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Sample records for sechium edule swartz

  1. Polinización del chayote Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Wille, Alvaro; Orozco, Enrique; Raabe, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Pollinating insects of Sechium edule (Cucurbitaceae) were classified into primary and secondary according to their abundance and effectiveness as pollen collectors. Among the total of 55 insect species found in Costa Rica pollinating the plant, 28 were identified as primary meliponid bees of the genus Trigona (Apidae), the rest were secondary pollinators: 15 species of wasps (Vespidae); 5 species of bees of the family Halictidae, 3 species of Anthophori da e and 4 species of Apidae. The plant...

  2. Sechium edule (Jacq. Swartz, a New Cultivar with Antiproliferative Potential in a Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cell Line

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    Sandra Salazar-Aguilar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sechium edule Perla Negra cultivar is a recently-obtained biological material whose progenitors are S. edule var. nigrum minor and S. edule var. amarus silvestrys, the latter of which has been reported to have antiproliferative activity against the HeLa P-388 and L-929 cancer cell lines. The present study aimed to determine if the methanolic extract of the fruit of the Perla Negra cultivar had the same biological activity. The methanolic extract was phytochemically characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography (CC, identifying the terpenes and flavonoids. The compounds identified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were Cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I for the terpene fractions, and Rutin, Phlorizidin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Naringenin, Phloretin, Apigenin, and Galangin for the flavonoid fractions. Biological activity was evaluated with different concentrations of the methanolic extract in the HeLa cell line and normal lymphocytes. The methanolic extract inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells (IC50 1.85 µg·mL−1, but the lymphocytes were affected by the extract (IC50 30.04 µg·mL−1. Some fractions, and the pool of all of them, showed inhibition higher than 80% at a concentration of 2.11 µg·mL−1. Therefore, the biological effect shown by the methanolic extract of the Perla Negra has some specificity in inhibiting tumor cells and not normal cells; an unusual feature among molecules investigated as potential biomedical agents.

  3. Conservación in vitro de chayote (Sechium edule

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    Silvana Alvarenga-Venutolo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservación in vitro de chayote (Sechium edule. La técnica de conservación in vitro a mediano plazo fue examinada en chayote. Para ello se determinó la supervivencia de los brotes después de la adición de altas concentraciones de sacarosa (0, 30, 50, 60, 70 y 80 g/l y ácido acetil salicílico (10-9, 10-6 y 10-3 M al medio de cultivo, de disminuciones en la temperatura de crecimiento (16, 18, 20, 22 y 25ºC y combinaciones de estos factores, en Costa Rica, en 1997. Se encontró que los brotes mantuvieron altos porcentajes de viabilidad después de ser conservados durante seis meses en los tratamientos evaluados. Debido a la apariencia más vigorosa y a la coloración más verde que presentaron las plántulas, se consideró que el mejor tratamiento fue la adición de 60 g/l de sacarosa al medio de cultivo combinado con la incubación a 16ºC.

  4. Assessment of a fruit extract ( Sechium edule ) on the labeling of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products have been widely used by human beings. However, sometimes the biological effects of these products are not fully known. Chayotte (Sechium edule) is a vegetable used in the folk medicine. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) have several clinical applications. The aim of this ...

  5. Properties of cast films made of chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) tuber starch reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayote tuber (Sechium edule Sw.) starch (CS) in formulations cast into films. The films were conditioned at different storage temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, ...

  6. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram

    OpenAIRE

    Lalthansanga, James; Samanta, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule) meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM) on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk) were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal (fruits and leaves...

  7. Molecular modelling, dynamics simulation and characterization of antifungal chitinase from Sechium edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Bipasha; Pathaw, Neeta; Chrungoo, Nikhil K; Bhattacharjee, Atanu

    2017-03-30

    Chitinases are varied sized proteins which have the ability to degrade chitin and are present in a huge range of organisms like fungi, yeasts, arthropods, humans etc. and have been getting increased attention due to their biocontrol properties. In silico analysis sheds light on the extensive properties of this plant protein. In this paper, a particular antifungal protein Chitinase sourced from Sechium edule from East Khasi Hills, Meghalaya was characterized using an array of bioinformatics tools. The modelled protein showed conserved domains characteristic to glycosyl hydrolase, family 18 superfamily. Likewise, a part of the conserved domain area fits in with xylanase inhibitor Xip-1 and the class ΙΙΙ plant chitinases, for example, concanavalin B, hevamine, which have a GH18 area. The modelled wild type protein exhibited secondary characteristics comprising of 48.8% helix, 62.2% sheets and 13.8% turns, displaying an aliphatic index of 80.53 and instability index of 48.88 inferring upon the fact that the protein is relatively unstable without its appropriate environment. The paper functions as the first attempt to portray molecular dynamics simulation of Chitinase from Sechium edule reinforced by modelling and thorough characteristic analysis of the protein by employing parameters like Ramachandran Plot, Chou and Fasman Secondary Structure prediction, ProtParam etc. Further approaches like protein engineering and activity analysis suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extracts and Fractions from Edible Roots of Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw. with Antihypertensive Activity

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    Galia Lombardo-Earl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sechium edule is traditionally used in Mexico as a therapeutic resource against renal diseases and to control high blood pressure. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the roots of this plant, including its fractions and subfractions, on different hypertension models induced with angiotensin II (AG II. The hydroalcoholic extract was tested on an in vitro study of isolated aorta rings denuded of endothelial cells, using AG II as the agonist; this assay proved the vasorelaxant effect of this extract. Vagotomized rats were administered different doses of AG II as well as the Hydroalcoholic extract, which reduced blood pressure in 30 mmHg approximately; subsequently this extract was separated into two fractions (acetone and methanol which were evaluated in the acute hypertension mouse model induced with AG II, where the acetone fraction was identified as the most effective one and was subsequently subfractioned using an open chromatographic column packed with silica gel. The subfractions were also evaluated in the acute hypertension model. Finally, the extract, fraction, and active subfraction were analyzed by MS-PDA-HPLC, identifying cinnamic derivative compounds like cinnamic acid methyl ester.

  9. ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE LA REMOCIÓN DE VERDE DE BROMOCRESOL Y ROJO CONGO ENTRE Sechium edule Y Trametes versicolor

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    Maribel Cano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo entre las capacidades de remoción de T. versicolor , desarrolla do en medio líquido y la biomasa vegetal de Se c hium edule con espinas. A mbas biomasas fueron deshidratadas y molidas . L os bioensayo s se realizaron a tempe r atura ambiente y a pH controlados. Los porcentajes de remoción del rojo congo fue ron 78.83 y 75.35 % para S. edule y T. versicolor respectivamente . P ara el verde de bromocresol los porcentaje s de remoción fue ron de 86.34 % con Sechi um edule y 72 % con T . versicolor . En ambos casos, se observó que la biomasa de S. edule tuvo mayor potencial para remo ver tanto al rojo congo sin control de pH y al verde de bromocresol a pH de 4 .0 . Esto implica una ventaja de Sechium edule frente a la pr oducción de hongos ligninolíticos que últimamente han sido estudiados para la degradación de colorantes ; cuya desventaja principal es su cultivo bajo condiciones controladas.

  10. Purification and Partial Characterization of β-Glucosidase in Chayote (Sechium edule).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Sergio Espíndola; Cervantes, Carlos Alberto Matías; Zenteno, Edgar; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Alpuche, Juan; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Martínez-Cruz, Ruth; Canseco, Maria del Socorro Pina; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Rubio, Manuel Sánchez; Mayoral, Laura Pérez-Campos; Martínez-Cruz, Margarito

    2015-10-23

    β-Glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) is a prominent member of the GH1 family of glycoside hydrolases. The properties of this β-glucosidase appear to include resistance to temperature, urea, and iodoacetamide, and it is activated by 2-ME, similar to other members. β-Glucosidase from chayote (Sechium edule) was purified by ionic-interchange chromatography and molecular exclusion chromatography. Peptides detected by LC-ESI-MS/MS were compared with other β-glucosidases using the BLAST program. This enzyme is a 116 kDa protein composed of two sub-units of 58 kDa and shows homology with Cucumis sativus β-glucosidase (NCBI reference sequence XP_004154617.1), in which seven peptides were found with relative masses ranging from 874.3643 to 1587.8297. The stability of β-glucosidase depends on an initial concentration of 0.2 mg/mL of protein at pH 5.0 which decreases by 33% in a period of 30 h, and then stabilizes and is active for the next 5 days (pH 4.0 gives similar results). One hundred μg/mL β-D-glucose inhibited β-glucosidase activity by more than 50%. The enzyme had a Km of 4.88 mM with p-NPG and a Kcat of 10,000 min(-1). The optimal conditions for the enzyme require a pH of 4.0 and a temperature of 50 °C.

  11. Micropropagación de chayote (sechium edule jacq. Sw. a partir de brotes vegetativos

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    Ana Abdelnour

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El chayote (Sechium edule es una importante fuente de divisas para los países exportadores, entre los que Costa Rica mantiene el liderazgo mundial. Entre los factores más limitantes para su producci ón se encuentra el material de siembra, tradicionalmente la semilla, que por su naturaleza no permite la obtención de una producción morfológicamente homogénea de frutos (color, forma y textura de la epidermis motivo de los altos porcentajes de rechazo en las plantas empacadoras. El establecimiento de una metodología de propagación vegetativa de la especie ayudaría a resolver los problemas de heterogeneidad. Por lo anterior, la presente investigación se dirigió a desarrollar un método de micropropagación a partir de brotes vegetativos. Se evaluó el efecto de varios desinfectantes y concentraciones de reguladores de crecimiento en las etapas de establecimiento, multiplicación y enraizamiento de dos cultivares comerciales. Se observó que una desinfección con hipoclorito de calcio al 4% permitió el mayor porcentaje de explantes establecidos asépticamente bajo condiciones in vitro (49%. También se observó que durante las etapas posteriores de la micropropagación, los requerimientos de reguladores de crecimiento fueron muy bajos (0,1 mgL-1 de BA en la etapa de brotación de yemas y de 0,1 a 0,2 mgL-1 de AIB durante el enraizamiento o no se requirieron (etapa de multiplicaci ón de microestacas.

  12. Purification and Partial Characterization of β-Glucosidase in Chayote (Sechium edule

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    Sergio Espíndola Mateos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available β-Glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21 is a prominent member of the GH1 family of glycoside hydrolases. The properties of this β-glucosidase appear to include resistance to temperature, urea, and iodoacetamide, and it is activated by 2-ME, similar to other members. β-Glucosidase from chayote (Sechium edule was purified by ionic-interchange chromatography and molecular exclusion chromatography. Peptides detected by LC-ESI-MS/MS were compared with other β-glucosidases using the BLAST program. This enzyme is a 116 kDa protein composed of two sub-units of 58 kDa and shows homology with Cucumis sativus β-glucosidase (NCBI reference sequence XP_004154617.1, in which seven peptides were found with relative masses ranging from 874.3643 to 1587.8297. The stability of β-glucosidase depends on an initial concentration of 0.2 mg/mL of protein at pH 5.0 which decreases by 33% in a period of 30 h, and then stabilizes and is active for the next 5 days (pH 4.0 gives similar results. One hundred μg/mL β-D-glucose inhibited β-glucosidase activity by more than 50%. The enzyme had a Km of 4.88 mM with p-NPG and a Kcat of 10,000 min−1. The optimal conditions for the enzyme require a pH of 4.0 and a temperature of 50 °C.

  13. HONGOS CAUSANTES DE ENFERMEDADES POSTCOSECHA EN CHAYOTE (Sechium edule (Jacq. SW. Y SU CONTROL IN VITRO

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    Siul D. Romero-Velazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusarium sp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  14. Efecto de la interacción de Ascochyta phaseolorum y Pseudomonas sp. sobre la morfología de los frutos de Sechium edule (Cucurbitaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez, Nelly; Flores, Eugenia M.; Vargas, E.

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta phaseolorum and Pseudomonas sp. were isolated from infected Sechium edule fruits collected in the Valley of Ujarrás, Costa Rica. Young and mature healthy fruits were inoculated with suspensions of fungus spores or bacteria and placed in humid chambers in the laboratory or in the greenhouse. Only the young fruits from the laboratory developed lesions. The lesions produced by the fungus are characterized by rupture and lysis of the epidermal cell walls, with posterior invasion of the ...

  15. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk of Mizoram

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    James Lalthansanga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR, and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule meal (fruits and leaves at the ratio 4:1 on growth performance and nutrient utilization. They were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4. Chayote meal was used to replace standard CM (pig grower ration at 0% (G1, 20% (G2, 30% (G3, and 40% (G4. Results: During the feeding trial of 90 days, it was found that the dry matter (DM intake decreased as the level of chayote meal increased. For G1, G2, G3, and G4, the ADG (kg was 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.03, 0.18±0.02, and 0.18±0.02, respectively, and the feed conversion efficiency was 5.42±0.44, 4.93±0.17, 5.38±0.05, and 5.74±0.53, respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 among the different treatment groups in respect to ADG and FCR. At the end of the feeding trial, digestibility trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding chayote meal in the digestibility of the different nutrients by the experimental animals. From the digestibility trial, it was revealed that the digestibility coefficient of DM, crude protein, and crude fiber were also similar (p>0.05, although the ether extract digestibility in G1 was significantly low (p<0.01 as compared to G2, G3, and G4. Conclusion: Chayote meal could safely replace the standard grower ration up to 40% in the diet of growing local pigs without causing any adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization.

  16. Hongos causantes de enfermedades postcosecha en chayote (Sechium edule(Jacq. SW. y su control in vitro

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    Siul D. Romero Velazquez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusariumsp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  17. Criterios locales para selección de semillas de chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw. en zonas rurales de Chiapas, México

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    Francisco Guevara Hernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se identificaron y analizaron los criterios socio-antropológicos fundamentados en etnoagronomía y etnobotánica de los productores para seleccionar semillas de chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw. en zonas rurales de los municipios Villa Corzo y Villaflores (Chiapas, México. En entrevistas semi-estructuradas realizadas a 60 productores se describieron los criterios locales para seleccionar las semillas de esta hortaliza, considerando características de color, tamaño y presencia de espinas en los frutos, así como la obtención de variedades y recomendaciones para la siembra. Sin considerar la procedencia de los productores, el cultivo del chayote se realiza independientemente del tamaño, el color o la presencia de espinas en los frutos. Más de 60% de los productores entrevistados compra las semillas y prefieren aquellas variedades que posean frutos con espinas debido a su sabor agradable. Se confirmó la validez de los estudios socio-antropológicos en sistemas agrícolas tradicionales en la zona, particularmente en etnobotánica, para entender las relaciones sociales y productivas a nivel local, y para definir sistemas productivos sostenibles a partir de los criterios propios de las familias campesinas, lo que permite documentar, analizar, validar y entender multi-criterios relacionados con la producción familiar de chayote y su posible mejoramiento.

  18. VALORACIÓN DE LA CIDRA PAPA (Sechium edule COMO ALTERNATIVA DE ALIMENTACIÓN Y RECUPERACIÓN DE VÍNCULOS CON EL CAMPO VALORAÇÃO DA Sechium edule COMO ALTERNATIVA DE ALIMENTAÇÃO E RECUPERAÇÃO DOS VINCULOS COM O CAMPO VALUATION OF Sechium edule AS AN ALIMENTARY ALTERNATIVE AND RECUPERATION OF BONDS TO THE COUNTRY

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    CONSUELO MONTES R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación, fue valorar la cidra papa (Sechium edule como alternativa de alimentación para familias en desplazamiento que viven en asentamientos urbano marginales de Popayán, con el fin de contribuir a la recuperación del conocimiento tradicional asociado al uso y manejo, identificar ecotipos, identificar el significado sociocultural como alternativa para mantener los vínculos con el campo, evaluar productividad y posibilidades de manejo en espacios urbano marginales. El proceso se desarrolló mediante 'investigación participativa', donde los actores participaron en dinámicas recreativas, talleres de sensibilización y socialización, giras de intercambio de saberes, de semillas y generación de conocimientos, lo que permitió obtener información, y la apropiación del proceso. Se definieron como áreas de estudio 3 comunas de Popayán, se seleccionaron 4 asentamientos, se aplicaron 116 encuestas, se realizaron visitas mensuales por asentamiento, entablando diálogos informales con las familias participantes. Se conocieron las posibilidades de manejo de la planta, se incentivó la siembra de la misma aplicando el concepto de agricultura urbana donde se asoció la planta con otras hortalizas. Se pudo constatar que plantas como la cidra se adaptan a las condiciones que ofrecen los asentamientos y que son fuente alternativa para la alimentación de estas poblaciones, se fomentó el consumo de especies sub utilizadas, se hizo intercambio de saberes y se generaron espacios para motivar la conservación de ecotipos y especies de plantas como la cidra, que pueden resistir a las condiciones de marginalidad.0 objetivo da pesquisa, foi avaliar a cidra papa (Sechium edule como alternativa de alimentação para familias deslocadas que moram nos perímetros da cidade de Popayán, com o proposito de contribuir na recuperação do conhecimento tradicional relacionado com a utilização e manejo, identificação de ecotipos e o

  19. Effects of IAA and IBA on the in vitro rooting of stem cuttings of Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw

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    José García García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out with the objective of evaluating the response of shoots of chayote [S. edule (Jacq. Sw.] to the application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA on the in vitro rooting phase. The effect of three culture media, modified from the proposed of Murashige and Skoog (MS was studied: 1- 65% MS salt base, 2- 65% MS salt base + 0.05 mg l-1 of indolebutyric acid (AIB and 3- 65% MS salt base + 3.0 mg l-1-3-indole acetic acid (IAA. The variables evaluated were: number of roots, length and number of shoots per in vitro seedling. The best result were obtained when using 65% MS salt base with 3.0 mg l-1 of IAA. Significant differences (P<0.05 among treatments containing growth regulators was obtained for the variables number of roots and length of in vitro plantlets. In the UNA-730 accession root induction was obtained in a 65% MS salt base culture medium without growth regulators; however, when IAA and IBA was added the induction was 100%. The differences identified in this work with regards to the root induction were probably the combined result of genotype and specific culture conditions. Key words: auxins, chayote, growth regulators, in vitro culture

  20. Assessment of a fruit extract ( Sechium edule ) on the labeling of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract of chayote was incubated in various concentrations for 1hour with blood which was withdrawn from Wistar rats. After that SnCl2 was added and the incubation continued for more 1 h. Elapsed this time 99mTc as sodium pertechnetate (NaTcO4) was toted. The blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and RBC were ...

  1. Assessment of a fruit extract (Sechium edule) on the labeling of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    and Rabito, 1990) and calcium channels (Gutfilen et al.,. 1992) may be the means by .... distribution of the radioactivity on the red blood cells and in the plasma. The analysis of .... direct cause and effect relationship has not been unequivocally ...

  2. Chemical constituents of Ochroma lagopus Swartz; Constituintes quimicos de Ochroma lagopus Swartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Vanderlucia F.; Barbosa, Luiz C.A.; Demuner, Antonio J. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Howarth, Oliver W. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Veloso, Dorila P. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1996-05-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the heartwood of Ochroma lagopus Swartz, led to the isolation of coumarins scopoletin and cleomiscosin A; lignans boehmenan and secoisolariciresinoyl diferulate, besides {beta}-sitosterol, stigmasterol and a mixture of fatty acids and esters. Carbon-13 and proton NMR were used to identify and characterize their molecular structure. Infrared spectra and mass spectra were also utilized. (author) 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Aaron Swartz's the programmable web an unfinished work

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    This short work is the first draft of a book manuscript by Aaron Swartz written for the series ""Synthesis Lectures on the Semantic Web"" at the invitation of its editor, James Hendler. Unfortunately, the book wasn't completed before Aaron's death in January 2013. As a tribute, the editor and publisher are publishing the work digitally without cost.From the author's introduction:"" . . . we will begin by trying to understand the architecture of the Web -- what it got right and, occasionally, what it got wrong, but most importantly why it is the way it is. We will learn how it allows both users

  4. Memecylon edule leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavazhagan, Tamizhamudu; Arunachalam, Kantha D

    2011-01-01

    We used an aqueous leaf extract of Memecylon edule (Melastomataceae) to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles. To our knowledge, this is the first report where M. edule leaf broth was found to be a suitable plant source for the green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and chloroauric acid with M. edule leaf extract, stable silver and gold nanoparticles were rapidly formed. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The kinetics of reduction of aqueous silver and gold ions during reaction with the M. edule leaf broth were easily analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to M. edule leaf broth, were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20–50 nm. TEM analysis of gold nanoparticles showed formation of triangular, circular, and hexagonal shapes in the size range 10–45 nm. The resulting silver nanoparticles were predominantly square with uniform size range 50–90 nm. EDAX results confirmed the presence of triangular nanoparticles in the adsorption peak of 2.30 keV. Further FTIR analysis was also done to identify the functional groups in silver and gold nanoparticles. The characterized nanoparticles of M. edule have potential for various medical and industrial applications. Saponin presence in aqueous extract of M. edule is responsible for the mass production of silver and gold nanoparticles. PMID:21753878

  5. Aaron Swartz (1986–2013). Una vita per la cultura libera e la giustizia sociale

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2014-01-01

    Naturally, doing things like changing the university are much harder than simply becoming yet another professor. Chi fosse interessato a leggere il tributo ad Aaron Swartz curato da Bernardo Parrella e Andrea Zanni può prelevarne una copia anche dall’archivio Marini,...

  6. Aaron Swartz (1986–2013. Una vita per la cultura libera e la giustizia sociale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturally, doing things like changing the university are much harder than simply becoming yet another professor. Chi fosse interessato a leggere il tributo ad Aaron Swartz curato da Bernardo Parrella e Andrea Zanni può prelevarne una copia anche dall’archivio Marini,...

  7. Erodibility of a mixed mudflat dominated by microphytobenthos and Cerastoderma edule, East Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Lanuru, Mahatma; van Bernem, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    in this way indirectly stabilize the bed. However, although C. edule may constitute the main part of the biomass at some intertidal sites, other and more vigorous bioturbators and deposit-feeding species (e.g., the bivalve Macoma balthica, the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae or the amphipod Corophium volutator) may...

  8. Selective ingestion of pelagic versus benthic algae by the cockle Cerastoderma edule (Linne, 1758)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueda, J.L.; Smaal, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    The pre-ingestive selection of microphytobenthic algae by the cockle Cerastoderma edule was studied in comparison with diets containing the pelagic diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Treatments with the different diets covered a range of seston concentrations and organic content similar to field

  9. A growth model of the cockle (Cerastoderma edule L.) tested in the Ooosterschelde estuary (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueda, J.; Smaal, A.C.; Scholten, H.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present an ecophysiological model of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule that simulates individual growth and reproduction under ambient conditions in temperature and food availability in the Oosterschelde estuary, SW Netherlands. The model contains feedback loops in the uptake and metabolism

  10. In Vivo Therapeutic Effect of Vaccinium Meridionale Swartz in Ischemia-Reperfusion Induced Male Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mingge; Li, Ketian; Jing, Hongying; Zheng, Linyi

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective and antioxidant effect of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz in ischemia-induced male albino Wistar strain rats. Rats were grouped into 5 of 6 numbers each. Group I served as a sham, group II served as control and group III, IV, and V served for 1, 10, and 25 mg/kg/d of an extract of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz for 15 consecutive days of treatment. Serum marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and myeloperoxidase were increased, whereas antioxidant enzymes were reduced in control due to injury. Increased phenol and anthocyanin contents and increased free radical scavenging activity was noted following treatment. Serum marker enzymes, necrosis, and lipid peroxidation, were reduced, whereas antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione were increased. Nitric oxide synthase and Akt expression were also increased following treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that Vaccinium meridionale Swartz may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic injury. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Erodibility of a mixed mudflat dominated by microphytobenthos and Cerastoderma edule, East Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T. J.; Lanuru, M.; van Bernem, C.; Pejrup, M.; Riethmueller, R.

    2010-04-01

    Sediment erodibility and a range of physical and biological parameters were measured at an intertidal site in the German Wadden Sea area in June, September and November 2002 and February and April 2003 in order to examine the influence of macrozoobenthos and microphytobenthos on sediment erodibility and the temporal variation. The study site was a mixed mudflat situated in the mesotidal Baltrum-Langeoog tidal basin at the East Frisian barrier coast. The mud content at the site was about 35% and the filter-feeding cockle Cerastoderma edule was the dominating macrozoobenthic species (by biomass). The erodibility of the sediment showed strong temporal variation with high erosion thresholds in spring and late summer and significantly lower thresholds during the rest of the study period. The erosion thresholds were strongly dependent on the contents of chlorophyll a (chl a) and colloidal carbohydrates, both indicators of the content of microphytobenthos, in this environment primarily benthic diatoms. The content of microphytobenthos was high in September 2002 and April 2003, and regression analysis indicated that this was the only likely reason for the low erodibility found at these times. A biostabilisation index of about 4.5 was found for a situation with both abundant biofilms and cockles. A direct influence of Cerastoderma edule on erodibility was not observed, in contrast to other recent studies. The presence of C. edule at the site results in biodeposition of fine-grained material and the presence of C. edule will therefore probably increase the content of fine-grained sediments at the surface compared to an abiotic situation. Increasing the amount of fine-grained material in mixed sediments has previously been shown to reduce the erodibility of the sediments and C. edule will therefore in this way indirectly stabilize the bed. However, although C. edule may constitute the main part of the biomass at some intertidal sites, other and more vigorous bioturbators and

  12. Isolasi Dan Identifikasi Terpenoid dari Fraksi n-Butanol Herba Lampasau (Diplazium esculentum Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dewi Astuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Telah dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi senyawa kimia yang diisolasi dari fraksi n-butanol ekstrak metanol herba lampasau (Diplazium esculentum Swartz. Ekstrak metanol diperoleh secara maserasi dan difraksinasi berturut-turut denganpetroleum eter, etil asetat, dan n-butanol. Fraksi n­-butanol difraksinasidengan kromatografi kolom dengan fase diam silika gel dihasilkan fraksi A, B, C, dan D. Fraksi B dimurnikan dengan kromatografi lapis tipis preparatif pada silika geldihasilkan isolat B1. Isolat B1 berupa padatan tidak berwarna danberfluoresensi putih di bawah lampu UV 366 nm. Panjang gelombang maksimum pada spektra UV  isolat B1 adalah 225 nm dan 272.5 nm yang menunjukkan adanya ikatan rangkap tak terkonjugasi. Spektra IR isolat B1 menunjukkan adanya gugus C=C, –OH, C=O lakton, –CO, C–H ulur, dan C–H tekuk. Spektra 1H-NMR isolat B1 menunjukkan sinyal proton pada ikatan rangkap, proton –OH, proton pada –CH2 yang terikat atom oksigen, serta proton gugus metil –CH3. Berdasarkan data spektra UV, IR, dan 1H-NMR maka isolat B1 disarankan sebagai turunan senyawa triterpenoid hopan-lakton. Kata kunci : diplazium esculentum Swartz, fraksi n-butanol, triterpenoid hopan-lakton  Abstract The research  aims to identify chemical compounds isolated fromn-butanol fraction methanol extract of lampasau herbs (Diplazium esculentum Swartz. The methanol extract was obtained by maceration and fractioned by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, andn-butanol. N-butanol fraction was fractionated using column chromatography on silica gel produced fractions A, B, C, and D. Fraction B was purified by preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel produced isolate B1. Isolate B1was colorless solid and has white fluorescent under UV lamp 366 nm. The maximum wavelength on UV spectra of B1 are 225 nm and 272,5 nm indicates the unconjugated double bond. IR spectra of B1 showed the vibration of C=C, –OH, C=O lactone, –CO, C

  13. Two new steroidal glycosides isolated from the aerial part of Solanum torvum Swartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Weihu; Wu, Chun; Zhang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai; Zhou, Guangxiong

    2013-01-01

    One novel C-22 steroidal lactone saponin, namely solanolactoside C (1), and one new spirostanol glycoside, namely torvoside Q (2), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Solanum torvum Swartz. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by extensive NMR experiments including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and ROESY and HRESIMS to be solanolide 6-O-β-d-quinovopyranoside and neochlorogenin 6-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-d-glucopyranoside], respectively.

  14. Homeless wanderers : Movement and mental illness in the Cape Colony in the nineteenth century, Sally Swartz : book review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Du Plessis, Rory

    2016-01-01

    .... The book explores mental illness in the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1910. A central aim of Swartz is to chart 'a variety of ways in which the insane in the Cape Colony might be studied as a vulnerable population on the move...

  15. Effects of metal contamination on the gene expression profile of two benthic species: Cerastoderma edule and Ruditapes philippinarum

    KAUST Repository

    Rodrigues, Raquel

    2017-08-14

    This study aimed to identify new biomarkers for metal exposure in two bivalve species. Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was employed to evaluate the transcriptomic response of Cerastoderma edule and Ruditapes philippinarum to metal pollution. Protein synthesis and catalytic activity were the most affected metabolic processes in C. edule and R. philippinarum, respectively. Also, different genes responded to the effect of contamination in each species. The different response observed in both species reinforces the importance of including more than one bioindicator species in risk assessment studies. These results provide the basis for new studies, which are necessary for further validation of the use of the identified genes as molecular biomarkers for metal exposure.

  16. Health concerns of consuming cockles (Cerastoderma edule L.) from a low contaminated coastal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Etelvina; Lima, Ana; Branco, Diana; Quintino, Victor; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Freitas, Rosa

    2011-07-01

    Commercial and recreational harvesting of shellfish within the coastal systems is usually very extensive. Since these ecosystems are frequently subjected to contamination, namely from agricultural, urban and industrial activities, and shellfish generally display a high capacity to bioaccumulate metals, populations may be at risk in terms of toxic metal exposure as a consequence of the harvesting and ingestion of near shore coastal marine organisms. Shellfish is regularly tested for concentrations of metals and other contaminants by legal authorities for commercial purposes, but although health officials use total metal as standards of food safety, only a part of the metal accumulated in shellfish is available to be assimilated and to cause toxic effect. In order to elucidate these issues an investigation on cockles inhabiting the Aveiro estuary was conducted. Element levels in sediments and wild Cerastoderma edule from sampling areas with different levels of contamination were measured; total element burden of cockles was related to accessible fraction for assimilation (TAM); element concentrations in wild C. edule were compared to EFSA (European Food Safe Authorities), USFDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) and FSANZ (Food Standards Australia and New Zealand) maximum levels (MLs); and the amount of cockle flesh needed to be consumed to exceed provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was determined. The present work showed that although sediment metal and metalloid contamination in Aveiro estuary is low the concentration of elements in C. edule does not reflect the contamination of the sediment. Aluminium (Al) and mercury (Hg) were the less and nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were the most bioaccumulated metals by cockles. Comparison of MLs from international organisations with the concentration of elements in C. edule showed that arsenic (As) and Pb exceeded standard levels. The ingestion of less than 1 kg for As and 1.5 kg for Pb

  17. Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae adults: II. Sechium pittieri (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Flores

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci is a key pest of vegetables and other crops worldwide, but it is a particularly serious problem in the tropics, due to its ability to transmit several types of viruses, especially begomoviruses (Geminiviridae. Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period. Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water: methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether of wild "tacaco" (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae, were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract as well as some fractions exert such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages, fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (ether and 0.5% (water and water: methanol, with the methanol fraction showing no activity. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 2115-2129. Epub 2008 December 12.Bemisia tabaci es una plaga clave de hortalizas y otros cultivos, mundialmente, y representa un problema particularmente serio en los trópicos, debido a su habilidad para transmitir varios tipos de virus, especialmente begomovirus (Geminiviridae. Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría consistir en la utilización de sustancias repelentes o disuasivas en las eta-pas tempranas del desarrollo de la planta (período crítico. Así, el extracto crudo y cuatro fracciones (agua, agua: metanol, metanol, y éter dietílico de tacaco cimarrón (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae, fueron evaluadas por su posible actividad fagodisuasiva sobre B. tabaci en un invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en

  18. Biological activity of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae and Sechium pittieri (Cucurbitaceae extracts on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mancebo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity of a plant extract (common rue, Ruta chalepensis and a semi purifíed fraction (from "tacaco cimarrón", Sechium pittieri on mahogany shootborer larvas (Hypsipyla grandella was studied. A randomized complete block design, with four replications, was used. H. grandella third instar larvas were exposed for 24 h to Cedrela odorata leaf discs dipped in several treatment dissolutions of each extract (0.1, 0.32, 1.0, 3.20, and 10%; afterwards, each larva was transferred to a flask containing an artificial diet and was allowed to complete its development. Variables measured included food consumption (foliar area eaten in 24 h, mortality, and developmental effects (developmental time for each larval instar and the pupa, and pupal weight. The common rue extract showed a clear antifeedant activity at a concentration as low as 0.32%, whereas the "tacaco cimarrón" fraction caused toxicity, especially at the two highest concentrations (3.20 and 10%.Se estudió la actividad biológica de un extracto de follaje de ruda (Ruta chalepensis y de una fracción semipurificada de "tacaco cimarrón" (Sechium pittieri sobre las larvas del gusano barrenador de las meliáceas (Hypsipyla grandella. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Durante 24 h se expusieron larvas de tercer estadio de H. grandella a discos de follaje de Cedrela odorata impregnados con cada tratamiento. Estos consistieron en disoluciones de cada extracto (0.1, 0.32, 1.0, 3.20 y 10%; posteriormente cada larva se transfirió a un frasco que contenía dieta artificial, donde se le permitió completar su desarrollo. Las variables de respuesta fueron el consumo de alimento (área foliar comida en 24 h, la mortalidad y efectos sobre el desarrollo (tiempo de desarrollo de cada estadio larval y de la pupa, y el peso de la pupa. El extracto de ruda causó fagodisuasión a una concentración de apenas 0.32%, mientras que la fracción de "tacaco cimarr

  19. Antimicrobial and Antimycobacterial Activities of Methyl Caffeate Isolated from Solanum torvum Swartz. Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Chandrasekhar; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Balakrishna, K; Kalia, Nitin Pal; Rajput, Vikrant Singh; Khan, Inshad Ali; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2012-12-01

    Solanum torvum Swartz. (Solanaceae) fruit is traditionally used for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections. The methanolic extract was subjected to activity guided fractionation by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of the compound was elucidated using physical and spectroscopic data. The antimicrobial activity was screened using five Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, seven clinical isolates and four fungi. Antimycobacterial activity was screened against two Mycobacterium strains. The zone of inhibition by methyl caffeate ranged from 0 to 22 mm. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of methyl caffeate were: 50 μg/ml against P. vulgaris, 25 μg/ml against K. pneumoniae (ESBL-3971), 8 μg/ml against M. tuberculosis (H(37)Rv) and 8 μg/ml against M. tuberculosis (Rif(R)). Methyl caffeate showed moderate antimicrobial and prominent antimycobacterial activities. Methyl caffeate can be evaluated further for drug development.

  20. Efecto de la posición de la semilla de tacaco (Sechium tacaco (Pittier) C. Jeffrey) Sobre la germinación (ING)

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Castillo, Rónald; Brenes Hine, Abdenago

    2016-01-01

    The effect of seed position on germination using sterilized sand as substrate under room temperature conditions (mean = 20°C, max.= 24,2°C, min. = 16,2°C) was evaluated in tacaco [Sechium tacaco (Pittier) C. Jeffrey]. The treatments were: A= seed placed horizontally on substrate, B= seed buried horizontally in substrate, C=seed halfburied in lateral position, D= seed halfburied in vertical position, distal extreme up, E= seed halfburied in vertical position, distal extreme down. After 28 days...

  1. Actividad antiinflamatoria de flores y hojas de Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz Anti-inflammatory activity of flowers and leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Eduardo Matiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Partes aéreas de la planta Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz han sido usadas en medicina tradicional al sur del Departamento de Cundinamarca para el tratamiento de afecciones inflamatorias. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antiinflamatoria de flores, hojas y frutos verdes de Caesalpinia pulcherrima para cuantificar su actividad antiinflamatoria en modelos murinos de inflamación aguda y subcrónica. Metodología: Este estudio cuantificó la actividad antiinflamatoria de diferentes extractos de tejidos aéreos de esta especie encontrada en Colombia por dos modelos de inflamación aguda, el edema auricular inducido por TPA (acetato de 12-O-tetradecanoil-forbol y el edema plantar inducido por carragenina; así como el modelo de inflamación sub-crónico de granuloma inducido por pellet de algodón. Resultados: Los extractos de flores mostraron la mayor actividad antiinflamatoria en el modelo del TPA, en tanto que las hojas fueron más efectivas en disminuir el granuloma, en el modelo del pellet de algodón. No se observó ninguna actividad antiinflamatoria de ningún extracto en el modelo de carragenina. Los frutos verdes no mostraron actividad en ningún modelo. Conclusión: Los resultados demostraron la efectividad que el uso etnobotánico le atribuye a esta planta. Los extractos activos obtenidos mostraron el potencial uso de esta planta en la fabricación fitoterapéuticos efectivos. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (3: 281-287Introduction: Aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz have been used in traditional medicine in southern Cundinamarca Department for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Objective: Evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of flowers, leaves and green fruits of the plant to quantify inflammatory activity of acute and subchronic murine inflammation models. Methodology: This study quantified the anti-inflammatory activity of different extracts of aerial tissues of this species for two models of acute

  2. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753)

    OpenAIRE

    Marques,Anelise; Tuler,Amélia Carlos; Carvalho,Carlos Roberto; ,; Ferreira,Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo,Wellington

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 pi...

  3. Impact of high pCO2 on shell structure of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Stefania; Schöne, Bernd R; Wang, Schunfeng; Müller, Werner E

    2016-08-01

    Raised atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) result in an increased ocean pCO2 level and decreased carbonate saturation state. Ocean acidification potentially represents a major threat to calcifying organisms, specifically mollusks. The present study focuses on the impact of elevated pCO2 on shell microstructural and mechanical properties of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule. The mollusks were collected from the Baltic Sea and kept in flow-through systems at six different pCO2 levels from 900 μatm (control) to 24,400 μatm. Extreme pCO2 levels were used to determine the effects of potential leaks from the carbon capture and sequestration sites where CO2 is stored in sub-seabed geological formations. Two approaches were combined to determine the effects of the acidified conditions: (1) Shell microstructures and dissolution damage were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (2) shell hardness was tested using nanoindentation. Microstructures of specimens reared at different pCO2 levels do not show significant changes in their size and shape. Likewise, the increase of pCO2 does not affect shell hardness. However, dissolution of ontogenetically younger portions of the shell becomes more severe with the increase of pCO2. Irrespective of pCO2, strong negative correlations exist between microstructure size and shell mechanics. An additional sample from the North Sea revealed the same microstructural-mechanical interdependency as the shells from the Baltic Sea. Our findings suggest that the skeletal structure of C. edule is not intensely influenced by pCO2 variations. Furthermore, our study indicates that naturally occurring shell mechanical property depends on the shell architecture at μm-scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth and fatty acid composition of juvenile Cerastoderma edule (L.) fed live microalgae diets with different fatty acid profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis Batista, dos I.C.; Kamermans, P.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of dietary 20:5n-3 (EPA), 22:6n-3 (DHA) and 20:4n-6 (ARA) for growth, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile cockles (Cerastoderma edule) was investigated. Cockles of 6.24 ± 0.04 mm and 66.14 ± 0.34 mg (live weight) were distributed into three treatments where live microalgae

  5. Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particles derived from different vegetal sources by the cockle Cerastoderma edule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambalza, U.; Urrutia, M. B.; Navarro, E.; Ibarrola, I.

    2010-10-01

    Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particulate detrital matter derived from six different vegetal sources by the common cockle Cerastoderma edule was analyzed in a series of seasonal experiments performed in March, May and October 2005. Two green macroalgae: Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha sp; two vascular plants: Spartina maritima and Juncus maritimus, the red macroalgae Gracilaria gracilis; and the microalgae Isochrysis galbana were used in experiments. Detrital matter was elaborated by freeze-drying, grinding and sieving (food source for bivalves.

