and economical issues associated with the disposal of the aforementioned leftovers. Unfortunately, to date, a comprehensive and updated mapping of the availability and potential use of bioresources for second-generation biorefineries in Europe is missing. This is a lack that severely limits R&D and industrial applications in the sector. On the other hand, attempts at valorizing the most diverse biowastes dates back to the nineteenth century and plenty of information in the literature on their sustainable exploitation is available. However, the large majority of these investigations have been focused on single fractions of biowastes or single steps of biowaste processing, preventing considerations on an integrated and modular (cascade) approach for the whole valorization of organic leftovers. This review aims at addressing these issues by gathering recent data on (a) some of the main high-impact biowastes located in Europe and in particular in its Southern part, and (b) the bio-based chemicals, materials

  8. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hardip R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing genome sequence assembly and gene ordering in this species. Results A second-generation anchored tammar wallaby genetic linkage map has been constructed based on a total of 148 loci. The linkage map contains the original 64 loci included in the first-generation map, plus an additional 84 microsatellite loci that were chosen specifically to increase coverage and assist with the anchoring and orientation of linkage groups to chromosomes. These additional loci were derived from (a sequenced BAC clones that had been previously mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, (b End sequence from BACs subsequently FISH-mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes, and (c tammar wallaby genes orthologous to opossum genes predicted to fill gaps in the tammar wallaby linkage map as well as three X-linked markers from a published study. Based on these 148 loci, eight linkage groups were formed. These linkage groups were assigned (via FISH-mapped markers to all seven autosomes and the X chromosome. The sex-pooled map size is 1402.4 cM, which is estimated to provide 82.6% total coverage of the genome, with an average interval distance of 10.9 cM between adjacent markers. The overall ratio of female/male map length is 0.84, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.78 obtained for the first-generation map. Conclusions Construction of this second-generation genetic linkage map is a significant step towards complete coverage of the tammar wallaby

  9. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenwei; Webley, Lee; Wei, Ke-jun; Wakefield, Matthew J; Patel, Hardip R; Deakin, Janine E; Alsop, Amber; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Cooper, Desmond W; Nicholas, Frank W; Zenger, Kyall R

    2011-08-19

    The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing genome sequence assembly and gene ordering in this species. A second-generation anchored tammar wallaby genetic linkage map has been constructed based on a total of 148 loci. The linkage map contains the original 64 loci included in the first-generation map, plus an additional 84 microsatellite loci that were chosen specifically to increase coverage and assist with the anchoring and orientation of linkage groups to chromosomes. These additional loci were derived from (a) sequenced BAC clones that had been previously mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), (b) End sequence from BACs subsequently FISH-mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes, and (c) tammar wallaby genes orthologous to opossum genes predicted to fill gaps in the tammar wallaby linkage map as well as three X-linked markers from a published study. Based on these 148 loci, eight linkage groups were formed. These linkage groups were assigned (via FISH-mapped markers) to all seven autosomes and the X chromosome. The sex-pooled map size is 1402.4 cM, which is estimated to provide 82.6% total coverage of the genome, with an average interval distance of 10.9 cM between adjacent markers. The overall ratio of female/male map length is 0.84, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.78 obtained for the first-generation map. Construction of this second-generation genetic linkage map is a significant step towards complete coverage of the tammar wallaby genome and considerably extends that of the first

  10. Second generation stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system with faster scan time and wider angular span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliste, Jabari; Wu, Gongting; Laganis, Philip E; Spronk, Derrek; Jafari, Houman; Olson, Kyle; Gao, Bo; Lee, Yueh Z; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a new generation stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system with higher tube flux and increased angular span over a first generation system. The linear CNT x-ray source was designed, built, and evaluated to determine its performance parameters. The second generation system was then constructed using the CNT x-ray source and a Hologic gantry. Upon construction, test objects and phantoms were used to characterize system resolution as measured by the modulation transfer function (MTF), and artifact spread function (ASF). The results indicated that the linear CNT x-ray source was capable of stable operation at a tube potential of 49 kVp, and measured focal spot sizes showed source-to-source consistency with a nominal focal spot size of 1.1 mm. After construction, the second generation (Gen 2) system exhibited entrance surface air kerma rates two times greater the previous s-DBT system. System in-plane resolution as measured by the MTF is 7.7 cycles/mm, compared to 6.7 cycles/mm for the Gen 1 system. As expected, an increase in the z-axis depth resolution was observed, with a decrease in the ASF from 4.30 mm to 2.35 mm moving from the Gen 1 system to the Gen 2 system as result of an increased angular span. The results indicate that the Gen 2 stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system, which has a larger angular span, increased entrance surface air kerma, and faster image acquisition time over the Gen 1 s-DBT system, results in higher resolution images. With the detector operating at full resolution, the Gen 2 s-DBT system can achieve an in-plane resolution of 7.7 cycles per mm, which is better than the current commercial DBT systems today, and may potentially result in better patient diagnosis. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Second Generation Self-Inflating Tissue Expanders: A Two-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Omran Al Madani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tissue expansion is a well-established surgical technique that produces an additional amount of normal skin to cover a defect. This technique is appealing because the skin quality and color are from the patient’s own. The widely used injectable expanders are of great reliability but carry the disadvantage of being painful during injection and most of the time require multiple clinic visits. So the idea of self-inflation became attractive and hydrogel expanders were developed and became widely known for being painless during clinic visit and decrease number of visits. The first generation expanders were modified by adding an enclosing plastic shell to decrease the unopposed expansion that occurred in the first generation expanders, which lead to pressure necrosis of the skin flaps. This made it an attractive option for tissue expansion in children and some adult patients. Patients, Materials, and Methods. Charts of 17 patients were retrospectively reviewed, all of them had second generation self-inflating expanders implanted over a 2-year period for one of two purposes, the treatment of giant nevi or burn scars. Results. Fifteen patients were females and 2 were males. The indication was large burn scar in 14 cases (14/17, in which 47/55 expanders were implanted, and giant nevus in 3/17 cases in which 8/55 expanders were implanted. Extrusion of the expander occurred in 8/55 expanders (14.5%, which occurred in 6/14 patients. The highest percentage of extrusion occurred in the neck in which two out of three expanders extruded; otherwise this complication does not seem to be related to the indication, gender, nor age of the patients. It seems to be that it is technical in nature. The patients did not have to get any injections to fill the tissue expanders, which made the expansion process less painful and more convenient. Conclusion. This seems to be currently the largest published review in which second generation expanders were used

  12. Clinical development and regulatory points for consideration for second-generation live attenuated dengue vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannice, Kirsten S; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Barrett, Alan D T; Carrijo, Kalinka; Cavaleri, Marco; de Silva, Aravinda; Durbin, Anna P; Endy, Tim; Harris, Eva; Innis, Bruce L; Katzelnick, Leah C; Smith, Peter G; Sun, Wellington; Thomas, Stephen J; Hombach, Joachim

    2018-03-07

    Licensing and decisions on public health use of a vaccine rely on a robust clinical development program that permits a risk-benefit assessment of the product in the target population. Studies undertaken early in clinical development, as well as well-designed pivotal trials, allow for this robust characterization. In 2012, WHO published guidelines on the quality, safety and efficacy of live attenuated dengue tetravalent vaccines. Subsequently, efficacy and longer-term follow-up data have become available from two Phase 3 trials of a dengue vaccine, conducted in parallel, and the vaccine was licensed in December 2015. The findings and interpretation of the results from these trials released both before and after licensure have highlighted key complexities for tetravalent dengue vaccines, including concerns vaccination could increase the incidence of dengue disease in certain subpopulations. This report summarizes clinical and regulatory points for consideration that may guide vaccine developers on some aspects of trial design and facilitate regulatory review to enable broader public health recommendations for second-generation dengue vaccines. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the THERP quantitative tables with the human reliability analysis techniques of second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves

    2009-01-01

    The methodology THERP is classified as a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) technique of first generation and its emergence was an important initial step for the development of HRA techniques in the industry. Due to the fact of being a first generation technique, THERP quantification tables of human errors are based on a taxonomy that does not take into account the human errors mechanisms. Concerning the three cognitive levels in the Rasmussen framework for the cognitive information processing in human beings, THERP deals in most cases with errors that happen in the perceptual-motor level (stimulus-response). In the rules level, this technique can work better using the time dependent probabilities curves of diagnosis errors, obtained in nuclear power plants simulators. Nevertheless, this is done without processing any error mechanisms. Another deficiency is the fact that the performance shaping factors are in limited number. Furthermore, the influences (predictable or not) of operational context, arising from operational deviations of the most probable (in terms of occurrence probabilities) standard scenarios beside the consequent operational tendencies (operator actions) are not estimated. This work makes a critical analysis of these deficiencies and it points out possible solutions in order to modify the THERP tables, seeking a realistic quantification, that does not underestimate or overestimate the human errors probabilities when applying the HRA techniques to nuclear power plants. The critical analysis is accomplished through a qualitative comparison between THERP, a HRA technique of first generation, with CREAM, as well as ATHEANA, which are HRA techniques of second generation. (author)

  14. Lessons from first generation biofuels and implications for the sustainability appraisal of second generation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Alison; Raman, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The emergence of second generation (2G) biofuels is widely seen as a sustainable response to the increasing controversy surrounding the first generation (1G). Yet, sustainability credentials of 2G biofuels are also being questioned. Drawing on work in Science and Technology Studies, we argue that controversies help focus attention on key, often value-related questions that need to be posed to address broader societal concerns. This paper examines lessons drawn from the 1G controversy to assess implications for the sustainability appraisal of 2G biofuels. Scope: We present an overview of key 1G sustainability challenges, assess their relevance for 2G, and highlight the challenges for policy in managing the transition. We address limitations of existing sustainability assessments by exploring where challenges might emerge across the whole system of bioenergy and the wider context of the social system in which bioenergy research and policy are done. Conclusions: Key lessons arising from 1G are potentially relevant to the sustainability appraisal of 2G biofuels depending on the particular circumstances or conditions under which 2G is introduced. We conclude that sustainability challenges commonly categorised as either economic, environmental or social are, in reality, more complexly interconnected (so that an artificial separation of these categories is problematic). - Highlights: • Controversy surrounding 1G biofuels is relevant to sustainability appraisal of 2G. • Challenges for policy in managing the transition to 2G biofuels are highlighted. • A key lesson is that sustainability challenges are complexly interconnected

  15. Progress in scale-up of second-generation HTS conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Chen, Y.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, X.; Qiao, Y.; Reeves, J.; Rar, A.; Schmidt, R.; Lenseth, K.

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been recently made in the achievement of high-performance, high-speed, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS conductors. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), SuperPower has scaled up tape lengths to 427 m with a minimum critical current value of 191 A/cm corresponding to a critical current x length performance of 81,550 m. Tape speeds up to 120 m/h have been reached with IBAD MgO, up to 80 m/h with buffer deposition and up to 45 m/h with MOCVD, all in single pass processing of 12 mm wide tape. Critical current value of 227 A/cm has been achieved in a 203 m long tape produced in an all-high-speed fabrication process. Critical current values have been raised to 721 A/cm, 592 A/cm and 486 A/cm in short, reel-to-reel processed tape, over 1 m length and over 11.1 m, respectively, using thicker MOCVD HTS films. Finally, over 10,000 m of copper-stabilized, 4 mm wide conductor has been produced and tested for delivery to the Albany Cable project. The average critical current of the 10,000 m lot was 81 A

  16. Progress in scale-up of second-generation HTS conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)], E-mail: vselva@igc.com; Chen, Y.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, X.; Qiao, Y.; Reeves, J.; Rar, A.; Schmidt, R.; Lenseth, K. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Tremendous progress has been recently made in the achievement of high-performance, high-speed, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS conductors. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), SuperPower has scaled up tape lengths to 427 m with a minimum critical current value of 191 A/cm corresponding to a critical current x length performance of 81,550 m. Tape speeds up to 120 m/h have been reached with IBAD MgO, up to 80 m/h with buffer deposition and up to 45 m/h with MOCVD, all in single pass processing of 12 mm wide tape. Critical current value of 227 A/cm has been achieved in a 203 m long tape produced in an all-high-speed fabrication process. Critical current values have been raised to 721 A/cm, 592 A/cm and 486 A/cm in short, reel-to-reel processed tape, over 1 m length and over 11.1 m, respectively, using thicker MOCVD HTS films. Finally, over 10,000 m of copper-stabilized, 4 mm wide conductor has been produced and tested for delivery to the Albany Cable project. The average critical current of the 10,000 m lot was 81 A.

  17. Second-Generation Large Civil Tiltrotor 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel Test Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Russell, Carl R.; Willink, Gina C.; Pete, Ashley E.; Adibi, Sierra A.; Ewert, Adam; Theuns, Lieselotte; Beierle, Connor

    2016-01-01

    An approximately 6-percent scale model of the NASA Second-Generation Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) Aircraft was tested in the U.S. Army 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center January 4 to April 19, 2012, and September 18 to November 1, 2013. The full model was tested, along with modified versions in order to determine the effects of the wing tip extensions and nacelles; the wing was also tested separately in the various configurations. In both cases, the wing and nacelles used were adopted from the U.S. Army High Efficiency Tilt Rotor (HETR) aircraft, in order to limit the cost of the experiment. The full airframe was tested in high-speed cruise and low-speed hover flight conditions, while the wing was tested only in cruise conditions, with Reynolds numbers ranging from 0 to 1.4 million. In all cases, the external scale system of the wind tunnel was used to collect data. Both models were mounted to the scale using two support struts attached underneath the wing; the full airframe model also used a third strut attached at the tail. The collected data provides insight into the performance of the preliminary design of the LCTR2 and will be used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation and the development of flight dynamics simulation models.

  18. Second Generation HTs Wire Based on RABiTS Substrates and MOD YBCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoop, U. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Rupich, Marty [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Thieme, C. L. H. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, D. T. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Li, Xiaoping [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Kodenkandath, Thomas [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Nguyen, N. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Siegal, E. E. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Civale, L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Holesinger, T. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Maiorov, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    The performance of Second Generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire manufactured by continuous reel-to-reel processes is nearing the 300 A/cm-width (77 K, self field) performance threshold for commercial power cable applications. The 2G manufacturing approach under development at American Superconductor is based on the combination of the RABiTS substrate-buffer technology with metal organic deposition (MOD) of the YBCO layer. The capability of this process has been demonstrated in multiple 10 meter lengths with critical currents exceeding 250 A/cm-width with high uniformity and reproducibility. Critical currents of 380 A/cm-width have been achieved in short length samples prepared by the same basic process. The incorporation of nanoparticles ('nanodots') into the YBCO layer using the MOD process has resulted in a 2-fold improvement in the critical current at 65 K in a 3 T field. The research and development focus at ASMC is now directed toward the economical scale-up of the RABiTS/MOD process, optimization of the conductor properties for targeted applications and the use of 2G wire in initial demonstration applications.

  19. Treating respiratory viral diseases with chemically modified, second generation intranasal siRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2009-01-01

    Chemically synthesized short interfering RNA (siRNA) of pre-determined sequence has ushered a new era in the application of RNA interference (RNAi) against viral genes. We have paid particular attention to respiratory viruses that wreak heavy morbidity and mortality worldwide. The clinically significant ones include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus (PIV) and influenza virus. As the infection by these viruses is clinically restricted to the respiratory tissues, mainly the lungs, the logical route for the application of the siRNA was also the same, i.e., via the nasal route. Following the initial success of intranasal siRNA against RSV, second-generation siRNAs were made against the viral polymerase large subunit (L) that were chemically modified and screened for improved stability, activity and pharmacokinetics. 2'-O-methyl (2'-O-Me) and 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro (2'-F) substitutions in the ribose ring were incorporated in different positions of the sense and antisense strands and the resultant siRNAs were tested with various transfection reagents intranasally against RSV. Based on these results, we propose the following consensus for designing intranasal antiviral siRNAs: (i) modified 19-27 nt long double-stranded siRNAs are functional in the lung, (ii) excessive 2'-OMe and 2'-F modifications in either or both strands of these siRNAs reduce efficacy, and (iii) limited modifications in the sense strand are beneficial, although their precise efficacy may be position-dependent.

  20. High resolution hard x-ray microscope on a second generation synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yangchao; Li Wenjie; Chen Jie; Liu Longhua; Liu Gang; Tian Jinping; Xiong Ying; Tkachuk, Andrei; Gelb, Jeff; Hsu, George; Yun Wenbing

    2008-01-01

    A full-field, transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) operating in the energy range of 7-11 keV has been installed at the U7A beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, a second generation synchrotron source operating at 0.8 GeV. Although the photon flux at sample position in the operating energy range is significantly low due to its relatively large emittance, the TXM can get high quality x-ray images with a spatial resolution down to 50 nm with acceptable exposure time. This TXM operates in either absorption or Zernike phase contrast mode with similar resolution. This TXM is a powerful analytical tool for a wide range of scientific areas, especially studies on nanoscale phenomena and structural imaging in biology, materials science, and environmental science. We present here the property of the x-ray source, beamline design, and the operation and key optical components of the x-ray TXM. Plans to improve the throughput of the TXM will be discussed.

  1. Parenting and toddler aggression in second-generation immigrant families: the moderating role of child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ayşe; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the influence of parenting practices in the prediction of child physical aggression in 94 second-generation Turkish immigrant families with 2-year-old toddlers, and the moderating role of child temperament. In a longitudinal study we tested both a dual-risk model and a differential susceptibility model. Observational data were obtained for mothers' positive parenting and authoritarian discipline, and maternal reports for child temperament and physical aggression. All measures were repeated 1 year later. Child temperament at age 2 years was a significant predictor of child aggression 1 year later. We found no main effects of positive parenting or of authoritarian discipline for the prediction of child aggression. However, we found support for the dual-risk hypothesis: Toddlers with difficult temperaments were more adversely affected by a lack of positive parenting than other children, but they did not benefit more from high levels of positive parenting than toddlers with more easy temperaments. We found no interaction effects with child temperament for authoritarian discipline. These findings provide support for the generalizability of the dual-risk model of parenting and temperament to non-Western immigrant families with young children. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks Model for Meteosat Second Generation SEVIRI Daytime Cloud Masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Taravat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A multilayer perceptron neural network cloud mask for Meteosat Second Generation SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager images is introduced and evaluated. The model is trained for cloud detection on MSG SEVIRI daytime data. It consists of a multi-layer perceptron with one hidden sigmoid layer, trained with the error back-propagation algorithm. The model is fed by six bands of MSG data (0.6, 0.8, 1.6, 3.9, 6.2 and 10.8 μm with 10 hidden nodes. The multiple-layer perceptrons lead to a cloud detection accuracy of 88.96%, when trained to map two predefined values that classify cloud and clear sky. The network was further evaluated using sixty MSG images taken at different dates. The network detected not only bright thick clouds but also thin or less bright clouds. The analysis demonstrated the feasibility of using machine learning models of cloud detection in MSG SEVIRI imagery.

  3. Bioprospecting of functional cellulases from metagenome for second generation biofuel production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rameshwar; Nain, Lata; Labrou, Nikolaos E; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2018-03-01

    Second generation biofuel production has been appeared as a sustainable and alternative energy option. The ultimate aim is the development of an industrially feasible and economic conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel molecules. Since, cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer and also represented as the photosynthetically fixed form of carbon, the efficient hydrolysis of cellulose is the most important step towards the development of a sustainable biofuel production process. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by suites of hydrolytic enzymes underlines the importance of cellulase enzyme system in whole hydrolysis process. However, the selection of the suitable cellulolytic enzymes with enhanced activities remains a challenge for the biorefinery industry to obtain efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. The present review focuses on deciphering the novel and effective cellulases from different environmental niches by unculturable metagenomic approaches. Furthermore, a comprehensive functional aspect of cellulases is also presented and evaluated by assessing the structural and catalytic properties as well as sequence identities and expression patterns. This review summarizes the recent development in metagenomics based approaches for identifying and exploring novel cellulases which open new avenues for their successful application in biorefineries.

  4. Second-generation bioethanol from industrial wood waste of South American species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Vallejos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a global interest in replacing fossil fuels with renewable sources of energy. The present review evaluates the significance of South-American wood industrial wastes for bioethanol production. Four countries have been chosen for this review, i.e., Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay, based on their current or potential forestry industry. It should be noted that although Brazil has a global bioethanol market share of 25%, its production is mainly first-generation bioethanol from sugarcane. The situation in the other countries is even worse, in spite of the fact that they have regulatory frameworks in place already allowing the substitution of a percentage of gasoline by ethanol. Pines and eucalyptus are the usually forested plants in these countries, and their industrial wastes, as chips and sawdust, could serve as promising raw materials to produce second-generation bioethanol in the context of a forest biorefinery. The process to convert woody biomass involves three stages: pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation. The operational conditions of the pretreatment method used are generally defined according to the physical and chemical characteristics of the raw materials and subsequently determine the characteristics of the treated substrates. This article also reviews and discusses the available pretreatment technologies for eucalyptus and pines applicable to South-American industrial wood wastes, their enzymatic hydrolysis yields, and the feasibility of implementing such processes in the mentioned countries in the frame of a biorefinery.

  5. A study of sibling leukemia in the second generations of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Although the sibling leukemia (SL) is very rare, it is known in 4 families living in Osaka and Hiroshima, of which mothers are A-bomb survivors (2 exposed in Hiroshima/2 in Nagasaki). This study was performed on the 8 cases of SL to examine factors concerned with SL morbidity by comparison with SL in families unrelated to A-bomb exposure. Subjects were 4 cases of SL in Osaka, 4 cases in Hiroshima, and comparative 28 cases of age <20 y in 13 families (1930-1974) in a textbook published in 1979. The SL cases from mothers exposed at ages of 10-20 y were 5 males/3 females, and died at ages of 6-17 y (av. 11 y) due to acute, myeloid/monocytic leukemia. Three mothers' exposures were due to entrance in the City just/1 or 10 days after explosion and 2 mothers had lived in the black rain regions of either Hiroshima or Nagasaki. Comparisons were made on sex, type of L, age at death, parents' exposure, family composition, complication, and parents' consanguineous marriage. Findings of SL specific in the second generations of A-bomb survivors were from exposed mothers, and were mostly myeloid (monocyte) type leukemia, suggesting the effect of exposure. These facts may suggest that oocytes/ovula are of high sensitivity to internal exposure or low dose exposure. (T.T.)

  6. Comparison of third and second generation parathyroid hormone assays and their use in chronic hemdialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Muryan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This work’s objective is to compare third and second generation assays in patients with normal kidney function and in chronic hemodialysis patients, and the implications on the latter. Methods: 60 chronic hemodialysis patients and 40 patients with normal kidney function were studied and their PTH levels were measured for both assays. Results: In patients population with normal kidney function the average on PTH was 51.8 and 45.6 pg/ml with second and third generation assays respectively. In chronic hemodialysis patients the average PTH was 193.9 and 137.1 pg/ml with second and third generation assays respectively. The difference between assays was 11.3% and 29.3% in patients with normal kidney function and in hemodialysis patients respectively. Third generation assay caused a variation in the amount of patients that fall over seve ral PTH ranges according to KDIGO guidelines, for a lesser value of 2 times the reference upper limit: it changes from 20 to 25 patients, between 2 and 9 times: it changes from 31 to 32 patients, and more than 9 times: it changes from 9 to 3 patients. Conclusions: When PTH concentration increases the difference between both assays also increases, for this reason we cannot use them indiscriminately in a chronic hemodialysis patient population. With third generation assays 11 patients (18.3% changed their classification according to KDIGO guidelines, which will result in a change of treatment.

  7. Analysis of quality raw data of second generation sequencers with Quality Assessment Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rommel Tj; Carneiro, Adriana R; Baumbach, Jan; Azevedo, Vasco; Schneider, Maria Pc; Silva, Artur

    2011-04-18

    Second generation technologies have advantages over Sanger; however, they have resulted in new challenges for the genome construction process, especially because of the small size of the reads, despite the high degree of coverage. Independent of the program chosen for the construction process, DNA sequences are superimposed, based on identity, to extend the reads, generating contigs; mismatches indicate a lack of homology and are not included. This process improves our confidence in the sequences that are generated. We developed Quality Assessment Software, with which one can review graphs showing the distribution of quality values from the sequencing reads. This software allow us to adopt more stringent quality standards for sequence data, based on quality-graph analysis and estimated coverage after applying the quality filter, providing acceptable sequence coverage for genome construction from short reads. Quality filtering is a fundamental step in the process of constructing genomes, as it reduces the frequency of incorrect alignments that are caused by measuring errors, which can occur during the construction process due to the size of the reads, provoking misassemblies. Application of quality filters to sequence data, using the software Quality Assessment, along with graphing analyses, provided greater precision in the definition of cutoff parameters, which increased the accuracy of genome construction.

  8. Development of a second generation torsion balance based on a spherical superconducting suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Giles D.; Speake, Clive C.; Matthews, Anthony J.; Rocco, Emanuele; Peña-Arellano, Fabian

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a second generation superconducting torsion balance to be used for a precision measurement of the Casimir force and a short range test of the inverse square law of gravity at 4.2K. The instrument utilizes niobium (Nb) as the superconducting element and employs passive damping of the parasitic modes of oscillation. Any contact potential difference between the torsion balance and its surroundings is nulled to within ≈50mV by applying known DC biases and fitting the resulting parabolic relationship between the measured torque and the applied voltage. A digital proportional-integral-derivative servo system has been developed and characterized in order to control the azimuthal position of the instrument. The angular acceleration and displacement noise are currently limited by the capacitive sensor at the level 3×10-8rads-2/√Hz and 30nm/√Hz at 100mHz. The possibility of lossy dielectric coatings on the surface of the torsion balance test masses is also investigated. Our measurements show that the loss angles δ are (1.5±2.3)×10-4 and (2.0±2.2)×10-4 at frequencies of 5 and 10mHz, respectively. These values of loss are not significant sources of error for measurements of the Casimir force using this experimental setup.

  9. Second-generation antipsychotics and risk of cerebrovascular accidents in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percudani, Mauro; Barbui, Corrado; Fortino, Ida; Tansella, Michele; Petrovich, Lorenzo

    2005-10-01

    Concern has been recently raised for risperidone and olanzapine, possibly associated with cerebrovascular events in placebo-controlled trials conducted in elderly subjects with dementia. We investigated the relationship between exposure to second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and occurrence of cerebrovascular accidents in the elderly. From the regional database of hospital admissions of Lombardy, Italy, we extracted all patients aged 65 or older with cerebrovascular-related outcomes for the year 2002. From the regional database of prescriptions reimbursed by the National Health Service, we extracted all patients aged 65 or older who received antipsychotic prescriptions during 2001. The 2 databases were linked anonymously using the individual patient code. The proportions of cerebrovascular accidents were 3.31% (95% confidence interval, 2.95-3.69) in elderly subjects exclusively exposed to SGAs and 2.37% (95% confidence interval, 2.19-2.57) in elderly subjects exclusively exposed to first-generation antipsychotics. After background group differences were controlled for, exposure to SGAs significantly increased the risk of accidents. The analysis of cerebrovascular events in elderly subjects exposed to each individual SGA, in comparison with exposure to haloperidol, showed a significantly increased risk for risperidone only (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.93). These data provide preliminary epidemiological evidence that exposure to SGAs, in comparison with exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, significantly increased the risk of cerebrovascular accidents in the elderly.