  6. Effect of picung (Pangium edule plant extracts as a botanical pesticide on mortality of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soekadar wiryadiputra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed and leaves of picung (Pangium edule as an botanical insecticide for CBB. This research used a complete random design. There were 8 treatments with the concentration of the extract from leaves and seed of picung, one positive control treatment (Carbaril 0,02% formulation and one negative control treatment (aquades. The treatment was repeated four times and carried out observation on every day until six days. The concentrations leaf and seed extracts were 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%. The result of the research show that between concentration applied the were no significant different and at observation six days after application the mortality of CBB only around 35 -40% on both extracts (ewater and methanol. The result of the research also show that there were no real differentiation between leaves and seed of picung. LT-50 values were 1.25% and 0.96%, for leaves and seed extract in water for six day observation. From this observation could be concluded that picung tree (Pangium edule is not effective in the controlling CBB in the interval concentration applied and extraction method used. Key words: Botanical pesticide, picung tree, Pangium edule, mortality, Hypothenemus hampei, water extraction, methanol extraction.

  7. CDNA cloning and characterization of the Ve homologue gene StVe from Solanum torvum Swartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jiong; Chai, Yourong; Wang, Jin; Lin, Juan; Sun, Xiaofen; Sun, Chao; Zuo, Kaijing; Tang, Kexuan

    2004-04-01

    Verticillium wilt is a disastrous disease causing significant yield losses of many crops. Isolation of verticillium wilt resistance gene is a fundamental work for controlling this disease through genetic engineering. In this report, we describe the cloning and characterization of a Ve like gene (StVe) from Solanum torvum Swartz. The nucleotide sequence of StVe is 3640 bp long with an open reading frame of 3414 bp encoding a protein precursor of 1138 aa. Sharing high homologies to tomato verticillium wilt disease resistance genes Ve1 and Ve2, the leucine rich (15.89%) protein StVe has a calculated molecular weight of 126.48kDa with an isoelectric point of 5.62. It possesses a hydrophobic N-terminal signal peptide of 20 aa and 38 predicted leucine-rich repeats containing 32 potential N-glycosylation sites (28 being significant). Fifty-seven predicted phosphorylation sites (36 for S, 8 for T and 13 for Y) distribute in StVe protein. A PEST-like sequence and a mammalian endocytosis signals YCVF are found within the C-terminal region. The C terminus of StVe concludes with the residues KKF similar to the KKX motif that confers endoplasmic reticulum localization in plants as well as mammals and yeast. The sequence analysis of the StVe gene implies that the StVe is a potential verticillium wilt disease resistance gene encoding a cell surface-like receptor protein.

  8. Propagation of the neotropical fruit Vaccinium meridionale Swartz by air layering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Ligarreto-Moreno

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium meridionale Swartz has its natural distribution in the tropics of the New World, from 2,100 to 4,000 m a.s.l.; and is a keystone species in habitat conservation, with 3 m high shrubs when pruned. The aim of this study was to evaluate stem rooting using naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and Aloe vera as rooting promoters with a farm propagation system. For this purpose, a natural population of plants was selected in San Miguel de Sema (Boyaca, Colombia, 5°31'15'' N and 73°43'39'' W, at 2,615 m a.s.l., with an average temperature of 13°C and an average annual precipitation of 1,000-1,300 mm. The results showed that the studied rooting promoters stimulated the appearance and development of roots; however, the NAA treatments had greater root growth over time. Developing air layers allowed for their separation from the mother plants and transplant 6 months after the application of the rooting promoters started

  9. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis López-Padilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry. In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3 and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa and temperatures (313 and 343 K were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3 was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments.

  10. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Padilla, Alexis; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Restrepo Flórez, Claudia Estela; Rivero Barrios, Diana Marsela; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry) is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids). The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry). In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3) and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa) and temperatures (313 and 343 K) were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3) was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC) model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments. PMID:28773640

  11. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO₂ Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Padilla, Alexis; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Restrepo Flórez, Claudia Estela; Rivero Barrios, Diana Marsela; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2016-06-25

    Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry) is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids). The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry). In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm³) and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa) and temperatures (313 and 343 K) were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm³) was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC) model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%-3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO₂ residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments.

  12. In vitro anticancer activity of methyl caffeate isolated from Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, C; Emi, N; Arun, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Ahilan, B; Sangeetha, B; Duraipandiyan, V; Inaguma, Yoko; Okamoto, Akinao; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A; Perumal, P T

    2015-12-05

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the anticancer activity of methyl caffeate isolated from Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action in MCF-7 cells. Cytotoxic properties of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were carried out against MCF-7 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Ethyl acetate extract showed good cytototoxic activities compared to hexane and methanol extracts. Methyl caffeate was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract using column chromatography. Cytotoxic properties of methyl caffeate was investigated against MCF-7, A549, COLO320, HepG-2 and Vero cells. The compound showed potent cytotoxic properties against MCF-7 cells compared to A549, COLO320 and HepG-2 cells. Methyl caffeate significantly reduced cell proliferation and increased formation of fragmented DNA and apoptotic body in MCF-7 cells. Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, p53, caspase-3, PARP and cytochrome c release were detected by western blot analysis. The activities of caspases-3 and PARP gradually increased after the addition of isolated compound. Bcl-2 protein was down regulated; Bid and Bax were up regulated after the treatment with methyl caffeate. Molecular docking studies showed that the compound bound stably to the active sites of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1), B cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (MDM2) and tubulin. The results strongly suggested that methyl caffeate induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via caspase activation through cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trace element fingerprinting of cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells can reveal harvesting location in adjacent areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Fernando; Génio, Luciana; Costa Leal, Miguel; Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-07-07

    Determining seafood geographic origin is critical for controlling its quality and safeguarding the interest of consumers. Here, we use trace element fingerprinting (TEF) of bivalve shells to discriminate the geographic origin of specimens. Barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) were quantified in cockle shells (Cerastoderma edule) captured with two fishing methods (by hand and by hand-raking) and from five adjacent fishing locations within an estuarine system (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Results suggest no differences in TEF of cockle shells captured by hand or by hand-raking, thus confirming that metal rakes do not act as a potential source of metal contamination that could somehow bias TEF results. In contrast, significant differences were recorded among locations for all trace elements analysed. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP) revealed that 92% of the samples could be successfully classified according to their fishing location using TEF. We show that TEF can be an accurate, fast and reliable method to determine the geographic origin of bivalves, even among locations separated less than 1 km apart within the same estuarine system. Nonetheless, follow up studies are needed to determine if TEF can reliably discriminate between bivalves originating from different ecosystems.

  14. Physiological responses to ocean acidification and warming synergistically reduce condition of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, E Z; Briffa, M; Moens, T; Van Colen, C

    2017-09-01

    The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming on the common cockle Cerastoderma edule was investigated in a fully crossed laboratory experiment. Survival of the examined adult organisms remained high and was not affected by elevated temperature (+3 °C) or lowered pH (-0.3 units). However, the morphometric condition index of the cockles incubated under high pCO 2 conditions (i.e. combined warming and acidification) was significantly reduced after six weeks of incubation. Respiration rates increased significantly under low pH, with highest rates measured under combined warm and low pH conditions. Calcification decreased significantly under low pH while clearance rates increased significantly under warm conditions and were generally lower in low pH treatments. The observed physiological responses suggest that the reduced food intake under hypercapnia is insufficient to support the higher energy requirements to compensate for the higher costs for basal maintenance and growth in future high pCO 2 waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Minchinia mercenariae-like parasite infects cockles Cerastoderma edule in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramilo, A; Abollo, E; Villalba, A; Carballal, M J

    2018-01-01

    The cockle Cerastoderma edule fishery has traditionally been the most important shellfish species in terms of biomass in Galicia (NW Spain). In the course of a survey of the histopathological conditions affecting this species in the Ria of Arousa, a haplosporidan parasite that had not been observed in Galicia was detected in one of the most productive cockle beds of Galicia. Uni- and binucleate cells and multinucleate plasmodia were observed in the connective tissue mainly in the digestive area, gills and gonad. The parasite showed low prevalence, and it was not associated with abnormal cockle mortality. Molecular identification showed that this parasite was closely related to the haplosporidan Minchinia mercenariae that had been reported infecting hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria from the Atlantic coast of the United States. The molecular characterization of its SSU rDNA region allowed obtaining a fragment of 1,796 bp showing 98% homology with M. mercenariae parasite. Phylogenetic analysis supported this identification as this parasite was clustered in the same clade as M. mercenariae from the United States and other M. mercenariae-like sequences from the UK, with bootstrap value of 99%. The occurrence of M. mercenariae-like parasites infecting molluscs outside the United States is confirmed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Propensity to metal accumulation and oxidative stress responses of two benthic species (Cerastoderma edule and Nephtys hombergii): are tolerance processes limiting their responsiveness?

    KAUST Repository

    Marques, Ana

    2016-02-24

    The chronic exposure of benthic organisms to metals in sediments can lead to the development of tolerance mechanisms, thus diminishing their responsiveness. This study aims to evaluate the accumulation profiles of V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg and antioxidant system responses of two benthic organisms (Cerastoderma edule, Bivalvia; Nephtys hombergii, Polychaeta). This approach will provide clarifications about the ability of each species to signalise metal contamination. Organisms of both species were collected at the Tagus estuary, in two sites with distinct contamination degrees (ALC, slightly contaminated; BAR, highly contaminated). Accordingly, C. edule accumulated higher concentrations of As, Pb and Hg at BAR compared to ALC. However, antioxidant responses of C. edule were almost unaltered at BAR and no peroxidative damage occurred, suggesting adjustment mechanisms to the presence of metals. In contrast, N. hombergii showed a minor propensity to metal accumulation, only signalising spatial differences for As and Pb and accumulating lower concentrations of metals than C. edule. The differences in metal accumulation observed between species might be due to their distinctive foraging behaviour and/or the ability of N. hombergii to minimise the metal uptake. Despite that, the accumulation of As and Pb was on the basis of the polychaete antioxidant defences inhibition at BAR, including CAT, SOD, GR and GPx. The integrated biomarker response index (IBRv2) confirmed that N. hombergii was more affected by metal exposure than C. edule. In the light of current findings, in field-based studies, the information of C. edule as a bioindicator should be complemented by that provided by another benthic species, since tolerance mechanisms to metals can hinder a correct diagnosis of sediment contamination and of the system’s health. Overall, the present study contributed to improve the lack of fundamental knowledge of two widespread and common estuarine species, providing

  17. Aplicación de tratamiento térmico, recubrimiento comestible y baño químico como tratamientos poscosecha para la conservación de hortalizas mínimamente procesadas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Escobar Hernández, Alejandro; Márquez Cardozo, Carlos Julio; Restrepo Flores, Claudia Estela; Cano Salazar, Jaime Andrés; Patiño Gómez, Jairo Humberto

    2014-01-01

    ... mínimamente procesadas: brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. Itálica), coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), apio (Apium graveolens), zanahoria (Daucus carota) y chayote (Sechium edule...

  18. A comparison of the Cook-Swartz Doppler with conventional clinical methods for free flap monitoring: A systematic review and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhao-Feng; Guo, Li-Li; Liu, Lin-Bo; Li, Qian; Zhou, Jian; Wei, Ai-Zhou; Guo, Peng-Fei

    2016-08-01

    Currently there is no consensus on what is the optimal method for monitoring free flaps. Our meta-analysis compared the free flap success and salvage rates of Cook-Swartz Implantable Doppler monitoring with clinical monitoring to gain insight into the relative benefit of these systems. Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until January 16, 2016. Search terms included free flap surgery, free flap microsurgery and implantable Doppler. Studies were included if they involved the comparison of Cook-Swartz Doppler and clinical assessment for monitoring free flap function. Studies using free flap monitoring as an outcome measure for drug treatment were also excluded. Sensitivity analysis using the leave-one-out approach was used to assay the reliability of the findings. Initial search identified 14 studies, of which five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Cook-Swartz Doppler had significantly better rate of free flap success and salvage than clinical monitoring methods (P values ≤ 0.006). Data did not markedly changed when each study was removed in turn, showing reliability of the findings. The Cook-Swartz Doppler as a monitoring method may result in a higher rate of free flap success and salvaging but also a greater frequency of false positives than conventional methods. Our analysis is limited by designs of included studies and by heterogeneity of clinical monitoring techniques. More studies are needed to evaluate if Cook-Swartz Doppler can be used alone, or to be better used as an adjunctive technique to complement the clinical method of monitoring. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dredging for edible cockles (Cerastoderma edule) on intertidal flats : short-term consequences of fisher patch-choice decisions for target and non-target benthic fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, Casper; Piersma, Theunis; Dekinga, Anne; Koolhaas, Anita; van der Meer, Jaap

    2007-01-01

    Intertidal flats in the Dutch Wadden Sea are protected by national and international treaties. Still, mechanical dredging for edible cockles Cerastoderma edule was allowed in 74% of 1200 km(2) of interticlal flats. Cumulatively, between 1992 and 2001, 19% of the intertidal area was affected by

  20. Chemical composition profiling and antifungal activity of the essential oil and plant extracts of Mesembryanthemum edule (L.) bolus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Beauty Etinosa; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Bradley, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil from Mesembryanthemum edule leaves have been used by the Eastern Cape traditional healers for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, tuberculosis, dysentery, diabetic mellitus, laryngitis and vaginal infections. The investigation of bioactive compounds in the essential oil of this plant could help to verify the efficacy of the plant in the management or treatment of these illnesses. Various concentrations of the hydro-distilled essential oil, ranging from 0.005-5 mg/ml, were tested against some fungal strains, using the micro-dilution method. Minimum inhibitory activity was compared with four other different crude extracts of hexane, acetone, ethanol and aqueous samples from the same plant. The chemical composition of the essential oil, hexane, acetone and ethanol extracts was determined using GC-MS. GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 28 compounds, representing 99.99% of the total oil. Phytoconstituents of hexane, acetone and ethanol extracts yielded a total peak chromatogram of fifty nine compounds. A total amount of 10.6% and 36.61% of the constituents were obtained as monoterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.58%) were relatively low compared to the oxygenated sesquiterpenes (9.28%), while the major concentrated diterpenes and oxygenated diterpenes were 1.43% and 19.24 %, respectively and phytol 12.41%. Total amount of fatty acids and their methyl esters content, present in the oil extract, were found to be 19.25 %. Antifungal activity of the oil extract and four solvent extracts were tested against five pathogenic fungal strains. The oil extract showed antifungal activity against Candida albican, Candida krusei, Candida rugosa, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC ranges of 0.02 0.31 mg/ml. Hexane extract was active against the five fungal strains with MICs ranging between 0.02-1.25 mg/ml. Acetone extracts were active against C. krusei only at 0.04mg/ml. No

  1. ANDEAN BLUEBERRY (Vaccinium Meridionale Swartz SEED STORAGE BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERIZATION UNDER LOW TEMPERATURE CONSERVATION CATEGORIZACIÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO DE LAS SEMILLAS DE MORTIÑO (Vaccinium Meridionale Swartz EN ALMACENAMIENTO A BAJA TEMPERATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Hernández Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A study was conducted to categorize harvest stage, maximun dry weigth and tolerance to desiccation at low temperature storage of seeds of the promising species "andean blueberry", Vaccinium meridionale Swartz. The aim was to determine the long term conservation possibility of a duplicate of the current Colombian Andean Highland field collection in cool storage rooms, as well as that of newly collected local populations from the mentioned highland region, which are in danger of genetic erosion due to human intervention and the ongoing global climate change. Both maximum dry weight and the highest germination percentages were observed to be associated in seeds extracted from deep purple (fully ripe berries. The seeds exhibited orthodox storage behavior, which indicates the possibility for long-term cold storage of a duplicate of the current metapopulation of the species in the country.Resumen. Se realizó un estudio para categorizar el estado de cosecha, máximo peso seco de la semilla y la tolerancia de ésta a la desecación y almacenamiento a bajas temperaturas, en la especie promisoria mortiño, Vaccinium meridionale Swartz. El objetivo fue establecer el potencial de conservar un duplicado de la colección de campo y rescatar y almacenar poblaciones espontáneas de la zona alto andina colombiana, en peligro de pérdida por intervención humana y el cambio climático, que pueden causar erosión de la diversidad genética de la especie. El máximo peso seco se logró a partir de semillas extraídas de bayas de color morado oscuro, con obtención de germinación superior en éstas y una relación directa entre el peso seco y el porcentaje de germinación. La semilla exhibió comportamiento ortodoxo, lo cual indica la posibilidad de almacenamiento a largo plazo de un duplicado de la metapoblación de la especie, existente en el país.

  2. Considerações taxonômicas e novas combinações em Ardisia Swartz (Myrsinaceae do sudeste do Brasil Taxonomic considerations and new combinations in Ardisia Swartz (Myrsinaceae from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Bernacci

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Os tipos de placentação e de pré-floração têm sido utilizados para a distinção dos gêneros Ardisia Swartz, ao qual tem sido atribuído placentação plurisseriada e pré-floração imbricada ou quincuncial, e Stylogyne A.DC., ao qual tem sido atribuído placentação unisseriada e pré-floração contorta. Entretanto, a análise de dez espécies destes gêneros revelou a inconsistência destes caracteres. Também foi constatada a impossibilidade de observar diferenças no tipo de placentação em espécimes com poucos óvulos. Propõe-se, portanto, o restabelecimento da circunscrição de Ardisia, incluindo o gênero Stylogyne, conforme adotado por Miquel, em 1856 e Handro, em 1969. Desta forma, Ardisia ambigua Mart. é o nome válido para S. ambigua (Mart. Mez e Ardisia martiana Miq. o é para S. laevigata (Mart. Mez. Duas novas combinações são necessárias: Ardisia depauperata (Mez Bernacci & Jung-Mendaçolli e Ardisia warmingii (Mez Bernacci & Jung-Mendaçolli.Placentation and aestivation have traditionally been used as diagnostic features to separate the genera Ardisia Swartz and Stylogyne A.DC. While Ardisia has pluriseriate placentation and imbricate or quincuncial aestivation, Stylogyne has uniseriate placentation and contorted aestivation. However, careful examination of ten species of these genera revealed the inconsistency of these characters in the distinction of the two genera. Also, we noticed the impossibility of observation of placentation types in few-ovuled specimens. Therefore, we propose the re-establishment of the circumscription of Ardisia adopted by Miquel, in 1856, and Handro, in 1969 which includes the genus Stylogyne. In this way Ardisia ambigua Mart. is the valid name for S. ambigua (Mart. Mez as Ardisia martiana Miq. is for S. laevigata (Mart. Mez. Two new combinations are necessary: Ardisia depauperata (Mez Bernacci & Jung-Mendaçolli and Ardisia warmingii (Mez Bernacci & Jung-Mendaçolli.

  3. Population structure and growth rates at biogeographic extremes: a case study of the common cockle, Cerastoderma edule (L.) in the Barents Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genelt-Yanovskiy, Evgeny; Poloskin, Alexey; Granovitch, Andrei; Nazarova, Sophia; Strelkov, Petr

    2010-01-01

    A descriptive study of population structure, growth rates and shell morphometry was conducted on nine intertidal populations of the infaunal bivalve Cerastoderma edule in the Murmansk coast of the Barents Sea. Year-to-year population dynamics was analyzed during 2002-2006 on a tidal flat Dalniy Plaj (eastern Murmansk coast). The region constitutes the northern extremes of C. edule range where populations occupied the middle to low intertidal zone and were characterized by low densities. The distribution of age groups and unstable age structure across years in the cockle populations suggest irregular recruitment. Growth rates and shell morphometry showed little variation across the populations studied, and there were no gradient changes from the west to the east parts of Murmansk coast. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioactivity of Trichilia pallida Swartz (Meliaceae) derived molecules on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae); Bioatividade de moleculas isoladas de Trichilia pallida Swartz (Meliaceae) sobre Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Uemerson S. da [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: uscunha@ufpel.edu.br; Vendramim, Jose D. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Rocha, Waldireny C.; Vieira, Paulo C. [Universidade de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-11-15

    Dichloromethane (DIC) leaf and fruit extracts of Trichiliapallida Swartz were obtained for the isolation and identification of molecules with insecticide activity against the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). DIC leaf extracts of T. pallida yielded six compounds, the triterpenes 24-methylenecycloarta-3{beta}-ol (TRIT-1), 24-methylenecycloarta-3{beta}-26-diol (TRIT-2) and cycloarta-23-eno-3{beta},25-diol (TRIT-3), the sterols 24-methylene-3,22-dihydroxycholesterol (EST-1), 24-methylenecholesterol (EST-2) and 24-methylene-3{beta},4{beta},22-trihydroxycholesterol (EST-3), while the fruit extract yielded the limonoid gedunine (LIM). These molecules were dissolved in acetone and sprayed at 0.1% on tomato leaflets infested with newly-hatched larvae. Larval mortality at day 5 and 9 after infestation, larval and pupal developmental time and survival, pupal weight and adult malformation were evaluated. TRIT-1, EST-1 and LIM were the most effective against T. absoluta due to larval development arrestment and reduced larval survivorship. (author)

  5. Gall (Trioza rusellae Tuthill insect identification in Brosimum alicastrum Swartz leaves in Yucatán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ascencio-Álvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El insecto Trioza rusellae Tuthill (Hemiptera-Triozidae produce agallas en las hojas del árbol de ramón (Brosimum alicastrum Swartz, especie con alto valor nutricional de la península de Yucatán. El insecto fue aislado e identificado a partir de colectas en los municipios de Muna y Sacalum, Yucatán. Los árboles de cinco a 10 años de edad se muestrearon seleccionando ramas con hojas que presentaban agallas. Las muestras se colocaron en bolsas de plástico y se trasladaron al laboratorio confinándolas en jaulas entomológicas. Los adultos se recolectaron con un aspirador manual, mientras que las agallas se disectaron para colectar las ninfas directamente con un pincel (0001. Las muestras se conservaron en alcohol (70 % y en fijador formol-alcohol-agua (FAA. Las ninfas y adultos de las muestras en alcohol se montaron y observaron en el microscopio estereoscópico. Las muestras en FAA se procesaron y observaron en el microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB. Como resultado, se obtuvieron fotografías y se identificaron las fases de desarrollo de T. rusellae mediante claves entomológicas.

  6. FORMULASI DAN AKTIVITAS ANTI JAMUR SEDIAAN KRIM M/A EKSTRAK ETANOL BUAH TAKOKAK (Solanum torvum Swartz TERHADAP Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapto Aji Wibowo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Takokak (Solanum torvum Swartz diketahui mengandung senyawa alkaloid steroid yang aktif sebagai antijamur. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memformulasikan ekstrak etanol buah takokak dalam bentuk sediaan krim tipe minyak dalam air (M/A, menguji sifat fisik dan aktivitas antijamurnya terhadap Candida albicans. Ekstraksi terhadap serbuk kering buah takokak dilakukan dengan metode maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol. Krim tipe M/A dibuat dengan cara peleburan, dengan konsentrasi ekstrak etanol buah takokak masing-masing 0,5; 1,0; dan 2,0%. Pembuatan krim dilakukan dengan metode peleburan. Sifat fisik krim (homogenitas, daya sebar, daya lekat, viskositas dan pH dianalisis dengan metode yang sesuai. Uji aktivitas antijamur dilakukan dengan metode Kirby-Bauer. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa krim tipe M/A ekstrak etanol buah takokak homogen, tetapi daya lekat, daya sebar, viskositas dan pHnya tidak memenuhi syarat sediaan topikal yang baik, dan stabil selama penyimpanan. krim tipe M/A ekstrak etanol buah takokak tidak memiliki aktivitas antijamur terhadap C. albicans.

  7. Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit containing phenolic compounds shows antidiabetic and antioxidant effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel

    2011-11-01

    In this study, quantification of phenolic compounds and the investigation of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the fruit of Solanum torvum Swartz. are described. S. torvum fruit methanol extract (STMe) was administered orally at a dose of 200 and 400mg/kg/day to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats for 30days. The levels of glucose, insulin, total protein, hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, liver glycogen and marker enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, hepatic function and antioxidants were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that STMe contained high levels of phenolic compounds, mainly rutin (1.36%w/w), caffeic acid (12.03%w/w), gallic acid (4.78%w/w) and catechin (0.46%w/w). STMe at 200 and 400mg/kg reduced blood glucose level by 17.04% and 42.10%, respectively in diabetic rats. The levels and/or activities of other biochemical parameters were restored significantly compared to diabetic control rats due to treatment with fruit extract. Histology of liver and pancreas in STMe treated groups substantiated the cytoprotective action of the drug. Immunohistochemical observation of islets in extract treated diabetic rats showed apparent β-cells regeneration. These findings suggest that S. torvum fruit containing phenolic compounds has great potential as a natural source of antidiabetic and antioxidant drug. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antihyperglycemic activity and antidiabetic effect of methyl caffeate isolated from Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Sasikumar, Ponnusamy

    2011-11-30

    Natural remedies from medicinal plants are considered to be effective and safe alternatives to treat diabetes mellitus. Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit is widely used in the traditional system of medicine to treat diabetes. In the present study methyl caffeate, isolated from S. torvum fruit, was screened for its efficacy in controlling diabetes in animal models. Antihyperglycemic effect of methyl caffeate was studied in normal glucose-fed rats. The effects of oral administration of methyl caffeate (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) for 28 days on body weight, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, total protein, hepatic glycogen and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were investigated. Histological observations in the pancreas and GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscles were also studied. Methyl caffeate at 40 mg/kg significantly prevented the increase in blood glucose level after glucose administration at 60 min in comparison to the hyperglycemic control group. In streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, methyl caffeate produced significant reduction in blood glucose and increased body weight. The levels and/or activities of other biochemical parameters were near normal due to treatment with methyl caffeate. Methyl caffeate treated diabetic rats showed upregulation of GLUT4 and regeneration of β-cells in the pancreas. These results substantiated that methyl caffeate possessed hypoglycemic effect, and it could be developed into a potent oral antidiabetic drug. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Amélia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 picograms (pg), and the karyotype showed 2n = 4x = 44 chromosomes. Thus, Psidium guineense has four chromosome sets, in accordance with the basic chromosome number of Psidium (x = 11). In addition, karyomorphometric analysis revealed morphologically identical chromosome groups in the karyotype of Psidium guineense. The high transferability of microsatellites (98.6%) further corroborates with phylogenetic relationship between Psidium guajava and Psidium guineense. Based on the data regarding nuclear genome size, karyotype morphometry and molecular markers of Psidium guineense and Psidium guajava (2C = 0.95 pg, 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes), Psidium guineense is a tetraploid species. These data reveal the role of euploidy in the diversification of the genus Psidium.

  10. Spatio-temporal variability of trace elements fingerprints in cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells and its relevance for tracing geographic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Génio, Luciana; Calado, Ricardo

    2017-06-14

    Understanding spatio-temporal variability of trace elements fingerprints (TEF) in bivalve shells is paramount to determine the discrimination power of this analytical approach and secure traceability along supply chains. Spatio-temporal variability of TEF was assessed in cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Four elemental ratios (Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca, Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca) were measured from the shells of specimens originating from eight different ecosystems along the Portuguese coast, as well as from four different areas, within one of them, over two consecutive years (2013 and 2014). TEF varied significantly in the shells of bivalves originating from the eight ecosystems surveyed in the present study. Linear discriminant function analyses assigned sampled cockles to each of the eight ecosystems with an average accuracy of 90%. Elemental ratios also displayed significant differences between the two consecutive years in the four areas monitored in the same ecosystem. Overall, while TEF displayed by cockle shells can be successfully used to trace their geographic origin, a periodical verification of TEF (>6 months and <1 year) is required to control for temporal variability whenever comparing specimens originating from the same area collected more than six months apart.

  11. Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit attenuates cadmium-induced liver and kidney damage through modulation of oxidative stress and glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, C H; Subastri, A; Suyavaran, A; Subbaiah, K C V; Valluru, L; Thirunavukkarasu, C

    2016-04-01

    Increased levels of environmental pollutants are linked to almost all human disorders; the efficient method to manage the human health is through naturally available dietary molecule. Solanum torvum (ST) Swartz (Solanaceae) commonly called Turkey Berry is found in Africa, Asia, and South America. Its fruit, part of traditional Indian cuisine, is a widely consumed nutritious herb, acclaimed for its medicinal value. ST aqueous extract (STAe) (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg b.w., 6 days; oral) against acute Cadmium (Cd) (6.3 mg/kg b.w., single dose; oral) toxicity was evaluated in rats. Protective effect was assessed using serum markers, tissue antioxidants, oxidant derivatives, glycoprotein, and histopathological studies. The activities of serum marker enzymes were increased (40-60 %); antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and CAT, GSH, and its metabolic enzyme activities were decreased (50-80 %) in the liver and kidney upon Cd intoxication. During STAe pre-treatment, at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w., the above changes were brought to near normal (25-63 %). Tissue 4-hydroxynonenal, 3-nitrotyrosine, and protein carbonyls were increased (8-15 fold) in Cd-alone-treated rats, whereas pre-supplementation of STAe significantly decreased their levels and inhibited the protein glycosylation effectively. The pharmacological effect of STAe was confirmed by histopathological observations. Based on previous literature and present investigation, we conclude that ST may serve as a potential functional food against environmental contaminant such as heavy metal-induced oxidative stress.

  12. Feasibility of constructed wetland planted with Leersia hexandra Swartz for removing Cr, Cu and Ni from electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Yi-Nian; Gu, Chen

    2014-01-01

    As a low-cost treatment technology for effluent, the constructed wetlands can be applied to remove the heavy metals from wastewater. Leersia hexandra Swartz is a metal-accumulating hygrophyte with great potential to remove heavy metal from water. In this study, two pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with L. hexandra (CWL) were set up in greenhouse to treat electroplating wastewater containing Cr, Cu and Ni. The treatment performance of CWL under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR) and initial metal concentrations were also evaluated. The results showed that CWL significantly reduced the concentrations of Cr, Cu and Ni in wastewater by 84.4%, 97.1% and 94.3%, respectively. High HLR decreased the removal efficiencies of Cr, Cu and Ni; however, the heavy metal concentrations in effluent met Emission Standard of Pollutants for Electroplating in China (ESPE) at HLR less than 0.3 m3/m2 d. For the influent of 5 mg/L Cr, 10 mg/L Cu and 8 mg/L Ni, effluent concentrations were below maximum allowable concentrations in ESPE, indicating that the removal of Cr, Cu and Ni by CWL was feasible at considerably high influent metal concentrations. Mass balance showed that the primary sink for the retention of contaminants within the constructed wetland system was the sediment, which accounted for 59.5%, 83.5%, and 73.9% of the Cr, Cu and Ni, respectively. The data from the pilot wetlands support the view that CWL could be used to successfully remove Cr, Cu and Ni from electroplating wastewater.

  13. Uptake of curium (/sup 244/Cm) by five benthic marine species (Arenicola marina, Cerastoderma edule, Corophium volutator, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana): comparison with americium and plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miramand, P.; Germain, P.; Arzur, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Curium (/sup 244/Cm) uptake from contaminated sea water was studied in five benthic marine species: two bivalve molluscs (Scrobicularia plana and Cerastoderma edule), two polychaete annelids (Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor) and one amphidpod crustacean (Corophium volutator). The concentrations in the whole organisms relative to the concentration in the sea water (concentration factors) were: 700 for the amphipods (after 11 d of accumulation), 140 for the cockles (after 28 d), 80 for the scrobicularia (after 23d) and approx. 30 for the two annelids (after > 20 d). All species except S. plana accumulated americium and curium similarly; S. plana accumulated similar amounts of curium and plutonium.

  14. Influence of disseminated neoplasia, trematode infections and gametogenesis on surfacing and mortality in the cockle Cerastoderma edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, E; O'Riordan, R M; Kelly, T C; Culloty, S C

    2012-02-17

    Cerastoderma edule is a widely distributed bivalve mollusc, commercially exploited throughout Europe and is also an important food source for birds and crustaceans. Recently, mass surfacing and mortalities of cockles have been observed and reported at sites in Ireland and elsewhere, particularly in the summer months. One such site is Flaxfort Strand, Courtmacsherry Bay, County Cork, Ireland, an important feeding area used by many seabirds during the summer months. For the past few years large numbers of surfaced cockles have been observed at the site in a moribund condition. Samples of cockles from this area were collected over the summer months and their health status assessed. Cockles that had surfaced (moribund) and those still buried in the sediment were quantified and screened: sex, gonadal maturity and size class of cockles were also determined. Disseminated neoplasia and trematodes were observed in screened cockles. The most significant finding during the study was that mortalities and surfacing of cockles was related to a greater incidence of disseminated neoplasia. No neoplasia was observed in the smallest and largest size classes. There was a significantly higher prevalence of neoplasia in moribund cockles than in buried cockles, whereas in both groups a similar concentration of trematode metacercariae was observed in the screened tissues. Also, most of the cockles that had surfaced were either in the process of spawning or were spent. Overall a much larger percentage of moribund cockles exhibited both trematode infections plus neoplasia compared with buried cockles. A combination of the presence of neoplasia and trematodes, along with stress related to spawning, may immunocompromise the cockless, causing the animals to surface and become moribund.

  15. Identificação de diterpenos clerodânicos em diferentes órgãos de Casearia sylvestris Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Simões de Carvalho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Casearia sylvestris Swartz (Salicaceae é uma espécie vegetal arbórea ou arbustiva, disseminada pelo território brasileiro e bastante utilizada em nossa medicina popular. Diversos diterpenos clerodânicos bioativos típicos do gênero Casearia foram isolados desta espécie (ex. casearinas e casearvestrinas. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de diterpenos clerodânicos em diferentes órgãos de C. sylvestris, utilizando técnicas analíticas cromatográficas e espectroscópicas. Os extratos dos diferentes órgãos foram analisados por cromatografia em camada delgada, cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de arranjo de diodos e ressonância magnética nuclear de 1H. Nas análises cromatográficas foram utilizados diterpenos clerodânicos isolados de C. sylvestris como padrões, incluindo rel-19S-acetóxi- 18R- butanoilóxi-18,19- epóxi -6S -hidróxi -2R- (2 metilbutanoilóxi -5S,8R, 9R, 10S -cleroda-3,13(16,14-trieno, isolado do caule pela primeira vez. Foram obtidos perfis fitoquímicos dos órgãos avaliados. Os resultados indicaram a presença de diterpenos clerodânicos em toda planta, prevalecendo em maior número nas folhas. Além disso, os resultados também indicam que em caules, flores e raízes há predomínio de diterpenos clerodânicos com padrão diênico diferente daqueles obtidos de folhas de C. sylvestris. Palavras-chave: Casearia sylvestris. Diterpenos clerodânicos. Salicaceae. Flacourtiaceae. Cromatografia. ABSTRACT Identification of clerodane diterpenes in different organs of Casearia sylvestris Swartz Casearia sylvestris Swartz (Salicaceae is a tree or shrub distributed widely in Brazil, where it is used in popular medicine. Several bioactive clerodane diterpenes typical of Casearia have been isolated from this species (e.g. casearins and casearvestrins. The main objective of this study was to identify clerodane diterpenes in various organs of C. sylvestris

  16. Short-term metallothionein inductions in the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule after cadmium or mercury exposure: Discrepancy between mRNA and protein responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Pont, Ika, E-mail: i.paulpont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Gonzalez, Patrice, E-mail: p.gonzalez@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Baudrimont, Magalie, E-mail: m.baudrimont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Nili, Hanane, E-mail: h.nili@etu.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Montaudouin, Xavier de, E-mail: x.de-montaudouin@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France)

    2010-05-05

    Metallothioneins (MT) are essential metal binding proteins involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in living organisms. Numerous studies have focused on MT response to metal exposure and showed an important variability according to species, metal, concentration and time of exposure. In this study, the expression of one isoform of MT gene (Cemt1) and associated MT protein synthesis were determined after 1, 3, 9, 24, 72 and 168 h of cadmium (Cd) or mercury (Hg) exposures in gills of the cockle Cerastoderma edule. This experiment, carried out in laboratory conditions, revealed that in Cd-exposed cockles, induction of Cemt1 is time-dependent following a 'pulse-scheme' with significant upregulation at 24 h and 168 h intersected by time point (72 h) with significant downregulation. MT protein concentration increases with time in gills of exposed cockles in relation with the progressive accumulation of Cd in soluble fraction. On contrary, Hg exposure does not lead to any induction of Cemt1 mRNA expression or MT protein synthesis compared to control, despite a higher accumulation of this metal in gills of cockles compared to Cd. The localization of Hg (85-90%) is in insoluble fraction, whereas MT was located in the cytoplasm of cells. This gives us a first clue to understand the inability of Hg to activate MT synthesis. However, other biochemical processes probably occur in gills of C. edule since the remaining soluble fraction of Hg exceeds MT sequestration ability. Finally, since one of the first main targets of metal toxicity in cells was the mitochondria, some genes involved in mitochondria metabolism were also analyzed in order to assess potential differences in cellular damages between two metal exposures. Indeed, until T{sub 168}, no impact on mitochondrial genes was shown following Hg exposure, despite the complete lack of MT response. This result indicated the presence of other effective cellular ligands which sequester the cytosolic fraction of

  17. 40 CFR 180.1 - Definitions and interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., lime, orange, tangelo, tangerine, citrus citron, kumquat, and hybrids of these. Garlic Garlic, great... okra); Momordica spp. (i.e., bitter melon, balsam pear, balsam apple, Chinese cucumber); Sechium edule... (mandarin or mandarin orange); tangelo, tangor, and other hybrids of tangerine with other citrus. Tomato...

  18. Seasonal variation in body weight of the bivalves Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, Mya arenaria and Cerastoderman edule in the Dutch Wadden sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarts, Leo

    The paper deals with the seasonal and annual variations in the weight of the soft parts of four bivalve species, Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, Mya arenaria and Cerastoderma edule from tidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea. The paper reviews methodology and points to error sources. The variation in ash-free dry weight between individuals of the same size collected at the same time and place could be attributed to age, parasitic infestation, gametogenesis, burying depth and siphon size. The allometric relations between weight of soft parts and size are given in equations, averaged per month. The body weight of all four bivalve species peaked in May and June at a level approximately twice the lowest value, which occurred in November to March. The extent of this seasonal fluctuation varied, however, from year to year. The presence of gametes explained a part of the peak weight in summer. Winter losses of body weight were less at low temperatures, due to reduced energy expenditure when the animals are inactive. No large differences were found between the seasonal changes in body weight in the Wadden Sea and elsewhere in the temperate zone.

  19. Maturação e morfometria dos frutos de miconia Albicans (Swartz triana (melastomataceae em um remanescente de floresta estacional semidecídua montana em Lavras, MG Maturation and morphometrics of the fruits of Miconia albicans (Swartz triana (melastomataceae in a remnant of montane seasonal semideciduous forest in Lavras, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida Vieira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram analisar a dinâmica da maturação dos frutos e avaliar quantitativamente algumas características físicas dos frutos de Miconia albicans (Swartz Triana em um remanescente de Floresta Estacional Semidecídua Montana. A atividade, intensidade e sincronia de 20 indivíduos foram analisadas em relação aos eventos de frutificação, correlacionando-os com as variáveis climáticas. Analisou-se a morfometria (comprimento, largura e massa de 130 frutos de 10 indivíduos. A intensidade da fenofase de frutos maduros nas plantas correlacionou-se significativamente com a precipitação média do período (rS = 0,611; P The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of fruit maturation and quantitatively assess some physical characteristics of the fruits of Miconia albicans (Swartz Triana in a remnant of Montane Seasonal Semideciduous Forest. The activity and synchrony of 20 individuals were analyzed in regard to the proportion of fruiting events, and to help to determine their correlation to abiotic factors. Morphometric traits (fruit length, diameter and mass of 130 fruits from ten individuals were analyzed. The number of fruits maturing showed a significant correlation with the mean precipitation (rS = 0.611; P < 0.05. M. albicans presented a high number of small seeds per fruit ( = 28.05 ± 1.45 s.d.. The fresh mass of the fruit was approximately equal to the pulp mass (rS = 0.988; P < 0.05. Thepulp contributed with 94% of the total mass, demonstrating the potential importance of this species for frugivores. The results indicate the period of high intrapopulation synchrony of the studied phenophases, which can be a useful guide in the collection of seeds for germoplasm banks and recovery of degraded areas.