  10. Structural and spectroscopic properties of the second generation phosphorus-viologen "molecular asterisk".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furer, V L; Vandukov, A E; Katir, N; Majoral, J P; El Kadib, A; Caminade, A M; Bousmina, M; Kovalenko, V I

    2013-11-01

    The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the second generation phosphorus-viologen "molecular asterisk" G2 built from cyclotriphosphazene core with 12 viologen units and 6 terminal phosphonate groups have been recorded and analyzed. The experimental X-ray data of 1,1-bis(4-formylbenzyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium bis(hexaflurophosphate) was used in molecular modeling studies. The optimization of isolated 1,1-bis(4-formylbenzyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium (BFBP) molecule without counter ions PF6(-) does not lead to significant changes of dihedral angles, thus the molecular conformation does not depend on interactions with the counter ions. The structural optimization and normal mode analysis were performed for G2 on the basis of the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated geometrical parameters and harmonic vibrational frequencies are predicted in a good agreement with the experimental data. It was found that G2 has a kind of "egg timer" structure with planar OC6H4CHNN(CH3) fragments and slightly non-planar cyclotriphosphazene core. The experimental IR and Raman spectra of G2 were interpreted by means of potential energy distribution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychiatrists' Attitude and Use of Second-generation Antipsychotics for the Treatment of Schizophrenia in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C K; Su, H H; Sun, I W

    2017-09-01

    This survey aimed to understand the attitude of psychiatrists and their use of commonly prescribed second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) for the treatment of schizophrenia in Taiwan. It also attempted to identify the factors that might influence their preference for selecting SGAs. Psychiatrists were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed various issues involved in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, including the reasons for selecting SGAs, psychiatrists' level of satisfaction with commonly prescribed SGAs, and their current use of SGAs in clinical practice. Gender and age of the psychiatrists, and practice setting were not related to SGA selection. The selection of a SGA might be influenced by characteristics of the psychiatrist, properties of the drugs, and the healthcare insurance system. Most psychiatrists agreed that the performance of brand-name drugs was superior to that of generic drugs. Better symptom control, improvement in cognition, and higher tolerability were among the major factors considered by psychiatrists in Taiwan when prescribing antipsychotics. Selection of a SGA in Taiwan is potentially influenced by the characteristics of the psychiatrist, properties of the drug, and the healthcare insurance system. Efficacy and tolerability were among the major determining factors when prescribing antipsychotics for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.

  12. HPLC mapping of second generation ethanol production with lignocelluloses wastes and diluted sulfuric hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo José Horst

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood wastes are potential material for second generation ethanol production within the concept of residual forest bio-refinery. Current paper reports on ethanol production employing an HPLC method for monitoring the chemical content dispersed in the hydrolysate liquor after fermented. The proton-exchange technique was the analytical method employed. Twelve types of wood chips were used as biomass, including Hymenolobium petraeum, Tabebuia cassinoides, Myroxylon peruiferum, Nectandra lanceolata, Ocotea catharinensis, Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Cedrela fissilis Vell, Ocotea porosa, Laurus nobilis, Balfourodendron riedelianum, Pinus Elliotti and Brosimum spp. The influence of diluted sulfuric hydrolysis on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the fermentation assay was also investigated. Standard compounds mapped in the analysis comprised fructose, lactic acid, acetic acid, glycerol, glucose and ethanol. The yeast showed ethanol productivity between 0.75 and 1.91 g L-1 h-1, respectively, without the addition of supplementary nutrients or detoxification. The use of these materials for the bioconversion of cellulose into ethanol has been proved. Current analysis contributes towards the production of biofuels by wastes recovery and by process monitoring and optimization.

  13. Analysis of achilles tendon vascularity with second-generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Eugenio; Ronga, Mario; Recaldini, Chiara; Fontana, Federico; Callegari, Leonardo; Maffulli, Nicola; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    To compare morphological, power Doppler, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of the Achilles tendon between asymptomatic athletes and athletes who had undergone surgical repair of a previous rupture. Twenty-four athletes were divided in two groups (A and B). Group A included 14 patients with a median age of 32 years (range 27 to 47 years) who had undergone surgical repair for unilateral Achilles tendon rupture. Group B (control group) included 10 subjects with a median age of 34 years (range 27 to 40 years) with no previous or present history of tendinopathy. All patients were evaluated with ultrasound, power Doppler, and CEUS with second-generation contrast agent. We studied the uninjured Achilles tendon in athletes of group A and either the left or the right Achilles tendon of the athletes in group B. CEUS showed a significantly greater ability to detect a greater number of vascular spots within the uninjured tendon of group A compared to group B (power Doppler ultrasound in the uninjured contralateral Achilles tendon. CEUS is useful to evaluate vascularity not detected by other imaging techniques. Vascularity in the uninjured tendon seems to be increased in patients who had a previous rupture. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Perceived family stress, parenting efficacy, and child externalizing behaviors in second-generation immigrant mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ayşe; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-04-01

    Examining family stress and parenting efficacy in relation to child externalizing problems in immigrant families. In this study, we compared the levels of family stress, parenting efficacy, and toddler externalizing behaviors in Dutch (n = 175) and second-generation Turkish immigrant families (n = 175) living in the Netherlands. In addition, the influence of Turkish mothers' acculturation on toddler externalizing behaviors and its association with perceived stress and efficacy were examined. Turkish mothers reported higher levels of daily stress and marital discord than Dutch mothers, but did not differ in perceptions of parenting efficacy and children's externalizing behaviors. The associations between child and family variables were similar in the Dutch and the Turkish groups, as more family stress was related to more externalizing behaviors in toddlers. Low parenting efficacy was the most important predictor of child externalizing behaviors in both groups. Acculturation of Turkish mothers was not associated with family and child variables, and did not moderate the association between family variables and child externalizing behaviors. However, emotional connectedness to the Turkish culture was related to less daily stress and fewer marital problems. The results support the no-group differences hypothesis and also imply that cultural maintenance may be adaptive for parental well-being.

  15. Nanoscale surface analysis on second generation advanced high strength steel after hot dip galvanizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, M; Duchoslav, J; Preis, K; Samek, L; Stifter, D

    2013-09-01

    Second generation advanced high strength steel is one promising material of choice for modern automotive structural parts because of its outstanding maximal elongation and tensile strength. Nonetheless there is still a lack of corrosion protection for this material due to the fact that cost efficient hot dip galvanizing cannot be applied. The reason for the insufficient coatability with zinc is found in the segregation of manganese to the surface during annealing and the formation of manganese oxides prior coating. This work analyses the structure and chemical composition of the surface oxides on so called nano-TWIP (twinning induced plasticity) steel on the nanoscopic scale after hot dip galvanizing in a simulator with employed analytical methods comprising scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAES), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and focused ion beam (FIB) for cross section preparation. By the combination of these methods, it was possible to obtain detailed chemical images serving a better understanding which processes exactly occur on the surface of this novel kind of steel and how to promote in the future for this material system galvanic protection.

  16. Flight Test Implementation of a Second Generation Intelligent Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team has developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate the benefits of a neural network-based adaptive controller. The objective of the team was to develop and flight-test control systems that use neural network technology, to optimize the performance of the aircraft under nominal conditions, and to stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. Failure conditions include locked or failed control surfaces as well as unforeseen damage that might occur to the aircraft in flight. The Intelligent Flight Control System team is currently in the process of implementing a second generation control scheme, collectively known as Generation 2 or Gen 2, for flight testing on the NASA F-15 aircraft. This report describes the Gen 2 system as implemented by the team for flight test evaluation. Simulation results are shown which describe the experiment to be performed in flight and highlight the ways in which the Gen 2 system meets the defined objectives.

  17. Vancouver Coastal Health's Second Generation Health Strategy: A need for a reboot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Jeffrey R; Chan, Sophy

    2017-03-01

    In this commentary, we consider the motivations and implications of Vancouver Coastal Health's place-based population health strategy called the Downtown Eastside Second Generation Health Strategy (2GHS) in light of a broader historical view of shifting values in population and public health and structural health reforms in Canada over the past three decades. We argue that the tone and content of the 2GHS signals a shift towards a neoliberal clientelist model of health that treats people as patients and the DTES as a site of clinical encounter rather than as a community in its own right. In its clinical emphasis, the 2GHS fails to recognize the political dimension of health and well-being in the DTES, a community that faces compounding health risks associated with colonialism, gentrification, human displacement, the criminalization of poverty, sex work, and the street economy. Furthermore, we suggest that in its emphasis on allocating funding based on a rationalist model of health system access, the 2GHS undermines well-established insights and best practices from community-driven health initiatives. Our aim is to provide a provocation that will encourage public health policy-makers to embrace community-based leadership as well as the broader structural health determinants that are at the root of the current circumstances of people in the DTES and other marginalized communities in Canada.

  18. Evaluation of second-generation sequencing of 19 dilated cardiomyopathy genes for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrisankar, Sivakumar; Lerner-Ellis, Jordan P; Cox, Stephanie; White, Emily T; Manion, Megan; LeVan, Kevin; Liu, Jonathan; Farwell, Lisa M; Iartchouk, Oleg; Rehm, Heidi L; Funke, Birgit H

    2010-11-01

    Medical sequencing for diseases with locus and allelic heterogeneities has been limited by the high cost and low throughput of traditional sequencing technologies. "Second-generation" sequencing (SGS) technologies allow the parallel processing of a large number of genes and, therefore, offer great promise for medical sequencing; however, their use in clinical laboratories is still in its infancy. Our laboratory offers clinical resequencing for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) using an array-based platform that interrogates 19 of more than 30 genes known to cause DCM. We explored both the feasibility and cost effectiveness of using PCR amplification followed by SGS technology for sequencing these 19 genes in a set of five samples enriched for known sequence alterations (109 unique substitutions and 27 insertions and deletions). While the analytical sensitivity for substitutions was comparable to that of the DCM array (98%), SGS technology performed better than the DCM array for insertions and deletions (90.6% versus 58%). Overall, SGS performed substantially better than did the current array-based testing platform; however, the operational cost and projected turnaround time do not meet our current standards. Therefore, efficient capture methods and/or sample pooling strategies that shorten the turnaround time and decrease reagent and labor costs are needed before implementing this platform into routine clinical applications.

  19. Predictors and outcomes of cardiac resynchronization therapy extended to the second generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuping; Yang, Dachun; Kusumoto, Fred; Shen, Win-Kuang; Mulpuru, Siva; Zhou, Shenghua; Liang, Jinjun; Wu, Gang; Yang, Mei; Liu, Jin-Qu; Friedman, Paul A; Cha, Yong-Mei

    2017-12-01

    A proportion of patients who receive cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) live to receive a second generator. Controversy exists on whether an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) should be offered to patients who have normalized or near-normalized left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at the time of generator replacement (GR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate incidence of appropriate ICD therapy after CRT-D GR. This series involved 1026 consecutive patients who underwent CRT-D implant between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2012. Echocardiography was assessed before the initial device implant and before GR. ICDs were monitored at our device clinic in person or remotely, or both. Of the cohort, 227 patients (22.1%) underwent CRT-D GR at our institution. Approximately 48% of the patients who received new CRT-D generators were no longer meeting the guidelines indication for ICD use at the time of GR. These patients received subsequent appropriate ICD therapies at a significantly lower rate than those with LVEF generator after GR. Improvement in LVEF after CRT-D GR is associated with significantly reduced incidence of appropriate ICD therapy. Ventricular arrhythmia is less likely to develop with normalized LVEF in nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Second-Generation System Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Robertson; D. Horazak; R. Newby; H. Goldstein

    2002-11-01

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant--called a Second-Generation or Advanced Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (APCFB) plant--offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 45% (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. The APCFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed boiler (PCFB), and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2300 F and higher. A conceptual design was previously prepared for this new type of plant and an economic analysis presented, all based on the use of a Siemens Westinghouse W501F gas turbine with projected carbonizer, PCFB, and topping combustor performance data. Having tested these components at the pilot plant stage, the referenced conceptual design is being updated to reflect more accurate performance predictions together with the use of the more advanced Siemens Westinghouse W501G gas turbine and a conventional 2400 psig/1050 F/1050 F/2-1/2 in. steam turbine. This report describes the updated plant which is projected to have an HHV efficiency of 48% and identifies work completed for the October 2001 through September 2002 time period.

  1. Effect of first and second generation biodiesel blends on engine performance and emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, A. K., E-mail: azad.cqu@gmail.com, E-mail: a.k.azad@cqu.edu.au; Rasul, M. G., E-mail: m.rasul@cqu.edu.au; Bhuiya, M. M. K., E-mail: m.bhuiya@cqu.edu.au [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD 4702 (Australia); Islam, Rubayat, E-mail: rubayat12@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    The biodiesel is a potential source of alternative fuel which can be used at different proportions with diesel fuel. This study experimentally investigated the effect of blend percentage on diesel engine performance and emission using first generation (soybean) and second generation (waste cooking) biodiesel. The characterization of the biodiesel was done according to ASTM and EN standards and compared with ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. A multi-cylinder test bed engine coupled with electromagnetic dynamometer and 5 gas analyzer were used for engine performance and emission test. The investigation was made using B5, B10 and B15 blends for both biodiesels. The study found that brake power (BP) and brake torque (BT) slightly decreases and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) slightly increases with an increase in biodiesel blends ratio. Besides, a significant reduction in exhaust emissions (except NO{sub x} emission) was found for both biodiesels compared to ULSD. Soybean biodiesel showed better engine performance and emissions reduction compared with waste cooking biodiesel. However, NO{sub x} emission for B5 waste cooking biodiesel was lower than soybean biodiesel.

  2. Comparison of the THERP quantitative tables with the human reliability analysis techniques of second generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: bayout@cnen.gov.br, e-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The methodology THERP is classified as a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) technique of first generation and its emergence was an important initial step for the development of HRA techniques in the industry. Due to the fact of being a first generation technique, THERP quantification tables of human errors are based on a taxonomy that does not take into account the human errors mechanisms. Concerning the three cognitive levels in the Rasmussen framework for the cognitive information processing in human beings, THERP deals in most cases with errors that happen in the perceptual-motor level (stimulus-response). In the rules level, this technique can work better using the time dependent probabilities curves of diagnosis errors, obtained in nuclear power plants simulators. Nevertheless, this is done without processing any error mechanisms. Another deficiency is the fact that the performance shaping factors are in limited number. Furthermore, the influences (predictable or not) of operational context, arising from operational deviations of the most probable (in terms of occurrence probabilities) standard scenarios beside the consequent operational tendencies (operator actions) are not estimated. This work makes a critical analysis of these deficiencies and it points out possible solutions in order to modify the THERP tables, seeking a realistic quantification, that does not underestimate or overestimate the human errors probabilities when applying the HRA techniques to nuclear power plants. The critical analysis is accomplished through a qualitative comparison between THERP, a HRA technique of first generation, with CREAM, as well as ATHEANA, which are HRA techniques of second generation. (author)

  3. Recycled wind turbine blades as a feedstock for second generation composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamanpush, Seyed Hossein; Li, Hui; Englund, Karl; Tabatabaei, Azadeh Tavousi

    2018-06-01

    With an increase in renewable wind energy via turbines, an underlying problem of the turbine blade disposal is looming in many areas of the world. These wind turbine blades are predominately a mixture of glass fiber composites (GFCs) and wood and currently have not found an economically viable recycling pathway. This work investigates a series of second generation composites fabricated using recycled wind turbine material and a polyurethane adhesive. The recycled material was first comminuted via a hammer-mill through a range of varying screen sizes, resinated and compressed to a final thickness. The refined particle size, moisture content and resin content were assessed for their influence on the properties of recycled composites. Static bending, internal bond and water sorption properties were obtained for all composites panels. Overall improvement of mechanical properties correlated with increase in resin content, moisture content, and particle size. The current investigation demonstrates that it is feasible and promising to recycle the wind turbine blade to fabricate value-added high-performance composite. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Weight gain with add-on second-generation antipsychotics in bipolar disorder: a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, H; Joas, E; Kardell, M; Pålsson, E; Landén, M

    2017-06-01

    Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and magnitude of weight gain in-patients with bipolar disorder when treated with a second-generation antipsychotic as an add-on treatment to a mood stabilizer in routine clinical practice. Data were derived from the quality register for bipolar disorder in Sweden (BipoläR). Patients with bipolar disorder who started add-on treatment with a SGA (n = 575) were compared at next yearly follow-up with age and sex matched patients who were only treated with a mood stabilizer (n = 566). The primary outcome measure was change in body weight and body mass index (BMI). We also assessed the prevalence of clinically significant weight gain defined as ≥7% gain in body weight. The group that received add-on treatment with antipsychotics neither gained more weight nor were at higher risk for a clinically significant weight gain than the reference group. Instead, factors associated with clinically significant weight gain were female sex, young age, low-baseline BMI, and occurrence of manic/hypomanic episodes. We found no evidence of an overall increased risk of weight gain for patients with bipolar disorder after receiving add-on SGA to a mood stabilizer in a routine clinical setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Descendants of the first stars: the distinct chemical signature of second generation stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Tilman; Yoshida, Naoki; Magg, Mattis; Frebel, Anna; Glover, Simon C. O.; Gómez, Facundo A.; Griffen, Brendan; Ishigaki, Miho N.; Ji, Alexander P.; Klessen, Ralf S.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Tominaga, Nozomu

    2018-05-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Milky Way (MW) allow us to infer the properties of their progenitors by comparing their chemical composition to the metal yields of the first supernovae. This method is most powerful when applied to mono-enriched stars, i.e. stars that formed from gas that was enriched by only one previous supernova. We present a novel diagnostic to identify this subclass of EMP stars. We model the first generations of star formation semi-analytically, based on dark matter halo merger trees that yield MW-like halos at the present day. Radiative and chemical feedback are included self-consistently and we trace all elements up to zinc. Mono-enriched stars account for only ˜1% of second generation stars in our fiducial model and we provide an analytical formula for this probability. We also present a novel analytical diagnostic to identify mono-enriched stars, based on the metal yields of the first supernovae. This new diagnostic allows us to derive our main results independently from the specific assumptions made regarding Pop III star formation, and we apply it to a set of observed EMP stars to demonstrate its strengths and limitations. Our results may provide selection criteria for current and future surveys and therefore contribute to a deeper understanding of EMP stars and their progenitors.

  6. Second-Generation Thermal Neutron Activation Sensor for Confirmatory Land-Mine Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward Clifford; Harry Ing; John McFee; H. Robert Andrews; Tom Cousins

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Improved Land-Mine Detector System (ILDS), a vehicle-mounted nonmetallic land-mine detector. The ILDS consists of a custom teleoperated vehicle carrying an infrared imager, an electromagnetic induction detector, and a ground probing radar-which scan the ground in front of the vehicle. Custom navigation and data fusion software combine information from scanning sensors and navigation systems to detect and automatically track suspect targets until the confirmation detector at the rear of the system is positioned to within 30 cm of the target location. The confirmation detector, using thermal neutron activation (TNA) to detect bulk nitrogen in explosives, then dwells over the target for 10 to 120 s. In U.S. government tests (summer 1998), the ILDS advanced development model (ADM) placed first or second out of five competitors on every test. The construction of the second-generation TNA detector and preliminary testing should be complete by March 2000. Testing on real mines is expected to start in summer 2000

  7. Effects of molecular structure on microscopic heat transport in chain polymer liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Hiroki; Kikugawa, Gota; Ohara, Taku; Bessho, Takeshi; Yamashita, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the molecular mechanism of the heat conduction in a liquid, based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of a systematic series of linear- and branched alkane liquids, as a continuation of our previous study on linear alkane [T. Ohara et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034507 (2011)]. The thermal conductivities for these alkanes in a saturated liquid state at the same reduced temperature (0.7T c ) obtained from the simulations are compared in relation to the structural difference of the liquids. In order to connect the thermal energy transport characteristics with molecular structures, we introduce the new concept of the interatomic path of heat transfer (atomistic heat path, AHP), which is defined for each type of inter- and intramolecular interaction. It is found that the efficiency of intermolecular AHP is sensitive to the structure of the first neighbor shell, whereas that of intramolecular AHP is similar for different alkane species. The dependence of thermal conductivity on different lengths of the main and side chain can be understood from the natures of these inter- and intramolecular AHPs

  8. Effects of molecular structure on microscopic heat transport in chain polymer liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Hiroki, E-mail: matsubara@microheat.ifs.tohoku.ac.jp; Kikugawa, Gota; Ohara, Taku [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Bessho, Takeshi; Yamashita, Seiji [Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    In this paper, we discuss the molecular mechanism of the heat conduction in a liquid, based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of a systematic series of linear- and branched alkane liquids, as a continuation of our previous study on linear alkane [T. Ohara et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034507 (2011)]. The thermal conductivities for these alkanes in a saturated liquid state at the same reduced temperature (0.7T{sub c}) obtained from the simulations are compared in relation to the structural difference of the liquids. In order to connect the thermal energy transport characteristics with molecular structures, we introduce the new concept of the interatomic path of heat transfer (atomistic heat path, AHP), which is defined for each type of inter- and intramolecular interaction. It is found that the efficiency of intermolecular AHP is sensitive to the structure of the first neighbor shell, whereas that of intramolecular AHP is similar for different alkane species. The dependence of thermal conductivity on different lengths of the main and side chain can be understood from the natures of these inter- and intramolecular AHPs.

  9. Inelastic cross-sections for electron transport in liquid water: a comparison of dielectric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emfietzoglou, D.

    2003-01-01

    Various methodologies for constructing inelastic cross-sections for low-energy (<10 keV) electron transport in liquid water are presented and compared. They are all based on an optical-data model which provides the dependence on energy loss, and a dispersion algorithm which incorporates the momentum-transfer dependence. A Drude dielectric model was used to analytically represent the optical data. Various dispersion schemes were examined: the Bethe approximation, the δ-oscillator models of Ashley and Liljequist, and two forms of Ritchie's extended-Drude model. They all have been used in Monte-Carlo (MC) codes for analog electron transport in the condensed phase. Results in the form of differential and total inelastic cross-sections are presented. Where possible, comparisons with results of other studies are made. It was found that, despite the application of general constraints (e.g. sum rules), the optical model has a notable influence on the single-collision energy loss spectrum. In addition, both the shape and peak position of the total and differential cross-section distributions depend strongly on the dispersion model adopted. The work is particularly relevant to the development of event-by-event MC transport codes for liquid water, as well as, to the calculations of stopping-powers below the range of applicability of Bethe's formula

  10. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  11. Risk of transporting plutonium dioxide and liquid plutonium nitrate by truck and rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.D.; Hall, R.J.

    1976-07-01

    Results are summarized of the risk assessments of shipping PuO 2 powder and liquid Pu nitrate by truck and rail in the U.S. In the analysis method used, the system is described, potential release sequences are identified and evaluated (fault tree used), and the system risk is assessed. It is concluded that: there is little difference in risk in shipping PuO 2 by rail and by truck; there also is little change in risk in shipping PuO 2 by rail and by truck; there also is little change in risk for liquid shipment; the vermiculite loss is somewhat less important in rail shipment; and the response of the L-10 container to crush is more important in rail transport

  12. Electronic transport coefficients from ab initio simulations and application to dense liquid hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, Bastian; French, Martin; Redmer, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Using Kubo's linear response theory, we derive expressions for the frequency-dependent electrical conductivity (Kubo-Greenwood formula), thermopower, and thermal conductivity in a strongly correlated electron system. These are evaluated within ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in order to study the thermoelectric transport coefficients in dense liquid hydrogen, especially near the nonmetal-to-metal transition region. We also observe significant deviations from the widely used Wiedemann-Franz law, which is strictly valid only for degenerate systems, and give an estimate for its valid scope of application toward lower densities.

  13. Radiobiological application of simulation of low-energy electron transport in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eudaldo Puell, Teresa.

    1979-01-01

    A Monte-Carlo transport simulation method, so-called event-after-event method provide results about trajectories of low-energy electrons, slowing-down in liquid water. A radiosensitive target model constituted by water cylindrical volumes, like the ones which surround the DNA molecule, is taken into consideration. The results characterizing the primary physical stage of radiation action, such as, space ionization distributions, interionization distance distributions ..., are obtained in some configurations constituted by single or several targets, in order to approach the biological reality [fr

  14. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. - Highlights: • Caffeine-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming of HPA has hereditary effect. • Caffeine

  15. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng; Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan; Ma, Lu; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. - Highlights: • Caffeine-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming of HPA has hereditary effect. • Caffeine

  16. Design and breadboarding activities of the second-generation Global imager (SGLI) on GCOM-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Amano, Takahiro; Hiramatsu, Masaru; Shiratama, Koichi

    2017-11-01

    The Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) is the next generation earth observation project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). GCOM concept will take over the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) and develop into long-term monitoring of global climate change. The GCOM observing system consists of two series of medium size satellites: GCOM-W (Water) and GCOM-C (Climate). The Second-generation Global Imager (SGLI) on GCOM-C is a multi-band imaging radiometer with 19 spectral bands in the wavelength range of near-UV to thermal infrared. SGLI will provide high-accuracy measurements of Ocean, Atmosphere, Land and Cryosphere. These data will be utilized for studies to understand the global climate change, especially human activity influence on earth environments. SGLI is a suite of two radiometers called Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNR) and Infrared Scanner (IRS). VNR is a pushbroom-type radiometer with 13 spectral bands in 380nm to 865nm range. While having quite wide swath (1150km), instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of most bands is set to 250m comparing to GLI's 1km requirement. Unique observation function of the VNR is along-track +/-45deg tilting and polarization observation for 670nm and 865nm bands mainly to improve aerosol retrieval accuracy. IRS is a wiskbroom-type infrared radiometer that has 6 bands in 1μm to 12μm range. Swath and IFOV are 1400km and 250m to 1km, respectively. This paper describes design and breadboarding activities of the SGLI instrument.

  17. Second generation laser-heated microfurnace for the preparation of microgram-sized graphite samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin; Smith, A.M.; Long, S.

    2015-10-15

    We present construction details and test results for two second-generation laser-heated microfurnaces (LHF-II) used to prepare graphite samples for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ANSTO. Based on systematic studies aimed at optimising the performance of our prototype laser-heated microfurnace (LHF-I) (Smith et al., 2007 [1]; Smith et al., 2010 [2,3]; Yang et al., 2014 [4]), we have designed the LHF-II to have the following features: (i) it has a small reactor volume of 0.25 mL allowing us to completely graphitise carbon dioxide samples containing as little as 2 μg of C, (ii) it can operate over a large pressure range (0–3 bar) and so has the capacity to graphitise CO{sub 2} samples containing up to 100 μg of C; (iii) it is compact, with three valves integrated into the microfurnace body, (iv) it is compatible with our new miniaturised conventional graphitisation furnaces (MCF), also designed for small samples, and shares a common vacuum system. Early tests have shown that the extraneous carbon added during graphitisation in each LHF-II is of the order of 0.05 μg, assuming 100 pMC activity, similar to that of the prototype unit. We use a ‘budget’ fibre packaged array for the diode laser with custom built focusing optics. The use of a new infrared (IR) thermometer with a short focal length has allowed us to decrease the height of the light-proof safety enclosure. These innovations have produced a cheaper and more compact device. As with the LHF-I, feedback control of the catalyst temperature and logging of the reaction parameters is managed by a LabVIEW interface.

  18. The EUMETSAT Polar System - Second Generation (EPS-SG) micro-wave imaging (MWI) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkov, B. R.; Accadia, C.; Klaes, D.; Canestri, A.; Cohen, M.

    2017-12-01

    The EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) will be followed by a second generation system called EPS-SG. This new family of missions will contribute to the Joint Polar System being jointly set up with NOAA in the timeframe 2020-2040. These satellites will fly, like Metop (EPS), in a sun synchronous, low earth orbit at 830 km altitude and 09:30 local time descending node, providing observations over the full globe with revisit times of 12 hours. EPS-SG consists of two different satellites configurations, the EPS-SGa series dedicated to IR and MW sounding, and the EPS-SGb series dedicated to microwave imaging and scatterometry. The EPS-SG family will consist of three successive launches of each satellite-type. The Microwave Imager (MWI) will be hosted on Metop-SGb series of satellites, with the primary objective of supporting Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) at regional and global scales. Other applications will be observation of surface parameters such as sea ice concentration and hydrology applications. The 18 MWI instrument frequencies range from 18.7 GHz to 183 GHz. All MWI channels up to 89 GHz will measure V- and H polarizations. The MWI was also designed to provide continuity of measurements for select heritage microwave imager channels (e.g. SSM/I, AMSR-E). The additional sounding channels such as the 50-55 and 118 GHz bands will provide additional cloud and precipitation information over sea and land. This combination of channels was successfully tested on the NPOESS Aircraft Sounder Testbed - Microwave Sounder (NAST-M) airborne radiometer, and it is the first time that will be implemented in a conical scanning configuration in a single instrument. An overview of the EPS-SG programme and the MWI instrument will be presented.

  19. A Preliminary Examination of the Second Generation CMORPH Real-time Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, R.; Xie, P.; Wu, S.

    2017-12-01

    The second generation CMORPH (CMORPH2) has started test real-time production of 30-minute precipitation estimates on a 0.05olat/lon grid over the entire globe, from pole-to-pole. The CMORPH2 is built upon the Kalman Filter based CMORPH algorithm of Joyce and Xie (2011). Inputs to the system include rainfall and snowfall rate retrievals from passive microwave (PMW) measurements aboard all available low earth orbit (LEO) satellites, precipitation estimates derived from infrared (IR) observations of geostationary (GEO) and LEO platforms, and precipitation simulations from the NCEP operational global forecast system (GFS). Inputs from the various sources are first inter-calibrated to ensure quantitative consistencies in representing precipitation events of different intensities through PDF calibration against a common reference standard. The inter-calibrated PMW retrievals and IR-based precipitation estimates are then propagated from their respective observation times to the target analysis time along the motion vectors of the precipitating clouds. Motion vectors are first derived separately from the satellite IR based precipitation estimates and the GFS precipitation fields. These individually derived motion vectors are then combined through a 2D-VAR technique to form an analyzed field of cloud motion vectors over the entire globe. The propagated PMW and IR based precipitation estimates are finally integrated into a single field of global precipitation through the Kalman Filter framework. A set of procedures have been established to examine the performance of the CMORPH2 real-time production. CMORPH2 satellite precipitation estimates are compared against the CPC daily gauge analysis, Stage IV radar precipitation over the CONUS, and numerical model forecasts to discover potential shortcomings and quantify improvements against the first generation CMORPH. Special attention has been focused on the CMORPH behavior over high-latitude areas beyond the coverage of the first

  20. SECOND-GENERATION STELLAR DISKS IN DENSE STAR CLUSTERS AND CLUSTER ELLIPTICITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra; Perets, Hagai B.

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) and nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are typically composed of several stellar populations, characterized by different chemical compositions. Different populations show different ages in NSCs, but not necessarily in GCs. The youngest populations in NSCs appear to reside in disk-like structures as observed in our Galaxy and in M31. Gas infall followed by formation of second-generation (SG) stars in GCs may similarly form disk-like structures in the clusters nuclei. Here we explore this possibility and follow the long-term evolution of stellar disks embedded in GCs, and study their effects on the evolution of the clusters. We study disks with different masses by means of detailed N-body simulations and explore their morphological and kinematic signatures on the GC structures. We find that as a SG disk relaxes, the old, first-generation stellar population flattens and becomes more radially anisotropic, making the GC structure become more elliptical. The SG stellar population is characterized by a lower velocity dispersion and a higher rotational velocity compared with the primordial older population. The strength of these kinematic signatures depends both on the relaxation time of the system and on the fractional mass of the SG disk. We therefore conclude that SG populations formed in flattened configurations will give rise to two systematic trends: (1) a positive correlation between GC ellipticity and fraction of SG population and (2) a positive correlation between GC relaxation time and ellipticity. Therefore, GC ellipticities and rotation could be related to the formation of SG stars and their initial configuration.

  1. Novel thermophilic hemicellulases for the conversion of lignocellulose for second generation biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobucci-Ponzano, Beatrice; Strazzulli, Andrea; Iacono, Roberta; Masturzo, Giuseppe; Giglio, Rosa; Rossi, Mosè; Moracci, Marco

    2015-10-01

    The biotransformation of lignocellulose biomasses into fermentable sugars is a very complex procedure including, as one of the most critical steps, the (hemi) cellulose hydrolysis by specific enzymatic cocktails. We explored here, the potential of stable glycoside hydrolases from thermophilic organisms, so far not used in commercial enzymatic preparations, for the conversion of glucuronoxylan, the major hemicellulose of several energy crops. Searches in the genomes of thermophilic bacteria led to the identification, efficient production, and detailed characterization of novel xylanase and α-glucuronidase from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (GH10-XA and GH67-GA, respectively) and a α-glucuronidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (GH67-GC). Remarkably, GH10-XA, if compared to other thermophilic xylanases from this family, coupled good specificity on beechwood xylan and the best stability at 65 °C (3.5 days). In addition, GH67-GC was the most stable α-glucuronidases from this family and the first able to hydrolyse both aldouronic acid and aryl-α-glucuronic acid substrates. These enzymes, led to the very efficient hydrolysis of beechwood xylan by using 7- to 9-fold less protein (concentrations thermophilic enzymes. In addition, remarkably, together with a thermophilic β-xylosidase, they catalyzed the production of xylose from the smart cooking pre-treated biomass of one of the most promising energy crops for second generation biorefineries. We demonstrated that search by the CAZy Data Bank of currently available genomes and detailed enzymatic characterization of recombinant enzymes allow the identification of glycoside hydrolases with novel and interesting properties and applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of cotrimoxazole vs. second-generation cephalosporins for prevention of urinary tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Ioannidou, Maria; Tratselas, Athanasios; Iosifidis, Elias; Katragkou, Aspasia; Kadiltzoglou, Paschalis; Kollios, Konstantinos; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis is recommended for the prevention of urinary tract infections (UTI) in high-risk children. However, there is growing concern about the use of β-lactams as prophylaxis and subsequent development of antibiotic resistance. In this prospective, randomized, crossover controlled trial we compared cotrimoxazole (SXT) and second-generation cephalosporins (2GC) as UTI prophylaxis in children ranging in age from 1 to 60 months. Eligible patients were 1:1 randomized to receive either SXT or 2GC for the initial 6-month period (1 course), then switched to the other antimicrobial agent class for the subsequent course, with switching continuing after each course until the end of the study. Urethral orifice cultures (UOCs) were obtained at the time of switching antimicrobial prophylaxis. Among 97 children (mean age 13.6 months) on prophylaxis, breakthrough UTIs occurred during 13.3 % (10/75) of SXT courses and 10.3 % (8/78) of 2GC courses (p = 0.62). 2GC failed earlier than SXT (mean ± standard error: 0.81 ± 0.1 vs. 2.37 ± 0.36 months, respectively; p = 0.028). Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus spp. were more frequently isolated after 2GC courses than after SXT courses [22.6 vs. 4.8 % (p = 0.02) and 20.7 vs. 4.8 % (p = 0.035), respectively]. Prophylaxis with 2GC significantly increased resistance to both 2GC and SXT, while SXT prophylaxis did not affect susceptibility to 2GC. While SXT and 2GC appear to be equally efficacious as UTI prophylaxis in children, the latter exert a broader effect on patients' flora and development of bacterial resistance, suggesting that SXT may be more appropriate for UTI prophylaxis than 2GC.

  3. Static and fatigue investigation of second generation steel free bridge decks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klowak, C.; Memon, Amjad H.; Mufti, Aftab A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the static and fatigue behavior of two different cast-in-place second generation steel-free bridge decks, which are: hybrid carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP); and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and steel strap design. Although cast monolithically, the first deck slab was divided into three segments with different reinforcement configurations. All three segments were tested under a 222kN cyclic loading to investigate fatigue behavior. The second bridge deck comprised an internal panel and two cantilevers and was equipped with a civionics system. The internal panel static test that this paper deals with is useful in the development of fatigue theory derived from fatigue testing of the first bridge deck. Test results form the cyclic loading of the first bridge deck indicated that the cross-sectional area of the reinforcement used in the test bridge deck can be reduced by 40% based on the reinforcement provided in the deck under service loads. The hybrid system also reduced the development of longitudinal crack widths to approximately 0.4 mm under service conditions, compared to the cracks that occurred approximately halfway between adjacent bridge girders that were determined to be roughly 1 mm in several first generation steel-free bridge decks constructed in Canada. Civionics, also discussed in the paper, is a new term coined from Civil-Electronics, which is the application of electronics to civil structures. The Civionics Specifications (2004) developed by ISIS Canada researchers are a helpful design tool for engineers and contractors to develop civionics and structural health monitoring systems for civil infrastructure that will last the lifetime of a structure. The use of civionics for the second test bridge deck ensured the survival of 100% of the 63 internal sensors throughout the rigors of the construction and casting of the deck. (author)

  4. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, D. N.; Smith, P.; Davies, C.; McNamara, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and likely to play a major role in transitioning to a lower CO2 energy system. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on broader sustainability encompassed by ecosystem services, further enhanced by ongoing climate change. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers ecosystem services at a continental scale including biodiversity and pollination, water and air security, erosion control and soil security, GHG emissions, soil C and cultural services like tourism value. The technical distribution potential and likely yield of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC; willow and poplar) was modelled using ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor models. In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models are utilised. We will present results for synergies and trade-offs between land use change and ecosystem services, impact on food security and land management. Further, we will show modelled yield maps for different cultivars of Miscanthus, willow and poplar in Europe and constraint/opportunity maps based on projected yield and other factors e.g. total economic value, technical potential, current land use, climate change and trade-offs and synergies. It will be essential to include multiple ecosystem services when assessing the potential for bioenergy production/expansion that does not impact other land uses or provisioning services. Considering that the soil GHG balance is dominated by change in soil organic carbon (SOC) and the difference among Miscanthus and SRC is largely determined by yield, an important target for management of perennial energy crops is to achieve the best possible yield using the most appropriate energy crop and cultivar for the local situation. This research could inform future policy decisions on bioenergy crops in

  5. Validation of a Meteosat Second Generation solar radiation dataset over the northeastern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation plays a key role in the Earth's energy balance and is used as an essential input data in radiation-based evapotranspiration (ET models. Accurate gridded solar radiation data at high spatial and temporal resolution are needed to retrieve ET over large domains. In this work we present an evaluation at hourly, daily and monthly time steps and regional scale (Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula of a satellite-based solar radiation product developed by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA SAF using data from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI. Product performance and accuracy were evaluated for datasets segmented into two terrain classes (flat and hilly areas and two atmospheric conditions (clear and cloudy sky, as well as for the full dataset as a whole. Evaluation against measurements made with ground-based pyranometers yielded good results in flat areas with an averaged model RMSE of 65 W m−2 (19%, 34 W m−2 (9.7% and 21 W m−2 (5.6%, for hourly, daily and monthly-averaged solar radiation and including clear and cloudy sky conditions and snow or ice cover. Hilly areas yielded intermediate results with an averaged model RMSE (root mean square error of 89 W m−2 (27%, 48 W m−2 (14.5% and 32 W m−2 (9.3%, for hourly, daily and monthly time steps, suggesting the need of further improvements (e.g., terrain corrections required for retrieving localized variability in solar radiation in these areas. According to the literature, the LSA SAF solar radiation product appears to have sufficient accuracy to serve as a useful and operative input to evaporative flux retrieval models.

  6. Second-Generation central venous catheter in the prevention of bloodstream infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Janislei Gislei Dorociaki; Hoers, Hellen; Pott, Franciele Soares; Crozeta, Karla; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida; Meier, Marineli Joaquim

    2016-08-08

    to evaluate the effectiveness and safety in the use of second-generation central venous catheters impregnated in clorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine when compared with other catheters, being them impregnated or not, in order to prevent the bloodstream infection prevention. systematic review with meta-analysis. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS/SciELO, Cochrane CENTRAL; search in Congress Proceedings and records from Clinical Trials. 1.235 studies were identified, 97 were pre-selected and 4 were included. In catheter-related bloodstream infection, there was no statistical significance between second-generation impregnated catheter compared with the non-impregnated ones, absolute relative risk 1,5% confidence interval 95% (3%-1%), relative risk 0,68 (confidence interval 95%, 0,40-1,15) and number needed to treat 66. In the sensitivity analysis, there was less bloodstream infection in impregnated catheters (relative risk 0,50, confidence interval 95%, 0,26-0,96). Lower colonization, absolute relative risk 9,6% (confidence interval 95%, 10% to 4%), relative risk 0,51 (confidence interval 95% from 0,38-0,85) and number needed to treat 5. the use of second-generation catheters was effective in reducing the catheter colonization and infection when a sensitivity analysis is performed. Future clinical trials are suggested to evaluate sepsis rates, mortality and adverse effects. evaluar la efectividad y seguridad del uso de catéteres venosos centrales de segunda generación, impregnados en clorhexidina y sulfadiazina de plata, comparados con otros catéteres impregnados o no impregnados, para prevención de infección de la corriente sanguínea. revisión sistemática con metaanálisis. La búsqueda fue realizada en las bases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS/SciELO, Cochrane CENTRAL; fueron consultados anales de congresos y registros de ensayos clínicos. fueron identificados 1.235 estudios, 97 preseleccionados y cuatro incluidos. En la infección de la

  7. Facilitated transport of HNO3 through a supported liquid membrane containing a tertiary amine as carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianetti, C.; Danesi, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The facilitated transport of HNO 3 through a supported liquid membrane consisting of a porous polypropylene film containing a solution of trilaurylamine in diethylbenzene as carrier was studied as a function of the stirring speed of the aqueous solutions and the membrane composition. A physico-chemical model which takes into account diffusion through an aqueous boundary layer, a fast interfacial chemical reaction leading to the formation of a membrane soluble alkylammonium salt and diffusion through the membrane was proposed. In this way, equations were derived which describe how composition changes, occurring in the course of the permeation process, influence the membrane permeability. The experimental data were quantitatively explained by the derived equations. The results indicate that the monomeric form of the trilaurylammonium nitrate salt is the species which is mainly responsible for the acid transport through the membrane. The diffusion coefficient of the permeating species and the order of magnitude of the thickness of the aqueous boundary layer were evaluated. 8 figures

  8. Volumetric vs Mass Velocity in Analyzing Convective-Diffusive Transport Processes in Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2000-11-01

    Because mass rather than volume is preserved in fluid-mechanical problems involving density changes, a natural predilection exists for quantifying convective-diffusive transport phenomena in terms of a velocity field based upon mass, rather than volume. Indeed, in the classic BSL "Transport Phenomena" textbook, but a single reference exists even to the very concept of a volume velocity, and even then it is relegated to a homework assignment. However, especially when dealing with transport in fluids in which the mass density of the conserved property being transported (e.g., chemical species, internal energy, etc.) is independent of the prevailing pressure, as is largely true in the case of liquids, overwhelming advantages exist is preferring the volume velocity over the more ubiquitous and classical mass velocity. In a generalization of ideas pioneered by D. D. Joseph and co-workers, we outline the reasons for this volumetric velocity preference in a broad general context by identifying a large class of physical problems whose solutions are rendered more accessible by exploiting this unconventional velocity choice.

  9. Analysis of the Convective Storm using Meteosat Second Generation and SPOL Radar over a Megacity, on May 18, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Júnior, Ivon Wilson; José Pereira Filho, Augusto; Alves Barbosa, Humberto

    2017-04-01

    The rapid populational growth in urban areas of Southeast and South Brazil has increased anthropic effects on severe weather caused by thunderstorms whose impacts require mitigation on a small space-time scale more susceptible to natural disasters such as flooding. The 18 May 2015 thunderstorms in The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) caused many losses due to heavy rain, gusty winds and falling hail. The local press reported 310 tons of ice removed from the surface. Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) images, polarimetric weather radar measurements, radiosondes and surface weather variables data sets were used to analyze the event. The environmental thermodynamic analysis showed a dry layer at mid levels with wind shear at upper levels. Diabatic heating increased throughout the day and made the atmosphere very unstable at the end of the afternoon with greater potential energy induced by the local sea breeze. The 0 °C isotherm was at 3781 m. Initially, the rapid horizontal expansion of the storm caused by environmental wind shear was observed at 10.8 mm IR MSG channel brightness temperature (BT) was of -57 ° C. The brightness temperature differences (BTD) between WV and IR MSG channels evidenced vertical moisture transport from near the surface to the upper levels during convection. In the mature stage, radar reflectivity showed widespread multi cellular storm structures. Vertical cross-section indicated reflectivities between 45 dBZ to 55 dBZ with cloud tops with reflectivity greater than 30 dBZ at 14 km altitude when updrafts were more intense. Vertical profiles of differential reflectivity (ZDR) showed a deep column from to +2 to +4 dB between 6 km to 12 km altitude where intense vertical transport of large drops and a mixture of water and ice well above the 0 ° C isotherm level. This environment increased efficiency of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen type microphysics with rapid ice crystal growth to hail with later precipitation at the surface that lasted

  10. Brewer’s Spent Grain Valorization Using Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment for Second Generation Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, I.; Ruiz, E.; Cara, C.

    the effect of phosphoric acid concentration (2-6% w/v) and pretreatment temperature (140-180ºC). The influence of these factors on the hemicellulosic sugar solubilisation and the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined by maximizing both...... hemicellulosic sugar recovery in liquids and enzymatic hydrolysis yield....

  11. Build Your Own Second-Generation Bioethanol Plant in the Classroom!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seters, van J.R.; Sijbers, J.P.J.; Denis, M.; Tramper, J.

    2011-01-01

    The production of bioethanol from cellulosic waste is described. The experiment is suitable for students in secondary school classroom settings and leads to bioethanol in a concentration high enough to burn the liquid. The experiment consists of three steps: (i) the cellulose of the waste material

  12. First- versus second-generation electronic cigarettes: predictors of choice and effects on urge to smoke and withdrawal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Lynne; Kimber, Catherine; Puwanesarasa, Yasothani; Soar, Kirstie

    2015-04-01

    To (1) estimate predictors of first- versus second-generation electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) choice; and (2) determine whether a second-generation device was (i) superior for reducing urge to smoke and withdrawal symptoms (WS) and (ii) associated with enhanced positive subjective effects. Mixed-effects experimental design. Phase 1: reason for e-cigarette choice was assessed via questionnaire. Phase 2: participants were allocated randomly to first- or second-generation e-cigarette condition. Urge to smoke and WS were measured before and 10 minutes after taking 10 e-cigarette puffs. University of East London, UK. A total of 97 smokers (mean age 26; standard deviation 8.7; 54% female). Single-item urge to smoke scale to assess craving and the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale (MPSS) to assess WS. Subjective effects included: satisfaction, hit, 'felt like smoking' and 'would use to stop smoking' (yes versus no response). Equal numbers chose each device, but none of the predictor variables (gender, age, tobacco dependence, previous e-cigarette use) accounted for choice. Only baseline urge to smoke/WS predicted urge to smoke/WS 10 minutes after use (B =0.38; P E-cigarette device was not a significant predictor. Those using the second-generation device were more likely to report satisfaction and use in a quit attempt (χ(2)  = 12.10, P =0.001 and χ(2)  = 5.53, P =0.02). First- and second-generation electronic cigarettes appear to be similarly effective in reducing urges to smoke during abstinence, but second-generation devices appear to be more satisfying to users. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Higher Rate of Tuberculosis in Second Generation Migrants Compared to Native Residents in a Metropolitan Setting in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Florian M.; Fiebig, Lena; Hauer, Barbara; Brodhun, Bonita; Glaser-Paschke, Gisela; Haas, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western Europe, migrants constitute an important risk group for tuberculosis, but little is known about successive generations of migrants. We aimed to characterize migration among tuberculosis cases in Berlin and to estimate annual rates of tuberculosis in two subsequent migrant generations. We hypothesized that second generation migrants born in Germany are at higher risk of tuberculosis compared to native (non-migrant) residents. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. All tuberculosis cases reported to health authorities in Berlin between 11/2010 and 10/2011 were eligible. Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire including demographic data, migration history of patients and their parents, and language use. Tuberculosis rates were estimated using 2011 census data. Results Of 314 tuberculosis cases reported, 154 (49.0%) participated. Of these, 81 (52.6%) were first-, 14 (9.1%) were second generation migrants, and 59 (38.3%) were native residents. The tuberculosis rate per 100,000 individuals was 28.3 (95CI: 24.0–32.6) in first-, 10.2 (95%CI: 6.1–16.6) in second generation migrants, and 4.6 (95%CI: 3.7–5.6) in native residents. When combining information from the standard notification variables country of birth and citizenship, the sensitivity to detect second generation migration was 28.6%. Conclusions There is a higher rate of tuberculosis among second generation migrants compared to native residents in Berlin. This may be explained by presumably frequent contact and transmission within migrant populations. Second generation migration is insufficiently captured by the surveillance variables country of birth and citizenship. Surveillance systems in Western Europe should allow for quantifying the tuberculosis burden in this important risk group. PMID:26061733

  14. Evaluation of transport properties of nanofiltration membranes exposed to radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elizabeth E.M.; Barbosa, Celina C.R.; Bastos, Edna T.R., E-mail: eemo@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeira, RJ (Brazil); Afonso, Julio C., E-mail: Julio@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2011-07-01

    The application of membrane separation processes (PSM) for treatment of radioactive waste requires the selection of a suitable membrane for the treatment of waste, as the membrane will be directly exposed to the radioactive liquid waste, and also exposed to ionizing radiation. The nanofiltration membrane is most suitable for treatment of radioactive waste, since it has high rejection of multivalent ions. Usually the membranes are made of polymers and depending on the composition of the waste, type and dose of radiation absorbed may be changes in the structure of the membrane, resulting in loss of its transport properties. We tested two commercial nanofiltration membranes: NF and SW Dow/Filmtec. The waste liquid used was obtained in the process of conversion of uranium hexafluoride gas to solid uranium dioxide, known as 'carbonated water'. The membranes were characterized as their transport properties (hydraulic permeability, permeate flux and salt rejection) before and after their immersion in the waste for 24 hours. The surface of the membranes was also evaluated by SEM and FTIR. It was observed that in both the porosity of the membrane selective layer was altered, but not the membrane surface charge, which is responsible for the selectivity of the membrane. The NF membranes and SW showed uranium ion rejection of 64% and 55% respectively. (author)

  15. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe

  16. Cluster approach to the prediction of thermodynamic and transport properties of ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Zoe L.; Kobayashi, Rika; Izgorodina, Ekaterina I.

    2018-05-01

    The prediction of physicochemical properties of ionic liquids such as conductivity and melting point would substantially aid the targeted design of ionic liquids for specific applications ranging from solvents for extraction of valuable chemicals to biowaste to electrolytes in alternative energy devices. The previously published study connecting the interaction energies of single ion pairs (1 IP) of ionic liquids to their thermodynamic and transport properties has been extended to larger systems consisting of two ion pairs (2 IPs), in which many-body and same-ion interactions are included. Routinely used cations, of the imidazolium and pyrrolidinium families, were selected in the study coupled with chloride, tetrafluoroborate, and dicyanamide. Their two ion pair clusters were subjected to extensive configuration screening to establish most stable structures. Interaction energies of these clusters were calculated at the spin-ratio scaled MP2 (SRS-MP2) level for the correlation interaction energy, and a newly developed scaled Hartree-Fock method for the rest of energetic contributions to interaction energy. A full geometry screening for each cation-anion combination resulted in 192 unique structures, whose stability was assessed using two criteria—widely used interaction energy and total electronic energy. Furthermore, the ratio of interaction energy to its dispersion component was correlated with experimentally observed melting points in 64 energetically favourable structures. These systems were also used to test the correlation of the dispersion contribution to interaction energy with measured conductivity.

  17. Family, Socialization and Migration in Norwegian-Pakistani Families: A Study of the First and the Second Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Shakari, Yasmine

    2013-01-01

    Summary Author s name: Yasmine Shakari Title: Family, Socialization and Migration in Norwegian-Pakistani Families: A Study of the First and the Second Generation Supervisor: Øystein Gullvåg Holter Co-supervisor: Thomas Walle Aim of study: This thesis seeks to obtain knowledge about 1) how the first generation of Norwegian-Pakistanis were raised in Pakistan in terms of socialization of gender roles, 2) how the second generation of Norwegian-Pakistanis have been raised here in Norway, and 3) if...