  20. Cockle Cerastoderma edule fishery collapse in the Ría de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain) associated with the protistan parasite Marteilia cochillia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Antonio; Iglesias, David; Ramilo, Andrea; Darriba, Susana; Parada, José M; No, Edgar; Abollo, Elvira; Molares, José; Carballal, María J

    2014-04-23

    The highest shellfishery catch in Galicia (NW Spain) has traditionally been cockle Cerastoderma edule. The shellfish bed located in Lombos do Ulla (Ría de Arousa) used to be among those with the highest cockle production; however, cockle mortality rate increased sharply in this bed in April 2012, reaching 100% in May 2012. Salinity and temperature were discounted as potential causes of the mortality. Marteiliosis, which was first detected in February 2012 and reached 100% prevalence in April 2012, was identified as the most probable cause. Marteiliosis had never been detected in Galician cockles, but extensive surveillance of the Galician coast in May to July 2012 detected marteiliosis in most cockle beds of the Ría de Arousa, whereas it was not found in other rías; 2 mo later, the cockle catch in the Ría de Arousa became negligible. Examination of the aetiological agent of marteiliosis with light and transmission electron microscopy supported its assignation to the genus Marteilia; morphological features showed similarity, but not complete identity, with the recently described species M. cochillia Carrasco et al., 2013. Regarding its molecular characterisation, a consensus sequence of 4433 bp containing a partial sequence of the intergenic spacer region, the complete 18S rRNA gene and a partial sequence of the first internal transcribed spacer region was obtained. The obtained sequences were compared with those available for Marteilia spp. and other Paramyxida. Molecular data support that this parasite corresponds to the species M. cochillia, and a PCR assay was designed for its specific diagnosis. The association of huge cockle mortality with M. cochillia infection urges extreme caution to avoid spreading this disease.

  1. Invertebrate Colonization During Leaf Decomposition of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth (Commelinales: Pontoderiaceae and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. (Salvinales: Salvinaceae in a Neotropical Lentic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidimara da Silveira

    2016-04-01

    Resumo. A decomposição de macrófitas é um processo essencial para ciclagem de carbono e nutrientes, e é fonte de matéria orgânica para invertebrados em lagos. Avaliamos a colonização por invertebrados aquáticos em folhas em decomposição de duas espécies de macrófitas em um sistema lêntico Neotropical. O experimento foi conduzido entre novembro de 2007 e fevereiro de 2008, com a utilização de 54 sacos de detrito (Eichhornia azurea (Swartz: n = 27 e Salvinia auriculata Aubl.: n = 27, cada um contendo 10 g de folhas secas. Três sacos de cada espécie foram recuperados após 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 e 72 dias de incubação. A massa remanescente de folha das duas espécies de macrófitas tendeu a diminuir com o tempo, embora a velocidades diferentes. A decomposição de folhas de E. azurea e S. auriculata foram classificadas como rápida e intermédia, respectivamente. Em geral, durante o experimento a razão carbono: nitrogênio diminuiu em E. azurea e aumentou em S. auriculata, e apresentou diferença entre os dias de experimento e entre as espécies de macrófitas. Em E. azurea perda de massa foi negativamente correlacionada com a razão de carbono: nitrogênio das folhas, mas o mesmo padrão não foi observado para as folhas de S. auriculata. A composição e riqueza de invertebrados diferiram entre os dias, mas não entre espécies de macrófitas. Concluímos que o processo de sucessão ao longo da cadeia de detritos foi mais importante na estruturação da comunidade de invertebrados do que a variação na qualidade nutricional do detrito de folha para estas duas espécies de macrófitas.

  2. Avaliação da atividade de Casearia sylvestris Swartz (Flacourtiaceae) sobre os níveis séricos de triglicerídeos em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Werle,Almeci L. B; Zanetti,Gilberto D.; Ceron,Carla S.; Manfron,Melânia P.

    2009-01-01

    Esse trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação da atividade do extrato aquoso e hidroalcoólico das folhas de Casearia sylvestris Swartz sobre os níveis séricos de triglicerídeos em ratos Wistar. Um dos usos populares dessa planta é como emagrecedor. As análises foram efetuadas após administração via oral de suspensão dos extratos em carboximetilcelulose 0,5% (CMC 0,5%) na dose de 500 mg/kg. Os valores obtidos comparados com os do grupo controle que recebeu apenas CMC 0,5%. Os resultados obtidos...

  3. Actividad antifúngica in vitro de extractos de Origanum vulgare L., Tradescantia spathacea Swartz y Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par) Evans et ál.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez González, Sandra; López Báez, Orlando; Guzmán Hernández, Tomás; Munguía Ulloa, Sayra; Espinosa Zaragoza, Saúl

    2011-01-01

    La moniliasis del cacao ocasionada por Moniliophthora roreri origina grandes pérdidas en los países donde se ha estado dispersando; en México, de reciente ingreso ha afectado drásticamente la producción, ya que daña los frutos en sus diferentes estados y son escasas las medidas de control que se han podido implementar, por lo que se investigó el efecto in vitro de extractos de Origanum vulgare L., Tradescantia spathacea Swartz y Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre M. roreri. Se aisló el hongo de...

  4. Estaquia caulinar de guaçatonga (Casearia sylvestris Swartz nas quatro estações do ano, com aplicação de diferentes concentrações de AIB Stem cuttings of "guaçatonga" (Casearia sylvestris Swartz in the four seasons of the year with the use of different IBA concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spandre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Casearia sylvestris Swartz (Salicaceae ou guaçatonga é uma árvore nativa do México, da América Central, e da América do Sul, com grande importância ecológica, farmacológica, e comercial. No entanto, como a maioria das espécies nativas de interesse medicinal no Brasil, a guaçatonga não é cultivada comercialmente, sendo obtida por extrativismo. O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de testar um protocolo de propagação vegetativa de guaçatonga por meio da estaquia, visando identificar qual a melhor estação do ano para o enraizamento de estacas e avaliar o efeito da utilização do regulador vegetal ácido indolbutírico (AIB. No outono, inverno e primavera de 2007, e no verão de 2008, estacas caulinares semilenhosas de 12-14 cm de comprimento e com duas folhas foram preparadas e tratadas com AIB (0, 1000, 2000 e 3000 mg L-1, em solução alcoólica, através da imersão rápida por 10 segundos da base das estacas, e foram plantadas em tubetes contendo substrato Plantmax HT® em casa-de-vegetação sob nebulização intermitente. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 4 repetições, 4 tratamentos, e 16 estacas por parcela. Todos os experimentos foram avaliados após 90 dias, sendo que para dois deles (primavera 2007 e verão 2008 prolongou-se o tempo de permanência em casa-de-vegetação para melhor desenvolvimento das raízes. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, porcentagem de estacas vivas (com calos e sem raízes, sem calos e sem raízes, porcentagem de folhas retidas, porcentagem de estacas mortas, número de raízes, comprimento das três maiores raízes (cm, e média da massa seca das raízes (mg. Não ocorreu enraizamento nas estacas retiradas no outono e no inverno. Com as estacas retiradas na primavera obteve-se 39,1% de enraizamento. Estacas coletadas no verão não responderam como o esperado, apresentando, após 240 dias, 6,3% de

  5. Actividad antifúngica in vitro de extractos de Origanum vulgare L., Tradescantia spathacea Swartz y Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par Evans et ál.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ramírez González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La moniliasis del cacao ocasionada por Moniliophthora roreri origina grandes pérdidas en los países donde se ha estado dispersando; en México, de reciente ingreso ha afectado drásticamente la producción, ya que daña los frutos en sus diferentes estados y son escasas las medidas de control que se han podido implementar, por lo que se investigó el efecto in vitro de extractos de Origanum vulgare L., Tradescantia spathacea Swartz y Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre M. roreri. Se aisló el hongo de frutos enfermos y se cultivó en laboratorio, las plantas fueron recolectadas y sometidas a cuatro formas de extracción: hidrolato por destilación, presurizado, fermentación aeróbica y anaeróbica. Dichos extractos se incorporaron al medio de cultivo al 50% (V/V, se sembró el hongo y se incubó durante 12 días, cuantificando el crecimiento diario y la formación de conidias; a los extractos que inhibieron totalmente al hongo se les determinó la concentración mínima.

  6. Evaluation des performances de la production de graines par tamisage manuel du sol chez trois variétés de Stylosanthes guianensis (Aublet Swartz, dans les conditions du Plateau des Batéké (RDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulakali, BP.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance Assessment of the Production of Seeds by Manual Sieving of the Soil of Three Varieties of Stylosanthes guianensis (Aublet Swartz under the Conditions of the Batéké Plateau (DRC. In manual agriculture with low resources level, Stylosanthes guianensis is one of the most interesting cover crop for developing direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems. To promote its cultivation in the DRC, the performances of a seed production method by sieving of the soil were evaluated for three varieties of Stylo (a local ecotype, CIAT 184 variety, and 202cc variety in two sites of the Batéké plateau characterized by contrasted fertility levels. The results obtained demonstrate the interest of the seed multiplication method tested, both in quantities and quality of the produced seeds. The production cost of one kg of seeds varies with the soil fertility, the planting date, and the cultivar. Among the three compared varieties, CIAT 184 variety produced the highest quantity of seeds. If sown at the beginning of the long rainy season, after a long fallow, in one of the most fertile soils of the plateau, this cultivar can produce 600 kg ha-1 seed in the first year of cultivation with a production cost of USD 1.31 kg-1, equivalent to less than 0.5 man.day.kg-1.

  7. Minute co-variations of Sr/Ca ratios and microstructures in the aragonitic shell of Cerastoderma edule (Bivalvia) - Are geochemical variations at the ultra-scale masking potential environmental signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllenbach, Christoph S.; Schöne, Bernd R.; Shirai, Kotaro; Takahata, Naoto; Ishida, Akizumi; Sano, Yuji

    2017-05-01

    It remains a challenging task to reconstruct water temperatures from Sr/Ca ratios of bivalve shells. Although in many aragonitic species, Sr/Ca is negatively correlated to temperature - which is expected based on abiogenic precipitation experiments, the incorporation of Sr into the shell of bivalves is strongly controlled by physiological processes and occurs away from the predicted thermodynamic equilibrium. Strontium-to-calcium ratios of aragonitic shells remain far below that of the ambient water. Moreover, Sr concentrations vary considerably among shell portions consisting of different microstructures and/or organic content. Values observed at annual growth lines and within the intervening shell portions (= annual growth increments) deviate much stronger from each other than expected from a change in temperature or Sr/Cawater. As demonstrated here by ultra-high-resolution chemical analysis (EPMA, NanoSIMS) of a Cerastoderma edule shell, Sr concentrations are also heterogeneously distributed at approximately micrometer resolution. For example, in the outer portion of the outer shell layer, Sr/Ca ratios were statistically significantly (t-, u-tests) higher at circatidal growth lines (irregular simple prismatic structure; arithmetic mean ± 1 standard deviation = 2.86 ± 0.38 mmol/mol; n = 53) than within circatidal increments (nondenticular prismatic structure; 2.42 ± 0.25 mmol/mol; n = 51). S/Cashell, a representative of the concentration of organics, showed the opposite pattern, i.e., significantly higher values in circatidal increments (2.37 ± 0.29 mmol/mol; n = 51) than at circatidal growth lines (2.13 ± 0.47 mmol/mol; n = 53). Overall highest values of Sr/Cashell (3.47 ± 0.65 mmol/mol; n = 3) and S/Cashell (3.98 ± 0.65 mmol/mol; n = 3), however, were typically associated with annual growth lines and larger biomineral units. The intimate link between Sr/Cashell, S/Cashell and shell architecture may indicate that microstructures or the processes

  8. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin ...

  9. logical studies of nephrolepis biserrata (swartz)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    guishing characters of the two taxa studied are of taxonomic value and can be used to identify and delimit .... Leaflet base. Ramenta. Indusium. Stipe. Sori. Frond. Rhizome. Acuminate. Serrated. Oblong. Seen at the base. Present, round to reniform. Polished brown ... Leaflet breadth, S .E. — Standard error, N— Number.

  10. REMOCIÓN DE COLORANTES POR MEDIO DE CURCUBITACEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Barajas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta una alternativa para la remoción de los colorantes rojo congo, índigo carmín y verde de bromocresol, por medio de Sechium edule en sus dos variedades con y sin espinas y Cucurbita ficifolia . Se trabajaron tres concentraciones de 10, 20 y 30 g/L para las dos variedades y para C. ficifolia en forma deshidratada en estufa a 45 °C. Se realizaron las cinéticas correspondientes para cada colorante. Con este f in se monitoreo a 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, y 24 h, la decoloración se determinó por medio de un espectrofotómetro UV - Vis, a la longitud de onda donde se obtuvo su máxima absorbancia. Los resultados muestran una total remoción de color a las 24 h para las v ariedades con y sin espinas del Sechium edule. Esto sugiere que el Schium edule puede ser empleado para la remoción y oxidación de colorantes de tipo textil.

  11. Vida útil de produto minimamente processado composto por abóbora, cenoura, chuchu e mandioquinha-salsa Shelf life of fresh-cut composed of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alvarenga Alves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do tempo de armazenamento sobre a qualidade de produto minimamente processado à base de hortaliças: abóbora (Cucurbita moschata Duch, cenoura (Daucus carota L., chuchu (Sechium edule Swartz e mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft. As hortaliças foram sanificadas em hipoclorito de sódio 200 mg.L-1, por 5 minutos, descascadas, manualmente, e cortadas utilizando-se processador. O produto processado foi sanificado em hipoclorito de sódio 50 mg.L-1, por 3 minutos, e apenas as mandioquinhas-salsa foram imersas em solução de ácido ascórbico 1%, por 2 minutos. As embalagens flexíveis de polietileno de baixa densidade linear (25 x 20 cm, contendo 400 g do "mix", foram armazenadas a 5ºC e 99% UR, por 8 dias. A firmeza e o valor L* das hortaliças estudadas não alteraram com o tempo de armazenamento. Os valores a* e b* da abóbora não oscilaram durante o armazenamento. O valor a* da mandioquinha-salsa e do chuchu aumentou e o da cenoura diminuiu com o armazenamento, enquanto o valor b* da cenoura, do chuchu e da mandioquinha-salsa reduziu. O "mix" apresentou taxa de perda de massa muito baixa e ascensão respiratória até o oitavo dia. A atmosfera de equilíbrio, em torno de 2,93% de O2 e 7,06% de CO2, foi alcançada no interior da embalagem, contendo o "mix", a partir do segundo dia. Não foi detectada a presença de coliformes a 45ºC e Salmonella sp. em nenhuma amostra. Os coliformes a 35ºC aumentaram durante o armazenamento. Conclui-se que, o produto minimamente processado, à base de hortaliças mantém a sua qualidade por 8 dias a 5ºC.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of storage time on the quality of fresh-cut product made up of four vegetables: pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch, carrot (Daucus carota L., chayote (Sechium edule Swartz, and peruvian carrot (Arracaia xanthorrhiza Bancroft. The vegetables were sanitized in sodium hypochlorite solution (200 mg.L-1 for 5

  12. Design and quality control of a pharmaceutical formulation containing natural products with antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Adriana A L; Ordoñez, Roxana M; Zampini, Iris C; Isla, María I

    2009-08-13

    The aims of the present study were to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activity as well as mutagenicity of Sechium edule fluid extract and to obtain a pharmaceutical formulation with them. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. isolated from clinical samples from two hospitals of Tucuman, Argentina. Non-toxicity and mutagenicity on both Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA 100 strains until 100 microg/plate were observed. A hydrogel with carbopol acrylic acid polymer containing S. edule fluid extract as antibacterial, antimycotic and antioxidant agent was obtained. Microbiological, physical and functional stability of pharmaceutical formulation conserved at room temperature for 1 year were determined. Addition of antioxidant preservatives to store the pharmaceutical formulation was not necessary. The semisolid system showed antimicrobial activity against all gram positive and gram negative bacteria and fungi assayed. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 20 to 800 microg/mL. Its activity was compared with a pharmaceutical formulation containing commercial antibiotic and antifungal. A pseudoplastic behavior and positive thixotropy were observed. Our current finding shows an antimicrobial activity of hydrogel containing S. edule extract on a large range of gram negative and gram positive multi-resistant bacteria and fungi. This topical formulation may be used as antimycotic and as antibacterial in cutaneous infections.

  13. Rosmini's metaphysical evidence for the existence of God | Swartz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosmini is of the opinion that the soul consists of both a bodily (natural) and a godly component. Both components unite in humankind. In Rosmini's cosmology, humankind is viewed in relation to God and the world (cosmos). Cosmology cannot be comprehensively explained without linking ontology and theology, ...

  14. A desalination guide for South African municipal engineers | Swartz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    personEd has been set as the minimum basic water supply and while many ... The cost of treating water is only part of the total cost of making drinking water ... training needs and capacity building required at operator and management levels.

  15. Thomas Aquinas: On Law, Tyranny and Resistance | Swartz | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thomas Aquinas's notion on law, tyranny and resistance served as a limitation on governmental powers. When those who bear the law command things which exceed the competence of such authority, the subject is free to obey or disobey. The function of the law culminates in two maxims: quantum ad vim coactivam legis ...

  16. Pengawetan Ikan Segar Menggunakan Biji Picung (Pangium edule reinw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sri Heruwati

    2014-05-01

    campuran garam dan picung. Parameter yang digunakan untuk menentukan kesegaran ikan adalah nilai organoleptik, TVB, jumlah bakteri penghasil H2S, dan Enterobacteriaceae sedangkan parameter pendukung adalah kadar air, dan pH. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara organoleptik, pada perlakuan dengan biji picung pada kadar 4% dari bobot ikan, yang dikombinasikan dengan garam 2% atau 3%, mutu ikan masih dapat diterima panelis hingga 6 hari pada penyimpanan suhu kamar. Meskipun demikian, dilihat dari perkembangan TVB, hanya penggunaan biji picung dengan kadar 6% yang mampu menahan perkembangan kadar TVB hingga hari ke-6, sedangkan pada perlakuan di bawah 6%, nilai batas ambang TVB 30 mgN% telah dilewati pada hari ke-3. Sementara itu perkembangan bakteri pembentuk H2S maupun Enterobacteriaceae terus meningkat selama penyimpanan dan tidak dipengaruhi oleh kadar biji picung yang ditambahkan. Garam hanya dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri pembentuk H2S, tetapi tidak menghambat pertumbuhan Enterobacteriaceae.

  17. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from bird droppings, fruits and vegetables in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, R; Castañón-Olivares, L R

    1995-01-01

    The presence of Cryptococcus neoformans in various natural sources, such as bird droppings, fruits and vegetables, was investigated. A total of 711 samples were analyzed; C. neoformans var. neoformans was isolated from seven out of 74 bird droppings (9.5%), with parrots as one of the most significant sources. Fruits were positive in 9.5% of the 169 samples studied, specially citrus fruits, particularly grapefruit, in which the highest frequency was found. From the 468 vegetable samples, only 20 were positive (4.2%). It is emphasized that five of the positive vegetables species are autochthonous to Mexico: avocado (Nectandra salicifolia), beet (Beta vulgaris var. quinopodiace), chayote (Sechium edule), stringbean (Cassia sp), and nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica).

  18. Use of medicinal plants by people with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gabrielle Santos Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of high blood pressure for people with hypertension enrolled in the Family Health Program in a city in Pernambuco State. Methods: a descriptive study, whose data were obtained through semi-structured interview script applied to 172 patients. Results: the use of medicinal plants for hypertension control was reported by 39.5%, of which 57.4% used only one medicinal plant. Among the species cited, there was predominant use of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw.-34.8%]. Conclusion: medicinal plants constitute an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of hypertension. However, there is need for monitoring of handling and listed species.

  19. Uso de plantas medicinais por pessoas com hipertensão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gabrielle Santos Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir el uso de plantas medicinales en el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial por personas con hipertensión inscritas en el Programa de Salud Familiar en una ciudad del interior de Pernambuco. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, cuyos datos se obtuvieron a través de guía de entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicada a 172 pacientes. Resultados: el uso de plantas medicinales para el control de la hipertensión fue informado por 39,5%, de los cuales 57,4% utiliza sólo una planta medicinal. Entre las especies citadas predominó el uso de chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw.-34.8%]. Conclusión: plantas medicinales constituyen terapia coadyuvante en el tratamiento de hipertensión, sin embargo requiere monitoreo del manejo y de las especies seleccionadas.

  20. Postharvest characterization of tacaco (Sechium tacaco (Pittier fruits in Cartago, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Milagro Cerdas-Araya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to make a postharvest characterization of tacaco fruits in different chronological ages. During July and August of 2014, and January and February of 2015 newly set fruits, with or without thorns, from Cartago, Costa Rica were evaluated. Seven days after setting for the tacaco fruits without thorns (TWOT and eight days after setting for the tacaco fruits with thorns (TWT, weight, length and width of the fruit, presence and hardening of the thorns, and emergence of ber were evaluated. The length and thickness of the seed, the rmness, and external color of the peel, were evaluated after day fourteen. In both material, weight, length and width of the fruit stabilized after day twenty-one, moment in which ber and thorns appeared, and a signi cant increase in rmness was registered, which by day thirty reached values of 80 N to 100 N in tacaco thorns and up to 129 N in thorn less fruits. The color of the peel went from a yellowish green in the unripen stage to a greyish green in the ripened stage by day thirty, close to the moment of the fruit’s separation. Before day twenty-one TWOT or TWT, can be used as unripen fruit, because there isn’t any presence of ber; and the peel and thorns have not yet hardened.

  1. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ∼1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ∼580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1 was obtained from a chayote (S. edule leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere.

  2. Tipificación de Diferentes Estados de Madurez del Fruto de Agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz / Classification of Different Maturity Stages of Agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Buitrago Guacaneme

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La planta de agraz o mortiño es un arbusto que perteneceal género Vaccinium, conocido hoy en día por ser fuente de altoscontenidos de antioxidantes en sus frutos, por consiguiente sirvepara inhibir la oxidación de las grasas y es usado como nutracéuticoen la prevención de enfermedades degenerativas en el humano,aspectos que han favorecido sus posibilidades de transformacióny comercialización. En el mercado se observan frutos en diferentesgrados de madurez, en detrimento de la calidad final; en partepor carecer de una caracterización fisicoquímica y de un criteriodefinido para la recolección del fruto. Por lo tanto, se establecieronestados de madurez basados en el color de la epidermis, por mediode los cuales se caracterizó el fruto. En cada estado de madurez,se evaluó el peso promedio, diámetro, pH, sólidos solubles totales(SST, acidez total titulable (ATT, relación de madurez (SST/ATTy porcentaje de germinación de las semillas. De acuerdo al colordel fruto se establecieron seis estados de madurez (0-5, diámetrode 0,8 a 1 cm y peso aproximado de 0,5 g. Los SST presentaronvalores de 7,3 a 13,8 ºBrix con un comportamiento ascendentedurante la maduración, contrario a la tendencia descendente queexhibió la firmeza y el pH con valores de 5,8 a 0,54 y 2,32 a 2,1respectivamente; por su parte la ATT presentó una variación de2,2 a 3. Se observó un incremento en la relación de madurez de2,56 en el estado 0 a 6,17 en el estado 5. / Abstract. Colombian blueberry is a bush from the Vacciniumgenus, known nowadays for the high antioxidants levels of itsfruits known as berries, that is why they are very useful for inhibitthe fat oxidation and also used as a nutraceutic for prevention ofdegenerative diseases in humans, facts which have enhanced thetransformation and marketing possibilities. In the market thereare fruits in different maturity grades, affecting the final qualityobtained, partly because of the lack of a chemical characterizationand a defined criterion for the fruit harvest. Because of that,maturitys grades have been established based on the epidermiscolor, being that a way for characterize the fruit and determinethe harvest patterns. Fruits were taken at each stage of maturityand evaluated the average fruit weight, diameter, pH, total solublesolids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, maturity ratio (TSS/TTAand germination rate of seeds. According to the fruit color wereestablished six maturitys states (0-5, diameter from 0.8 to 1 cmand average weight of 0.5 g. The SST showed values from 7.3 to13.8 °Brix with an ascending behavior during the fruit ripening,contrary to the descending tendency showed by the firmness andthe pH, with values from 5.8 to 0.54 and 2.32 to 2.1 respectively;meanwhile ATT showed a variation, from 2.2 to 3. It was observedan increase in the ripeness ratio from 2.56 in the state 0 to 6.17in the state 5.

  3. Tipificación de Diferentes Estados de Madurez del Fruto de Agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz) / Classification of Different Maturity Stages of Agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz) Fruit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claudia Marcela Buitrago Guacaneme; Martha Cecilia Rincón Soledad; Helber Enrique Balaguera López; Gustavo Adolfo Ligarreto Moreno

    2014-01-01

    ... oxidación de las grasas y es usado como nutracéutico en la prevención de enfermedades degenerativas en el humano, aspectos que han favorecido sus posibilidades de transformación y comercialización...

  4. Comparative karyomorphological study of some Indian Cymbidium Swartz, 1799 (Cymbidieae, Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Sharma

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic resources and diversity is very important for the breeding programs and improvement of several economically important orchids like Cymbidium. Karyomorphological studies have been carried out on seven Cymbidium species, C. aloifolium (Linnaeus, 1753, C. devonianum Paxton,1843, C. elegans Lindley, 1828, C. iridioides D. Don, 1825, C. lowianum Rchb. f.,1877, C. tigrinum Parish ex Hook. f., 1864, and C. tracyanum L. Castle,1890, most of them endangered/threatened in their natural habitat. As reported earlier, the somatic chromosome number (2n = 40 has been observed in all the seven species. Distinct inter-specific variation was recorded in the arm ratio of few homologous pairs in the complements. Symmetrical or almost symmetrical karyotypes were prevalent; however significant asymmetry was reported in C. iridioides and C. tracyanum. The significance of karyotypic variation in speciation of the genus Cymbidium has been discussed. This study provides useful chromosome landmarks and evidence about genome evolution, heteromorphic chromosomes based heterozygosity, basic chromosome number and ploidy level in the genus Cymbidium.

  5. Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic effects of aqueous extract of the fruits of Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffuor, George A; Amoateng, Patrick; Andey, Terrick A

    2011-04-01

    The effect of Solanum torvum (Fam: Solanaceae) on delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, hemagglutinating antibody (HA) titer, white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin concentration was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats to establish immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity. Sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-immunized and challenged rats were treated with Solanum torvum extract, levamisole and dexamethasone. Phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced anemia in rats was treated with the extract. The aqueous Solanum torvum extract and levamisole significantly enhanced DTH response, increased HA titer and WBC count, while dexamethasone significantly decreased DTH response, did not increase HA titer, and did not enhance WBC profile. The extract and Feroglobin, the reference heamatinic, were able to reverse PHZ-induced anemia, and increase the RBCs and Hb concentration above baseline values within 24 days. Solanum torvum extract showed a concentration-dependent immunostimulant and erythropoietic activity.

  6. Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic effects of aqueous extract of the fruits of Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Koffuor, George A.; Amoateng, Patrick; Andey, Terrick A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The effect of Solanum torvum (Fam: Solanaceae) on delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, hemagglutinating antibody (HA) titer, white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin concentration was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats to establish immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity. Materials and Methods: Sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-immunized and challenged rats were treated with Solanum torvum extract, levamisole and dexamethasone. Phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced...

  7. Applicability Of A Semi-Automated Clinical Chemistry Analyzer In Determining The Antioxidant Concentrations Of Selected Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L. Hilario

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants are rich sources of antioxidants that are protective against diseases associated to oxidative stress. There is a need for high throughput screening method that should be useful in determining the antioxidant concentration in plants. Such screening method should significantly simplify and speed up most antioxidant assays. This paper aimed at comparing the applicability of a semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer Pointe Scientific MI USA with the traditional standard curve method and using a Vis spectrophotometer in performing the DPPH assay for antioxidant screening. Samples of crude aqueous leaf extract of kulitis Amaranthus viridis Linn and chayote Sechium edule Linn were screened for the Total Antioxidant Concentration TAC using the two methods. Results presented in mean SD amp956gdl were compared using unpaired Students t-test P0.05. All runs were done in triplicates. The mean TAC of A. viridis was 646.0 45.5 amp956gdl using the clinical chemistry analyzer and 581.9 19.4 amp956gdl using the standard curve-spectrophotometer. On the other hand the mean TAC of S. edule was 660.2 35.9 amp956gdl using the semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer and 672.3 20.9 amp956gdl using the spectrophotometer. No significant differences were observed between the readings of the two methods for A. viridis P0.05 and S. edible P0.05. This implies that the clinical chemistry analyzer can be an alternative method in conducting the DPPH assay to determine the TAC in plants. This study presented the applicability of a semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer in performing the DPPH assay. Further validation can be conducted by performing other antioxidant assays using this equipment.

  8. A preliminary threshold model of parasitism in the Cockle Cerastoderma edule using delayed exchange of stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, E. A.; Culloty, S. C.; Kelly, T. C.; O'Callaghan, M. J. A.; Rachinskii, D.

    2015-02-01

    Thresholds occur, and play an important role, in the dynamics of many biological communities. In this paper, we model a persistence type threshold which has been shown experimentally to exist in hyperparasitised flukes in the cockle, a shellfish. Our model consists of a periodically driven slow-fast host-parasite system of equations for a slow flukes population (host) and a fast Unikaryon hyperparasite population (parasite). The model exhibits two branches of the critical curve crossing in a transcritical bifurcation scenario. We discuss two thresholds due to immediate and delayed exchange of stability effects; and we derive algebraic relationships for parameters of the periodic solution in the limit of the infinite ratio of the time scales. Flukes, which are the host species in our model, parasitise cockles and in turn are hyperparasitised by the microsporidian Unikaryon legeri; the life cycle of flukes includes several life stages and a number of different hosts. That is, the flukes-hyperparasite system in a cockle is, naturally, part of a larger estuarine ecosystem of interacting species involving parasites, shellfish and birds which prey on shellfish. A population dynamics model which accounts for one system of such multi-species interactions and includes the fluke-hyperparasite model in a cockle as a subsystem is presented. We provide evidence that the threshold effect we observed in the flukes-hyperparasite subsystem remains apparent in the multi-species system. Assuming that flukes damage cockles, and taking into account that the hyperparasite is detrimental to flukes, it is natural to suggest that the hyperparasitism may support the abundance of cockles and, thereby, the persistence of the estuarine ecosystem, including shellfish and birds. We confirm the possibility of the existence of this scenario in our model, at least partially, by removing the hyperparasite and demonstrating that this may result in a substantial drop in cockle numbers. The result indicates a possible significant role for the microparasite in this estuarine ecosystem.

  9. Koos ühisele edule! = Together towards success / Jüri Järviste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järviste, Jüri

    2004-01-01

    Autori hinnangul vaid ettevõtjate endi aktiivne suhtumine ettevõtlust puudutavatesse küsimustesse ja probleemidesse tagab nende kiirema lahendamise. EVEA kui väike- ja keskmise suurusega ettevõtteid ühendav organisatsioon aitab ühenduse liikmetel olla teadlikum oma õigustest ja võimalustest

  10. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use.

  11. Antioxidant activity in extracts of 27 indigenous Taiwanese vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-05-23

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan's indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content.

  12. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content. PMID:24858497

  13. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Yu Chao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc, Lactuca indica (Li, and Perilla ocymoides (Po contained abundant quercetin (Que, while Artemisia lactiflora (Al and Gynura bicolor (Gb were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc and Sechium edule (Se-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan and malvidin (Mal were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe, Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz. Presl (Ane, Ipomoea batatas (Ib-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content.

  14. New xenophytes from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Otto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many years of field work in La Palma (western Canary Islands yielded a number of interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Amaranthus blitoides, A. deflexus, Aptenia cordifolia, Argemone ochroleuca, Begonia schmidtiana, Capsella rubella, Cardamine hamiltonii, Centratherum punctatum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Chasmanthe floribunda (widely confused with C. aethiopica and Crocosmia xcrocosmiiflora in Macaronesia, Chenopodium probstii, Commelina latifolia var. latifolia, Dichondra micrantha, Dysphania anthelmintica, Epilobium ciliatum, Erigeron sumatrensis, Erodium neuradifolium, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia hypericifolia, E. maculata, Gamochaeta antillana, Geranium pyrenaicum, Hedychium coronarium, Hypochaeris radicata, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. delagoensis, K. xhoughtonii, Kickxia commutata subsp. graeca, K. spuria subsp. integrifolia, Lactuca viminea subsp. ramosissima, Landoltia punctata, Malvastrum coromandelianum subsp. capitatospicatum, Oenothera jamesii, Orobanche nana, Oxalis latifolia, Papaver hybridum, P. setigerum, Pilea microphylla, Podranea ricasoliana, Polygonum arenastrum, Portulaca granulatostellulata, P. nicaraguensis, P. nitida, P. papillatostellulata, Rumex crispus subsp. crispus, R. pulcher subsp. pulcher, R. xpratensis, Sechium edule, Sida spinosa var. angustifolia, Silene nocturna, Solanum abutiloides, S. alatum, S. decipiens, Sonchus tenerrimus, Spergularia marina, Stellaria pallida, Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis, Tribulus terrestris and Trifolium repens subsp. repens are naturalized or (potentially invasive xenophytes, reported for the first time from either the Canary Islands or from La Palma. 37 additional, presumably ephemeral taxa are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, whereas 56 ephemeral taxa are new for La Palma..

  15. COMPORTAMIENTO DEL FRUTO DE AGRAZ (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz COSECHADO EN DIFERENTES ESTADOS DE MADUREZ Y ALMACENADO EN REFRIGERACIÓN BEHAVIOR OF AGRAZ FRUIT (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz HARVESTED IN DIFFERENT MATURITY STAGES AND STORED UNDER REFRIGERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Rincón Soledad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El agraz o mortiño es un frutal promisorio, considerado como un alimento funcional por su contenido de antocianinas, antioxidantes y vitaminas; no obstante, es un fruto altamente perecedero que pierde rápidamente su calidad comercial y nutricional. El objetivo fue evaluar el comportamiento de frutos de agraz cosechados en tres estados de madurez y almacenados en condiciones de refrigeración. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 3x3, donde el primer factor fue la temperatura de almacenamiento: 1, 8 y 20 °C; el segundo factor correspondió al estado de madurez: 3, 4 y 5, el cual se estableció de acuerdo al color de la epidermis del fruto. Se realizaron mediciones de calidad del fruto. Los resultados indicaron que los frutos almacenados a 8 °C en estado de madurez 3 y 4 conservaron las características de calidad comercial hasta los 45 días y para el estado 5 sólo hasta los 25 días. Mientras que a temperatura ambiente los frutos conservaron su vida útil hasta los 21 días en los diferente estados de madurez evaluados. Los frutos del estado 3 y almacenados a 1 °C tuvieron mayor firmeza y acidez total titulable, un alto contenido de sólidos solubles totales y la menor relación de madurez. Para mantener la calidad del fruto de agraz por largo tiempo, se recomienda refrigerar los frutos, en el estado 3 de madurez, a 1 °C.Abstract. The Ericaceae agraz or mortiño is a promising fruit, is considered as a functional food for its high content of anthocyanins, antioxidants and vitamins. It is a highly perishable fruit that quickly loses its commercial and nutritional quality. The objective was to evaluate the behavior of unripe fruits harvested at three maturity stages and stored under refrigeration. It was used a completely randomized design with 3x3 factorial arrangement, where the first factor was the storage temperature: 1, 8 and 20 °C; the second factor corresponded to maturity: 3, 4 and 5, which was established according to the color of the fruit skin; it was made measurements of fruit quality. The results indicated that the fruits stored at 8 °C in maturity stages 3 and 4 retained characteristics commercial grade to 45 days and only state 5 to 25 days. While the fruit at room temperature retained life to 21 days in different maturity stages evaluated. The state 3 fruits stored at 1 °C had higher firmness and total titratable acidity, high total soluble solids content and lower maturity ratio. To maintain the agraz fruit quality for longer time, it is recommended to harvest at state 3 and then be stored at 1 °C.

  16. Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae present in the flowers of the balsa wood Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788 = Abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apidae associadas às flores do pau-de-balsa Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Guimarães Brighenti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The flower of balsa wood holds about 10 to 15 mL of nectar, which helps attracting pollinating agents, since the genus Ochroma is incapable of self-fertilization. However, a high mortality of bees is observed in these flowers. The present study investigated the frequency and constancy of mortality of the individuals of the familyApidae that fed on nectar from the balsa wood. Data was gathered from June to August 2008, in Lavras – Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In addition, the survival of the Africanized bees that fed on the nectar of this flower was compared to those that fed on 50% aqueous solution of honey. Forty flowers were analyzed, and 949 individuals of the orders Hymenoptera (98.1%, Hemiptera (0.95%, Coleoptera (0.74% and Diptera (0.21% were collected. Most Hymenoptera individuals were bees of the genera Partamona and Trigona (677 individuals, which were considered of constant occurrence. Flowers producing up to 16.7 nectar mL were found. The nectar diet contained 16.44% of total sugar, and resulted in low survival of the bees in laboratory (31.32 . 2.37 hours, compared to a diet of 50% aqueous solution of honey (112.32 .2.03 hours.A flor do pau-de-balsa produz cerca de 10 a 15 mL de néctar, útil na atração de polinizadores, uma vez que o gênero Ochroma é incapaz de fazer autofecundação. É observada intensa mortalidade de abelhas em suas flores. Objetivou-se realizar o levantamento da frequência e constância de mortalidade de indivíduos da família Apidae, sendo os dados levantados no período de junho a agosto de 2008 em Lavras, MinasGerais, Brasil. Além disso, avaliou-se a sobrevivência de abelhas africanizadas alimentadas com o néctar desta flor quando comparados com aquelas alimentadas com solução aquosa de mel a 50%. Foram analisadas 40 flores e coletados 949 indivíduos das Ordens: Hymenoptera (98,1%, Hemiptera (0,95%, Coleoptera (0,74% e Diptera (0,21%. Dentre os himenópteros os mais frequentes foram dos gêneros Partamona e Trigona com 677 indivíduos, sendo estes considerados de incidência constante. Observaram-se flores com até 16,7 mL de néctar. O néctar apresentou 16,44% de açúcares totais e baixa sobrevivência das abelhas em laboratório (31,32 . 2,37h quando comparadas com a dieta à base de mel (112,32 . 2,03h.

  17. Uji Efek Antiinflamasi Ekstrak Etanol Herba Lampasau (Diplazium Esculentum Swartz) Terhadap Mencit Jantan Yang Diinduksi Karagenin-Λ

    OpenAIRE

    Zaini, Muhammad; Biworo, Agung; Anwar, Khoerul

    2016-01-01

    Herba lampasau secara empiris digunakan oleh masyarakat Kalimantan Tengah sebagai obat antiinflamasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui efek antiinflamasi ekstrak etanol herba lampasau yang diujikan dan mengetahui dosis yang dapat menunjukkan potensi sebagai antiinflamasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan 25 ekor mencit jantan yang dibagi menjadi 5 kelompok perlakuan, masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari 5 ekor mencit jantan. Kelompok I diberikan suspensi Voltaren® (natriu...

  18. Anti-ulcerogenic properties of the aqueous and methanol extracts from the leaves of Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanaceae) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguelefack, Télesphore B; Feumebo, Catherine B; Ateufack, Gilbert; Watcho, Pierre; Tatsimo, Simplice; Atsamo, Albert D; Tane, Pierre; Kamanyi, Albert

    2008-09-02

    Solanum torvum (Solanaceae) is a plant currently used in Cameroon ethnomedicine for the treatment of stomach ailments. The present study was undertaken to determine the anti-ulcer potential of the aqueous and methanol extracts from the leaves of Solanum torvum. The aqueous and methanol extracts from the leaves of Solanum torvum were tested orally at the doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, on gastric ulcerations experimentally induced by HCl/ethanol, indomethacin, pylorus ligation and stress. The fractionation of the methanol extract through silica gel column chromatography produced seven different fractions (A-G) which were tested orally at the dose of 100mg/kg against HCl/ethanol-induced ulceration. The methanol extract at the dose of 750 mg/kg produced 98.12, 99.16, 98.70 and 96.03% inhibition when gastric ulcerations were induced by HCl/ethanol, indomethacin, pylorus ligation and stress, respectively. The aqueous extract at the same dose produced 96.55, 96.86, 98.63 and 98.63% inhibition on ulcerations induced respectively by HCl/ethanol, indomethacin, pylorus ligation and stress. All the fractions of the methanol extract significantly inhibited ulcer formation. Fraction F which contains flavonoids and triterpens was the most active and exhibited an inhibitory percentage of 84.74. Both extracts significantly increased mucus production and reduced gastric acid secretion. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves of Solanum turvum possess anti-ulcerogenic properties that may be due to cytoprotective mechanism. These results support the ethnomedical uses of the plant in the treatment of gastric ulcer.