  18. Hydroprocessing of Fischer-Tropsch biowaxes to second-generation biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schablitzky, Harald Walter; Hafner, C. [OMV Refining and Marketing, Centre of Excellence-Fuels, Innovation and Quality, Schwechat (Austria); Lichtscheidl, J.; Hutter, K. [OMV Refining and Marketing, New Technology, Schwechat (Austria); Rauch, R. [Bioenergy, Graz (Austria); Hofbauer, H. [Bioenergy, Graz (Austria); Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-03-15

    Upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) biowaxes to second-generation biofuels via hydroprocessing is the final step for increasing the fuel amount of the overall biomass conversion route: gasification of lignocellulosic biomass, FT synthesis, and hydroprocessing. The typical FT product portfolio consists of high molecular weight paraffinic waxes as the main product and FT fuels in the diesel and naphtha boiling range. OMV's objective and contribution to the project focus on achieving coprocessing of FT biowaxes with fossil feedstock using existing hydrotreating plants of crude oil refineries. Various test runs have been examined with a conventional refining catalyst under mild conditions (380-390 C, 5.8 MPa; WHSV, 0.7-1.3 h{sup -1}) in a pilot plant. Pure FT biowax is converted to gases, fuels, and an oil/waxy residue in a fixed-bed reactor with a porous catalyst layer technology. The presence of hydrogen in the reaction chamber reduces the fast deactivation of the catalyst caused by the formation of a coke layer around the catalyst particle surface and saturates cracked hydrocarbon fragments. Another approach is the creation of synthetic biodiesel components with excellent fuel properties for premium fuel application. Basically, premium diesel fuel differs from standard diesel quality by cetane number and cold flow properties. Hydroprocessed synthetic biodiesel (HPFT diesel) has compared to conventional diesel advantages in many aspects. Depending on the catalyst selected, premium diesel quality can be obtained by shifting cold flow operability properties of HPFT fuels to a range capable even under extreme cold conditions. In addition, a high-quality kerosene fraction is obtained to create bio jet fuels with an extremely deep freezing point, as low as -80 C. The isomerization degree, as well as the carbon number distribution of high paraffinic profile, and the branching degree have a major impact on the cold flow properties and cetane number. FT diesel has

  19. Cost and greenhouse gas emission tradeoffs of alternative uses of lignin for second generation ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhashem, Ghasideh; Adler, Paul R.; McAloon, Andrew J.; Spatari, Sabrina

    2013-06-01

    Second generation ethanol bioconversion technologies are under demonstration-scale development for the production of lignocellulosic fuels to meet the US federal Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS2). Bioconversion technology utilizes the fermentable sugars generated from the cellulosic fraction of the feedstock, and most commonly assumes that the lignin fraction may be used as a source of thermal and electrical energy. We examine the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and techno-economic cost tradeoffs for alternative uses of the lignin fraction of agricultural residues (corn stover, and wheat and barley straw) produced within a 2000 dry metric ton per day ethanol biorefinery in three locations in the United States. We compare three scenarios in which the lignin is (1) used as a land amendment to replace soil organic carbon (SOC); (2) separated, dried and sold as a coal substitute to produce electricity; and (3) used to produce electricity onsite at the biorefinery. Results from this analysis indicate that for life cycle GHG intensity, amending the lignin to land is lowest among the three ethanol production options (-25 to -2 g CO2e MJ-1), substituting coal with lignin is second lowest (4-32 g CO2e MJ-1), and onsite power generation is highest (36-41 g CO2e MJ-1). Moreover, the onsite power generation case may not meet RFS2 cellulosic fuel requirements given the uncertainty in electricity substitution. Options that use lignin for energy do so at the expense of SOC loss. The lignin-land amendment option has the lowest capital cost among the three options due to lower equipment costs for the biorefinery’s thermal energy needs and use of biogas generated onsite. The need to purchase electricity and uncertain market value of the lignin-land amendment could raise its cost compared to onsite power generation and electricity co-production. However, assuming a market value (50-100/dry Mg) for nutrient and soil carbon replacement in agricultural soils, and potentially

  20. Cost and greenhouse gas emission tradeoffs of alternative uses of lignin for second generation ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourhashem, Ghasideh; Spatari, Sabrina; Adler, Paul R; McAloon, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Second generation ethanol bioconversion technologies are under demonstration-scale development for the production of lignocellulosic fuels to meet the US federal Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS2). Bioconversion technology utilizes the fermentable sugars generated from the cellulosic fraction of the feedstock, and most commonly assumes that the lignin fraction may be used as a source of thermal and electrical energy. We examine the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and techno-economic cost tradeoffs for alternative uses of the lignin fraction of agricultural residues (corn stover, and wheat and barley straw) produced within a 2000 dry metric ton per day ethanol biorefinery in three locations in the United States. We compare three scenarios in which the lignin is (1) used as a land amendment to replace soil organic carbon (SOC); (2) separated, dried and sold as a coal substitute to produce electricity; and (3) used to produce electricity onsite at the biorefinery. Results from this analysis indicate that for life cycle GHG intensity, amending the lignin to land is lowest among the three ethanol production options (−25 to −2 g CO 2 e MJ −1 ), substituting coal with lignin is second lowest (4–32 g CO 2 e MJ −1 ), and onsite power generation is highest (36–41 g CO 2 e MJ −1 ). Moreover, the onsite power generation case may not meet RFS2 cellulosic fuel requirements given the uncertainty in electricity substitution. Options that use lignin for energy do so at the expense of SOC loss. The lignin–land amendment option has the lowest capital cost among the three options due to lower equipment costs for the biorefinery’s thermal energy needs and use of biogas generated onsite. The need to purchase electricity and uncertain market value of the lignin–land amendment could raise its cost compared to onsite power generation and electricity co-production. However, assuming a market value ($50–$100/dry Mg) for nutrient and soil carbon replacement in

  1. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Dagmar; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy with higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on ecosystem services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by the unpredictable climate change currently going on. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers high impact, policy relevant ecosystem services at a Continental scale including biodiversity and pollination, water and air security, erosion control and soil security, GHG emissions, soil C and cultural services like tourism value. The technical distribution potential and likely yield of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) with willow, poplar, eucalyptus and other broadleaf species and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF), is currently being modelled using ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor, and ecosystem models will be used to examine the impacts of these crops on ecosystem services. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecosystem services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate ecosystem valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ecosystem Services Framework) will be utilised. Research will focus on optimisation of land use change feedbacks on above named ecosystem services, impact on food security, land management practices and impacts from climate change. We will present results for GHG emissions and soil organic carbon change after different land use change scenarios (e.g. arable to Miscanthus, forest to SRF), and

  2. Second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics in schizophrenia: patient functioning and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montemagni C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cristiana Montemagni,1,2 Tiziana Frieri,1,2 Paola Rocca1,2 1Department of Neuroscience, Unit of Psychiatry, University of Turin, 2Department of Mental Health, Azienda Sanitaria Locale (ASL Torino 1 (TO1, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Turin, Italy Abstract: Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs were developed to make treatment easier, improve adherence, and/or signal the clinician when nonadherence occurs. Second-generation antipsychotic LAIs (SGA-LAIs combine the advantages of SGA with a long-acting formulation. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the available literature concerning the impact of SGA-LAIs on patient functioning and quality of life (QOL. Although several studies regarding schizophrenia patients’ functioning and QOL have been performed, the quantity of available data still varies greatly depending on the SGA-LAI under investigation. After reviewing the literature, it seems that SGA-LAIs are effective in ameliorating patient functioning and/or QOL of patients with schizophrenia, as compared with placebo. However, while methodological design controversy exists regarding the superiority of risperidone LAI versus oral antipsychotics, the significant amount of evidence in recently published research demonstrates the beneficial influence of risperidone LAI on patient functioning and QOL in stable patients and no benefit over oral treatment in unstable patients. However, the status of the research on SGA-LAIs is lacking in several aspects that may help physicians in choosing the correct drug therapy. Meaningful differences have been observed between SGA-LAIs in the onset of their clinical efficacy and in the relationships between symptoms and functioning scores. Moreover, head-to-head studies comparing the effects of SGA-LAIs on classical measures of psychopathology and functioning are available mainly on risperidone LAI, while those comparing olanzapine LAI with other

  3. Early evaluation of a second generation information monitoring and diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Bourassa, Norman; Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Kinney, Kristopher; Shockman, Christine

    2002-03-25

    Private sector commercial office buildings are challenging environments for energy efficiency projects. This challenge is related to the complexity of business environments that involve ownership, operation, and tenant relationships. Whether it is poor quality design, inefficient operations, degradation of equipment over time, or merely the increasing use of energy by tenants and inattention from landlords, commercial office building energy use continues to increase. This research project was developed to examine the environment for building operations and identify causes of inefficient use of energy related to technical and organizational issues. This report discusses a second-generation Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS) installed at a leased office building in Sacramento, California. The report begins with a brief summary of the IMDS research at the previous building, followed by a discussion of the building selection process, the IMDS design and installation, recent use of the IMDS, costs and benefits, and fault detection and diagnostic research using the IMDS. A web site describes the IMDS in detail (see imds.lbl.gov). The underlying principle of this research project is that high quality building performance data can help show where energy is being used and how buildings systems actually perform is an important first step toward improving building energy efficiency. The project utilizes a high-quality monitoring system that has been developed during the past decade by a partnership between LBNL and private industry. This research project has been successful in demonstrating that the IMDS is tremendously valuable to the building operators at the Sacramento site. The building operators not only accept the technology, but it has become the core of their day-to-day building control concepts. The innovative property management company, Jones Lang LaSalle, is interested in installing more sites to determine if the system could provide an economic

  4. Model-based quality assessment and base-calling for second-generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Héctor Corrada; Irizarry, Rafael A

    2010-09-01

    Second-generation sequencing (sec-gen) technology can sequence millions of short fragments of DNA in parallel, making it capable of assembling complex genomes for a small fraction of the price and time of previous technologies. In fact, a recently formed international consortium, the 1000 Genomes Project, plans to fully sequence the genomes of approximately 1200 people. The prospect of comparative analysis at the sequence level of a large number of samples across multiple populations may be achieved within the next five years. These data present unprecedented challenges in statistical analysis. For instance, analysis operates on millions of short nucleotide sequences, or reads-strings of A,C,G, or T's, between 30 and 100 characters long-which are the result of complex processing of noisy continuous fluorescence intensity measurements known as base-calling. The complexity of the base-calling discretization process results in reads of widely varying quality within and across sequence samples. This variation in processing quality results in infrequent but systematic errors that we have found to mislead downstream analysis of the discretized sequence read data. For instance, a central goal of the 1000 Genomes Project is to quantify across-sample variation at the single nucleotide level. At this resolution, small error rates in sequencing prove significant, especially for rare variants. Sec-gen sequencing is a relatively new technology for which potential biases and sources of obscuring variation are not yet fully understood. Therefore, modeling and quantifying the uncertainty inherent in the generation of sequence reads is of utmost importance. In this article, we present a simple model to capture uncertainty arising in the base-calling procedure of the Illumina/Solexa GA platform. Model parameters have a straightforward interpretation in terms of the chemistry of base-calling allowing for informative and easily interpretable metrics that capture the variability in

  5. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMICS OF A NOMINAL 500 MWe SECOND-GENERATION PFB COMBUSTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Robertson; H. Goldstein; D. Horazak; R. Newby

    2003-09-01

    Research has been conducted under United States Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called a Second Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Plant (2nd Gen PFB), offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 48 percent, with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than those of conventional pulverized coal-fired (PC) plants with wet flue gas desulfurization. The 2nd Gen PFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed boiler, and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a gas turbine combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2300 F and higher. A conceptual design and an economic analysis was previously prepared for this plant. When operating with a Siemens Westinghouse W501F gas turbine, a 2400psig/1000 F/1000 F/2-1/2 in. Hg. steam turbine, and projected carbonizer, PCFB, and topping combustor performance data, the plant generated 496 MWe of power with an efficiency of 44.9 percent (coal higher heating value basis) and a cost of electricity 22 percent less than a comparable PC plant. The key components of this new type of plant have been successfully tested at the pilot plant stage and their performance has been found to be better than previously assumed. As a result, the referenced conceptual design has been updated herein to reflect more accurate performance predictions together with the use of the more advanced Siemens Westinghouse W501G gas turbine. The use of this advanced gas turbine, together with a conventional 2400 psig/1050 F/1050 F/2-1/2 in. Hg. steam turbine increases the plant efficiency to 48.2 percent and yields a total plant cost of $1,079/KW (January 2002 dollars). The cost of electricity is 40.7 mills/kWh, a value 12 percent less than a comparable PC plant.

  6. An investigation on near wall transport characteristics in an adiabatic upward gas-liquid two-phase slug flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Donghong; Che, Defu

    2007-08-01

    The near-wall transport characteristics, inclusive of mass transfer coefficient and wall shear stress, which have a great effect on gas-liquid two-phase flow induced internal corrosion of low alloy pipelines in vertical upward oil and gas mixing transport, have been both mechanistically and experimentally investigated in this paper. Based on the analyses on the hydrodynamic characteristics of an upward slug unit, the mass transfer in the near wall can be divided into four zones, Taylor bubble nose zone, falling liquid film zone, Taylor bubble wake zone and the remaining liquid slug zone; the wall shear stress can be divided into two zones, the positive wall shear stress zone associated with the falling liquid film and the negative wall shear stress zone associated with the liquid slug. Based on the conventional mass transfer and wall shear stress characteristics formulas of single phase liquid full-pipe turbulent flow, corrected normalized mass transfer coefficient formula and wall shear stress formula are proposed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The shear stress and the mass transfer coefficient in the near wall zone are increased with the increase of superficial gas velocity and decreased with the increase of superficial liquid velocity. The mass transfer coefficients in the falling liquid film zone and the wake zone of leading Taylor bubble are lager than those in the Taylor bubble nose zone and the remaining liquid slug zone, and the wall shear stress associated falling liquid film is larger than that associated the liquid slug. The mass transfer coefficient is within 10-3 m/s, and the wall shear stress below 103 Pa. It can be concluded that the alternate wall shear stress due to upward gas-liquid slug flow is considered to be the major cause of the corrosion production film fatigue cracking.

  7. Second-generation antidepressants for preventing seasonal affective disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartlehner, Gerald; Nussbaumer, Barbara; Gaynes, Bradley N; Forneris, Catherine A; Morgan, Laura C; Kaminski-Hartenthaler, Angela; Greenblatt, Amy; Wipplinger, Jörg; Lux, Linda J; Sonis, Jeffrey H; Hofmann, Julia; Van Noord, Megan G; Winkler, Dietmar

    2015-11-08

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes that most commonly occurs during autumn or winter and remits in spring. The prevalence of SAD ranges from 1.5% to 9%, depending on latitude. The predictable seasonal aspect of SAD provides a promising opportunity for prevention. This review - one of four reviews on efficacy and safety of interventions to prevent SAD - focuses on second-generation antidepressants (SGAs). To assess the efficacy and safety of second-generation antidepressants (in comparison with other SGAs, placebo, light therapy, melatonin or agomelatine, psychological therapies or lifestyle interventions) in preventing SAD and improving patient-centred outcomes among adults with a history of SAD. A search of the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neuorosis Review Group (CCDANCTR) included all years to 11 August 2015. The CCDANCTR contains reports of randomised controlled trials derived from EMBASE (1974 to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date), PsycINFO (1967 to date) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Furthermore, we searched the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Knowledge, The Cochrane Library and the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (to 26 May 2014). We also conducted a grey literature search and handsearched the reference lists of included studies and pertinent review articles. For efficacy, we included randomised controlled trials on adults with a history of winter-type SAD who were free of symptoms at the beginning of the study. For adverse events, we planned to include non-randomised studies. Eligible studies compared an SGA versus another SGA, placebo, light therapy, psychological therapy, melatonin, agomelatine or lifestyle changes. We also intended to compare SGAs in combination with any of the comparator interventions versus the same comparator intervention as monotherapy. Two review authors screened

  8. Liquid transportation fuels via large-scale fluidised-bed gasification of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E.

    2013-04-15

    With the objective of gaining a better understanding of the system design trade-offs and economics that pertain to biomass-to-liquids processes, 20 individual BTL plant designs were evaluated based on their technical and economic performance. The investigation was focused on gasification-based processes that enable the conversion of biomass to methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or synthetic gasoline at a large (300 MWth of biomass) scale. The biomass conversion technology was based on pressurised steam/O2-blown fluidised-bed gasification, followed by hot-gas filtration and catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons and tars. This technology has seen extensive development and demonstration activities in Finland during the recent years and newly generated experimental data has also been used in our simulation models. Our study included conceptual design issues, process descriptions, mass and energy balances and production cost estimates. Several studies exist that discuss the overall efficiency and economics of biomass conversion to transportation liquids, but very few studies have presented a detailed comparison between various syntheses using consistent process designs and uniform cost database. In addition, no studies exist that examine and compare BTL plant designs using the same front-end configuration as described in this work. Our analysis shows that it is possible to produce sustainable low-carbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass with first-law efficiency in the range of 49.6-66.7% depending on the end-product and process conditions. Production cost estimates were calculated assuming Nth plant economics and without public investment support, CO2 credits or tax assumptions. They are 58-65 euro/MWh for methanol, 58-66 euro/MWh for DME, 64-75 euro/MWh for Fischer-Tropsch liquids and 68-78 euro/MWh for synthetic gasoline. (orig.)

  9. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  10. Liquid Structure with Nano-Heterogeneity Promotes Cationic Transport in Concentrated Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Oleg; Suo, Liumin; Gobet, Mallory; Ren, Xiaoming; Wang, Fei; Faraone, Antonio; Peng, Jing; Olguin, Marco; Schroeder, Marshall; Ding, Michael S; Gobrogge, Eric; von Wald Cresce, Arthur; Munoz, Stephen; Dura, Joseph A; Greenbaum, Steve; Wang, Chunsheng; Xu, Kang

    2017-10-24

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, small-angle neutron scattering, and a variety of spectroscopic techniques, we evaluated the ion solvation and transport behaviors in aqueous electrolytes containing bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. We discovered that, at high salt concentrations (from 10 to 21 mol/kg), a disproportion of cation solvation occurs, leading to a liquid structure of heterogeneous domains with a characteristic length scale of 1 to 2 nm. This unusual nano-heterogeneity effectively decouples cations from the Coulombic traps of anions and provides a 3D percolating lithium-water network, via which 40% of the lithium cations are liberated for fast ion transport even in concentration ranges traditionally considered too viscous. Due to such percolation networks, superconcentrated aqueous electrolytes are characterized by a high lithium-transference number (0.73), which is key to supporting an assortment of battery chemistries at high rate. The in-depth understanding of this transport mechanism establishes guiding principles to the tailored design of future superconcentrated electrolyte systems.

  11. Gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks: The role of partner choice, gender ideology and societal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huschek, D.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores and compares gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks in six European countries. On the individual level, we study the role of gender ideology and consequences of (transnational) partner choice on four aspects of gender-role behavior; childcare, routine household tasks,

  12. Gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks: the role of partner choice, gender ideology and societal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huschek, D.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores and compares gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks in six European countries. On the individual level, we study the role of gender ideology and consequences of (transnational) partner choice on four aspects of gender-role behavior; childcare, routine household tasks,

  13. Economic feasibility of second generation ethanol with and without indirect greenhouse gas reduction benefits : a simulation for Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagares Tavora, F.; Bakker, R.R.; Stojanovic, M.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the economic feasibility of second generation ethanol from sugar cane, whereby traditional ethanol production is combined with the use of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production. By applying cost-benefit analysis, this study evaluated the viability of the

  14. Voiding Urosonography with Second-Generation Ultrasound Contrast Agent for Diagnosis of Vesicoureteric Reflux: First Local Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafina Kuzmanovska

    2017-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography using intravesical second generation ultrasound contrast agent could be recommend  as a valid alternative diagnostic modality for detecting vesicoureteral reflux and evaluation of the distal urinary tract in children, based on its radiation-free, highly efficacious, reliable, and safe characteristics.

  15. Lower switch rate in depressed patients with bipolar II than bipolar I disorder treated adjunctively with second-generation antidepressants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altshuler, LL; Suppes, T; Nolen, WA; Leverich, G; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Kupka, R; McElroy, SL; Grunze, H; Kitchen, CMR; Post, R; Black, D.O.

    Objectives: The authors compared the switch rate into hypomania/mania in depressed patients treated with second-generation antidepressants who had either bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Method: In a 10-week trial, 184 outpatients with bipolar depression (134 with bipolar I disorder, 48 with

  16. Are ethnic minorities disadvantaged? The employment participation and occupational status of Moroccan and Turkish second generation migrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, P.; Vazquez, L.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    We use data from the 2009/10 Wave of the Netherlands Longitudinal Lifecourse Study to analyze the employment participation and occupational status of Moroccan and Turkish Second Generation Migrants (SGM) in the Netherlands. By considering measures of family background (i.e. parental education,

  17. Development of second generation gold-supported palladium material with low-leaching and recyclable characteristics in aromatic amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Mohammad; Arai, Satoshi; Hoshiya, Naoyoki; Honma, Tetsuo; Tamenori, Yusuke; Sato, Takatoshi; Yokoyama, Mami; Ishii, Akira; Takeuchi, Masashi; Maruko, Tomohiro; Shuto, Satoshi; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro

    2013-08-02

    An improved process for the preparation of sulfur-modified gold-supported palladium material [SAPd, second generation] is presented. The developed preparation method is safer and generates less heat (aqueous Na2S2O8 and H2SO4) for sulfur fixation on a gold surface, and it is superior to the previous method of preparing SAPd (first generation), which requires the use of the more heat-generating and dangerous piranha solution (concentrated H2SO4 and 35% H2O2) in the sulfur fixation step. This safer and improved preparation method is particularly important for the mass production of SAPd (second generation) for which the catalytic activity was examined in ligand-free Buchwald-Hartwig cross-coupling reactions. The catalytic activities were the same between the first and second generation SAPds in aromatic aminations, but the lower palladium leaching properties and safer preparative method of second generation SAPd are a significant improvement over the first generation SAPd.

  18. Is Education the Pathway to Success? A Comparison of Second Generation Turkish Professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crul, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Education is often seen as the most important mobility channel for children of immigrants. To what extent is this true? In this article, we look at successful second generation Turkish professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and The Netherlands. What kind of pathways did they take to become a professional? Based on the large quantitative…

  19. Mis/Representations of Asian/Americans in the Curricula: Perspectives from Second-Generation Japanese American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This case study explores how six second-generation Japanese American youth recalled learning about cultural diversity at their high schools, particularly information that was intended to represent their identities as ethnic and racial minorities. Semi-structured interviews were used to investigate how the participants made sense of curricular…

  20. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

  1. Phrenic nerve paralysis during cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation: a comparison between the first- and second-generation balloon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casado-Arroyo, R.; Chierchia, G.B.; Conte, G.; Levinstein, M.; Sieira, J.; Rodriguez-Manero, M.; Giovanni, G.; Baltogiannis, Y.; Wauters, K.; Asmundis, C. de; Sarkozy, A.; Brugada, P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phrenic nerve palsy (PNP) is the most frequently observed complication during cryoballoon ablation (CB; Arctic Front, Medtronic, MN) occurring in roughly 7%-9% of the cases. The new second-generation cryoballoon ablation Arctic Front Advance (CB-A) (Arctic Front) has recently been

  2. The Socioculturally Constructed Multivoiced Self as a Framework for Christian Education of Second-Generation Korean American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. Steve

    2002-01-01

    This article proposes a new framework for theory and practice of Christian education for second-generation Korean American young adults using the literature of sociocultural constructionism and the multivoiced self. This framework can provide holistic nurture and future trajectories in which to encourage a reflexive, praxis-generating faith. The…

  3. Safety and Feasibility of Using the Second-Generation Pillcam Colon Capsule to Assess Active Colonic Crohn's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Haens, Geert; Löwenberg, Mark; Samaan, Mark A.; Franchimont, Denis; Ponsioen, Cyriel; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Fockens, Paul; Bossuyt, Peter; Amininejad, Leila; Rajamannar, Gopalan; Lensink, Elsemieke M.; van Gossum, Andre M.

    2015-01-01

    The second-generation Pillcam Colon Capsule Endoscope (PCCE-2; Given Imaging Ltd, Yoqneam, Israel) is an ingestible capsule for visualization of the colon. We performed a multicenter pilot study to assess its safety and feasibility in evaluating the severity of Crohn's disease (CD). In a prospective

  4. Ethnic differences in incidence of type 1 diabetes among second-generation immigrants and adoptees from abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianguang; Hemminki, Kari; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2010-02-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes shows a large variation worldwide, but whether the causes are environmental or genetic has not been settled. We examine here the incidence of type 1 diabetes among second-generation immigrants and adoptees from abroad to disentangle genetic/ethnic vs. environmental influence, assuming adoptees from abroad have similar environmental exposures compared with the native Swedes, with the only difference in their genetic background. Second-generation immigrants and adoptees from abroad were retrieved from the MIGMED2 database, and they were followed up until the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, death, or the end of study. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for type 1 diabetes among these immigrants compared with native Swedes. A total of 1,050,569 children were defined as second-generation immigrants and the overall SIR of type 1 diabetes was significantly decreased. A decreased risk was observed for all countries of origin, with an exception for children with parents from Finland. A total of 51,557 children born in foreign countries were adopted by Swedes. Adoptees from Eastern Europe, Soviet countries, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, East and Southeast Asia, Chile, and other Central and South American countries had a significantly decreased SIR. The decreased incidence of type 1 diabetes observed in some second-generation immigrants and adoptees from abroad strongly suggests that ethnic genetic heterogeneity could play an important role on type 1 diabetes.

  5. Preventing the obesity epidemic by second generation tailored health communication: an interdisciplinary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwald, Heidi Päivyt Karoliina; Huotari, Maija-Leena Aulikki

    2010-06-28

    The prevention of obesity and health concerns related to obesity are major challenges worldwide. The use of eHealth communication and the tailoring of information delivered via the Internet at the individual level may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Mastering behaviors related to nutrition, physical activity, and weight management are the main issues in preventing obesity, and the need for interdisciplinary knowledge within this area is obvious. The objectives were to review the literature on tailored health communication and to present an interdisciplinary analysis of studies on "second" generation tailored interventions aimed at behavior change in nutrition, physical activity, or weight management. A literature search was conducted of the main electronic information sources on health communication. Selection criteria were defined, and 23 intervention studies were selected. The content analysis focused on the following: study designs, objectives of behavior change, target groups, sample sizes, study lengths, attrition rates, theories applied, intervention designs, computer-based channels used, statistically significant outcomes from the perspective of tailoring, and possible biases of the studies. However, this was not a structured meta-analysis and cannot be replicated as such. Of the 23 studies, 21 were randomized controlled trials, and all focused on behavior change: 10 studies focused on behavior change in nutrition, 7 on physical activity, 2 on nutrition and physical activity, and 4 on weight management. The target groups and the number of participants varied: 8 studies included more than 500 participants, and 6 studies included less than 100. Most studies were short; the duration of 20 studies was 6 months or less. The Transtheoretical Model was applied in 14 of the 23 studies, and feedback as a tailoring mechanism was used in addition to an Internet site (or program) in 15 studies and in addition to email in 11 studies. Self-reporting was used

  6. Maintenance therapy with second generation antipsychotics for bipolar disorder - A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Leif; Lindström, Eva; Nilsson, Mikael; Höistad, Malin

    2017-04-15

    Second generations antipsychotics (SGA) are frequently used for maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder. We systematically reviewed the efficacy and long-term effects of treatment with SGA, regardless of treatment strategy (SGA administered either as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy), in comparison to placebo, lithium or valproate. Primary outcomes were relapses (mood episode recurrence) and discontinuation. Clinical studies were identified through database searching in PubMed, Embase, PsychInfo and Cochrane Library and critically appraised based on the Cochrane Handbook. Full data extraction of raw data was performed and analyzed with meta-analyses, and level of evidence graded using GRADE. Only randomized controlled studies (RCT) and observational studies were included, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Comparators used were restricted to placebo, lithium, valproate or other anti-epileptic drugs. We identified 15 RCTs on SGA in bipolar disorder with follow-up-time of 6 months up to 2 years, and one observational study reporting long-term effects of up to 4 years. A total of 6142 patients were included in the randomized trials. No long-term RCTs beyond 2 years follow-up was identified. All RCTs except for one included patients with bipolar disorder type I only. All RCTs except for two included patients pre-stabilized on the drug under investigation prior to randomization (enrichment design). For SGA as adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate, meta-analyses showed that treatment with either aripiprazole (RR: 0.65, 95% CI 0.50-0.85), quetiapine (RR: 0.38, 95% CI 0.32-0.46) or ziprasidone (RR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.40-0.96) reduced the overall risk of relapses in patients that had responded during the stabilization phase. Adjunctive therapy with quetiapine was the only drug that reduced both manic and depressive episodes. For SGA as monotherapy, only quetiapine was shown to be better than lithium/ valproate for both manic and depressive relapses, but only for

  7. Study on the academic future of second-generation immigrants in Setubal and Faro (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Llorent

    2015-05-01

    research we gather information from all the Luso-African secondary schools in two cities with the largest number of Portuguese immigrants (Setúbal and Faro. Data collection was performed using a questionnaire developed, aimed at the students of Portuguese-speaking Africa and was divided into seven major groups of scales: characteristics of parents, school career, self-motivation to continue studying, professional expectations about the future, characterization and evaluation of the school setting, and characterization of expectations after secondary school. The extracted data includes social, familial, economic, educational and school children of immigrants, called second-generation immigrants or Luso-Africans. Thus, we find relations between their prospects and their social and family situation variables that influence school and their school and their social integration. After interpretation and analysis of extracted data, we conclude that the most influential factor in expectations, with the Luso-African students who complete their secondary school studies, is the interest of the parents regarding the formation of the children.

  8. The effect of winglets on the static aerodynamic stability characteristics of a representative second generation jet transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P. F.; Flechner, S. G.

    1976-01-01

    A baseline wing and a version of the same wing fitted with winglets were tested. The longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics were determined through an angle-of-attack range from -1 deg to 10 deg at an angle of sideslip of 0 deg for Mach numbers of 0.750, 0.800, and 0.825. The lateral aerodynamic characteristics were determined through the same angle-of-attack range at fixed sideslip angles of 2.5 deg and 5 deg. Both configurations were investigated at Reynolds numbers of 13,000,000, per meter (4,000,000 per foot) and approximately 20,000,000 per meter (6,000,000 per foot). The winglet configuration showed slight increases over the baseline wing in static longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic stability throughout the test Mach number range for a model design lift coefficient of 0.53. Reynolds number variation had very little effect on stability.

  9. MAKER2: an annotation pipeline and genome-database management tool for second-generation genome projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Carson; Yandell, Mark

    2011-12-22

    Second-generation sequencing technologies are precipitating major shifts with regards to what kinds of genomes are being sequenced and how they are annotated. While the first generation of genome projects focused on well-studied model organisms, many of today's projects involve exotic organisms whose genomes are largely terra incognita. This complicates their annotation, because unlike first-generation projects, there are no pre-existing 'gold-standard' gene-models with which to train gene-finders. Improvements in genome assembly and the wide availability of mRNA-seq data are also creating opportunities to update and re-annotate previously published genome annotations. Today's genome projects are thus in need of new genome annotation tools that can meet the challenges and opportunities presented by second-generation sequencing technologies. We present MAKER2, a genome annotation and data management tool designed for second-generation genome projects. MAKER2 is a multi-threaded, parallelized application that can process second-generation datasets of virtually any size. We show that MAKER2 can produce accurate annotations for novel genomes where training-data are limited, of low quality or even non-existent. MAKER2 also provides an easy means to use mRNA-seq data to improve annotation quality; and it can use these data to update legacy annotations, significantly improving their quality. We also show that MAKER2 can evaluate the quality of genome annotations, and identify and prioritize problematic annotations for manual review. MAKER2 is the first annotation engine specifically designed for second-generation genome projects. MAKER2 scales to datasets of any size, requires little in the way of training data, and can use mRNA-seq data to improve annotation quality. It can also update and manage legacy genome annotation datasets.

  10. Transitioning from first- to second-generation biosimilars: An appraisal of regulatory and post-marketing challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandizzi, Corrado; Galeazzi, Mauro; Valesini, Guido

    2018-02-01

    Second-generation biosimilars (i.e. monoclonal antibodies or proteins generated by fusion of antibody and receptor moieties) differ in several respects as compared to first-generation ones (e.g. epoetins, bone marrow stimulating factors, somatotropins). In this respect, as second-generation biosimilars are endowed with much greater structural and molecular complexity, which might translate into a number of pharmacological and therapeutic issues, they raise new challenges for manufacturers and regulatory authorities as well as new concerns for clinicians. Based on these arguments, the present article was intended to review information on the main differences between first- and second-generation biosimilars for treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, as well as their impact on immunogenicity, the design of clinical trials and the critical issue of extrapolation of therapeutic indications. The positions taken by relevant medical associations and the crucial role of pharmacovigilance are also reviewed. According to current knowledge, the initial post-marketing clinical experience with second-generation biosimilars is providing encouraging results, though their long-term safety and efficacy as well as the scientific basis underlying the extrapolation of therapeutic indications are still matter of discussion. There is some consensus that marketing applications should rely on studies supporting the clinical use of biosimilars in their different target diseases and patient populations. In parallel, clinical safety must be ensured by a strict control of the manufacturing processes and a solid pharmacovigilance program. It remains then a responsibility of the physician to drive a proper use of second-generation biosimilars into clinical practice, in accordance with guidelines issued by scientific societies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Liquid Biofuels: We Lose More than We Win

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Hedegaard, Karsten; Thyø, Kathrine

    2013-01-01

    biofuels, including first-generation bio-diesels (plant bio-diesels) as well as first- and second-generation bioethanols produced in Europe and the USA. When we prioritise biomass for these biofuels, we deprive ourselves the better alternative of using the same limited biomass for heat and power...... fuel substitution, and biomass is increasingly used for both the transport and the heat and power sectors, with increasing interest in using it for chemicals production as well. For the transport sector, the conversion of biomass to the liquid biofuels of bio-diesel and bioethanol is at present...

  12. Benefits of microgravity for measurement of thermo-transport coefficients in liquid metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praizey, J.P.

    1988-05-01

    After giving a brief review of thermo-transport principles, this paper describes the experimental technique used and presents the results obtained on the ground. The author determines the solutal stability conditions to be satisfied by the metal alloy so that ground thermotransport measurements are not disturbed by convection effects. The benefits of microgravity when such conditions cannot be achieved are demonstrated and the results obtained on pure Sn (isotope separation), Sn-Co, Sn-Ag and Sn-Bi during Spacelab missions in 1983 and 1985 are presented. The results of experiments carried out without the disturbing effect of convection are compared with those found in literature (experiments or calculations carried out from liquid structure models) [fr

  13. The phase transport and reactions of γ-irradiated aqueous-ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howett, S.; Joseph, J.; Noel, J.J.; Wren, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A novel technology based on the transfer of chemical species across water/ionic liquid interfaces via specific complexation reactions is currently being considered for the separation and sequestration of metal ion contaminants from radioactive waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle. An ideal solvent for these applications should have a high intrinsic selectivity for a targeted metal or group of metals (e.g., trans-Pu actinides, lanthanides, or other fission products), an efficient switching mechanism (between complexation and decomplexation), and a high immiscibility with aqueous solutions. These characteristics must be maintained in the chemical, radiation, and mass transport environments present during the separation process. Ionic liquids (ILs) have an almost negligible vapour pressure and high thermal stability. Their ability to dissolve a wide range of substrate molecules and potential to be highly resilient in radiation fields make ILs particularly promising media. The separation efficiency of the biphasic system will depend on many parameters, including the aqueous oxidation state of the targeted metal ion, and the thermodynamics and kinetics of interfacial transport and metal-ligand complex formation at the water/IL interface or in the IL phase. The most uncertain and unstudied area for these applications is the effect of ionizing radiation on the stability and separation efficiency of the biphasic system. The present study investigates the effect of γ-radiation on gas/IL and water/IL interfacial stability and mass transfer with trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide, a phosphonium-based IL. The IL, in contact with either gas or water, was irradiated at a dose rate of 6.4 kGy·h -1 . Gas-phase samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the changes in the IL and aqueous phases were monitored by conductivity measurements and Raman spectroscopy. In this paper we discuss these observations and their

  14. Rate and mechanism of facilitated americium(III) transport through a supported liquid membrane containing a bifunctional organophosphorus mobile carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Rickert, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    The facilitated transport of Am(III) from aqueous nitrate solutions to formic acid aqueous solutions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) is described. The supported liquid membrane consists of a solution of a new (carbamoylmethyl)phosphine oxide in diethylbenzene (DEB) absorbed into a 48 μm thick microporous polypropylene film. The transport mechanism consists of a diffusion process through an aqueous diffusion film, a fast interfacial chemical reaction, and diffusion through the membrane itself. Equations describing the rate of transport are derived. They correlate the membrane permeability coefficient to diffusional parameters and to the chemical composition of the system. Different rate-controlling processes are shown to control the membrane permeability when the composition of the system is varied and as long as the transport occurs. The experimental data are quantitatively explained with the derived equations. The diffusion coefficient of the permeating species and the equilibrium constant of the fast interfacial reactions are evaluated. 13 figures, 1 table

  15. Transport of particles in liquid foams: a multi-scale approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvet, N.

    2009-11-01

    Foam is used for the decontamination of radioactive tanks since foam is a system that has a large surface for a low amount of liquid and as a consequence requires less water to be decontaminated. We study experimentally different particle transport configurations in fluid micro-channels network (Plateau borders) of aqueous foam. At first, foam permeability is measured at the scale of a single channel and of the whole foam network for 2 soap solutions known for their significant different interface mobility. Experimental data are well described by a model that takes into account the real geometry of the foam and by considering a constant value of the Boussinesq number of each soap solutions. Secondly, the velocity of one particle convected in a single foam channel is measured for different particle/channel aspect ratio. For small aspect ratio, a counterflow that is taking place at the channel's corners slows down the particle. A recirculation model in the channel foam films is developed to describe this effect. To do this, the Gibbs elasticity is introduced. Then, the threshold between trapped and released of one particle in liquid foam are carried out. This threshold is deduced from hydrodynamic and capillary forces equilibrium. Finally, the case of a clog foam node is addressed. (author)

  16. Design of Annular Linear Induction Pump for High Temperature Liquid Lead Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jae Sik; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    EM(Electro Magnetic) Pump is divided into two parts, which consisted of the primary one with electromagnetic core and exciting coils, and secondary one with liquid lead flow. The main geometrical variables of the pump included core length, inner diameter and flow gap while the electromagnetic ones covered pole pitch, turns of coil, number of pole pairs, input current and input frequency. The characteristics of design variables are analyzed by electrical equivalent circuit method taking into account hydraulic head loss in the narrow annular channel of the ALIP. The design program, which was composed by using MATLAB language, was developed to draw pump design variables according to input requirements of the flow rate, developing pressure and operation temperature from the analyses. The analysis on the design of ALIP for high temperature liquid lead transportation was carried for the produce of ALIP designing program based on MATLAB. By the using of ALIP designing program, we don't have to bother about geometrical relationship between each component during detail designing process because code calculate automatically. And prediction of outputs about designing pump can be done easily before manufacturing. By running the code, we also observe and analysis change of outputs caused by changing of pump factors. It will be helpful for the research about optimization of pump outputs.

  17. Water injection into vapor- and liquid-dominated reservoirs: Modeling of heat transfer and mass transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.; Moridis, G.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent advances in methods for simulating water and tracer injection, and presents illustrative applications to liquid- and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. High-resolution simulations of water injection into heterogeneous, vertical fractures in superheated vapor zones were performed. Injected water was found to move in dendritic patterns, and to experience stronger lateral flow effects than predicted from homogeneous medium models. Higher-order differencing methods were applied to modeling water and tracer injection into liquid-dominated systems. Conventional upstream weighting techniques were shown to be adequate for predicting the migration of thermal fronts, while higher-order methods give far better accuracy for tracer transport. A new fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator is described which allows a more accurate description of geofluids, and includes mineral dissolution and precipitation effects with associated porosity and permeability change. Comparisons between numerical simulation predictions and data for laboratory and field injection experiments are summarized. Enhanced simulation capabilities include a new linear solver package for TOUGH2, and inverse modeling techniques for automatic history matching and optimization.

  18. Hydrodeoxygenation of aliphatic and aromatic oxygenates on sulphided catalysts for production of second generation biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senol, O.I.

    2007-07-01

    Environmental concerns and diminishing petroleum reserves have increased the importance of biofuels for traffic fuel applications. Second generation biofuels produced from wood, vegetable oils and animal fats have been considered promising for delivering biofuels in large amount with low production cost. The abundance of oxygen in the form of various aliphatic and aromatic oxygenates decreases the quality of biofuels, however, and therefore the oxygen content of biofuels must be reduced. Upgrading of biofuels can be achieved by hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), which is similar to hydrodesulphurisation in oil refining. In HDO, oxygen-containing compounds are converted to hydrocarbons by eliminating oxygen in the form of water in the presence of hydrogen and a sulphided catalyst. Due to the low sulphur content of biofuels, a sulphiding agent is typically added to the HDO feed to maintain activity and stability of the catalyst. The aim of this work was to investigate HDO using aliphatic and aromatic oxygenates as model compounds on sulphided NiMo/gamma-Al{sub 2}O3 and CoMo/gamma-Al{sub 2}O3 catalysts. The effects of side product, water, and of sulphiding agents, H{sub 2}S and CS{sub 2}, on HDO were determined. The primary focus was on the HDO of aliphatic oxygenates, because a reasonable amount of data regarding the HDO of aromatic oxygenates already exists. The HDO of aliphatic esters produced hydrocarbons from intermediate alcohol, carboxylic acid, aldehyde and ether compounds. A few sulphur-containing compounds were also detected in trace amounts, and their formation caused desulphurisation of the catalysts. Hydrogenation reactions and acid-catalysed reactions (dehydration, hydrolysis, esterification, E{sub 2} elimination and SN{sub 2} nucleophilic substitution) played a major role in the HDO of aliphatic oxygenates. The NiMo catalyst showed a higher activity for HDO and hydrogenation reactions than the CoMo catalyst, but both catalysts became deactivated because of

  19. Transport in simple liquids and dense gases: kinetic mean-field theory and the KAC limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkheck, J.; Stell, G.; Martina, E.

    1982-01-01

    Maximization of entropy is used in conjunction with the BBGKY hierarchy to obtain a closed one-particle kinetic equation. For an interparticle potential of hard-sphere core plus smooth attractive tail, this equation contains a hard-core collision integral, identical to that of the revised Enskog theory, plus a mean-field term which is linear in the tail strength. The thermodynamics contained therein leads directly to the now-standard statistical-mechanical methods to construct a state-dependent effective hard-core potential in relation to a more realistic potential. These methods induce an extension of the transport coefficients to the Lennard-Jones potential. Predictions of the resulting transport theory compare very favorably with thermal conductivity and shear viscosity experimental results for real simple liquids and dense gases, and also with molecular dynamics simulation results. Poor agreement between theory and experiment is found for moderately dense and dilute gases. The kinetic theory also contains an entropy functional and an H-theorem is proven. Extension to mixtures is straightforward and the Kac-limit is discussed in detail

  20. Novel macrocyclic carriers for proton-coupled liquid membrane transport. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, J.D.; Izatt, R.M.; Bradshaw, J.S.; Shirts, R.B.

    1996-08-24

    The objective of this research program is to elucidate the chemical principles which are responsible for the cation selectivity and permeability of liquid membranes containing macrocyclic carriers. Several new macrocyclic carriers were synthesized during the last three year period. In addition, new, more convenient synthetic routes were achieved for several nitrogen-containing bicyclic and tricyclic macrocycles. The cation binding properties of these macrocycles were investigated by potentiometric titration, calorimetric titration, solvent extraction and NMR techniques. In addition, hydrophobic macrocycles were incorporated into dual hollow fiber and other membrane systems to investigate their membrane performance, especially in the proton-coupled transport mode. A study of the effect of methoxyalkyl macrocycle substituents on metal ion transport was completed. A new calorimeter was constructed which made it possible to study the thermodynamics of macrocycle-cation binding to very high temperatures. Measurements of thermodynamic data for the interaction of crown ethers with alkali and alkaline earth cations were achieved to 473 K. Molecular modeling work was begun for the first time on this project and fundamental principles were identified and developed for the establishment of working models in the future.

  1. A two-dimensional, two-phase mass transport model for liquid-feed DMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.W.; Zhao, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional, isothermal two-phase mass transport model for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is presented in this paper. The two-phase mass transport in the anode and cathode porous regions is formulated based on the classical multiphase flow in porous media without invoking the assumption of constant gas pressure in the unsaturated porous medium flow theory. The two-phase flow behavior in the anode flow channel is modeled by utilizing the drift-flux model, while in the cathode flow channel the homogeneous mist-flow model is used. In addition, a micro-agglomerate model is developed for the cathode catalyst layer. The model also accounts for the effects of both methanol and water crossover through the membrane. The comprehensive model formed by integrating those in the different regions is solved numerically using a home-written computer code and validated against the experimental data in the literature. The model is then used to investigate the effects of various operating and structural parameters, such as methanol concentration, anode flow rate, porosities of both anode and cathode electrodes, the rate of methanol crossover, and the agglomerate size, on cell performance

  2. Risk of transporting plutonium dioxide and liquid plutonium nitrate by truck and rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.D.; Hall, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis method developed to assess the risk in the transportation of radioactive materials and demonstrates its application by summarizing the results of risk assessments of the shipment of plutonium dioxide powder and liquid plutonium nitrate by truck and rail in the United States. In the risk assessment, postulated release modes (series of events that could result in a release of radioactive material) are identified using the fault tree analysis method. Two categories of events that could contribute to a release during transportation are considered: accidents and substandard packaging conditions. The likelihood of basic events in these categories are determined from general accident experience, radioactive material shipping experience, engineering analysis, etc. Using the laws of combining probabilities, the likelihood of radioactive material release is then evaluated. Since accidents vary greatly in severity, the releases from these postulated events also vary in magnitude from the no release condition up through release of the entire package contents. The bases for the release quantities assigned to the postulated accidents sequences are discussed. The consequences of these postulated releases are evaluated based on the amount of plutonium estimated to be released to the environs, the probable weather conditions at the time of the accident, and population density downwind from the accident scene. The likelihood and consequence of postulated releases are coupled and expressed as a risk spectra. (author)

  3. Mathematical modeling of liquid/liquid hollow fiber membrane contactor accounting for interfacial transport phenomena: Extraction of lanthanides as a surrogate for actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The second part is divided into the following sections: experimental protocol; modeling the hollow fiber extractor using film theory; Graetz model of the hollow fiber membrane process; fundamental diffusive-kinetic model; and diffusive liquid membrane device-a rigorous model. The first part is divided into: membrane and membrane process-a concept; metal extraction; kinetics of metal extraction; modeling the membrane contactor; and interfacial phenomenon-boundary conditions-applied to membrane transport

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and acoustic, volumetric, transport and thermal properties of hydroxyl ammonium based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losetty, Venkatramana; Chennuri, Bharath Kumar; Gardas, Ramesh L.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Density, ρ (■) in kg · m"−"3, speed of sound, u (●) in m · s"−"1, dynamic viscosity, η (▴) in mPa · s, electrical conductivity, σ (♦) in S · cm"−"1of [BHEA][TFA] as the function of temperature and at 0.1 MPa pressure. - Highlights: • N-butyl-(N-hydroxyethyl) ammonium based protic ionic liquids (PILs) were synthesized. • Density, speed of sound, electrical conductivity and viscosity were measured for studied PILs. • Transport property data were fitted to Vogel–Tammann–Fulcher (VTF) equation. • FT-IR spectrum was helpful to explain the hydrogen bonding between ions. • Measured and derived properties were analyzed in terms of chemical structure of PILs. - Abstract: In the present work, solvent-free synthesis of two hydroxyethyl ammonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) at room temperature was carried out namely, N-butyl-(N-hydroxyethyl) ammonium trifluoroacetate ([BHEA][TFA]) and N-butyl-(N-hydroxyethyl) ammonium nitrate ([BHEA][NO_3]). The synthesized ionic liquids were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques such as "1H-NMR, "1"3C-NMR and FTIR. Furthermore, density (ρ), speed of sound (u), electrical conductivity (σ) and viscosity (η) have been measured within the temperature range from T = (303.15 to 343.15) K and at 0.1 MPa pressure. The measured density and viscosity values were fitted to the linear and Vogel–Tammann–Fulcher (VTF) equation, respectively. The temperature dependence conductivity of the measured ILs was fitted to a similar equation type of viscosity (VTF). Furthermore, the refractive index was measured at T = 303.15 K, in turn molar refraction (R_m) and free volume (f_V) were calculated using the Lorentz–Lorenz equation. The thermodynamic properties such as thermal expansion coefficient (α), isentropic compressibility (β_S) and intermolecular free length (L_f) were calculated by using the experimental values of density and speed of sound. The thermal decomposition temperature (T

  5. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  6. Assessment of morphometric indexes in the second generation of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Sergeevna Makarenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. A series of morphometric indexes was studied in Scots pine trees, which are the second generation of trees severely exposed at the Chernobyl accident in doses of 4-5, 10-20 and 80-100 Gy. Materials and methods. Variability of length and mass of needles, curvature of sprouts, tree height and trunk circumference were studied in 2011-2014. Results. Needle gigantism, one of the typical radiomorphoses, was observed in 2012 and 2013 in all groups of trees. Curved sprouts were discovered more often in a reference group. Tree height and trunk circumference in groups of 4-5 and 10-20 Gy were significantly higher than in the reference group. Conclusion. The trees of the second generation of severely exposed pines can be characterized with needle gigantism and stimulation of growth processes (circumference of the trunk, height of the tree at doses of 4-5 Gy and 10-20 Gy.

  7. Culture and postpartum mood problems: similarities and differences in the experiences of first- and second-generation Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamisachvili, Lana; Ardiles, Paola; Mancewicz, Grazyna; Thompson, Sherry; Rabin, Kapri; Ross, Lori E

    2013-04-01

    Few studies have examined the role of culture in a woman's experience of postpartum mood problems (PPMP). This study explored differences and similarities in experiences of PPMP between first- and second-generation Canadian women. In this exploratory qualitative study, we interviewed nine first-generation and eight second-generation women who were clients of the Women's Health Centre at St. Joseph's Health Centre in Toronto, Canada. Using semistructured interviews, we explored how women perceived and experienced PPMP. Four themes reflected cultural issues: PPMP stigma, relationship with parents/in-laws, internalization of society's expectations of motherhood, and identity issues/relationship with self. The results of this study contribute to a limited literature on possible contributing factors to PPMP and can inform development of resources for delivering culturally appropriate mental health care for women dealing with PPMP.

  8. Dynamic behavior of liquid water transport in a tapered channel of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell cathode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhtar, N.; Kerkhof, P.J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A numerical model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathode with a tapered channel design has been developed in order to examine the dynamic behavior of liquid water transport. Three-dimensional, transient simulations employing the level-set method (available in COMSOL 3.5a, a

  9. Identify the consumption patterns of the second generation Chinese middle class. Does culture influence their consumption habits?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kim Man

    2012-01-01

    Background: The 1978 political social reform in China has led to the emergence of the rapid and fast growing urban ‘middle class’ population. With the rise of the large population of middle class consumers, global market developers and opportunists are targeting this group of people to maximize their profits in developing countries. This research aimed to identify the consumption patterns of the second generation Chinese middle class and to investigate if their unique Chinese culture influenc...

  10. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W

    2013-10-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants' racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development.

  11. The comparative efficacy of first- versus second-generation electronic cigarettes in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, William V; Meier, Ellen; Wiener, Josh L; Grant, DeMond M; Gilmore, Jenna; Judah, Matt R; Mills, Adam C; Wagener, Theodore L

    2015-05-01

    Currently, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are studied as though they are a homogeneous category. However, there are several noteworthy differences in the products that fall under this name, including potential differences in the efficacy of these products as smoking cessation aids. The current study examined the comparative efficacy of first- and second-generation e-cigarettes in reducing nicotine withdrawal symptoms in a sample of current smokers with little or no experience of using e-cigarettes. Twenty-two mildly to moderately nicotine-dependent individuals were randomized to a cross-over design in which they used first- and second-generation e-cigarettes on separate days with assessment of withdrawal symptoms directly prior to and after product use. A community-based sample recruited in the Midwest region of the United States reported a mean age of 28.6 [standard deviation (SD) = 12.9]. The majority were male (56.5%), Caucasian (91.3%), reported smoking an average of 15.2 (SD = 9.6) tobacco cigarettes per day, and a mean baseline carbon monoxide (CO) level of 18.7 parts per million (p.p.m.). Symptoms of withdrawal from nicotine were measured via the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale. Analysis of changes in withdrawal symptoms revealed a significant time × product interaction F(1, 21)  = 5.057, P = 0.036, n(2) P  = 0.202. Participants experienced a larger reduction in symptoms of nicotine withdrawal after using second-generation compared with first-generation e-cigarettes. Second-generation e-cigarettes seem to be more effective in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal than do first-generation e-cigarettes. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Development of a second generation palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation and its application to bioactive natural product synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Masahiro

    2013-07-01

    A novel palladium-catalyzed intramolecular oxidative alkylation of unactivated olefins is described. This protocol was devised to solve one of the drawbacks of the original palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation that we developed. We call this new procedure the 'second generation palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation'. This protocol has been applied to the total syntheses of cis-195A, trans-195A, boonein, scholareins A, C, D, and alpha-skytanthine.