  19. Microalgae diets for landbased aquaculture of the cockle Cerastoderma edule: impacts of dietary fatty acids on growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis Batista, dos I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Land-based shellfish culture as a part of a multi-trophic aquaculture systems has yet to be implemented in Europe. Recently the pilot project Zeeuwse Tong (The Netherlands) evaluated the feasibility of a system of fish (Dover sole), ragworms, phytoplankton and bivalves. This thesis focused on the

  20. Digenean trematode species in the cockle Cerastodema edule: identification key and distribution along the north-eastern Atlantic shoreline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montaudouin, Xavier De; Thieltges, David W.; Gam, Mériame

    2009-01-01

    -scale distributional patterns of digenean species of the common cockle. At least sixteen digenean species, belonging to seven families, use cockles as intermediate host. Among these species two utilize cockles as first intermediate host only, whereas two species utilize cockles as both first and second intermediate...... host. The remaining eleven species have cockles as their second intermediate host. Water birds and fish are the definitive hosts to twelve and four species, respectively. Cockles are infected with digeneans along the latitudinal gradient from southern Morocco to the western region of the Barents Sea...... often with high infection levels. Whereas some of these digenean species occur along most of the latitudinal gradient others show a more restricted northern or southern distribution mostly caused by an underlying latitudinal gradient of host species. Knowledge of digenean species and their large...

  1. Pengaruh Lama Penyimpanan Biji Picung (Pangium edule Reinw. Beku terhadap Aktivitasnya dalam Mengawetkan Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novalia Rachmawati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama penyimpanan biji picung beku terhadap kemampuannya dalam mengawetkan ikan. Biji picung cacah disimpan dalam kondisi beku (-18° selama 4 bulan. Setiap bulan biji picung beku diambil dan diaplikasikan pada ikan nila segar dengan perbandingan 3% (b/b dengan dan tanpa penambahan garam 2% (b/b. Ikan nila disimpan pada suhu ruang dan dilakukan pengamatan terhadap parameter mikrobiologi (Angka Lempeng Total dan antibakteri, kimiawi (TVB dan kadar air serta organoleptik. Uji aktivitas antibakteri dari biji picung beku dilakukan terhadap bakteri Eschericia colidan Staphylococcus aureus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa berdas arkan parameter mikrobiologi, kimia dan organoleptik, biji picung beku yang disimpan hingga 1 bulan mampu mempertahankan kesegaran ikan hingga penyimpanan hari ke-2. Sedangkan dari hasil uji aktivitas antibakteri, biji pic ung beku dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri E. colidan S. aureusdengan kategori aktivitas sangat kuat.

  2. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain.- Recent fieldwork in Tenerife, especially in September 2010, yielded several interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, “Asian” Cardamine flexuosa, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla and Solanum abutiloides are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, while Eragrostis barrelieri var. pygmaea, Ficus microcarpa, Ipomoea purpurea, Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata, Sechium edule, Tradescantia zebrina and Turnera ulmifolia are new to the flora of the island of Tenerife. New records of Acacia cyclops, Atriplex suberecta, Heliotropium curassavicum, Paspalum dilatatum, P. notatum, Pluchea ovalis, Pulicaria paludosa, Sclerophylax spinescens and Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum confirm their recent expansion on the island of Tenerife. New records are provided for the recently described Sporobolus copei . Finally, Paspalum vaginatum (hitherto possibly confused with P. distichum and Potentilla indica are confirmed from the island of Tenerife.

    Adiciones para la flora de Tenerife (Islas Canarias, España.- Algunos recientes trabajos de campo en Tenerife, especialmente en Septiembre de 2010, trajeron consigo varias nuevas e interesantes adiciones de plantas vasculares no autóctonas. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa “Asiática”, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla y

  3. Pulp fruit added to culture medium for in vitro orchid developmentPolpa de frutos adicionada ao meio de cultivo no crescimento in vitro de orquídea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rostirolla Batista de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As an additive in in vitro culture media, fruits have a great potential for facilitating economical orchid production because of lower technology requirements and the ease of obtaining raw materials to formulate culture media. We studied the in vitro growth of Cattleya bicolor Lindl. grown in a simplified culture medium supplemented with different kinds of fruit pulp. The experimental design was completely randomised, with eight seedlings per replication and ten replications per treatment, for a total of 80 seedlings per treatment. The culture medium was made using 150 g L -1 of pulp (without peel or seed from the following fruits: ripe Santa Cruz tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L., dwarf bananas (Musa cavendishii L. of intermediate ripeness, light green chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw, ripe papaya (Carica papaya L. or green coconut (Cocos nucifera L..The treatment control was MS 50 %. The treatments and the control were kept in a growth chamber for seven months before evaluating seedling survival percentage, shoot height, number of leaves, rooting percentage, root number, root length and dry masses of shoot and roots. The highest percentages of seedling survival were obtained using MS 50 %, banana and coconut medium. The seedling survival and rooting percentages illustrate that it is possible to emphasise the culture medium MS 50% and the culture medium supplemented with coconut on the most traditional culture medium with banana or tomato pulp. For the in vitro development of Cattleya bicolor Lindl., a simplified culture medium supplemented with coconut pulp is the most suitable for use as an alternative to MS 50%. A simplified culture medium supplemented with papaya pulp is not recommended for the in vitro development of Cattleya bicolor Lindl. Os frutos apresentam potencial para serem utilizados na elaboração de meios de cultivo para facilitar a produção de orquídeas em pequenas propriedades, contribuindo para a rentabilidade do cultivo

  4. Promoción positiva de vegetales en preescolares costarricenses empleando el Kamishibai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chacón-Villalobos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta la evaluación de la promoción positiva de los vegetales chayote (Sechium edule y brócoli (Brassica oleracea L, al emplear la estrategia de animación a la lectura conocida como Kamishibai. Durante el año 2012 en San José, se estudió la actitud infantil hacia los vegetales (positiva, negativa o neutra, y el agrado sensorial que manifestaba esta población antes de la exposición al Kamishibai y posterior a la misma. Se trabajó con 213 infantes preescolares entre los 4 y 6 años de edad. Las evaluaciones de actitud se efectuaron por medio de una entrevista, mientras que el agrado se estudió por medio de un panel sensorial. La exposición al Kamishibai consistió en 10 intervenciones en la forma de sesiones de cuentos, donde se dividieron los infantes en cuatro grupos según género del menor y género del personaje del cuento que promocionó el vegetal. Todas las actividades se llevaron a cabo en un espacio de juego acondicionado para tal efecto en el salón de clases. A partir de los resultados obtenidos, puede argumentarse que el uso del Kamishibai como técnica de animación a la lectura incrementó significativamente la opinión positiva y el agrado inicial hacia los vegetales en los menores (p<0,05, indiferentemente de su género y del género de las figuras que efectuaron la promoción.

  5. Promoción positiva de vegetales en preescolares costarricenses empleando el Kamishibai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chacón-Villalobos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta la evaluación de la promoción positiva de los vegetales chayote (Sechium edule y brócoli (Brassica oleracea L, al emplear la estrategia de animación a la lectura conocida como Kamishibai. Durante el año 2012 en San José, se estudió la actitud infantil hacia los vegetales (positiva, negativa o neutra, y el agrado sensorial que sentía esta población antes de la exposición al Kamishibai y, posterior a la misma; se trabajó conn 213 infantes preescolares entre los 4 y 6 años de edad. Las evaluaciones de actitud se efectuaron por medio de una entrevista, mientras que el agrado se estudió por medio de un panel sensorial. La exposición al Kamishibai consistió en 10 intervenciones en la forma de sesiones de cuentos, donde se dividieron los infantes en cuatro grupos según género del menor y género del personaje del cuento que promocionó el vegetal. Todas las actividades se llevaron a cabo en un espacio de juego acondicionado para tal efecto en el salón de clases. A partir de los resultados obtenidos, puede argumentarse que el uso de la técnica del Kamishibai como técnica de animación a la lectura incrementó significativamente la opinión positiva y el agrado inicial hacia los vegetales en estas personas menores (p<0,05, indiferentemente de su género y del género de las figuras que efectuaron la promoción.

  6. Pathogenicity for onion and genetic diversity of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Phyllachoraceae) from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, M X Vila; Borges, L R; de Sousa, A C B; Brasileiro, B T R V; Lima, E A L A; da Costa, A F; de Oliveira, N T

    2011-02-22

    Onion anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is one of the main diseases of onions in the State of Pernambuco. We examined the pathogenicity of 15 C. gloeosporioides strains and analyzed their genetic variability using RAPDs and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the rDNA region. Ten of the strains were obtained from substrates and hosts other than onion, including chayote (Sechium edule), guava (Psidium guajava), pomegranate (Punica granatum), water from the Capibaribe River, maracock (Passiflora sp), coconut (Cocus nucifera), surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora), and marine soil; five isolates came from onions collected from four different regions of the State of Pernambuco and one region of the State of Amazonas. Pathogenicity tests were carried out using onion leaves and bulbs. All strains were capable of causing disease in leaves, causing a variable degree of lesions on the leaves; four strains caused the most severe damage. In the onion bulb tests, only three of the above strains caused lesions. Seven primers of arbitrary sequences were used in the RAPD analysis, generating polymorphic bands that allowed the separation of the strains into three distinct groups. The amplification products generated with the primers ITS1 and ITS4 also showed polymorphism when digested with three restriction enzymes, DraI, HaeIII and MspI. Only the latter two demonstrated genetic variations among the strains. These two types of molecular markers were able to differentiate the strain from the State of Amazonas from those of the State of Pernambuco. However, there was no relationship between groups of strains, based on molecular markers, and degree of pathogenicity for onion leaves and bulbs.

  7. Liberação de componentes do extrato de Casearia sylvestris Swartz empregando membranas de látex natural como suporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Trecco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A membrana de látex natural (NRL – Natural Rubber Latex, manipulada a partir do látex extraído da seringueira Hevea brasiliensis, tem apresentado grande potencial de aplicação no campo da biomedicina e dos biomateriais. Graças a sua biocompatibilidade e baixa taxa de rejeição, ela tem sido utilizada para próteses e enxertos, atuando como estimulante da angiogênese, adesão celular e barreira física a agentes infecciosos. Além dessas aplicações, as membranas são utilizadas como matriz de sistemas de liberação para avaliar o comportamento da liberação de fármacos e extratos de origem vegetal que apresentam propriedades medicinais. O sistema extrato-membrana tem como objeto de estudo uma nova abordagem dessas substâncias no tratamento de feridas visando à cicatrização e regeneração do tecido envolvido. Casearia sylvestris, conhecida popularmente como guaçatonga, pertence à família Salicaceae, conhecida na medicina popular pelos seus efeitos antiulcerogênicos, cicatrizantes, antiofídicos, anti-inflamatórios e antissépticos, propriedades já comprovadas por estudos. Trabalhos recentes demonstraram que a liberação controlada de fármacos e extratos utilizando membranas de látex natural é uma alternativa interessante e promissora para aplicações biomédicas. Assim, o objetivo deste projeto foi estudar a liberação do extrato de Casearia sylvestris incorporado à membrana de látex em soluções com diferentes valores de pH, com o propósito de estudar seu comportamento e sua liberação de forma controlada. A taxa de liberação do extrato do sistema extrato-membrana foi monitorada e analisada utilizando-se o método de espectroscopia ótica (UV. O pH básico age desestabilizando a membrana indicando que o polímero possui a habilidade de proteger o extrato de ser liberado em valores de pH ácidos, direcionando sua aplicação para o sítio de melhor absorção. Além disso, a liberação segue uma função bi-exponencial y(t=y0 +A1 e−t/τ1+A2 e−t/τ2, sendo que uma parte do extrato se encontra na superfície da membrana enquanto outra parte se encontra dentro da membrana (bulk. O extrato foi agregado à membrana e liberado por até 10 dias, sendo o pH=7,6 o que mais influenciou na liberação do extrato pela membrana. Este resultado é interessante, pois o pH da solução além de modificar o perfil de liberação, modifica o tempo de saturação tornando possível produzir uma membrana para cada aplicação, ou seja, uma membrana para o estômago, outra para a pele, e assim, por diante, pois cada órgão possui um pH característico.

  8. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CV. Silva

    Full Text Available Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009, the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.

  9. Antifungal and antimycotoxigenic potency of Solanum torvum Swartz. leaf extract: isolation and identification of compound active against mycotoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, R U; Thippeswamy, S; Manjunath, K; Mohana, D C

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of Solanum torvum leaves against different field and storage fungi, and to identify its active compound. In addition, to evaluate in vitro and in vivo inhibitory efficacy on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Leaves of S. torvum were sequentially extracted with petroleum ether, toluene, chloroform, methanol and ethanol. The antifungal compound isolated from chloroform extract was identified as torvoside K based on spectral analysis. The antifungal activity of chloroform extract and torvoside K was determined by broth microdilution and poisoned food techniques. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and zone of inhibition (ZOI) were recorded. Further, inhibitory effects of chloroform extract and torvoside K on growth of A. flavus and F. verticillioides, and their toxin productions were evaluated using in vitro and in vivo assays. Torvoside K showed the significant activity against tested fungi with ZOIs and MICs ranging from 33·4 to 87·4% and 31·25-250 μg ml(-1) , respectively. Further, torvoside K showed concentration-dependent antimycotoxigenic activity against aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 production by A. flavus and F. verticillioides, respectively. It was observed that the compound torvoside K significantly inhibited the growth of all fungi tested. Growth of A. flavus and F. verticillioides, and aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 productions were completely inhibited in vitro and in vivo by torvoside K with increasing concentration. Control of mycotoxigenic fungi requires compounds that able to inhibit both fungal growth and mycotoxin production. The antimycotoxigenic potential of torvoside K of S. torvum is described in this study for the first time. The results indicate the possible use of S. torvum as source of antifungal agents against postharvest fungal infestation of food commodities and mycotoxin contaminations. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Investigations of water bounded in clam mussels (Mytilius edulis) by nuclear magnetic relaxation for protons; Badanie wody zwiazanej w muszlach omulka (Mytillus edulls) metoda magnetycznej relaksacji dla protonow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranczyk, H.; Niziol, J. [Inst. Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Falniowski, A. [Inst. Zoologii, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The process of water bounding in clam shells has been investigated by nuclear magnetic relaxation of protons measurements. Decomposition of measured relaxation functions have been done using the specially constructed computer program. 4 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  11. Feeding current characteristics of three morphologically different bivalve suspension feeders, Crassostrea gigas Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule , in relation to food competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, K.; Stamhuis, E.J.; Duren, L.A.; Wolff, W.

    2009-01-01

    Introduced Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) have shown rapid expansion in the Oosterschelde estuary, while stocks of native bivalves declined slightly or remained stable. This indicates that they might have an advantage over native bivalve filter feeders. Hence, at the scale of individual

  12. Feeding current characteristics of three morphologically different bivalve suspension feeders, Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule, in relation to food competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, K.; Stamhuis, E.J.; van Duren, L.A; Wolff, W.J.

    Introduced Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) have shown rapid expansion in the Oosterschelde estuary, while stocks of native bivalves declined slightly or remained stable. This indicates that they might have an advantage over native bivalve filter feeders. Hence, at the scale of individual

  13. Estudo da concordância das citações de uso e importância das espécies e famílias utilizadas como medicinais pela comunidade do bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Secretti Vendruscolo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferramentas para quantificar dados etnobotânicos estão sendo usadas como complementares aos levantamentos sobre a utilização de plantas por populações. Neste trabalho são utilizadas técnicas para avaliar a concordância das citações de uso e a importância das espécies e famílias para as 51 pessoas entrevistadas no bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Para tal, foram utilizados os cálculos de Valor de Uso (UV e a porcentagem corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc para as 142 espécies mencionadas no levantamento. As espécies Aloe arborescens Mill., Citrus × aurantium L., Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Eugenia uniflora L., Cunila microcephala Benth., Citrus limon (L. Osveck, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Psidium guajava L., Artemisia absinthium L., Ocimum basilicum L., Plantago tomentosa Lam., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Persea americana Mill., Aloysia citrodora Palau, Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl., Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr., Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nyman ex A.W. Hill, Ocimum selloi Benth. e Tanacetum vulgare L., nesta ordem de Valor de Uso, foram consideradas como as mais importantes para a população estudada. As famílias mais importantes foram Asphodelaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Rutaceae e Lythraceae. Para o cálculo da porcentagem a corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc foram consideradas como espécies principais as que apresentaram valores acima de 24%: Eugenia uniflora, Achyrocline satureioides, Psidium guajava, Cunila microcephala, Plectranthus barbatus, Citrus × aurantium, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Punica granatum L., Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw., Sphagneticola trilobata (L. Pruski, Aloysia citrodora, Foeniculum vulgare, Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., Artemisia absinthium, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br., Mikania laevigata Sch. Bip ex Baker, Aloe arborescens e Petroselinum

  14. Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae present in the flowers of the balsa wood Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788 - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.7103 Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae present in the flowers of the balsa wood Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788 - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.7103

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodoro Magno Brighenti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The flower of balsa wood holds about 10 to 15 mL of nectar, which helps attracting pollinating agents, since the genus Ochroma is incapable of self-fertilization. However, a high mortality of bees is observed in these flowers. The present study investigated the frequency and constancy of mortality of the individuals of the family Apidae that fed on nectar from the balsa wood. Data was gathered from June to August 2008, in Lavras – Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In addition, the survival of the Africanized bees that fed on the nectar of this flower was compared to those that fed on 50% aqueous solution of honey. Forty flowers were analyzed, and 949 individuals of the orders Hymenoptera (98.1%, Hemiptera (0.95%, Coleoptera (0.74% and Diptera (0.21% were collected. Most Hymenoptera individuals were bees of the genera Partamona and Trigona (677 individuals, which were considered of constant occurrence. Flowers producing up to 16.7 nectar mL were found. The nectar diet contained 16.44% of total sugar, and resulted in low survival of the bees in laboratory (31.32 ± 2.37 hours, compared to a diet of 50% aqueous solution of honey (112.32 ± 2.03 hours.The flower of balsa wood holds about 10 to 15 mL of nectar, which helps attracting pollinating agents, since the genus Ochroma is incapable of self-fertilization. However, a high mortality of bees is observed in these flowers. The present study investigated the frequency and constancy of mortality of the individuals of the family Apidae that fed on nectar from the balsa wood. Data was gathered from June to August 2008, in Lavras – Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In addition, the survival of the Africanized bees that fed on the nectar of this flower was compared to those that fed on 50% aqueous solution of honey. Forty flowers were analyzed, and 949 individuals of the orders Hymenoptera (98.1%, Hemiptera (0.95%, Coleoptera (0.74% and Diptera (0.21% were collected. Most Hymenoptera individuals were bees of the genera Partamona and Trigona (677 individuals, which were considered of constant occurrence. Flowers producing up to 16.7 nectar mL were found. The nectar diet contained 16.44% of total sugar, and resulted in low survival of the bees in laboratory (31.32 ± 2.37 hours, compared to a diet of 50% aqueous solution of honey (112.32 ± 2.03 hours.

  15. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil Macroinvertebrados aquáticos associados à Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth e suas relações com as variáveis abióticas em ecossistemas lênticos marginais (São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CV. Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009, the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.Lagoas marginais são caracterizadas por apresentar elevada diversidade biológica, devido à presença de macrófitas aquáticas nas suas zonas litorâneas, constituindo habitats de refúgio e alimento para comunidades associadas. Entre os seus integrantes, destacam-se os macroinvertebrados aquáticos, fonte de energia para predadores e ictiofauna. Em seis lagoas e em duas épocas distintas (março e agosto de 2009, os atributos ecológicos da comunidade de macroinvertebrados aquáticos associados à Eichhornia azurea foram comparados, identificando-se os fatores ambientais controladores. Uma vez que os atributos da comunidade de macroinvertebrados estão estritamente associados às variáveis abióticas de cada habitat distinto, nossa hipótese era de que cada local com a presença da mesma macrófita aquática flutuante (E. azurea deveria ter uma típica composição e densidade de organismos. Foram identificados 50 taxa de macroinvertebrados, com maior riqueza registrada para os insetos aquáticos (37 taxa, distribuídos em oito ordens; sendo a ordem Diptera a mais abundante nos dois períodos de estudo. Por outro lado, maiores valores de riqueza total de taxa foram registrados em agosto. Oxigênio dissolvido e pH apresentaram o maior número de correlações significativas positivas com os diferentes taxa. Os animais mais frequentes, coletados nas seis lagoas estudadas em março e agosto de 2009, foram Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidiae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae e Nematoda. Apenas as densidades de Trichoptera, Ostracoda e Conchostraca apresentaram maior diferença significativa entre lagoas, em ambos os períodos de estudo. Considerando-se a composição de macroinvertebrados, diferenças significativas não foram registradas.

  16. Desenvolvimento de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith em genótipos de milho tratados com extrato acetato de etila de Trichilia pallida (Swartz Development of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith on corn genotypes treated with ethyl acetade extract from Trichilia pallida (Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Railda Roel

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do extrato acetato de etila obtido de folhas e ramos de Trichillia pallida, (a 0,001%, sobre o desenvolvimento de Spodoptera frugiperda alimentada com folhas de quatro genótipos de milho, um suscetível, 'Piranão', e três resistentes, 'CMS 14C', 'Zapalote Chico', 'ESALQ-PB-4', à referida praga. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram peso, duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal. Verificou-se que o extrato provocou alongamento da fase larval e redução dos pesos larval e pupal e que os genótipos resistentes não confirmaram esse comportamento pois quando comparados ao genótipo suscetível, apenas reduziram o peso pupal. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores genótipo e extrato.The effect of the ethyl acetate extract of leaves and branches of Trichilia pallida was evaluated (at 0.001% on larvae of S. frugiperda, fed on leaves of the corn genotypes 'Zapalote Chico', 'CMS 14C' and 'ESALQ-PB-4', considered resistant to this pest, and the susceptible genotype 'Piranão'. The parameters evaluated were length, weight and viability of larval and pupal stages. The extract increased the length of the larval stage, and larval and pupal weight, while resistant genotypes only reduced the pupal weight, did however not confirm the resistant behaviour. There was no interaction between genotype and extract.

  17. Aplicación de Tecnología de Barreras para la Conservación de Mezclas de Vegetales Mínimamente Procesados / Application of Barrier Technology for the Conservation of Minimally Processed Vegetables Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Escobar Hernández

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Los vegetales son componentes esenciales de la dietahumana y su procesamiento trae como consecuencia el rápido deterioro ocasionado por el aumento de las reacciones metabólicas, esto hace necesario que se utilicen tecnologías emergentes de conservación. En este trabajo se estudió el efecto de la tecnología de barreras (desinfección, tratamiento térmico, recubrimiento comestible, atmósfera modificada y refrigeración sobre la vida útil de una mezcla de vegetales mínimamente procesados compuesta por brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. itálica, coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L., chayote (Sechium edule, apio (Apium graveolens y zanahoria (Daucus carota. Las barreras fueron aplicadas a las hortalizas para luego ser envasadas en dos tipos de bandejas (empaque en atmósfera modificada y empaque en bandeja sello plus. Los vegetales se almacenaron durante 12 días en refrigeración (4 °C y 95% HR, se llevaron a cabo análisis microbiológicos, físicoquímicos y sensoriales, y un estudio de vida útil. Los resultados mostraron que el proceso de desinfección con NaClO 100 ppm y el tratamiento térmico de 60 °C durante 2 min, tuvieron efecto en la reducción de la población microbiana para el día cero de evaluación. La calidad general se conservó para los 12 días dealmacenamiento, en la zanahoria, chayote, coliflor y apio. Laevaluación fisicoquímica presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas de los parámetros evaluados con respecto al tiempo de almacenamiento. El estudio de vida útil arrojó tiempos de 7 y 5 días para la mezcla de vegetales empacada en bandeja sello plus en atmósfera modificada, respectivamente. La combinación debarreras se muestra como alternativa viable en la conservación de mezclas de vegetales mínimamente procesados. /  Vegetables are essential components of the human diet. However, rapid deterioration of vegetables occurs after

  18. Fenología y desarrollo de las agallas de las ramas del güisaro (Psidium guineense Swartz (Myrtaceae y su relación con varias especies de Microhimenopteros en Heredia, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Suárez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En una población natural de güísaro (Psidium guineense, en Barva de Heredia, se estudió el desarrollo de las agallas de las ramas y la fenología de cuatro especies de micro himenópteros emergidos de ellas, desde abril de 1985 a agosto de 1986. La formación de las agallas comenzó en julio y su número aumentó progresivamente hasta diciembre del mismo año. En julio del año siguiente se presentó otro período de formación de agallas. Las variaciones en el tamaño y la apariencia externa de las agallas, así como la emergencia de las avispas, permitieron establecer tres fases en el desarrollo de las agallas, las cuales se describen en detalle. La emergencia de las avispas se presentó de octubre a julio. Cuatro especies de micro himenópteros emergieron de las agallas (en orden de abundancia: Chrysonotomya sp. (Eulophidae, Sycophila (=Eudecatoma sp. (Eurytomidae, Torymoides (=Dimeromicrussp.y Torymus sp. (Torymidae.  Chrysonotomya sp. presentó el pico de emergencia en mayo y probablemente es el inductor de estas agallas. Las otras especies presentaron su pico de emergencia en abril y probablemente son parasitoides de Chrysonotomya sp.

  19. Comportamiento de la germinación y categorización de la latencia en semillas de mortiño (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández P. María Isabel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se categorizaron la germinación y latencia de semillas de mortiño y se desarrolló un protocolo de remoción de esta última, aspectos que son básicos para procesos de conservación, siembra y fitomejoramiento de la especie. No se detectó latencia exógena, con imbibición de agua, por parte de las semillas en un sustrato húmedo. Las simientes exhibieron una respuesta fotoblástica positiva a la luz. Se determinó, mediante la aplicación de tetrazolio, que 15,8% de las semillas eran no viables, con 63,0% de semillas con germinación y 21,2% viables latentes. La germinación y remoción de la latencia fueron significativamente superiores a 20°C que a 25°C. La latencia de la semilla fue eliminada, casi por completo, bajo un régimen de luz blanca constante, a 20°C, con aplicación de GA3 en concentraciones de 500, 1.000 y 2.000 mg L-1. El bloqueo de la germinación se clasifcó como latencia fsiológica no profunda.

  20. An Upstart Web Catalog Challenges an Academic-Library Giant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2008-01-01

    21-year-old Aaron Swartz is attempting to turn the library world upside down. He is taking on the subscription-based WorldCat, the largest bibliographic database on the planet, by building a free online book catalog that anyone can update. Many academic librarians are wary of Mr. Swartz's project because it will allow nonlibrarians, who may be…

  1. Indexing the etymological lexicographic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Indexing the etymological lexicographic systems The main problems and directions for the development of the etymological lexicographic systems in the digital environment are studied. The formal conceptual model of the lexicographic system for fundamental academic Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language (EDUL is developed. The lexicographic structure of the EDUL individual elements are developed and described. The EDUL metalanguage was studied and described. The formal model and technology of the EDUL parsing are worked out. That made it possible to convert automatically the EDUL text into the lexicographic database, which corresponds to the conceptual model of the lexicographic system. The conceptual foundations of instrumental tool to form the etymological dictionaries are developed to create the Virtual Lexicographic Laboratory «Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language», which was implemented with a modern approach to the real lexicographic array of the EDUL. That allowed to form the database of the EDUL multilingual index (about 250 languages in the automatic mode. This index is a basis of the seventh (final volume of the EDUL. The possibility of applying the developed models to other etymological dictionaries are studied. The conceptual foundations for integration of the etymological lexicographic systems are discussed.

  2. Aplicación de tratamiento térmico, recubrimiento comestible y baño químico como tratamientos poscosecha para la conservación de hortalizas mínimamente procesadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Escobar Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo creciente ha estimulado el desarrollo de los vegetales cuarta gama o mínimamente procesados. Actualmente, se promueve el uso de tecnologías aplicadas a estos productos que les brinden mayor duración y garanticen la reducción de pérdidas poscosecha. En esta investigación se evaluó el efecto de tres de estas tecnologías poscosecha sobre la intensidad de la respiración y la calidad sensorial general de las hortalizas mínimamente procesadas: brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. Itálica, coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L., apio (Apium graveolens, zanahoria (Daucus carota y chayote (Sechium edule. Para el recubrimiento comestible se utilizó pectina de bajo metoxilo (2%, cera carnauba (1%, glicerol (1.5% y ácido ascórbico (0.05%. El tratamiento térmico se hizo a 60 °C durante 2 min, con adición de ácido ascórbico (0.25%, ácido cítrico (0.5% y cloruro de calcio (0.025%. El baño químico se realizó con una solución de ácido cítrico (0.5%, ácido ascórbico (0.05% y cloruro de calcio (0.05%. La tasa de producción de CO2 se midió por el método estático, monitoreando la composición de los gases del espacio de cabeza durante 24 h a 8 °C y humedad relativa de 90%. La evaluación sensorial de color, aroma, crujencia y sabor objetable fueron las características organolépticas tomadas en cuenta para evaluar la calidad general de cada vegetal, la cual fue realizada con un panel de siete jueces previamente entrenados. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, siendo los bloques cada uno de los vegetales y las variables de respuesta la tasa de respiración y la calidad sensorial general. Se encontró que el tratamiento térmico y el recubrimiento comestible permitieron que los vegetales conservaran la calidad sensorial. El análisis estadístico no mostró diferencias significativas respecto al control (P > 0.05. La celeridad de la respiración disminuyó en el apio, el br

  3. Ensuring an optimal environment for peer education in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensuring an optimal environment for peer education in South African schools: Goals, systems, standards and policy options for effective learning. Sharlene Swartz, Charles Deutsch, Benita Moolman, Emma Arogundade, Dane Isaacs, Barbara Michel ...

  4. Towards a cyber security aware rural community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available between the Big Five, shyness, narcissism, loneliness, and Facebook usage. Computers in Human Behavior. Available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0747563211000379 [Accessed, April 8 2011]. [19] Swartz, M.K., September. Cyberbullying...

  5. Monitoring populations of breeding seabirds: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — At Cape Thompson, Alaska, the University of Alaska, mapped locations of census plots during his 1959-61 studies (see Swartz 1966) of the seabird colony there....

  6. Disease: H00306 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 766 PMID:6371440 (drug) Weber DJ, Wolfson JS, Swartz MN, Hooper DC Pasteurella multocida infections. Report ...not susceptible to dicloxacillin, cephalexin, clindamycin, or erythromycin. ICD-10: A28.0 MeSH: D010326 D012

  7. Ueber einige Coelenterata von Australien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1931-01-01

    I. Hydromedusen. *Olindias singularis Browne. II. Scyphomedusen. *Atolla wyvillei Haeckel. *Linuche unguiculata O. Swartz. Pelagia noctiluca Péron u. Lesueur. Cyanea capillata var. annaskala von Lendenfeld. Netrostoma coerulescens Maas. *Versura anadyomene (Maas) Mayer. Catostylus mosaicus L.

  8. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ragwort) Setaria pallide-fusca (Schumacher) Stapf & Hubbard (cattail grass) Solanum torvum Swartz (turkeyberry) Solanum viarum Dunal (tropical soda apple) Spermacoce alata (Aublet) de Candolle Tridax... (giant salvinia) Solanum tampicense Dunal (wetland nightshade) Sparganium erectum Linnaeus (exotic bur...

  9. Dos nuevas especies del género Ardisia Sw. (Myrsinaceae de la provincia florística Chocoana de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipoly John James III

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Ardisia Swartz, A. aguirreana Pipoly, a A. monsalveae Pipoly, both from the Chocó floristic province of Colombia, are decribed, ilustrated, and their phylogeneticrelationships atea discussed.Se ilustra y se describe dos nuevas especies del género Ardisia Swartz, provenientes de la provincia floristica chocoana, A. aguirreana Pipoly y A. monsalveae Pipoly, y se discute su parentesco.

  10. Modelling shellfish growth with dynamic energy budget models: an application for cockles and mussels in the Oosterschelde (southwest Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, T.A.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Saraiva, S.; Freitas, V.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic energy budget models for growth of individual cockles (Cerastoderma edule) and mussels (Mytilus edulis) are adjusted and calibrated to the Oosterschelde by formulating and parametrizing their functional responses using an extensive set of field observations. The resulting model predictions

  11. Macrobenthos recruitment success in a tidal flat: Feeding trait dependent effects of disturbance history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colen, van C.; Montserrat, F.; Vincx, M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Ysebaert, T.; Degraer, S.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile growth rate and production of the bivalves Macoma balthica and Cerastoderma edule and the polychaete Nereis diversicolor were investigated on two contrasting tidal flat sediments that represented different recovery stages following disturbance. Juvenile M. balthica and N. diversicolor grew

  12. The influence of four macrozoobenthic species on the abundance of the amphipod Corophium volutator on tidal flats of the Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, E. C.

    On the tidal flats of the Wadden Sea, a zonation pattern can be found with Corophium volutator and Nereis diversicolor as the dominating species of the upper intertidal zone and Arenicola marina and Cerastoderma edule as the dominating species of the lower zone. As C. volutator can live under a great variety of physical conditions, its restriction to higher areas might result from biotic interactions. This was investigated by field experiments on a tidal flat in the westernmost part of the Wadden Sea. Within large depopulated areas, small plots were recolonized with different densities of N. diversicolor, A. marina, C. edule and Macoma balthica and the subsequent settlement and dynamics of C. volutator were studied. In addition, A. marina and/or C. edule were added to or removed from small plots within a natural benthic community. Neither the presence of M. balthica not that of N. diversicolor significantly affected the abundance of C. volutator. A strongly negative effect was found of C. edule when present in high densities, whereas A. marina negatively affected C. volutator abundance already at relatively low densities. Local removals of A. marina and C. edule from their own zone resulted in increases of Corophium numbers at these locations and local additions of these species within the Corophium zone resulted in decreases of Corophium numbers at these locations. It is suggested that the major species to restrict C. volutator effectively to the upper tidal zone is A. marina.

  13. Comparative phylogeography of two sister (congeneric) species of cardiid bivalve: Strong influence of habitat, life history and post-glacial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnowska, Katarzyna; Krakau, Manuela; Jacobsen, Sabine; Wołowicz, Maciej; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Chenuil, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Sister (congeneric) species may exhibit disparate patterns of biogeographic genetic structures due to different life histories and habitat preferences. The common cockle Cerastoderma edule and the lagoon cockle Cerastoderma glaucum probably diverged from their common ancestor in the present territory of Sahara around 5 million years ago. Although it is difficult to separate both species morphologically, various genetic markers, both mitochondrial and nuclear, clearly distinguish them. Furthermore, their lifestyles are different, as C. edule has a much less fragmented coastal habitat and a longer duration of pelagic larval stage than C. glaucum. A comparative genetic analysis was conducted on 17 populations of C. edule and 13 populations of C. glaucum using a 506 bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA (COI). We tested the hypothesis that differences in habitat types and life history are reflected in the genetic structure patterns of these two cockles. Indeed substantial differences in population genetic structures between them are revealed. Genetic diversity within C. glaucum populations decreases northwards as a consequence of post-glacial (re)colonization from southern refugia, while C. edule displays an opposite pattern indicating survival in glacial refuges in the northern Atlantic. Among populations within geographic groups, genetic differentiation is low in C. edule, probably as a result of larval dispersal with coastal currents, while it is extremely high in C. glaucum, best explained by the fragmented habitats. Interestingly, long distance divergence is less expressed in C. glaucum than in C. edule, which supports the speculation that migrating birds (frequently observed in lagoons) may occasionally transport the former more often or more efficiently than the latter. The approach applied in this study (e.g., rarefaction procedure, selection of samples of both species from the same regions) enabled a new and reliable comparative analysis of the existing raw

  14. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS - Vol 9, No 4 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring change in vulnerable adolescents: Findings from a peer education evaluation in South Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Swartz, C Deutsch, M Makoae, B Michel, JH Harding, G Garzouzie, A Rozani, T Runciman, I Van der Heijden ...

  15. Exploring the role of Environmental Quality and time Perspective in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their final examinations are generally viewed as primary selection criteria for access to higher education institutions (Swartz .... (1998) who found that time perspective has an influence on decision-making as well as goal- setting. .... which can be explained by a specific set of variables is indicated by the squared multiple.

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 3938 ... ADN Murray, G Morrison, R Eastman, D Meyer. Vol 90, No 2 (2000), Books, Abstract PDF. S R Benatar, Gail Todd. Vol 90, No 3 (2000), Books, Abstract PDF. Brian Kies, EA Shipton, Fred N Sanders. Vol 90, No 4 (2000), Books, Abstract PDF. Leslie Swartz. Vol 89, No 12 (1999), Books, Abstract PDF.

  17. 78 FR 70191 - Post-Employment Conflict of Interest Regulations; Exempted Senior Employee Positions; Withdrawal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ..., 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Christopher J. Swartz, Assistant Counsel, Ethics Law & Policy... / Monday, November 25, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS 5 CFR Part 2641 RIN...; Withdrawal of Final Rule AGENCY: Office of Government Ethics (OGE). ACTION: Withdrawal of final rule. SUMMARY...

  18. 78 FR 61153 - Post-Employment Conflict of Interest Regulations; Exempted Senior Employee Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ..., 2014. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Christopher J. Swartz, Assistant Counsel, Ethics Law & Policy... / Thursday, October 3, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS 5 CFR Part 2641 RIN...: Office of Government Ethics (OGE). ACTION: Final rule; revocation of exemptions. SUMMARY: The Office of...

  19. 2319 IJBCS-ArticleDidier Dibong

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Banks ex Gaerth, Mammea africana Sabine,. Mangifera indica Linn., Mentha sp., Morinda lucida Benth., Musa sapientum Linn.,. Musanga cecropioides R. Br., Nauclea diderrichii (De Wild) Merril, Nephrolepis biserreta (Swartz) Schott, Nicotiana tabacum. Linn., Ocimum basilicum Linn., Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Passiflora ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Swartz, E.R.. Vol 42, No 2 (2017) - Articles DNA barcoding of South Africa's ornamental freshwater fish – are the names reliable? Abstract. ISSN: 1727-9364. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

  1. Pakistan’s Law Enforcement Agencies -- Harnessing their Potential to Combat Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    need an artificial bliss.66 The non-existence of rehabilitation infrastructure in the country leaves no way back for such addicts , who can then...security forces, during their operations at Wana in 2004, captured the latest communication gadgets , including telephone exchanges, Thoraya satellite...technological gadgets . 200 John Swartz, “Terrorists’ Use of Internet Spreads,” USA Today, February

  2. Steps that count! A feasibility study of a pedometer-based, health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helsinki, Good Clinical Practice, as well as the ethical laws of South. Africa. Ethical approval was obtained from the Human Research Ethics. Committee of the ..... Richardson CR, Newton TL, Abraham JJ, Sen A, Jimbo M, Swartz AM. A meta- analysis of pedometer-based walking interventions and weight loss. Ann Fam Med.

  3. Registration of 'Aloha' Seashore Paspalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Aloha’ (Reg. No. ________; PI 652948) seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum O. Swartz) was developed at the Everglades Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, and jointly released by the Florida and Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Stations. It was initially approved for releas...

  4. Thermal Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    interface. – Acoustic mismatch theory ( AMM ) (Little, 1959) – Diffuse mismatch theory (DMM) (Swartz and Pohl 1989) • Both of these theories offer...limited accuracy for nanoscale interfacial resistance predictions because of they neglect the atomic details of actual interfaces. – e.g. The AMM model

  5. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 15, No 37 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC to salinity stress in greenhouse conditions · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Dioumacor Fall, Niokhor Bakhoum, Fatoumata Fall, Fatou Diouf, Mamadou O Ly, Mayécor Diouf, Djamel Gully, Valérie Hocher, Diégane Diouf ...

  6. Germination, growth and physiological responses of Senegalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Germination, growth and physiological responses of Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Vachellia seyal (Delile) P. Hurter and Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC to salinity stress in greenhouse conditions. Dioumacor Fall, Niokhor Bakhoum, Fatoumata Fall, Fatou Diouf, Mamadou O Ly, Mayécor Diouf, Djamel Gully, Valérie Hocher, ...

  7. Solanum torvum as a causative agent of enzootic calcinosis in Papua, New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, K M; Simonite, J P; Pullen, L; Simpson, J A

    1979-09-01

    Inclusion of dried powdered leaves of Solanum torvum Swartz (collected in Papua, New Guinea) in the diet of rats induced hypercalcaemai rapidly and hyperphosphataemia more slowly; soft tissue calcification was most evident in the kidney and lung. Solanum torvum may be a causative agent of enzootic calcinosis in cattle in Papua, New Guinea.

  8. Three unusual 22-beta-O-23-hydroxy-(5 alpha)-spirostanol glycosides from the fruits of Solanum torvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Yoshihiko; Yanai, Yoshihiro; Ono, Masateru; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2005-09-01

    Three novel 22-beta-O-spirostanol oligoglycosides, torvosides J (1), K (2) and L (3) have been isolated from the fruits of Solanum torvum SWARTZ and their chemical structures have been characterized based on the spectroscopic means. They are worth of note as rare 22-beta-O-spirostanol glycosides.

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Swartz, L. Vol 14, No 5 (2011) - Articles Family therapy for schizophrenia: cultural challenges and implementation barriers in the South African context. Abstract PDF · Vol 16, No 3 (2013) - Articles Organising for self-advocacy in mental health: Experiences from seven African countries. Abstract PDF · Vol 16, No 6 (2013) - ...

  10. Evaluation of seashore paspalum germplasm for resistance to dollar spot disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz) cultivars that exhibit resistance to dollar spot disease, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F.T. Bennett, are needed. Seashore paspalum is a warm-season turfgrass often utilized on golf courses and athletic fields in the southeastern Unite...

  11. Preliminary Guide to the Onsite Identification and Delineation of the Wetlands of the South Atlantic United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Pontederia cordata (Pickerel-weed) Sagitarria spp. (Arrowhead) 28 Scirpus spp. (Sedge) b. Wet Savannahs. Aletris farinosa (Stargrass) Ihex glabra... Pontederia cordata L. Pin oak Quercus palustris Muenchh. Pitcher plant Sarracenia flava L. Pitcher plant Sarracenia spp. Pond cypress Taxodiwn ascendens...Loblolly pine Planera aquatica Walt. Water elm Pluchea purpurascens (Swartz) DC. Camphorweed Pot ygonwn spp. Tearthumb, or Smartweed Pontederia cordata L

  12. South African Journal of Higher Education - Vol 25, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bell hooks and the enactment of emotion in teaching and learning across boundaries: A pedagogy of hope? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R Carolissen, V Bozalek, L Nicholls, B Leibowitz, P Rohleder, L Swartz, 157–167 ...

  13. 02 John 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tienie01

    12 Jun 2006 ... 'n boer, Hendrik Gerber (“The shooting of Lang Klaas”, WMC 27/1/1871). .... boer later weer na die kamp terugkeer, was die geslagte skaap weg (RE 24/3/1948;. HDA 23/1/1947). Die kampanje in die Langkloof om Ruiters te ... 'n Gedeelte van Ant Hes Swartz se vertelling kan dien as inleiding en opsom-.

  14. Prevalence of prenatal depression and associated factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... (Cooper, Tomlinson, Swartz, Woolgar, Murray & Molteno 1999). Decreased male involvement was associated with depression in multivariable analysis in this study; lack of partner support among pregnant women has been associated with depression in a previous study in South Africa (Hartley et al. 2011).

  15. Person-centred counselling to ameliorate symptoms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooper PJ, Tomlinson M, Swartz L, Woolgar M, Murray L, Molteno C. Post-partum depression and the mother-infant relationship in a South African peri-urban settlement. Br J Psychiatry. 1999;175:554–8. 13. Olley BO, Gxamza F, Seedat S, et al. Psychopathology and coping in recently diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients – the role ...

  16. South African Journal of Higher Education - Vol 21, No 7 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students learning across differences in a multi-disciplinary virtual learning community · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. V Bozalek, P Rohleder, R Carolissen, B Leibowitz, L Nicholls, L Swartz, 812-825. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajhe.v21i7.25744 ...

  17. Bond of Reinforcemen Under Controlled Confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    S.E. Swartz, and M.L. Wang, ed., 1990). 9. D. Ngo and A. C. Scordelis . "Finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beams," American Concrete...Navaratnarajah and P. R. Speare. "A theory of transfer bond resistance of deformed reinforcing bars in concrete under lateral pressure," Magazine of Concrete

  18. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    .za. 4. Swartz 2006 www.news24.com. 5. In cl 5(a) of the Green Paper on Land Reform (2011) also referred to as "[t]he land acquisition strategy". 6. This is evident in many newspaper reports. See for instance Sinkins Witness 5; West Business.

  19. Additional Military Orientation for the Experienced Nurse: A Guide Developed to Bridge the Gap From Civilian Nurse to Navy Nurse Corps Officer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-08-01

    Service Etiquette . Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. U. S. Navy Medical Department Officer Career Guide, Professional Development Division, Bureau of...Writing (Shenk) - Naval Ceremonies, Customs, and Traditions (Mack, Connell) - Naval Terms Dictionary (Noel, Beach) - Service Etiquette (Swartz...practiced throughout the Navy. LEARNER OBJECTIVES - State the primary difference between a Dining -In and a Dining -Out. - List three ways a command could

  20. Exploring the Role of Environmental Quality and Time Perspective in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The academic performance of Grade 12 learners is of great importance as the results obtained from their final examinations are generally viewed as primary selection criteria for access to higher education institutions (Swartz, 1998; Uys, 1993; Huysamen, 2001). Various cognitive, personal and environmental factors have ...

  1. Voice and silence in an autoethnography about chronic illness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    People living with chronic illness experience impairment in various ways, not the least of which is how they are ... of thinking and seeing that encloses disabled people in silence and obscurity” (McDougall,. Swartz and Van der .... denied insurance because I was a transplant recipient and was viewed as high risk. This.

  2. Applications of Strengths-Based Leadership Theory for the U.S. Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    and positive institutions and communities (as cited in Clifton & Harter , 2003). The identification of positive personal and interpersonal traits... Harter , 2003). Identification of strengths has been shown to increase levels of happiness, fulfillment and confidence at home and work (Linley et al...and increase productivity and job satisfaction (Baruch-Feldman, Brondolo, Ben-Dayan, & Swartz, 2002; Clifton & Harter , 2003). By impacting job

  3. India hiilgav viletsus / Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hvostov, Andrei, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Hiinat nimetatakse maailma töökojaks, Indiat aga bürooks (back office), võrdlus põhineb India IT-firmade edul - kõik tegevused, mida saab teha arvutite abil, kipuvad kolima Indiasse. Tulevikuriik India on hädas keskaegsete tavadega

  4. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Effect of Extraction Time and Solvent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of extraction conditions assisted by ultrasound on the quality of extracts obtained from Mesembryanthemum edule shoots. Methods: The extraction procedure was carried out in an ultrasonic bath. The effect of two solvents (methanol and ethanol) and two extraction times (5 and 10 min) ...

  5. Long-term indirect effects of mechanical cockle-dredging on intertidal bivalve stocks in the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Koolhaas, A; Dekinga, A; Beukema, JJ; Dekker, R.; Essink, K

    2001-01-01

    1. There is world-wide concern about the effects of bottom-dredging on benthic communities in soft sediments. In autumn 1988, almost a third of the 50-km(2) intertidal system around the island of Griend in the western Dutch Wadden Sea was suction-dredged for edible cockles Cerastoderma edule and

  6. The influence of sediment, food and organic ligands on the uptake of copper by sediment-dwelling bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Absil, M.C.P.; Berntssen, M.; Gerringa, L.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The sediment-dwelling bivalve Macoma balthica was exposed to dissolved copper ina flow-through system in long-term experiments. Unlike another sediment-dwelling bivalve, the suspension feeder Cerastoderma edule (cockle), M. balthica accumulated copper from the sediment, while the cockles did not.

  7. The effect of polluted sediment on the gonadal development and embryogenesis of bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, B.M.H.; Hummel, H.; Bogaards, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Cockles (Cerastoderma edule) and Baltic clams (Macoma balthica) were kept on polluted sediment from the harbour of Rotterdam, and on clean sediment from the Wadden Sea (control). Their gametogenesis was then followed. In vitro fertilisation (IVF) experiments were carried out and larvae were cultured

  8. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Effect of Extraction Time and Solvent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    activity by methanol and ethanol extracts of. Mesembryanthemum edule shoots after 5 and 10 min of sonication (n = 3, p< 0.05). DISCUSSION. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of plant extracts largely depend on extraction conditions and compositions [12]. Antioxidant molecules and capacities are influenced by.

  9. Eiders Somateria mollissima scavenging behind a lugworm boat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    The eider is one of the most important molluscivorous birds in the Wadden Sea, where it feeds mainly on blue mussels Mytilus edulis and edible cockles Cerastoderma edule. These prey species are within reach of the birds at all times. Other potential prey of suitable size that are abundantly present,

  10. Computing Environments for Data Analysis. Part 3. Programming Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-21

    interrupting a process, drawing a picture on a display. Each model is usually associated with a langu ~age. The language is a formal way of expressing ideas...Controaling Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS . (01 thie report) UNCLASSIFIED 15a. DECLASSIFICATION, OONGRAOING SCH4EDULE * II. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (at tis Report

  11. Mööblifirmade trump a la carte-teenuses / Heli Lehtsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtsaar, Heli, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Mööblitootjad on muutuvas majandusolukorras hakanud seeriatootmise asemel pöörama rohkem tähelepanu eritellimustele. Vt. samas: Aktiivne müük ja likviidne käibevara aitavad madalseisu ajal elus püsida. Ain Alvela. Edule pürgiv mööblitootja peab moevooludega kaasa sörkima

  12. Hatchery cultivation of the common cockle (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronker, A.E.; Peene, F.; Donner, S.; Wijnhoven, S.; Geijsen, P.; Bossier, P.; Nevejan, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes for the first time the cultivation of Cerastoderma edule on a commercial scale. A protocol to grow F2 generation cockles was developed, which led to fine-tuning experiments for broodstock conditioning and spat growth.Broodstock animals were conditioned with

  13. Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in marine organisms exposed to pesticide-contaminated sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhlenberg, Flemming; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Behavioural effects of marine sediment contaminated with pesticides (6000 ppm parathion, 200 ppm methyl parathion, 200 ppm malathion) were studied in a number of marine organisms in laboratory tests and in situ. The burrowing behaviour in Macoma baltica, Cerastoderma edule, Abra alba, Nereis...

  14. RECONSTRUCTING DIET COMPOSITION ON THE BASIS OF FECES IN A MOLLUSK-EATING WADER, THE KNOT CALIDRIS-CANUTUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKINGA, A; PIERSMA, T

    Methods are described to assess the molluscan diet of Knots feeding on intertidal flats in western Europe from their faecal output. The size distributions of two common bivalve prey, Macoma balthica and Cerastoderma edule, can be estimated from the heights of shell hinges retrieved from droppings.

  15. Reconstructing diet composition on the basis of faeces in a mollusc-eating wader, the Knot Calidris canutus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekinga, A.; Piersma, T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods are described to assess the molluscan diet of Knots feeding on intertidal flats in western Europe from their faecal output. The size distributions of two common bivalve prey, Macoma balthica and Cerastoderma edule, can be estimated from the heights of shell hinges retrieved from droppings.

  16. Estimation of density-dependent mortality of juvenile bivalves in the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andresen, H.; Strasser, M.; van der Meer, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated density-dependent mortality within the early months of life of the bivalves Macoma balthica (Baltic tellin) and Cerastoderma edule (common cockle) in the Wadden Sea. Mortality is thought to be density-dependent in juvenile bivalves, because there is no proportional relationship

  17. Estimation of Density-Dependent Mortality of Juvenile Bivalves in the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andresen, H.; Strasser, M.; van der Meer, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated density-dependent mortality within the early months of life of the bivalves Macoma balthica (Baltic tellin) and Cerastoderma edule (common cockle) in the Wadden Sea. Mortality is thought to be density-dependent in juvenile bivalves, because there is no proportional relationship

  18. Interkultuurilised võimalused ja ohud turunduses / Kristel Kaljund

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljund, Kristel

    2002-01-01

    Kasut. kirj. lk. 27. - Kokkuvõte ingl. k. lk. 28. Artiklis põhjendatakse kultuuritausta mõju majanduslikule edule ning tuuakse ära kõige sagedasemad vigade põhjused ning pakutakse välja, kuidas Eesti majandusspetsialistidel oleks võimalik neid vigu vältida

  19. Interspecific variability of antioxidant activities and phenolic composition in Mesembryanthemum genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanen, Falleh; Riadh, Ksouri; Samia, Oueslati; Sylvain, Guyot; Christian, Magné; Chedly, Abdelly

    2009-09-01

    In the present study, shoot extracts from edible halophytic Mesembryanthemum species were evaluated for their effects against O(2)(-), DPPH, and ABTS radicals. The reducing power, chelating ability, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and of beta-carotene bleaching were also evaluated. Moreover, the total phenolic, flavonoid, and condensed tannin contents were determined. In vitro biotests showed a significant difference in the antioxidant capacities of the species studied. Mesembryanthemum edule was found to exhibit the higher antioxidant activity, except for the iron-chelating test where M. crystallinum showed the best activity with the lowest EC(50) value (2.13 mg ml(-1)). Accordingly, M. edule exhibited high phenolic levels, especially in total phenols (70mg of gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight), while no significant difference was found between M. crystallinum and M. nodiflorum (1.4 and 1.7 mg GAE g(-1)DW, respectively). Due to its strong antioxidant activities and high levels of phenols, M. edule was further studied for its phenolic constituents. HPLC analysis revealed 12 compounds, mainly flavonoids, with phloretin, quercitrin, and avicularin as the most abundant (1, 0.84 and 0.66 mg g(-1) DW, respectively). These results evidenced the great variability in antioxidant capacities of these halophytes and suggested that M. edule might be an important source of functional phenolic compounds.

  20. Bioindicators in the tropical forest of Kaiga environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somashekarappa, H.M.; Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K. [Mangalore Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics

    1996-07-01

    Investigations on the natural and artificial fallout radionuclides {sup 210}Po and {sup 137}Cs and the primordial radionuclide {sup 40}K in the prominent tree species of Western Ghat tropical forests near Kaiga have been carried out as a part of baseline background radiation studies in the environment of Kaiga where nuclear power reactors are being installed. The prominent tree species of the region Tectona grandis L.f. and Terminalia paniculata Roth., and the commonly available epiphytic plant species Pterobryopsis tumida (Hook.) Dix. and Cymbidium aliofolium (Lo) Swartz. were chosen and concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 210}Po and {sup 137}Cs were measured employing well-established nuclear techniques. The different parts of Cumbidium aloifolium (Lo) Swartz. such as leaves, stem, etc. were analysed to understand the absorption mechanism of fallout radionuclides. From a careful analysis of the results, the epiphytic plant species are identified as bioindicators to monitor fallout radionuclides. (Author).

  1. Towards Serious Games for Improved BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Kai Wang, Shao-Wei Lu, Chun-Hsiang Chuang, Peter Khooshabeh, Paul Sajda, Amar Marathe, Tzyy-Ping Jung , Chin-Teng Lin, and Kaleb McDowell...Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY Tzyy-Ping Jung Swartz Center for Computational Neuroscience, University of...provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently

  2. Rare, endangered or vulnerable plants and neophytes in a drainage system in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Hulina, Nada

    1998-01-01

    In an extensive network of field and lateral drain channels, in the area of Turopolje and Črnec Polje, seven locally and generally rare, endangered or vulnerable plants were noted. These are: Riccia fluitans L., Marsilea quadrifolia L., Utricularia vulgaris L., Sagittaria sagittifolia L., Eleocharis acicularis L., Leersia oryzoides (L.) Swartz. and Wolffia arrhiza (L.) Hork. ex Wimm. On the banks of the channels a number of neophytes have established themselves, such as Solidago gigantea Aito...

  3. C__Users_HP Pro 2000_Desktop_KONE CH.xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP Pro 2000

    d'un échantillonnage effectué dans le cadre d'un essai d'efficacité herbicide dans la même forêt classée. A cet effet, il a montré que les espèces les plus infestantes sont Chromolaena odorata. (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob., Centrosema pubescens Benth, Solanum verbascifolium L.,. Lantana camara L., Solanum torvum Swartz,.

  4. Remedy and Recontamination Assessment Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Snider, 2004. Todd Pacific Shipyards Contaminated Industrial Stormwater Collection and Treatment System, Ports 2004 : pp. 1-10. [12] Magar, VS, DB...44. [38] Swartz, R. C., Schults, D. W.. Ditsworth, G. R., DeBen, W.A., Cole, F. A. (1985). Sediment toxicity , contamination , and macrobenthic...development of tools to identify the sources of ongoing contaminant influx to sediment sites capable of identifying ongoing contaminant sources that can

  5. Biological Control of Aquatic Plants with Pathogenic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    United States only on Pontederia cordata L. and P. lanceolata Nutt. in New Ycrk, Florida, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Missouri...Waterhyacinth Rust, and Uromyces pontederiae ," Mycologia., Vol 67, pp 653-657. Charudattan, R., and McKinney, D. E. 1978. "A Dutch Isolate of Fusarium...the teliospore in the rust on Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth. and the confirmation of this rust as Uromyces pontederiae Gerard. The fact that

  6. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Large-Scale Operations Management Test (LSOMT) of Insects and Pathogens for Control of Waterhyacinth in Louisiana. Volume 1. Results for 1979-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    densa Walker, a native moth whose larvae feed preferentially on pickerelweed ( Pontederia cordata L.), but also on waterhyacinth to some extent; (b...on water- hyacinth, or infrequently on Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth and Pontederia * cordata L. Population survival is dependent on the presence...feeds on Pontederia cordata , has adapted to and is capable of completing its life a. Adults b. Larva Figure 10. Adults and larva of Arzama cycle on

  7. Imbalances in the knowledge about infant mental health in rich and poor countries: Too little progress in bridging the gap

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, Mark; Bornstein, Marc H.; Marlow, Marguerite; Swartz, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of infants are born in poor countries, but most of our knowledge about infants and children has emerged from high-income countries. In 2003 Tomlinson and Swartz conducted a survey of articles on infancy between 1996 and 2001 from major international journals, reporting that a meagre 5% of articles emanated from parts of the world other than North America, Europe, or Australasia. In this article we conducted a similar review of articles on infancy published between 2002 and 2...

  8. Taxonomic diversity and structure of the molluscan fauna in Oualidia lagoon (Moroccan Atlantic coast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asri, F; Zidane, H; Maanan, M; Tamsouri, M; Errhif, A

    2015-08-01

    The spatial distribution of the molluscan fauna of Oualidia lagoon (Moroccan Atlantic coast) was studied during winter 2013. Samples were collected from 43 stations over the whole of the lagoon. Twenty-eight taxa (19 species of gastropods, 7 species of bivalves, 1 species of polyplacophora, and 1 species of cephalopod) were listed, 21 of which are newly reported for Oualidia lagoon. Four taxa, Hydrobia sp. (78.29%), followed by Abra alba (13.99 ), Nassarius pfeifferi (5.07%), and Cerastoderma edule (1.32%), were accounted for 98% of the total abundance. A classification analysis used to characterize the lagoon on the basis of molluscs showed the existence of three main clusters from downstream to upstream: a Nassarius pfeifferi community, a Hydrobia sp.-Abra alba community and a Hydrobia sp.-Cerastoderma edule community.

  9. Reconstruction of Multidimensional Signals from Zero Crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    SCH.EDULE unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) Ga. NAME OP PERFORMING ORGANIZATION ~b. OFFICE...SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Research Laboratory of Electk orjepshcable, office of Naval Research Massachusetts Institute of Te hnology...most an exponential £ *The work presented in this chapter was performed in colaboration with S. Shitz and also ap- pears in reference [25]. I

  10. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on the Oxygen Uptake Rate of the Rabbit Cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Ultraviolet Radiation on the Oxygen Uptake Rate of the Rabbit Cornea 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lattimore, Morris R., Jr. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. TIME...for the blod 1975;22:117-23. ral". Amt J Optomn Arch Amt Aced Optom 19W946:561-72. 18. Grabrter G, Brerier W. Unh’eduled DNA repairin the human 3

  11. Maritime Halophyte Species from Southern Portugal as Sources of Bioactive Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Maria João; Gangadhar, Katkam N.; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    ,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical were the methanol extracts of M. edule (IC50 = 0.1 mg/mL) and J. acutus (IC50 = 0.4 mg/mL), and the ether extracts of J. acutus (IC50 = 0.2 mg/mL) and A. macrostachyum (IC50 = 0.3 mg/mL). The highest radical scavenging activity (RSA) against the 2,2'-azino-bis (3...

  12. Parasites, pathological conditions and resistance to Marteilia cochillia in lagoon cockle Cerastoderma glaucum from Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballal, María J; Iglesias, David; Darriba, Susana; Cao, Asunción; Mariño, J Carlos; Ramilo, Andrea; No, Edgar; Villalba, Antonio

    2016-12-21

    A histopathological survey revealed parasites and pathological conditions affecting lagoon cockles Cerastoderma glaucum along the Galician coast; serious pathological threats were not detected because the potentially pathogenic conditions (infections with a Marteilia-like parasite and bucephalid sporocysts, disseminated neoplasia and a condition involving large foci of heavy haemocytic reaction) were rare, while more prevalent parasites had negligible or limited pathogeny. Considering that C. edule and C. glaucum are sympatric in some Galician rias, it is remarkable that C. glaucum was not seriously affected by Marteilia cochillia while C. edule suffered an intense outbreak of this parasite associated with massive mortality. Comparison of the digestive gland between cockle species showed co-occurrence of digestive tubules in different phases, with abundant disintegrated tubules, in the case of C. glaucum, while C. edule showed synchronicity and absence of fully disintegrated tubules; these differences could influence their susceptibility to M. cochillia because the main location of this parasite in common cockles is the epithelia of the digestive gland. Moreover, the observation of histological sections through the digestive gland easily allows differentiating the 2 cockle species.

  13. Variación genética en el complejo infraespecífico de chayote evaluada mediante sistemas isoenzimáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hugo Avendaño-Arrazate

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar el grado de variación genética dentro del complejo infraespecífico de Sechium mediante el uso de sistemas isoenzimáticos. Se analizaron 23 loci codificados por 12 sistemas isoenzimáticos, en geles de almidón, en 10 individuos de cada una de las 30 accesiones (27 cultivadas y tres silvestres. La variación genética se estimó con base en el número promedio de alelos por locus (NPAL, porcentaje de porlimorfismo (PP, heterocigosidad observada y esperada (Ho y He, índice relativo de heterocigosidad (IRH e índice de Shannon (IS. Para NPAL y PP, el promedio para las 30 accesiones fue de 2, 03 y 59, 8%, respectivamente. El análisis de Ho y He mostró variación genética en el complejo infraespecífico de Sechium, con valores promedio de 0, 05 y 0, 26, respectivamente. El IRH mostró una deficiencia de individuos heterocigotos (promedio de -0, 75. El IS mostró gran diversidad en las 30 accesiones (0, 41. Las poblaciones con mayor diversidad fueron Negrito, Verde liso, Negro xalapa, Verde espinoso y Negro cónico; con una variación intermedia fueron Castilla blanco, Caldero y Blanco pequeño; y, con poca variación, Castilla verde, Cambray y los parientes silvestres.

  14. Helosis (Balanophoraceae en Argentina Helosis (Balanophoraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fontana

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Argentina Helosis cayennensis (Swartz Sprengel var. cayennensis en base a colecciones hechas por los autores en la Isla argentina de Apipé Grande, Ituzaingó, provincia de Corrientes. Se describe e ilustra la especie, el desarrollo de la planta y su estado de conservación. Esta cita de Helosis corresponde a un género nuevo para la flora argentina.Helosis cayennensis var. cayennensis is reported for the first time for Argentina. The species is described and ilustrated. Developement and ecology are also given. Helosis is also a new generic record for Argentina.

  15. Elementary proofs of an inequality for symmetric functions for n < or = 5. Technical summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielke, R.

    1980-08-01

    Some aspects of the heat transfer in the emergency cooling of nuclear reactors lead to a nonlinear eigenvalue problem, the so-called model quench front problem. Laquer and Wendroff suggested a procedure for computing bounds of the eigenvalue which depend - among other things - on the validity of a certain inequality for elementary symmetric functions. This inequality is of interest in itself and was recently proved by Efroymson, Swartz and Wendroff using a fairly complicated argument. We give an elementary proof for n < or = 5.

  16. [Study on triterpenes from Solanum torvum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongbo; Wang, Feng; Fang, Zhijian

    2011-08-01

    To study on the chemical constituents of Solanum torvum. The aerial parts of S. torvum swartz were extracted with 95% alcohol and the constituents were isolated and purified by chromatographic silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were determined by NMR and MS spectral analysis. Six triterpenes were isolated and identified as 3beta-acetyloleanolic acid (1), 3-O-acetyl-11alpha, 12alpha-epoxy-oleanan-28, 13beta-olide (2), oleanolic acid (3), ursolic acid (4), 2alpha-hydroxy-oleanolic acid (5), 2alpha, 3beta-dihydroxyursolic acid (6). All compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  17. Organochlorine residues analysed in invertebrates of the Dutch Wadden Sea by two methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, G.; Ernst, W.; Goerke, H.; Duinker, J. C.; Hillebrand, M. T. J.

    Two laboratories analysed 12 organochlorine compounds in the same and parallel samples of 3 invertebrate species ( Cerastoderma edule, Mya arenaria, Crangon crangon) obtained from the western Dutch Wadden Sea in 1976. The two different analytical methods used resulted in very similar mean residue levels. These levels deviated in only 2 out of 16 cases by more than 50%. The PCB levels predominated with 20 to 100 ng·g -1, and were higher than those of the same species from the Weser estuary, Germany. The other compounds ranged generally below 6 ng·g -1.

  18. INFLUENZA DELLE CONDIZIONI ECOLOGICHE SULLA STRATEGIA RIPRODUTTIVA E SULLA BIOMETRIA DI CHLAMYS OPERCULARIS (L. 1758) (MOLLUSCA, BIVALVIA)

    OpenAIRE

    NEGUSANTI, JIN SOOK

    2007-01-01

    2005/2006 Chlamys opercularis è un animale edule, comune su fondi sabbiosi e sabbiosi-detritici, posti ad una profondità variabile tra 4-400m (più comune a 40m). Ha una conchiglia di colore molto vario, inequivalve (valva sinistra più convessa) ed inequilaterale, con una lunghezza massima di 9cm. La scultura conchigliare è caratterizzata da 18-25 coste radiali, presenti su ciascuna valva, tra le quali si trovano le linee di accrescimento. L'interno è lucido, solcato ed ondulato in corrispo...

  19. Cubozoa e Scyphozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa de águas costeiras do Brasil Cubozoa and Scyphozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa from Brazilian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André C. Morandini

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de Cubozoa e Scyphozoa costeiras que ocorrem no Brasil são descritas, com base em espécimes de coleções de museus e exemplares recém-coletados. Chaves de identificação e um glossário também são apresentados. As espécies descritas são: Aurelia sp.; Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892; Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859; Chrysaora lactea Eschscholtz, 1829; Drymonema dalmatinum Haeckel, 1880; Linuche unguiculata (Swartz, 1788; Lychnorhiza lucerna Haeckel, 1880; Nausithoe aurea Silveira & Morandini, 1997; Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884; Stomolophus meleagris Agassiz, 1862; Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859 e Tripedalia cystophora Conant, 1897.Coastal species of Cubozoa and Scyphozoa occurring in Brazil are described, based on museum specimens and recently collected ones. Identification keys and a glossary are also presented. The listed species are: Aurelia sp.; Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892; Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859; Chrysaora lactea Eschscholtz, 1829; Drymonema dalmatinum Haeckel, 1880; Linuche unguiculata (Swartz, 1788; Lychnorhiza lucerna Haeckel, 1880; Nausithoe aurea Silveira & Morandini, 1997; Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884; Stomolophus meleagris Agassiz, 1862; Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859; and Tripedalia cystophora Conant, 1897.

  20. Climate change impacts on potential recruitment in an ecosystem engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Emer; O' Riordan, Ruth M; Culloty, Sarah C

    2013-03-01

    Climate variability and the rapid warming of seas undoubtedly have huge ramifications for biological processes such as reproduction. As such, gametogenesis and spawning were investigated at two sites over 200 km apart on the south coast of Ireland in an ecosystem engineer, the common cockle, Cerastoderma edule. Both sites are classed as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), but are of different water quality. Cerastoderma edule plays a significant biological role by recycling nutrients and affecting sediment structure, with impacts upon assemblage biomass and functional diversity. It plays a key role in food webs, being a common foodstuff for a number of marine birds including the oystercatcher. Both before and during the study (early 2010-mid 2011), Ireland experienced its two coldest winters for 50 years. As the research demonstrated only slight variation in the spawning period between sites, despite site differences in water and environmental quality, temperature and variable climatic conditions were the dominant factor controlling gametogenesis. The most significant finding was that the spawning period in the cockle extended over a greater number of months compared with previous studies and that gametogenesis commenced over winter rather than in spring. Extremely cold winters may impact on the cockle by accelerating and extending the onset and development of gametogenesis. Whether this impact is positive or negative would depend on the associated events occurring on which the cockle depends, that is, presence of primary producers and spring blooms, which would facilitate conversion of this extended gametogenesis into successful recruitment.

  1. Spatial and temporal characteristics of benthic invertebrate communities at Culbin Sands lagoon, Moray Firth, NE Scotland, and impacts of the disturbance of cockle harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Mariyam Mendonça

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Culbin Sands lagoon, a protected site in NE Scotland, was surveyed every 2 to 4 weeks during a three-year period (1994-1996 to study benthic invertebrate communities. Beds of Mytilus edulis covered 18000 m2. 53 macroinfaunal species were identified outside these areas. The most conspicuous were: the lugworm Arenicola marina (mean up to 55 casts m-2; and bivalves Cerastoderma edule (mean up to 158 ind. m-2 and Macoma balthica (mean up to 79 ind. m-2 after settlement. The standing stock ranged from 20 to 32 g AFDW m-2 yr-1 respectively from more exposed to more sheltered areas. Most species showed a clear recruitment peak in autumn, but others (e.g. Capitella capitata, and Spionidae displayed several peaks in a year. Communities were also compared between the sampling sites before and after an incidental disturbance caused by cockle Cerastoderma edule harvesting, which took place in June 1995. One site showed –0.7% variation in the total standing stock, but +22% for smaller-cockles, as larger filter-feeding cockles were removed therefore enhancing their own larval settlement. Polychaete Spionidae populations also increased after larger cockles were removed. The polychaete Arenicola marina population returned to its normal activities just after the dramatic disturbance of the sediment.

  2. Maritime Halophyte Species from Southern Portugal as Sources of Bioactive Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Maria João; Gangadhar, Katkam N.; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    ,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical were the methanol extracts of M. edule (IC50 = 0.1 mg/mL) and J. acutus (IC50 = 0.4 mg/mL), and the ether extracts of J. acutus (IC50 = 0.2 mg/mL) and A. macrostachyum (IC50 = 0.3 mg/mL). The highest radical scavenging activity (RSA) against the 2,2'-azino-bis (3......-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical was obtained in the ether extract of J. acutus (IC50 = 0.4 mg/mL) and H. portulacoides (IC50 = 0.9 mg/mL). The maximum total phenolic content (TPC) was found in the methanol extract of M. edule (147 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g) and in the ether extract of J....... acutus (94 mg GAE/g). Significant decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production were observed after incubation of macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the chloroform extract of H. portulacoides (IC50 = 109 µg/mL) and the hexane extract of P. coronopus (IC50 = 98.0 µg/mL). High in vitro cytotoxic...

  3. Connectivity, neutral theories and the assessment of species vulnerability to global change in temperate estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chust, Guillem; Albaina, Aitor; Aranburu, Aizkorri; Borja, Ángel; Diekmann, Onno E.; Estonba, Andone; Franco, Javier; Garmendia, Joxe M.; Iriondo, Mikel; Muxika, Iñigo; Rendo, Fernando; Rodríguez, J. Germán; Ruiz-Larrañaga, Otsanda; Serrão, Ester A.; Valle, Mireia

    2013-10-01

    One of the main adaptation strategies to global change scenarios, aiming to preserve ecosystem functioning and biodiversity, is to maximize ecosystem resilience. The resilience of a species metapopulation can be improved by facilitating connectivity between local populations, which will prevent demographic stochasticity and inbreeding. This investigation estimated the degree of connectivity among estuarine species along the north-eastern Iberian coast, in order to assess community vulnerability to global change scenarios. To address this objective, two connectivity proxy types have been used based upon genetic and ecological drift processes: 1) DNA markers for the bivalve cockle (Cerastoderma edule) and seagrass Zostera noltei, and 2) the decrease in the number of species shared between two sites with geographic distance. Neutral biodiversity theory predicts that dispersal limitation modulates this decrease, and this has been explored in estuarine plants and macroinvertebrates. Results indicate dispersal limitation for both saltmarsh plants and seagrass beds community and Z. noltei populations; this suggests they are especially vulnerable to expected climate changes on their habitats. In contrast, unstructured spatial pattern found in macroinvertebrate communities and in C. edule genetic populations in the area suggests that estuarine soft-bottom macroinvertebrates with planktonic larval dispersal strategies may have a high resilience capacity to moderate changes within their habitats. Our findings allow environmental managers to prioritize the most vulnerable species and habitats to be restored.

  4. Estimation of density-dependent mortality of juvenile bivalves in the Wadden Sea.

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    Henrike Andresen

    Full Text Available We investigated density-dependent mortality within the early months of life of the bivalves Macoma balthica (Baltic tellin and Cerastoderma edule (common cockle in the Wadden Sea. Mortality is thought to be density-dependent in juvenile bivalves, because there is no proportional relationship between the size of the reproductive adult stocks and the numbers of recruits for both species. It is not known however, when exactly density dependence in the pre-recruitment phase occurs and how prevalent it is. The magnitude of recruitment determines year class strength in bivalves. Thus, understanding pre-recruit mortality will improve the understanding of population dynamics. We analyzed count data from three years of temporal sampling during the first months after bivalve settlement at ten transects in the Sylt-Rømø-Bay in the northern German Wadden Sea. Analyses of density dependence are sensitive to bias through measurement error. Measurement error was estimated by bootstrapping, and residual deviances were adjusted by adding process error. With simulations the effect of these two types of error on the estimate of the density-dependent mortality coefficient was investigated. In three out of eight time intervals density dependence was detected for M. balthica, and in zero out of six time intervals for C. edule. Biological or environmental stochastic processes dominated over density dependence at the investigated scale.

  5. Impacts of ethylenediurea (EDU) soil drench and foliar spray in Salix sachalinensis protection against O3-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathokleous, Evgenios; Paoletti, Elena; Saitanis, Costas J; Manning, William J; Sugai, Tetsuto; Koike, Takayoshi

    2016-12-15

    It is widely accepted that elevated levels of surface ozone (O3) negatively affect plants. Ethylenediurea (EDU) is a synthetic substance which effectively protects plants against O3-caused phytotoxicity. Among other questions, the one still open is: which EDU application method is more appropriate for treating fast-growing tree species. The main aims of this study were: (i) to test if chronic exposure of Salix sachalinensis plants to 200-400mgEDUL(-1), the usually applied range for protection against O3 phytotoxicity, is beneficial to plants; (ii) to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to elevated O3 on S. sachalinensis; (iii) to assess the efficacy of two methods (i.e. soil drench and foliar spray) of EDU application to plants; (iv) to investigate the appropriate concentration of EDU to protect against elevated O3-induced damage in S. sachalinensis; and (v) to compare the two methods of EDU application in terms of effectiveness and EDU consumption. Current-year cuttings grown in infertile soil free from organic matter were exposed either to low ambient O3 (AOZ, 10-h≈28.3nmolmol(-1)) or to elevated O3 (EOZ, 10-h≈65.8nmolmol(-1)) levels during daylight hours. Over the growing season, plants were treated every nine days with 200mL soil drench of 0, 200 or 400mgEDUL(-1) or with foliar spray of 0, 200 or 400mgEDUL(-1) (in two separate experiments). We found that EDU per se had no effects on plants exposed to AOZ. EOZ practically significantly injured S. sachalinensis plants, and the impact was indifferent between the experiments. EDU did not protect plants against EOZ impact when applied as soil drench but it did protect them when applied as 200-400mgL(-1) foliar spray. We conclude that EDU may be more effective against O3 phytotoxicity to fast-growing species when applied as a spray than when applied as a drench. Keymessage: Soil-drenched EDU was ineffective in protecting willow plants against O3-induced injury, whereas foliar-sprayed EDU was effective even

  6. Teaching introductory physics a sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, Clifford E

    1996-01-01

    Introductory physics attracts a wide variety of students, with different backgrounds, levels of preparedness, and academic destinations. To many, the course is one of the most daunting in the science curriclum, full of arcane principles that are difficult to grasp. To others, it is one of the most highly anticipated -the first step on the path to the upper reaches of scientific inquiry. In their years as instructors and as editors of The Physics Teacher, Clifford E. Swartz and the late Thomas Miner developed and encountered many innovative and effective ways of introducing students to the fundamental principles of physics. Teaching Introductory Physics brings these strategies, insights and techniques to you in a unique, convenient volume. This is a reference and a tutorial book for teachers of an introductory physics course at any level. It has review articles on most of the topics of introductory physics, providing background information and suggestions about presentation and relative importance. Whether you...

  7. Taxonomy and leaf anatomy of the genus Ehrharta (Poaceae in southern Africa: the Ramosa group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russel

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ramosa species group in the genus Ehrharta is distinguished morphologically by small spikelets with sterile lemmas similar to each other, with tips rounded, truncate or mucronate, with sides glabrous, scabrous or shortly hairy, and with bases appendaged and usually bearded. The rectangular intercostal long cells with sinuous walls, the dome-shaped stomata with a raised rim surrounding the pore aperture, the absence of epicuticular wax and the microhairs without a tapering distal cell are diagnostic anatomically. The Ramosa group is composed of two species: E. ramosa (Thunb. Swartz subsp.  ramosa, subsp.  aphylla (Schrad. Gibbs Russell and  E. rehmannii Stapf subsp.  rehmannii; subsp. filiformis (Nees Gibbs Russell; subsp.  subspicata (Stapf Gibbs Russell. All taxa are linked by intermediates to one or two others in the group. The closest relationship of the Ramosa group is to the Calyeina species group, on the basis of both morphological and anatomical characters.

  8. Feasibility and Scaling of Composite Based Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuttall, David [ORNL; Chen, Xun [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2016-04-27

    Engineers and Researchers at Oak Ridge National Lab s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (ORNL MDF) collaborated with Impossible Objects (IO) in the characterization of PEEK infused carbon fiber mat manufactured by means of CBAM composite-based additive manufacturing, a first generation assembly methodology developed by Robert Swartz, Chairman, Founder, and CTO of Impossible Objects.[1] The first phase of this project focused on demonstration of CBAM for composite tooling. The outlined steps focused on selecting an appropriate shape that fit the current machine s build envelope, characterized the resulting form, and presented next steps for transitioning to a Phase II CRADA agreement. Phase I of collaborative research and development agreement NFE-15-05698 was initiated in April of 2015 with an introduction to Impossible Objects, and concluded in March of 2016 with a visitation to Impossible Objects headquarters in Chicago, IL. Phase II as discussed herein is under consideration by Impossible Objects as of this writing.