  13. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of the new second-generation nonnucleoside reverse- transcriptase inhibitor KM-023 in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha YJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Jung Cha,1,* Kyoung Soo Lim,2,* Min-Kyu Park,1 Stephen Schneider,3 Brian Bray,3 Myung-Chol Kang,3 Jae-Yong Chung,1 Seo Hyun Yoon,1 Joo-Youn Cho,1 Kyung-Sang Yu11Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, CHA University School of Medicine and CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam, South Korea; 3Kainos Medicine USA Inc., Morrisville, NC, USA *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: KM-023 is a new second-generation nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor that is under development for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV type 1 infection. Objective: This study determined KM-023 tolerability and pharmacokinetic characteristics in healthy subjects. Materials and methods: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study was conducted in 80 healthy South Korean male volunteers. The subjects were allocated to single- or multiple-dose (once daily for 7 days groups that received 75, 150, 300, or 600 mg drug or placebo in a 4:1 ratio. Safety and pharmacokinetic assessments were performed during the study. Plasma and urine concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The average maximum concentration (Cmax and area under the concentration–time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC∞ values of KM-023 for the 75–600 mg doses in the single-dose study ranged from 440.2 ng/mL to 1,245.4 ng/mL and 11,142.4 ng • h/mL to 33,705.6 ng • h/mL, respectively. Values of the mean Cmax at a steady state and AUC within the dosing interval ranged from 385.1 ng/mL to 1,096.7 ng/mL and 3,698.9 ng • h/mL to 10,232.6 ng • h/mL, respectively, following 75–600 mg doses in the multiple-dose study. Dose proportionality was not observed for KM-023. KM-023 showed a 0.6-fold accumulation after multiple doses in the 600

  14. Comparative study of treatment continuation using second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azekawa T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Takaharu Azekawa, Shizuko Ohashi, Akira ItamiShioiri Mental Clinic, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa-ken, JapanBackground: Effectiveness of a drug is a key concept dependent on efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Time to discontinuation of treatment is also representative of effectiveness. We investigated differences in treatment discontinuation among newly started second-generation antipsychotics in the clinical setting.Methods: Using a retrospective cohort study design, we screened all outpatients (n = 7936 who visited the Shioiri Mental Clinic between July 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010. We identified a cohort of patients (n = 703 diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and calculated the time to discontinuation of each second-generation antipsychotic.Results: Of the 703 patients, 149 were newly treated with aripiprazole, 67 with blonanserin, 95 with olanzapine, 36 with quetiapine, 74 with perospirone, and 120 with risperidone. The time to discontinuation for all causes was significantly longer for aripiprazole than for blonanserin, olanzapine, and risperidone. In addition, aripiprazole tended to be continued for longer than quetiapine and perospirone, but these differences were not significant.Conclusion: Aripiprazole may be considered the best available option for long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.Keywords: retrospective study, second-generation antipsychotics, effectiveness, treatment continuation, schizophrenia, aripiprazole

  15. Non-genomic estrogen regulation of ion transport and airway surface liquid dynamics in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinciane Saint-Criq

    Full Text Available Male cystic fibrosis (CF patients survive longer than females and lung exacerbations in CF females vary during the estrous cycle. Estrogen has been reported to reduce the height of the airway surface liquid (ASL in female CF bronchial epithelium. Here we investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol on the airway surface liquid height and ion transport in normal (NuLi-1 and CF (CuFi-1 bronchial epithelial monolayers. Live cell imaging using confocal microscopy revealed that airway surface liquid height was significantly higher in the non-CF cells compared to the CF cells. 17β-estradiol (0.1-10 nM reduced the airway surface liquid height in non-CF and CF cells after 30 min treatment. Treatment with the nuclear-impeded Estrogen Dendrimer Conjugate mimicked the effect of free estrogen by reducing significantly the airway surface liquid height in CF and non-CF cells. Inhibition of chloride transport or basolateral potassium recycling decreased the airway surface liquid height and 17β-estradiol had no additive effect in the presence of these ion transporter inhibitors. 17β-estradiol decreased bumetanide-sensitive transepithelial short-circuit current in non-CF cells and prevented the forskolin-induced increase in ASL height. 17β-estradiol stimulated an amiloride-sensitive transepithelial current and increased ouabain-sensitive basolateral short-circuit current in CF cells. 17β-estradiol increased PKCδ activity in CF and non-CF cells. These results demonstrate that estrogen dehydrates CF and non-CF ASL, and these responses to 17β-estradiol are non-genomic rather than involving the classical nuclear estrogen receptor pathway. 17β-estradiol acts on the airway surface liquid by inhibiting cAMP-mediated chloride secretion in non-CF cells and increasing sodium absorption via the stimulation of PKCδ, ENaC and the Na(+/K(+ATPase in CF cells.

  16. Logistics cost analysis of rice residues for second generation bioenergy production in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay Ramamurthi, Pooja; Cristina Fernandes, Maria; Sieverts Nielsen, Per; Pedro Nunes, Clemente

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana's energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70-90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5 MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89 USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25 MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10 km) was 2.64 USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66-72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46-48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic costs. Transport distance of husks has considerable impact on logistic costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Design, construction, and characterization of a second-generation DARP in library with reduced hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Markus A; Zbinden, Reto; Flütsch, Andreas; Gutte, Petrus G M; Engeler, Sibylle; Roschitzki-Voser, Heidi; Grütter, Markus G

    2013-09-01

    Designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) are well-established binding molecules based on a highly stable nonantibody scaffold. Building on 13 crystal structures of DARPin-target complexes and stability measurements of DARPin mutants, we have generated a new DARPin library containing an extended randomized surface. To counteract the enrichment of unspecific hydrophobic binders during selections against difficult targets containing hydrophobic surfaces such as membrane proteins, the frequency of apolar residues at diversified positions was drastically reduced and substituted by an increased number of tyrosines. Ribosome display selections against two human caspases and membrane transporter AcrB yielded highly enriched pools of unique and strong DARPin binders which were mainly monomeric. We noted a prominent enrichment of tryptophan residues during binder selections. A crystal structure of a representative of this library in complex with caspase-7 visualizes the key roles of both tryptophans and tyrosines in providing target contacts. These aromatic and polar side chains thus substitute the apolar residues valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, and phenylalanine of the original DARPins. Our work describes biophysical and structural analyses required to extend existing binder scaffolds and simplifies an existing protocol for the assembly of highly diverse synthetic binder libraries. © 2013 The Protein Society.

  18. Influence of surface charge on the transport characteristics of nanowire-field effect transistors in liquid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozaki, Daijiro, E-mail: daijiro.nozaki@gmail.com, E-mail: research@nano.tu-dresden.de [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Kunstmann, Jens [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Zörgiebel, Felix [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfAED), TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Cuniberti, Gianaurelio [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfAED), TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Dresden Center for Computational Materials Science (DCCMS), TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    One dimensional nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) are a promising platform for sensor applications. The transport characteristics of NW-FETs are strongly modified in liquid environment due to the charging of surface functional groups accompanied with protonation or deprotonation. In order to investigate the influence of surface charges and ionic concentrations on the transport characteristics of Schottky-barrier NW-FETs, we have combined the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory with the Landauer-Büttiker transport formalism. For a typical device, the model is able to capture the reduction of the sensitivity of NW-FETs in ionic solutions due to the screening from counter ions as well as a local gating from surface functional groups. Our approach allows to model, to investigate, and to optimize realistic Schottky-barrier NW-FET devices in liquid environment.

  19. In situ separation of root hydraulic redistribution of soil water from liquid and vapor transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Brooks, J Renee [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR; Dragila, Maria [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Meinzer, Rick [USDA Forest Service

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal increases in water potential ( ) and water content (WC) in the upper soil profile are often attributed to root water efflux into the soil, a process termed hydraulic lift or hydraulic redistribution (HR). We have previously reported HR values up to ~0.29 mm day-1 in the upper soil for a seasonally dry old-growth ponderosa pine site. However, unsaturated liquid or vapor flux of water between soil layers independent of roots also contributes to the diurnal patterns in WC, confounding efforts to determine the actual magnitude of HR. In this study, we estimated liquid (Jl) and vapor (Jv) soil water fluxes and their impacts on quantifying HR in situ by applying existing data sets of , WC, temperature (T) and soil physical properties to soil water transport equations. Under moist conditions, Jl between layers was estimated to be larger than necessary to account for measured nocturnal increases in WC of upper soil layers. However, as soil drying progressed unsaturated hydraulic conductivity declined rapidly such that Jl was irrelevant (< 2E-06 cm hr-1 at 0-60 cm depths) to total water flux by early August. In surface soil at depths above 15 cm, large T fluctuations can impact Jv leading to uncertainty concerning the role, if any, of HR in nocturnal WC dynamics. Vapor flux was estimated to be the highest at the shallowest depths measured (20 - 30 cm) where it could contribute up to 40% of hourly increases in nocturnal soil moisture depending on thermal conditions. While both HR and net soil water flux between adjacent layers contribute to WC in the 15-65 cm soil layer, HR was the dominant process and accounted for at least 80% of the diurnal increases in WC. While the absolute magnitude of HR is not easily quantified, total diurnal fluctuations in upper soil water content can be quantified and modeled, and remain highly applicable for establishing the magnitude and temporal dynamics of total ecosystem water flux.

  20. Role of Aquaporin Water Channels in Airway Fluid Transport, Humidification, and Surface Liquid Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuanlin; Jayaraman, Sujatha; Yang, Baoxue; Matthay, Michael A.; Verkman, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Several aquaporin-type water channels are expressed in mammalian airways and lung: AQP1 in microvascular endothelia, AQP3 in upper airway epithelia, AQP4 in upper and lower airway epithelia, and AQP5 in alveolar epithelia. Novel quantitative methods were developed to compare airway fluid transport–related functions in wild-type mice and knockout mice deficient in these aquaporins. Lower airway humidification, measured from the moisture content of expired air during mechanical ventilation with dry air through a tracheotomy, was 54–56% efficient in wild-type mice, and reduced by only 3–4% in AQP1/AQP5 or AQP3/AQP4 double knockout mice. Upper airway humidification, measured from the moisture gained by dry air passed through the upper airways in mice breathing through a tracheotomy, decreased from 91 to 50% with increasing ventilation from 20 to 220 ml/min, and reduced by 3–5% in AQP3/AQP4 knockout mice. The depth and salt concentration of the airway surface liquid in trachea was measured in vivo using fluorescent probes and confocal and ratio imaging microscopy. Airway surface liquid depth was 45 ± 5 μm and [Na+] was 115 ± 4 mM in wild-type mice, and not significantly different in AQP3/AQP4 knockout mice. Osmotic water permeability in upper airways, measured by an in vivo instillation/sample method, was reduced by ∼40% by AQP3/AQP4 deletion. In doing these measurements, we discovered a novel amiloride-sensitive isosmolar fluid absorption process in upper airways (13% in 5 min) that was not affected by aquaporin deletion. These results establish the fluid transporting properties of mouse airways, and indicate that aquaporins play at most a minor role in airway humidification, ASL hydration, and isosmolar fluid absorption. PMID:11382807

  1. NORIA-SP: A finite element computer program for analyzing liquid water transport in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, P.L.; Eaton, R.R.; Bixler, N.E.

    1991-12-01

    A family of finite element computer programs has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) most recently, NORIA-SP. The original NORIA code solves a total of four transport equations simultaneously: liquid water, water vapor, air, and energy. Consequently, use of NORIA is computer-intensive. Since many of the applications for which NORIA is used are isothermal, we decided to ''strip'' the original four-equation version, leaving only the liquid water equation. This single-phase version is NORIA-SP. The primary intent of this document is to provide the user of NORIA-SP an accurate user's manual. Consequently, the reader should refer to the NORIA manual if additional detail is required regarding the equation development and finite element methods used. The single-equation version of the NORIA code (NORIA-SP) has been used most frequently for analyzing various hydrological scenarios for the potential underground nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in western Nevada. These analyses are generally performed assuming a composite model to represent the fractured geologic media. In this model the material characteristics of the matrix and the fractures are area weighted to obtain equivalent material properties. Pressure equilibrium between the matrix and fractures is assumed so a single conservation equation can be solved. NORIA-SP is structured to accommodate the composite model. The equations for water velocities in both the rock matrix and the fractures are presented. To use the code for problems involving a single, nonfractured porous material, the user can simply set the area of the fractures to zero

  2. Optimizing x-ray mirror thermal performance using variable length cooling for second generation FELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Corey L.; Srinivasan, Venkat N.; Amores, Lope; Kelez, Nicholas M.; Morton, Daniel S.; Stefan, Peter M.; Nicolas, Josep; Zhang, Lin; Cocco, Daniele

    2016-09-01

    The success of the LCLS led to an interest across a number of disciplines in the scientific community including physics, chemistry, biology, and material science. Fueled by this success, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is developing a new high repetition rate free electron laser, LCLS-II, a superconducting linear accelerator capable of a repetition rate up to 1 MHz. Undulators will be optimized for 200 to 1300 eV soft X-rays, and for 1000 to 5000 eV hard X-rays. To absorb spontaneous radiation, higher harmonic energies and deflect the x-ray beam to various end stations, the transport and diagnostics system includes grazing incidence plane mirrors on both the soft and Hard X-ray beamline. To deliver the FEL beam with minimal power loss and wavefront distortion, we need mirrors of height errors below 1nm rms in operational conditions. We need to mitigate the thermal load effects due to the high repetition rate. The absorbed thermal profile is highly dependent on the beam divergence, and this is a function of the photon energy. To address this complexity, we developed a mirror cradle with variable length cooling and first order curve correction. Mirror figure error is minimized using variable length water-cooling through a gallium-indium eutectic bath. Curve correction is achieved with an off-axis bender that will be described in details. We present the design features, mechanical analysis and results from optical and mechanical tests of a prototype assembly, with particular regards to the figure sensitivity to bender corrections.

  3. Determination of Chemical Compounds Generated from Second-generation E-cigarettes Using a Sorbent Cartridge Followed by a Two-step Elution Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Senoo, Yui; Hayashida, Hideki; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    We developed an analytical method for analyzing electronic cigarette (E-cigarette) smoke, and measured the carbonyl compounds and volatile organic compounds generated by 10 brands of second-generation E-cigarettes. A glass filter (Cambridge filter pad) for particulate matter and a solid sorbent tube packed with Carboxen-572 for gaseous compounds were used to collect E-cigarette smoke. These were then analyzed using a two-step elution method with carbon disulfide and methanol, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Formaldehyde (FA), acetaldehyde (AA), acetone (AC), acrolein (ACR), propanal (PA), acetol (AT), glyoxal (GO), and methyl glyoxal (MGO) were detected by HPLC in some E-cigarettes. Propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (GLY), and some esters were detected by GC/MS. GO and MGO exist mainly as particulate matter. AA, AC, ACR, PA, and AT exist mainly as gaseous compounds. FA exists as both particulate matter and gaseous compounds. These carbonyl compounds have carbon numbers C1 - C3. The main components of E-liquid are PG (C3) and GLY (C3). Therefore, the oxidation of liquids, such as PG and GLY in E-cigarettes upon incidental contact with the heating element in E-cigarette, is suggested as being a possible cause for carbonyl generation. When the puff number exceeds a critical point, carbonyl generation rapidly increases and then remains constant. The results of this study are now being used to determine the following E-cigarette smoking protocol: puff volume, 55 mL; puff duration, 2 s; and puff number, 30. E-cigarette analysis revealed very large variation in carbonyl concentration among not only different brands, but also different samples of the same product. Typical distributions of carbonyl concentration were not observed in any of the E-cigarettes tested, and the mean values greatly differed from median values.

  4. Growth responses of Phragmites karka - a candidate for second generation biofuel from degraded saline lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer Ahmed, Muhammad; Shoukat, Erum; Abideen, Zainul; Aziz, Irfan; Gulzar, Salman; Ajmal Khan, M.

    2017-04-01

    following order: root > senesced leaves > young leaves. Moreover, plants maintained nutrient homeostasis (K+, Ca++, Mg++, NO-) by selective uptake via root and transport towards leaf. Moderate salinity increased instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and water use efficiency with stomatal density and smaller pore size compared to control which supported unchanged photosynthetic rate by protecting light harvesting machinery. Low photosynthetic rate in early phase of higher salinity was related to reduced stomatal conductance, while in later phase (15-30 days) due to decreased carboxylation efficiency, effective quantum yield and Fv/Fm (at noon). In conclusion, organ specific responses to short and long term exposure in moderate salinity ensures successful plant survival, whereas long term exposure tohigh salinitywas toxic for plant growth. It is recommended that P. karka could be grown as a biofuel crop on marginally saline and degraded lands.

  5. In-situ strain monitoring in liquid containers of LNG transporting carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Min-Cheol; Seo, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2008-08-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport carriers are exposed to a risk by the repeated bump in the LNG container during the vessel traveling over the wave in ocean. The liquid inside the container, especially when it was not fully contained, make a strong bump onto the insulation panel of the tank wall. The insulation panel consists of several layers of thick polyurethane foam (PUF) to maintain the LNG below the cryogenic temperature, -162°C. Due to the repeated shock on the PUF, a crack could be developed on the tank wall causing a tremendous disaster for LNG carriers. To prevent the accidental crack on the tank, a continuous monitoring of the strain imposed on the PUF is recommended. In this work, a fiber-optic Bragg grating was imbedded inside the PUF for monitoring the strain parallel to the impact direction. The optical fiber sensor with a small diameter of 125 μm was suitable to be inserted in the PUF through a small hole drilled after the PUF was cured. In-situ monitoring of the strain producing the change of Bragg reflection wavelength, a high speed wavelength interrogation method was employed by using an arrayed waveguide grating. By dropping a heavy mass on the PUF, we measured the strain imposed on the insulation panel.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations for transport coefficients of liquid argon: new approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Song Hi; Park, Dong Kue; Kang, Dae Bok

    2003-01-01

    The stress and the heat-flux auto-correlation functions in the Green-Kubo formulas for shear viscosity and thermal conductivity have non-decaying long-time tails. This problem can be overcome by improving the statistical accuracy by N (number of particles)times, considering the stress and the heat-flux of the system as properties of each particle. The mean square stress and the heat-flux displacements in the Einstein formulas for shear viscosity and thermal conductivity are non linear functions of time since the quantities in the mean square stress and the heat-flux displacements are not continuous under periodic boundary conditions. An alternative to these quantities is to integrate the stress and the heat-flux with respect to time, but the resulting mean square stress and heat-flux displacements are still not linear versus time. This problem can be also overcome by improving the statistical accuracy. The results for transport coefficients of liquid argon obtained are discussed

  7. Using the transportable, computer-operated, liquid-scintillator fast-neutron spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorngate, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    When a detailed energy spectrum is needed for radiation-protection measurements from approximately 1 MeV up to several tens of MeV, organic-liquid scintillators make good neutron spectrometers. However, such a spectrometer requires a sophisticated electronics system and a computer to reduce the spectrum from the recorded data. Recently, we added a Nuclear Instrument Module (NIM) multichannel analyzer and a lap-top computer to the NIM electronics we have used for several years. The result is a transportable fast-neutron spectrometer system. The computer was programmed to guide the user through setting up the system, calibrating the spectrometer, measuring the spectrum, and reducing the data. Measurements can be made over three energy ranges, 0.6--2 MeV, 1.1--8 MeV, or 1.6--16 MeV, with the spectrum presented in 0.1-MeV increments. Results can be stored on a disk, presented in a table, and shown in graphical form. 5 refs., 51 figs

  8. ASI: Dunaliella marine microalgae to drop-in replacement liquid transportation fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng; Allen, Elle H.; Campos, Andrew A.; Cade, Rushyannah Killens; Dean, Lisa L.; Dvora, Mia; Immer, Jeremy G.; Mixson, Stephanie M.; Srirangan, Soundarya; Sauer, Marie Laure; Schreck, Steven D.; Sun, Keyi; Thapaliya, Nirajan; Wilson, Cameron W.; Burkholder, Joann M M; Grunden, Amy M.; Lamb, Henry Henry; Winter, Heike Winter; Stikeleather, Larry F.; Roberts, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biofuels feedstock, theoretically yielding concentrations of triacylglycerides (TAGs) per unit area that are far higher than traditional feedstocks due to their rapid growth. Dunaliella is particularly advantageous as a feedstock because it is currently commercially mass cultured, thrives in salt water, and has no cell wall. Fourteen strains of Dunaliella have been investigated for growth rates and lipid production in mass culture and tested for enhanced lipid production under a range of environmental stressors including salinity, pH, nitrogen and phosphorus limitation, and light regime. The nuclear genome has been sequenced for four of these strains, with the objective of increasing carbon flux through genetic engineering. Electroflocculation followed by osmotic membrane rupturing may be a very energy and cost efficient means of harvesting the lipid bodies from Dunaliella. A technically feasible and scalable thermo-catalytic process to convert the lipids into replacements for liquid transportation fuels has been developed. The lipids were converted into long-chain alkanes through continuous thermal hydrolysis followed by fed-batch thermo-catalytic decarboxylation. These alkanes can be reformed into renewable diesel via conventional catalytic hydrocarbon isomerization reactions to improve cold flow properties, if desired. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 32: 916-925, 2013 Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog.

  9. ASI: Dunaliella marine microalgae to drop-in replacement liquid transportation fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2013-09-11

    Microalgae are a promising biofuels feedstock, theoretically yielding concentrations of triacylglycerides (TAGs) per unit area that are far higher than traditional feedstocks due to their rapid growth. Dunaliella is particularly advantageous as a feedstock because it is currently commercially mass cultured, thrives in salt water, and has no cell wall. Fourteen strains of Dunaliella have been investigated for growth rates and lipid production in mass culture and tested for enhanced lipid production under a range of environmental stressors including salinity, pH, nitrogen and phosphorus limitation, and light regime. The nuclear genome has been sequenced for four of these strains, with the objective of increasing carbon flux through genetic engineering. Electroflocculation followed by osmotic membrane rupturing may be a very energy and cost efficient means of harvesting the lipid bodies from Dunaliella. A technically feasible and scalable thermo-catalytic process to convert the lipids into replacements for liquid transportation fuels has been developed. The lipids were converted into long-chain alkanes through continuous thermal hydrolysis followed by fed-batch thermo-catalytic decarboxylation. These alkanes can be reformed into renewable diesel via conventional catalytic hydrocarbon isomerization reactions to improve cold flow properties, if desired. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 32: 916-925, 2013 Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog.

  10. Transition of Gas-Liquid Stratified Flow in Oil Transport Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lakehal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-Scale Simulation results of the transition of a gas-liquid stratified flow to slug flow regime in circular 3D oil transport pipes under turbulent flow conditions expressed. Free surface flow in the pipe is treated using the Level Set method. Turbulence is approached via the LES and VLES methodologies extended to interfacial two-phase flows. It is shown that only with the Level Set method the flow transition can be accurately predicted, better than with the two-fluid phase-average model. The transition from stratified to slug flow is found to be subsequent to the merging of the secondary wave modes created by the action of gas shear (short waves with the first wave mode (high amplitude long wave. The model is capable of predicting global flow features like the onset of slugging and slug speed. In the second test case, the model predicts different kinds of slugs, the so-called operating slugs formed upstream that fill entirely the pipe with water slugs of length scales of the order of 2-4 D, and lower size (1-1.5 D disturbance slugs, featuring lower hold-up (0.8-0.9. The model predicts well the frequency of slugs. The simulations revealed important parameter effects on the results, such as two-dimensionality, pipe length, and water holdup.

  11. Carrier-facilitated transport of Cd(II) through a supported liquid membrane containing thiacalix[4]arene derivatives as ionophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghbani, Asma; Tayeb, Rafik; Dhahbi, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of a facilitated transport process of cadmium ions through a SLM system incorporating new extractant agents, thiacalix[4]arenes, was studied. These molecules have sulfur atoms instead of usual methylene bridges. The chemical modification of the upper or the lower rim provides a great variety of supra molecules having different complexation ability and different conformational behaviour. The efficiency of the transport across the inner membrane organic liquid phase is shown to depend on the chemical (affinity) and structural (conformational states possible) parameters of these complexing molecules. In this work, two different thiacalix[4]arenes were selected as effective ionophore for the treatment of liquid media loaded in Cd(II). The results show that these thiacalix[4]arenes derivative ensure facilitated transport of cadmium cations through supported liquid membranes. Especially, the non-substituted thiacalix[4]arene can be considered as an effective extractant agent. The incidence of several parameters on transport efficiency such as pH of both aqueous solutions and carrier concentration was studied. The permeation of the species is due to a proton potential gradient (the driving force of the process) existing between the two opposite sides of the SLM. The initial flux, J, is found to be equal to 6.7.10 -7 mol.m -2 .s -1 , under optimal experimental conditions.

  12. Charge Transport and Phase Behavior of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid Crystals from Fully Atomistic Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevillon, Michael J; Whitmer, Jonathan K

    2018-01-02

    Ionic liquid crystals occupy an intriguing middle ground between room-temperature ionic liquids and mesostructured liquid crystals. Here, we examine a non-polarizable, fully atomistic model of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate family using molecular dynamics in the constant pressure-constant temperature ensemble. These materials exhibit a distinct "smectic" liquid phase, characterized by layers formed by the molecules, which separate the ionic and aliphatic moieties. In particular, we discuss the implications this layering may have for electrolyte applications.