  9. Management of Cosmetic Embarrassment Caused by Malassezia spp. with Fruticose Lichen Cladia Using Phylogenetic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During anti-Malassezia screening of plants by CLSI broth microdilution method, Cladia aggregata (Swartz Nyl. (family Cladoniaceae, a fruticose lichen from Sikkim (northeast Himalayan region, has been found effective at minimum inhibitory concentrations (mg/mL of 2.72, 0.63, and 1.28 against yeast-like fungi namely, M. furfur, M. globosa and M. sympodialis, respectively. These test pathogens are responsible for pityriasis versicolor (PV and seborrheic dermatitis (SD in humans. We tried to establish the reason for variable MICs against various Malassezia spp. using bioinformatical tools, thereby reducing the cost of the experimentation. This is the first report on anti-Malassezia activity of C. aggregata and thus can serve as a potential source for the development of cosmaceuticals.

  10. Response strategies in list learning by orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus x P. abelii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Karyl B; Himmanen, Sharon A; Shumaker, Robert W

    2007-08-01

    Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) develop strategies to acquire and execute serial lists (K. B. Swartz & S. A. Himmanen, 2001). Serial probe recognition studies of list memory have demonstrated similarities across monkeys and humans (S. F. Sands & A. A. Wright, 1980). The present study extended the investigation of list learning and memory to determine whether orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus x P. abelii) would show evidence of subjective organization of photographic lists in a manner similar to that shown by humans learning a list of unrelated words (E. Tulving, 1962). No evidence for the effective use of a subjective organization strategy was found, but the orangutans developed a right-to-left spatial response strategy, which emerged during the acquisition of 5-item lists. This strategy was an effective way to reduce the load on working memory when presented with a complex array of items.

  11. New taxa, combinations and records of Pteridophyta from southern and central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Burrows

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new taxa of ferns are described and illustrated from southern Africa:  Ophioglossum convexum J.E. Burrows, Mohria caffrorum (L. Desv. var. ferruginea J.E. & S.M. Burrows,  Marsilea farinosa Launert subsp. arrecta J.E. Burrows and Asplenium sebungweense J.E. Burrows. The combination of Grammitis rigescens (Bory ex Willd. J.E. Burrows is made. Ophioglossum thomasii Clausen,  O. rube Hum Welw. ex A. Braun.  Vinana ensiformis Swartz and Asplenium buettneri Hieron. ex Brause are new records for Zimbabwe, while Hymenophyllum splendidum V.d. Bosch and  Asplenium uhligii Hieron. are new records for Malawi and Zimbabwe. Actiniopteris semiflabellata Pichi-Sermolli is recorded from Namibia and Thelypteris oppositiformis (C. Chr. Ching is recorded from the Transvaal.

  12. Primary Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of a Urethral Diverticulum Treated with Multidisciplinary Robotic Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane Scantling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary urethral carcinoma is extremely rare and is marked by a variety of clinical symptoms. Primary carcinoma of a urethral diverticulum is still rarer and clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra is particularly uncommon (Swartz et al., 2006. Such infrequency has led to inadequate management guidance in the literature for a disease that is often late in presentation and carries substantial morbidity and mortality. This treatable but grave disease deserves definitive curative treatment. We present the first published instance in which it was treated with robotic anterior exenteration. In our case, a 47-year-old female was referred to the urology service for investigation of recurring urinary tract infections. During the workup, the patient was found to have an advanced clear cell urethral adenocarcinoma originating in a urethral diverticulum. We discuss the natural history of this condition, its consequences, and the first instance of its treatment using robotic anterior pelvic exenteration.

  13. Five new cyotoxic steroidal glycosides from the fruits of Solanum torvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinsheng; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Cheng; Guo, Fujiang; Li, Yiming

    2014-03-01

    The fruits of Solanum torvum Swartz, commonly known as Turkey berry, are edible and commonly used as a vegetable in the South Indian population's diet and as an essential ingredient in Thai cuisine. Five new steroidal glycosides together with five known ones were isolated from the fruits of S. torvum Swartz. Based on chemical and spectral evidence, the five new compounds were identified to be 25(S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furost-22(20)-en-3β,6α,26-triol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (1), 25(S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furost-22(20)-en-3-one-6α,26-diol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (2), 25(S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furost-22(20)-en-3β,6α,26-triol-6-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside (3), 5α-pregn-16-en-20-one-3β,6α-diol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (4), and 5α-pregn-16-en-3,20-dione-6α-ol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (5). These new compounds were assayed for cytotoxicities in vitro, and 1 to 4 showed cyotoxic activity against the human melanoma cell line A375, with IC50 values of 30 μM to 260 μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in marine organisms exposed to pesticide-contaminated sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohlenberg, F.; Kiorboe, T.

    1983-02-01

    Behavioural effects of marine sediment contaminated with pesticides (6000 ppm parathion, 200 ppm methyl parathion, 200 ppm malathion) were studied in a number of marine organisms in laboratory tests and in situ. The burrowing behaviour in Macoma baltica, Cerastoderma edule, Abra alba, Nereis diversicolor and Scoloplos armiger was impaired in the contaminated sediment compared to control. The impairment was most pronounced in the laboratory tests, where almost no burrowing occured. In a very simple laboratory set-up, highly significant avoidance of the contaminated sediment was demonstrated for Crangon crangon and Solea solea, but not for Carcinus maenas and Pomatoschistus minutus. The validity of both behavioural tests was supported by in situ observations and investigations on the distribution of the species. It is concluded that both tests are useful tools in the assessment of the impact of contaminated sediments.

  15. Phylogenetic and microscopic studies in the genus Lactifluus (Basidiomycota, Russulales) in West Africa, including the description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maba, Dao Lamèga; Guelly, Atsu K; Yorou, Nourou S; Verbeken, Annemieke; Agerer, Reinhard

    2015-06-01

    Despite the crucial ecological role of lactarioid taxa (Lactifluus, Lactarius) as common ectomycorrhiza formers in tropical African seasonal forests, their current diversity is not yet adequately assessed. During the last few years, numerous lactarioid specimens have been sampled in various ecosystems from Togo (West Africa). We generated 48 ITS sequences and aligned them against lactarioid taxa from other tropical African ecozones (Guineo-Congolean evergreen forests, Zambezian miombo). A Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic tree was inferred from a dataset of 109 sequences. The phylogenetic placement of the specimens, combined with morpho-anatomical data, supported the description of four new species from Togo within the monophyletic genus Lactifluus: within subgen. Lactifluus (L. flavellus), subgen. Russulopsis (L. longibasidius and L. pectinatus), and subgen. Edules (L. melleus). This demonstrates that the current species richness of the genus is considerably higher than hitherto estimated for African species and, in addition, a need to redefine the subgenera and sections within it.

  16. Morphological diversity of microstructures occurring in selected recent bivalve shells and their ecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brom Krzysztof Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental adaptation of molluscs during evolution has led to form biomineral exoskeleton – shell. The main compound of their shells is calcium carbonate, which is represented by calcite and/or aragonite. The mineral part, together with the biopolymer matrix, forms many types of microstructures, which are differ in texture. Different types of internal shell microstructures are characteristic for some bivalve groups. Studied bivalve species (freshwater species – duck mussel (Anodonta anatina Linnaeus, 1758 and marine species – common cockle (Cerastoderma edule Linnaeus, 1758, lyrate Asiatic hard clam (Meretrix lyrata Sowerby II, 1851 and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 from different locations and environmental conditions, show that the internal shell microstructure with the shell morphology and thickness have critical impact to the ability to survive in changing environment and also to the probability of surviving predator attack. Moreover, more detailed studies on molluscan structures might be responsible for create mechanically resistant nanomaterials.

  17. Traditional spices of Dayak Kenyah society in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI SUSIARTI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plant in Indonesia is high, including variety of spices, which have been known by Indonesian society since long time ago. Several very popular plants are clove (Syzygium aromaticum, pepper (Piper nigrum, cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii, and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans. Variety of spices has connection with cultures. In each region and society, they have a special spices in their traditional food. The research was conducted in villages in Pujungan district and other places in East Kalimantan Province and commonly Dayak Kenyah society. The methods used for this study was by interviewing of local society and direct observation in the fields where plant spices occurred. The results indicated that traditional Dayak in East Kalimantan used bekai (Albertisia papuana Becc., payang aka (Hodgsonia macrocarpa (Bl. Cogn., payang kurek (Aleurites moluccana (L. Willd., payang kayu (Pangium edule Reinw., payang lengu (Ricinus communis L., and payang salap (Sumbaviopsis albicans (Blume J.J.Sm. for preparing their food with certain method.

  18. Assessing the spatial variability, level and source of organic chemical contaminants in bivalve fishing grounds on the Galician coast (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Nuria; Fernández-Boán, María; Verísimo, Patricia; Freire, Juan

    2013-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, organotin compounds and triazines were quantified in sediments and bivalves collected in four areas on the Galician coast. One or several species were analysed at each site depending on their availability, including mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), cockles (Cerastoderma edule), clams (Venerupis pullastra and Ruditapes decussatus) and razor shells (Ensis siliqua). The general spatial distribution of contaminants was consistent in spite of the different sources of contamination. High inter-species variability was also observed. M. galloprovincialis and V. pullastra showed the highest levels of contaminants and intra-spatial variability, which highlights them as suitable species to be used as sentinel organisms. The area of O Burgo showed some worrisome results: PCB sediment concentrations were within the range that could cause biological effects. Also the level of heptachlor observed in V. pullastra was above limits accepted on edible seafood. Finally TBT concentration in mussels correlated with concentrations causing imposex in snails. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The distribution of the amphipod Corophium arenarium in the Dutch Wadden Sea: relationships with sediment composition and the presence of cockles and lugworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, E. C.

    On the tidal flats in the Dutch Wadden Sea Corophium volutator is a dominant species of the upper intertidal zone; the closely related Corophium arenarium is usually found in the lower zone, but only in low densities (a few hundreds per m 2). A survey in the Dutch Wadden Sea showed that this zonation pattern was only present when a muddy sediment was found in the upper zone and a sandy in the lower zone. C. arenarium was restricted to sandy sediments, C. volutator to muddy sediments. Where a sandy sediment was found in the upper intertidal zone, C. arenarium locally occurred in relatively high densities (a few thousands per m 2). An aquarium experiment showed that C. arenarium actively avoided muddy sediments. Field experiments were carried out to study the influence of other macrozoobenthic species (known to affect the related C. volutator) on the abundance of C. arenarium. Within large defaunated areas small plots were stocked with different densities of the lugworm Arenicola marina and the cockle Cerastoderma edule. In small plots within a natural benthic community densities of these species were also augmented or (in A. marina) reduced. Strongly negative density-dependent effects of both A. marina and C. edule were found on the abundance of C. arenarium. In the natural situation, its densities showed A. marina to be the most important factor in determining the abundance of C. arenarium. In particular the removal of lugworms caused a strong increase in C. arenarium densities. These results agreed with the distribution of these species along a transect perpendicular to the shore of Schiermonnikoog, where a significant negative correlation was found between the densities of A. marina and C. arenarium. Aquarium experiments showed that the negative effect of cockles and lugworms must be due to migration rather than mortality in C. arenarium.

  20. Profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalves of low and elevated toxicities following exposure to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms in Portuguese estuarine and coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Maria João; Vale, Carlos; Ferreira, João Gomes

    2015-11-01

    Profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were examined in 405 composite samples of Mytilus spp., Cerastoderma edule, Donax trunculus and Spisula solida collected between 2007 and 2012 from natural production areas in two estuaries (Aveiro and Mondego), two coastal lagoons (Óbidos and Formosa), and three open coastal areas (Aguda, Comporta and Culatra). Toxin concentrations were obtained from the biotoxin monitoring programme database. Episodes of PST toxicity in Portugal have been associated with Gymnodinium catenatum blooms. Toxin profiles for each species showed no trend over the surveyed years. In general, profiles differ only slightly among areas, except for Óbidos. However, toxin profiles in bivalves varied between low and elevated toxicities, corresponding to below and above the PST regulatory limit, respectively. The ratio R1=(C1+2):B1, which were the main toxins produced by G. catenatum cells, decreased considerably between elevated and low toxicity cockles, indicating the elimination of C1+2 or conversion of compounds into B1. R2=[(dcSTX)+(dcGTX2+3)]:[(C1+2)+(B1)], which represents the ratio of minor to major toxins in G. catenatum cells, increased substantially in wedge clams (D. trunculus) of low toxicity and less markedly in cockles (C. edule) and mussels (Mytilus spp.). These differences are interpreted as the predominance of a biotransformation phase after exposure to the algal bloom. The toxin profile of surf clams (S. solida) was dominated by decarbamoyl compounds, reflecting intense biotransformation during exposure to blooms. The higher ratio R2 in low toxicity samples suggests that elimination of the produced decarbamoyl toxins was slower than biotransformation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efeito de extratos aquosos de meliáceas sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em tomateiro Effect of aqueous extracts of meliaceous plants on Bemisia tabaci B biotype on tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO PANCRÁCIO DE SOUZA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a bioatividade de extratos aquosos a 3% (p/v de três meliáceas, Melia azedarach L. (frutos verdes, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos e Azadirachta indica A. Juss (sementes, em relação à mosca branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criada em tomateiro. No primeiro experimento os extratos foram aplicados sobre ovos e sobre ninfas com três dias de idade, avaliando-se a mortalidade e a duração das fases de ovo e de ninfa. No segundo experimento os extratos foram aplicados apenas sobre as ninfas, avaliando-se a mortalidade nessa fase e a longevidade e fecundidade dos adultos. Em relação à fase de ovo, o extrato de T. pallida foi o que provocou maior mortalidade, seguindo-se os de A. indica e M. azedarach. A maior mortalidade ninfal foi constatada com o extrato de A. indica, seguindo-se os de T. pallida e M. azedarach. Nenhum dos extratos afetou a duração das fases de ovo e de ninfa, assim como a longevidade e fecundidade.The objective of this research was to compare the effect of aqueous extracts of fresh fruits of Melia azedarach L., twigs of Trichilia pallida Swartz and seeds of zadirachta indica A. Juss, on eggs and nymphs of silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius B biotype reared on tomato plants. The extracts were tested at a concentration of 3%. In the first experiment, the extracts were applied on eggs and 3-day-old nymphs. Records were taken on mortality, duration of egg and nymphal stages. In the second experiment the extracts were applied on 3-day-old nymphs and records were taken on nymphal mortality, adult longevity and fecundity. The extracts of T. pallida were the most effective on eggs, followed by A. indica and M. azedarach. The extracts of A. indica were the most effective on nymphs followed by T. pallida and M. azedarach. In both experiments, the duration of egg and nymph stages, longevity and fecundity were not affected by the extracts.

  2. Colonization by Chironomidae larvae in decomposition leaves of Eichhornia azurea in a lentic system in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Lidimara Souza; Martins, Renato Tavares; da Silveira, Guilherme Augusto; Grazul, Richard Michael; Lobo, Danielle Pinheiro; Alves, Roberto da Gama

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the colonization of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae during the decomposition of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth (Commelinales: Pontederiaceae) leaves in a lake in southeastern Brazil in two seasons of the year. The experiment was conducted from September to November 2007 and February to April 2008. In each period, 21 litter bags were used, each containing 10 g of dried leaves. Three bags were removed after 2, 5, 8, 12, 25, 45, and 65 days of colonization. The decomposition rate of the E. azurea leaves was rapid in both seasons, with no significant difference between them. The Chironomidae showed higher density than the other invertebrates. Goeldichironomus, Tonytarsus, and Corynoneura were the most abundant genera of Chironomidae. The invertebrate density increased during the experiment, differing within days but not between seasons. The faunal composition differed between the decomposition phases (initial and final), but did not differ between the seasons (dry and wet). The taxa Ablabesmyia, Caladomyia, Chironomus, Goeldichironomus, and Parachironomus were the most closely related to the final days of the experiment. Litter was the main food item found in the gut contents of the organisms of all the genera analyzed, both at the beginning and end of the decomposition. We believe that the feeding activity combined with the high larval density is an important factor contributing to the rapid decomposition of the E. azurea leaves. In conclusion, the succession process along the detritus chain of E. azurea was more important in structuring the assemblage of Chironomidae larvae than seasonal variations.

  3. Extracellular enzymatic profiles and taxonomic identification of endophytic fungi isolated from four plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, R N; Costa, A T; Polonio, J C; Santos, M S; Rhoden, S A; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-11-03

    Plants of medicinal and economic importance have been studied to investigate the presence of enzyme-producing endophytic fungi. The characterization of isolates with distinct enzyme production potential may identify suitable alternatives for specialized industry. At Universidade Estadual de Maringá Laboratory of Microbial Biotechnology, approximately 500 isolates of endophytic fungi have been studied over the last decade from various host plants, including medicinally and economically important species, such as Luehea divaricata (Martius et Zuccarini), Trichilia elegans A. Juss, Sapindus saponaria L., Piper hispidum Swartz, and Saccharum spp. However, only a fraction of these endophytes have been identified and evaluated for their biotechnological application, having been initially grouped by morphological characteristics, with at least one representative of each morphogroup tested. In the current study, several fungal strains from four plants (L. divaricata, T. elegans, S. saponaria, and Saccharum spp) were identified by ribosomal DNA typing and evaluated semi-quantitatively for their enzymatic properties, including amylase, cellulase, pectinase, and protease activity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of four genera of endophytic fungi (Diaporthe, Saccharicola, Bipolaris, and Phoma) in the plants examined. According to enzymatic tests, 62% of the isolates exhibited amylase, approximately 93% cellulase, 50% pectinase, and 64% protease activity. Our results verified that the composition and abundance of endophytic fungi differed between the plants tested, and that these endophytes are a potential enzyme production resource of commercial and biotechnological value.

  4. Pirate philosophy for a digital posthumanities

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In Pirate Philosophy, Gary Hall considers whether the fight against the neoliberal corporatization of higher education in fact requires scholars to transform their own lives and labor. Is there a way for philosophers and theorists to act not just for or with the antiausterity and student protestors—“graduates without a future”—but in terms of their political struggles? Drawing on such phenomena as peer-to-peer file sharing and anticopyright/pro-piracy movements, Hall explores how those in academia can move beyond finding new ways of thinking about the world to find instead new ways of being theorists and philosophers in the world. Hall describes the politics of online sharing, the battles against the current intellectual property regime, and the actions of Anonymous, LulzSec, Aaron Swartz, and others, and he explains Creative Commons and the open access, open source, and free software movements. But in the heart of the book he considers how, when it comes to scholarly ways of creating, performing, an...

  5. Transeptal approach to ablation of left-sided arrhythmias does not lead to persisting interatrial shunt: a transesophageal echocardiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchet, A; Turkie, W; Fitzpatrick, A P

    1998-11-01

    In experienced hands, antegrade left heart catheterization via a transeptal puncture is a safe and effective method of performing radiofrequency ablation on the left side of the heart. Persistence of atrial septal defect following transeptal puncture for mitral valvuloplasty has been widely reported although hemodynamically significant shunts are rare. To investigate the persistence of interatrial shunt following transeptal puncture in patients undergoing left-sided electrophysiological procedures using TEE. Fifty-one adult patients, 20 men, aged 19-82 (mean 42.4) years underwent 55 transeptal punctures. Either an 8 Fr Mullins or 8 Fr Swartz transeptal sheath was deployed in all cases. Of these, 28 consecutive patients were approached and 26 consented to undergo TEE. TEE was performed at least 3 weeks post transeptal puncture using a single-plane transducer for the first 18 patients, superseded by a multiplane transducer for the later cases. Both color flow Doppler and microcavitation contrast imaging of the interatrial septum were performed. One patient in the single-plane transducer group was excluded as the failed to swallow the TEE probe. In the remaining 25 patients studied, 9 men aged 21-82 (mean 44.1) years, TEE was performed at a mean of 12.2 (range 3-52) weeks post procedure. No evidence of interatrial shunt was detected by either color flow or contrast studies. Transeptal puncture used in electrophysiological procedures does not result in interatrial shunts persisting > 3 weeks post procedure.

  6. Indirect interactions between ant-tended hemipterans, a dominant ant Azteca instabilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and shade trees in a tropical agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, George F; White, Adam M; Kratz, Carley J

    2008-06-01

    The occurrence, intensity, and composition of mutualisms are dependent not only on the co-occurrence of mutualists, but also the broader biotic context in which they are embedded. Here, the influence of the specific nest tree identity of the ant Azteca instabilis (F. Smith) on the density of the green coffee scale (Coccus viridis Green) was studied in a coffee agroecosystem in southern Mexico. The hypothesis that an indirect competitive interaction for ant attendance occurs between a scale species (Octolecanium sp. Kondo) in the canopy of the shade tree Inga micheliana Harms and C. viridis, which inhabits coffee bushes (Coffea arabica) beneath the shade trees was tested. Coffee bushes beneath a different shade tree species (Alchornea latifolia Swartz) were used as an indication of C. viridis density in a noncompetitive environment. Results indicate that C. viridis occurs in significantly lower density adjacent to nests in Inga, supporting the hypothesis of indirect competition. Additional experimentation suggests that there is a mutualism between Azteca and Octolecanium and that this interaction may be mediated by a hierarchy in ant attendance of scale insects. Our results show the importance of considering the biotic context of ant-hemipteran mutualisms. In coffee agroecosystems, consideration of shade tree diversity and species composition may be directly applicable to the biological control of insect pests.

  7. Counteracting effects on free radicals and histological alterations induced by a fraction with casearins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÉVERTON JOSÉ FERREIRA DE ARAÚJO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCasearia sylvestris Swartz is a medicinal plant widely distributed in Brazil. It has anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and antitumor activities and is popularly used to treat snakebites, wounds, diarrhea, flu and chest colds. Its leaves are rich in oxygenated tricyclic cis-clerodane diterpenes, particulary casearins. Herein, we evaluated the antioxidant activities of a fraction with casearins (FC isolated from C. sylvestrisand histological changes on the central nervous system and livers of Mus musculus mice. Firstly, in vitro studies (0.9, 1.8, 3.6, 5.4 and 7.2 μg/mL revealed EC50 values of 3.7, 6.4 and 0.16 µg/mL for nitrite, hydroxyl radical and TBARS levels, respectively. Secondly, FC (2.5, 5, 10 and 25 mg/kg/day was intraperitoneally administered to Swiss mice for 7 consecutive days. Nitrite levels in the hippocampus (26.2, 27.3, 30.2 and 26.6 µM and striatum (26.3, 25.4, 34.3 and 27.5 µM increased in all treated animals (P < 0.05. Lower doses dropped reduced glutathione, catalase and TBARS levels in the hippocampus and striatum. With the exception of this reduction in TBARS formation, FC displayed only in vitro antioxidant activity. Animals exhibited histological alterations suggestive of neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, indicating the need for precaution regarding the consumption of medicinal formulations based on Casearia sylvestris.

  8. The effects of wilting and storage temperatures on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of stylo silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinghua; Zhang, Jianguo; Shi, Shangli; Sun, Qizhong

    2011-08-01

    In order to clarify the ensiling characteristics of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis Swartz), the effects of wilting (no wilting, light wilting and heavy wilting) and storage temperatures (10°C, 20°C, 30°C and 40°C) on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of stylo silage were investigated. Wilting had no significant influence on the contents of crude protein, ether extract and acid detergent fiber, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria, aerobic bacteria, yeasts and mold (P > 0.05). Heavy wilted material, wilted for 12 h, had higher neutral detergent fiber content and lower water-soluble carbohydrate content than unwilted and light wilted materials (P silage (P fermentation quality of stylo silage. In all the silages, no wilting silage ensiled at 30°C had the highest butyric acid content (P silage, irrespective of wilting. The wilted silage or silage stored at low temperature had poor aerobic stability. 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Release and establishment of the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha kraussii against the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokonon-Ganta, Aimé H; McQuate, Grant T; Messing, Russell H; B Jang, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was first released against Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii in March 2003. Over a three month period, eight releases, totaling 7,696 females and 3,968 males, were made in a turkeyberry, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae) patch known to have a well established B. latifrons population. The establishment of D. kraussii was assessed through fruit collections conducted over a three-year period beyond the last release. D. kraussii was recovered 2 weeks, 31 months, and 39 months after the last parasitoid release, with collections not only from the release site, but also from a control site about 5.0 km distance from the release site. Recovery from fruit collections three years after the last parasitoid release confirmed that D. kraussii had become established in Hawaii. Parasitism rates were low, only 1.0-1.4%, compared to rates of 2.8-8.7% for the earlier established egg-larval parasitoid, Fopius arisanus (Sonan).

  10. Host races of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, in asexual populations from wild plants of taro and brinjal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, B K; Choudhury, Parichita Ray

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, several studies have shown that adaptation to different host plants in phytophagous insects can promote speciation. The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae: Aphidini), is a highly polyphagous species, but its populations increase by parthenogenetic reproduction alone in Indian subcontinent. This study showed that genotypes living in wild plants of taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), and brinjal, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae), behave as distinct host races. Success rates of colonization after reciprocal host transfers were very poor. Clones of A. gossypii from wild taro partly survived in the first generation when transferred to wild brinjal, but nymph mortality was 100% in the second generation. In contrast, brinjal clones, when transferred to taro, could not survive even in the first generation. Significant differences between the clones from two host species were also recorded in development time, generation time, fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, and mean relative growth rate. Morphologically, aphids of wild taro clones possessed longer proboscis and fore-femora than the aphids of the brinjal clones. The results showed that A. gossypii exists as distinct host races with different abilities of colonizing host plants, and its populations appear to have more potential of sympatic evolution than previously regarded.

  11. Steroidal saponins from the fruits of Solanum torvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Alida Pérez; Rojas, Luis B; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Pouységu, Laurent; Quideau, Stéphane; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Paululat, Thomas; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2013-02-01

    Seven steroidal glycosides have been isolated from the fruits of Solanum torvum Swartz. Their structures were established by 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques ((1)H,(1)H-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC) and mass spectrometry as (25S)-26-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-oxo-5α-furost-20(22)-en-6α-yl-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1), (25S)-26-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-oxo-22α-methoxy-5α-furostan-6α-yl-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (2), (25S)-26-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3β-hydroxy-22α-methoxy-5α-furostan-6α-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), (25S)-3β-hydroxy-5α-spirostan-6α-yl-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (4), (25S)-3-oxo-5α-spirostan-6α-yl-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (5), (25S)-3β-hydroxy-5α-spirostan-6α-yl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), (25S)-3β,27-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-6α-yl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Release and Establishment of the Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha kraussii Against the Tephritid Fruit Fly Bactrocera latifrons in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokonon-Ganta, Aimé H.; McQuate, Grant T.; Messing, Russell H.; B. Jang, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was first released against Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii in March 2003. Over a three month period, eight releases, totaling 7,696 females and 3,968 males, were made in a turkeyberry, Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanales: Solanaceae) patch known to have a well established B. latifrons population. The establishment of D. kraussii was assessed through fruit collections conducted over a three-year period beyond the last release. D. kraussii was recovered 2 weeks, 31 months, and 39 months after the last parasitoid release, with collections not only from the release site, but also from a control site about 5.0 km distance from the release site. Recovery from fruit collections three years after the last parasitoid release confirmed that D. kraussii had become established in Hawaii. Parasitism rates were low, only 1.0–1.4%, compared to rates of 2.8–8.7% for the earlier established egg-larval parasitoid, Fopius arisanus (Sonan). PMID:23879328

  13. PROSES BERPIKIR SISWA KELAS VIII DALAM MENYELESAIKAN SOAL MATEMATIKA TIMSS MATERI BESAR SUDUT DALAM BENTUK GEOMETRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayati Arifani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the students' thinking process in solving TIMSS math problem on measurement of angle in geometric shapes based on Polya’s problem solving step associated with Swartz’s thinking process theory. The subject of the research was a grade VIII student in SMP Negeri 4 Malang who was classified as intelligent but made many mistakes when completing the test. Data collection methods used were test and interview methods. The results show that students go through the step of generating ideas, clarifying ideas, assessing the reasonableness of ideas, and thinking complex on every step of problem solving, but at the look back step, students do not clarify the idea. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan proses berpikir siswa dalam menyelesaikan soal matematika TIMSS materi besar sudut dalam bentuk geometris berdasarkan langkah penyelesaian masalah Polya yang dikaitkan dengan teori proses berpikir Swartz. Subjek penelitian adalah seorang siswa kelas VIII di SMP Negeri 4 Malang yang tergolong pandai, tetapi banyak melakukan kesalahan saat menyelesaikan soal tes. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah metode tes dan wawancara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa siswa dalam menyelesaikan soal TIMSS melalui tahap menghasilkan ide, mengklarifikasi ide, menilai kelayakan ide, dan berpikir kompleks pada setiap langkah penyelesaian masalah. Namun, pada tahap memeriksa kembali, siswa tidak melakukan pengklarifikasian ide.

  14. Imbalances in the knowledge about infant mental health in rich and poor countries: too little progress in bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Mark; Bornstein, Marc H; Marlow, Marguerite; Swartz, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of infants are born in poor countries, but most of our knowledge about infants and children has emerged from high-income countries. In 2003, M. Tomlinson and L. Swartz conducted a survey of articles on infancy between 1996 and 2001 from major international journals, reporting that a meager 5% of articles emanated from parts of the world other than North America, Europe, or Australasia. In this article, we conducted a similar review of articles on infancy published between 2002 and 2012 to assess whether the status of cross-national research has changed in the subsequent decade. Results indicate that despite slight improvements in research output from the rest of world, only 2.3% of articles published in 11 years included data from low- and middle-income countries--where 90% of the world's infants live. These discrepancies are indicative of the progress still needed to bridge the so-called 10/90 gap (S. Saxena, G. Paraje, P. Sharan, G. Karam, & R. Sadana,) in infant mental health research. Cross-national collaboration is urgently required to ensure expansion of research production in low-resource settings. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Disturbance of benthic infauna by sediment-reworking activities of the lugworm Arenicola marina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, E. C.

    The influence of the lugworm Arenicola marina on the abundance of other benthic species was studied in the westernmost part of the Wadden Sea. Small squares (1 m 2) within depopulated 144-m 2 plots were recolonized with various (naturally-occurring) lugworm densities (0-10-20-40-80 and 0-25-50-75-100 per m 2). These plots were sampled during the summer. Lugworms were found to have a strongly negative effect on the densities of C. volutator. At 0-density lugworms, the numbers of C. volutator were high. These were halved at 17 lugworms per m 2 ( i.e. the mean density on the tidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea), and were further reduced at higher lugworm densities ( e.g. 20% remained at 40 lugworms per m 2). Laboratory observations of Corophium behaviour in the presence of Arenicola suggest that sediment-reworking lugworms stimulate Corophium to emigrate. Effects of lugworms on other benthic species were also studied in the same way. Lugworms were found to have strongly negative effects on the juvenile densities of various worm and bivalve species ( Nereis diversicolor, Nephtys hombergii, Heteromastus filiformis, Scoloplos armiger, Pygospio elegans, Capitella capitata and Mya arenaria, Cerastoderma edule, Macoma balthica, Angulus tenuis, respectively).

  16. The role of environmental variables in structuring landscape-scale species distributions in seafloor habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Casper; Aarts, Geert; Van der Meer, Jaap; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-06-01

    Ongoing statistical sophistication allows a shift from describing species' spatial distributions toward statistically disentangling the possible roles of environmental variables in shaping species distributions. Based on a landscape-scale benthic survey in the Dutch Wadden Sea, we show the merits of spatially explicit generalized estimating equations (GEE). The intertidal macrozoobenthic species, Macoma balthica, Cerastoderma edule, Marenzelleria viridis, Scoloplos armiger, Corophium volutator, and Urothoe poseidonis served as test cases, with median grain-size and inundation time as typical environmental explanatory variables. GEEs outperformed spatially naive generalized linear models (GLMs), and removed much residual spatial structure, indicating the importance of median grain-size and inundation time in shaping landscape-scale species distributions in the intertidal. GEE regression coefficients were smaller than those attained with GLM, and GEE standard errors were larger. The best fitting GEE for each species was used to predict species' density in relation to median grain-size and inundation time. Although no drastic changes were noted compared to previous work that described habitat suitability for benthic fauna in the Wadden Sea, our predictions provided more detailed and unbiased estimates of the determinants of species-environment relationships. We conclude that spatial GEEs offer the necessary methodological advances to further steps toward linking pattern to process.

  17. A mixed modeling approach to predict the effect of environmental modification on species distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cozzoli

    Full Text Available Human infrastructures can modify ecosystems, thereby affecting the occurrence and spatial distribution of organisms, as well as ecosystem functionality. Sustainable development requires the ability to predict responses of species to anthropogenic pressures. We investigated the large scale, long term effect of important human alterations of benthic habitats with an integrated approach combining engineering and ecological modelling. We focused our analysis on the Oosterschelde basin (The Netherlands, which was partially embanked by a storm surge barrier (Oosterscheldekering, 1986. We made use of 1 a prognostic (numerical environmental (hydrodynamic model and 2 a novel application of quantile regression to Species Distribution Modeling (SDM to simulate both the realized and potential (habitat suitability abundance of four macrozoobenthic species: Scoloplos armiger, Peringia ulvae, Cerastoderma edule and Lanice conchilega. The analysis shows that part of the fluctuations in macrozoobenthic biomass stocks during the last decades is related to the effect of the coastal defense infrastructures on the basin morphology and hydrodynamics. The methodological framework we propose is particularly suitable for the analysis of large abundance datasets combined with high-resolution environmental data. Our analysis provides useful information on future changes in ecosystem functionality induced by human activities.

  18. Shellfish dredging pushes a flexible avian top predator out of a marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A van Gils

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread concern about the direct and indirect effects of industrial fisheries; this concern is particularly pertinent for so-called "marine protected areas" (MPAs, which should be safeguarded by national and international law. The intertidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea are a State Nature Monument and are protected under the Ramsar convention and the European Union's Habitat and Birds Directives. Until 2004, the Dutch government granted permission for ~75% of the intertidal flats to be exploited by mechanical dredgers for edible cockles (Cerastoderma edule. Here we show that dredged areas belonged to the limited area of intertidal flats that were of sufficient quality for red knots (Calidris canutus islandica, a long-distance migrant molluscivore specialist, to feed. Dredging led to relatively lower settlement rates of cockles and also reduced their quality (ratio of flesh to shell. From 1998 to 2002, red knots increased gizzard mass to compensate for a gradual loss in shellfish quality, but this compensation was not sufficient and led to decreases in local survival. Therefore, the gradual destruction of the necessary intertidal resources explains both the loss of red knots from the Dutch Wadden Sea and the decline of the European wintering population. This study shows that MPAs that do not provide adequate protection from fishing may fail in their conservation objectives.

  19. Immediate effect of intertidal non-mechanised cockle harvesting on macrobenthic communities: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Miguel Sousa Leitão

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In Ria Formosa cockles (Cerastoderma edule have traditionally been harvested with a harvesting-knife (HK. However, over the last six years there has been an increase in the use of a hand-dredge (HD to exploit cockle beds. A comparative study on the impact of these harvesting methods on the benthic macrofauna was undertaken with the aim of evaluating the possible introduction of the hand-dredge in the fishery. Macrofaunal mortality was very low regardless of the gear. However, the total mortality resulting from using the HK was superior to the one observed for the HD. For the same fishing time the hand-dredge covers an area approximately five times greater that the one covered by the knife, with the former yielding 5 times the catch of the latter. Consequently, the use of hand-dredges increases the fishing effort, which may lead to the overexploitation of the cockle populations. Our results revealed that the immediate effect of both gears on macrobenthic communities was similar and minimal. Therefore, we believe that introducing the hand-dredge in the cockle fishery should only be authorised if other management measures, such as daily quotas, closed areas and limiting the number of fishing licenses, are implemented.

  20. Maximization of Energy Efficiency in Wireless ad hoc and Sensor Networks With SERENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoucene Mahfoudh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, an analysis of the node energy consumption distribution shows that the largest part is due to the time spent in the idle state. This result is at the origin of SERENA, an algorithm to SchEdule RoutEr Nodes Activity. SERENA allows router nodes to sleep, while ensuring end-to-end communication in the wireless network. It is a localized and decentralized algorithm assigning time slots to nodes. Any node stays awake only during its slot and the slots assigned to its neighbors, it sleeps the remaining time. Simulation results show that SERENA enables us to maximize network lifetime while increasing the number of user messages delivered. SERENA is based on a two-hop coloring algorithm, whose complexity in terms of colors and rounds is evaluated. We then quantify the slot reuse. Finally, we show how SERENA improves the node energy consumption distribution and maximizes the energy efficiency of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We compare SERENA with classical TDMA and optimized variants such as USAP in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks.

  1. Role of acyl carrier protein isoforms in plant lipid metabolism: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlrogge, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research from my lab has revealed that several higher plant species have multiple isoforms of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and therefore this trait appears highly conserved among higher plants. This level of conservation suggests that the existence of ACP isoforms is not merely the results of neutral gene duplications. We have developed techniques to examine a wider range of species. Acyl carrier proteins can be labelled very specifically and to high specific activity using H-palmitate and the E. coli enzyme acyl-ACP synthetase. Isoforms were then resolved by western blotting and native PAGE of H-palmitate labelled ACP's. Multiple isoforms of ACP were observed the leaf tissue of the monocots Avena sativa and Hordeum vulgare and dicots including Arabidopsis thallina, Cuphea wrightii, and Brassica napus. Lower vascular plants including the cycad, Dioon edule, Ginkgo biloba, the gymnosperm Pinus, the fern Anernia phyllitidis and Psilotum nudum, the most primitive known extant vascular plant, were also found to have multiple ACP isoforms as were the nonvascular liverwort, Marchantia and moss, Polytrichum. Therefore, the development of ACP isoforms occurred early in evolution. However, the uniellular alge Chlamydomonas and Dunaliella and the photosynthetic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Agmnellum have only a single elecrophotetic form of ACP. Thus, multiple forms of ACP do not occur in all photosynthetic organisms but may be associated with multicellular plants.

  2. Macrobenthos of the subtidal Wadden Sea: revisited after 55 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesen, W.; Reise, K.

    1982-12-01

    During the years 1923 1926 Hagmeier & Kändler (1927) sampled the macrofauna of subtidal shallows and channels of the Wadden Sea close to the Island of Sylt (German Bight, North Sea). Reinvestigating this study area in 1980, a substantially altered faunal composition was recorded. An approach is made to quantify the comparison in terms of abundance, species richness and diversity of invertebrate taxa. Human interference is assumed to be responsible for the major changes. Natural oyster beds have been overexploited and the local population of Ostrea edulis has been driven to extinction. Subsequently, mussels (Mytilus edulis) spread in the entire region, promoted by shell fishery. Particularly barnacles and many polychaetes took advantage of the expansion of mussel banks which is substantiated by correlation analysis. Reefs of the colonial polychaete Sabellaria spinulosa stood in the way of shrimp trawling and became destroyed together with the associated fauna. A subtidal Zostera marina bed was wiped out in 1934 by a natural epidemic disease but never succeeded in reestablishing itself. The associated fauna disappeared. Large epibenthic predators and scavengers (crabs, snails and starfish) survived all these changes. The total number of species remained approximately at the same level but molluscs experienced losses and polychaetes diversified. Overall abundance increased with a disproportionately large share of a few species (Mytilus edulis, Balanus crenatus, Cerastoderma edule, Scoloplos armiger). The subtidal fauna of the Wadden Sea proved to be vulnerable to human disturbance; thus, the present community can no longer be viewed as the outcome of entirely natural processes.

  3. Potensi Ekstrak Tumbuhan Sebagai Pengawet Produk Pangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kencana Putra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of natural antimicrobials such as plants extracts to preserve food get much attention of the researchers. This is related to the increasing of public concern over synthetic chemical food preservatives. Various types of plants had been declared can produce extracts that effectively inhibited the growth of food-contaminating microbes, such as methanol and ethanol extracts of bark Saccoglottis gabonensis, effectively inhibited the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum; extracts of onion and red pepper inhibited Candida crucei and Candida utilis; ethanol and water extracts of Eugenia Jambos had antimicrobial properties against bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Yersenia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus warneri; Picung seed extract (Pagium edule inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus; and ethanol extract of Salvia pratensis leaves inhibited Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Extraction of antimicrobial compounds from plant material could be done by using different types of solvents. Among the various types of solvents, ethanol and methanol solvents are most commonly used.Keyword: antimicrobial, plant extract, food preservative

  4. Modelling benthic macrofauna and seagrass distribution patterns in a North Sea tidal basin in response to 2050 climatic and environmental scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Anja; Millat, Gerald; Staneva, Joanna; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2017-03-01

    Small-scale spatial distribution patterns of seven macrofauna species, seagrass beds and mixed mussel/oyster reefs were modelled for the Jade Bay (North Sea, Germany) in response to climatic and environmental scenarios (representing 2050). For the species distribution models four presence-absence modelling methods were merged within the ensemble forecasting platform 'biomod2'. The present spatial distribution (representing 2009) was modelled by statistically related species presences, true species absences and six high-resolution environmental grids. The future spatial distribution was then predicted in response to expected climate change-induced ongoing (1) sea-level rise and (2) water temperature increase. Between 2009 and 2050, the present and future prediction maps revealed a significant range gain for two macrofauna species (Macoma balthica, Tubificoides benedii), whereas the species' range sizes of five macrofauna species remained relatively stable across space and time. The predicted probability of occurrence (PO) of two macrofauna species (Cerastoderma edule, Scoloplos armiger) decreased significantly under the potential future habitat conditions. In addition, a clear seagrass bed extension (Zostera noltii) on the lower intertidal flats (mixed sediments) and a decrease in the PO of mixed Mytilus edulis/Crassostrea gigas reefs was predicted for 2050. Until the mid-21st century, our future climatic and environmental scenario revealed significant changes in the range sizes (gains-losses) and/or the PO (increases-decreases) for seven of the 10 modelled species at the study site.

  5. Shell architecture: a novel proxy for paleotemperature reconstructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Stefania; Nehrke, Gernot; Wanamaker, Alan D., Jr.; Witbaard, Rob; Schöne, Bernd R.

    2017-04-01

    Mollusk shells are unique high-resolution paleoenvironmental archives. Their geochemical properties, such as oxygen isotope composition (δ18Oshell) and element-to-calcium ratios, are routinely used to estimate past environmental conditions. However, the existing proxies have certain drawbacks that can affect paleoreconstruction robustness. For instance, the estimation of water temperature of brackish and near-shore environments can be biased by the interdependency of δ18Oshell from multiple environmental variables (water temperature and δ18Owater). Likely, the environmental signature can be masked by physiological processes responsible for the incorporation of trace elements into the shell. The present study evaluated the use of shell structural properties as alternative environmental proxies. The sensitivity of shell architecture at µm and nm-scale to the environment was tested. In particular, the relationship between water temperature and microstructure formation was investigated. To enable the detection of potential structural changes, the shells of the marine bivalves Cerastoderma edule and Arctica islandica were analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation and Confocal Raman Microscopy (CRM). These techniques allow a quantitative approach to the microstructural analysis. Our results show that water temperature induces a clear response in shell microstructure. A significant alteration in the morphometric characteristics and crystallographic orientation of the structural units was observed. Our pilot study suggests that shell architecture records environmental information and it has potential to be used as novel temperature proxy in near-shore and open ocean habitats.

  6. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais na comunidade quilombola Carreiros, Mercês – Minas Gerais

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    Flávia M. C. Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar as espécies medicinais utilizadas pela comunidade quilombola Carreiros, bem como traçar o perfil social das famílias desta comunidade. Para tanto, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas da comunidade, sendo um representante de cada família. Para fins de registro foram coletados dois exemplares de cada espécie medicinal identificada, os quais foram conservados na forma de exsicatas e mantidos no Laboratório de Ecologia do IF Sudeste MG – Campus Rio Pomba. As mulheres aparentemente desempenham importante papel social e estão bastante envolvidas no conhecimento das plantas medicinais. Nota-se, que o conhecimento existente foi adquirido de forma empírica e éevidente entre as famílias a preocupação em repassar os conhecimentos tradicionais sobre o uso das plantas medicinais aos jovens. Dentre as principais espécies utilizadas pela comunidade estão: Citrus Sinensis L., Psidium guajava L., Leonurus sibiricus L., Citrus Limonia (Osbeck, Carica sp., Vernonia condensataBacker, Sechuium edule (Jacq. Sw, Sansevieria trifasciata Prain, Malpighia glabra L., e Saccharum zofficinarum L..

  7. Long-term epidemiological study of disseminated neoplasia of cockles in Galicia (NW Spain): temporal patterns at individual and population levels, influence of environmental and cockle-based factors and lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, S; Iglesias, D; Villalba, A; Carballal, M J

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of disseminated neoplasia (DN) affecting cockles Cerastoderma edule (L.) in Galicia was addressed at individual and population levels. Early stage of DN was characterized by isolated neoplastic cells occurring in branchial vessels or in the connective tissue of gills, mantle, gonad or digestive gland. As disease progressed, the neoplastic cells appeared loose in foci and became widely distributed throughout the organs. In advanced stages, the connective tissue of most organs was infiltrated by neoplastic cells, which displaced normal cells, leading to the loss of the normal tissue/organ architecture. Host defence reaction was occasionally observed. A field survey performed for 7 years, in two cockle beds located in different Galician Rías, showed that DN is a hyperendemic disease usually present all year-round at high prevalence in adult cockles but with annual prevalence minima in spring likely due to the death of heavily affected cockles, concurrently with gonad ripeness-spawning. DN was detected in the cockles ranging from 10 to 39 mm in size; the highest DN prevalence and severity corresponded to the cockles of intermediate size/age (22-29 mm/0.7-1 year old). Sex did not appear to influence DN occurrence. An inhibitory effect of DN on cockle gametogenesis was detected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Análise comparativa dos surtos e danos causados pelos besouros desfolhadores Costalimaita ferruginea (Fabricius, 1801 e Costalimaita lurida (Lefévre, 1891 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae em plantios de eucalipto

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    Reginaldo Gonçalves Mafia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Os besouros desfolhadores Costalimaita ferruginea (Fabricius, 1801 e Costalimaita lurida (Lefévre, 1891 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae são pragas importantes da cultura do eucalipto. A biologia e comportamento daninho de C. ferruginea já foram caracterizados. Todavia, não existem estudos sobre o potencial de C. lurida como praga da cultura. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, de forma comparativa, os surtos e as injúrias causadas por C. ferruginea e C. lurida em plantios de eucalipto. Para isso, 202,8 mil ha de plantios clonais de eucalipto, nos Estados do Espírito Santo, da Bahia e de Minas Gerais, foram monitorados no período crítico de ocorrência (quente e chuvoso. Os surtos detectados foram caracterizados, determinando-se, por meio de amostragens, a incidência, a severidade e as populações absoluta e relativa do inseto por planta atacada. De forma geral, o comportamento daninho de C. lurida foi similar ao de C. ferruginea, em termos de época de ocorrência e tipo de injúrias causadas. Todavia, C. lurida apresentou maiores picos populacionais, em termos absolutos (insetos por planta e relativos (razão entre o número de insetos e altura das plantas atacadas, e atingiu maior proporção de área, podendo ser considerado mais daninho que C. ferruginea. O besouro C. lurida deve ser monitorado considerando os mesmos critérios. Além disso, os surtos desta nova praga poderão ser avaliados quanto ao nível crítico para controle, empregando-se as mesmas premissas adotadas para C. ferruginea. Adicionalmente aos resultados, registrou-se, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência de C. lurida no Estado da Bahia, em plantas de araçá (Psidium guineense, Swartz (Myrtaceae.

  9. Temporal Dynamics of Arthropods on Six Tree Species in Dry Woodlands on the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, William; Wunderle, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The seasonal dynamics of foliage arthropod populations are poorly studied in tropical dry forests despite the importance of these studies for understanding arthropod population responses to environmental change. We monitored the abundance, temporal distributions, and body size of arthropods in five naturalized alien and one native tree species to characterize arthropod seasonality in dry novel Prosopis–Leucaena woodlands in Puerto Rico. A branch clipping method was used monthly to sample foliage arthropod abundance over 39 mo. Seasonal patterns of rainfall and abundance within various arthropod taxa were highly variable from year to year. Abundance for most taxa did not show significant seasonality over the 3 yr, although most taxa had abundance peaks each year. However, Homoptera displayed high seasonality with significant temporal aggregations in each year. Formicidae, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera showed high variation in abundance between wet and dry periods, whereas Hemiptera were consistently more abundant in the wet period. Seasonal differences in mean abundance were found only in a few taxa on Tamarindus indica L. , Bucida buceras L. , Pithecellobium dulce , and (Roxburgh) Benth. Mean arthropod abundance varied among tree species, with highest numbers on Prosopis juliflora , (Swartz) De Candolle, Pi. dulce , Leucaena leucocephala , and (Lamarck) de Wit. Abundance of Araneae, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, and all arthropods showed weak relationships with one or more climatic variables (rainfall, maximum temperature, or relative humidity). Body size of arthropods was usually largest during the dry periods. Overall, total foliage arthropod abundance showed no consistent seasonality among years, which may become a more common trend in dry forests and woodlands in the Caribbean if seasonality of rainfall becomes less predictable. PMID:25502036

  10. Nitrogen removal from concentrated latex wastewater by land treatment

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    Vikanda Thongnuekhang

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the concentrated latex factories in the South of Thailand discharge treated wastewater that contains high level of nitrogen to a nearby river or canals leading to a water pollution problem. A study of land treatment system was conducted to treat and utilize nitrogen in treated wastewater from the concentrated latex factory. The experimental pilot-scale land treatment system was constructed at the Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus. It consisted of water convolvulus (Ipomea aquatica, I. Reptans, tropical carpet grass (Axonopus compresus (Swartz Beav. and control unit (no plantation. The treated wastewater from the stabilization pond system of the selected concentrated latex factoryin Songkhla was used to irrigate each experimental unit. Influent and effluent from the experimental units were analyzed for TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, NO3 --N, NO2 --N, BOD5, sulfate, pH and EC. The land treatment system resulted a high removal efficiency for nitrogen. Tropical carpet grass provided higher removal efficiency than other units for all parameters. The removal efficiency of water convolvulus and control unit were not significantly different. The average removal efficiency of TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, BOD5 and sulfate for tropical carpet grass unit were 92, 97, 61, 88 and 52%, for water convolvulus unit were 75, 80, 43, 41 and 30%, and for control unit were 74, 80, 41, 31 and 28%, respectively. Mass balance of nitrogen transformation was conducted. It revealed that plant uptake was the major mechanism for nitrogen removal in land treatment.

  11. Atividade ovicida de extratos aquosos de meliáceas sobre a mosca branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B em tomateiro

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    Souza Antonio Pancrácio de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A mosca branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B atualmente é uma das principais pragas do tomateiro. O uso de extratos botânicos no controle desse inseto é uma alternativa promissora, mas que ainda precisa ser melhor pesquisada. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a bioatividade de extratos aquosos de folhas de Melia azedarach L. e de ramos de Trichilia pallida Swartz, sobre a mosca branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criada em tomateiro. Foram realizados dois experimentos, avaliando-se a mortalidade e duração das fases de ovo e ninfa, após o tratamento da fase de ovo com os referidos extratos. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas as concentrações de 1 e 2% (p/v, acrescentando-se a concentração de 3% no segundo experimento. Em todos os tratamentos houve efeito ovicida, sendo o maior valor obtido com T. pallida a 3% (52,32%. Nos demais tratamentos, a mortalidade variou entre 16 e 37%. Os extratos aplicados sobre os ovos pouco afetaram a sobrevivência ninfal. Com exceção do tratamento com T. pallida a 2%, no primeiro experimento, em que a mortalidade ninfal foi de 26,42%, nos demais a mortalidade foi inferior a 16%. Em nenhum dos experimentos foi verificada alteração na duração dos períodos de incubação e ninfal.

  12. Larvicidal potential of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, C; Bagavan, A; Rahuman, A Abdul; Zahir, A Abduz; Elango, G; Pandiyan, G

    2009-04-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol and petroleum ether extracts of leaf, flower and seed of Cassia auriculata L., Leucas aspera (Willd.), Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest mortality was found in leaf petroleum ether, flower methanol extracts of C. auriculata, flower methanol extracts of L. aspera and R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol extracts of S. torvum and leaf hexane extract of V. negundo against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 44.21, 44.69, 53.16, 41.07, 35.32, 28.90 and 44.40 ppm; LC(90) = 187.31, 188.29, 233.18, 142.66, 151.60, 121.05 and 192.11 ppm, respectively) and against the larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus (LC(50) = 69.83, 51.29, 81.24, 71.79, 44.42, 84.47 and 65.35 ppm; LC(90) = 335.26, 245.63, 300.45, 361.83, 185.09, 351.41 and 302.42 ppm, respectively). These results suggest that the leaf petroleum ether, flower methanol extracts of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol extracts of S. torvum and leaf hexane extract of V. negundo have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. tritaeniorhynchus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the medicinal plant extracts.

  13. Anthelmintic activity of botanical extracts against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes, Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

    2011-07-01

    The source of chemical anthelmintics (levamisole, flubendazole, and thiabendazole) had limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiasis control in sheep and goats and thus awakened interest in the study of medicinal plant extracts as alternative sources of anthelmintics. The egg hatching and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the sheep parasite, Haemonchus contortus. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of leaf, bark, and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R. Br., Annona squamosa L., Datura metel L., and Solanum torvum Swartz were tested against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA). The assays were run in 24-well cell culture plates at room temperature with five replicates. All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 48 and exposure for egg hatching and LDA, respectively; however, 100% egg hatching and larvicidal inhibition were found in the methanol extracts of A. paniculata, A. squamosa, D. metel, and S. torvum at 25 mg/ml and the effect was similar to positive control of Albendazole (0.075 mg/ml) and Ivermectin (0.025mg/ml) against H. contortus, respectively. The EHA result showed the ED(50) of methanol extracts of A. paniculata and D. metel, which were 2.90 and 3.08 mg/ml, and in larval development assay, the ED(50) was 4.26 and 3.86 mg/ml, respectively. These effects remain to be confirmed through in vivo studies.

  14. Essential oils from the leaves of six medicinal plants of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunwande, Isiaka A; Avoseh, Nudewhenu O; Flamini, Guido; Hassan, Alimot-Sadiat O; Ogunmoye, AbdulRazaq O; Ogunsanwo, Akindele O; Yusuf, Kamorudeen O; Kelechi, Atuonwu O; Tiamiyu, Zainab A; Tabowei, Godgift O

    2013-02-01

    The chemistry of Cassia siamea L., C. occidentalis L. (Fabaceae), Cnestis ferruginea Vahl ex DC (Connaraceae), Anthocleista djalonensis A. Chev (Loganiaceae), Solanum torvum Swartz and S. erianthum G. Don (Solanaceae) volatiles grown in Nigeria have been studied. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The main compounds of C. siamea were (E)-geranyl acetone (5.8%), 1-octen-3-ol (5.8%), linalool (7.8%), iso-italicene (15.4%) and (E)-beta-damascenone (11.0%). On the other hand, C. occidentalis consisted mainly of (E)-geranyl acetone (8.0%), hexahydrofarnesylacetone (24.0%) and (E)-phytol acetate (40.7%). The oil of C. ferruginea was comprised mainly of (E)-geranyl acetone (13.7%), (E)-alpha-ionone (9.5%), phytol (5.8%), pentadecanal (6.1%) and 1-octen-3-ol (5.5%). The main compounds of A. djalonensis were alpha-humulene (31.9%), beta-caryophyllene (17.8%), humulene epoxide II (12.7%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.9%). The main volatiles of S. torvum were (E)-phytol acetate (38.7%), pentadecanal (25.3%) and (E)-geranyl acetone (5.0%). Apart from methyl salicylate (4.5%), tetradecanal (2.2%), 2-pentyl furan (1.8%), hexahydrofarnesylacetone (1.6%) and hexadecanal (1.1%), all other compounds were either present in trace quantity or in amounts less than 1%. On the other hand, alpha-humulene (46.6%) and beta-caryophyllene (20.6%) were the compounds occurring in higher quantities in S. erianthum. The volatile oil contents of Cassia siamea, Cnestis ferruginea, Anthocleista djalonensis and Solanum torvum are being reported for the first time.

  15. Neighborhood structure influences the convergence in light capture efficiency and carbon gain: an architectural approach for cloud forest shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Q, J Antonio; Cordero S, Roberto A

    2016-06-01

    Although plant competition is recognized as a fundamental factor that limits survival and species coexistence, its relative importance on light capture efficiency and carbon gain is not well understood. Here, we propose a new framework to explain the effects of neighborhood structures and light availability on plant attributes and their effect on plant performance in two understory shade-tolerant species (Palicourea padifolia (Roem. & Schult.) C.M. Taylor & Lorence and Psychotria elata (Swartz)) within two successional stages of a cloud forest in Costa Rica. Features of plant neighborhood physical structure and light availability, estimated by hemispherical photographs, were used to characterize the plant competition. Plant architecture, leaf attributes and gas exchange parameters extracted from the light-response curve were used as functional plant attributes, while an index of light capture efficiency (silhouette to total area ratio, averaged over all viewing angles, STAR) and carbon gain were used as indicators of plant performance. This framework is based in a partial least square Path model, which suggests that changes in plant performance in both species were affected in two ways: (i) increasing size and decreasing distance of neighbors cause changes in plant architecture (higher crown density and greater leaf dispersion), which contribute to lower STAR and subsequently lower carbon gain; and (ii) reductions in light availability caused by the neighbors also decrease plant carbon gain. The effect of neighbors on STAR and carbon gain were similar for the two forests sites, which were at different stages of succession, suggesting that the architectural changes of the two understory species reflect functional convergence in response to plant competition. Because STAR and carbon gain are variables that depend on multiple plant attributes and environmental characteristics, we suggest that changes in these features can be used as a whole-plant response approach to

  16. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle (coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, A E; Hanula, J L

    2012-04-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps baited with swampbay (Persea palustris (Rafinesque) Sargent) and camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), which were more attractive than avocado (Persea americana Miller), lancewood (Ocotea coriacea (Swartz) Britton), and sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana L.). These species were more attractive than loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellis). X. glabratus entrance hole density and emergence from caged bolts were highest on swampbay and camphortree. In 2010, swampbay was significantly more attractive to X. glabratus than sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.). Sassafras bolts end sealed with a liquid wax-and-water emulsion were more attractive to X. glabratus than end-sealed bolts of yellow poplar and redbud. Relative to unsealed bolts, end seal decreased X. glabratus entrance hole density on swampbay and decreased granulate ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)) trap catch, entrance hole density, and adult emergence from swampbay. X. crassiusculus was not attracted to sassafras, yellow poplar, and redbud and was not more attracted to manuka oil than to unbaited traps. Sassafras was more attractive to X. glabratus than previously reported and supported reproducing populations of the insect. End sealing bolts with a wax-and-water emulsion may not be optimal for attracting and rearing ambrosia beetles in small logs.

  17. In vitro antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and total phenolic content in extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Caesalpiniaceae) pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhare, M R; Sivakumar, T; Udavant, P B; Dhake, A S; Surana, A R

    2012-04-01

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. Swartz (Caesalpiniaceae) is an ornamental plant also used as a common medicinal plant in India, Taiwan and South-East Asian countries. Majority of the diseases/disorders are mainly linked to oxidative stress due to free radicals. The aims of this study were to screen for phytochemical constituents, evaluate cytotoxicity, in vitro antioxidant activity and estimation of total phenolic content of extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic effects. The LC50(microg mL(-1)) values obtained for extracts as 750 microg mL(-1) for petroleum ether extract, 800 microg mL(-1) for chloroform extract and 900 microg mL(-1) for methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the methanolic extract was 38.04% w/w, equivalent to gallic acid. Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanolic extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and standard ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of DPPH radical with an IC50 of 124.75, 112.08, 54.34 and 13.86 microg mL(-1), respectively. Methanolic extract was good scavenger of DPPH radical. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of nitric oxide radical with an IC50 of 93.32, 65.12, 54.83 and 12.59 microg mL(-1), respectively. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction was found to be good scavenger of nitric oxide radical. Our conclusion provides support that the crude extracts of C. pulcherrima is a probable source of natural antioxidants and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  18. Taxonomical and ecological characteristics of the desmids placoderms in reservoir: analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlene Aparecida Felisberto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of river-dam axis and abiotic factors on the composition of Closteriaceae, Gonatozygaceae, Mesotaeniaceae and Peniaceae in a tropical reservoir METHODS: Water samples for physical, chemical and periphyton analysis were collected in April and August 2002 in different regions along the axis of the river-dam of Rosana Reservoir, River Basin Paranapanema. The substrates collected, always in the litoranea region, were petioles of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth. To examine the relationship of abiotic variables with reservoir zones and between the floristic composition of desmids, we used principal component analysis (PCA and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA RESULTS: The results of the PCA explained 81.3% of the total variability in the first two axes. In the first axis, the variables of conductivity, water temperature and the pH were related to the sampling regions of April with higher values, while for the month of August, nitrate, total phosphorus and dissolved oxygen showed higher values. We identified 20 taxa, distributed in the genera Closterium (14, Gonatozygon (4, Netrium (1 and Penium (1. Spatially, the higher taxa were recorded in the lacustrine region for both collection periods. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA summarized 62.2% of total data variability of taxa in the first two axes, and in August, Closterium incurvum Brébisson, C. cornu Ehrenberg ex Ralfs and Gonatozygon monotaenium De Bary, were related to higher values of turbidity and nitrate to the lacustrine and intermediate regions CONCLUSION: Thus, the formation of groups was due to the regions along the longitudinal axis, then the seasonal period, which must be related to the low current velocity, the higher values of temperature and the water transparency, especially in late summer

  19. Is porewater an important route of metals to macrobenthic organisms? Example of an estuarine field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinetr, V.; Baeyens, W. [Free Univ., Brussels (Belgium). Lab. for Analytical Chemistry; Ysebaert, T.; Meire, P. [Inst. of Nature Conservation, Hasselt (Belgium)

    1995-12-31

    Porewater is recently hypothesized as a direct and important route of metal exposure to benthic organisms. However, only a few research studies clearly indicate its usefulness in monitoring and assessment of metal pollution. This study aims to answer whether porewater is really a significant route of metals to macrobenthic organisms in a natural sediment environment. Therefore, seven intertidal locations along the salinity gradient of the Schelde estuary (Belgium-The Netherlands) were investigated during a one year period (1993--1994). Metal analysis was performed on monthly samples of dominant macrobenthic species including the bivalves Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, Cerastodema edule and Mya arenaria, the amphipod Corophium volutator and the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Metal analysis includes manganese, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, cadmium and lead. The results show temporal and spatial variation of metals in both macrobenthic organisms and porewater. Levels of some metals in porewater, for example cadmium, lead, and copper are higher in winter months than in summer months in coherence with higher levels found in some benthic species. For some benthic species, metal contents were directly related to metal concentrations in porewater. However, no firm conclusion can be drawn that porewater is the only main source of bioavailable metals to benthic organisms and all metal species in porewater are bioavailable. In order to understand metal bioavailability in the sediment environment, a combination of information from a multidisciplinary approach (geochemistry, benthic ecology and toxicology) is needed. In fact, this study fits within the framework of a Triad-approach, conducted on sediments of the Schelde estuary.

  20. Cockle infection by Himasthla quissetensis - II. The theoretical effects of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montaudouin, Xavier; Blanchet, Hugues; Desclaux-Marchand, Céline; Bazairi, Hocein; Alfeddy, Nazik; Bachelet, Guy

    2016-07-01

    Numerous marine populations experience parasite pressure. This is the case of the cockles Cerastoderma edule which are often highly infected by trematode macroparasites. These parasites display a complex life cycle, with a succession of free-living and parasitic stages. Climate, and in particular temperature, is an important modulator of the transmission dynamics of parasites. Consequently, global change is thought to have implications for the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Using Himasthla quissetensis, a dominant parasite of cockles as 2nd intermediate host in Arcachon Bay (France), we used mathematical models of parasite emergence (cercariae) and parasite infection (metacercariae) in cockles as a function of water temperature, in order to study different scenarios of temperature increases. Globally, with a + 0.5 °C to + 6.0 °C simulation, cumulated emergence of cercariae and accumulation of metacercariae tended to decrease or stagnate, respectively. This is the consequence of a trade-off between sooner (spring) and later (autumn) cercariae emergence/infestation on one hand, and a longer inhibition period of cercariae emergence/infestation during the hottest days in summer. Using sea water temperature in Oualidia (Morocco) where mean annual sea temperature is 3 °C higher than in Arcachon Bay, our model predicted infestation all year long (no seasonality). The model gave a correct estimation of the total number of parasites that was expected in cockles. Conversely, observed infestation in Oualidia followed a seasonal pattern like in Arcachon Bay. These results suggest that, if temperature is a strong driver of parasite transmission, extrapolation in the framework of climate change should be performed with caution.

  1. Shellfish Fishery Severely Reduces Condition and Survival of Oystercatchers Despite Creation of Large Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Verhulst

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries and other human activities pose a global threat to the marine environment. Marine protected areas (MPAs are an emerging tool to cope with such threats. In the Dutch Wadden Sea, large MPAs (covering 31% of all intertidal flats have been created to protect shellfish-eating birds and allow recovery of important habitats. Even though shellfish fishing is prohibited in these areas, populations of shellfish-eating birds in the Wadden Sea have declined sharply. The role of shellfish fisheries in these declines is hotly debated, therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of MPAs for protecting oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus populations. Shellfish stocks (cockles, Cerastoderma edule were substantially higher in the MPAs, but surprisingly this has not resulted in a redistribution of wintering oystercatchers. Oystercatchers in unprotected areas had less shellfish in their diet and lower condition (a combined measure of mass and haematological parameters, and their estimated mortality was 43% higher. It is likely, therefore, that shellfish fishing explains at least part of the 40% decline in oystercatcher numbers in recent years. Condition and mortality effects were strongest in males, and the population sex ratio was female biased, in agreement with the fact that males rely more on shellfish. The unprotected areas apparently function as an "ecological trap," because oystercatchers did not respond as anticipated to the artificial spatial heterogeneity in food supply. Consequently, the MPAs are effective on a local scale, but not on a global scale. Similar problems are likely to exist in terrestrial ecosystems, and distribution strategies of target species need to be considered when designing terrestrial and marine protected areas if they are to be effective.

  2. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding springs

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    SOEJONO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soejono, Budiharta S, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2013. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding water spring. Biodiversitas 14: 37-42. This study was aimed to propose alternative trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland area surrounding spring. Data were collected by vegetation analysis of three sampling sites (1st. Cowek, 2nd Gajahrejo, 3rd Parerejo to determine density, frequency, dominancy, diversity index and Important Value Index (IVI. The lists of plants in three sites were then compiled into an integrated list and used as reference for developing questionnaire. The questionnaire was then distributed to respondents who were chosen randomly. We recorded their preferences of tree species in rehabilitation program based on socio-economical and ecological aspects. Selected species were then proposed as alternative plants for rehabilitation of degraded spring area based on landscape topography and remaining vegetation coverage. The results showed that species diversity of Moracecae family was the highest than other families. In term of ecological aspect, Ficus racemosa, Artocarpus elasticus, Bambusa blumeana, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter, Ficus benjamina, Syzygium samarangensis and Ficus virens showed high Important Value Index. On the other hand, based on socio-economic aspects, Ficus benjamina, Artocarpus elasticus, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus altilis “Seedless”, Durio zbethinus, Ficus drupacea, Pangium edule, Ficus varigata, Michelia champaca, Aleurites moluccana and Ficus racemosa were the most preferred species by local community. Based on topography and vegetation coverage, spring surrounding areas were were classified into four: steep and open, flat and open, steep and dense, and flat and dense. Therefore among of 120 species found in all sampling sites, there were respectively 63.3%, 95%, 25% and 44.16% species to be proposed and planted for rehabilitation in the

  3. The response of benthic foraminifer, ostracod and mollusc assemblages to environmental conditions: a case study from the Camalti Saltpan (Izmir-Western Turkey

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    E. MERIC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this report is benthic foraminifer populations preserved in the saltpan of Camalti in the Province of Izmir. High salinity in certain habitats of Ammonia tepida Cushman may be the primary cause of the high rate of twins and triplets as well as other morphological abnormalities recorded within this species (50 % as compared to an anomaly rate of 1 % in normal marine waters. Thicker cyst membrane developing in extremely saline environments may encourage twins and other morphological deformities by denying free movement of the offspring. Ecological factors such as heavy metal contamination of ambient waters as well as contamination by other wastes are also not ruled out as leading to such developmental anomalies. Of the 27 collected samples, Number 5 (that is closest to the sea includes the typical marine foraminifers. Nonion depressulum (Walker & Jacob, Ammonia tepida Cushman and Porosononion subgronosum(Egger are the dominant species in other samples. A total of 63 abnormal individuals (8 triplets, 24 twins, and 31 morphological anomalies was found within seven of the 27 samples collected. Ten samples contained freshwater ostracods: Darwinula stevensoni(Brady and Robertson, Leptocythere lacertosa Hirschmann, Cyprideis torasa (Jones, Cyprideis (C. anatolica Bassiouni, and Loxochoncha elliptica Brady. Among these samples (some of which contained only a few species of ostracods - and those limited in number of offspring, one had an unusually high ratio of healthy foraminifers vs those with anomalies. Worthy of note in another sample was a high abundance of molluscs. Among pelecypods, were found Ostrea edulis Linné, Lucinella divaricata (Linné, Pseudocama gryphina Lamarck,Cerastoderma edule (Linné, and Scrobicularia plana da Costa; and among gastropods were identified Hydrobi (Hydrobia acuta(Draparnaud, Rissoa labiosa (Montagu, R. parva (da Costa, R. violacea Desmarest, Pirenella conica (Blainville, Bittium desayesi(Cerulli and

  4. Experiments on selection of feeding site and food size in oystercatchers, Haematopus ostralegus, of different social status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, M. F.; Swennen, C.; De Bruijn, L. L. M.

    Oystercatchers, Haematopus ostralegus, were tested for size selection in two prey species, cockles ( Cerastoderma edule) and mussels ( Mytilus edulis), under semi-natural, but strictly experimental, conditions that allowed recovery of all shells of prey items eaten. Within any patch of cockles offered, size was not an important selection criterion for the birds. The mean length of cockles consumed always differed less than 1 mm (the measuring accuracy) from the mean length of the cockles presented. When given a choice between patches of different prey quality, the birds tended to select patches according to their relative dominance status, with the most dominant bird feeding mainly in the patch where the prey items had the largest flesh contents. Less dominant birds were forced out of the preferred patch and obtained most of theif food from a patch of presumedly lower quality. One of these birds adapted its prey-handling method and its bill shape for efficient feeding in such a low quality pathc, and it continued feeding in that patch, even after the dominant conspecifics had been removed. In experiments with mussels as prey, the test bird did not select primarily on the basis of size but tended to eat those mussels that were easiest to open. It is concluded that size selection in oystercatchers that eat either cockles or mussels ends with the choice of a certain foraging patch. Within a patch of cockles of one year-class, which is the field condition for the majority of oystercatchers in the Wadden Sea, no selection for size occurs, because this would take too much extra searching time to be profitable.

  5. STUDI KOMUNITAS RUMPUT LAUT DI PANTAI SANUR DAN PANTAI SAWANGAN NUSA DUA BALI

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    GALIH INDRAWATI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this research are to analyze structure community population, relative population, variety domination, heterogeneous, and equality of seaweed species in Sanur and Sawangan Beach Nusa Dua.The result of the study shows that in Sanur and Sawangan Beach observed 13 related seaweed species were observed, which are: Ulva reticulata, Chaetomorpha crassa, Bornetella nitida, Halimeda macroloba, Padina australis, Sargassum binderi, Hypnea asperi, Dictyopteris sp, Gracilaria coronapifolia, Gracilaria gracilis, Acanthopora spicifera, Euchema edule, Euchema denticulatum Meanwhile, , Caulerpa racemosa, Boergesiana forbessii, Sargassum crassifolium, Gelidium sp, Turbinaria ornata, Gracilaria foliifera only observed in Sanur Beach and species of Actinotrichia fragilis, Ulva lactuca, Euchema serra, Turbinaria conoides observed in Sawangan Beach, Nusa Dua.Heterogeneous value index (H in Sanur Beach is 0.75 – 1.87 categorized as medium category, except in station five characterized as low category. Domination index (C is 0.10 – 0.28, where there is no dominated species. Equality index value (E is 0.32 – 0.85 in unstable condition, except in station one is stable. In Sawangan Beach, heterogeneous indexes is 1.04 – 1.54, that spread in all stations by medium category. Domination index is 0.14 – 0.30, indicated that there is no dominant species. Equality index is 0.47 – 0.74, by stabile condition in station one, while others station is unstable. Highest relatif population in Sanur Beach is 37.63% in station three (Gracilaria foliifera. In Sawangan Nusa Dua Beach is Hypnea asperi (48.65%.Substrate analysis show that Sanur and Sawangan Beach has mud sand types. Water temperature in both research locations approximately is 28.90 C – 30.40 C, pH 7.00 – 7.80 and dissolved oxygen around 6.8mg/1-7.4mg/l.

  6. Conditional Responses of Benthic Communities to Interference from an Intertidal Bivalve.

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    Carl Van Colen

    Full Text Available Habitat-modifying organisms that impact other organisms and local functioning are important in determining ecosystem resilience. However, it is often unclear how the outcome of interactions performed by key species varies depending on the spatial and temporal disturbance context which makes the prediction of disturbance-driven regime shifts difficult. We investigated the strength and generality of effects of the filter feeding cockle Cerastoderma edule on its ambient intertidal benthic physical and biological environment. By comparing the magnitude of the effect of experimental cockle removal between a non-cohesive and a sheltered cohesive sediment in two different periods of the year, we show that the outcome of cockle interference effects relates to differences in physical disturbance, and to temporal changes in suspended sediment load and ontogenetic changes in organism traits. Interference effects were only present in the cohesive sediments, though the effects varied seasonally. Cockle presence decreased only the density of surface-dwelling species suggesting that interference effects were particularly mediated by bioturbation of the surface sediments. Furthermore, density reductions in the presence of cockles were most pronounced during the season when larvae and juveniles were present, suggesting that these life history stages are most vulnerable to interference competition. We further illustrate that cockles may enhance benthic microalgal biomass, most likely through the reduction of surface-dwelling grazing species, especially in periods with high sediment load and supposedly also high bioturbation rates. Our results emphasize that the physical disturbance of the sediment may obliterate biotic interactions, and that temporal changes in environmental stressors, such as suspended sediments, may affect the outcome of key species interference effects at the local scale. Consequently, natural processes and anthropogenic activities that change

  7. Estrategia estatal de conservación de las cícadas (Zamiaceae: una propuesta para el estado de Hidalgo, México

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    Aurelia Vite

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available México es el segundo país con mayor diversidad de cícadas en el mundo. En él, la Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO es una de las regiones biogeográficas con mayor riqueza de estas plantas. El objetivo de este estudio fue plantear la estrategia de conservación de cícadas para el estado de Hidalgo, ubicado en la parte sur de la SMO; para esto se revisó la literatura científica, se consultaron los principales herbarios de México y se hicieron recorridos de campo. Los resultados muestran que Hidalgo alberga tres géneros y ocho especies: Ceratozamia fuscoviridis, C. latifolia, C. mexicana, C. sabatoi, Dioon edule, Zamia fischeri, Z. loddigesii, Z. vazquezii, posicionándose en el cuarto lugar nacional en riqueza de cícadas. Las especies se distribuyen en 26 municipios. Se encontró que la diversidad de cícadas es mayor a la de otras entidades con mayor superficie e incluso a la de algunos países de Centroamérica. La estrategia estatal de conservación de cícadas aquí desarrollada propone conservar cerca de 11 325ha, distribuidas en siete municipios, bajo un esquema mixto de conservación. Esta propuesta será útil para que las instancias gubernamentales establezcan nuevas ANP’s en la región biogeográfica de la SMO.

  8. Vitamin C content and potential of makroalga in the Coastal Region of Cigebang, Cianjur, West Java

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    TIA SETIAWATI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Setiawati T, Nurzaman M, Mutaqin AZ, Budiono R, Abdiwijaya A. 2017. Vitamin C content and potential of makroalga in the Coastal Region of Cigebang, Cianjur, West Java. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 39-44. This research aims to know the content of vitamin C macroalgae and its potential for the community in coastal area Cigebang Cianjur, West Java province. The methods used in the study is a quantitative descriptive approach. Techniques of sampling survey method using macroalgae, vitamin C test with the method iodometry, and to know the potential of macroalgae according to the community is carried out by the methods of questionnaire. The results showed that there is a difference of vitamin C on seven types of macroalgae are found namely Boergesenia forbesii 0.0167 mg/mL, Codium edule 0.0191 mg/mL, Padina sanctae-crucis 0.0686 mg/mL, Chaetomorpha antennina 0.0129 mg/mL, Ulva lactuca 0.0191 mg/mL, Cladophoropsis sundanensis 0.0211 mg/mL, and Sargassum sp. 0.0959 mg/mL. of the highest content of vitamin C contained in Sargassum sp. and the lowest at Chaetomorpha antennina. Based on the knowledge of local people, macroalgae are potentially economically and mostly sold to support the life of the community. Some people offer it as foodstuffs such as dodol, urab, stir fry, and even can be consumed directly. Other potential communities know about the macroalgae, i.e. as food ingredients gelatin, cosmetic ingredients, such as batik shirt-making materials, and medicines.

  9. Nutrient enrichment coupled with sedimentation favors sea anemones over corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Hsin, Min-Chieh; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Fan, Tung-Yung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Lu, Chung-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2015-01-01

    Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs.

  10. Seasonal dynamics of trophic relationships among co-occurring suspension-feeders in two shellfish culture dominated ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Sébastien; Marín Leal, Julio César; Dubois, Stanislas; Orvain, Francis; Blin, Jean-Louis; Bataillé, Marie-Paule; Ourry, Alain; Galois, Robert

    2009-04-01

    The temporal dynamics of carbon and nitrogen isotope values of co-occurring suspension-feeders in two shellfish culture areas (Normandy, France) were investigated over two years to evaluate the inter-specific trophic partitioning and relative contributions of organic matter sources to benthic suspension-feeders' diet. Oysters ( Crassostrea gigas), mussels ( Mytilus edulis), cockles ( Cerastoderma edule), slipper limpets ( Crepidula fornicata), and sand-mason worms ( Lanice conchilega) were sampled in an estuarine environment (Baie des Veys, east Cotentin, Normandy), while oysters, mussels, slipper limpets, and honeycomb worms ( Sabellaria alveolata) were sampled in an open-marine environment (Lingreville-sur-mer, west Cotentin, Normandy). Whatever the sampling period, the bivalves, C. gigas and M. edulis, exhibited the lowest values of δ13C and δ15N compared with the other species. Feeding relationships among suspension-feeders in both C. gigas culture areas exhibited temporal variations due to the marine/estuarine influence and seasonal changes in food supply. In the open-marine ecosystem, the contribution of phytoplankton remained the most important for all species except S. alveolata, while in the estuarine ecosystem, microphytobenthos and/or macroalgae detritus contributed a larger extent to the organisms' diets. During phytoplankton bloom periods (e.g. May and July) suspension-feeders, except for S. alveolata, relied strongly on phytoplankton; however, the majority of suspension-feeders exhibited different opportunistic behaviour in winter when phytoplankton biomass might be a limiting factor. We hypothesized that differences in particle capture and selection by the suspension-feeders influenced their isotopic values. Feeding ecology of suspension-feeders partly explained why competition was limited and why ecosystems can often support unexpectedly large numbers of suspension-feeders. We also showed that understanding ecosystem characteristics of the organic

  11. Nutrient enrichment coupled with sedimentation favors sea anemones over corals.

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    Pi-Jen Liu

    Full Text Available Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs.