  13. Autonomic nervous system modulation and clinical outcome after pulmonary vein isolation using the second-generation cryoballoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Hachiya, Hitoshi; Kajiyama, Takatsugu; Watanabe, Tomonori; Igarashi, Miyako; Ichijo, Sadamitsu; Hirao, Kenzo; Iesaka, Yoshito

    2017-09-01

    The intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a significant role in atrial fibrillation (AF) mechanisms. This study evaluated the incidence and impact of intraprocedural vagal reactions and ANS modulation by pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) using second-generation cryoballoons on outcomes. One hundred three paroxysmal AF patients underwent PVI with one 28-mm second-generation balloon. The median follow-up was 15.0 (12.0-18.0) months. ANS modulation was defined as a >20% cycle length decrease on 3-minute resting electrocardiograms at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postindex procedure relative to baseline if sinus rhythm was maintained. Marked sinus arrests/bradycardia and atrioventricular block (intraprocedural vagal reaction) occurred in 14 and 2 patients, and all sinus arrest/bradycardia occurred in 44 patients with left superior pulmonary veins (PVs) targeted before right PVs. ANS modulation was identified in 66 of 95 (69.5%) patients, and it persisted 12-month postprocedure in 36 (37.9%) patients. Additional β-blocker administration was required in 9 patients for sinus tachycardia. ANS modulation was similarly observed in patients with and without intraprocedural vagal reactions (P = 0.443). Forty-eight (46.6%) patients experienced early recurrences, and the single procedure success at 12 months was 72.7%. Neither intraprocedural vagal reactions nor ANS modulation predicted AF freedom within or after the blanking period. Thirty-three patients underwent second procedures, and reconnections were detected in 39 of 130 (30.0%) PVs among 23 (69.7%) patients. The incidence of reconnections was similar in patients with and without ANS modulation. Increased heart rate persisted in 37.9% of patients even at 12-month post-second-generation cryoballoon PVI. Neither intraprocedural vagal reactions nor increased heart rate predicted a single procedure clinical outcome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Traditional expectations versus US realities: first- and second-generation Asian Indian perspectives on end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rashmi K; Khosla, Nidhi; Tulsky, James A; Carrese, Joseph A

    2012-03-01

    Although end-of-life care preferences vary across racial/ethnic groups, little is known about how cultural values affect end-of-life care preferences among South Asian immigrants and their offspring in the US. To examine the perspectives of first- and second-generation South Asians living in the US regarding end-of-life care. Focus group study. Discussions explored participant preferences and experiences with family members facing the end of life. Twelve first-generation and 11 second-generation self-identified Asian Indians living in the mid-Atlantic region. Content analysis of focus group transcripts. First-generation participants ranged in age from 41 to 76 years and were evenly split by gender. Second-generation participants ranged in age from 23 to 36 years and included seven women and four men. All participants were highly educated, and two thirds were either studying or working in a health care field. All but two subjects were Hindu. Several themes emerged that highlighted cultural differences and challenges for this population in the context of end-of-life care: attitudes toward death and suffering; family duty; and preferences for information disclosure and decision making. Participants described cultural challenges due to the evolution of traditional roles, lack of explicit discussion between patients and family members about preferences and care expectations, and a tension between wanting to meet traditional expectations and the challenges in doing so given US social realities. Traditional cultural values, such as duty to family, greatly influenced end-of-life care preferences and retained importance across generations. Clinicians caring for Asian Indian patients at the end of life may be better able to assess care preferences after exploring the complex interplay between traditional expectations and specific social realities for each patient. Particular attention should be given to attitudes toward death and suffering, family duty, and preferences for

  15. Propensity score estimation to address calendar time-specific channeling in comparative effectiveness research of second generation antipsychotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie B Dusetzina

    Full Text Available Channeling occurs when a medication and its potential comparators are selectively prescribed based on differences in underlying patient characteristics. Drug safety advisories can provide new information regarding the relative safety or effectiveness of a drug product which might increase selective prescribing. In particular, when reported adverse effects vary among drugs within a therapeutic class, clinicians may channel patients toward or away from a drug based on the patient's underlying risk for an adverse outcome. If channeling is not identified and appropriately managed it might lead to confounding in observational comparative effectiveness studies.To demonstrate channeling among new users of second generation antipsychotics following a Food and Drug Administration safety advisory and to evaluate the impact of channeling on cardiovascular risk estimates over time.Florida Medicaid data from 2001-2006.Retrospective cohort of adults initiating second generation antipsychotics. We used propensity scores to match olanzapine initiators with other second generation antipsychotic initiators. To evaluate channeling away from olanzapine following an FDA safety advisory, we estimated calendar time-specific propensity scores. We compare the performance of these calendar time-specific propensity scores with conventionally-estimated propensity scores on estimates of cardiovascular risk.Increased channeling away from olanzapine was evident for some, but not all, cardiovascular risk factors and corresponded with the timing of the FDA advisory. Covariate balance was optimized within period and across all periods when using the calendar time-specific propensity score. Hazard ratio estimates for cardiovascular outcomes did not differ across models (Conventional PS: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.81-3.18 versus calendar time-specific PS: 0.93, 95%CI: 0.77-3.04.Changes in channeling over time was evident for several covariates but had limited impact on cardiovascular risk

  16. Technical Note: Comparison of first- and second-generation photon-counting slit-scanning tomosynthesis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Karl; Cederström, Björn; Lundqvist, Mats; Fredenberg, Erik

    2018-02-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging tool for breast-cancer screening and diagnostics. The purpose of this study is to present a second-generation photon-counting slit-scanning DBT system and compare it to the first-generation system in terms of geometry and image quality. The study presents the first image-quality measurements on the second-generation system. The geometry of the new system is based on a combined rotational and linear motion, in contrast to a purely rotational scan motion in the first generation. In addition, the calibration routines have been updated. Image quality was measured in the center of the image field in terms of in-slice modulation transfer function (MTF), artifact spread function (ASF), and in-slice detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Images were acquired using a W/Al 29 kVp spectrum at 13 mAs with 2 mm Al additional filtration and reconstructed using simple back-projection. The in-slice 50% MTF was improved in the chest-mammilla direction, going from 3.2 to 3.5 lp/mm, and the zero-frequency DQE increased from 0.71 to 0.77. The MTF and ASF were otherwise found to be on par for the two systems. The new system has reduced in-slice variation of the tomographic angle. The new geometry is less curved, which reduces in-slice tomographic-angle variation, and increases the maximum compression height, making the system accessible for a larger population. The improvements in MTF and DQE were attributed to the updated calibration procedures. We conclude that the second-generation system maintains the key features of the photon-counting system while maintaining or improving image quality and improving the maximum compression height. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. Modelling Angular Dependencies in Land Surface Temperatures From the SEVIRI Instrument onboard the Geostationary Meteosat Second Generation Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mads Olander; Pinheiro, AC; Proud, Simon Richard

    2010-01-01

    on vegetation structure and viewing and illumination geometry. Despite this, these effects are not considered in current operational LST products from neither polar-orbiting nor geostationary satellites. In this paper, we simulate the angular dependence that can be expected when estimating LST with the viewing...... geometry of the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager sensor across the African continent and compare it to a normalized view geometry. We use the modified geometric projection model that estimates the scene thermal infrared radiance from a surface covered...

  18. Synthesis and Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization of Second-Generation Dendronized Poly(ether Monomers Initiated by Ruthenium Carbenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán Pablo E.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP of second-generation dendronized monomers is described. Using the highly active and fast-initiating third-generation ruthenium complex [(H2IMes(pyr2Cl2RuCHPh], moderate to high molecular weight polymers (430-2230 kDa are efficiently synthesized with low dispersities (Ð = 1.01-1.17. This study highlights the power of the metathesis approach toward polymer synthesis in a context where monomer structure can significantly impede polymerization.

  19. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Fairburn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health.

  20. An Equilibrium Search Model of the Labor Market Entry of Second-Generation Immigrants and Ethnic Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kromann, Lene

    do on the labor market, though not with respect to layoffs. This result is mainly driven by the group of high school graduates and those with a primary school education only. Second generation immigrants with vocational education, males in particular, face both significantly lower arrival rates when......Using a search model for Danish labor market entrants, we are one of the first studies to test whether second‐generation immigrants have the same job‐offer arrival and layoff rates as ethnic Danes have. We contribute to the search literature by incorporating matching as a way to ensure sub...... unemployed and significantly higher layoff rates than those of their ethnic Danish twins....

  1. Transport of liquid state nitrogen through long length service lines during thermal/vacuum testing. [in a Nimbus 6 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and analytical aspects associated with the transport are presented. Included is a definition of the problems and difficulties imposed by the servicing of a typical solid cryogen system, as well as a discussion of the transport requirements and of the rationale which governed their solution. A successful detailed transport configuration is defined, and the application of established mathematics to the design approach is demonstrated. The significance of head pressure, pressure drop, line friction, heat leak, Reynolds number, and the fundamental equilibrium demands of pressure and temperature were examined as they relate to the achievement of liquid state flow. Performance predictions were made for the transport system, and several analytical quantities are tabulated. These data are analyzed and compared with measured and calculated results obtained while actually servicing a solid cryogen system during thermal/vacuum testing.

  2. Strong Coupling between Nanofluidic Transport and Interfacial Chemistry: How Defect Reactivity Controls Liquid-Solid Friction through Hydrogen Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Laurent; Tocci, Gabriele; Merabia, Samy; Michaelides, Angelos

    2016-04-07

    Defects are inevitably present in nanofluidic systems, yet the role they play in nanofluidic transport remains poorly understood. Here, we report ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of the friction of liquid water on defective graphene and boron nitride sheets. We show that water dissociates at certain defects and that these "reactive" defects lead to much larger friction than the "nonreactive" defects at which water molecules remain intact. Furthermore, we find that friction is extremely sensitive to the chemical structure of reactive defects and to the number of hydrogen bonds they can partake in with the liquid. Finally, we discuss how the insight obtained from AIMD can be used to quantify the influence of defects on friction in nanofluidic devices for water treatment and sustainable energy harvesting. Overall, we provide new insight into the role of interfacial chemistry on nanofluidic transport in real, defective systems.

  3. Evolution of the LR56 radioactive liquid waste transportation system for use at Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.; Delvecchio, D.J.; Sazawal, V.

    1997-01-01

    The LR56 system is a radioactive liquid transportation cask licensed for use in France for on-site road transfer of Type B bulk quantities of radioactive liquids. Three LR56 systems (with adaptations for use at the Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the US) have been recently purchased for use at the Hanford site, the Oak Ridge National laboratory site and the Savannah River Site. The paper discussed the main features of the LR56 system and presents the evolution of the design. Particular attention is given to the last version developed for the Savannah River Site to be used for the transfer of highly concentrated alpha bearing liquids. For this application a special enhancement of the secondary vessel has been implemented which provides the system with a double leak tight confinement

  4. Operations of the LR56 radioactive liquid cask transport system at U.S. Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.S.; Hornstra, D.J.; Sazawal, V.K.; Clement, G.

    1996-01-01

    The LR56 cask system is licensed for use in France under Certificate of Compliance F/309/B(U)F for transport of 4,000-liter volumes of radioactive liquids. Three LR56 cask systems (with modifications for use at Department of Energy (DOE) sites) have been purchased for delivery at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The LR56 cask systems will be used for on-site transfers of Type B quantities of radioactive liquid waste. The ORNL unit will also be used as a Type A packaging for transfers of radioactive liquids between DOE sites. This paper discusses LR56 operating features and the use of the cask system at the three DOE sites

  5. Second-generation Micro-Spec: a medium-resolution spectrometer-on-a-chip for submillimeter astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Barrentine, Emily M.; Bulcha, Berhanu T.; Ehsan, Negar; Hess, Larry A.; Noroozian, Omid; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Samuel Harvey

    2018-01-01

    This work reports on the design of a second-generation Micro-Spec (µ-Spec), a direct-detection spectrometer which integrates all the components of a diffraction-grating spectrometer onto a ~10-cm2 chip by means of superconducting microstrip transmission lines on a monocrystalline silicon substrate. The second-generation µ-Spec is designed to operate with a resolving power of 512 over the 500-1000 µm (300-600 GHz) wavelength range, a band of interest for several spectroscopic applications in astrophysics and the study of the early (z > 8) Universe. High-altitude balloon missions would provide the first testbed to demonstrate the µ-Spec technology in a space-like environment and would represent an economically viable venue for multiple observation campaigns.A brief overview of each instrument subsystem will be provided. Emphasis will be given to the design of the spectrometer’s two-dimensional diffractive region, through which the light of different wavelengths is focused on the kinetic inductance detectors along the focal plane. An optical design optimized for balloon missions through an optimization process that satisfies specific requirements on spectrometer’s size, operating spectral range and optical performance is presented in terms of geometric layout, spectral purity and efficiency.

  6. Adult congenital heart disease imaging with second-generation dual-source computed tomography: initial experiences and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Sidhu, Manavjot S; El-Sherief, Ahmed; Rojas, Carlos; Yeh, Doreen Defaria; Engel, Leif-Christopher; Liberthson, Richard; Abbara, Suhny; Bhatt, Ami

    2012-01-01

    Adult congenital heart disease patients present a unique challenge to the cardiac imager. Patients may present with both acute and chronic manifestations of their complex congenital heart disease and also require surveillance for sequelae of their medical and surgical interventions. Multimodality imaging is often required to clarify their anatomy and physiology. Radiation dose is of particular concern in these patients with lifelong imaging needs for their chronic disease. The second-generation dual-source scanner is a recently available advanced clinical cardiac computed tomography (CT) scanner. It offers a combination of the high-spatial resolution of modern CT, the high-temporal resolution of dual-source technology, and the wide z-axis coverage of modern cone-beam geometry CT scanners. These advances in technology allow novel protocols that markedly reduce scan time, significantly reduce radiation exposure, and expand the physiologic imaging capabilities of cardiac CT. We present a case series of complicated adult congenital heart disease patients imaged by the second-generation dual-source CT scanner with extremely low-radiation doses and excellent image quality. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The challenges of commercializing second-generation transgenic crop traits necessitate the development of international public sector research infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Steven J; Bi, Yong-Mei; Coneva, Viktoriya; Han, Mei; Good, Allen

    2014-10-01

    It has been 30 years since the first transformation of a gene into a plant species, and since that time a number of biotechnology products have been developed, with the most important being insect- and herbicide-resistant crops. The development of second-generation products, including nutrient use efficiency and tolerance to important environmental stressors such as drought, has, up to this time, been less successful. This is in part due to the inherent complexities of these traits and in part due to limitations in research infrastructure necessary for public sector researchers to test their best ideas. Here we discuss lessons from previous work in the generation of the first-generation traits, as well as work from our labs and others on identifying genes for nitrogen use efficiency. We then describe some of the issues that have impeded rapid progress in this area. Finally, we propose the type of public sector organization that we feel is necessary to make advances in important second-generation traits such as nitrogen use efficiency. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Patterns of death in the first and second generation immigrants from selected Middle Eastern countries in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Kiumarss; Moulton, Lawrence H

    2011-04-01

    Migrant studies in the United States (US) have rarely covered the Middle Eastern population (ME), and have never distinguished the first and second generations born in the US. This study aims to describe the mortality patterns of ME immigrants by origin, acculturation, and generation. Death certificates issued from 1997 through 2004 were used to calculate, for Middle Eastern immigrants, the proportional odds ratios (POR) for major causes of death, with comparison to non-Hispanic Whites born in the US to US-born parents. First generation immigrants had higher odds for colorectal cancers, diabetes, and diseases of the heart, while their odds for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and suicide were lower. Men had higher odds for all cancers combined, cancers of the lymphatics, and pancreas. Women had lower odds for lung cancer, and dementia, and higher odds for breast cancer. The second generation men had higher odds for all cancers combined, and diseases of the heart, whereas women had lower odds for lung cancer and cerebrovascular accidents. Higher odds for colorectal cancers and lower odds for COPD were noted in both sexes. Some of the observed differences may be based on ethnic characteristics, including genetic makeup, early exposures, and culturally determined values. Time since immigration is associated with convergence of most odds to that of the native population.

  9. Thermophysical Properties of Ammonium-Based Bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide Ionic Liquids: Volumetric and Transport Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machanová, Karolina; Boisset, A.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Anouti, M.; Bendová, Magdalena; Jacquemin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 8 (2012), s. 2227-2235 ISSN 0021-9568. [European Conference on Thermophysical Properties /19./. Thessaloniki, 28.08.2011-01.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P141; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB021009 Grant - others:Égide PHC(FR) 22000XB Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ionic liquids * density * transport properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.004, year: 2012

  10. Modelling charge transport of discotic liquid-crystalline triindoles: the role of peripheral substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Riccardo; Camilo, Ana Claudia Santos; Filho, Demetrio A da Silva; Navarrete, Juan T López; Gómez-Lor, Berta; Delgado, M Carmen Ruiz; Linares, Mathieu

    2017-09-13

    We have performed a multiscale approach to study the influence of peripheral substitution in the semiconducting properties of discotic liquid-crystalline triindoles. Charge carrier mobility as high as 1.4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 was experimentally reported for triindoles substituted with alkynyl chains on the periphery (Gómez-Lor et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 7399-7402). In this work, our goal is to get a deeper understanding of both the molecular electronic structure and microscopic factors affecting the charge transport properties in triindoles as a function of the spacer group connecting the central cores with the external alkyl chains (i.e., alkyne or phenyl spacers groups). To this end, we first perform Quantum Mechanical (QM) calculations to assess how the peripheral substitution affects the electronic structure and the internal reorganization energy. Secondly, boxes of stacked molecules were built and relaxed through molecular dynamics to obtain realistic structures. Conformational analysis and calculations of transfer integrals for closed neighbours were performed. Our results show that the insertion of ethynyl spacers between the central aromatic core and the flexible peripheral chains results in lower reorganization energies and enhanced intermolecular order within the stacks with a preferred cofacial 60° staggered conformation, which would result in high charge-carrier mobilities in good agreement with the experimental data. This work allows a deeper understanding of charge carrier mobility in columnar phases, linking the structural order at the molecular level to the property of interest, i.e. the charge carrier mobility. We hope that this understanding will improve the design of systems at the supramolecular level aiming at obtaining a more defined conducting channel, higher mobility and smaller fluctuations within the column.

  11. Second-generation PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattheus, R.; Osteaux, M.; Spruiyt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years, a gradual shift toward digital techniques has occurred in the field of medical imaging. The authors discuss how, with their approach, digital image management can be used in daily clinical routine. Instead of a centralized approach, we have taken a decentralized, multivendor, phase-expandable approach. The IMAC (image management and communication) architecture is a reflection of the organization of the imaging department. A section defined for each group of examinations (CT, MR imaging, DSA, emergency), has its own (dedicated) PACS environment, connected to the total PACS. Network management for controlling the image flow is based on patient appointments, scheduling of rooms, and work

  12. Second generation SLAC modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.R.; Cron, J.C.; Hanselman, R.R.

    1986-06-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory has undertaken the construction of a single pass electron-positron collider. In order to reach required beam energy 235 new klystrons needed upgraded modulator systems. The collider will use 50 GeV electrons and positrons. The increase in accelerator energy from the present 30 GeV necessitates the replacement of existing 35 MW klystrons with new 67 MW units. The doubling of klystron output power required a redesign of the modulator system. The 67 MW klystron needs a 350 kV beam voltage pulse with a 3.7 μs pulse width. A new pulse transformer was designed to deliver the increased voltage and pulse width. Pulse cable design was evaluated to obtain increased reliability of that critical element. The modulator, with the exception of its power supply, was rebuilt to produce the required power increase while enhancing reliability and improving maintainability. An investigation of present thyratron switch tube performance under the new operating conditions resulted in agitation and some warranted panic but these conditions were mitigated after several successful experiments and some evolutionary narrowing of the klystron pulse width. The discussion will cover the upgraded modulator system specifications and some details of the new pulse transformer tank, pulse cable, modulator, and modulator switch tube

  13. Effects of production and market factors on ethanol profitability for an integrated first and second generation ethanol plant using the whole sugarcane as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrelli, Stefano; Galbe, Mats; Wallberg, Ola

    2014-02-21

    Sugarcane is an attractive feedstock for ethanol production, especially if the lignocellulosic fraction can also be treated in second generation (2G) ethanol plants. However, the profitability of 2G ethanol is affected by the processing conditions, operating costs and market prices. This study focuses on the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) and maximum profitability of ethanol production in an integrated first and second generation (1G + 2G) sugarcane-to-ethanol plant. The feedstock used was sugarcane juice, bagasse and leaves. The lignocellulosic fraction was hydrolysed with enzymes. Yields were assumed to be 95% of the theoretical for each of the critical steps in the process (steam pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH), fermentation, solid/liquid separation, anaerobic digestion) in order to obtain the best conditions possible for ethanol production, to assess the lowest production costs. Techno-economic analysis was performed for various combinations of process options (for example use of pentoses, addition of leaves), EH conditions (water-insoluble solids (WIS) and residence time), operating cost (enzymes) and market factors (wholesale prices of electricity and ethanol, cost of the feedstock). The greatest reduction in 2G MESP was achieved when using the pentoses for the production of ethanol rather than biogas. This was followed, in decreasing order, by higher enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency (EHE), by increasing the WIS to 30% and by a short residence time (48 hours) in the EH. The addition of leaves was found to have a slightly negative impact on 1G + 2G MESP, but the effect on 2G MESP was negligible. Sugarcane price significantly affected 1G + 2G MESP, while the price of leaves had a much lower impact. Net present value (NPV) analysis of the most interesting case showed that integrated 1G + 2G ethanol production including leaves could be more profitable than 1G ethanol, despite the fact that the MESP was higher than in 1G ethanol

  14. Transport properties of glass-forming liquids suggest that dynamic crossover temperature is as important as the glass transition temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, Francesco; Branca, Caterina; Corsaro, Carmelo; Leone, Nancy; Spooren, Jeroen; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-12-28

    It is becoming common practice to partition glass-forming liquids into two classes based on the dependence of the shear viscosity η on temperature T. In an Arrhenius plot, ln η vs 1/T, a strong liquid shows linear behavior whereas a fragile liquid exhibits an upward curvature [super-Arrhenius (SA) behavior], a situation customarily described by using the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law. Here we analyze existing data of the transport coefficients of 84 glass-forming liquids. We show the data are consistent, on decreasing temperature, with the onset of a well-defined dynamical crossover η(×), where η(×) has the same value, η(×) ≈ 10(3) Poise, for all 84 liquids. The crossover temperature, T(×), located well above the calorimetric glass transition temperature T(g), marks significant variations in the system thermodynamics, evidenced by the change of the SA-like T dependence above T(×) to Arrhenius behavior below T(×). We also show that below T(×) the familiar Stokes-Einstein relation D/T ∼ η(-1) breaks down and is replaced by a fractional form D/T ∼ η(-ζ), with ζ ≈ 0.85.

  15. Polymer-immobilized liquid membrane transport of palladium (II) from nitric acid media using some thia extractants as novel receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Carrier-facilitated co-transport of Pd (II) from dilute acidic nitrate solutions was examined across a polymer-immobilized liquid membrane (PILM) deploying S 6 -pentano-36 (S 6 -P-36), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfoxide (BESO) and bis (2, 4, 4 trimethyl pentyl) monothio phosphinic acid (Cyanex 302) as the novel receptors. The study carried out to distinguish the driving force between H + and NO 3 - ion for the cation transport across PILM, indicated that NO 3 - ion not the H + ion seems to be the driving force for Pd (II) transport under the present conditions for both BESO-PILM and S 6 -P-36-PILM systems. Recovery of palladium from acidic process effluents generated in Purex reprocessing of spent fuels was successfully achieved. 39 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Silicon transport under rotating and combined magnetic fields in liquid phase diffusion growth of SiGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, N.; Dost, S. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of applied rotating and combined (rotating and static) magnetic fields on silicon transport during the liquid phase diffusion growth of SiGe was experimentally studied. 72-hour growth periods produced some single crystal sections. Single and polycrystalline sections of the processed samples were examined for silicon composition. Results show that the application of a rotating magnetic field enhances silicon transport in the melt. It also has a slight positive effect on flattening the initial growth interface. For comparison, growth experiments were also conducted under combined (rotating and static) magnetic fields. The processed samples revealed that the addition of static field altered the thermal characteristics of the system significantly and led to a complete melt back of the germanium seed. Silicon transport in the melt was also enhanced under combined fields compared with experiments with no magnetic field. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Protective effect of minocycline, a semi-synthetic second-generation tetracycline against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Manuj; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2008-01-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is an irreversible inhibitor of the electron transport enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, a mitochondrial Complex II enzyme. Minocycline is a semi-synthetic second-generation tetracycline with neuroprotective activity and has the capability to effectively cross the blood-brain barrier. We investigated the effects of minocycline on behavioral, biochemical, inflammation related and neurochemical alterations induced by the sub-chronic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid to rats. Chronic pre-administration of minocycline (50 and 100 mg/kg) dose dependently prevented 3-NP-induced dysfunction behavioral (hypoactivity, memory retention, locomotor and rota-rod activity). In addition, 3-NP produced a marked increase in lipid peroxidation levels whereas decreased the activities of catalase and succinate dehydrogenase. In contrast, pretreatment of 3-NP injected rats with minocycline resulted in the attenuation of all these alterations. A marked increase in an inflammatory cytokine TNF-α by 3-NP was also decreased by minocycline treatment. Neurochemically, the administration of 3-NP significantly decreased the levels of catecholamines in the brain homogenates (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) which were reversed by pretreatment of minocycline. The present finding explains the neuroprotective effect of minocycline against 3-NP toxicity by virtue of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity

  18. The effect of a micro bubble dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope transport in liquid metals under nuclear irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradera, J., E-mail: jfradera@ubu.es; Cuesta-López, S., E-mail: scuesta@ubu.es

    2013-12-15

    The present work intend to be a first step towards the understanding and quantification of the hydrogen isotope complex phenomena in liquid metals for nuclear technology. Liquid metals under nuclear irradiation in, e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles. Other liquid metal systems of a nuclear reactor involve hydrogen isotope absorption processes, e.g., tritium extraction system. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. Here general models for hydrogen isotopes transport in liquid metal and absorption into gas phase, that do not depend on the mass transfer limiting regime, are exposed and implemented in OpenFOAM® CFD tool for 0D–3D simulations. Results for a 0D case show the impact of a He dispersed phase of nano bubbles on hydrogen isotopes inventory at different temperatures as well as the inventory evolution during a He nucleation event. In addition, 1D and 2D axisymmetric cases are exposed showing the effect of a He dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope permeation through a lithium lead eutectic alloy and the effect of vortical structures on hydrogen isotope transport at a backward facing step. Exposed results give a valuable insight on current nuclear technology regarding the importance of controlling hydrogen isotope transport and its interactions with nucleation event through gas absorption processes.

  19. Measuring the internal energy content of molecules transported across the liquid-gas interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maselli, Olivia J; Gascooke, Jason R; Buntine, Mark A [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Lawrance, Warren D, E-mail: m.buntine@curtin.edu.a [School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5000 (Australia)

    2009-09-01

    Many details concerning the mechanism associated with the liberation of molecules from a liquid surface remain to be elucidated. We use the liquid microjet technique coupled with laser spectroscopy to measure the rotational and vibrational energy content of benzene spontaneously evaporating from a water-ethanol solution. These measurements provide molecular level insight into the mass and energy transfer processes associated with evaporation.

  20. Measuring the internal energy content of molecules transported across the liquid-gas interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maselli, Olivia J; Gascooke, Jason R; Buntine, Mark A; Lawrance, Warren D

    2009-01-01

    Many details concerning the mechanism associated with the liberation of molecules from a liquid surface remain to be elucidated. We use the liquid microjet technique coupled with laser spectroscopy to measure the rotational and vibrational energy content of benzene spontaneously evaporating from a water-ethanol solution. These measurements provide molecular level insight into the mass and energy transfer processes associated with evaporation.

  1. Worldwide telemedicine services based on distributed multimedia electronic patient records by using the second generation Web server hyperwave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, G; Novotny, J; Burde, B; May, F; Beck, L E; Goldschmidt, A

    1999-01-01

    A distributed multimedia electronic patient record (EPR) is a central component of a medicine-telematics application that supports physicians working in rural areas of South America, and offers medical services to scientists in Antarctica. A Hyperwave server is used to maintain the patient record. As opposed to common web servers--and as a second generation web server--Hyperwave provides the capability of holding documents in a distributed web space without the problem of broken links. This enables physicians to browse through a patient's record by using a standard browser even if the patient's record is distributed over several servers. The patient record is basically implemented on the "Good European Health Record" (GEHR) architecture.