  12. Florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea de uma floresta estacional semidecidual secundária em Viçosa, MG

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    Antonio Jorge Tourinho Braga

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a composição florística e a estrutura da comunidade arbórea, bem como a distribuição das espécies em diferentes grupos ecológicos e os solos dos estádios inicial e avançado, de uma Floresta Estacional Semidecidual localizada no campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em Viçosa, MG (20°46' S e 42°52' W. O levantamento foi realizado em meio hectare, onde foram alocadas 10 parcelas de 25 x 10 m em cada trecho, sendo amostrados todos os indivíduos com circunferência do tronco a 1,30 m do solo (CAP > 15 cm. Registraram-se 820 indivíduos, sendo 440 no trecho de floresta inicial e 380 no de floresta avançada. No levantamento florístico da floresta inicial foram amostradas 76 espécies, pertencentes a 28 famílias, destacando-se como as de maior número de indivíduos Fabaceae (137, Urticaceae (45 e Sapindaceae (41 e, as com os maiores valores de importância, Cecropia glaziovii Snethl., Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speng., Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. Macbr., Allophylus sericeus Radlk., Siparuna guianensis Aubl. e Maclura tinctoria (L. Don ex Steud. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,57 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade (J', de 0,82. Já na floresta avançada foram amostradas 59 espécies, distribuídas em 26 famílias, das quais Fabaceae (103, Meliaceae (49 e Flacourtiaceae (34 sobressaíram com maior número de indivíduos. Por sua vez, as espécies com os maiores valores de importância foram A. peregrina, Trichilia pallida Swartz, Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi Kuntze., P. gonoacantha, Rollinia silvatica Mart. e S. guianensi. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,49 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade (J', de 0,85. No contínuo, o índice de Shannon (H' e a equabilidade (J' foram de 3,82 nat.ind.-1 e 0,84, respectivamente. Cada floresta apresentou distinta identidade florística e estrutural, tendendo a ser minimizada com o avanço da sucessão.

  13. Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Atiar; Sultana, Rabeya; Bin Emran, Talha; Islam, M Saiful; Rahman, M Ashiqur; Chakma, Joti Sankhar; Rashid, Harun-ur; Hasan, Chowdhury Mohammad Monirul

    2013-01-30

    Thrombus formed in blood vessels lead to atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs sometimes cause serious and fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases although they show little toxicity in some cases. Aqueous extracts of herbs used in thrombolysis have been reported before with cytotoxic data, however, the organic extracts of herbs have not been documented. This study aims to investigate whether organic extracts possess thrombolytic properties with minimal or no toxicity. An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of six Bangladeshi herbal extracts viz., Ageratum conyzoides L., Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica (Burm.f.) Merr., Leucas aspera Willd., Senna sophera L. Roxb., and Solanum torvum Swartz. using streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. Briefly, venous blood drawn from twenty healthy volunteers was allowed to form clots which were weighed and treated with the test plant materials to disrupt the clots. Weight of clot after and before treatment provided a percentage of clot lysis. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as positive control. Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed 18.12 ± 2.34%, 48.9 ± 2.44%, 39.30 ± 0.96%, 37.32 ± 2.00%, 31.61 ± 2.97% and 31.51 ± 0.57% and clot lysis respectively. Among the herbs studied Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera showed very significant (p Solanum torvum showed LC50 values 508.86 ± 6.62,41.16 ± 1.26, 2.65 ± 0.16, 181.67 ± 1.65, 233.37 ± 7.74 and 478.40 ± 3.23 μg/ml, respectively, with reference to vincristine sulfate (LC50 0.76 ± 0.04). Through our study it was found

  14. Brain order disorder 2nd group report of f-EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Francois; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Brown, David; Tran, Binh Q.; Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming-Kai; Cha, Jae; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Ma, Lien; Willey, Jefferson; Wu, Jerry; Oh, Kenneth; Landa, Joseph; Lin, C. T.; Jung, T. P.; Makeig, Scott; Morabito, Carlo Francesco; Moon, Qyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Szu, Harold H.; Kaur, Balvinder; Byrd, Kenneth; Dang, Karen; Krzywicki, Alan; Familoni, Babajide O.; Larson, Louis; Harkrider, Susan; Krapels, Keith A.; Dai, Liyi

    2014-05-01

    Since the Brain Order Disorder (BOD) group reported on a high density Electroencephalogram (EEG) to capture the neuronal information using EEG to wirelessly interface with a Smartphone [1,2], a larger BOD group has been assembled, including the Obama BRAIN program, CUA Brain Computer Interface Lab and the UCSD Swartz Computational Neuroscience Center. We can implement the pair-electrodes correlation functions in order to operate in a real time daily environment, which is of the computation complexity of O(N3) for N=102~3 known as functional f-EEG. The daily monitoring requires two areas of focus. Area #(1) to quantify the neuronal information flow under arbitrary daily stimuli-response sources. Approach to #1: (i) We have asserted that the sources contained in the EEG signals may be discovered by an unsupervised learning neural network called blind sources separation (BSS) of independent entropy components, based on the irreversible Boltzmann cellular thermodynamics(ΔS adaptive time-window sampling. The sampling rate depends on the type of neuronal responses, which is what we seek. The averaged traditional EEG measurements and are further improved by BSS decomposition into finer stimulus-response source mixing matrix [A] having finer & faster spatial grids with rapid temporal updates. Then, the functional EEG is the second order co-variance matrix defined as the electrode-pair fluctuation correlation function C(s~, s~') of independent thermodynamic source components. (1) We define a 1-D Space filling curve as a spiral curve without origin. This pattern is historically known as the Peano-Hilbert arc length a. By taking the most significant bits of the Cartesian product a≡ O(x * y * z), it represents the arc length in the numerical size with values that map the 3-D neighborhood proximity into a 1-D neighborhood arc length representation. (2) 1-D Fourier coefficients spectrum have no spurious high frequency contents, which typically arise in lexicographical (zig

  15. Organic Food Consumption during Pregnancy and Hypospadias and Cryptorchidism at Birth: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Torjusen, Hanne; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alexander, Jan; Lieblein, Geir; Roos, Gun; Holten, Jon Magne; Swartz, Jackie; Haugen, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    study populations. Citation Brantsæter AL, Torjusen H, Meltzer HM, Papadopoulou E, Hoppin JA, Alexander J, Lieblein G, Roos G, Holten JM, Swartz J, Haugen M. 2016. Organic food consumption during pregnancy and hypospadias and cryptorchidism at birth: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Environ Health Perspect 124:357–364; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409518 PMID:26307850

  16. [State strategy for Cycad (Zamiaceae) conservation: a proposal for the State of Hidalgo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vite, Aurelia; Pulido, María T; Flores-Vázquez, Juan C

    2013-09-01

    Mexico has the second largest cycad diversity in the world, and the Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO) is one of the richest biogeographic regions for these plants. Despite there is a general Cycad National Program in the country, there are no state-level cycad conservation strategies or programs. Thus the aim of this study was to propose a cycad conservation strategy for the state of Hidalgo, which is located in the Southern part of the SMO. For this, a cycad species inventory was made in the state, for which three methods were used: review of published literature; consultation in the main Mexican herbaria to verify botanical specimens; and exhaustive field research to compare findings with previously reported species and to recognize new records at the county and state level. The proposed research work strategy combined the following elements: prioritize the county and local areas with greatest cycad species richness; prioritize the species least resistant to environmental change and/or having restricted geographic distribution; and to consider the main uses of these plants by local residents. The results showed that Hidalgo has three genera and eight species ofcycads: Ceratozamia fuscoviridis, C. latifolia, C. mexicana, C. sabatoi, Dioon edule, Zamia fischeri, Z. loddigesii and Z. vazquezii, all of which are considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This study added two new species records for Hidalgo and 21 at the county level. The species are distributed in 26 counties, of which Chapulhuacán and Pisaflores are notable for their high species richness. Hidalgo has the fourth-greatest cycad species richness among Mexican states, although its area accounts for only 1.07% of the country. The state's diversity is greater than in other states with larger area, and even than in some other entire countries in Mesoamerica. The presented state cycad conservation strategy proposes that a total of some 11,325 ha to be conserved in nine zones

  17. Cockle infection by Himasthla quissetensis - I. From cercariae emergence to metacercariae infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montaudouin, Xavier; Blanchet, Hugues; Desclaux-Marchand, Céline; Lavesque, Nicolas; Bachelet, Guy

    2016-07-01

    The European cockle (Cerastoderma edule) is an exploited bivalve along the North-Eastern Atlantic semi-sheltered ecosystems. Its population dynamics are driven by numerous environmental factors, including parasitism, particularly by trematodes. The complex life cycle of trematodes includes a free living stage (cercaria) between the first (a mollusk) and the second (an invertebrate or a vertebrate) intermediate hosts. Taking the example of Himasthla quissetensis, a dominant trematode in Arcachon Bay (France) utilizing Nassarius reticulatus as first intermediate host and the cockle as second intermediate host, we investigated the correlation between cockle infection and cercariae emergence by N. reticulatus, including the role of water temperature and light. Experimental and field data provided evidence that cercariae emergence from N. reticulatus took place during the night and for water temperature comprised between 15 °C and 22 °C (optimum at 20 °C). The lifespan of cercariae did not exceed 48 h and 50% of them were no more infectious after 7 h. A model was designed (emergence = f(water temperature)) in order to calculate an average monthly cercarial emergence rate according to water temperature that was daily recorded for 5 years (1998-2002). Concomitantly, non-infected cockles were transplanted each of these years in order to assess the infection rate by H. quissetensis. Infection occurred strictly for the same water temperatures (and dates) as those expected for cercariae emergence. Within each year, there was often (but not always) a good correlation between the predicted number of emerging cercariae and the observed number of cercariae transformed into metacercariae in cockles. However, the among-years variability of cockle infection (× 4.4 range) was not explained by the predicted annual number of emerging cercariae. This study highlights the importance of water temperature and light in stimulating cercariae emergence which is closely related to the

  18. The human alimentary tract transfer and body retention of environmental polonium-210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G J; Rumney, H S [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a 4 year study to investigate the human alimentary tract transfer factor (f{sub A} value) and body retention of {sup 210}Po in shellfish. In the first 3 years, mussels (Mytilus edulis L.), cockles (Cerastoderma edule L.) and brown meat from crab (Cancer pagurus L.) were successively studied. In each year five volunteers (from a pool of seven) ate a suitable portion of the shellfish and provided 24 h samples of excreta usually for 3 days before and for at least 7 days during and after eating. Subsamples of shellfish were analysed to determine the intakes of {sup 210}Po. Faeces were analysed and the data used to assess apparent f{sub A} values. Urine samples were analysed in the mussel and crab studies to provide urinary excretion parameters. Pb-210 was also analysed during the mussel study; the levels were low, leading to large uncertainties, but confirming the negligible effect of radioactive decay to its granddaughter {sup 210}Po in the main study. In the fourth year, larger samples of brown crab meat were eaten by five volunteers and faecal samples were taken at suitable times over periods of up to 43 days to study body retention of {sup 210}Po. The first {approx}7 days provided additional data on f{sub A} values. Pooled results for the apparent f{sub A} for the whole study lay in the range 0.15-0.65 with a mean of 0.46; corrections for endogenous excretion suggest a true f{sub A} value of {approx}0.51, supporting the value of 0.5 currently used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The retention data suggest a biological half-time of about 40 days, in broad consistency with the 50 days currently used by the ICRP. Thus there is no strong evidence from this study suggesting a change in dose coefficient for {sup 210}Po. Full experimental data are provided to allow independent further interpretation.

  19. Anoxic survival potential of bivalves: (arte)facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zwaan, Albertus; Babarro, Jose M F; Monari, Marta; Cattani, Otello

    2002-03-01

    The anoxic survival time of the bivalves Chamelea gallina, Cerastoderma edule and Scapharca inaequivalvis from two different ecosystems and differing anoxia tolerances was studied in static (closed) and flow-through systems. The antibiotics chloramphenicol, penicillin and polymyxin were added, and molybdate (specific inhibitor of the process of sulfate reduction). Survival in (near) anoxic seawater of Chamelea was studied in a static system by comparing untreated seawater with autoclaved seawater and untreated clams with clams incubated in well-aerated seawater, containing the broad-spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol, prior to the anoxic survival test. With untreated clams and natural seawater (median mortality time 2.4 days) a decrease in pH and exponential accumulation of sulfide and ammonium was observed in the anoxic medium, indicating excessive growth of (sulfate reducing) bacteria. In sterilized seawater LT50 (2.1 days) was not significantly different and again considerable amounts of ammonium and sulfide accumulated. However, pre-treatment of clams with chloramphenicol resulted in an increase of LT50 (11.0 days) by approximately fivefold. Accumulation of ammonium and sulfide was retarded, but was finally even stronger than in the medium containing untreated clams. Median mortality times were 2.5 and 2.4 days for Chamelea and 2.7 and 2.9 days for Cerastoderma for static and flow-through incubations, respectively. Addition of chloramphenicol increased strongly survival time in both systems with corresponding values of 11.0 and 16.3 days for Chamelea, and 6.4 and 6.5 days for Cerastoderma. LT50 of Scapharca in anoxic seawater was 14.4 days. Chloramphenicol and penicillin increased median survival time to 28.5 and 28.7 days, respectively, whereas polymyxin displayed no effect (LT50=13.6 days). Molybdate added to artificial sulfate free seawater blocked biotic sulfide formation, but did not improve survival time (LT50=13.7 days). Overall the results indicate

  20. Matrix solid-phase dispersion combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of fifteen halogenated flame retardants in mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde-de-Sáa, Eugenia; Valls-Cantenys, Carme; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael

    2013-07-26

    in different kind of freeze-dried mollusks: mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), cockle (Cerastoderma edule) and clam (R. philippinarum). Raft cultured mussels showed the highest concentrations of HFRs (up to 0.8ngg(-1) wet weight of BDE-209). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amino acid racemization analysis (AAR) as a successful tool for dating Holocene coastal sediments: Stratigraphy of a barrier island spit (Southern Sylt/North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Tanja; Ziehe, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Dating of Holocene sediments in shallow coastal areas of the German North Sea by conventional techniques is commonly problematic. In particular the marine reservoir effect of radiocarbon means that radiocarbon dating cannot be applied to sediments younger than about 400 years. Amino acid racemization dating (AAR) is a viable alternative for dating young sediments. The method is based on the determination of ratios of D and L amino acid enantiomers in organic matrices of biogenic carbonates. In this study we use AAR as a tool for dating Holocene barrier islands sediments. Based on an AAR derived chronological framework we develop a model of barrier spit accretion which describes the interaction between extreme events, fair weather coastal processes and sedimentary development that constrains the major episodes of barrier island evolution. The stratigraphy was defined using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys complemented by sedimentological coring data. The stratigraphy is then conceptualised in a AAR chronostratigraphic framework to define a chronological order and allow the development of a stratigraphic model of the evolution of Southern Sylt. The AAR data provide high temporal resolution and have been used for dating stages of barrier spit accretion. The time lines are marked as storm surge generated erosion unconformities in the stratigraphic profile. Individual shells and shell fragments of Cerastoderma edule, Mya arenaria, Mytilus edulis and Scrobicularia plana have been accumulated by short-term storm events as shell layers associated with the erosion unconformities and have been dated by AAR. Time lines reveal that the barrier spit accretion occurred episodically, and is dependant on the provided rate of sand delivery. The general trend is that sequences young to the. South. The AAR derived time lines have been verified and correlated by historic maps and sea charts. It is apparent that spit enlargement at this site increased significantly during the

  2. Impact of trematode parasitism on the fauna of a North Sea tidal flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauckner, G.

    1984-03-01

    disturbances. A single metacercaria is sufficient to kill a larval fish. Mytilus edulis and Cardium (Cerastoderma) edule are 100% infested with metacercariae of H. elongata. Heavy infestation impairs the byssus-thread production in mussels and affects the burrowing ability of cockles. Longevity and resistance to environmental — particularly thermal — stress are reduced in bivalves infested with H. elongata and R. roscovita. There is evidence that, in the study area, population size and age composition of the molluscs discussed are (indirectly) controlled by trematode parasites employing sea birds as final hosts, rather than directly by the predatory activities of these birds.

  3. EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO TÉRMICO NAS CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS E MICROBIOLÓGICAS DA POLPA DE MARACUJÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRA PADOVANE AMARO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Frutos de maracujá amarelo (Passjflora edulls f. flavicarpa Deg., material IAC-275, foram processados para a obtenção da polpa. A polpa obtida foi pasteurizada durante 30 segundos empregando três faixas de temperatura (69 a 72ºC, 73 a 76ºC e 77 a 82ºC. Foi também obtida polpa fresca (sem pasteurizar. Polpas fresca e pasteurizadas foram comparadas utilizando avaliações físico-químicas e microbiológicas. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 nos valores de acidez total, no pH e no ratio das polpas fresca e pasteurizada. A polpa fresca apresentou menor conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais (p < 0,05 em relação à polpa pasteurizada e conteúdo de vitamina C praticamente similar, embora tenha havido diferença significativa (p < 0,05 entre a polpa pasteurizada na faixa de temperatura de 69 a 72ºC e as demais. As perdas de vitamina C decorrentes do processamento foram de 5%,4% e 0,6%, quando as faixas de temperatura de 69 a 72°C, 73 a 76°C e 77 a 82°C foram, respectivamente, empregadas. Os resultados da análise microbiológica mostraram que as polpas pasteurizadas apresentaram contagem de bolores e leveduras, de mesófilos aeróbios e de psicrófilos aeróbios significativamente (p < 0,05 menor quando comparadas à polpa fresca, indicando que o tratamento térmico empregado foi adequado.

  4. Effects of body-size and season on digestive organ size and the energy balance of cockles fed with a constant diet of phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola, I; Larretxea, X; Navarro, E; Iglesias, J I P; Urrutia, M B

    2008-05-01

    Seasonal variation in size-dependence of seawater clearance rate, absorption efficiency, oxygen consumption, gill area, length of the crystalline style and dry weight of digestive gland was analyzed in cockles Cerastoderma edule from the Mundaka Estuary, Spain. Experimental determinations were performed monthly (from July 1998 to November 1999) in cockles being fed with Tetraselmis suecica (organic content: 87.84 +/- 1.95%) at a concentration of 3 mm(3)/l for 3 days. Analysis of covariance reveals no seasonal differences in both size-dependence of seawater clearance rate and oxygen consumption, which were found to scale to dry body weight with mass-exponents of 0.56 and 0.62, respectively. No significant correlation was found between absorption efficiency and body weight. Mass-exponents for gill area, dry weight of the digestive gland and length of the crystalline style remained constant among seasons showing values of 0.62, 0.34 and 0.82, respectively. Seasonal trends for every physiological determination were calculated for a standard size (200 mg) cockle: standardized clearance rates and oxygen consumptions followed a similar trend with minimum values in winter ( approximately 0.5 l/h and approximately 100 microl O2/h, respectively) and maximum values during spring-summer ( approximately 1.7 l/h and approximately 250 microl O2/h, respectively), whereas absorption efficiency and food throughput time showed both the opposite pattern with highest values corresponding to winter months ( approximately 50-60% and approximately 5-6 h, respectively), and lowest ( approximately 30% and approximately 3-4 h, respectively) to summer-autumn. Scope for growth exhibited minimum values in winter followed by a rapid increase along the winter-spring transition, maximum values being attained in spring (May) and summer (July). Exponential decline of seasonal values of absorption efficiency associated to rising ingestion rates of organic matter presented an asymptotic minimum at 0

  5. Avaliação de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja Evaluation of herbicides in the control of weeds in the soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. De Barros

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido em Serranópolis, GO, um ensaio objetivando avaliar a eficiência e a seletividade de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja (Glycine max (L. Merril, utilizando-se os seguintes tratamentos: A 100 g/ha de imazethapyr (ácido 2-[4,5-dihidro-4-metil-4(1-metiletil-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-ilo]-5-etil-3-piridinacarboxilico + surfactante, a 0,25% v/v; B tratamento A e 15 dias após, 230 g/ha de sethoxydim (2-1-etoximino-butil-5-2(etiltio-propil-3-hidroxi-2-ciclohexeno-1-ona + óleo mineral, a 0,25% v/v; C 230 g/ha de sethoxydim + óleo mineral, a 0,25% v/v; D 480 + 200 + 230 g/ha de bentazon (3-isopropil-2,1,3-benzotiadiazinona-(4-2,2-dióxido + fomesafen (5-2-cloro-4-(trifluorometil-fenoxiN-metilsulfonil-2-nitrobenzamida + sethoxydim + óleo mineral, 0,25% v/v; E 150 g/ha de imazaquim (2-[4,5-dihidro-4-metil-4-(1-metiletil-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-ilo]-3-quinolinacarboxílico pré-e e 230 g/ha de sethoxydim + óleo mineral, 0,25% v/v; F 250 g/ha de fomesafen + 187 g/ha de fluazipop-p-butil (butil-(R-2-(4-(5-trifluorometil-2-piridiloxi-fenoxi-propionato + surfactante a 0,2% v/v; G 120 g/ha de imazethapyr + surfactante a 0,2% v/v; H testemunha capinada; I testemunha não capinada. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O capim-custódio (Pennisetum setosum (Swartz L. Rich foi eficientemente controlado por todos os tratamentos químicos, enquanto a falsa-serralha (Emilia sonchifolia DC. foi somente pelo tratamento D. O capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L. por C, D, E e F. O joá-de-capote (Nicandra physaloides (L. Pers. por D.F. e G. Ocorreram injúrias iniciais às plantas de soja, nos tratamentos D, E. e F. As alturas de plantas e de inserção da primeira vagem, além do rendimento de grãos, não foram influenciados significativamente pelos herbicidas.An experiment was carried out in Serranópolis, State of Goiás, Brazil, aiming to evaluate herbicides efficiency in weeds control

  6. Renovação de pastagem degradada de capim-gordura com a introdução de forrageiras tropicais adubadas com nitrogênio ou em consórcios Renewing the degraded Melinis minutiflora pasture by introduction of tropical forages fertilized with nitrogen or under mixture cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Melo Moreira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com objetivo de avaliar a produtividade e qualidade do capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. cv. Basilisk e do capim-jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa (Ness Stapf. adubados com nitrogênio (N ou em consórcios com estilosantes (Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. Swartz cv. Mineirão, introduzidos em uma pastagem degradada. Foram avaliadas duas gramíneas (capim-braquiária e capim-jaraguá, quatro doses de N (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg/ha e dois tratamentos referentes aos consórcios capim-braquiária + estilosantes e capim-jaraguá + estilosantes. Após estabelecimento das forrageiras, foram realizadas duas avaliações (colheitas. As produções de matéria seca (MS do capim-braquiária aumentaram de 1.824 para 4.604 kg/ha e de 1.019 para 2.149 kg/ha nas duas colheitas, respectivamente, quando as doses de N extremas foram comparadas, porém não houve resposta do capim-jaraguá. O teor de proteína bruta (PB do capim-braquiária elevou de 3,18 para 5,68 dag/kg apenas na primeira colheita, enquanto o capim-jaraguá apresentou incremento de 2,53 para 3,72 dag/kg e de 7,32 para 8,45 dag/kg, respectivamente, em ambas as colheitas, quando comparadas às doses extremas. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido das gramíneas não foram influenciados pela aplicação de N. Em ambas as colheitas, ao se elevarem as doses de N, houve diminuição dos teores de P nas duas gramíneas e de K no capim-braquiária. Os teores de Ca e Mg das gramíneas, em sua maioria, não foram influenciados pelo N, em ambas as colheitas. As produções médias de MS dos dois consórcios foram superiores às produções médias das duas gramíneas adubadas, com incrementos de 42,62 e 15,00% no rendimento forrageiro, na primeira e segunda colheitas, respectivamente. As forrageiras em consórcios, de forma geral, apresentaram teores de PB e Ca mais elevados e de FDN mais baixos que as gramíneas puras adubadas com N

  7. New results on Late Quaternary stratigraphy of Manych depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanov, Redzhep; Yanina, Tamara; Borisova, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Manych-strait connected Black sea and Caspian Sea in Pleistocene is a great event in the history of the Ponto-Caspian region. The strait located within such geological structure as Manych Depression which is extended sublatitudinally from the west coast of Nothern Caspian to the north-west of the Azov sea. The existence of the Manych-strait is essentially for the stratigraphy and paleogeography. There were several stages when marine waters spilled over from Black sea to Caspian and alternatively. Due to the alternation of sedimentary layers it is possible to correlate pleistocene deposits and paleogeographic events. Nowadays there are a lot of materials and data about the history of Manych-strait. In the profile are distinguished interbedding marine deposits with lacustrine and alluvial formations and subaerial deposit on top. The main question is the paleogeographical reconstruction. We try to solve this problem using our new data and elaborating available information. In February 2016 complex geomorphologic and paleogeographic works in central part of depression on northern coast of Manych-Gudilo lake were carried out. We performed cable drilling of 2 cores (depth of each 45 m) and hand hammer drilling (8 boreholes, max. depth 12 m) of covering Holocene sediments on different geomorphological levels of depression. From the core (3 cm diameter) continuous sampling was made for spore-pollen, lithological and geochemical analyzes. The stratigraphic subdivision of the core is based on facial-lithology and macro-malakofaunistic analisys. In the lower part of both cores there is barren formation of interbedding layers of sand and clays. The bottom line is precise, below lays a marine Carangat formation (MIS-5) of sand and clay with well-preserved Black Sea marine mollusk shells (Cardium edule, Paphia senescens, Ostrea edulis, Loripes lacteus, Chione gallina, Chlamys glabra). Higher in the core there is a loam-clay layer including both Black Sea (euryhaline species

  8. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against blood-sucking parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram

    2010-05-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae), adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), nymph of goat-lice Damalinia caprae Gurlt (Trichodectidae), and adult sheep parasite Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 24 h of exposure at 3,000 ppm; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in leaf ethyl acetate, flower methanol of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, seed acetone of T. chebula, and leaf hexane extracts of V. negundo against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50) = 335.48, 309.21, 297.43, 414.99, 167.20, and 611.67 ppm; LC(90) = 1571.58, 1111.82, 950.98, 1243.64, 595.31, and 1875.50 ppm), the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, and seed methanol extracts of T. chebula against the nymph of D. caprae (LC(50) = 119.26,143.10,164.93,140.47, and 155.98 ppm; LC(90) = 356.77, 224.08, 546.20, 479.72, and 496.06 ppm), the leaf methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S.torvum, and seed acetone of T. chebula against the adult of H. bispinosa (LC(50) = 333.15, 328.98, 312.28, and 186.46 ppm; LC(90) = 1056.07, 955.39, 946.63, and 590.76 ppm), the leaf methanol of C. auriculata, the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, the leaf ethyl acetate of S. torvum against the H. maculata (LC(50) = 303.36, 177.21, 204.58, and 211.41 ppm; LC(90) = 939.90, 539.39, 599.43, and 651.90 ppm), and the leaf acetone of C. auriculata, the flower methanol

  9. Center for Advancing ystemic Heliophysics Education (CAHEd): Outreach through Community Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, K.; Kadooka, M.

    2012-12-01

    science fair project under the tutelage of the same mentor. A selection of science fair projects includes those carried out by high school sophomore Kira Fox (2011), freshman Malia Swartz (2011), and freshman Kayla Ishida (2012). Kira searched for long-term cycles in solar activity. Using Beryllium-10 data from the GRIP ice core, she applied a Lomb-Scargle Periodogram to identify possible cyclic frequencies, then created a fit to the Be10 data by summing up sine functions with these frequencies. This method reproduced the major maxima and minima present in the last 75,000 years of solar activity. Malia hypothesized that major medical pandemics were more likely to occur during solar minima when the Earth experiences increased galactic cosmic ray flux. She compared the dates of pandemics to sunspot number and Be10 data. Her investigation lead to no correlation between sunspots and pandemics. Kayla asked the question, which flares cause EUV waves? Using SDO data to search for EUV waves visually and flare and CME catalogs, she found that EUV waves are associated with M and X class flares that also generate a CME. Working with students and Master Teachers in a systematic way over multiple years, CAHEd has built long-term relationships with teachers and students, creating a self-sustaining community that collaborates to incorporate heliophysics education into the classroom.

  10. Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman M Atiar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombus formed in blood vessels lead to atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs sometimes cause serious and fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases although they show little toxicity in some cases. Aqueous extracts of herbs used in thrombolysis have been reported before with cytotoxic data, however, the organic extracts of herbs have not been documented. This study aims to investigate whether organic extracts possess thrombolytic properties with minimal or no toxicity. Methods An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of six Bangladeshi herbal extracts viz., Ageratum conyzoides L., Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica (Burm.f. Merr., Leucas aspera Willd., Senna sophera L. Roxb., and Solanum torvum Swartz. using streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. Briefly, venous blood drawn from twenty healthy volunteers was allowed to form clots which were weighed and treated with the test plant materials to disrupt the clots. Weight of clot after and before treatment provided a percentage of clot lysis. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as positive control. Results Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed 18.12 ± 2.34%, 48.9 ± 2.44%, 39.30 ± 0.96%, 37.32 ± 2.00%, 31.61 ± 2.97% and 31.51 ± 0.57% and clot lysis respectively. Among the herbs studied Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera showed very significant (p Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed LC50 values 508.86 ± 6.62,41.16 ± 1.26, 2.65 ± 0.16, 181.67 ± 1.65, 233

  11. Light responses in Photoperiodism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Cashmore

    2006-08-01

    domains. It is this cysteine residue that forms a covalent adduct with the bound flavin in the photocycle of PHOT1 and FKF1. In the mutant ADO1 this cysteine is replaced by an alanine. We argue that if ADO1 functions as a photoreceptor in a similar fashion to PHOT1, then this mutant ADO1 should not be able to rescue the altered circadian phenotype of ado1 mutant plants. We find under white light, that indeed this is the case. Experiments underway are aimed at determining if the altered circadian phenotype under blue and red light are similarly unable to be rescued by the mutant gene, and we are performing similar experiments under red light with respect to the defect in hypocotyl elongation. The results from these experiments will likely support the hypothesis that ADO1 functions as a blue light photoreceptor, and they will address the question concerning whether or not the altered properties of the ado1 mutant under red light are also a reflection of this photoreceptor function. References. Briggs, W. R., Beck, C. F., Cashmore, A. R., Christie, J. M., Hughes, J., Jarillo, J. A., Kagawa, T., Kanegae, H., Liscum, E., Nagatani, A., et al. (2001). The phototropin family of photoreceptors. Plant Cell 13, 993-997. Christie, J. M., Reymond, P., Powell, G. K., Bernasconi, P., Raibekas, A. A., Liscum, E., and Briggs, W. R. (1998). Arabidopsis NPH1: A flavoprotein with the properties of a photoreceptor for phototropism. Science 282, 1698-1701. Froehlich, A. C., Liu, Y., Loros, J. J., and Dunlap, J. C. (2002). White Collar-1, a circadian blue light photoreceptor, binding to the frequency promoter. Science 297, 815-819. Imaizumi, T., Tran, H. G., Swartz, T. E., Briggs, W. R., and Kay, S. A. (2003). FKF1 is essential for photoperiodic-specific light signalling in Arabidopsis. Nature 426, 302-306. Jarillo, J. A., Capel, J., Tang, R.-H., Yang, H.-Q., Alonso, J. M., Ecker, J. R., and Cashmore, A. R. (2001a). An Arabidopsis circadian clock component interacts with both CRY1 and phy

  12. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  13. Basidiomicetes de Costa Rica: nuevas especies de Exobasidium (Exobasidiaceae y registros de Cryptobasidiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis D. Gómez P

    1998-12-01

    centroamericanos.Six new species in the genus Exobasidium are described: E. aequatorianum n. sp., parasitic on Vaccinium crenatum (Don Sleumer from Ecuador where it is widely distributed; E. arctostaphyli Harkn., found on Arctostaphylos arbutoides (Lindl. Hemsl., and on Comarostaphylos costaricensis Small in Costa Rica is redescribed; E. jamaicense n. sp., on Lyonia jamaicensis (Swartz D.Don from Jamaica and possibly throughout the Caribbean range of the host genus; E. disterigmicola n.sp., on Disterigma humboldtii (Kl. Nied., from the Talamanca Range, Costa Rica and possibly, throughout the range of its host, E. sphyrospermii n. sp.,on Sphyrospermum cordifolium Bentham in Costa Rica, E. poasanum n. sp., on Cavendishia bracteata (R. & P. ex J. St.-Hil. Hoer., from the Poás massif in Costa Rica. Exobasidium escalloniae Gómez & Kisimova, described from Costa Rica, is now known to occur in Ecuador on the same host, Escallonia myrtilloides L.f. Exobasidium vaccinii (Fkl. Wor. is here reported from Vaccinium floribundum H.B.K. from various Ecuadorean localities, and E. pernettyae n. sp. is described as a parasite of Pernettya prostrata (Cav. DC in Costa Rica. With the exception of Escallonia, of saxifragaceous affinities, all hosts belong in the Ericaceae. Exobasidium arctostaphyli is a first record for the neotropical region. With the exception of E. jamaicense, not seen in the wild by us, all others have been found associated with small slugs (Mollusca: Limacidae which are suspected to be one of the vectors of the parasite. Some biogeographical considerations are presented. The Cryptobasidiaceae Clinoconidium bullatum Syd., not collected since first described in 1925, and Clinoconidium farinosum (P. Henn. Pat., are both parasites of Lauraceae, Cinnamomum sp. and Ocotea monteverdensis Burger, respectively, and were found in the Monteverde Reserve, Costa Rica. Drepanoconis larviformis (Speg. Speg. is reported as a parasite of Aiouea costaricensis (Mez Kosterm. from the cloud forests

  14. NEWS: AAPT Summer Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellema, Steve

    2000-11-01

    The 2000 Summer Meeting of the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) was held from 28~July-2~August at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada. Despite somewhat rainy weather throughout the week, the annual gathering was an enjoyable one, filled with interesting talks on the state of physics education in North America. Using a new scheduling format for the summer meeting, all of the paid workshops and tutorials were held on Saturday and Sunday 29-30 July. The invited and contributed papers for the main AAPT meeting were then presented on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday. As had been done in 1999 in San Antonio, a two-day tandem meeting dedicated to Physics Education Research (PER) was held on Wednesday and Thursday 2-3 August, immediately after the main AAPT meeting. Over the three days of the main meeting, 60 sessions were held under the sponsorship of various AAPT committees. These included sessions (numbers in parentheses) organized by the committees on Apparatus (1), Astronomy Education (3), Awards (2), Computers (5), Graduate Education (2), High Schools (1), History and Philosophy (1), Instructional Media (3), International Education (1), Laboratories (2), Pre-High School Education (2), Programs (4), Professional Concerns (6), Research in Physics Education (8), Science Education for the Public (2), Two-Year Colleges (5), Undergraduate Education (7) and Women in Physics (4). Figure 1. Guelph Church of Our Lady. The main meeting opened on Sunday evening with an invited lecture by Dr John J Simpson from the host institution, the University of Guelph, describing the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. At the ceremonial session that began the activities on Monday morning, recognition was given to Clifford Swartz for his almost 30 years of service as Editor of the AAPT journal, The Physics Teacher. This was followed by an invited talk by Jim Nelson from Seminole County Public School in Florida, who received the Excellence in Pre-College Teaching Award. The

  15. The 15th Biannual National Congress of the South African Society of Psychiatrists, 10-14 August 2008, Fancourt, George, W Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Allers

    2008-08-01

    , Allison Breen, Allan J Flisher, Ritsuko Kakuma, Leslie Swartz, John Joska, Joanne Corrigall, Vikram Patel, MHaPP Research Programe Consortium 31. The cost of scaling up mental health care in low- and middle-income countries Crick Lund, Dan Chishlom, Shekhar Saxena 32. 'Tikking'Clock: The impact of a methamphetamine epidemic at a psychiatric hospital in the Western Cape P Milligan, J S Parker 33. Durban youth healh-sk behaviour: Prevalence f Violence-related behaviour D L Mkize 34. Profile of morality of patients amitted Weskoppies Psychiatric Hospital in Sout frican over a 5-Year period (2001-2005 N M Moola, N Khamker, J L Roos, P Rheeder 35. One flew over Psychiatry nest Leverne Mountany 36. The ethical relationship betwe psychiatrists and the pharmaceutical indutry Margaret  G Nair 37. Developing the frameor of a postgraduate da programme in mental health R J Nichol, B de Klerk, M M Nel, G van Zyl, J Hay 38. An unfolding story: The experience with HIV-ve patients at a Psychiatric Hospital J S Parker, P Milligan 39. Task shifting: A practical strategy for scalingup mental health care in developing countries Vikram Patel 40. Ethics: Informed consent and competency in the elderly Willie Pienaar 41. Confronting ommonmoral dilemmas. Celebrating uncertainty, while in search  patient good Willie Pienaar 42. Moral dilemmas in the treatment and repatriation of patients with psychtorders while visiting our country Duncan Ian Rodseth 43. Geriatrics workshop (Psegal symposium: Medico-legal issuess in geriatric psyhiatry Felix Potocnik 44. Brain stimulation techniques - update on recent research P J Pretorius 45. Holistic/Alternative treatments in psychiatry T Rangaka, J Dill 46. Cognitive behaviour therapy and other brief interventions for management of substances Solomon Rataemane 47. A Transtheoretical view of change Nathan P Rogerson 48. Profile of security breaches in longerm mental health care users at Weskoppies Hospital over a 6-month period Deleyn Rema, Lindiwe Mthethwa

  16. Obituary: Thomas Robert Metcalf, 1961-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leka, K. D.

    2007-12-01

    recycled everything. Tom is survived by his daughters Shanon Brower, Alyssa Metcalf, and Keri Metcalf to whom he was a devoted father, their mother Janet Biggs, his parents Fred and Marilyn Metcalf, and his sister Karen (Metcalf) Swartz. A vast array of friends, colleagues, and extended family will also sorely miss him. To honor Tom's long-standing support for young researchers in solar physics, Tom's family and the Solar Physics Division of the AAS have established a travel fund for young scientists, to which contributions are most welcome: The Thomas Metcalf SPD Travel Fund American Astronomical Society 2000 Florida Ave., NW Suite 400 Washington, DC 20009-1231, USA https://members.aas.org/contributions/ Thomas_Metcalf_SPD_Travel_Fund.cfm

  17. 16th National Congress of the South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Allgulander

    2010-10-01

    of start Sean Kaliski 21. Psychiatric disorders abd psychosocial correlates of high HIV risk sexual behaviour in war-effected Eatern Uganda E Kinyada, H A Weiss, M Mungherera, P Onyango Mangen, E Ngabirano, R Kajungu, J Kagugube, W Muhwezi, J Muron, V Patel 22. One year of Forensic Psychiatric assessment in the Northern Cape: A comparison with an established assessment service in the Eastern Cape N K Kirimi, C Visser 23. Mental Health service user priorities for service delivery in South Africa Sharon Kleintjes, Crick Lund, Leslie Swartz, Alan Flisher and MHaPP Research Programme Consortium 24. The nature and extent of over-the-counter and prescription drug abuse in cape town Liezl Kramer 25. Physical health issues in long-term psychiatric inpatients: An audit of nursing statistics and clinical files at Weskoppies Hospital Christa Kruger 26. Suicide risk in Schizophrenia - 20 Years later, a cohort study Gian Lippi, Ean Smit, Joyce Jordaan, Louw Roos 27.Developing mental health information systems in South Africa: Lessons from pilot projects in Northern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal Crick Lund, S Skeen, N Mapena, C Isaacs, T Mirozev and the Mental Health and Poverty Research Programme Consortium Institution 28. Mental health aspects of South African emigration Maria Marchetti-Mercer 29. What services SADAG can offer your patients Elizabeth Matare 30. Culture and language in psychiatry Dan Mkize 31. Latest psychotic episode Povl Munk-Jorgensen 32. The Forensic profile of female offenders Mo Nagdee, Helmut Fletcher 33. The intra-personal emotional impact of practising psychiatry Margaret Nair 34. Highly sensitive persons (HSPs and implications for treatment Margaret Nair 35. Task shifting in mental health - The Kenyan experience David M Ndetei 36. Bridging the gap between traditional healers and mental health in todya's modern psychiatry David M Ndetei 37. Integrating to achieve modern psychiatry David M Ndetei 38. Non-medical prescribing: Outcomes from a pharmacist-led post