  2. Effect of Hot-isostatic Pressing on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Second Generation Single Crystal Superalloy DD6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Hui-ming

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the hot-isostatic pressing (HIP temperature (1280,1300,1320℃ on microstructures and mechanical properties of a second generation single crystal superalloy DD6 were investigated. The results show that the HIP treatment significantly decrease the cast porosity number of DD6 compared with standard treated specimens. Especially, the cast porosity volume fraction is deceased from 0.31% to 0.04% after the HIP treatment of 1300℃/100MPa, 4h. The cast eutectic volume fractions are remarkably reduced with increasing HIP temperature. The HIP treatments nearly unchanged the creep lives, While they greatly promote the low cycle fatigue lives. The elimination of cast microspores using the HIP treatment of 1300℃/100MPa, 4h result in the inhibition of crack initiation during fatigue and improve the low cycle fatigue lives one order of magnitude larger than that after standard heat treatment.

  3. Second generation of ``Miranda procedure'' for CP violation in Dalitz studies of B (and D and τ) decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediaga, I.; Miranda, J.; dos Reis, A. C.; Bigi, I. I.; Gomes, A.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Veiga, A.

    2012-08-01

    The “Miranda procedure” proposed for analyzing Dalitz plots for CP asymmetries in charged B and D decays in a model-independent manner is extended and refined in this paper. The complexity of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa CP phenomenology through order λ6 is needed in searches for new dynamics (ND). Detailed analyses of three-body final states offer great advantages: (i) They give us more powerful tools for deciding whether an observed CP asymmetry represents the manifestation of ND and its features. (ii) Many advantages can already be obtained by the Miranda procedure without construction of a detailed Dalitz plot description. (iii) One studies CP asymmetries independent of production asymmetries. We illustrate the power of a second generation Miranda procedure with examples with time integrated rates for Bd/B¯d decays to final states KSπ+π- as trial runs, with comments on B±→K±π+π-/K±K+K-.

  4. Search for second generation leptoquarks in p bar p collisions at √s=1.8 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.; Albrow, M.G.; Amendolia, S.R.; Amidei, D.; Antos, J.; Anway-Wiese, C.; Apollinari, G.; Areti, H.; Atac, M.; Auchincloss, P.; Azfar, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Badgett, W.; Bailey, M.W.; Bao, J.; de Barbaro, P.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Bartalini, P.; Bauer, G.; Baumann, T.; Bedeschi, F.; Behrends, S.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Benlloch, J.; Bensinger, J.; Benton, D.; Beretvas, A.; Berge, J.P.; Bertolucci, S.; Bhatti, A.; Biery, K.; Binkley, M.; Bird, F.; Bisello, D.; Blair, R.E.; Blocker, C.; Bodek, A.; Bokhari, W.; Bolognesi, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boswell, C.; Boulos, T.; Brandenburg, G.; Bromberg, C.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Budd, H.S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Byrum, K.L.; Cammerata, J.; Campagnari, C.; Campbell, M.; Caner, A.; Carithers, W.; Carlsmith, D.; Castro, A.; Cen, Y.; Cervelli, F.; Chao, H.Y.; Chapman, J.; Cheng, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chikamatsu, T.; Chiou, C.N.; Christofek, L.; Cihangir, S.; Clark, A.G.; Cobal, M.; Contreras, M.; Conway, J.; Cooper, J.; Cordelli, M.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Crane, D.; Cunningham, J.D.; Daniels, T.; DeJongh, F.; Delchamps, S.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Denby, B.; Deninno, M.; Derwent, P.F.; Devlin, T.; Dickson, M.; Dittmann, J.R.; Donati, S.; Drucker, R.B.; Dunn, A.; Einsweiler, K.; Elias, J.E.; Ely, R.; Engels, E. Jr.; Eno, S.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Fan, Q.; Farhat, B.; Fiori, I.; Flaugher, B.; Foster, G.W.; Franklin, M.; Frautschi, M.; Freeman, J.; Friedman, J.; Frisch, H.; Fry, A.; Fuess, T.A.; Fukui, Y.; Funaki, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Galeotti, S.; Gallinaro, M.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Geer, S.; Gerdes, D.W.; Giannetti, P.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Gladney, L.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Gordon, A.; Goshaw, A.T.; Goulianos, K.; Grassmann, H.; Grewal, A.; Groer, L.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S.R.; Hamilton, R.; Handler, R.; Hans, R.M.; Hara, K.; Harral, B.; Harris, R.M.; Hauger, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a search for second generation leptoquarks S 2 using 19.3pb -1 of data collected at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) in p bar p collisions at √s=1.8 TeV during the 1992--93 collider run. We have searched for S 2 bar S 2 pairs assuming that each leptoquark decays to a muon + quark with a branching ratio β. We find two candidate events, consistent with an expected background of 1.11±0.48. We obtain upper limits on σ(p bar p→S 2 bar S 2 )β 2 as a function of M S 2 . Using a Monte Carlo prediction for S 2 bar S 2 pair production, we exclude M S 2 2 for β=1 and M S 2 2 for β=0.5 at 95% C.L

  5. Second Generation Coil Design of the Nb$_{3}$Sn low-beta Quadrupole for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Ballarino, A; Cavanna, E; Bossert, R; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Hagen,P; Holik, E; Perez, J C; Rochepault, E; Schmalzle, J; Todesco, E; Yu, M

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HiLumi-LHC) program, the US LARP collaboration and CERN are working together to design and build a 150 mm aperture Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole for the LHC interaction regions. A first series of 1.5 m long coils were fabricated and assembled in a first short model. A detailed visual inspection of the coils was carried out to investigate cable dimensional changes during heat treatment and the position of the windings in the coil straight section and in the end region. The analyses allow identifying a set of design changes which, combined with a fine tune of the cable geometry and a field quality optimization, were implemented in a new, second-generation, coil design. In this paper we review the main characteristics of the first generation coils, describe the modification in coil lay-out, and discuss their impact on parts design and magnet analysis.

  6. A comparison of the effectiveness of 6S and SMAC in correcting for atmospheric interference of meteosat second generation images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proud, Simon Richard; Fensholt, R.; Rasmussen, M.O.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric perturbations are a large source of uncertainty in remotely sensed imagery of the Earth's surface. This paper explores the effectiveness of the simplified method for atmospheric correction (SMAC) in reducing the effects of these perturbations in images of the African Continent gathered...... by the Spinning Enhanced Visible & InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In order to examine the accuracy of the SMAC we compare its results to those computed by the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV1.1), a highly accurate radiative transfer code......, for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. We find that the SMAC does not offer a high level of accuracy under many sets of atmospheric conditions with under 20% of observations in channels 1 and 2 providing a relative error of less than 10% when compared to 6SV1.1. Those observations involving medium...

  7. Second-generation sequencing of forensic STRs using the Ion Torrent™ HID STR 10-plex and the Ion PGM™

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah L; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Børsting, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation sequencing (SGS) using Roche/454 and Illumina platforms has proved capable of sequencing the majority of the key forensic genetic STR systems. Given that Roche has announced that the 454 platforms will no longer be supported from 2015, focus should now be shifted to competing SGS...... platforms, such as the MiSeq (Illumina) and the Ion Personal Genome Machine (Ion PGM™; Thermo Fisher). There are currently several challenges faced with amplicon-based SGS STR typing in forensic genetics, including current lengths of amplicons for CE-typing and lack of uniform data analysis between......) analysis of sensitivity; (3) typing of mixtures; and (4) typing of biological crime case samples. Full profiles and concordant results between replicate SGS runs and CE-typing were observed for all control samples. Full profiles were seen with DNA input down to 50pg, with the exception of a single locus...

  8. Second generation measurement of the electric dipole moment of the electron using trapped ThF+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kia Boon; Zhou, Yan; Gresh, Daniel; Cairncross, William; Grau, Matthew; Ni, Yiqi; Ye, Jun; Cornell, Eric

    2016-05-01

    ThF+ has been chosen as the candidate for a second generation measurement of the electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM). Compared to the current HfF+ eEDM experiment, ThF+ has several advantages: (i) the eEDM-sensitive state (3Δ1) is the ground state, which facilitates a long coherence time; (ii) its effective electric field (38 GV/cm) is 50% larger than that of HfF+, which promises a direct increase of the eEDM sensitivity; and (iii) the ionization energy of neutral ThF is lower than its dissociation energy, which introduces greater flexibility in rotational state-selective photoionization via core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states. Here, we present progress of our experimental setup, preliminary spectroscopic data of multi-photon ionization, and discussions of new features in ion trapping, state preparation and population readout.

  9. Contextual influences on ethnic identity formation: a case study of second-generation Korean Americans Baby Boomers in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Linda S

    2015-03-01

    This paper details a study on ethnic identity in midlife, illuminating identity formation as a complex life course phenomenon. The study addresses the importance of ethnic identity in understanding the experiences of racial and ethnic Baby Boomers as both recipients of care and as caregivers to their aging parents (first generation immigrants). Using a case study of second-generation Korean American Baby Boomers, the primary aims of this study are: (a) to explore how the relationship between age and race/ethnicity influences identity formation, and (b) how contexts influence ethnic identity formation. Findings reveal that cumulative experiences over earlier developmental years resulted in resolutions to appreciate their ethnic identity at midlife. Increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the U.S., combined with the large number of aging Baby Boomers, necessitate recognition of the cultural and racial differences within the Baby Boomer generation.

  10. Evaluation of Tumor Angiogenesis with a Second-Generation US Contrast Medium in a Rat Breast Tumor Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Eun Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hak Hee; Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Nam Kug; Gong, Gyung Yub

    2008-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is an important factor for tumor growth, treatment response and prognosis. Noninvasive imaging methods for the evaluation of tumor angiogenesis have been studied, but a method for the quantification of tumor angiogenesis has not been established. This study was designed to evaluate tumor angiogenesis in a rat breast tumor model by the use of a contrast enhanced ultrasound (US) examination with a second-generation US contrast agent. The alkylating agent 19N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) was injected into the intraperitoneal cavity of 30-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. Three to four months later, breast tumors were detected along the mammary lines of the rats. A total of 17 breast tumors larger than 1 cm in nine rats were evaluated by gray-scale US, color Doppler US and contrast-enhanced US using SonoVue. The results were recorded as digital video images; time-intensity curves and hemodynamic parameters were analyzed. Pathological breast tumor specimens were obtained just after the US examinations. The tumor specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and the expression of CD31, an endothelial cell marker, was determined by immunohistochemical staining. We also evaluated the pathological diagnosis of the tumors and the microvessel density (MVD). Spearman's correlation and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used for the analysis. The pathological diagnoses were 11 invasive ductal carcinomas and six benign intraductal epithelial proliferations. The MVD did not correlate with the pathological diagnosis. However, blood volume (BV) showed a statistically significant correlation with MVD (Spearman's correlation, p < 0.05). Contrast-enhanced US using a second-generation US contrast material was useful for the evaluation of tumor angiogenesis of breast tumors in the rat

  11. Virtual non-contrast in second-generation, dual-energy computed tomography: Reliability of attenuation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepker, Michael; Moritz, Thomas; Krauss, Bernhard; Weber, Michael; Euller, Gordon; Mang, Thomas; Wolf, Florian; Herold, Christian J.; Ringl, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the reliability of attenuation values in virtual non-contrast images (VNC) reconstructed from contrast-enhanced, dual-energy scans performed on a second-generation dual-energy CT scanner, compared to single-energy, non-contrast images (TNC). Materials and methods: Sixteen phantoms containing a mixture of contrast agent and water at different attenuations (0–1400 HU) were investigated on a Definition Flash-CT scanner using a single-energy scan at 120 kV and a DE-CT protocol (100 kV/SN140 kV). For clinical assessment, 86 patients who received a dual-phase CT, containing an unenhanced single-energy scan at 120 kV and a contrast enhanced (110 ml Iomeron 400 mg/ml; 4 ml/s) DE-CT (100 kV/SN140 kV) in an arterial (n = 43) or a venous phase, were retrospectively analyzed. Mean attenuation was measured within regions of interest of the phantoms and in different tissue types of the patients within the corresponding VNC and TNC images. Paired t-tests and Pearson correlation were used for statistical analysis. Results: For all phantoms, mean attenuation in VNC was 5.3 ± 18.4 HU, with respect to water. In 86 patients overall, 2637 regions were measured in TNC and VNC images, with a mean difference between TNC and VNC of −3.6 ± 8.3 HU. In 91.5% (n = 2412) of all cases, absolute differences between TNC and VNC were under 15 HU, and, in 75.3% (n = 1986), differences were under 10 HU. Conclusions: Second-generation dual-energy CT based VNC images provide attenuation values close to those of TNC. To avoid possible outliers multiple measurements are recommended especially for measurements in the spleen, the mesenteric fat, and the aorta.

  12. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women's inadequate prenatal care utilisation: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Manniën, Judith; van Stenus, Cherelle M V; Wiegers, Therese A; Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Spelten, Evelien R; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2015-04-21

    Little research into non-western women's prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women's prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status. Data from 3300 women participating in a prospective cohort of primary midwifery care clients (i.e. women with no complications or no increased risk for complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium who receive maternity care by autonomous midwives) in the Netherlands (the DELIVER study) was used. Gestational age at entry and the total number of prenatal visits were aggregated into an index. The extent to which potential factors explained non-western women's prenatal care utilisation was assessed by means of blockwise logistic regression analyses and percentage changes in odds ratios. The unadjusted odds of first and second-generation non-western women making inadequate use of prenatal care were 3.26 and 1.96 times greater than for native Dutch women. For the first generation, sociocultural factors explained 43% of inadequate prenatal care utilisation, socioeconomic factors explained 33% and demographic and pregnancy factors explained 29%. For the second generation, sociocultural factors explained 66% of inadequate prenatal care utilisation. Irrespective of generation, strategies to improve utilisation should focus on those with the following sociocultural characteristics (not speaking Dutch at home, no partner or a first-generation non-Dutch partner). For the first generation, strategies should also focus on those with the following demographic, pregnancy and socioeconomic characteristics (aged ≤ 19 or ≥ 36, unplanned pregnancies, poor obstetric histories (extra-uterine pregnancy, molar pregnancy or abortion), a low educational level, below average net household income and no supplementary insurance.

  13. Pulmonary vein isolation using a second-generation cryoballoon catheter: a randomized comparison of ablation duration and method of deflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jason G; Dubuc, Marc; Guerra, Peter G; Landry, Evelyn; Coulombe, Nicolas; Leduc, Hugues; Rivard, Léna; Macle, Laurent; Thibault, Bernard; Talajic, Mario; Roy, Denis; Khairy, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Optimal cryoballoon ablation parameters for pulmonary vein (PV) isolation remain to be defined. We conducted a randomized preclinical trial to compare 2- versus 4-minute ablation lesions and assess the safety of active (forced) cryoballoon deflation. Thirty-two dogs underwent PV isolation with a second-generation 23 mm cryoballoon catheter. The left superior (LSPV) and inferior (LIPV) PVs were randomized in a factorial design to (1) a single 2- versus 4-minute cryoapplication, and (2) passive versus active cryoballoon deflation. Animals were survived for 30 days, after which histopathologic analysis was performed. Acute PV isolation was attained in 89.8% of PVs after a single application (93.8% LSPV, 85.2% LIPV; P = 0.2823). Mean time to PV isolation was 29.5 ± 18.5 seconds. Although 4-minute lesions were associated with a thicker neointima than 2-minute lesions (223.8 μm versus 135.6 μm; P = 0.007), no differences were observed in procedural characteristics (freezing temperature, rewarming time), rates of acute PV isolation, or the achievement of complete circumferentially transmural lesions at 30 days (78.7% overall; 86.2% for 2 minutes vs 70.0% for 4 minutes; P = 0.285). Active deflation was associated with faster balloon rewarming but not with significant differences in mean or maximum neointimal thickness. A single application with the second-generation cryoballoon catheter results in a high rate of PV isolation. The degree of vascular injury was not increased by active balloon deflation and no differences in acute efficacy or mature transmural circumferential lesions were observed with 2- versus 4-minute applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Fermentation strategy for second generation ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate by Spathaspora passalidarum and Scheffersomyces stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Simone C; Soares, Lauren B; Biazi, Luiz Eduardo; Nascimento, Viviane M; Costa, Aline C; Rocha, George Jackson M; Ienczak, Jaciane L

    2017-10-01

    Alcoholic fermentation of released sugars in pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass is a central feature for second generation ethanol (E2G) production. Saccharomyces cerevisiae used industrially in the production of first generation ethanol (E1G) convert sucrose, fructose, and glucose into ethanol. However, these yeasts have no ability to ferment pentose (xylose). Therefore, the present work has focused on E2G production by Scheffersomyces stipitis and Spathaspora passalidarum. The fermentation strategy with high pitch, cell recycle, fed-batch mode, and temperature decrease for each batch were performed in a hydrolyzate obtained from a pretreatment at 130°C with NaOH solution (1.5% w/v) added with 0.15% (w/w) of anthraquinone (AQ) and followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The process strategy has increased volumetric productivity from 0.35 to 0.38 g · L -1  · h -1 (first to third batch) for S. stipitis and from 0.38 to 0.81 g · L -1  · h -1 for S. passalidarum (first to fourth batch). Mass balance for the process proposed in this work showed the production of 177.33 kg ethanol/ton of sugar cane bagasse for S. passalidarum compared to 124.13 kg ethanol/ton of sugar cane bagasse for S. stipitis fermentation. The strategy proposed in this work can be considered as a promising strategy in the production of second generation ethanol. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2211-2221. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Intergenerational transmission of historical memories and social-distance attitudes in post-war second-generation Croatians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svob, Connie; Brown, Norman R; Takšić, Vladimir; Katulić, Katarina; Žauhar, Valnea

    2016-08-01

    Intergenerational transmission of memory is a process by which biographical knowledge contributes to the construction of collective memory (representation of a shared past). We investigated the intergenerational transmission of war-related memories and social-distance attitudes in second-generation post-war Croatians. We compared 2 groups of young adults from (1) Eastern Croatia (extensively affected by the war) and (2) Western Croatia (affected relatively less by the war). Participants were asked to (a) recall the 10 most important events that occurred in one of their parents' lives, (b) estimate the calendar years of each, and (c) provide scale ratings on them. Additionally, (d) all participants completed a modified Bogardus Social Distance scale, as well as an (e) War Events Checklist for their parents' lives. There were several findings. First, approximately two-thirds of Eastern Croatians and one-half of Western Croatians reported war-related events from their parents' lives. Second, war-related memories impacted the second-generation's identity to a greater extent than did non-war-related memories; this effect was significantly greater in Eastern Croatians than in Western Croatians. Third, war-related events displayed markedly different mnemonic characteristics than non-war-related events. Fourth, the temporal distribution of events surrounding the war produced an upheaval bump, suggesting major transitions (e.g., war) contribute to the way collective memory is formed. And, finally, outright social ostracism and aggression toward out-groups were rarely expressed, independent of region. Nonetheless, social-distance scores were notably higher in Eastern Croatia than in Western Croatia.

  16. The validity of the first and second generation Microsoft Kinect™ for identifying joint center locations during static postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; McGorry, Raymond W

    2015-07-01

    The Kinect™ sensor released by Microsoft is a low-cost, portable, and marker-less motion tracking system for the video game industry. Since the first generation Kinect sensor was released in 2010, many studies have been conducted to examine the validity of this sensor when used to measure body movement in different research areas. In 2014, Microsoft released the computer-used second generation Kinect sensor with a better resolution for the depth sensor. However, very few studies have performed a direct comparison between all the Kinect sensor-identified joint center locations and their corresponding motion tracking system-identified counterparts, the result of which may provide some insight into the error of the Kinect-identified segment length, joint angles, as well as the feasibility of adapting inverse dynamics to Kinect-identified joint centers. The purpose of the current study is to first propose a method to align the coordinate system of the Kinect sensor with respect to the global coordinate system of a motion tracking system, and then to examine the accuracy of the Kinect sensor-identified coordinates of joint locations during 8 standing and 8 sitting postures of daily activities. The results indicate the proposed alignment method can effectively align the Kinect sensor with respect to the motion tracking system. The accuracy level of the Kinect-identified joint center location is posture-dependent and joint-dependent. For upright standing posture, the average error across all the participants and all Kinect-identified joint centers is 76 mm and 87 mm for the first and second generation Kinect sensor, respectively. In general, standing postures can be identified with better accuracy than sitting postures, and the identification accuracy of the joints of the upper extremities is better than for the lower extremities. This result may provide some information regarding the feasibility of using the Kinect sensor in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  17. Growth variation and heritability in a second-generation Eucalyptus urophylla progeny test at Lad Krating Plantation, Chachoengsao province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Nhlanhla Dlamini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, Eucalyptus urophylla was introduced with the main purpose of supplying raw material for pulp and chip wood production. The demand for genetically improved seed is increasing to support high productivity plantation establishment. One of the tree improvement activities established to meet the high demand for improved seed was a second generation progeny test at Lad Krating Plantation, Thailand to provide the best material for the successful plantation program. The aim of the current study was to compare growth variation of the first and second generation of Eucalyptus urophylla progeny that could provide information on suitable families for improved quality seed. The progeny test comprised the best 45 half-sib families selected from 80 half-sib families of the first-generation progeny test. The design of the progeny test was a randomized and complete block design (16 trees/plot × 45 plots/block × 9 blocks, with 4 rows of 4 trees at a spacing of 2 m × 1 m. Growth was assessed at age 3 yr. The average height and diameter at breast height over bark (DBH, was 13.72 m, and 8.75 cm, respectively. There were highly significant (p < 0.01 differences among provenances and families in both height and DBH. The individual heritability values for height and DBH were 0.48 and 0.60, respectively. The family heritability values for height and DBH were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. These 45 half-sib families proved to be genetically superior ensuring higher productivity and contributing to the success of the Forest Industry Organization plantation at Lad Krating.

  18. Second-generation immigrant children: health prevention for a new population in terms of vaccination coverage and health assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Pietro; Zenzeri, Letizia; Fabrizio, Giovanna C; Gatto, Antonio; Pio, Liberatore; Gargiullo, Luisa; Ianniello, Francesca; Valentini, Piero; Ranno, Orazio

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the total number of foreigners taking up residence in Italy is increasing: the number of children born in Italy to foreign parents currently account for 15% of all babies born in the country. This population is generally referred to as "second-generation immigrants". We evaluated the health conditions of this particular population by investigating the vaccination coverage and auxological data in a group of foreign children living in a foster care setting and by comparing them to those regarding a group of foreign children living with their own parents. This study was conducted in a foster care association in Rome. The Pediatric Unit of "A. Gemelli" Hospital, Rome, provided all data for comparison. Two groups of children (group 1: 60 children from a foster care association; group 2: 91 children living with their parents; group 3: 112 healthy controls) with similar characteristics were taken into consideration. There were statistical differences between groups: the administration rate of hexavalent vaccine was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 (84.6% vs. 65.0%) (P0.05), although the administration rate of serogroup C meningococcal vaccine was lower in group 1 (10/60; 16.7%) compared to group 2 (17/91; 18.7%) (P>0.05). As for auxological parameters, there were no statistical differences between groups. The data presented in this study seem to suggest the need for a special health programme to be promoted by the Italian National Health System in order to address the needs of the particular risk group of second-generation immigrant children. Vaccination coverage should be especially boosted, and pediatricians should have a key role in terms of awareness raising and education of immigrant families.

  19. Phrenic nerve paralysis during cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation: a comparison between the first- and second-generation balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Arroyo, Ruben; Chierchia, Gian-Battista; Conte, Giulio; Levinstein, Moisés; Sieira, Juan; Rodriguez-Mañero, Moises; di Giovanni, Giacomo; Baltogiannis, Yannis; Wauters, Kristel; de Asmundis, Carlo; Sarkozy, Andrea; Brugada, Pedro

    2013-09-01

    Phrenic nerve palsy (PNP) is the most frequently observed complication during cryoballoon ablation (CB; Arctic Front, Medtronic, MN) occurring in roughly 7%-9% of the cases. The new second-generation cryoballoon ablation Arctic Front Advance (CB-A) (Arctic Front) has recently been launched in the market. To evaluate the incidence of right PNP with the new CB-A in comparison with the first-generation balloon in a series of consecutive patients that underwent pulmonary vein isolation with this modality. The study was designed as an observational study with a prospective follow-up. In total, 121 consecutive patients were included: 80 patients with the CB (group 1) and 41 with the CB-A (group 2). Mean procedural times, fluoroscopic times, and time to pulmonary vein isolation documented by real-time recordings were significantly lower in group 2 (P ≤ .05). The occurrence of PNP was significantly higher in group 2 (6.25% [5 of 80] in group 1 vs 19.5% [8 of 41] in group 2; P = .033). At 7 months, PNP persisted in 1 (2.5%) patient in the CB-A group. Right PNP seems to occur in a significantly larger number of patients with the second-generation CB-A. However, this complication is reversible in nearly all cases on short-term follow-up. More refined phrenic nerve monitoring during right-sided pulmonary vein ablation and less vigorous wedging maneuvers in the pulmonary vein ostia might significantly reduce the occurrence of this complication. © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Virtual non-contrast in second-generation, dual-energy computed tomography: reliability of attenuation values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepker, Michael; Moritz, Thomas; Krauss, Bernhard; Weber, Michael; Euller, Gordon; Mang, Thomas; Wolf, Florian; Herold, Christian J; Ringl, Helmut

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the reliability of attenuation values in virtual non-contrast images (VNC) reconstructed from contrast-enhanced, dual-energy scans performed on a second-generation dual-energy CT scanner, compared to single-energy, non-contrast images (TNC). Sixteen phantoms containing a mixture of contrast agent and water at different attenuations (0-1400 HU) were investigated on a Definition Flash-CT scanner using a single-energy scan at 120 kV and a DE-CT protocol (100 kV/SN140 kV). For clinical assessment, 86 patients who received a dual-phase CT, containing an unenhanced single-energy scan at 120 kV and a contrast enhanced (110 ml Iomeron 400 mg/ml; 4 ml/s) DE-CT (100 kV/SN140 kV) in an arterial (n=43) or a venous phase, were retrospectively analyzed. Mean attenuation was measured within regions of interest of the phantoms and in different tissue types of the patients within the corresponding VNC and TNC images. Paired t-tests and Pearson correlation were used for statistical analysis. For all phantoms, mean attenuation in VNC was 5.3±18.4 HU, with respect to water. In 86 patients overall, 2637 regions were measured in TNC and VNC images, with a mean difference between TNC and VNC of -3.6±8.3 HU. In 91.5% (n=2412) of all cases, absolute differences between TNC and VNC were under 15HU, and, in 75.3% (n=1986), differences were under 10 HU. Second-generation dual-energy CT based VNC images provide attenuation values close to those of TNC. To avoid possible outliers multiple measurements are recommended especially for measurements in the spleen, the mesenteric fat, and the aorta. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.